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Sample records for quercetin transiently increases

  1. Quercetin transiently increases energy expenditure but persistently decreases circulating markers of inflammation in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Laura K.; Soileau, Jeff L.; Ribnicky, David; Wang, Zhong Q.; Raskin, Ilya; Poulev, Alexander; Majewski, Martin; Cefalu, William T.; Gettys, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Quercetin, a polyphenolic compound and a major bioflavonoid in the human diet, has anti-inflammatory properties and has been postulated to enhance energy expenditure (EE). We sought to determine whether quercetin alters body weight, body composition, EE, and circulating markers of inflammation. At 6 weeks (W) of age, 2 cohorts of C57BL/6J mice (N = 80) were placed on one of 2 diets for 3W or 8W: (1) high fat (HF) (45% kcal fat) or (2) high fat + quercetin (HF + Q) (45% kcal fat + 0.8% quercetin). Quercetin concentrations in the diet and plasma were evaluated using mass spectrometry. Body weight, composition (nuclear magnetic resonance), and food consumption were measured weekly. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry at 3 and 8W, and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma obtained at 8W. The presence of quercetin in the HF diet did not alter food consumption over time in the HF + Q group and did not differ from the HF group at any time point. However, circulating plasma quercetin concentrations declined between 3 and 8W. At 3W, EE was higher during both day and night phases (P < .0001) in the HF + Q group compared with the HF group; but this difference was not detected at 8W and did not translate into significant differences between the HF + Q and HF groups with respect to body weight or body composition. During the night phase, concentrations of the inflammatory markers (interferon-γ, interleukin-1α, and interleukin-4) were significantly lower when compared with HF treatment group (P < .05). Dietary supplementation with quercetin produces transient (3W) increases in EE that are not detected after 8W on the diet. A corresponding decrease in circulating quercetin between 3 and 8W suggests that metabolic adaptation may have diminished the impact of quercetin's early effect on EE and diminished its overall effect on nutrient partitioning and adiposity. However, quercetin at the levels provided was effective in reducing circulating markers of

  2. Pretreated quercetin protects gerbil hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from transient cerebral ischemic injury by increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bai Hui; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Jae Chul; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kang, Il Jun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Shin, Bich Na; Kim, Yang Hee; Lee, Yun Lyul; Park, Seung Min

    2017-01-01

    Quercetin (QE; 3,5,7,3′,4′-pentahydroxyflavone), a well-known flavonoid, has been shown to prevent against neurodegenerative disorders and ischemic insults. However, few studies are reported regarding the neuroprotective mechanisms of QE after ischemic insults. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of QE on ischemic injury and the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient cerebral ischemia. QE was pre-treated once daily for 15 days before ischemia. Pretreatment with QE protected hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic injury, which was confirmed by neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. In addition, pretreatment with QE significantly increased the expression levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, Mn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of animals with ischemic injury. These findings demonstrate that pretreated QE displayed strong neuroprotective effects against transient cerebral ischemia by increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:28400803

  3. Quercetin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via increased protein stability of death receptor 5

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Young-Hwa; Heo, Jeonghoon; Lee, Yong J.; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Kim, Young-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Aims Quercetin has been shown to enhance tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells via mechanisms that include upregulation of death receptor (DR) 5, a protein reported to play an important role in sensitizing cancer cells to apoptosis. We aimed to determine the specific mechanisms underlying quercetin-induced DR5 expression. Main methods Human prostate cancer cells were exposed to quercetin and TRAIL. Trypan blue assays and terminal transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays evaluated changes in TRAIL resistance after quercetin treatment, and flow cytometry examined quercetin-induced death receptor expression in DU-145 cells. Western blotting, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and transiently transfection were utilized to confirm apoptotic patterns of prostate cancer cells. Key findings After stimulation with quercetin, DU-145 cells exhibited stronger sensitization to TRAIL. Quercetin treatment enhanced TRAIL-induced activation proteins in the caspase pathway, such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-3, and caspase-9. Quercetin dose-dependently increased DR5 levels in prostate cancer cells, which was mediated by increased transcription and protein stability, but not mRNA stability. Ectopic expression of DR5 dose-dependently increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Significance Our results showed that the role of quercetin and TRAIL combination therapy may provide a novel strategy for treating prostate cancer by overcoming critical mechanisms of apoptosis resistance. PMID:20096292

  4. Quercetin increases brain and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and exercise tolerance.

    PubMed

    Davis, J Mark; Murphy, E Angela; Carmichael, Martin D; Davis, Ben

    2009-04-01

    Quercetin is one of a broad group of natural polyphenolic flavonoid substances that are being investigated for their widespread health benefits. These benefits have generally been ascribed to its combination of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but recent in vitro evidence suggests that improved mitochondrial biogenesis could play an important role. In addition, the in vivo effects of quercetin on mitochondrial biogenesis exercise tolerance are unknown. We examined the effects of 7 days of quercetin feedings in mice on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and brain, and on endurance exercise tolerance. Mice were randomly assigned to one of the following three treatment groups: placebo, 12.5 mg/kg quercetin, or 25 mg/kg quercetin. Following 7 days of treatment, mice were killed, and soleus muscle and brain were analyzed for mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC-1alpha) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and cytochrome c. Additional mice underwent a treadmill performance run to fatigue or were placed in voluntary activity wheel cages, and their voluntary activity (distance, time, and peak speed) was recorded. Quercetin increased mRNA expression of PGC-1alpha and SIRT1 (P < 0.05), mtDNA (P < 0.05) and cytochrome c concentration (P < 0.05). These changes in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were associated with an increase in both maximal endurance capacity (P < 0.05) and voluntary wheel-running activity (P < 0.05). These benefits of querectin on fitness without exercise training may have important implications for enhancement of athletic and military performance and may also extend to prevention and/or treatment of chronic diseases.

  5. Protective Effects of Quercetin on Rat Pial Microvascular Changes during Transient Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Lapi, Dominga; Vagnani, S.; Pignataro, G.; Esposito, E.; Paterni, M.; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of quercetin on pial microvascular responses during transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) and reperfusion. Rat pial microcirculation was visualized by fluorescence microscopy through a closed cranial window. Pial arterioles were classified in five orders of branchings. Capillaries were assigned order 0, the smallest arterioles order 1, and the largest ones order 5. In ischemic rats, 30 min BCCAO and 60 min reperfusion caused arteriolar diameter decrease (by 14.5 ± 3.3% of baseline in order 2), microvascular leakage [0.47 ± 0.04, normalized gray levels (NGL)], leukocyte adhesion in venules (9 ± 2/100 μm venular length, v.l./30 s), and reduction of capillary perfusion (by 40 ± 7% of baseline). Moreover, at the end of BCCAO and reperfusion there was a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation when compared with baseline. Quercetin highest dose determined dilation in all arteriolar orders (by 40 ± 4% of baseline in order 2) and prevented microvascular permeability (0.15 ± 0.02 NGL), leukocyte adhesion (3 ± 1/100 μm v.l./30 s) as well as ROS formation, while capillary perfusion was protected. Inhibition of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) prior to quercetin reduced arteriolar dilation (order 2 diameter increase by 10.3 ± 2.5% of baseline) and caused permeability increase (0.29 ± 0.03 NGL); inhibition of neuronal NOS or inducible NOS did not affect quercetin-induced effects. Inhibition of guanylyl cyclase prior to quercetin reversed the quercetin’s effects on pial arteriolar diameter and leakage. In conclusion, quercetin was able to protect pial microcirculation from ischemia–reperfusion damage inducing arteriolar dilation likely by nitric oxide release. Moreover, quercetin scavenger activity blunted ROS formation preserving the blood–brain barrier integrity. PMID:22403549

  6. Enriched cereal bars are more effective in increasing plasma quercetin compared with quercetin from powder-filled hard capsules.

    PubMed

    Egert, Sarah; Wolffram, Siegfried; Schulze, Beate; Langguth, Peter; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Schwarz, Karin; Adolphi, Berit; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Rimbach, Gerald; Müller, Manfred James

    2012-02-01

    The flavonol quercetin, is one of the major flavonoids found in edible plants. The bioavailability of quercetin in humans may be influenced by the food matrix in which it is consumed as well as by its chemical and physical form. The objective of the present study was to investigate the biokinetics of quercetin from quercetin-enriched cereal bars and quercetin powder-filled hard capsules. In a randomised, single-blinded, diet-controlled cross-over study, six healthy women aged 22-28 years took a single oral dose of approximately 130 mg quercetin equivalents from either quercetin-enriched cereal bars (containing 93·3 % quercetin aglycone plus 6·7 % quercetin-4'-glucoside) or quercetin powder-filled hard capsules (100 % quercetin aglycone). Blood samples were drawn before and after quercetin administration over a 24 h period. The concentrations of quercetin and its monomethylated derivatives, isorhamnetin (3'-O-methyl quercetin) and tamarixetin (4'-O-methyl quercetin), were measured by HPLC with fluorescence detection after plasma enzymatic treatment. The systemic availability as determined by comparing the plasma concentration-time curves of quercetin was found to be five times and the cmax values six times higher after ingestion of 130 mg quercetin by quercetin-enriched cereal bars than after ingestion by quercetin capsules. In contrast, tmax did not differ significantly between the two treatments. The cmax values for isorhamnetin and tamarixetin were four and nine times higher after ingestion of quercetin by quercetin-enriched cereal bars than after ingestion by quercetin capsules. In conclusion, quercetin from quercetin-enriched cereal bars is significantly more bioavailable than from quercetin powder-filled hard capsules.

  7. Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 by quercetin and its analogs.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Miyoshi, Noriyuki; Ishii, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Miyu; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2016-05-01

    The agonistic activity of quercetin and its analogs towards the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) has been experimentally investigated. The human TRPA1 was expressed in HEK293T cells using a tetracycline-inducible system. The activation of TRPA1 was evaluated by a fluo-4 fluorescence assay based on calcium sensing. The results of a structure-activity relationship study led to the selection of six flavonoids, all of which activated the TRPA1 channel in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the activation of TRPA1 by these flavonoid aglycones was completely inhibited by the co-treatment of the HEK293T cells with the TRPA1-specific antagonist, HC-030031. Several flavonoid glycosides and metabolites were also evaluated, but did not activate the TRPA1 except for methylated quercetin. On the other hand, TRPV1 (vanilloid receptor) did not respond to any of the flavonoids evaluated in this study. Therefore, these data suggest that the flavonoids would be promising ligands for the TRPA1.

  8. Dietary quercetin supplementation increases serum antioxidant capacity and alters hepatic gene expression profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liting; Wu, Jianquan; Yang, Jijun; Wei, Jingyu; Gao, Weina; Guo, Changjiang

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of quercetin on hepatic gene expression profile in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into the control group and the quercetin-treated group, in which a diet containing 0.5% quercetin was provided. After two weeks of feeding, serum and liver samples were collected. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, including serum ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values and levels of ascorbic acid, vitamin E (VE), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. The hepatic gene expression profile was examined using a microarray technique. The results showed that serum FRAP value, levels of ascorbic acid and VE were increased significantly, whereas serum levels of GSH and MDA were not changed significantly after quercetin supplementation. The microarray analysis revealed that some hepatic genes involved in phase 2 reaction, metabolism of cholesterol and homocysteine, and energy production were expressed differentially in response to quercetin administration. These findings provide a molecular basis for the elucidation of the actions played by quercetin in vivo.

  9. The dietary flavonoid quercetin increases VO(2max) and endurance capacity.

    PubMed

    Davis, J Mark; Carlstedt, Catherine J; Chen, Stephen; Carmichael, Martin D; Murphy, E Angela

    2010-02-01

    Quercetin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid substance present in a variety of food plants, has been shown in vitro and in animal studies to have widespread health and performance benefits resulting from a combination of biological properties, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as the ability to increase mitochondrial biogenesis. Little is known about these effects in humans, however, especially with respect to exercise performance. The authors determined whether quercetin ingestion would enhance maximal aerobic capacity and delay fatigue during prolonged exercise in healthy but untrained participants. Twelve volunteers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (a) 500 mg of quercetin twice daily dissolved in vitamin-enriched Tang or (b) a nondistinguishable placebo (Tang). Baseline VO2max and bike-ride times to fatigue were established. Treatments were administered for a period of 7 days using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study design. After treatment both VO2max and ride time to fatigue were determined. Seven days of quercetin feedings were associated with a modest increase in VO2max (3.9% vs. placebo; p < .05) along with a substantial (13.2%) increase in ride time to fatigue (p < .05). These data suggest that as little as 7 days of quercetin supplementation can increase endurance without exercise training in untrained participants. These benefits of quercetin may have important implications for enhancement of athletic and military performance. This apparent increase in fitness without exercise training may have implications beyond that of performance enhancement to health promotion and disease prevention.

  10. Quercetin increases macrophage cholesterol efflux to inhibit foam cell formation through activating PPARγ-ABCA1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liqiang; Li, En; Wang, Feng; Wang, Tao; Qin, Zhiping; Niu, Shaohui; Qiu, Chunguang

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of cholesterol in macrophages could induce the formation of foam cells and increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We wonder if quercetin, one of flavonoids with anti-inflammation functions in different cell types, could elevate the development of foam cells formation in atherosclerosis. We treated foam cells derived from oxLDL induced THP-1 cells with quercetin, and evaluated the foam cells formation, cholesterol content and apoptosis of the cells. We found that quercetin induced the expression of ABCA1 in differentiated THP-1 cells, and increased the cholesterol efflux from THP-1 cell derived foam cells. Eventually, cholesterol level and the formation of foam cell derived from THP-1 cells decreased after quercetin treatment. In addition, quercetin activated PPARγ-LXRα pathway to upregulate ABCA1 expression through increasing protein level of PPARγ and its transcriptional activity. Inhibition of PPARγ activity by siRNA knockdown or the addition of chemical inhibitor, GW9662, abolished quercetin induced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in THP-1 derived macrophages. Our data demonstrated that quercetin increased cholesterol efflux from macrophages through upregulating the expressions of PPARγ and ABCA1. Taken together, increasing uptake of quercetin or quercetin-rich foods would be an effective way to lower the risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:26617799

  11. Quercetin increases macrophage cholesterol efflux to inhibit foam cell formation through activating PPARγ-ABCA1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liqiang; Li, En; Wang, Feng; Wang, Tao; Qin, Zhiping; Niu, Shaohui; Qiu, Chunguang

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of cholesterol in macrophages could induce the formation of foam cells and increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We wonder if quercetin, one of flavonoids with anti-inflammation functions in different cell types, could elevate the development of foam cells formation in atherosclerosis. We treated foam cells derived from oxLDL induced THP-1 cells with quercetin, and evaluated the foam cells formation, cholesterol content and apoptosis of the cells. We found that quercetin induced the expression of ABCA1 in differentiated THP-1 cells, and increased the cholesterol efflux from THP-1 cell derived foam cells. Eventually, cholesterol level and the formation of foam cell derived from THP-1 cells decreased after quercetin treatment. In addition, quercetin activated PPARγ-LXRα pathway to upregulate ABCA1 expression through increasing protein level of PPARγ and its transcriptional activity. Inhibition of PPARγ activity by siRNA knockdown or the addition of chemical inhibitor, GW9662, abolished quercetin induced ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in THP-1 derived macrophages. Our data demonstrated that quercetin increased cholesterol efflux from macrophages through upregulating the expressions of PPARγ and ABCA1. Taken together, increasing uptake of quercetin or quercetin-rich foods would be an effective way to lower the risk of atherosclerosis.

  12. Quercetin increased bioavailability and decreased methylation of green tea polyphenols in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Piwen; Heber, David; Henning, Susanne M

    2012-06-01

    The extensive methylation of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in vivo may limit their chemopreventive potential. We investigated whether quercetin, a natural inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs), will differentially increase the intracellular concentration and decrease the methylation of GTPs in different cancer cell lines. Intrinsic COMT activity was lowest in lung cancer A549 cells, intermediate in kidney 786-O cells and highest in liver HepG2 cells. Quercetin increased the cellular absorption of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) four-fold in A549 cells with a decreased methylation rate from 63 to 19%, 2-fold in 786-O cells with a decreased methylation from 97% to 56%, while no significant effect was observed in HepG2 cells. The combination significantly decreased the activity and protein expression of COMT and decreased the protein expression of MRP1 compared to individual treatments. The combination exhibited the strongest increase in antiproliferation in A549 cells, an intermediate effect in 786-O cells and lowest effect in HepG2 cells. The effect of quercetin on bioavailability and metabolism of GTPs was confirmed in vivo. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were administered brewed green tea (GT) and a diet supplemented with 0.4% quercetin alone or in combination for 2 weeks. We observed a 2- to 3-fold increase of total and non-methylated EGCG in lung and kidney and an increasing trend in liver. In summary, combining quercetin with GT provides a promising approach to enhance the chemoprevention of GT. Responses of different cancers to the combination may vary by tissue depending on the intrinsic COMT and MRP activity.

  13. Quercetin accelerated cutaneous wound healing in rats by increasing levels of VEGF and TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, A; Ram, M; Kumawat, S; Tandan, Sk; Kumar, D

    2016-03-01

    Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-penthydroxyflavone)-induced biological effects have been beneficial in various disease conditions. In this study, wound healing potential of quercetin was evaluated in a time-dependent manner in open excision wounds in adult Wistar rats. Experimentally-wounded rats were divided into two groups namely, control and quercetin-treated. Wounds were photographed and the area was measured on the day of wounding and on days 3, 7, 11 and 14 post-wounding. The granulation/healing tissue was collected on days 3, 7, 11 and 14 post-wounding for cytokine/growth factor measurements and histology/immunohistochemistry studies. There was significant time-dependent increase in wound closure in quercetin-treated rats. Vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor-β1 expressions were significantly upregulated in quercetin-treated rats, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α level was markedly reduced. Interleukin- 10 levels and CD31 stained vessels were markedly higher on day 3 and on day 7, respectively, in quercetin-treated rats. In H & E stained sections, quercetin-treated group showed less inflammatory cells, more fibroblast proliferation, increased microvessel density, better reepithelialization and more regular collagen deposition, as compared to control. The results suggest that topical application of quercetin promotes wound healing by effectively modulating the cytokines, growth factors and cells involved in inflammatory and proliferative phases of healing.

  14. Fermentation enhances the in vitro antioxidative effect of onion (Allium cepa) via an increase in quercetin content.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-In; Park, Sang-Yun; Bang, Han-Yeol; Jeong, Ji Hye; So, Jai-Hyun; Rhee, In-Koo; Song, Kyung-Sik

    2012-06-01

    Yellow onion (Allium cepa) extract showed enhanced antioxidative effects in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and acetyl ester (CM-H(2)DCFDA) assay after being treated with a crude enzyme extract from soybean paste fungi, Aspergillus kawachii. HPLC analysis showed two increased and two decreased peaks after enzyme treatment. The decreased peaks were identified as quercetin-3,4'-di-O-β-d-glucoside (1) and quercetin-4'-O-β-d-glucoside (2), and peaks that increased were quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (3) and quercetin (4), respectively. It was expected that 3 and 4 were originated from the glucosidic cleavage of their glucosides, 1 and 2. Among the increased compounds, only quercetin (4) showed strong antioxidative activity in the DPPH assay. In addition, the protective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells was increased when treated with 25 μg/ml of fermented onion. The enhanced neuroprotective effect was also originated from the increased quercetin content. As a consequence, fermentation raised the quercetin content in onion, and subsequently increased the antioxidative and neuroprotective activities.

  15. The flavonoid quercetin transiently inhibits the activity of taxol and nocodazole through interference with the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Temesgen; Fadlalla, Khalda; Turner, Timothy; Yehualaeshet, Teshome E.

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid with anticancer properties. In this study, we examined the effects of quercetin on cell cycle, viability and proliferation of cancer cells, either singly or in combination with the microtubule-targeting drugs taxol and nocodazole. Although quercetin induced cell death in a dose dependent manner, 12.5-50μM quercetin inhibited the activity of both taxol and nocodazole to induce G2/M arrest in various cell lines. Quercetin also partially restored drug-induced loss in viability of treated cells for up to 72 hours. This antagonism of microtubule-targeting drugs was accompanied by a delay in cell cycle progression and inhibition of the buildup of cyclin-B1 at the microtubule organizing center of treated cells. However, quercetin did not inhibit the microtubule targeting of taxol or nocodazole. Despite the short-term protection of cells by quercetin, colony formation and clonogenicity of HCT116 cells were still suppressed by quercetin or quercetin-taxol combination. The status of cell adherence to growth matrix was critical in determining the sensitivity of HCT116 cells to quercetin. We conclude that while long-term exposure of cancer cells to quercetin may prevent cell proliferation and survival, the interference of quercetin with cell cycle progression diminishes the efficacy of microtubule-targeting drugs to arrest cells at G2/M. PMID:21058190

  16. The flavonoid quercetin transiently inhibits the activity of taxol and nocodazole through interference with the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Temesgen; Fadlalla, Khalda; Turner, Timothy; Yehualaeshet, Teshome E

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid with anticancer properties. In this study, we examined the effects of quercetin on cell cycle, viability, and proliferation of cancer cells, either singly or in combination with the microtubule-targeting drugs taxol and nocodazole. Although quercetin induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, 12.5-50 μM quercetin inhibited the activity of both taxol and nocodazole to induce G2/M arrest in various cell lines. Quercetin also partially restored drug-induced loss in viability of treated cells for up to 72 h. This antagonism of microtubule-targeting drugs was accompanied by a delay in cell cycle progression and inhibition of the buildup of cyclin-B1 at the microtubule organizing center of treated cells. However, quercetin did not inhibit the microtubule targeting of taxol or nocodazole. Despite the short-term protection of cells by quercetin, colony formation and clonogenicity of HCT116 cells were still suppressed by quercetin or quercetin-taxol combination. The status of cell adherence to growth matrix was critical in determining the sensitivity of HCT116 cells to quercetin. We conclude that although long-term exposure of cancer cells to quercetin may prevent cell proliferation and survival, the interference of quercetin with cell cycle progression diminishes the efficacy of microtubule-targeting drugs to arrest cells at G2/M.

  17. Quercetin increased the antiproliferative activity of green tea polyphenol (−)-epigallocatechin gallate in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Piwen; Heber, David; Henning, Susanne M.

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that 50% of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was present in methylated form (4″-MeEGCG) in human prostate tissue, which is less bioactive. We therefore investigated whether quercetin, a natural inhibitor of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), will inhibit EGCG methylation leading to enhanced antiproliferative activity of EGCG in prostate cancer cells. Incubation with both, quercetin and EGCG, for 2 hr increased the cellular concentrations of EGCG by 4 to 8-fold and 6 to 10-fold in androgen-independent PC-3 cells and androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, respectively. Concurrently, the percent of 4″-MeEGCG in the total EGCG was decreased from 39% to 15% in PC-3 cells and from 61% to 38% in LNCaP cells. Quercetin and EGCG in combination synergistically inhibited cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. In LNCaP cells EGCG and quercetin exhibited a stronger antiproliferative activity leading to an additive effect. The synergistic effect of these two agents in PC-3 cells could be based on the fact that EGCG primarily inhibited COMT activity while quercetin reduced the amount of COMT protein. In summary, quercetin combined with EGCG in vitro demonstrated enhanced inhibition of cell proliferation by increasing the intracellular concentration of EGCG and decreasing EGCG methylation. PMID:22452782

  18. The quercetin paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Boots, Agnes W. . E-mail: a.boots@farmaco.unimaas.nl; Li, Hui; Schins, Roel P.F.; Duffin, Rodger; Heemskerk, Johan W.M.; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R.M.M.

    2007-07-01

    Free radical scavenging antioxidants, such as quercetin, are chemically converted into oxidation products when they protect against free radicals. The main oxidation product of quercetin, however, displays a high reactivity towards thiols, which can lead to the loss of protein function. The quercetin paradox is that in the process of offering protection, quercetin is converted into a potential toxic product. In the present study, this paradox is evaluated using rat lung epithelial (RLE) cells. It was found that quercetin efficiently protects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced DNA damage in RLE cells, but this damage is swapped for a reduction in GSH level, an increase in LDH leakage as well as an increase of the cytosolic free calcium concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first study that indicates that the quercetin paradox, i.e. the exchange of damage caused by quercetin and its metabolites, also occurs in living lung cells. Following depletion of GSH in the cells by BSO pre-treatment, this quercetin paradox becomes more pronounced, confirming that the formation of thiol reactive quercetin metabolites is involved in the quercetin paradox. The quercetin paradox in living cells implies that the anti-oxidant directs oxidative damage selectively to thiol arylation. Apparently, the potential toxicity of metabolites formed during the actual antioxidant activity of free radical scavengers should be considered in antioxidant supplementation.

  19. Quercetin Regulates Sestrin 2-AMPK-mTOR Signaling Pathway and Induces Apoptosis via Increased Intracellular ROS in HCT116 Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Guen Tae; Lee, Se Hee; Kim, Young Min

    2013-09-01

    The suppression of abnormal cell proliferation is therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of quercetin-induced apoptosis through regulation of Sestrin 2 and AMPK signaling pathway. After treatment of quercetin to colon cancer cells, intracellular ROS was detected using by DCFH-DA. To examine how quercetin and H2O2 induced apoptosis, we analyzed the change of Sestrin 2, p53 expression and p-AMPKα1, p-mTOR levels by Western blotting. To evaluate the effect of intracellular ROS generated by quercetin on colon cancer cells, NAC, anti-oxidative agent, was co-treated. Quercetin increased apoptotic cell death though generating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and it was responsible for Sestrin 2 expression. Increased Sestrin 2 expression was accompanied by AMPK activation. Interestingly, mTOR activity by Sestirn 2 expression was dependent on AMPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, the expression of Sestrin 2 by quercetin-generated intracellular ROS was independent of p53. We suggested that quercetin-induced apoptosis involved Sestrin 2/AMPK/mTOR pathway, which was regulated by increased intracellular ROS by quercetin.

  20. Lipid-core nanocapsules increase the oral efficacy of quercetin in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Batista, A J; Poletto, F S; Philipon, C I M S; Guterres, S S; Pohlmann, A R; Rossi-Bergmann, B

    2017-06-27

    New oral treatments are needed for all forms of leishmaniasis. Here, the improved oral efficacy of quercetin (Qc) and its penta-acetylated derivative (PQc) was evaluated in cutaneous leishmaniasis after encapsulation in lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs) of poly(ε-caprolactone). Leishmania amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice were given 51 daily oral doses of free drugs (16 mg kg-1) or LNC-loaded drugs (0·4 mg kg-1). While treatment with free Qc reduced the lesion sizes and parasite loads by 38 and 71%, respectively, LNC-Qc produced 64 and 91% reduction, respectively. The antileishmanial efficacy of PQc was similar but not as potently improved by encapsulation as Qc. None of the treatments increased aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase or creatinine serum levels. These findings indicate that when encapsulated in LNC, Qc and, to a lesser extent, PQc can safely produce an enhanced antileishmanial effect even at a 40-fold lower dose, with implications for the development of a new oral drug for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  1. Esterification of Quercetin Increases Its Transport Across Human Caco-2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang-Ning; Zou, Xian-Guo; He, Yi; Chen, Fang; Deng, Ze-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Plant polyphenols showed useful biochemical characteristics in vitro; however, the assessments of their clinical applications in vivo are restricted by their limited bioavailability due to their strong resistance to 1st-pass effects during absorption. In order to improve the bioavailability of quercetin (QU), the ester derivative of QU (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxy flavones, TAQU) was synthesized, followed by examining the oil-water partition coefficient as well as the transport mechanisms of QU and its ester derivative (TAQU) using human Caco-2 cells. The transport characteristics of QU and TAQU transport under different conditions (different concentrations, time, pH, temperature, tight junctions, and potential transporters) were systematically investigated. Results showed that QU had a lower permeability coefficient (2.82 × 10(-6) cm/s) for apical-to-basolateral (AP-BL) transport over 5 to 50 μM, whereas the transport rate for AP to BL flux of TAQU (5.23 × 10(-6) cm/s) was significantly greater than that of QU. Paracellular pathways were not involved during the transport of both QU and TAQU. QU was poorly absorbed by active transport, whereas TAQU was mostly absorbed by passive diffusion. Efflux transporters, P-glycoproteins, multidrug resistance proteins were proven to participate in the transport process of QU, but not in that of TAQU. These results suggested that improving the lipophicity of QU by esterification could increase the transport of QU across Caco-2 cells.

  2. Age-related increases in F344 rat intestine microsomal quercetin glucuronidation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to establish the extent age modifies intestinal quercetin glucuronidation capacity. Pooled microsomal fractions of three equidistant small intestine (SI) segments from 4, 12, 18, and 28 mo male F344 rats (n=8/group) were employed to model the enzyme kinetics of UDP-gl...

  3. Transcriptome and proteome profiling of colon mucosa from quercetin fed F344 rats point to tumor preventive mechanisms, increased mitochondrial fatty acid degradation and decreased glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Dihal, Ashwin A; van der Woude, Hester; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Charif, Halima; Dekker, Lennard J; Ijsselstijn, Linda; de Boer, Vincent C J; Alink, Gerrit M; Burgers, Peter C; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Woutersen, Ruud A; Stierum, Rob H

    2008-01-01

    Quercetin has been shown to act as an anticarcinogen in experimental colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to characterize transcriptome and proteome changes occurring in the distal colon mucosa of rats supplemented with 10 g quercetin/kg diet for 11 wk. Transcriptome data analyzed with Gene Set Enrichment Analysis showed that quercetin significantly downregulated the potentially oncogenic mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mapk) pathway. In addition, quercetin enhanced expression of tumor suppressor genes, including Pten, Tp53, and Msh2, and of cell cycle inhibitors, including Mutyh. Furthermore, dietary quercetin enhanced genes involved in phase I and II metabolism, including Fmo5, Ephx1, Ephx2, and Gpx2. Quercetin increased PPARalpha target genes, and concomitantly enhanced expression of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid (FA) degradation. Proteomics performed in the same samples revealed 33 affected proteins, of which four glycolysis enzymes and three heat shock proteins were decreased. A proteome-transcriptome comparison showed a low correlation, but both pointed out toward altered energy metabolism. In conclusion, transcriptomics combined with proteomics showed that dietary quercetin evoked changes contrary to those found in colorectal carcinogenesis. These tumor-protective mechanisms were associated with a shift in energy production pathways, pointing at decreased cytoplasmic glycolysis and toward increased mitochondrial FA degradation.

  4. Concentrations of foliar quercetin in natural populations of white birch (Betula pubescens) increase with latitude.

    PubMed

    Stark, Sari; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holappa, Esa; Mikkola, Kari; Nikula, Ari

    2008-11-01

    We investigated latitudinal and regional variations in the composition and concentrations of foliar flavonoids and condensed tannins in wild populations of white birch (Betula pubescens EHRH) in a large climatic transect in Finland. Concentrations of quercetin derivatives were correlated positively with latitude. By contrast, the concentrations of apigenin and naringenin derivatives were correlated negatively with latitude. These compound-specific latitudinal gradients compensated each other, resulting in no changes in the concentration of total flavonoids. Our results thus demonstrate a qualitative, but not quantitative, latitude-associated gradient in the foliar flavonoids in white birch. Due to higher antioxidant capacity of the quercetin derivatives in relation to other flavonoids, the qualitative change can reflect higher adaptation to light in the north than south. An investigation on a regional scale in the northern boreal zone showed that the temperature sum was correlated positively and soil P concentration was correlated negatively with the concentrations of foliar flavonoid, while the concentration of condensed tannins was correlated with slope. The variation in concentrations of flavonoids at large-scale geographical patterns is in line with the conjecture that foliar flavonoids are synthesized for protection against photooxidative stress.

  5. Quercetin regulates the sestrin 2-AMPK-p38 MAPK signaling pathway and induces apoptosis by increasing the generation of intracellular ROS in a p53-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Guen Tae; Lee, Se Hee; Kim, Jong Il; Kim, Young Min

    2014-04-01

    The induction of apoptosis in cancer cells is a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms responsible for quercetin-induced apoptosis, mamely the increased expression of sestrin 2 and the activation of the 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Our results revealed that quercetin induced apoptosis by generating the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing the expression of sestrin 2. The induction of apoptosis by quercetin occurred through the activation of the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway and was dependent on sestrin 2. However, the silencing of sestrin 2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting sestrin 2 revealed that quercetin did not regulate AMPK or p38 phosphorylation in the cells in which sestrin 2 was silenced. On the other hand, it has been previously reported that sestrin 2 expression is not dependent on p53 expression under hypoxic conditions, whereas DNA damage is dependent on p53. We demonstrate that the increase in the expression of sestrin 2 by quercetin-generated intracellular ROS is p53-independent. The increased expression of sestrin 2 induced apoptosis through the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway in the HT-29 colon cancer cells, which are p53 mutant, treated with quercetin. Thus, our data suggest that quercetin induces apoptosis by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential, generating intracellular ROS production and increasing sestrin 2 expression through the AMPK/p38 pathway. In addition, p53 is not a necessary element for an apoptotic event induced by sestrin 2.

  6. Quercetin regulates the sestrin 2-AMPK-p38 MAPK signaling pathway and induces apoptosis by increasing the generation of intracellular ROS in a p53-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    KIM, GUEN TAE; LEE, SE HEE; KIM, JONG IL; KIM, YOUNG MIN

    2014-01-01

    The induction of apoptosis in cancer cells is a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms responsible for quercetin-induced apoptosis, mamely the increased expression of sestrin 2 and the activation of the 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. Our results revealed that quercetin induced apoptosis by generating the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increasing the expression of sestrin 2. The induction of apoptosis by quercetin occurred through the activation of the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway and was dependent on sestrin 2. However, the silencing of sestrin 2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting sestrin 2 revealed that quercetin did not regulate AMPK or p38 phosphorylation in the cells in which sestrin 2 was silenced. On the other hand, it has been previously reported that sestrin 2 expression is not dependent on p53 expression under hypoxic conditions, whereas DNA damage is dependent on p53. We demonstrate that the increase in the expression of sestrin 2 by quercetin-generated intracellular ROS is p53-independent. The increased expression of sestrin 2 induced apoptosis through the AMPK/p38 signaling pathway in the HT-29 colon cancer cells, which are p53 mutant, treated with quercetin. Thus, our data suggest that quercetin induces apoptosis by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential, generating intracellular ROS production and increasing sestrin 2 expression through the AMPK/p38 pathway. In addition, p53 is not a necessary element for an apoptotic event induced by sestrin 2. PMID:24535669

  7. Suppression of HSP27 increases the anti‑tumor effects of quercetin in human leukemia U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Dong, Xiu-Shuai; Gao, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Yong-Fang; Jin, Ying-Lan; Chang, Yu-Ying; Chen, Li-Yan; Wang, Jing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, inhibits the growth of leukemia cells and induces apoptosis. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) has been reported to promote the development of leukemia by protecting tumor cells from apoptosis through various mechanisms. The present study investigated the effects of small hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated HSP27 knockdown on the anti‑cancer effects of quercetin in U937 human leukemia cells. Cells were transfected with recombinant lentiviral vector pCMV‑G‑NR‑U6‑shHSP27 (shHSP27), which expressed shRNA specifically targeting the HSP27 gene, alone or in combination with quercetin. The results showed that shHSP27 and quercetin synergistically inhibited U937 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis by decreasing the Bcl2-to-Bax ratio. Furthermore, this combined treatment significantly suppressed the infiltration of tumor cells and the expression of angiogenesis‑associated proteins HIF1α and VEGF. Compared with shHSP27 or quercetin alone, shHSP27 plus quercetin markedly decreased the protein expression of cyclinD1 and thus blocked the cell cycle at G1 phase. The Notch/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is important in tumor aggressiveness; quercetin plus shHSP27 significantly decreased Notch 1 expression and the phosphorylation levels of the downstream signaling proteins AKT and mTOR. The inhibitory effects of quercetin plus shHSP27 on this pathway may thus have been responsible for the cell cycle arrest, inhibition of proliferations and infiltration as well as enhancement of apoptosis. Therefore, these findings collectively suggested that suppression of HSP27 expression amplified the anti‑cancer effects of quercetin in U937 human leukemia cells, and that quercetin in combination with shHSP27 represents a promising therapeutic strategy for human leukemia.

  8. Suppression of HSP27 increases the anti-tumor effects of quercetin in human leukemia U937 cells

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, XI; DONG, XIU-SHUAI; GAO, HAI-YAN; JIANG, YONG-FANG; JIN, YING-LAN; CHANG, YU-YING; CHEN, LI-YAN; WANG, JING-HUA

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, inhibits the growth of leukemia cells and induces apoptosis. Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) has been reported to promote the development of leukemia by protecting tumor cells from apoptosis through various mechanisms. The present study investigated the effects of small hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated HSP27 knockdown on the anti-cancer effects of quercetin in U937 human leukemia cells. Cells were transfected with recombinant lentiviral vector pCMV-G-NR-U6-shHSP27 (shHSP27), which expressed shRNA specifically targeting the HSP27 gene, alone or in combination with quercetin. The results showed that shHSP27 and quercetin synergistically inhibited U937 cell proliferation and induced apoptosis by decreasing the Bcl2-to-Bax ratio. Furthermore, this combined treatment significantly suppressed the infiltration of tumor cells and the expression of angiogenesis-associated proteins HIF1α and VEGF. Compared with shHSP27 or quercetin alone, shHSP27 plus quercetin markedly decreased the protein expression of cyclinD1 and thus blocked the cell cycle at G1 phase. The Notch/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway is important in tumor aggressiveness; quercetin plus shHSP27 significantly decreased Notch 1 expression and the phosphorylation levels of the downstream signaling proteins AKT and mTOR. The inhibitory effects of quercetin plus shHSP27 on this pathway may thus have been responsible for the cell cycle arrest, inhibition of proliferations and infiltration as well as enhancement of apoptosis. Therefore, these findings collectively suggested that suppression of HSP27 expression amplified the anti-cancer effects of quercetin in U937 human leukemia cells, and that quercetin in combination with shHSP27 represents a promising therapeutic strategy for human leukemia. PMID:26648539

  9. Quercetin up-regulates expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, liver X receptor α, and ATP binding cassette transporter A1 genes and increases cholesterol efflux in human macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Min; Moon, Jiyoung; Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Ji Hyung; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-02-01

    Cholesterol-laden macrophages trigger accumulation of foam cells and increase the risk of developing atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that quercetin could lower the content of cholesterol in macrophages by regulating the expression of the ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene in differentiated human acute monocyte leukemia cell line (THP-1) cells and thereby reducing the chance of forming foam cells. Quercetin, in concentrations up to 30 μM, was not cytotoxic to differentiated THP-1 cells. Quercetin up-regulated both ABCA1 messenger RNA and protein expression in differentiated THP-1 cells, and its maximum effects were demonstrated at 0.3 μM for 4 to 8 hours in incubation. In addition, quercetin increased protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) within 2 hours of treatment. Because PPARγ and LXRα are important transcriptional factors for ABCA1, quercetin-induced up-regulation of ABCA1 may be mediated by increased expression levels of the PPARγ and LXRα genes. Furthermore, quercetin-enhanced cholesterol efflux from differentiated THP-1 cells to both high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A1. Quercetin at the dose of 0.15 μM elevated the cholesterol efflux only for HDL. At the dose of 0.3 μM, quercetin demonstrated effects both on HDL and apolipoprotein A1. Our data demonstrated that quercetin increased the expressions of PPARγ, LXRα, and ABCA1 genes and cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages. Quercetin-induced expression of PPARγ and LXRα might subsequently affect up-regulation of their target gene ABCA1. Taken together, ingestion of quercetin or quercetin-rich foods could be an effective way to improve cholesterol efflux from macrophages, which would contribute to lowering the risk of atherosclerosis.

  10. Transient cosmic ray increase associated with a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudo, S.; Wada, M.; Tanskanen, P.; Kodama, M.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of worldwide network data of cosmic ray nucleonic components, the transient cosmic ray increase due to the depression of cosmic ray cutoff rigidity during a severe geomagnetic storm was investigated in terms of the longitudinal dependence. Multiple correlation analysis among isotropic and diurnal terms of cosmic ray intensity variations and Dst term of the geomagnetic field is applied to each of various station's data. It is shown that the amplitude of the transient cosmic ray increase associated with Dst depends on the local time of the station, and that its maximum phase is found in the evening sector. This fact is consistent with the theoretical estimation based on the azimuthally asymmetric ring current model for the magnetic DS field.

  11. Chronic Silymarin, Quercetin and Naringenin Treatments Increase Monoamines Synthesis and Hippocampal Sirt1 Levels Improving Cognition in Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Sarubbo, F; Ramis, M R; Kienzer, C; Aparicio, S; Esteban, S; Miralles, A; Moranta, D

    2017-08-14

    Polyphenols have beneficial neurological effects delaying cognitive and motor decline in aging due to their antioxidant, antiinflammatory and neuroprotective properties. These effects could be related to SIRT1 activation (implicated in synaptic plasticity, memory and inflammation) and monoaminergic synthesis modulation. In this work, we studied in old male rats, the in vivo effects of long-term administration of different polyphenols (silymarin, quercetin and naringenin; 20 mg/kg/day i.p, 4 weeks) (Sprague-Dawley, 18 months) on cognition and motor coordination. We also analyzed in different brain regions: tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activities, which mediate central monoaminergic neurotransmitters synthesis; and immunoreactivities of SIRT1 and NF-κB (total and acetylated forms). Results indicated that chronic polyphenolic treatments showed restorative effects on cognition and motor coordination consistently with the biochemical and molecular results. Polyphenols reversed the age-induced deficits in monoaminergic neurotransmitters (serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine), increasing TPH and TH activity. In addition, polyphenolic treatments increased SIRT1 levels and decreased NF-κB levels in hippocampus. These results confirm polyphenolic treatments as a valuable potential therapeutic strategy for attenuating inflamm-aging and brain function decline.

  12. Unlike Quercetin Glycosides, Cyanidin Glycoside in Red Leaf Lettuce Responds More Sensitively to Increasing Low Radiation Intensity before than after Head Formation Has Started

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of low-level photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD; 43–230 μmol m–2 s–1) on the major phenolic compounds of red leaf lettuce in three growth stages, before, during, and after head formation, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 and evaluating via multiple regression analysis. Generally, the light-related increase of flavonoid glycosides was structure and growth stage-dependent. In detail, an interaction was detected between plant age and PPFD regarding cyanidin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside concentration: the increase was strongest before head formation. The relationship between PPFD and quercetin-3-O-(6″-O-malonyl)-glucoside concentration was linear, whereas the increase of quercetin-3-O-glucoside and -3-O-glucuronide concentrations abated with increasing PPFD. Independent of growth stage, the caffeic acid derivatives concentration was not related to PPFD. All major phenolic compounds decreased with plant age. These results show the differential regulation of cyanidin, quercetin, and caffeic acid derivatives in lettuce, although closely connected biosynthetically, and emphasize the importance of ontogeny in the study of plant physiology. PMID:24382136

  13. Differential Effects of Quercetin and Quercetin Glycosides on Human α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Ion Currents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Rhim, Hyewhon; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Mok; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid usually found in fruits and vegetables. Aside from its antioxidative effects, quercetin, like other flavonoids, has a various neuropharmacological actions. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Rham1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Rutin), and quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside (Rham2) are mono-, di-, and tri-glycosylated forms of quercetin, respectively. In a previous study, we showed that quercetin can enhance α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR)-mediated ion currents. However, the role of the carbohydrates attached to quercetin in the regulation of α7 nAChR channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of quercetin glycosides on the acetylcholine induced peak inward current (IACh) in Xenopus oocytes expressing the α7 nAChR. IACh was measured with a two-electrode voltage clamp technique. In oocytes injected with α7 nAChR copy RNA, quercetin enhanced IACh, whereas quercetin glycosides inhibited IACh. Quercetin glycosides mediated an inhibition of IACh, which increased when they were pre-applied and the inhibitory effects were concentration dependent. The order of IACh inhibition by quercetin glycosides was Rutin≥Rham1>Rham2. Quercetin glycosides-mediated IACh enhancement was not affected by ACh concentration and appeared voltage-independent. Furthermore, quercetin-mediated IACh inhibition can be attenuated when quercetin is co-applied with Rham1 and Rutin, indicating that quercetin glycosides could interfere with quercetin-mediated α7 nAChR regulation and that the number of carbohydrates in the quercetin glycoside plays a key role in the interruption of quercetin action. These results show that quercetin and quercetin glycosides regulate the α7 nAChR in a differential manner. PMID:27098860

  14. Acetate transiently inhibits myocardial contraction by increasing mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    PubMed

    Schooley, James F; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Cox, Rachel T; Bünger, Rolf; Flagg, Thomas P

    2014-12-09

    There is a close relationship between cardiovascular disease and cardiac energy metabolism, and we have previously demonstrated that palmitate inhibits myocyte contraction by increasing Kv channel activity and decreasing the action potential duration. Glucose and long chain fatty acids are the major fuel sources supporting cardiac function; however, cardiac myocytes can utilize a variety of substrates for energy generation, and previous studies demonstrate the acetate is rapidly taken up and oxidized by the heart. In this study, we tested the effects of acetate on contractile function of isolated mouse ventricular myocytes. Acute exposure of myocytes to 10 mM sodium acetate caused a marked, but transient, decrease in systolic sarcomere shortening (1.49 ± 0.20% vs. 5.58 ± 0.49% in control), accompanied by a significant increase in diastolic sarcomere length (1.81 ± 0.01 μm vs. 1.77 ± 0.01 μm in control), with a near linear dose response in the 1-10 mM range. Unlike palmitate, acetate caused no change in action potential duration; however, acetate markedly increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake blocker, Ru-360 (10 μM), markedly suppressed the effect of acetate on contraction. Lehninger and others have previously demonstrated that the anions of weak aliphatic acids such as acetate stimulate Ca(2+) uptake in isolated mitochondria. Here we show that this effect of acetate appears to extend to isolated cardiac myocytes where it transiently modulates cell contraction.

  15. The cranberry flavonoids PAC DP-9 and quercetin aglycone induce cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest and increase cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifei; Han, Alex; Chen, Eva; Singh, Rakesh K; Chichester, Clinton O; Moore, Richard G; Singh, Ajay P; Vorsa, Nicholi

    2015-05-01

    Cranberry flavonoids (flavonols and flavan-3-ols), in addition to their antioxidant properties, have been shown to possess potential in vitro activity against several cancers. However, the difficulty of isolating cranberry compounds has largely limited anticancer research to crude fractions without well-defined compound composition. In this study, individual cranberry flavonoids were isolated to the highest purity achieved so far using gravity and high performance column chromatography and LC-MS characterization. MTS assay indicated differential cell viability reduction of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cells treated with individual cranberry flavonoids. Treatment with quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9, which exhibited the strongest activity, induced apoptosis, led to caspase-3 activation and PARP deactivation, and increased sensitivity to cisplatin. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and western blot study revealed reduced expression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in PAC DP-9 treated SKOV-3 cells. In addition, quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9 deactivated MAPK-ERK pathway, induced downregulation of cyclin D1, DNA-PK, phospho-histone H3 and upregulation of p21, and arrested cell cycle progression. Overall, this study demonstrates promising in vitro cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties of two newly characterized cranberry flavonoids, quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9, against ovarian cancer cells.

  16. The cranberry flavonoids PAC DP-9 and quercetin aglycone induce cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest and increase cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YIFEI; HAN, ALEX; CHEN, EVA; SINGH, RAKESH K.; CHICHESTER, CLINTON O.; MOORE, RICHARD G.; SINGH, AJAY P.; VORSA, NICHOLI

    2015-01-01

    Cranberry flavonoids (flavonols and flavan-3-ols), in addition to their antioxidant properties, have been shown to possess potential in vitro activity against several cancers. However, the difficulty of isolating cranberry compounds has largely limited anticancer research to crude fractions without well-defined compound composition. In this study, individual cranberry flavonoids were isolated to the highest purity achieved so far using gravity and high performance column chromatography and LC-MS characterization. MTS assay indicated differential cell viability reduction of SKOV-3 and OVCAR-8 ovarian cancer cells treated with individual cranberry flavonoids. Treatment with quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9, which exhibited the strongest activity, induced apoptosis, led to caspase-3 activation and PARP deactivation, and increased sensitivity to cisplatin. Furthermore, immunofluorescence microscopy and western blot study revealed reduced expression and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in PAC DP-9 treated SKOV-3 cells. In addition, quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9 deactivated MAPK-ERK pathway, induced downregulation of cyclin D1, DNA-PK, phosphohistone H3 and upregulation of p21, and arrested cell cycle progression. Overall, this study demonstrates promising in vitro cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties of two newly characterized cranberry flavonoids, quercetin aglycone and PAC DP-9, against ovarian cancer cells. PMID:25776829

  17. Ellagic acid and quercetin interact synergistically with resveratrol in the induction of apoptosis and cause transient cell cycle arrest in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Percival, Susan S

    2005-02-10

    Anticarcinogenic effects of polyphenolic compounds in fruits and vegetables are well established. Although polyphenols naturally occur as combinations, little information is available regarding possible synergistic or antagonistic biochemical interactions between compounds. Identifying potential interactions between polyphenols may provide information regarding the efficiency of polyphenol-containing foods in cancer prevention. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactions of ellagic acid and quercetin with resveratrol, polyphenols which occur in muscadine grapes, with the hypothesis that the selected polyphenols would interact synergistically in the induction of apoptosis and reduction of cell growth in human leukemia cells (MOLT-4). To test this hypothesis, alterations in cell cycle kinetics, proliferation, and apoptosis (caspase-3 activity) were examined after incubation with ellagic acid, quercetin, and resveratrol as single compounds and in combination. Results showed a more than additive interaction for the combination of ellagic acid with resveratrol and furthermore, significant alterations in cell cycle kinetics induced by single compounds and combinations were observed. An isobolographic analysis was performed to assess the apparent synergistic interaction for the combinations of ellagic acid with resveratrol and quercetin with resveratrol in the induction of caspase 3 activity, confirming a synergistic interaction with a combination index of 0.64 for the combination of ellagic acid and resveratrol and 0.68 for quercetin and resveratrol. Results indicate that the anticarcinogenic potential of foods containing polyphenols may not be based on the effects of individual compounds, but may involve a synergistic enhancement of the anticancer effects.

  18. Quercetin induces apoptosis by inhibiting MAPKs and TRPM7 channels in AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Hee Jung; Lim, Bora; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, Sung Young; So, Insuk; Kim, Byung Joo

    2014-06-01

    The worldwide incidence and mortality rate of gastric cancer remain high, and thus, novel treatment concepts are required. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid, has been proposed to have anti-cancer properties. The aim of this study was to determine the nature of the apoptotic mechanisms responsible for the effects of quercetin on AGS cells (a commonly used human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line). AGS cell viability was assessed by MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis, mitochondrial membrane depolarization was assessed, and caspase-3 was used to determine the involvement of apoptosis. Whole-cell configuration patch-clamp experiments were used to regulate the transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM)7 channels. To investigate the signaling pathway of quercetin-induced apoptosis in the AGS cells, western blot analysis and MTT assay were performed. Quercetin was found to induce the apoptosis of these cells, and this apoptosis was inhibited by SB203580 (a p38 kinase inhibitor), SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor). In addition, quercetin inhibited TRPM7 currents in the AGS cells and in human embryo kidney (HEK)293 cells which overexpress TRPM7 channels. Furthermore, treatment with quercetin increased the apoptosis of HEK293 cells, which overexpress TRPM7, indicating that the upregulation of TRPM7 channels underlies quercetin-induced cell death. These results suggest that quercetin plays an important pathophysiological role in AGS cells through mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and TRPM7 channels, and that quercetin has potential as a pharmacological agent for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  19. Quercetin Stimulates Insulin Secretion and Reduces the Viability of Rat INS-1 Beta-Cells.

    PubMed

    Kittl, Michael; Beyreis, Marlena; Tumurkhuu, Munkhtuya; Fürst, Johannes; Helm, Katharina; Pitschmann, Anna; Gaisberger, Martin; Glasl, Sabine; Ritter, Markus; Jakab, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previously we described insulinotropic effects of Leonurus sibiricus L. plant extracts used for diabetes mellitus treatment in Traditional Mongolian Medicine. The flavonoid quercetin and its glycoside rutin, which exert anti-diabetic properties in vivo by interfering with insulin signaling in peripheral target tissues, are constituents of these extracts. This study was performed to better understand short- and long-term effects of quercetin and rutin on beta-cells. Cell viability, apoptosis, phospho-protein abundance and insulin release were determined using resazurin, annexin-V binding assays, Western blot and ELISA, respectively. Membrane potentials (Vmem), whole-cell Ca2+ (ICa)- and ATP-sensitive K+ (IKATP) currents were measured by patch clamp. Intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) levels were measured by time-lapse imaging using the ratiometric Ca2+ indicator Fura-2. Rutin, quercetin and the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 caused a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability with IC50 values of ∼75 µM, ∼25 µM and ∼3.5 µM, respectively. Quercetin (50 µM) significantly increased the percentage of Annexin-V+ cells within 48 hrs. The mean cell volume (MCV) of quercetin-treated cells was significantly lower. Within 2 hrs, quercetin significantly decreased basal- and insulin-stimulated Akt(T308) phosphorylation and increased Erk1/2 phosphorylation, without affecting P-Akt(S473) abundance. Basal- and glucose-stimulated insulin release were significantly stimulated by quercetin. Quercetin significantly depolarized Vmem by ∼25 mV which was prevented by the KATP-channel opener diazoxide, but not by the L-type ICa inhibitor nifedipine. Quercetin significantly stimulated ICa and caused a 50% inhibition of IKATP. The effects on Vmem, ICa and IKATP rapidly reached peak values and then gradually diminished to control values within ∼1 minute. With a similar time-response quercetin induced an elevation in Cai which was completely abolished in the absence of

  20. Protective effects of quercetin on UVB irradiation‑induced cytotoxicity through ROS clearance in keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xianbing; Li, Ning; Wang, Yiling; Ding, Li; Chen, Houjie; Yu, Yehui; Shi, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Human skin is the body's largest organ that protects against diverse environmental injuries. However, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which induces a transient increase in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to a variety of injuries and various skin diseases, has deleterious effects on living organisms. Quercetin is a naturally occurring compound with strong antioxidant action and can successfully scavenge free radicals. In the present study, we investigated the effects and the mechanism of quercetin on UVB‑induced cytotoxicity in keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. The results of this study showed that quercetin (20 μM) significantly blocked UVB irradiation (15 mJ/cm2)‑induced intracellular ROS generation. In addition, the ROS clearing ability of quercetin prevented cell membrane and mitochondria from ROS attack and inhibited cell membrane fluidity decrease and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Moreover, the outflow of cytochrome c and apoptosis were markedly inhibited. These results suggest that the protective effect of quercetin against UVB irradiation‑induced toxicity is mainly mediated by the ROS scavenging ability. Thus, quercetin is a potential agent against UVB irradiation‑induced skin damage.

  1. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products.

  2. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products. PMID:26150744

  3. Transient dynamics increasing network vulnerability to cascading failures.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Ingve; Buzna, Lubos; Peters, Karsten; Bornholdt, Stefan; Helbing, Dirk

    2008-05-30

    We study cascading failures in networks using a dynamical flow model based on simple conservation and distribution laws. It is found that considering the flow dynamics may imply reduced network robustness compared to previous static overload failure models. This is due to the transient oscillations or overshooting in the loads, when the flow dynamics adjusts to the new (remaining) network structure. The robustness of networks showing cascading failures is generally given by a complex interplay between the network topology and flow dynamics.

  4. In vitro digestion and lactase treatment influence uptake of quercetin and quercetin glucoside by the Caco-2 cell monolayer

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Brown, Dan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2005-01-01

    Background Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are widely consumed flavonoids found in many fruits and vegetables. These compounds have a wide range of potential health benefits, and understanding the bioavailability of flavonoids from foods is becoming increasingly important. Methods This study combined an in vitro digestion, a lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell model to examine quercetin and quercetin glucoside uptake from shallot and apple homogenates. Results The in vitro digestion alone significantly decreased quercetin aglycone recovery from the shallot digestate (p < 0.05), but had no significant effect on quercetin-3-glucoside recovery (p > 0.05). Digestion increased the Caco-2 cell uptake of shallot quercetin-4'-glucoside by 2-fold when compared to the non-digested shallot. Despite the loss of quercetin from the digested shallot, the bioavailability of quercetin aglycone to the Caco-2 cells was the same in both the digested and non-digested shallot. Treatment with lactase increased quercetin recovery from the shallot digestate nearly 10-fold and decreased quercetin-4'-glucoside recovery by more than 100-fold (p < 0.05), but had no effect on quercetin recovery from apple digestates. Lactase treatment also increased shallot quercetin bioavailability to the Caco-2 cells approximately 14-fold, and decreased shallot quercetin-4'-glucoside bioavailability 23-fold (p < 0.05). These Caco-2 cells had lactase activity similar to that expressed by a lactose intolerant human. Conclusions The increase in quercetin uptake following treatment with lactase suggests that dietary supplementation with lactase may increase quercetin bioavailability in lactose intolerant humans. Combining the digestion, the lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell culture model may provide a reliable in vitro model for examining flavonoid glucoside bioavailability from foods. PMID:15644141

  5. In vitro digestion and lactase treatment influence uptake of quercetin and quercetin glucoside by the Caco-2 cell monolayer.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Brown, Dan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2005-01-11

    Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are widely consumed flavonoids found in many fruits and vegetables. These compounds have a wide range of potential health benefits, and understanding the bioavailability of flavonoids from foods is becoming increasingly important. This study combined an in vitro digestion, a lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell model to examine quercetin and quercetin glucoside uptake from shallot and apple homogenates. The in vitro digestion alone significantly decreased quercetin aglycone recovery from the shallot digestate (p < 0.05), but had no significant effect on quercetin-3-glucoside recovery (p > 0.05). Digestion increased the Caco-2 cell uptake of shallot quercetin-4'-glucoside by 2-fold when compared to the non-digested shallot. Despite the loss of quercetin from the digested shallot, the bioavailability of quercetin aglycone to the Caco-2 cells was the same in both the digested and non-digested shallot. Treatment with lactase increased quercetin recovery from the shallot digestate nearly 10-fold and decreased quercetin-4'-glucoside recovery by more than 100-fold (p < 0.05), but had no effect on quercetin recovery from apple digestates. Lactase treatment also increased shallot quercetin bioavailability to the Caco-2 cells approximately 14-fold, and decreased shallot quercetin-4'-glucoside bioavailability 23-fold (p < 0.05). These Caco-2 cells had lactase activity similar to that expressed by a lactose intolerant human. The increase in quercetin uptake following treatment with lactase suggests that dietary supplementation with lactase may increase quercetin bioavailability in lactose intolerant humans. Combining the digestion, the lactase treatment and the Caco-2 cell culture model may provide a reliable in vitro model for examining flavonoid glucoside bioavailability from foods.

  6. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Yao, Jiaying; Han, Chunyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Wang, Shengnan; Liu, Hongnan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-03-15

    In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity.

  7. Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yao; Yao, Jiaying; Han, Chunyan; Yang, Jiaxin; Chaudhry, Maria Tabassum; Wang, Shengnan; Liu, Hongnan; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    In vitro and some animal models have shown that quercetin, a polyphenol derived from plants, has a wide range of biological actions including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities; as well as attenuating lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation and capillary permeability. This review focuses on the physicochemical properties, dietary sources, absorption, bioavailability and metabolism of quercetin, especially main effects of quercetin on inflammation and immune function. According to the results obtained both in vitro and in vivo, good perspectives have been opened for quercetin. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to better characterize the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of quercetin on inflammation and immunity. PMID:26999194

  8. Intracellular ROS protection efficiency and free radical-scavenging activity of quercetin and quercetin-encapsulated liposomes.

    PubMed

    Rezaei-Sadabady, Rogaie; Eidi, Akram; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Barzegar, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) is a natural bio-flavonoid originating from fruits, vegetables, seeds, berries, and tea. The antioxidant activity of quercetin and its protective effects against cardiovascular disorders, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral activities have been extensively documented; however, the clinical request of quercetin in cancer treatment is significantly limited due to its very poor delivery features. In order to increase the hydrophilicity and drug delivery capability, we encapsulated quercetin into liposomes. Our data indicated that liposomal quercetin can significantly improve the solubility and bioavailability of quercetin and can be used as an effective antioxidant for ROS protection within the polar cytoplasm, and the nano-sized quercetin encapsulated by liposomes enhanced the cellular uptake (cancer cell human MCF_7). Quercetin has many pharmaceutical applications, many of which arise from its potent antioxidant properties. The present research examined the antioxidant activities of quercetin in polar solvents by a comparative study using reduction of ferric iron in aqueous medium, intracellular ROS/toxicity assays, and reducing DPPH assays. Cell viability and ROS assays demonstrated that quercetin was able to penetrate into the polar medium inside the cells and to protect them against the highly toxic and deadly belongings of cumene hydroperoxide. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a liposomal formulation of quercetin can suggestively improve its solubility and bioavailability and can be a possible request in the treatment of tumor. The authors encapsulated quercetin in a liposomal delivery system. They studied the in vitro effects of this compound on proliferation using human MCF-7 carcinoma cells. The activity of liposomal quercetin was equal to or better than that of free quercetin at equimolar concentrations. Our data indicated that liposomal quercetin can significantly improve the

  9. Quercetin accumulation by chronic administration causes the caspase-3 activation in liver and brain of mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Jeong; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin is an excellent antioxidant that has a variety of side effects. This study investigated whether the chronic administration of quercetin in mice induces apoptosis. Mice were divided randomly into three treatment groups. Quercetin was administered orally to two of three groups at 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight (BW) for 18 days. The serum quercetin level increased in a dose-dependent manner, although the quercetin levels in the liver and brain were lower than in serum. Nevertheless, quercetin induced apoptosis in both the liver and brain, as evidenced by increased caspase-3 expression and activity. Quercetin-induced apoptosis seems to be associated with quercetin accumulation. Moreover, with quercetin accumulation, the brain was more susceptible to apoptosis than the liver. In conclusion, quercetin administration at a high dose may lead to apoptosis in the liver and brain of mouse.

  10. Synthesis of (2-amino)ethyl derivatives of quercetin 3-O-methyl ether and their antioxidant and neuroprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hun; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Yoo, Ho; Jung, Seo Yun; Kwon, Bong Jin; Kim, Nam-Jung; Jin, Changbae; Lee, Yong Sup

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in several diseases, particularly in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Quercetin 3-O-methyl ether has been reported to show potent antioxidant and neuroprotective activity against neuronal damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Several aminoethyl-substituted derivatives of quercetin 3-O-methyl ether have been synthesized to increase water solubility while retaining antioxidant and neuroprotective activity. Among such derivatives, compound 3a shows potent and well-balanced antioxidant activity in three types of cell-free assay systems and has in vivo neuroprotective effects on transient focal ischemic injury induced by the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats.

  11. Fluorescence and picosecond induced absorption from the lowest singlet excited states of quercetin in solutions and polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarev, S. L.; Tikhomirov, S. A.; Buganov, O. V.; Knyukshto, V. N.; Raichenok, T. F.

    2017-03-01

    The spectroscopic and photophysical properties of the biologically important plant antioxidant quercetin in organic solvents, polymer films of polyvinyl alcohol, and a buffer solution at pH 7.0 are studied by stationary luminescence and femtosecond laser spectroscopy at room temperature and 77 K. The large magnitude of the dipole moment of the quercetin molecule in the excited Franck-Condon state μ e FC = 52.8 C m indicates the dipolar nature of quercetin in this excited state. The transient induced absorption spectra S 1→ S n in all solvents are characterized by a short-wave band at λ abs max = 460 nm with exponential decay times in the range of 10.0-20.0 ps. In the entire spectral range at times of >100 ps, no residual induced absorption was observed that could be attributed to the triplet-triplet transitions T 1 → T k in quercetin. In polar solvents, two-band fluorescence was also recorded at room temperature, which is due to the luminescence of the initial enol form of quercetin ( 415 nm) and its keto form with a transferred proton (550 nm). The short-wave band is absent in nonpolar 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF). The spectra of fluorescence and fluorescence excitation exhibit a low dependence on the wavelength of excitation and detection, which may be related to the solvation and conformational changes in the quercetin molecule. Decreasing the temperature of a glassy-like freezing quercetin solution in ethanol and 2-MTHF to 77 K leads to a strong increase in the intensity (by a factor of 100) of both bands. The energy circuits for the proton transfer process are proposed depending on the polarity of the medium. The main channel for the exchange of electronic excitation energy in the quercetin molecule at room temperature is the internal conversion S 1 ⇝ S 0, induced by the state with a proton transfer.

  12. Quercetin in brain diseases: Potential and limits.

    PubMed

    Dajas, Federico; Abin-Carriquiry, Juan Andrés; Arredondo, Florencia; Blasina, Fernanda; Echeverry, Carolina; Martínez, Marcela; Rivera, Felicia; Vaamonde, Lucía

    2015-10-01

    Quercetin is a ubiquitous flavonoid present in beverages, food and plants that has been demonstrated to have a role in the prevention of neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. In neuronal culture, quercetin increases survival against oxidative insults. Antioxidation appears to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for its neuroprotective action and modulation of intracellular signaling and transcription factors, increasing the expression of antioxidant and pro survival proteins and modulating inflammation, appears as important for neuronal protection. Quercetin also regulates the activity of kinases, changing the phosphorylation state of target molecules, resulting in modulation of cellular function and gene expression. Concentrations of quercetin higher than 100 μM consistently show cytotoxic and apoptotic effects by its autoxidation and generation of toxic quinones. In vivo, results are controversial with some studies showing neuroprotection by quercetin and others not, requiring a drug delivery system or chronic treatments to show neuroprotective effects. The blood and brain bioavailability of free quercetin after ingestion is a complex and controversial process that produces final low concentrations, a fact that has led to suggestions that metabolites would be active by themselves and/or as pro-drugs that would release the active aglycone in the brain. Available studies show that in normal or low oxidative conditions, chronic treatments with quercetin contributes to re-establish the redox regulation of proteins, transcription factors and survival signaling cascades that promote survival. In the presence of highly oxidative conditions such as in an ischemic tissue, quercetin could become pro-oxidant and toxic. At present, evidence points to quercetin as a preventive molecule for neuropathology when administered in natural matrices such as vegetables and food. More research is needed to support its use as a lead compound in its free form in

  13. Quercetin-induced apoptosis prevents EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minjung; Son, Myoungki; Ryu, Eunhyun; Shin, Yu Su; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kang, Byung Woog; Sung, Gi-Ho; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gamma-1 herpesvirus that establishes a lifelong latency in over 90% of the world's population. During latency, virus exists predominantly as a chromatin-associated, multicopy episome in the nuclei of a variety of tumor cells derived from B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and epithelial cells. Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis or G. glabra that has traditionally cultivated in eastern part of Asia. Licorice was reported to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-atopic, hepatoprotective, anti-neurodegenerative, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic effects and so forth. Quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are produced from licorice and highly similar in molecular structure. They have diverse bioactive effects such as antiviral activity, anti-asthmatic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammation activity, monoamine-oxidase inhibitor, and etc. To determine anti-EBV and anti-EBVaGC (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) effects of licorice, we investigated antitumor and antiviral effects of quercetin and isoliquiritigenin against EBVaGC. Although both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are cytotoxic to SNU719 cells, quercetin induced more apoptosis in SNU719 cells than isoliquiritigenin, more completely eliminated DNMT1 and DNMT3A expressions than isoliquiritigenin, and more strongly affects the cell cycle progression of SNU719 than isoliquiritigenin. Both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin induce signal transductions to stimulate apoptosis, and induce EBV gene transcription. Quercetin enhances frequency of F promoter use, whereas isoliquiritigenin enhances frequency of Q promoter use. Quercetin reduces EBV latency, whereas isoliquiritigenin increases the latency. Quercetin increases more the EBV progeny production, and inhibits more EBV infection than isoliquiritigenin. These results indicate that quercetin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and human gastric carcinoma

  14. Quercetin-induced apoptosis prevents EBV infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minjung; Son, Myoungki; Ryu, Eunhyun; Shin, Yu Su; Kim, Jong Gwang; Kang, Byung Woog; Cho, Hyosun; Kang, Hyojeung

    2015-05-20

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human gamma-1 herpesvirus that establishes a lifelong latency in over 90% of the world's population. During latency, virus exists predominantly as a chromatin-associated, multicopy episome in the nuclei of a variety of tumor cells derived from B cells, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and epithelial cells. Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis or G. glabra that has traditionally cultivated in eastern part of Asia. Licorice was reported to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-atopic, hepatoprotective, anti-neurodegenerative, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic effects and so forth. Quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are produced from licorice and highly similar in molecular structure. They have diverse bioactive effects such as antiviral activity, anti-asthmatic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammation activity, monoamine-oxidase inhibitor, and etc. To determine anti-EBV and anti-EBVaGC (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) effects of licorice, we investigated antitumor and antiviral effects of quercetin and isoliquiritigenin against EBVaGC. Although both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin are cytotoxic to SNU719 cells, quercetin induced more apoptosis in SNU719 cells than isoliquiritigenin, more completely eliminated DNMT1 and DNMT3A expressions than isoliquiritigenin, and more strongly affects the cell cycle progression of SNU719 than isoliquiritigenin. Both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin induce signal transductions to stimulate apoptosis, and induce EBV gene transcription. Quercetin enhances frequency of F promoter use, whereas isoliquiritigenin enhances frequency of Q promoter use. Quercetin reduces EBV latency, whereas isoliquiritigenin increases the latency. Quercetin increases more the EBV progeny production, and inhibits more EBV infection than isoliquiritigenin. These results indicate that quercetin could be a promising candidate for antiviral and antitumor agents against EBV and human gastric carcinoma.

  15. The Antidiabetic Potential of Quercetin: Underlying Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Eid, Hoda M; Haddad, Pierre S

    2017-01-01

    The dramatic increase in modern lifestyle diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes has renewed researchers' interest to explore nature as a source of novel therapeutic agents. Flavonoids are a large group of polyphenols that are widely present in the human diet. They have shown promising therapeutic activities against a wide variety of ailments. One of the most widely distributed and most extensively studied flavonoid is the flavonol quercetin. Its powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities are well documented and are thought to play a role in treating and protecting against diseases including diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to shed light on quercetin therapeutic potential as an antidiabetic agent. Quercetin was reported to interact with many molecular targets in small intestine, pancreas, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and liver to control whole-body glucose homeostasis. Mechanisms of action of quercetin are pleiotropic and involve the inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption, insulin secretory and insulin-sensitizing activities as well as improved glucose utilization in peripheral tissues. Initial studies suggested poor bioavailability of quercetin. However, recent reports have shown that quercetin was detected in the plasma after food or supplements consumption and has a long half-life in human body. Despite the wealth of in vitro and in vivo results supporting the antidiabetic potential of quercetin, its efficacy in diabetic human subjects is yet to be explored. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Quercetin induces autophagy via FOXO1-dependent pathways and autophagy suppression enhances quercetin-induced apoptosis in PASMCs in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    He, Yuanzhou; Cao, Xiaopei; Guo, Pujian; Li, Xiaochen; Shang, Huihui; Liu, Jin; Xie, Min; Xu, Yongjian; Liu, Xiansheng

    2017-02-01

    Quercetin, an important dietary flavonoid has been demonstrated to potentially reverse or even prevent pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) progression. However, the effects of quercetin on apoptosis and autophagy in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) have not yet been clearly elucidated. The current study found that quercetin significantly induce the apoptotic and autophagic capacities of PASMCs in vitro and in vivo in hypoxia. In addition, we found that quercetin increases FOXO1 (a major mediator in autophagy regulation) expression and transcriptional activity. Moreover, FOXO1 knockdown by siRNAs inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and 4E-BPI, which is downstream of P70-S6K, and markedly blocked quercetin-induced autophagy. We also observed that FOXO1-mediated autophagy was achieved via SESN3 not Rictor upregulation and after mTOR suppression. Furthermore, Treatment with autophagy-specific inhibitors could markedly enhance quercetin-induced apoptosis in PASMCs under hypoxia. Finally, quercetin in combination with autophagy inhibition treatment could enhance the therapeutic effects of quercetin in hypoxia-associated PAH in vivo. Taken together, quercetin could enhance hypoxia-induced autophagy through the FOXO1-SENS3-mTOR pathway in PASMCs. Combining quercetin and autophagy inhibitors may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating hypoxia-associated PAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quercetin modulates Nrf2 and glutathione-related defenses in HepG2 cells: Involvement of p38.

    PubMed

    Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Martín, María Angeles; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2012-01-25

    Dietary flavonoid quercetin has been suggested as a cancer chemopreventive agent, but the mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study investigated the influence of quercetin on p38-MAPK and the potential regulation of the nuclear transcription factor erythroid-2p45-related factor (Nrf2) and the cellular antioxidant/detoxifying defense system related to glutathione (GSH) by p38 in HepG2 cells. Incubation of HepG2 cells with quercetin at a range of concentrations (5-50μM) for 4 or 18h induced a differential effect on the modulation of p38 and Nrf2 in HepG2 cells, 50μM quercetin showed the highest activation of p38 at 4h of treatment and values of p38 similar to those of control cells after 18 h of incubation, together with the inhibition of Nrf2 at both incubation times. Quercetin (50μM) induced a time-dependent activation of p38, which was in concert with a transient stimulation of Nrf2 to provoke its inhibition afterward. Quercetin also increased GSH content, mRNA levels of glutamylcysteine-synthetase (GCS) and expression and/or activity of glutathione-peroxidase, glutathione-reductase and GCS after 4h of incubation, and glutathione-S-transferase after 18h of exposure. Further studies with the p38 specific inhibitor SB203580 showed that the p38 blockage restored the inhibited Nrf2 transcription factor and the enzymatic expression and activity of antioxidant/detoxificant enzymes after 4h exposure. In conclusion, p38-MAPK is involved in the mechanisms of the cell response to quercetin through the modulation of Nrf2 and glutathione-related enzymes in HepG2 cells.

  18. Increase of reactive oxygen species generation in cerebral cortex slices after the transiently enhanced metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Toru; Awaji, Takuji; Shimada, Kazuyoshi; Sasaki, Haruyo

    2017-10-01

    Under certain conditions such as hypoxia-reoxygenation, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increases following hypoxia caused by a decreased oxygen supply. As another hypoxic condition, an excess neural activity status including epileptic seizure induces a decrease in tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO2) caused by enhanced oxygen utilization; however, whether ROS generation increases following the hypoxic status induced by transiently enhanced energy metabolism in brain tissue currently remains unknown. We herein investigated ROS-dependent chemiluminescence in cerebral cortex slices during the restoration of transiently enhanced energy metabolism induced by a high-potassium treatment with tissue pO2 changes and redox balance. ROS generation in the tissue was enhanced after high-potassium-induced hypoxia, but not by the reversed order of the treatment: control-potassium then high-potassium treatment, high-potassium treatment alone, and control-potassium treatment alone. The high-potassium treatment induced a transient decrease in tissue pO2 and a shift in the tissue redox balance towards reduction. The transient shift in the tissue redox balance towards reduction with enhanced metabolic activity and its recovery may correlate with ROS generation. This phenomenon may mimic ROS generation following the hypoxic status induced by transiently enhanced energy metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Quercetin Treatment Ameliorates Systemic Oxidative Stress in Cirrhotic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Emanuelle Kerber; Bona, Silvia; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Tieppo, Juliana; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether the antioxidant quercetin protects against liver injury and ameliorates the systemic oxidative stress in rats with common bile duct ligation. Secondary biliary cirrhosis was induced through 28 days of bile duct obstruction. Animals received quercetin (Q) after 14 days of obstruction. Groups of control (CO) and cirrhotic (CBDL) animals received a daily 50 mg/kg body weight i.p. injection of quercetin (CO + Q; CBDL + Q) or vehicle (CO; CBDL). Quercetin corrected the reduction in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase CAT, and glutathione peroxidase GPx activities and prevented the increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase in cirrhotic animals. Quercetin administration also corrected the reduced total nitrate concentration in the liver and prevented liver fibrosis and necrosis. These effects suggest that quercetin might be a useful agent to preserve liver function and prevent systemic oxidative stress. PMID:21991520

  20. On the Relation Between Transient Elastic Softening and Permeability Increase in fractured shale and granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riviere, J.; Madara, B.; Elsworth, D.; Johnson, P. A.; Marone, C.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic stressing of rocks is known to transiently increase permeability, and has potential application to improve the efficiency of geothermal energy production and oil/gas recovery. At larger scale, teleseismic waves have been observed to transiently increase permeability of aquifer systems. Seismic waves are also known to transiently decrease elastic moduli near fault zones. However, it remains unclear which parameters control the magnitude of permeability increase and how this magnitude can be predicted. We report on laboratory studies that monitor both permeability evolution and elastic properties in fractured granite and shale. We use L-shaped samples that are loaded with triaxial stresses of order 10 MPa and fractured in a triaxial cell. Deionized water is forced to flow along the resulting fracture path by applying a differential pore pressure along the shear direction. Dynamic stressing is applied via pore pressure or normal stress oscillations (20 s-duration, up to 1 Hz-frequency and 1 MPa-amplitude), while measuring flow rates and elastic wave velocities. Our observations enable transient increases in permeability to be determined following dynamic stressing and constrained via measurements of ultrasonic velocity. In particular, these preliminary results are discussed with former results suggesting that permeability enhancement is dictated by flow rate.

  1. Pulse wave velocity is increased in patients with transient myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Baulmann, Johannes; Homsi, Rami; Uen, Sakir; Düsing, Rainer; Fimmers, Rolf; Vetter, Hans; Mengden, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    We have recently shown that mean pulse pressure is higher in patients with transient myocardial ischemia. Pulse pressure elevation might be an important consequence of increased arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to prove if arterial stiffness is changed in patients with transient myocardial ischemia who bear a high cardiovascular risk. Additionally we investigated whether arterial stiffness or wave reflection is the best indicator for transient myocardial ischemia. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a measure of arterial stiffness, and augmentation index (AIx) an indication of arterial wave reflection. Both are indicators for cardiovascular risk. PWV (carotid-femoral) and AIx (SphygmoCor) were assessed in 74 hypertensive patients. Transient myocardial ischemia was detected using an ST-triggered 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device. ST-segment depressions were recorded in 30 of 74 patients. There were no significant differences with regard to age, mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure or heart rate. PWV was seen to be higher in patients with transient myocardial ischemia (10.6 versus 9.5 m/s, P = 0.036). There was no significant difference in AIx between the two groups. PWV (r = 0.36, P = 0.002) but not AIx correlated with pulse pressure. PWV is higher in hypertensive individuals (age > 60 years) with transient myocardial ischemia, suggesting that PWV is an indicator of increased cardiovascular risk. Although AIx is known to be associated with several cardiovascular diseases, it was not seen to be associated with silent myocardial ischemia. Our results suggest that the clinical significance of parameters of arterial stiffness and arterial wave reflection change with age, with a higher clinical importance of PWV indicated in patients over the age of 60.

  2. Sustained increase in adult neurogenesis in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus after transient brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congmin; Zhang, Mingguang; Sun, Chifei; Cai, Yuqun; You, Yan; Huang, Liping; Liu, Fang

    2011-01-13

    It is known that the number of newly generated neurons is increased in the young and adult rodent subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG) after transient brain ischemia. However, it remains unclear whether increase in neurogenesis in the adult DG induced by ischemic stroke is transient or sustained. We here reported that from 2 weeks to 6 months after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), there were more doublecortin positive (DCX+) cells in the ipsilateral compared to the sham-control and contralateral DG of the adult rat. After the S-phase marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected 2 days after MCAO to label newly generated cells, a large number of BrdU-labeled neuroblasts differentiated into mature granular neurons. These BrdU-labeled neurons survived for at least 6 months. When BrdU was injected 6 weeks after injury, there were still more newly generated neuroblasts differentiated into mature neurons in the ipsilateral DG. Altogether, our data indicate that transient brain ischemia initiates a prolonged increase in neurogenesis and promotes the normal development of the newly generated neurons in the adult DG.

  3. Oral and Intraperitoneal Administration of Quercetin Decreased Lymphocyte DNA Damage and Plasma Lipid Peroxidation Induced by TSA In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shu-Ting; Shiau, Rong-Jen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Yeh, Shu-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that quercetin enhances the anticancer effect of trichostatin A (TSA) in xenograft mice given quercetin intraperitoneally (10 mg/kg, 3 times/week). Herein, we investigate whether quercetin administered orally exerts such an effect and prevents the cytotoxic side effects of TSA. We found that quercetin given orally (20 and 100 mg/kg, 3 times/week) failed to enhance the antitumor effect of TSA although it increased the total quercetin concentration more than quercetin administered intraperitoneally in the plasma. The compound quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) increased the most. However, quercetin administered intraperitoneally increased the total quercetin level in tumor tissues more than oral quercetin. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of quercetin similarly decreased lymphocyte DNA damage and plasma lipid peroxidation level induced by TSA. Furthermore, we found that the enhancing effect of Q3G on the antitumor effect of TSA and the incorporation of Q3G was less than that of quercetin in A549 cells. However, we found that A549 cells possessed the ability to convert Q3G to quercetin. In conclusion, different from quercetin administered intraperitoneally, quercetin administered orally failed to enhance the antitumor effect of TSA because of its metabolic conversion. However, it prevented TSA-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. PMID:24868531

  4. Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak

    PubMed Central

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J.; Eisner, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay.In the presence of β‐adrenergic stimulation, RyR‐mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase.Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca‐sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non‐sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient.Only Ca‐sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine.Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. Abstract In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca‐sensitising and non‐sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca2+]i with fluo‐3 in voltage‐clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non‐sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca2+]i, increased diastolic [Ca2+]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l−1) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the

  5. Biphasic decay of the Ca transient results from increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca leak.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rajiv; Li, Yatong; Greensmith, David J; Eisner, David A; Venetucci, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Ca leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through the ryanodine receptor (RyR) reduces the amplitude of the Ca transient and slows its rate of decay. In the presence of β-adrenergic stimulation, RyR-mediated Ca leak produces a biphasic decay of the Ca transient with a fast early phase and a slow late phase. Two forms of Ca leak have been studied, Ca-sensitising (induced by caffeine) and non-sensitising (induced by ryanodine) and both induce biphasic decay of the Ca transient. Only Ca-sensitising leak can be reversed by traditional RyR inhibitors such as tetracaine. Ca leak can also induce Ca waves. At low levels of leak, waves occur. As leak is increased, first biphasic decay and then slowed monophasic decay is seen. The level of leak has major effects on the shape of the Ca transient. In heart failure, a reduction in Ca transient amplitude and contractile dysfunction can by caused by Ca leak through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR) and/or decreased activity of the SR Ca ATPase (SERCA). We have characterised the effects of two forms of Ca leak (Ca-sensitising and non-sensitising) on calcium cycling and compared with those of SERCA inhibition. We measured [Ca(2+)]i with fluo-3 in voltage-clamped rat ventricular myocytes. Increasing SR leak with either caffeine (to sensitise the RyR to Ca activation) or ryanodine (non-sensitising) had similar effects to SERCA inhibition: decreased systolic [Ca(2+)]i , increased diastolic [Ca(2+)]i and slowed decay. However, in the presence of isoproterenol, leak produced a biphasic decay of the Ca transient in the majority of cells while SERCA inhibition produced monophasic decay. Tetracaine reversed the effects of caffeine but not of ryanodine. When caffeine (1 mmol l(-1)) was added to a cell which displayed Ca waves, the wave frequency initially increased before waves disappeared and biphasic decay developed. Eventually (at higher caffeine concentrations), the biphasic decay was replaced by slow

  6. Transient pool boiling heat transfer due to increasing heat inputs in subcooled water at high pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuda, K.; Shiotsu, M.; Sakurai, A.

    1995-09-01

    Understanding of transient boiling phenomenon caused by increasing heat inputs in subcooled water at high pressures is necessary to predict correctly a severe accident due to a power burst in a water-cooled nuclear reactor. Transient maximum heat fluxes, q{sub max}, on a 1.2 mm diameter horizontal cylinder in a pool of saturated and subcooled water for exponential heat inputs, q{sub o}e{sup t/T}, with periods, {tau}, ranging from about 2 ms to 20 s at pressures from atmospheric up to 2063 kPa for water subcoolings from 0 to about 80 K were measured to obtain the extended data base to investigate the effect of high subcoolings on steady-state and transient maximum heat fluxes, q{sub max}. Two main mechanisms of q{sub max} exist depending on the exponential periods at low subcoolings. One is due to the time lag of the hydrodynamic instability which starts at steady-state maximum heat flux on fully developed nucleate boiling (FDNB), and the other is due to the heterogenous spontaneous nucleations (HSN) in flooded cavities which coexist with vapor bubbles growing up from active cavities. The shortest period corresponding to the maximum q{sub max} for long period range belonging to the former mechanism becomes longer and the q{sub max}mechanism for long period range shifts to that due the HSN on FDNB with the increase of subcooling and pressure. The longest period corresponding to the minimum q{sub max} for the short period range belonging to the latter mechanism becomes shorter with the increase in saturated pressure. On the contrary, the longest period becomes longer with the increase in subcooling at high pressures. Correlations for steady-state and transient maximum heat fluxes were presented for a wide range of pressure and subcooling.

  7. Transient hyperoxic reoxygenation reduces cytochrome C oxidase activity by increasing superoxide dismutase and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Arab, Amina; Wang, Jin; Bausch, Kathrin; von Schmädel, Katharina; Bode, Christoph; Hehrlein, Christoph

    2010-04-09

    Oxygen therapies have been shown to be cytoprotective in a dose-dependent fashion. Previously, we have characterized the protective effects of moderate hyperoxia on cell viability of ischemic human cardiomyocytes and their mitochondrial membrane potential by transient addition of oxygenated perfluorocarbons to the cell medium. Now, we report that the activity and expression of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) after prolonged ischemia depend on the amount of oxygen delivered during reoxygenation. Transient hyperoxia during reoxygenation results in a decrease of COX activity by 62 +/- 15% and COX expression by 67 +/- 5%, when hyperoxic tensions of approximately = 300 mm Hg are reached in the cell medium. This decrease in COX expression is prevented by the inhibition of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Immunoblot analysis of ischemic human cardiomyocytes revealed that hyperoxic reoxygenation causes a 2-fold increase of iNOS, leading to a rise in nitric oxide production by 140 +/- 45%. Hyperoxic reoxygenation is further responsible for a 2-fold activation of hydrogen peroxide production and an increase in cytosolic superoxide dismutase expression by 35 +/- 10%. NADPH availability has no effect on the hyperoxia-induced decrease of superoxide. Overall, these results indicate that transient hyperoxic reoxygenation in optimal concentrations increases the level of nitric oxide by activation of iNOS and superoxide dismutase, thereby inducing respiration arrest in mitochondria of ischemic cardiomyocytes.

  8. Transient and steady State Patterns in Gravel Bars Following Sediment Supply Increases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, C.; Wilcock, P.

    2011-12-01

    Bedforms in a gravel-bed river respond to a combination of water discharge, sediment supply, and valley-scale geometry. The bed configuration can also vary between transient and steady-state conditions. Field and flume observations of gravel bedform responses to changes in sediment supply have focused primarily on decreased sediment supply, and those that have dealt with increased sediment supply have found cases of both increasing relief and decreasing relief. We present gravel bedform configurations under conditions of increased sediment supply in both field and laboratory conditions. The field study tracked the response of the Sandy River, Oregon after an increase in sediment flux due to the 2007 Marmot Dam removal in which nearly 750,000 m3 of impounded sediment which was made available for transport and resulted in a several-fold increase in annual sediment flux. The flume experiments introduced perturbation in a planar gravel bed (gravel D50 = 10mm, 15% sand) prompting alternate bar formation. Sediment was then manually added to the recirculating flume (in essence operating it as a feed flume) increasing flux rates by 50%. Upon reaching a steady state, the upstream flux was then augmented again to double the steady state rate. In response to the increased sediment supply the bed topography steepened to transport the imposed sediment flux. In both flume and field, the final bed response to increased sediment supply was deposition of a sediment wedge, steeping the channel slope with little change in bar morphology. Although the location and morphology of the bedforms were similar as the bed configuration stabilized, the transient response showed different patterns of deposition across the stream. A pattern of decreasing relief both from bar tops eroding and pools filling was observed as well as the migration of smaller wavelength high-celerity gravel bars as the bed decreased in relief. To explore the transient response we modeled both cases with a 2-D depth

  9. Oral quercetin supplementation hampers skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise training.

    PubMed

    Casuso, R A; Martínez-López, E J; Nordsborg, N B; Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Romero, R; Cañuelo, A; Martínez-Amat, A

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to test exercise-induced adaptations on skeletal muscle when quercetin is supplemented. Four groups of rats were tested: quercetin sedentary, quercetin exercised, placebo sedentary, and placebo exercised. Treadmill exercise training took place 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Quercetin groups were supplemented with quercetin, via gavage, on alternate days throughout the experimental period. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α mRNA levels, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, and citrate synthase (CS) activity were measured on quadriceps muscle. Redox status was also quantified by measuring muscle antioxidant enzymatic activity and oxidative damage product, such as protein carbonyl content (PCC). Quercetin supplementation increased oxidative damage in both exercised and sedentary rats by inducing higher amounts of PCC (P < 0.001). Quercetin supplementation caused higher catalase (P < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.05) activity in the non-exercised animals, but not when quercetin is supplemented during exercise. Quercetin supplementation increased SIRT1 expression, but when quercetin is supplemented during exercise, this effect is abolished (P < 0.001). The combination of exercise and quercetin supplementation caused lower (P < 0.05) mtDNA content and CS activity when compared with exercise alone. Quercetin supplementation during exercise provides a disadvantage to exercise-induced muscle adaptations.

  10. Quercetin inhibits rhinovirus replication in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Shyamala; Faris, Andrea N.; Comstock, Adam T.; Wang, Qiong; Nanua, Suparna; Hershenson, Marc B.; Sajjan, Uma S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Rhinovirus (RV), which is responsible for the majority of common colds, also causes exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. So far, there are no drugs available for treatment of rhinovirus infection. We examined the effect of quercetin, a plant flavanol on RV infection in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment of airway epithelial cells with quercetin decreased Akt phosphosphorylation, viral endocytosis and IL-8 responses. Addition of quercetin 6 h after RV infection (after viral endocytosis) reduced viral load, IL-8 and IFN responses in airway epithelial cells. This was associated with decreased levels of negative and positive strand viral RNA, and RV capsid protein, abrogation of RV-induced eIF4GI cleavage and increased phosphorylation of eIF2α. In mice infected with RV, quercetin treatment decreased viral replication as well as expression of chemokines and cytokines. Quercetin treatment also attenuated RV-induced airway cholinergic hyperresponsiveness. Together, our results suggest that quercetin inhibits RV endocytosis and replication in airway epithelial cells at multiple stages of the RV life cycle. Quercetin also decreases expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improves lung function in RV-infected mice. Based on these observations, further studies examining the potential benefits of quercetin in the prevention and treatment of RV infection are warranted. PMID:22465313

  11. Modulation of mammalian sperm motility by quercetin.

    PubMed

    Nass-Arden, L; Breitbart, H

    1990-04-01

    The flavonoid quercetin inhibits collective motility of ejaculated ram spermatozoa in the first 2 hr of incubation; during the next 3-4 hr motility is stimulated. To explain this interesting effect, we followed the influence of quercetin on sperm glycolysis, extracellular pH, ATP content, mitochondrial respiration, and lipid peroxidation. The collective motility of untreated cells is decreased to about 40% of the original motility during two hours of incubation. During this time, the rate of glycolysis is constant, respiration rate is increasing, there is no change in ATP content, the rate of lipid peroxidation is very slow, and the extracellular pH became very acidic (pH 5.5). It is concluded that motility is decreased due to this acidification. This acidification is prevented to some extent by quercetin, which indirectly inhibits glycolysis. Quercetin inhibits motility due to the inhibition of the plasma membrane calcium pump, as we showed previously (Breitbart et al., J Biol Chem 260:11548-11553, 1985). The motility of untreated cells is arrested after 3.5 hr of incubation, whereas quercetin-treated cells show high motility, which continues for additional 2-3 hr. After 3.5 hr, the control cells show no glycolytic activity, ATP content and respiration rates are decreased, and rate of lipid peroxidation is highly increased. At this time, quercetin-treated cells show no glycolytic activity, only a small decrease in ATP content and respiratory rate, and a very low rate of lipid peroxidation. Based on these data it is concluded that sperm motility after 3.5 hr of incubation is dependent mainly on mitochondrial respiration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. A transient increase in diacylglycerols is associated with the action of vasopressin on hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, B P; Rye, K A; Pickford, L B; Barritt, G J; Chalmers, A H

    1984-01-01

    Vasopressin induced a transient increase of 50% in the total concentration of diacylglycerols (determined by g.l.c.) in isolated hepatocytes. The increase was maximal at 0.25 min, and the concentration of diacylglycerols in cells treated with vasopressin had returned to the basal value by 4 min. No change in the concentration of diacylglycerols was observed after the treatment of cells with glucagon. The dependency of this effect on the concentration of vasopressin was similar to that of the effect of the hormone on 45Ca2+ efflux measured at 0.1 mM extracellular Ca2+. Vasopressin increased the proportion of arachidonic acid and stearic acid and decreased the proportion of oleic acid present in the diacylglycerols. In hepatocytes prelabelled with [14C]arachidonic acid, vasopressin increased the amount of [14C]diacylglycerol. The effects of vasopressin on the total concentration of diacylglycerols and [14C]diacylglycerol were mimicked by an exogenous phospholipid phosphodiesterase (phospholipase C) from Clostridium perfringens. The results are consistent with the conclusion that the transient increase in diacylglycerols induced by vasopressin is caused by the rapid hydrolysis of both the phosphoinositides and one or more other phospholipids. PMID:6477530

  13. Increased Migration of Monocytes in Essential Hypertension Is Associated with Increased Transient Receptor Potential Channel Canonical Type 3 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Zhong, Jian; Yu, Hao; Xu, Xingsen; He, Hongbo; Yan, Zhencheng; Scholze, Alexandra; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming; Tepel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Increased transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels have been observed in patients with essential hypertension. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that increased monocyte migration is associated with increased TRPC3 expression. Monocyte migration assay was performed in a microchemotaxis chamber using chemoattractants formylated peptide Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Proteins were identified by immunoblotting and quantitative in-cell Western assay. The effects of TRP channel-inhibitor 2–aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2-APB) and small interfering RNA knockdown of TRPC3 were investigated. We observed an increased fMLP-induced migration of monocytes from hypertensive patients compared with normotensive control subjects (246±14% vs 151±10%). The TNF-α-induced migration of monocytes in patients with essential hypertension was also significantly increased compared to normotensive control subjects (221±20% vs 138±18%). In the presence of 2-APB or after siRNA knockdown of TRPC3 the fMLP-induced monocyte migration was significantly blocked. The fMLP-induced changes of cytosolic calcium were significantly increased in monocytes from hypertensive patients compared to normotensive control subjects. The fMLP-induced monocyte migration was significantly reduced in the presence of inhibitors of tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. We conclude that increased monocyte migration in patients with essential hypertension is associated with increased TRPC3 channels. PMID:22438881

  14. Quercetin stimulates mitochondrial apoptosis dependent on activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    He, Liwei; Hou, Xianbang; Fan, Fangtian; Wu, Hongyan

    2016-12-01

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a hallmark of liver fibrosis. Quercetin has benefits for liver fibrosis, but the mechanisms are unknown. We investigated the quercetin effect on HSC survival and the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Rat HSCs and LO2 hepatocytes were treated with quercetin (0.5-120 μM) for 24 h. Quercetin (10-40 μM) effects on apoptosis for 24 h were analyzed by flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Quercetin (10-40 μM) effects on the expression of Bcl-2, caspase-9, caspase-3, PARP-1, PERK, IRE1, ATF6, calnexin and CHOP for 24 h were analyzed by Western blot. Quercetin (10-40 μM) effects on mRNA expression of calnexin and CHOP for 24 h were analyzed by Real-time PCR. Quercetin at concentrations greater than 20 μM significantly inhibited HSC proliferation (IC50 27.2 μM), but did not affect hepatocyte growth until 80 μM (IC50 68.5 μM). Quercetin stimulated HSC apoptosis and the apoptotic rate reached 40% at a concentration of 40 μM (EC50 51.6 μM). Quercetin induced downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, and increased cytochrome C in the cytoplasm in HSCs. The cleaved forms of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP-1 were also increased by quercetin. Furthermore, quercetin elevated mRNA and protein expression of calnexin and CHOP in HSCs but not in hepatocytes. Quercetin also increased phosphorylation of PERK and IRE1 and ATF6 cleavage. However, ERS inhibitor salubrinal significantly abrogated quercetin induction of HSC apoptosis. Quercetin activated ERS pathway in HSCs leading to apoptosis. We characterized an ERS-mediated mechanism for quercetin as a promising antifibrotic agent.

  15. Exercise induces a transient increase in transcription of the GLUT-4 gene in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Neufer, P D; Dohm, G L

    1993-12-01

    Endurance exercise training elicits an increase in mitochondrial density as well as GLUT-4 glucose transporter protein content in skeletal muscle. Corresponding increases in mRNA for respiratory enzymes and GLUT-4 indicate that pretranslational control mechanisms are involved in this adaptive process. To directly test whether transcription of the GLUT-4 gene is activated in response to exercise training, nuclei were isolated from red hindlimb skeletal muscle of rats after 1 wk of exercise training (8% grade, 32 m/min, 40 min, twice/day). Rats were killed either 30 min, 3 h, or 24 h after the last training session. GLUT-4 transcription, determined by nuclear run-on analysis, was unaltered after 30 min, increased by 1.8-fold after 3 h, but was no longer different from controls 24 h after exercise. A similar transient increase in GLUT-4 transcription was evident, but less pronounced (1.4-fold), in untrained rats after a single bout of exercise, suggesting that the postexercise induction in GLUT-4 gene transcription is enhanced by exercise training. GLUT-4 protein content was increased 1.7-fold after 1 wk of training in the absence of any corresponding change in GLUT-4 mRNA, providing evidence that the initial increase in GLUT-4 expression involves translational and/or posttranslational control mechanisms. These findings demonstrate that muscle GLUT-4 expression in response to exercise training is subject to both transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. We propose that the increase in GLUT-4 mRNA evident with extended periods of training may result from a shift to pretranslational control and is the cumulative effect of repeated postexercise transient increases in GLUT-4 gene transcription.

  16. Quercetin attenuates doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by modulating Bmi-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qinghua; Chen, Long; Lu, Qunwei; Sharma, Sherven; Li, Lei; Morimoto, Sachio; Wang, Guanyu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy induces cardiotoxicity, which limits its clinical application. We previously reported the protective effects of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we tested the effects of quercetin on the expression of Bmi-1, a protein regulating mitochondrial function and ROS generation, as a mechanism underlying quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Experimental Approach Effects of quercetin on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity was evaluated using H9c2 cardiomyocytes and C57BL/6 mice. Changes in apoptosis, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and related signalling were evaluated in H9c2 cells. Cardiac function, serum enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured in mice after a single injection of doxorubicin with or without quercetin pre-treatment. Key Results In H9c2 cells, quercetin reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS generation and DNA double-strand breaks. The quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin toxicity was characterized by decreased expression of Bid, p53 and oxidase (p47 and Nox1) and by increased expression of Bcl-2 and Bmi-1. Bmi-1 siRNA abolished the protective effect of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, quercetin protected mice from doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction that was accompanied by reduced ROS levels and lipid peroxidation, but enhanced the expression of Bmi-1 and anti-oxidative superoxide dismutase. Conclusions and Implications Our results demonstrate that quercetin decreased doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo by reducing oxidative stress by up-regulation of Bmi-1 expression. The findings presented in this study have potential applications in preventing doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:24902966

  17. Quercetin attenuates doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by modulating Bmi-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qinghua; Chen, Long; Lu, Qunwei; Sharma, Sherven; Li, Lei; Morimoto, Sachio; Wang, Guanyu

    2014-10-01

    Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy induces cardiotoxicity, which limits its clinical application. We previously reported the protective effects of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we tested the effects of quercetin on the expression of Bmi-1, a protein regulating mitochondrial function and ROS generation, as a mechanism underlying quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Effects of quercetin on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity was evaluated using H9c2 cardiomyocytes and C57BL/6 mice. Changes in apoptosis, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and related signalling were evaluated in H9c2 cells. Cardiac function, serum enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured in mice after a single injection of doxorubicin with or without quercetin pre-treatment. In H9c2 cells, quercetin reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS generation and DNA double-strand breaks. The quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin toxicity was characterized by decreased expression of Bid, p53 and oxidase (p47 and Nox1) and by increased expression of Bcl-2 and Bmi-1. Bmi-1 siRNA abolished the protective effect of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, quercetin protected mice from doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction that was accompanied by reduced ROS levels and lipid peroxidation, but enhanced the expression of Bmi-1 and anti-oxidative superoxide dismutase. Our results demonstrate that quercetin decreased doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo by reducing oxidative stress by up-regulation of Bmi-1 expression. The findings presented in this study have potential applications in preventing doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Factors Affecting Canagliflozin-Induced Transient Urine Volume Increase in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Takano, Kazuhiko; Iijima, Hiroaki; Kubo, Hajime; Maruyama, Nobuko; Hashimoto, Toshio; Arakawa, Kenji; Togo, Masanori; Inagaki, Nobuya; Kaku, Kohei

    2017-02-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors exhibit diuretic activity, which is a possible mechanism underlying the cardiovascular benefit of these inhibitors. However, the osmotic diuresis-induced increase in urine volume, and the risk of dehydration have been of concern with SGLT2 inhibitor treatment. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying SGLT2 inhibitor canagliflozin-induced diuresis in Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Thirteen T2DM patients received a daily oral dose of 100 mg canagliflozin before breakfast for 6 days. Blood and urine samples were collected at predetermined time points. The primary endpoint was evaluation of correlations between changes from baseline in urine volume and factors that are known to affect urine volume and between actual urine volume and these factors. Canagliflozin transiently increased urine volume and urinary sodium excretion on Day 1 with a return to baseline levels thereafter. Canagliflozin administration increased urinary glucose excretion, which was sustained during repeated-dose administration. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels decreased, while plasma renin activity increased. On Day 1 of treatment, changes in sodium and potassium excretion were closely correlated with changes in urine output. A post hoc multiple regression analysis showed changes in sodium excretion and water intake as factors that affected urine volume change at Day 1. Furthermore, relative to that at baseline, canagliflozin decreased blood glucose throughout the day and increased plasma total GLP-1 after breakfast. Canagliflozin induced transient sodium excretion and did not induce water intake at Day 1; hence, natriuresis rather than glucose-induced osmotic diuresis may be a major factor involved in the canagliflozin-induced transient increase in urine output. In addition, canagliflozin decreased plasma ANP and NT-proBNP levels and

  19. Increased gene targeting in Ku70 and Xrcc4 transiently deficient human somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Luciana R; Bertolini, Marcelo; Maga, Elizabeth A; Madden, Knut R; Murray, James D

    2009-02-01

    The insertion of foreign DNA at a specific genomic locus directed by homologous DNA sequences, or gene targeting, is an inefficient process in mammalian somatic cells. Given the key role of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in mammalian cells, we investigated the effects of decreasing NHEJ protein levels on gene targeting. Here we demonstrate that the transient knockdown of integral NHEJ proteins, Ku70 and Xrcc4, by RNAi in human HCT116 cells has a remarkable effect on gene targeting/random insertions ratios. A timely transfection of an HPRT-based targeting vector after RNAi treatment led to a 70% reduction in random integration events and a 33-fold increase in gene targeting at the HPRT locus. These findings bolster the role of NHEJ proteins in foreign DNA integration in vivo, and demonstrate that their transient depletion by RNAi is a viable approach to increase the frequency of gene targeting events. Understanding how foreign DNA integrates into a cell's genome is important to advance strategies for biotechnology and genetic medicine.

  20. Rapid dimerization of quercetin through an oxidative mechanism in the presence of serum albumin decreases its ability to induce cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Anh; Bortolazzo, Anthony; White, J. Brandon

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin cannot be detected intracellularly despite killing MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin forms a heterodimer through oxidation in media with serum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quercetin heterodimer does not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascorbic acid stabilizes quercetin increasing cell death in quercetin treated cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin, and not a modified form, is responsible for apoptosis and cell death. -- Abstract: Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid family and has been previously shown to have a variety of anti-cancer activities. We and others have reported anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis of cancer cells after treatment with quercetin. Quercetin has also been shown to undergo oxidation. However, it is unclear if quercetin or one of its oxidized forms is responsible for cell death. Here we report that quercetin rapidly oxidized in cell culture media to form a dimer. The quercetin dimer is identical to a dimer that is naturally produced by onions. The quercetin dimer and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside are unable to cross the cell membrane and do not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, supplementing the media with ascorbic acid increases quercetin's ability to induce cell death probably by reduction oxidative dimerization. Our results suggest that an unmodified quercetin is the compound that elicits cell death.

  1. Microbial Transformation of Quercetin by Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Koppaka V.; Weisner, Nghe T.

    1981-01-01

    Biotransformation of quercetin was examined with a number of bacterial cultures. In the presence of a bacterial culture (Bacillus cereus), quercetin was transformed into two crystalline products, identified as protocatechuic acid and quercetin-3-glucoside (isoquercitrin). PMID:16345844

  2. The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits migration through a MAPK-dependent mechanism in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Nam, Tae Wook; Yoo, Chong Il; Kim, Hui Taek; Kwon, Chae Hwa; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Yong Keun

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate effects of quercetin, a major dietary flavonoid occurring in foods of plant origin, on cell viability and migration of osteoblastic cells. Quercetin inhibited cell viability, which was largely attributed to apoptosis, in a dose-and time-dependent manner in osteoblastic cells. Similar cytotoxicity of quercetin was observed in adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. Quercetin exerted a protective effect against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death, whereas it increased TNF-alpha-induced cell death. Western blot analysis showed that quercetin induced activation of ERK and p38, but not JNK. Quercetin-induced cell death was prevented by the ERK inhibitor PD98059, but not by inhibitors of p38 and JNK. Quercetin increased Bax expression and caused depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, which were inhibited by PD98059. Quercetin induced caspase-3 activation, and the quercetininduced cell death was prevented by caspase inhibitors. Quercetin inhibited cell migration, and its effect was prevented by inhibitors of ERK and p38. Taken together, these findings suggest that quercetin induces apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent mechanism involving ERK activation and inhibits migration through activation of ERK and p38 pathways. Quercetin may exert both protective and deleterious effects in bone repair.

  3. Characterization of adsorption and electronic excited states of quercetin on titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdyb, Agata; Krawczyk, Stanisław

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption of quercetin on colloidal titanium dioxide nanoparticles in ethanol and its excited-state electronic structure were investigated by means of electronic and vibrational spectroscopies. The changes in electronic charge redistribution as reflected by the dipole moment difference, ∆μ, between the ground and excited electronic states were measured with electroabsorption spectroscopy and analyzed using results of TD DFT computations. Adsorption of quercetin causes a red shift of its absorption spectrum. Raman spectra of quercetin analyzed with reference to analogous data for morin indicate binding of quercetin through the hydroxy groups of the catechol moiety. The difference dipole moment, which is 5.5 D in free quercetin, increases to 11.8 D in opposite direction in adsorbed quercetin, and is associated with charge-transfer to the Ti atom. The computed transition energy, intensity, vector Δμ and molecular orbitals involved in the electronic transition at different molecular configurations indicate a bidentate chelating mode of binding of quercetin.

  4. Maltodextrin fast dissolving films for quercetin nanocrystal delivery. A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Francesco; Franceschini, Ilaria; Corrias, Francesco; Sala, Maria Chiara; Cilurzo, Francesco; Sinico, Chiara; Pini, Elena

    2015-05-05

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility to prepare fast dissolving films as quercetin nanocrystal delivery systems, using maltodextrins as film forming material and glycerin as plasticizer, with the goal of enhancing quercetin oral bioavailability. Quercetin nanosuspensions were prepared using a high-pressure homogenizer, and then directly used to prepare the films by a casting method. Spectroscopic and calorimetric analysis evidenced that reduction of quercetin size at nanoscale and incorporation in maltodextrin films do not affect the solid state of the active ingredient. The loading of quercetin nanocrystals into the film determined a slight variation of film elasticity and ductility. Indeed, the elastic modulus of the loaded films resulted about a half of the placebo ones, while the elongation at break increased four folds. Free and film loaded quercetin nanocrystals showed a comparable dissolution rate, much higher than that of bulk quercetin.

  5. Delayed and transient increase of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by physical exercise in DBA/2 mice.

    PubMed

    Overall, Rupert W; Walker, Tara L; Leiter, Odette; Lenke, Sina; Ruhwald, Susann; Kempermann, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    This study builds on the findings that physical activity, such as wheel running in mice, enhances cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus of the common mouse strain C57BL/6, and that the baseline level of neurogenesis varies by strain, being considerably lower in DBA/2. Because C57BL/6 and DBA/2 are important as the parental strains of the BXD recombinant inbred cross which allows the detection of genetic loci regulating phenotypes such as adult neurogenesis, we performed the current study to investigate the gene x environment interactions regulating neurogenesis. At equal distances and times run DBA/2J mice lacked the acute increase in precursor cell proliferation known from C57BL/6. In DBA/2J proliferation even negatively correlated with the distance run. This was neither due to a stress response (to running itself or single housing) nor differences in estrous cycle. DBA/2 animals exhibited a delayed and weaker pro-neurogenic response with a significant increase in numbers of proliferating cells first detectable after more than a week of wheel running. The proliferative response to running was transient in both strains, the effect being undetectable by 6 weeks. There was also a small transient increase in the production of new neurons in DBA/2J, although these extra cells did not survive. These findings indicate that the comparison between C57BL/6 and DBA/2, and by extension the BXD genetic reference population derived from these strains, should provide a powerful tool for uncovering the complex network of modifier genes affecting the activity-dependent regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. More generally, our findings also describe how the external physical environment interacts with the internal genetic environment to produce different responses to the same behavioral stimuli.

  6. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Paula A.; Barreto, Marlen; Elorza, Alvaro A.

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2 ∙− production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined. PMID:26106459

  7. Quercetin Attenuates Lactate Production and Extracellular Matrix Secretion in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    McKay, T. B.; Lyon, D.; Sarker-Nag, A.; Priyadarsini, S.; Asara, J. M.; Karamichos, D.

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus(KC) is an ecstatic corneal disease leading to corneal-thinning and the formation of a cone-like cornea. Elevated lactate levels, increased oxidative stress, and myofibroblast formation have all been previously reported. In the current study, we assess the role of Quercetin on collagen secretion and myofibroblast formation in KC in vitro. Human corneal fibroblasts(HCFs) and human keratoconus cells(HKCs) were treated with a stable Vitamin C derivative and cultured for 4 weeks, stimulating formation of a self-assembled extracellular matrix. All samples were analyzed using Western blots and targeted tandem mass spectrometry. Our data showed that Quercetin significantly down regulates myofibroblast differentiation and fibrotic markers, such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Collagen III (Col III), in both HCFs and HKCs. Collagen III secretion was reduced 80% in both HCFs and HKCs following Quercetin treatment. Furthermore, Quercetin reduced lactate production by HKCs to normal HCF levels. Quercetin down regulated TGF-βR2 and TGF-β2 expression in HKCs suggesting a significant link to the TGF-β pathway. These results assert that Quercetin is a key regulator of fibrotic markers and ECM assembly by modulating cellular metabolism and TGF-β signaling. Our study suggests that Quercetin is a potential therapeutic for treatment of corneal dystrophies, such as KC. PMID:25758533

  8. Chemotherapeutic potential of quercetin on human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Oršolić, Nada; Karač, Ivo; Sirovina, Damir; Kukolj, Marina; Kunštić, Martina; Gajski, Goran; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Štajcar, Damir

    2016-07-28

    In an effort to improve local bladder cancer control, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of quercetin on human bladder cancer T24 cells. The cytotoxic effect of quercetin against T24 cells was examined by MTT test, clonogenic assay as well as DNA damaging effect by comet assay. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of quercetin on the primary culture of papillary urothelial carcinoma (PUC), histopathological stage T1 of low- or high-grade tumours, was investigated. Our analysis demonstrated a high correlation between reduced number of colony and cell viability and an increase in DNA damage of T24 cells incubated with quercetin at doses of 1 and 50 µM during short term incubation (2 h). At all exposure times (24, 48 and 72 h), the efficacy of quercetin, administered at a 10× higher dose compared to T24 cells, was statistically significant (P < 0.05) for the primary culture of PUC. In conclusion, our study suggests that quercetin could inhibit cell proliferation and colony formation of human bladder cancer cells by inducing DNA damage and that quercetin may be an effective chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for papillary urothelial bladder cancer after transurethral resection.

  9. Transient rapamycin treatment can increase lifespan and healthspan in middle-aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Bitto, Alessandro; Ito, Takashi K; Pineda, Victor V; LeTexier, Nicolas J; Huang, Heather Z; Sutlief, Elissa; Tung, Herman; Vizzini, Nicholas; Chen, Belle; Smith, Kaleb; Meza, Daniel; Yajima, Masanao; Beyer, Richard P; Kerr, Kathleen F; Davis, Daniel J; Gillespie, Catherine H; Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The FDA approved drug rapamycin increases lifespan in rodents and delays age-related dysfunction in rodents and humans. Nevertheless, important questions remain regarding the optimal dose, duration, and mechanisms of action in the context of healthy aging. Here we show that 3 months of rapamycin treatment is sufficient to increase life expectancy by up to 60% and improve measures of healthspan in middle-aged mice. This transient treatment is also associated with a remodeling of the microbiome, including dramatically increased prevalence of segmented filamentous bacteria in the small intestine. We also define a dose in female mice that does not extend lifespan, but is associated with a striking shift in cancer prevalence toward aggressive hematopoietic cancers and away from non-hematopoietic malignancies. These data suggest that a short-term rapamycin treatment late in life has persistent effects that can robustly delay aging, influence cancer prevalence, and modulate the microbiome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16351.001 PMID:27549339

  10. Quercetin Prevents Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Clivorine-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Elevating Body Defense Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Lili; Ma, Yibo; Wang, Zaiyong; Cai, Zhunxiu; Pang, Chun; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid that is widely distributed in nature. The present study is designed to analyze the underlying mechanism in the protection of quercetin against pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine-induced acute liver injury in vivo. Serum transaminases, total bilirubin analysis, and liver histological evaluation demonstrated the protection of quercetin against clivorine-induced liver injury. Terminal dUTP nick end-labeling assay demonstrated that quercetin reduced the increased amount of liver apoptotic cells induced by clivorine. Western-blot analysis of caspase-3 showed that quercetin inhibited the cleaved activation of caspase-3 induced by clivorine. Results also showed that quercetin reduced the increase in liver glutathione and lipid peroxidative product malondialdehyde induced by clivorine. Quercetin reduced the enhanced liver immunohistochemical staining for 4-hydroxynonenal induced by clivorine. Results of the Mouse Stress and Toxicity PathwayFinder RT2 Profiler PCR Array demonstrated that the expression of genes related with oxidative or metabolic stress and heat shock was obviously altered after quercetin treatment. Some of the alterations were confirmed by real-time PCR. Our results demonstrated that quercetin prevents clivorine-induced acute liver injury in vivo by inhibiting apoptotic cell death and ameliorating oxidative stress injury. This protection may be caused by the elevation of the body defense capacity induced by quercetin. PMID:24905073

  11. Quercetin-containing self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system for improving oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thanh Huyen; Guo, Yi; Song, Donghui; Bruno, Richard S; Lu, Xiuling

    2014-03-01

    Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid with potential chemoprotective effects, but has low bioavailability because of poor aqueous solubility and low intestinal absorption. A quercetin-containing self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (Q-SNEDDS) was developed to form oil-in-water nanoemulsions in situ for improving quercetin oral bioavailability. On the basis of the quercetin solubility, emulsifying ability, and stability after dispersion in an aqueous phase, an optimal SNEDDS consisting of castor oil, Tween® 80, Cremophor® RH 40, and PEG 400 (20:16:34:30, w/w) was identified. Upon mixing with water, Q-SNEDDS formed a nanoemulsion having a droplet size of 208.8 ± 4.5 nm and zeta potential of -26.3 ± 1.2 mV. The presence of Tween® 80 and PEG 400 increased quercetin solubility and maintained supersaturated quercetin concentrations (5 mg/mL) for >1 month. The optimized Q-SNEDDS significantly improved quercetin transport across a human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) cell monolayer. Fluorescence imaging demonstrated rapid absorption of the Q-SNEDDS within 40 min of oral ingestion. Following oral administration of Q-SNEDDS in rats (15 mg/kg), the area under the concentration curve and maximum concentration of plasma quercetin after 24 h increased by approximately twofold and threefold compared with the quercetin control suspension. These data suggest that this Q-SNEDDS formulation can enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of quercetin for appropriate clinical application.

  12. Increases of Catalase and Glutathione Peroxidase Expressions by Lacosamide Pretreatment Contributes to Neuroprotection Against Experimentally Induced Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Young; Park, Joon Ha; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich Na; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Lee, Jae-Chul; Won, Moo-Ho; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Yan, Bing Chun; Hwang, In Koo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kim, Sung Koo

    2016-09-01

    Lacosamide is a new antiepileptic drug which is widely used to treat partial-onset seizures. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of lacosamide against transient ischemic damage and expressions of antioxidant enzymes such as Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region following 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils. We found that pre-treatment with 25 mg/kg lacosamide protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from transient global cerebral ischemic insult using hematoxylin-eosin staining and neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Transient ischemia dramatically changed expressions of SOD1, SOD2 and GPX, not CAT, in the CA1 pyramidal neurons. Lacosamide pre-treatment increased expressions of CAT and GPX, not SOD1 and 2, in the CA1 pyramidal neurons compared with controls, and their expressions induced by lacosamide pre-treatment were maintained after transient cerebral ischemia. In brief, pre-treatment with lacosamide protected hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage induced by transient global cerebral ischemia, and the lacosamide-mediated neuroprotection may be closely related to increases of CAT and GPX expressions by lacosamide pre-treatment.

  13. The differentiation inducer, dimethyl sulfoxide, transiently increases the intracellular calcium ion concentration in various cell types.

    PubMed

    Morley, P; Whitfield, J F

    1993-08-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) initiates a coordinated differentiation program in various cell types but the mechanism(s) by which DMSO does this is not understood. In this study, the effect of DMSO on intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) was determined in primary cultures of chicken ovarian granulosa cells from the two largest preovulatory follicles of laying hens, and in three cell lines: undifferentiated P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, and Friend murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells. [Ca2+]i was measured in cells loaded with the Ca(2+)-specific fluoroprobe Fura-2. There was an immediate (i.e., within 5 sec), transient, two to sixfold increase in [Ca2+]i after exposing all cell types to 1% DMSO. DMSO was effective between 0.2 and 1%. The prompt DMSO-induced [Ca2+]i spike in all of the cell types was not prevented by incubating the cells in Ca(2+)-free medium containing 2 mM EGTA or by pretreating them with the Ca(2+)-channel blockers methoxyverapamil (D600; 100 microM), nifedipine (20 microM), or cobalt (5 mM). However, when granulosa cells, 3T3-L1 cells, or MEL cells were pretreated with lanthanum (La3+; 1 mM), which blocks both Ca2+ channels and membrane Ca2+ pumps, there was a sustained increase in [Ca2+]i in response to 1% DMSO. By contrast, pretreating P19 cells with La3+ (1 mM) did not prolong the DMSO-triggered [Ca2+]i transient. In all cases, the DMSO-induced [Ca2+]i surge was unaffected by pretreating the cells with the inhibitors of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis, neomycin (1.5 mM) or U-73, 122 (2.5 microM). These results suggest that DMSO almost instantaneously triggers the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores through a common mechanism in cells in primary cultures and in cells of a variety of established lines, but this release is not mediated through phosphoinositide breakdown. This large, DMSO-induced Ca2+ spike may play a role in the induction of cell differentiation by DMSO.

  14. Transient Responses of Gravel Bars to Increases in Sediment Supply - Field & Flume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, C.

    2010-12-01

    increases in sediment supply (from the results of landslides, dam removals, or hydraulic mining) have documented both increases and decreases in topographic relief. Both field and laboratory observations suggest that the variation in relief may be a transient phase as the bed adjusts to a new equilibrium configuration.

  15. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Increases NMDA-Activated Current in Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Qu, Weijun; Zhou, Libin; Lu, Zihong; Jie, Pinghui; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ling

    2013-01-01

    The glutamate excitotoxicity, mediated through N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), plays an important role in cerebral ischemia injury. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) can be activated by multiple stimuli that may happen during stroke. The present study evaluated the effect of TRPV4 activation on NMDA-activated current (INMDA) and that of blocking TRPV4 on brain injury after focal cerebral ischemia in mice. We herein report that activation of TRPV4 by 4α-PDD and hypotonic stimulation increased INMDA in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which was sensitive to TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047 and NMDAR antagonist AP-5, indicating that TRPV4 activation potentiates NMDAR response. In addition, the increase in INMDA by hypotonicity was sensitive to the antagonist of NMDAR NR2B subunit, but not of NR2A subunit. Furthermore, antagonists of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) significantly attenuated hypotonicity-induced increase in INMDA, while antagonists of protein kinase C or casein kinase II had no such effect, indicating that phosphorylation of NR2B subunit by CaMKII is responsible for TRPV4-potentiated NMDAR response. Finally, we found that intracerebroventricular injection of HC-067047 after 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion reduced the cerebral infarction with at least a 12 h efficacious time-window. These findings indicate that activation of TRPV4 increases NMDAR function, which may facilitate glutamate excitotoxicity. Closing TRPV4 may exert potent neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia injury through many mechanisms at least including the prevention of NMDAR-mediated glutamate excitotoxicity. PMID:23459987

  16. Erythropoietin increases expression and function of transient receptor potential canonical 5 channels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Yunfei; Thilo, Florian; Friis, Ulla G; Jensen, Boye L; Scholze, Alexandra; Zheng, Junhua; Tepel, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Hypertension is a common complication in hemodialysis patients during erythropoietin (EPO) treatment. The underlying mechanisms of EPO-induced hypertension still remain to be determined. Increased transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels have been associated with hypertension. Now, TRPC gene expression was investigated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting in cultured human endothelial cells and in monocytes from hemodialysis patients. EPO dose-dependently increased TRPC5 mRNA in endothelial cells. EPO increased TRPC5 mRNA stability, that is, EPO prolonged the half-life period for TRPC5 mRNA from 16 hours (control) to 24 hours (P<0.05). The poly(A) tail length was measured by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-poly(A) test. Increased TRPC5 mRNA stability was attributed to longer 3' poly(A) tail lengths after EPO administration. EPO also significantly increased TRPC5 channel protein abundance by 70% (P<0.05). Whole-cell patch clamp showed that angiotensin II-induced, TRPC5-mediated currents were dramatically increased in endothelial cells treated with EPO. Fluorescent dye techniques confirmed that increased calcium influx after EPO treatment was abolished after TRPC5 knockdown (P<0.05). EPO also significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species production. Knockdown of TRPC5 alleviated EPO-induced reactive oxygen species generation in endothelial cells (P<0.05). In vivo, EPO-treated hemodialysis patients showed significantly increased amounts of TRPC5 mRNA in monocytes compared with EPO-free hemodialysis patients (6.0±2.4 [n=12] versus 1.0±0.5 [n=9]; P<0.01). Patients undergoing EPO treatment also showed significantly elevated systolic blood pressure (160±7 versus 139±6 mm Hg; P<0.05). Our findings suggest that upregulated functional TRPC5 gene may be one cause of EPO-induced hypertension in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  17. Enzymatic synthesis of quercetin oleate esters using Candida antarctica lipase B.

    PubMed

    Saik, Amy Yi Hsan; Lim, Yau Yan; Stanslas, Johnson; Choo, Wee Sim

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the lipase-catalyzed acylation of quercetin with oleic acid using Candida antarctica lipase B. Three acylated analogues were produced: quercetin 4'-oleate (C33H42O8), quercetin 3',4'-dioleate (C51H74O9) and quercetin 7,3',4'-trioleate (C69H106O10). Their identities were confirmed with UPLC-ESI-MS and (1)H NMR analyses. The effects of temperature, duration and molar ratio of substrates on the bioconversion yields varied across conditions. The regioselectivity of the acylated quercetin analogues was affected by the molar ratio of substrates. TLC showed the acylated analogues had higher lipophilicity (152% increase) compared to quercetin. Partition coefficient (log P) of quercetin 4'-oleate was higher than those of quercetin and oleic acid. Quercetin 4'-oleate was also stable over 28 days of storage. Quercetin oleate esters with enhanced lipophilicity can be produced via lipase-catalyzed reaction using C. antarctica lipase B to be used in topical applications.

  18. Effect of quercetin on paraoxonase 1 activity--studies in cultured cells, mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Egert, S; Schrader, C; Coumoul, X; Coumol, X; Barouki, R; Muller, M J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2010-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that the HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) may have a protective function in the atherosclerotic process. An enhancement of PON1 activity by dietary factors including flavonoids is therefore of interest. Quercetin, a flavonol frequently present in fruits and vegetables has been shown to induce PON1 in cultured liver cells, but the in vivo efficacy of a dietary quercetin supplementation has yet not been evaluated. To this end, we fed laboratory mice quercetin-enriched diets with quercetin concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2 mg/g diet for 6 weeks and determined the expression of the hepatic PON1 gene and its protein levels. Since we could establish a moderate but significant induction of PON1 mRNA levels by dietary quercetin in mice, we aimed to proof whether healthy human volunteers, given graded supplementary quercetin (50, 100 or 150 mg/day) for two weeks, would respond with likewise enhanced plasma paraoxonase activities. However, PON1 activity towards phenylacetate and paraoxon was not changed following quercetin supplementation in humans. Differences between mice and humans regarding the PON1 inducing activity of quercetin may be related to differences in quercetin metabolism. In mice, unlike in humans, a large proportion of quercetin is methylated to isorhamnetin which exhibits, according to our reporter gene data in cultured liver cells, a potent PON1 inducing activity.

  19. Effect of quercetin and its metabolites isorhamnetin and quercetin-3-glucuronide on inflammatory gene expression: role of miR-155.

    PubMed

    Boesch-Saadatmandi, Christine; Loboda, Agnieszka; Wagner, Anika E; Stachurska, Anna; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef; Döring, Frank; Wolffram, Siegfried; Rimbach, Gerald

    2011-03-01

    In the present study the effect of quercetin and its major metabolites quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) and isorhamnetin on inflammatory gene expression was determined in murine RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Quercetin and isorhamnetin but not Q3G significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Furthermore a significant decrease in mRNA levels of interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α and inducible nitric oxide synthase was evident in response to the quercetin treatment. However Q3G did not affect inflammatory gene expression. Anti-inflammatory properties of quercetin and isorhamnetin were accompanied by an increase in heme oxygenase 1 protein levels, a downstream target of the transcription factor Nrf2, known to antagonize chronic inflammation. Furthermore, proinflammatory microRNA-155 was down-regulated by quercetin and isorhamnetin but not by Q3G. Finally, anti-inflammatory properties of quercetin were confirmed in vivo in mice fed quercetin-enriched diets (0.1 mg quercetin/g diet) over 6 weeks.

  20. Binding, stability, and antioxidant activity of quercetin with soy protein isolate particles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufang; Wang, Xiaoyong

    2015-12-01

    This work is to study the potential of particles fabricated from soy protein isolate (SPI) as a protective carrier for quercetin. When the concentration of SPI particles increases from 0 to 0.35 g/L, quercetin gives a gradually increased fluorescence intensity and fluorescence anisotropy. The addition of quercetin can highly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of SPI particles. These results are explained in terms of the binding of quercetin to the hydrophobic pockets of SPI particles mainly through the hydrophobic force together with the hydrogen bonding. The small difference in the binding constants at 25 and 40 °C suggests the structural stability of SPI particles. The relative changes in values of Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and entropy indicate that the binding of quercetin with SPI particles is spontaneous and hydrophobic interaction is the major force. Furthermore, SPI particles are superior to native SPI for improving the stability and radical scavenging activity of quercetin.

  1. Quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether: a vasorelaxant flavonoid isolated from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M F; Puebla, P; Carrón, R; Martín, M L; San Román, L

    2002-10-01

    The vasorelaxant profile of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether, a flavonoid isolated from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae), was assessed in aortic rings isolated from Wistar rats. To gain insight into its structure-activity relationship, we compared this substance with quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether (ayanin), another flavonoid isolated from this plant, quercetin 3,3',4',7-tetramethyl ether, a flavonoid synthesized by us, and quercetin. In addition we examined the interaction of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether with the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. According to their pEC50 values (concentration producing a 50% inhibition of the maximal contractile response) to phenylephrine-induced precontraction in rat isolated aorta, the potency order was quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether > quercetin > quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether > quercetin 3,3',4',7-tetramethyl ether (4.70+/-0.18; 3.96+/-0.07; 3.64+/-0.02; 3.11+/-0.16). The relaxant effect of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether was significantly decreased by the removal of endothelium as well as by methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, and by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an NO-synthase inhibitor. Therefore, quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether has a NO/cGMP pathway-related profile, with increased vasorelaxant activity due to hydroxylation at positions 3 and 4 of the B ring. In addition, methylation at positions 3 and 7 with respect to quercetin of the C and A rings, respectively, seems to further enhance the vasorelaxant activity of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether.

  2. Quercetin induces tumor-selective apoptosis through downregulation of Mcl-1 and activation of Bax.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Senping; Gao, Ning; Zhang, Zhuo; Chen, Gang; Budhraja, Amit; Ke, Zunji; Son, Young-ok; Wang, Xin; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the in vivo antitumor efficacy of quercetin in U937 xenografts and the functional roles of Mcl-1 and Bax in quercetin-induced apoptosis in human leukemia. Leukemia cells were treated with quercetin, after which apoptosis, Mcl-1 expression, and Bax activation and translocation were evaluated. The efficacy of quercetin as well as Mcl-1 expression and Bax activation were investigated in xenografts of U937 cells. Administration of quercetin caused pronounced apoptosis in both transformed and primary leukemia cells but not in normal blood peripheral mononuclear cells. Quercetin-induced apoptosis was accompanied by Mcl-1 downregulation and Bax conformational change and mitochondrial translocation that triggered cytochrome c release. Knockdown of Bax by siRNA reversed quercetin-induced apoptosis and abrogated the activation of caspase and apoptosis. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 attenuated quercetin-mediated Bax activation, translocation, and cell death. Conversely, interruption of Mcl-1 by siRNA enhanced Bax activation and translocation, as well as lethality induced by quercetin. However, the absence of Bax had no effect on quercetin-mediated Mcl-1 downregulation. Furthermore, in vivo administration of quercetin attenuated tumor growth in U937 xenografts. The TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells in tumor sections increased in quercetin-treated mice as compared with controls. Mcl-1 downregulation and Bax activation were also observed in xenografts. These data suggest that quercetin may be useful for the treatment of leukemia by preferentially inducing apoptosis in leukemia versus normal hematopoietic cells through a process involving Mcl-1 downregulation, which, in turn, potentiates Bax activation and mitochondrial translocation, culminating in apoptosis. ©2010 AACR.

  3. Simultaneous ingestion of high-methoxy pectin from apple can enhance absorption of quercetin in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Tomohiko; Takida, Yoshiki; Saito, Yasuo; Ikeda, Takayuki; Iwai, Kunihisa

    2015-05-28

    Chronic ingestion of apple pectin has been shown to increase the absorption of quercetin in rats. The present study was designed to elucidate whether the simultaneous ingestion of quercetin with apple pectin could enhance the absorption of quercetin in humans, and the effects of dose dependency and degree of pectin methylation on quercetin absorption were also investigated. Healthy volunteers (n 19) received 200 ml of 0.5 mg/ml of quercetin drinks with or without 10 mg/ml of pectin each in a randomised cross-over design study with over 1-week intervals; urine samples from all the subjects were collected within 24 h after ingestion of the test drinks, and urinary deconjugated quercetin and its metabolites were determined using HPLC. The sum of urinary quercetin and its metabolites excreted was increased by 2.5-fold by the simultaneous ingestion of pectin. The metabolism of methylated quercetin (isorhamnetin and tamarixetin) was not affected by pectin ingestion. In six volunteers, who received quercetin drinks containing 0, 3 and 10 mg/ml of pectin, the sum of urinary quercetin and its metabolites excreted also increased in a pectin dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the simultaneous ingestion of quercetin with low-methoxy and high-methoxy pectin, respectively, increased the sum of urinary excretion of quercetin and its metabolites by 1.69-fold and significantly by 2.13-fold compared with the ingestion of quercetin without pectin. These results elucidated that apple pectin immediately enhanced quercetin absorption in human subjects, and that its enhancing effect was dependent on the dose and degree of pectin methylation. The results also suggested that the viscosity of pectin may play a role in the enhancement of quercetin absorption.

  4. Sensing of blood pressure increase by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors on baroreceptors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Li, De-Pei; Chen, Shao-Rui; Hittelman, Walter N; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2009-12-01

    The arterial baroreceptor is critically involved in the autonomic regulation of homoeostasis. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor is expressed on both somatic and visceral sensory neurons. Here, we examined the TRPV1 innervation of baroreceptive pathways and its functional significance in the baroreflex. Resiniferatoxin (RTX), an ultrapotent analog of capsaicin, was used to ablate TRPV1-expressing afferent neurons and fibers in adult rats. Immunofluorescence labeling revealed that TRPV1 immunoreactivity was present on nerve fibers and terminals in the adventitia of the ascending aorta and aortic arch, the nodose ganglion neurons, and afferent fibers in the solitary tract of the brainstem. RTX treatment eliminated TRPV1 immunoreactivities in the aorta, nodose ganglion, and solitary tract. Renal sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, and heart rate were recorded in anesthetized rats. The baroreflex was triggered by lowering and raising blood pressure through intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, respectively. Inhibition of sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate by the phenylephrine-induced increase in blood pressure was largely impaired in RTX-treated rats. The maximum gain of the baroreflex function was significantly lower in RTX-treated than vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, blocking of TRPV1 receptors significantly blunted the baroreflex and decreased the maximum gain of baroreflex function in the high blood pressure range. Our findings provide important new information that TRPV1 is expressed along the entire baroreceptive afferent pathway. TRPV1 receptors expressed on baroreceptive nerve endings can function as mechanoreceptors to detect the increase in blood pressure and maintain the homoeostasis.

  5. Transcranial direct current stimulation transiently increases the blood-brain barrier solute permeability in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Da Wi; Khadka, Niranjan; Fan, Jie; Bikson, Marom; Fu, Bingmei M.

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive electrical stimulation technique investigated for a broad range of medical and performance indications. Whereas prior studies have focused exclusively on direct neuron polarization, our hypothesis is that tDCS directly modulates endothelial cells leading to transient changes in blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability (P) that are highly meaningful for neuronal activity. For this, we developed state-of-the-art imaging and animal models to quantify P to various sized solutes after tDCS treatment. tDCS was administered using a constant current stimulator to deliver a 1mA current to the right frontal cortex of rat (approximately 2 mm posterior to bregma and 2 mm right to sagittal suture) to obtain similar physiological outcome as that in the human tDCS application studies. Sodium fluorescein (MW=376), or FITC-dextrans (20K and 70K), in 1% BSA mammalian Ringer was injected into the rat (SD, 250-300g) cerebral circulation via the ipsilateral carotid artery by a syringe pump at a constant rate of ~3 ml/min. To determine P, multiphoton microscopy with 800-850 nm wavelength laser was applied to take the images from the region of interest (ROI) with proper microvessels, which are 100-200 micron below the pia mater. It shows that the relative increase in P is about 8-fold for small solute, sodium fluorescein, ~35-fold for both intermediate sized (Dex-20k) and large (Dex-70k) solutes, 10 min after 20 min tDCS pretreatment. All of the increased permeability returns to the control after 20 min post treatment. The results confirmed our hypothesis.

  6. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1-Immunoreactive Innervation Increases in Fractured Rat Femur

    PubMed Central

    Kawarai, Yuya; Suzuki, Miyako; Yoshino, Kensuke; Inoue, Gen; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Kubota, Go; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Nakamura, Junichi; Takaso, Masashi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pain from vertebral or femoral neck fractures is a particularly important problem in clinical orthopaedics. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated nonselective cation channel, and there are recent reports on an association between bone pain and TRPV1. However, an increase in TRPV1 activity has not been reported following femoral fracture. Materials and Methods We applied a neurotracer [Fluoro-gold (FG)] onto femur to detect dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) innervating the cortex of the femur in 30 Sprague Dawley rats. Seven days after application, a closed mid-diaphyseal fracture of the femur was performed. FG labeled TRPV1-immunoreactive (ir) DRGs innervating the femur were examined in nonfractured controls, and 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after fracture. We evaluated bone healing of the femur and compared the ratio of TRPV1-ir DRG neurons innervating the femur at the time points. Results Four weeks after fracture, complete bone union was observed. There was no significant difference in the ratio of FG labeled DRG neurons to total DRG neurons at each time point. The percentages of TRPV1-ir neurons in DRGs innervating the femur at 3 days and 1 week after fracture were significantly higher than those in control, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks after fracture (p<0.05). Conclusion Fracture induced an increase of TRPV1-ir neurons in DRGs innervating the fractured femur within 3 days, and decreased during bone healing over 4 weeks. These findings show that TRPV1 may play a role in sensory sensation of bone fracture pain. PMID:24339305

  7. Transient Elastography-Based Liver Stiffness Age-Dependently Increases in Children

    PubMed Central

    Tokuhara, Daisuke; Cho, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Pediatric use of liver transient elastography (TE) is attractive for its non-invasiveness, but reference values have not been established. We aimed to determine reference values for TE in children. Methods In pediatric patients (1 to 18 years), TE (FibroScan®) with an M probe was used for both liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and measurement of hepatic fat deposition by using a controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). The patients were divided into three relevant age groups: preschoolers (1 to 5 years), elementary school children (6 to 11 years), and adolescents (12 to 18 years). Overweight or obese patients or those with known liver disease, elevated serum liver enzymes, or hepatic echogenic abnormality were excluded from the study. Results Among 139 children, 123 (88.5%; 62 male; median age, 11.7 years; age range, 1.3 to 17.2 years) were successfully subjected to M-probe TE without anesthesia. Median LSM increased with age: it was 3.4 kPa (2.3 to 4.6 kPa, 5th to 95th percentiles) at ages 1 to 5 years; 3.8 (2.5 to 6.1) kPa at ages 6 to 11; and 4.1 (3.3 to 7.9) kPa at ages 12 to 18 (P = 0.001). Median CAP was not age dependent: it was 183 (112 to 242) for ages 1 to 18 years. Conclusions M-probe TE is suitable in a wide age range of children from age 1 year up. In children without evidence of liver disease, LSM has an age-dependent increase, whereas CAP does not differ between ages 1 and 18. PMID:27861607

  8. Quercetin topical application, from conventional dosage forms to nanodosage forms.

    PubMed

    Hatahet, T; Morille, M; Hommoss, A; Devoisselle, J M; Müller, R H; Bégu, S

    2016-11-01

    Skin is a multifunctional organ with activities in protection, metabolism and regulation. Skin is in a continuous exposure to oxidizing agents and inflammogens from the sun and from the contact with the environment. These agents may overload the skin auto-defense capacity. To strengthen skin defense mechanisms against oxidation and inflammation, supplementation of exogenous antioxidants is a promising strategy. Quercetin is a flavonoid with very pronounced effective antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities, and thus a candidate of first choice for such skin supplementation. Quercetin showed interesting actions in cellular and animal based models, ranging from protecting cells from UV irradiation to support skin regeneration in wound healing. However, due to its poor solubility, quercetin has limited skin penetration ability, and various formulation approaches were taken to increase its dermal penetration. In this article, the quercetin antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities in wound healing and supporting skin against aging are discussed in detail. In addition, quercetin topical formulations from conventional emulsions to novel nanoformulations in terms of skin penetration enhancement are also presented. This article gives a comprehensive review of quercetin for topical application from biological effects to pharmaceutical formulation design for the last 25 years of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quercetin phospholipid complex significantly protects against oxidative injury in ARPE-19 cells associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Rong; Yu, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yan; Hang, Li; Yang, Xue-Wen; Ding, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-05

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of dry AMD. Quercetin has potent anti-oxidative activities, but poor bioavailability limits its therapeutic application. Herein, we prepared the phospholipid complex of quercetin (quercetin-PC), characterized its structure by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectrum and x-ray diffraction. Quercetin-PC had equilibrium solubility of 38.36 and 1351.27μg/ml in water and chloroform, respectively, which was remarkably higher than those of quercetin alone. Then we established hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury model in human ARPE-19 cells to examine the effects of quercetin-PC. Quercetin-PC, stronger than quercetin, promoted cell proliferation, and the proliferation rate was increased to be 78.89% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 400μM. Moreover, quercetin-PC effectively prevented ARPE-19 cells from apoptosis, and the apoptotic rate was reduced to be 3.1% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 200μM. In addition, quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly increased the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX, and reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species and MDA in H2O2-treated ARPE-19 cells, but quercetin at 200μM failed to do so. Molecular examinations revealed that quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly activated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and significantly enhanced the expression of target genes HO-1, NQO-1 and GCL by different folds at both mRNA and protein levels. Our current data collectively indicated that quercetin-PC had stronger protective effects against oxidative-induced damages in ARPE-19 cells, which was associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway and its target genes implicated in antioxidant defense.

  10. Quercetin Potentiates Doxorubicin Mediated Antitumor Effects against Liver Cancer through p53/Bcl-xl

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanyu; Sharma, Sherven; Dong, Qinghua

    2012-01-01

    Background The dose-dependent toxicities of doxorubicin (DOX) limit its clinical applications, particularly in drug-resistant cancers, such as liver cancer. In this study, we investigated the role of quercetin on the antitumor effects of DOX on liver cancer cells and its ability to provide protection against DOX-mediated liver damage in mice. Methodology and Results The MTT and Annexin V/PI staining assay demonstrated that quercetin selectively sensitized DOX-induced cytotoxicity against liver cancer cells while protecting normal liver cells. The increase in DOX-mediated apoptosis in hepatoma cells by quercetin was p53-dependent and occurred by downregulating Bcl-xl expression. Z-VAD-fmk (caspase inhibitor), pifithrin-α (p53 inhibitor), or overexpressed Bcl-xl decreased the effects of quercetin on DOX-mediated apoptosis. The combined treatment of quercetin and DOX significantly reduced the growth of liver cancer xenografts in mice. Moreover, quercetin decreased the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase that were increased in DOX-treated mice. Quercetin also reversed the DOX-induced pathological changes in mice livers. Conclusion and Significance These results indicate that quercetin potentiated the antitumor effects of DOX on liver cancer cells while protecting normal liver cells. Therefore, the development of quercetin may be beneficial in a combined treatment with DOX for increased therapeutic efficacy against liver cancer. PMID:23240061

  11. The effects of quercetin supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes.

    PubMed

    Askari, Gholamreza; Ghiasvand, Reza; Paknahad, Zamzam; Karimian, Jahangir; Rabiee, Katayoun; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids comprise a large group of plant metabolites, 6,000 of which have been identified to date. Some studies have shown the increased aerobic performance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and therefore fitness following quercetin intake as a result of elevated number of intracellular mitochondria caused by the flavonoid. This double-blind clinical trial comprised 60 male students having an athletic history of at least 3 years. Body composition, exercise performance, and some blood biomarkers were analyzed. The individuals were selected by convenient sampling, and then were assigned into four groups of equal number by using permuted block randomization. The first to fourth groups received a 500 mg supplemental quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg vitamin C pill, a 500 mg supplemental quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg placebo vitamin C pill, a 500 mg placebo quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg vitamin C pill, and a 500 mg placebo quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg placebo vitamin C pill, respectively, daily for 8 weeks. The participants were asked to continue their routine diet and physical activity during the study and they were monitored through phone calls or text messages. Lean body mass, total body water, basal metabolic rate, and total energy expenditure increased significantly in the quercetin group after intervention. On the other hand, VO(2max) increased in the "quercetin" and "quercetin + vitamin C" groups following the intervention, non-significantly. Our findings suggest that supplementation with quercetin in athletes may improve some indices of performance.

  12. Transient postoperative atrial fibrillation after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair increases mortality risk

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Anai N.; Halandras, Pegge M.; Drescher, Max; Blackwell, Robert H.; Graunke, Dawn M.; Kliethermes, Stephanie; Kuo, Paul C.; Cho, Jae S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether new-onset transient postoperative atrial fibrillation (TPAF) affects mortality rates after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair and to identify predictors for the development of TPAF. Methods Patients who underwent open aortic repair or endovascular aortic repair for a principal diagnosis AAA were retrospectively identified using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-State Inpatient Database (Florida) for 2007 to 2011 and monitored longitudinally for 1 year. Inpatient and 1-year mortality rates were compared between those with and without TPAF. TPAF was defined as new-onset atrial fibrillation that developed in the postoperative period and subsequently resolved in patients without a history of atrial fibrillation. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age, gender, comorbidities, rupture status, and repair method, were used to assess 1-year survival. Predictive models were built with preoperative patient factors using Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector decision trees and externally validated on patients from California. Results A 3.7% incidence of TPAF was identified among 15,148 patients who underwent AAA repair. The overall mortality rate was 4.3%. The inpatient mortality rate was 12.3% in patients with TPAF vs 4.0% in those without TPAF. In the ruptured setting, the difference in mortality was similar between groups (33.7% vs 39.9%, P = .3). After controlling for age, gender, comorbid disease severity, urgency (ruptured vs nonruptured), and repair method, TPAF was associated with increased 1-year postoperative mortality (hazard ratio, 1.48; P < .001) and postdischarge mortality (hazard ratio, 1.56; P = .028). Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector-based models (C statistic = 0.70) were integrated into a Web-based application to predict an individual's probability of developing TPAF at the point of care. Conclusions The development of TPAF is associated with an increased risk

  13. Quercetin subunit specifically reduces GlyR-mediated current in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Cheng, Xin-Ping; You-Ye, Zeng; Jiang, Peng; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2007-08-24

    Quercetin is a substance of low molecular weight found in vascular plants with a wide range of biological activities including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of quercetin on native glycine receptors (GlyRs) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons were investigated using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Quercetin reversibly and concentration-dependently depressed glycine-induced current (I(Gly)), with an IC50 of 10.7+/-0.24 microM and a Hill coefficient of 1.08+/-0.12. Quercetin depressed maximum I(Gly) and significantly changed the EC50 for glycine and the Hill coefficient. Kinetic analysis indicated that quercetin accelerated the rates of desensitization. Interestingly, after the end of glycine with quercetin coapplication, a transient rebound occurred. The quercetin effects also displayed voltage-dependence, being greater at positive membrane potentials. These effects suggested that quercetin may act as an open channel blocker. Furthermore, in the sequential application protocol, quercetin inhibited the peak amplitude of I(Gly) to a macroscopic degree while slowing GlyR desensitization. These effects implied that quercetin has a depressant effect independent of GlyR channel's opening, which maybe caused by an allosteric mechanism. Strikingly, quercetin inhibited the amplitude of recombinant-induced current mediated by alpha2-, alpha2beta-, alpha3- and alpha3beta-GlyRs but had no effects on alpha1- and alpha1beta-GlyRs that were expressed in HEK293T cells. We also investigated the effects of quercetin on I(Gly) in spinal neurons during development in vitro. The extent of blockade by quercetin on I(Gly) was slighter in spinal neurons than in hippocampal neurons in a development-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that quercetin has possible effects in information processing within a neuronal network by inhibition of I(Gly) and may be useful as a pharmacological probe for identifying the subunit

  14. Electrochemical study of quercetin-DNA interactions: part I. Analysis in incubated solutions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria; Diculescu, Victor C

    2004-09-01

    The present study aims to investigate the quercetin-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) interaction occurring in bulk solution either electrochemically using differential pulse voltammetry or spectrophotometrically, in order to explain the possible DNA-damaging activity of quercetin. A very weak interaction between quercetin and DNA in solution was found to take place. However, since extensive quercetin-induced DNA damage via reaction with Cu(II) has been reported, an electrochemical study of the DNA-Cu(II)-quercetin system in solution was undertaken. The product of DNA interaction with quercetin-Cu(II) complex was observed. Damages to DNA were electrochemically recognized via the increasing of the anodic peaks corresponding to the oxidation of guanosine and adenosine bases and spectrophotometrically via increasing of the 260 nm adsorption band. It was also observed that dsDNA damage produced by the quercetin-Cu(II) complex occurred with time. Control experiments with different mixtures of Cu(II), quercetin, ssDNA, dsDNA or poly[A] were carried out in order to establish a possible mechanism of interaction between DNA and quercetin via Cu(II).

  15. Increased transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel expression in hypertrophic heart.

    PubMed

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Schulz, Nico; Gergs, Ulrich; Neumann, Joachim; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Gollasch, Maik; Tepel, Martin

    2010-10-08

    The aim of this study was to compare the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channels in hypertrophic hearts from transgenic mice showing overexpression of the catalytic subunit alpha of protein phosphatase 2A alpha (PP2Ac alpha) with wild-type mice and with TRPV1-/- mice. Transcripts of TRPV1, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), discoidin domain receptor family, member 2 (DDR-2), atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), GATA 4, and regulatory microRNA (miR-21) were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Ventricle-to-body-weight-ratio was significantly higher in PP2Ac alpha transgenic mice compared to wild-type mice and TRPV1-/- mice (8.6±1.3mg/g; 5.4±0.3mg/g; and 5.4±0.4mg/g; respectively; p<0.05 by Kruskal-Wallis test). TRPV1 transcripts were significantly higher in PP2Ac alpha transgenic mice compared to wild-type mice (1.7±0.2 arbitrary units vs. 0.8±0.1 arbitrary units; p<0.05). TRPV1 protein expression was also significantly higher in PP2Ac alpha transgenic mice compared to wild-type mice. A significant linear correlation was observed between TRPV1 transcripts and the ventricle-to-body-weight-ratio (Spearman r=0.78; p<0.05). The expression of DDR-2 was significantly higher in PP2Ac alpha transgenic mice compared to wild-type mice and TRPV1 knockout mice. The expression of miR21 was significantly higher in PP2Ac alpha transgenic mice compared with TRPV1-/- mice (0.103±0.018 (PP2Ac alpha transgenic mice); 0.089±0.009 (wild-type mice); and 0.045±0.013 (TRPV1-/- mice), respectively; p<0.05). Masson Goldner staining revealed that PP2Ac alpha transgenic mice showed increased heart fibrosis compared with TRPV1 knockout mice. The study suggests an important role of TRPV1 in the pathogenesis of genetically associated heart hypertrophy.

  16. The effects of quercetin supplementation on cognitive functioning in a community sample: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Canu, Will H.; Trout, Krystal L.; Nieman, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of quercetin supplementation on neurocognitive functioning. Methods: A large community sample (n = 941) completed a 12-week supplementation protocol, and participants were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg/day or 1000 mg/day quercetin, or placebo. Results: Results failed to indicate significant effects of quercetin on memory, psychomotor speed, reaction time, attention, or cognitive flexibility, despite large increases in plasma quercetin levels among the quercetin treatment groups. Discussion: Consistent with recent research, this study raises concerns regarding the generalizability of positive findings of in vitro and animal quercetin research, and provides evidence that quercetin may not have an ergogenic effect on neurocognitive functioning in humans. PMID:23983966

  17. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide promotes the proliferation and migration of neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Baral, Samrat; Pariyar, Ramesh; Kim, Jaehyo; Lee, Ho-Sub; Seo, Jungwon

    2017-04-01

    Quercetin is a bioactive compound exerting therapeutic effects on in vivo animal models of neurodegeneration or neurotoxicity. However, the narrow therapeutic dose-range of quercetin has been a point of concern since previous studies have demonstrated that quercetin induces cytotoxicity in vitro. Quercetin is metabolized to quercetin glucuronates such as quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), primarily detected in the plasma and the brain. Here, we examined whether and how quercetin or Q3GA regulates neural stem cells (NSCs) in vivo and in vitro. Immunohistochemistry showed that oral administration of quercetin increased nestin-, DCX-, BrdU/DCX-, and BrdU/NeuN-positive cells in the dentate gyrus of mice. However, quercetin decreased the viability of human embryonic NSCs in culture, accompanied by decreased Akt phosphorylation and increased cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, Q3GA increased BrdU-positive cell proliferation, Akt phosphorylation, and cyclin D1 expression. PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 reversed Q3GA-induced Akt phosphorylation and cyclin D1 expression, thereby reducing Q3GA-induced proliferation. Furthermore, Q3GA increased the protein secretion of BDNF and its blockade using anti-BDNF antibody reversed Q3GA-induced proliferation. Under differentiation state, Q3GA promotes NSC migration, along with increased mRNA expression of CXCR4. Moreover, Q3GA significantly reversed scopolamine-induced reduction of Akt phosphorylation in the mouse hippocampus and ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory impairments. Our results demonstrate that quercetin and its metabolite Q3GA control NSC viability in a converse manner through contrary regulation of Akt, accounting for the conflicting effects of quercetin in vivo and in vitro. This study provides a novel mechanism for the positive effects of Q3GA on neurogenesis and suggests its therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Discriminative protection against hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals by quercetin in human leucocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Lonneke C; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Moonen, Edwin J C; Briedé, Jacob J

    2008-03-01

    Antioxidants play a vital role in the cellular protection against oxidative damage. Quercetin is a well-investigated antioxidant and known to be able to protect against cellular oxidative DNA damage. In this study, we tried to relate the protection by quercetin pre-treatment against oxidative DNA damage in human leucocytes in vitro to the interaction of quercetin in solution with hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals as measured by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry, using DMPO as a spin trap. Further, scavenging capacity of quercetin-treated leucocytes in vitro was evaluated by ESR spectrometry. Quercetin appears capable of protecting human leucocytes against oxidative DNA damage caused by hydrogen peroxide in a dose-dependent manner. The protection of leucocytes against superoxides is ambiguous. Incubation concentrations of quercetin (1, 10, and 50 microM) reduced levels of superoxide-induced oxidative DNA damage, while at 100 microM the amount of damage was increased. These results are supported by ESR-findings on quercetin in solution, also showing a prooxidant effect at 100 microM. ESR spectroscopy showed rate constant values for the reaction kinetics of quercetin in lowering iron-dependent hydroxyl radical formation and NADH-dependent superoxide anion formation of respectively 3.2 x 10(12)M(-1)s(-1) and 1.1 x 10(4)M(-1)s(-1). This shows that quercetin is a more potent inhibitor of hydroxyl radical formation than a scavenger of superoxide anions.

  19. [Mechanisms for quercetin in prevention of lung cancer cell growth and metastasis].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Jian

    2015-06-01

    To study the effect of quercetin, an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9), on the growth and metastasis of lung cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms.
 We evaluated the inhibitory effect and the inhibitory kinetics of quercetin on MMP-9 by ELISA and enzyme inhibition kinetics, and the inhibitory effect of quercetin on the growth of lung cancer cell (A549) by MTT. The effect of quercetin on levels of MMP-9 (mRNA and protein) and TGF-β1 (protein) in A549 were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The synergistic inhibition effect of quercetin plus TIMP-1 on the growth of lung cancer cell A549 was discussed.
 Quercetin induced the apoptosis of A549. It was a reversible competitive inhibitor of MMP-9 (half inhibition rate IC50 of 5.25 μmol/L, inhibition constant Ki was 2.18 μmol/L). With the increase in quercetin concentration, the levels of MMP-9 (mRNA and protein) and TGF-β1 (protein) were decreased, and the number of tumor cells on wear filter membrane was reduced. The combination of quercetin (at low concentrations) with TIMP-1 showed synergistic inhibitory effect on the growth of A549 cells. 
 Quercetin is a competitive inhibitor of MMP-9 and could downregulate the expression of MMP-9 and TGF-β1, which plays an important role in A549 apoptosis.

  20. Dietary flavonoid quercetin stimulates vasorelaxation in aortic vessels.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Nicholas K H; White, C Roger; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Zhou, Fen; Constance, Chad; Inoue, Takafumi; Patel, Rakesh P; Parks, Dale A

    2010-08-01

    Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates that dietary consumption of moderate levels of polyphenols decreases both the incidence of cardiovascular disease and the mortality associated with myocardial infarction. Molecular mechanisms of this cardiovascular protection remain uncertain but can involve changes in rates of nitric oxide (NO) generation by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). We examined the vascular responses to quercetin using a combination of biochemical and vessel function criteria. Quercetin treatment for 30min enhanced relaxation of rat aortic ring segments. Moreover, the addition of L-NAME (100muM) or charybdotoxin (ChTx) blocked quercetin-mediated vasorelaxation thus demonstrating the effect was partially dependent on NOS and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Additionally, bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) treated with quercetin showed a rapid increase of intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations as well as a dose- and time-dependent stimulation of eNOS phosphorylation with a concomitant increase in NO production. These results demonstrate that quercetin-mediated stimulation of eNOS phosphorylation increases NO bioavailability in endothelial cells and can thus play a role in the vascular protective effects associated with improved endothelial cell function.

  1. DIETARY FLAVONOID QUERCETIN STIMULATES VASORELAXATION IN AORTIC VESSELS

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Nicholas K.H.; White, C. Roger; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Zhou, Fen; Constance, Chad; Inoue, Takafumi; Patel, Rakesh P.; Parks, Dale A.

    2010-01-01

    Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates that dietary consumption of moderate levels of polyphenols decreases both the incidence of cardiovascular disease and the mortality associated with myocardial infarction. Molecular mechanisms of this cardiovascular protection remain uncertain but can involve changes in rates of nitric oxide (NO) generation by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). We examined the vascular responses to quercetin using a combination of biochemical and vessel function criteria. Quercetin treatment for 30 min enhanced relaxation of rat aortic ring segments. Moreover, the addition of L-NAME (100 μM) or charybdotoxin (ChTx) blocked quercetin-mediated vasorelaxation thus demonstrating the effect was partially dependent on NOS and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Additionally, bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) treated with quercetin showed a rapid increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations as well as a dose- and time-dependent stimulation of eNOS phosphorylation with a concomitant increase in NO production. These results demonstrate that quercetin-mediated stimulation of eNOS phosphorylation increases NO bioavailability in endothelial cells and can thus play a role in the vascular protective effects associated with improved endothelial cell function. PMID:20423726

  2. Dietary quercetin supplementation is not ergogenic in untrained men.

    PubMed

    Cureton, Kirk J; Tomporowski, Phillip D; Singhal, Arpit; Pasley, Jeffrey D; Bigelman, Kevin A; Lambourne, Kathleen; Trilk, Jennifer L; McCully, Kevin K; Arnaud, Maurice J; Zhao, Qun

    2009-10-01

    Quercetin supplementation increases muscle oxidative capacity and endurance in mice, but its ergogenic effect in humans has not been established. Our study investigates the effects of short-duration chronic quercetin supplementation on muscle oxidative capacity; metabolic, perceptual, and neuromuscular determinants of performance in prolonged exercise; and cycling performance in untrained men. Using a double-blind, pretest-posttest control group design, 30 recreationally active, but not endurance-trained, young men were randomly assigned to quercetin and placebo groups. A noninvasive measure of muscle oxidative capacity (phosphocreatine recovery rate using magnetic resonance spectroscopy), peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)), metabolic and perceptual responses to submaximal exercise, work performed on a 10-min maximal-effort cycling test following the submaximal cycling, and voluntary and electrically evoked strength loss following cycling were measured before and after 7-16 days of supplementation with 1 g/day of quercetin in a sports hydration beverage or a placebo beverage. Pretreatment-to-posttreatment changes in phosphocreatine recovery time constant, Vo(2peak,) substrate utilization, and perception of effort during submaximal exercise, total work done during the 10-min maximal effort cycling trial, and voluntary and electrically evoked strength loss were not significantly different (P > 0.05) in the quercetin and placebo groups. Short duration, chronic dietary quercetin supplementation in untrained men does not improve muscle oxidative capacity; metabolic, neuromuscular and perceptual determinants of performance in prolonged exercise; or cycling performance. The null findings indicate that metabolic and physical performance consequences of quercetin supplementation observed in mice should not be generalized to humans.

  3. Protective Effect of Quercetin on Posttraumatic Cardiac Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Zehao; Wang, Zhuorun; Li, Xiujie; Li, Xintao; Cao, Tingting; Bi, Yue; Zhou, Jicheng; Chen, Xu; Yu, Deqin; Zhu, Liang; Li, Shuzhuang

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin is an important dietary flavonoid present in fruits and vegetables and has attracted attention because of its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. Inflammation and oxidative stress play important roles in posttraumatic cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which contributes to secondary cardiac dysfunction. This study investigates the protective effect of quercetin on trauma-induced secondary cardiac injury and the mechanisms involved. Widely accepted nonlethal mechanical trauma models were established. In vivo, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction in rats were assessed using TUNEL staining and a biological mechanic experiment system. In vitro, cell viability, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and [Ca2+]i of H9c2 cells were detected using an MTT assay, ELISA, and 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester assays respectively. Quercetin pretreatment (20 mg/kg i.p.; 0.5 h before trauma) significantly improved posttraumatic cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. Pretreatment with quercetin (20 μM; 24 h before trauma plasma addition) significantly attenuated trauma-induced viability decreases, TNF-α increases, ROS overproduction and [Ca2+]i overload in H9c2 cells. In conclusion, quercetin may reverse posttraumatic cardiac dysfunction by reducing cardiomyocyte apoptosis through the suppression of TNF-α increases, ROS overproduction and Ca2+ overload in cardiomyocytes, representing a potential preventive approach for the treatment of secondary cardiac injury after mechanical trauma. PMID:27470932

  4. The flavonoid quercetin induces acute vasodilator effects in healthy volunteers: correlation with beta-glucuronidase activity.

    PubMed

    Perez, Almudena; Gonzalez-Manzano, Susana; Jimenez, Rosario; Perez-Abud, Rocío; Haro, Jose M; Osuna, Antonio; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Duarte, Juan; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco

    2014-11-01

    Quercetin exerts vasodilator, antiplatelet and antiproliferative effects and reduces blood pressure, oxidative status and end-organ damage in hypertensive humans and animal models. We hypothesized that oral quercetin might induce vasodilator effects in humans and that they might be related to the deconjugation of quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA). double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fifteen healthy volunteers (26±5 years, 6 female) were given a capsule containing placebo, 200 or 400mg of quercetin in random order in three consecutive weeks. At 2h a dose-dependent increase in Q3GA was observed in plasma (∼0.4 and 1μM for 200 and 400mg, respectively) with minor levels of quercetin and isorhamnetin. No changes were observed in blood pressure. At 5h quercetin induced and increase in brachial arterial diameter that correlated with the product of the levels of Q3GA by the plasma glucuronidase activity. There was an increase in urinary levels of glutathione but there was no increase in nitrites plus nitrates. Quercetin and isorhamnetin also relaxed human umbilical arteries in vitro while Q3GA was without effect. In conclusions, quercetin exerts acute vasodilator effects in vivo in normotensive, normocholesterolemic human subjects. These results are consistent with the effects being due to the deconjugation of the metabolite Q3GA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonlinear modeling and dynamic analysis of a hydro-turbine governing system in the process of sudden load increase transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Diyi; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Feifei; Ba, Duoduo

    2016-12-01

    In order to study the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a hydro-turbine governing system in the process of sudden load increase transient, we establish a novel nonlinear dynamic model of the hydro-turbine governing system which considers the elastic water-hammer model of the penstock and the second-order model of the generator. The six nonlinear dynamic transfer coefficients of the hydro-turbine are innovatively proposed by utilizing internal characteristics and analyzing the change laws of the characteristic parameters of the hydro-turbine governing system. Moreover, from the point of view of engineering, the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of the above system are exhaustively investigated based on bifurcation diagrams and time waveforms. More importantly, all of the above analyses supply theoretical basis for allowing a hydropower station to maintain a stable operation in the process of sudden load increase transient.

  6. Quercetin promotes neurite growth through enhancing intracellular cAMP level and GAP-43 expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Ming; Yin, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Liao, Hong

    2015-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of quercetin on neurite growth in N1E-115 cells and the underlying mechanisms. Quercetin was evaluated for its effects on cell numbers of neurites, neurite length, intracellular cAMP content, and Gap-43 expression in N1E-115 cells in vitro by use of microscopy, LANCE(tm) cAMP 384 kit, and Western blot analysis, respectively. Our results showed that quercetin could increase the neurite length in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on the numbers of cells. Quercetin significantly increased the expression of cellular cAMP in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The Gap-43 expression was up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, quercetin could promote neurite growth through increasing the intracellular cAMP level and Gap-43 expression.

  7. Quercetin alleviates generalized hyperalgesia in mice with induced adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jichan; Liu, Xishi

    2017-10-01

    Adenomyosis is a common gynecologic disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. The present study investigated the effect of quercetin in neonatal Imprinting Control Region mice with tamoxifen‑induced adenomyosis. The body weight and hotplate response latency of all mice was examined at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after birth. The mice dosed with tamoxifen were divided into four groups: high‑ or low‑quercetin group, valproic acid (VPA) group and untreated group. The group of mice that were neonatally administrated with the solvent only (no tamoxifen), received no treatment and served as a blank control group. After 3 weeks of drug treatment, the potential ability of quercetin to improve the generalized hyperalgesia in mice with induced adenomyosis was evaluated by determining the body weight, pain modulation, examining the myometrial infiltration by histology examination of the uterus and detecting the expression of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (Trpv‑1), phospho (p)‑p38 mitogen activated protein kinase p‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (p‑ERK) in DRG neurons via immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that treatment with quercetin improved the generalized hyperalgesia by extending the hotplate response latency, reduced myometrial infiltration and decreased the expression levels Trpv‑1, p‑p38 and p‑ERK in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The results indicated that quercetin decreases the incidence of hyperalgesia in mice with tamoxifen‑induced adenomyosis, and the potential mechanism is through reduced central sensitization, which may be a promising treatment for adenomyosis.

  8. Anode modification with capacitive materials for a microbial fuel cell: an increase in transient power or stationary power.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chunhua; Lv, Zhisheng; Yang, Xiaoshuang; Wei, Chaohai

    2014-06-14

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to improve the anode performance of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) by using modified carbon-based anode materials, but most of them did not recognize that the power performance measured by the commonly-used varying circuit resistance (VCR) or linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) method was overestimated due to the effect of anode capacitance. Here, we examined and compared the transient power and the stationary power of a series of MFCs equipped with the polypyrrole-graphene oxide (PPy-GO)-modified graphite felt anodes. It was found that noticeable transient power was recorded when the VCR or LSV method was chosen for power measurements. Calculations on the contribution of different sources to the measured maximum power density showed that the discharge of bio-electrons stored in the high-capacitance anode was a dominant contributor, especially when the time duration (for the VCR method) was not sufficiently long or the scan rate (for the LSV method) was not sufficiently low. Although anode modification with capacitive materials can result in the increased stationary power obtained from the fed-batch cycle test, owing to the increases in the anode surface area and the number of bacteria attached to anode, the increase in the transient power was more remarkable.

  9. Association of Dietary Quercetin with Reduced Risk of Proximal Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Djuric, Zora; Severson, Richard K.; Kato, Ikuko

    2012-01-01

    Quercetin is a flavonol that appears to be protective against several cancers, but its possible role in prevention of colorectal cancer is not yet well studied. We evaluated dietary intakes of quercetin and risk of colorectal cancer in a large case-control study conducted in Metropolitan Detroit, MI (n = 2664). The protective effects of quercetin intake, as assessed by food frequency questionnaire, were confined to risk of proximal colon cancer. Stratified analyses showed that the protective effects of quercetin on risk of proximal colon cancer were significant only when fruit intake or the Healthy Eating Index score were high, or when tea intake was low, with odds ratios (OR) for the highest versus the lowest quartile = 0.49, 0.44, and 0.51, respectively. Increased quercetin intake had no protective effects when tea intake was high. Interestingly, increased intake of quercetin was associated with increased risk of distal colon cancer when total fruit intake was low (OR for the highest versus the lowest quartile = 1.99). These results suggest that quercetin can have disparate effects on colon cancer risk depending on whether dietary intakes of fruit or tea are high, and that quercetin had protective effects only on proximal, not distal, colon cancer. PMID:22429001

  10. Quercetin induces mitochondrial mediated apoptosis and protective autophagy in human glioblastoma U373MG cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeonji; Moon, Jeong Yong; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Cho, Somi Kim

    2013-01-01

    Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid with known antitumor effects against several types of cancers by promoting apoptotic cell death and inducing cell cycle arrest. However, U373MG malignant glioma cells expressing mutant p53 are resistant to a 24 h quercetin treatment. In this study, the anticancer effect of quercetin was reevaluated in U373MG cells, and quercetin was found to be significantly effective in inhibiting proliferation of U373MG cells in a concentration-dependent manner after 48 and 72 h of incubation. Quercetin induced U373MG cell death through apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased number of cells in the sub-G1 phase, the appearance of fragmented nuclei, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, proteolytic activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7, an increase in caspase-3 and 9 activities, and degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. Furthermore, quercetin activated JNK and increased the expression of p53, which translocated to the mitochondria and simultaneously led to the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. We also found that quercetin induced autophagy. Pretreatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, strongly augmented apoptosis in U373MG cells, indicating that quercetin induced protective autopagy in U373MG cells.

  11. Quercetin Induces Mitochondrial Mediated Apoptosis and Protective Autophagy in Human Glioblastoma U373MG Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jeong Yong; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Cho, Somi Kim

    2013-01-01

    Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid with known antitumor effects against several types of cancers by promoting apoptotic cell death and inducing cell cycle arrest. However, U373MG malignant glioma cells expressing mutant p53 are resistant to a 24 h quercetin treatment. In this study, the anticancer effect of quercetin was reevaluated in U373MG cells, and quercetin was found to be significantly effective in inhibiting proliferation of U373MG cells in a concentration-dependent manner after 48 and 72 h of incubation. Quercetin induced U373MG cell death through apoptosis, as evidenced by the increased number of cells in the sub-G1 phase, the appearance of fragmented nuclei, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, proteolytic activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7, an increase in caspase-3 and 9 activities, and degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein. Furthermore, quercetin activated JNK and increased the expression of p53, which translocated to the mitochondria and simultaneously led to the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol. We also found that quercetin induced autophagy. Pretreatment with chloroquine, an autophagy inhibitor, strongly augmented apoptosis in U373MG cells, indicating that quercetin induced protective autopagy in U373MG cells. PMID:24379902

  12. The effect of quercetin and galangin on glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Paulíková, Helena; Berczeliová, Elena

    2005-12-01

    Quercetin and galangin can change the activity of glutathione reductase. Quercetin (a catechol structure in the B-ring) and galangin (any hydroxyl group in the B-ring) have different biological activities but, both possess high antioxidant abilities. Quercetin during the antioxidative action, is converted into an oxidized products (o-semiquinone and o-quinone), and subsequently glutathionyl adducts may be formed or SH-enzyme can be inhibited. We have tried to see whether inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) can be influenced by preincubation of enzyme with NADPH (a creation of reduced form of enzyme, GRH(2)) and whether diaphorase activity of the enzyme is decreased by these flavonoids. The results confirmed that quercetin inhibits GRH(2) and inhibition is reduced by addition of EDTA or N-acetylcysteine. Both of flavonoids have no effect on diaphorase activity of glutathione reductase and this enzyme could increase the production of free radicals by catalysis of reduction of o-quinone during action of quercetin in vivo.

  13. Mechanisms of Neuroprotection by Quercetin: Counteracting Oxidative Stress and More

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lucio G.; Garrick, Jacqueline M.; Roquè, Pamela J.; Pellacani, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Increasing interest has recently focused on determining whether several natural compounds, collectively referred to as nutraceuticals, may exert neuroprotective actions in the developing, adult, and aging nervous system. Quercetin, a polyphenol widely present in nature, has received the most attention in this regard. Several studies in vitro, in experimental animals and in humans, have provided supportive evidence for neuroprotective effects of quercetin, either against neurotoxic chemicals or in various models of neuronal injury and neurodegenerative diseases. The exact mechanisms of such protective effects remain elusive, though many hypotheses have been formulated. In addition to a possible direct antioxidant effect, quercetin may also act by stimulating cellular defenses against oxidative stress. Two such pathways include the induction of Nrf2-ARE and induction of the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory enzyme paraoxonase 2 (PON2). In addition, quercetin has been shown to activate sirtuins (SIRT1), to induce autophagy, and to act as a phytoestrogen, all mechanisms by which quercetin may provide its neuroprotection. PMID:26904161

  14. The Phototoxic Potential of the Flavonoids, Taxifolin and Quercetin.

    PubMed

    Rajnochová Svobodová, Alena; Ryšavá, Alena; Psotová, Michaela; Kosina, Pavel; Zálešák, Bohumil; Ulrichová, Jitka; Vostálová, Jitka

    2017-10-01

    Quercetin, one of the most abundant polyphenols in the plant kingdom has been shown to be photodegraded on exposure to UV light. Despite the fact, it is a component of several dermatological preparations. Its phototoxic potential has not been evaluated to date. The aim of this study was to assess whether photo-induced degradation of quercetin is linked to phototoxic effects on living cells. Its dihydro derivative, taxifolin, was included in the study. For evaluation, the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Phototoxicity Test according to OECD TG 432 was used. To better approximate human skin, HaCaT keratinocytes, normal human epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts were used, apart from the Balb/c 3T3 cell line. Quercetin showed a dose-dependent photodegradation in aqueous and organic environments and a phototoxic effect on all used cells. Quercetin pretreatment and following UVA exposure resulted in increased reactive oxygen species production and intracellular glutathione level depletion in human dermal fibroblasts. Taxifolin was found completely nonphototoxic and photostable. As only in vitro methodology was used, further studies using 3D skin models and/or human volunteers are needed to confirm whether exposure to sunlight, tanning sunbeds and/or phototherapy in people using cosmetics containing quercetin is a health risk. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. Fentanyl, clonidine, and repeated increases in desflurane concentration, but not nitrous oxide or esmolol, block the transient mydriasis caused by rapid increases in desflurane concentration.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M; Larson, M D; Eger, E I; Noorani, M; Weiskopf, R B

    1995-08-01

    Initial, but not subsequent, inhalation of 8% desflurane produces transient sympathetic stimulation. We hypothesized that initial but not subsequent increases should produce pupil dilation, and that N2O, fentanyl, and clonidine, but not esmolol, should blunt the response. In 10 volunteers, we maintained anesthesia with 4% end-tidal desflurane in oxygen for 32 min, then increased the concentration to 8% for 10 min. In nine of the volunteers, we twice repeated the increase to 8%, separating each increase by a 32-min period at 4%. On separate days, five volunteers received 4%-8% desflurane in 60% N2O; five received fentanyl 1.5 micrograms/kg or 4.5 micrograms/kg intravenously 5 min before 4%-8% desflurane; four received clonidine 4.3 micrograms/kg, orally, 90 min before 4% to 8%; and four received esmolol 0.75 mg/kg, intravenously, 1.5 min before 4%-8%. Without other drugs present, 4%-8% desflurane transiently increased pupil diameter to 5.4 +/- 0.5 mm (mean +/- SD), with subsequent 4%-8% increases producing attenuated responses (2.9 +/- 1.5 and 3.2 +/- 1.8 mm). N2O produced a higher peak (6.2 +/- 0.7 mm). Fentanyl 1.5 micrograms/kg and 4.5 micrograms/kg decreased peak diameter (2.3 +/- 0.9 and 1.6 +/- 0.3 mm), as did clonidine (2.3 +/- 1.7 mm) but not esmolol. We conclude that, concurrent with sympathetic stimulation, an initial rapid increase in desflurane concentration transiently increases pupil diameter, whereas repeated increases produce attenuated responses. N2O augments, fentanyl and clonidine attenuate, and esmolol does not affect the response.

  16. Influence of quercetin and nanohydroxyapatite modifications of decellularized goat-lung scaffold for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sweta K; Kumar, Ritesh; Mishra, Narayan C

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, goat-lung scaffold was fabricated by decellularization of lung tissue and verified for complete cell removal by DNA quantification, DAPI and H&E staining. The scaffold was then modified by crosslinking with quercetin and nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp), and characterized to evaluate the suitability of quercetin-crosslinked nHAp-modified scaffold for regeneration of bone tissue. The crosslinking chemistry between quercetin and decellularized scaffold was established theoretically by AutoDock Vina program (in silico docking study), which predicted multiple intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between quercetin and decellularized scaffold, and FTIR spectroscopy analysis also proved the same. From MTT assay and SEM studies, it was found that the quercetin-crosslinked nHAp-modified decellularized scaffold encouraged better growth and proliferation of bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) in comparison to unmodified decellularized scaffold, quercetin-crosslinked decellularized scaffold and nHAp-modified decellularized scaffold. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) assay results showed highest expression of ALP over quercetin-crosslinked nHAp-modified scaffold among all the tested scaffolds (unmodified decellularized scaffold, quercetin-crosslinked decellularized scaffold and nHAp-modified decellularized scaffold) indicating that quercetin and nHAp is very much efficient in stimulating the differentiation of BMMSCs into osteoblast cells. Alizarin red test quantified in vitro mineralization (calcium deposits), and increased expression of alizarin red over quercetin-crosslinked nHAp-modified scaffold indicating better stimulation of osteogenesis in BMMSCs. The above findings suggest that quercetin-crosslinked nHAp-modified decellularized goat-lung scaffold provides biomimetic bone-like microenvironment for BMMSCs to differentiate into osteoblast and could be applied as a potential promising biomaterial for bone regeneration.

  17. Induction of apoptosis by quercetin is mediated through AMPKalpha1/ASK1/p38 pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Kyoung; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Kwon, Dae Young; Surh, Young-Joon; Park, Ock Jin

    2010-06-28

    Effective strategies for cancer prevention and treatment can be identified by understanding the mechanism of apoptotic pathways. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanism of quercetin-induced apoptosis through apoptosis signal-regulating kinase (ASK)-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Our results showed that quercetin increased apoptotic cell death through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and was responsible for ASK1 activation. Increasing ASK1 activity was accompanied by p38 activation. Interestingly, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) seemed to be a critical controller of quercetin-regulated ASK1/p38 activation. Blocking AMPKalpha1 activity using Compound C, a synthetic inhibitor or siRNA showed that quercetin-activated ASK1 could not stimulate p38 activity. Thus, we suggested that quercetin-exerted apoptotic effects involve ROS/AMPKalpha1/ASK1/p38 signaling pathway, and AMPKalpha1 is a necessary element for apoptotic event induced by ASK1.

  18. Light induces a rapid and transient increase in inositol-trisphosphate in toad rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.E.; Blazynski, C.; Cohen, A.I.

    1987-08-14

    The sub-second time course of changes in the content of (/sup 3/H)inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate was determined in rod outer segments from very rapidly frozen Bufo retinas that had been incubated with (/sup 3/H)inositol. Rod outer segments were cut off frozen specimens with a cryostat microtome and the water soluble extracts were analyzed. The content of (/sup 3/H)inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate rose after approximately 250 msec of bright illumination, but returned to the unstimulated level after 1 sec, whether the stimulus remained on or not. That is, there was rapid but transient change in the content of (/sup 3/H)inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate after the onset of stimulation.

  19. Increased osteopontin and liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography in biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Honsawek, Sittisak; Chayanupatkul, Maneerat; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Vejchapipat, Paisarn; Poovorawan, Yong

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To analyze plasma osteopontin levels and liver stiffness using transient elastography in postoperative biliary atresia (BA) children compared with healthy controls. METHODS: Thirty children with postoperative BA and 10 normal controls were enrolled. The patients were categorized into two groups according to their jaundice status. Plasma levels of osteopontin were determined using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Liver stiffness was measured by using transient elastography (Fibroscan). Ten validated Fibroscan measurements were performed in each patient and control with the result expressed in kilopascals (kPa). RESULTS: Plasma osteopontin was significantly elevated in BA children compared with that of healthy controls (47.0 ± 56.4 ng/mL vs 15.1 ± 15.0 ng/mL, P = 0.01). The liver stiffness measurement was markedly elevated in the patients with BA compared with that of controls (26.9 ± 24.6 kPa vs 3.9 ± 0.7 kPa, P = 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that the BA patients with jaundice had more pronounced plasma osteopontin levels than those without jaundice (87.1 ± 61.6 ng/mL vs 11.9 ± 6.1 ng/mL, P = 0.001). Furthermore, the mean liver stiffness was significantly greater in the jaundiced BA patients compared with non-jaundiced patients (47.7 ± 21.8 kPa vs 8.7 ± 3.0 kPa, P = 0.001). Additionally, plasma osteopontin was positively related to serum total bilirubin (r = 0.64, P < 0.001). There was also a correlation between plasma osteopontin and liver stiffness values (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: High plasma osteopontin positively correlated with degree of hepatic fibrosis and could be used as a biochemical parameter reflecting disease severity in postoperative BA children. PMID:21086566

  20. Quercetin, a natural product supplement, impairs mitochondrial bioenergetics and locomotor behavior in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Liang; Laurence Souders, Christopher; Denslow, Nancy D; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2017-07-15

    Quercetin is a natural product that is sold as a supplement in health food stores. While there are reported benefits for this flavonoid as a dietary supplement due to antioxidant properties, the full scope of its biological interactions has not been fully addressed. To learn more about the mechanisms of action related to quercetin, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to 1 and 10μg/L quercetin for 96h starting at 3h post fertilization. Quercetin up to 10μg/L did not induce significant mortality in developing fish, but did increase prevalence of an upward-curved dorsal plane in hatched larvae. To determine whether this developmental defect was potentially related to mitochondrial bioenergetics during development, we measured oxygen consumption rate in whole embryos following a 24-hour exposure to quercetin. Basal mitochondrial and ATP-linked respiration were decreased at 1 and 10μg/L quercetin, and maximal respiration was decreased at 10μg/L quercetin, suggesting that quercetin impairs mitochondrial bioenergetics. This is proposed to be related to the deformities observed during development. Due to the fact that ATP production was affected by quercetin, larval behaviors related to locomotion were investigated, as well as transcriptional responses of six myogenesis transcripts. Quercetin at 10μg/L significantly reduced the swimming velocity of zebrafish larvae. The expression levels of both myostatin A (mstna) and myogenic differentiation (myoD) were also altered by quercetin. Mstna, an inhibitory factor for myogenesis, was significantly increased at 1μg/L quercetin exposure, while myoD, a stimulatory factor for myogenesis, was significantly increased at 10μg/L quercetin exposure. There were no changes in transcripts related to apoptosis (bcl2, bax, casp3, casp7), but we did observe a decrease in mRNA levels for catalase (cat) in fish exposed to each dose, supporting an oxidative stress response. Our data support the hypothesis that quercetin may affect

  1. Quercetin induces cell apoptosis of myeloma and displays a synergistic effect with dexamethasone in vitro and in vivo xenograft models.

    PubMed

    He, Donghua; Guo, Xing; Zhang, Enfan; Zi, Fuming; Chen, Jing; Chen, Qingxiao; Lin, Xuanru; Yang, Li; Li, Yi; Wu, Wenjun; Yang, Yang; He, Jingsong; Cai, Zhen

    2016-07-19

    Quercetin, a kind of dietary flavonoid, has shown its anticancer activity in many kinds of cancers including hematological malignancies (acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and MM) in vitro and in vivo. However, its effects on MM need further investigation. In this study, MM cell lines were treated with quercetin alone or in combination with dexamethasone. In order to observe the effects in vivo, a xenograft model of human myeloma was established. Quercetin inhibited proliferation of MM cells (RPMI8226, ARP-1, and MM.1R) by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and apoptosis. Western blot showed that quercetin downregulated c-myc expression and upregulated p21 expression. Quercetin also activated caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1. Caspase inhibitors partially blocked apoptosis induced by quercetin. Furthermore, quercetin combined with dexamethasone significantly increased MM cell apoptosis. In vivo xenograft models, quercetin obviously inhibited tumor growth. Caspase-3 was activated to a greater extent when quercetin was combined with dexamethasone. In conclusion, quercetin alone or in combination with dexamethasone may be an effective therapy for MM.

  2. Transient temperature and sea level response of a two-dimensional ocean-climate model to greenhouse gas increases

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional dynamical ocean model is coupled to an energy balance climate model and used to investigate the transient surface temperature and sea level response to greenhouse gas increases. For most experiments a step function surface-troposphere heating perturbation of 6 W/sq m is applied. A transient reduction in the thermohaline overturning flux of 15-30% occurs in most experiments, although in some cases a near-total circulation collapse occurs within the first 100 years and lasts 700-1000 years. The transient circulation decrease is attributed to the greater rate of downward penetration of the heating anomaly in downwelling rather than in upwelling regions and is not a result of reduced convection. For experiments in which the steady state circulation is qualitatively unchanged after a heating perturbation, the surface temperature response is roughly uniform with latitude, in the absence of ice and snow. However, in some cases a heating perturbation induces the transition from a one-cell to a two-cell overturning circulation, or causes a complete reversal in the direction of overturning when a single cell spans both hemispheres, causing marked latitudinal variations in the surface temperature response.

  3. Lack of synergistic interaction between quercetin and catechin in systemic and pulmonary vascular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Carmen; Jimenez, Rosario; Moreno, Laura; Galindo, Pilar; Cogolludo, Angel; Duarte, Juan; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Due to their ubiquitous distribution, flavonoids from different classes are commonly present together in foods. However, little is known about the interactions between them. The flavonol quercetin and the flavan-3-ol (+)-catechin are among the most abundant flavonoids in the diet. In the present study, we have analysed the interactions between these two flavonoids on vascular function using two pure compounds and mixtures of these flavonoids in 1:0·1, 1:1 or 1:10 proportions. Quercetin induced a more potent concentration-dependent relaxant effect than catechin in the isolated rat aorta, and the isobolographic analysis of the mixtures showed no synergistic or antagonistic effects between them, i.e. their effects were additive. Quercetin was more potent in mesenteric than in pulmonary arteries. Catechin had weak effects in these vessels and did not modify the effects of quercetin. Endothelial dysfunction induced by increased oxidative stress by the superoxide dismutase inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamate was prevented by quercetin, whereas catechin showed a weak effect and the 1:1 mixture an intermediate effect compared with the pure compounds. Quercetin but not catechin showed a pro-oxidant and NO-scavenging effect, which was not prevented by catechin. In conclusion, catechin was less potent than quercetin as a vasodilator, pro-oxidant or to prevent endothelial dysfunction, and there were no synergistic interactions between quercetin and catechin.

  4. Dermal quercetin smartCrystals®: Formulation development, antioxidant activity and cellular safety.

    PubMed

    Hatahet, T; Morille, M; Hommoss, A; Dorandeu, C; Müller, R H; Bégu, S

    2016-05-01

    Flavonoids are natural plant pigments, which possess high antioxidative and antiradical activities. However, their poor water solubility led to a limited bioavailability. To overcome this major hurdle, quercetin nanocrystals were produced implementing smartCrystals® technology. This process combines bead milling and subsequent high-pressure homogenization at relatively low pressure (300bar). To test the possibility to develop a dermal formulation from quercetin smartCrystals®, quercetin nanosuspensions were admixed to Lutrol® F127 and hydroxythylcellulose nonionic gels. The physicochemical properties (morphology, size and charge), saturation solubility, dissolution velocity and the antioxidant properties (DPPH assay) as well as the cellular interaction of the produced quercetin smartCrystals® were studied and compared to crude quercetin powder. Quercetin smartCrystals® showed a strong increase in the saturation solubility and the dissolution velocity (7.6 fold). SmartCrystals® loaded or not into gels proved to be physically stable over a period of three months at 25°C. Interestingly, in vitro DPPH assay confirmed the preservation of quercetin antioxidative properties after nanonization. In parallel, the nanocrystalline form did not display cellular toxicity, even at high concentration (50μg/ml), as assayed on an epithelial cell line (VERO cells). In addition, the nanocrystalline form confirmed a protective activity for VERO cells against hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in vitro. This new formulation presents a promising approach to deliver quercetin efficiently to skin in well-tolerated formulations.

  5. The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits JNK activation in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco . E-mail: fperez@med.ucm.es; Bishop-Bailley, David; Lodi, Federica; Duarte, Juan; Cogolludo, Angel; Moreno, Laura; Bosca, Lisardo; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2006-08-04

    Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts vasodilator, anti-hypertensive, and anti-atherogenic effects and reduces the vascular remodelling associated with elevated blood pressure. Here, we have compared the effects of quercetin in intimal- and medial-type rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in culture. After 48 h, quercetin reduced the viability of a polyclonal intimal-type cell line derived from neonatal aorta but not of a medial-type cell line derived from adult aorta. These differential effects were similar in both proliferating and quiescent VSMC. Quercetin also preferentially reduced the viability of intimal-type over medial-type VSMC in primary cultures derived from balloon-injured carotid arteries. The effects of quercetin on cell viability were mainly dependent upon induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and were unrelated to PPAR{gamma}, pro-oxidant effects or nitric oxide. The expression of MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK) and ERK phosphorylation were not different between intimal- and medial-type VSMC. p38 phosphorylation was negligible in both cell types. Medial-type showed a weak JNK phosphorylation while this was markedly increased in intimal-type cells. Quercetin reduced JNK phosphorylation but had no consistent effect on ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, quercetin preferentially produced apoptosis in intimal-type compared to medial-type VSMC. This might play a role in the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of quercetin.

  6. The flavonoid quercetin induces apoptosis and inhibits JNK activation in intimal vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco; Bishop-Bailley, David; Lodi, Federica; Duarte, Juan; Cogolludo, Angel; Moreno, Laura; Bosca, Lisardo; Mitchell, Jane A; Warner, Timothy D

    2006-08-04

    Quercetin, the most abundant dietary flavonol, exerts vasodilator, anti-hypertensive, and anti-atherogenic effects and reduces the vascular remodelling associated with elevated blood pressure. Here, we have compared the effects of quercetin in intimal- and medial-type rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in culture. After 48 h, quercetin reduced the viability of a polyclonal intimal-type cell line derived from neonatal aorta but not of a medial-type cell line derived from adult aorta. These differential effects were similar in both proliferating and quiescent VSMC. Quercetin also preferentially reduced the viability of intimal-type over medial-type VSMC in primary cultures derived from balloon-injured carotid arteries. The effects of quercetin on cell viability were mainly dependent upon induction of apoptosis, as demonstrated by nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and were unrelated to PPARgamma, pro-oxidant effects or nitric oxide. The expression of MAPKs (ERK, p38, and JNK) and ERK phosphorylation were not different between intimal- and medial-type VSMC. p38 phosphorylation was negligible in both cell types. Medial-type showed a weak JNK phosphorylation while this was markedly increased in intimal-type cells. Quercetin reduced JNK phosphorylation but had no consistent effect on ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, quercetin preferentially produced apoptosis in intimal-type compared to medial-type VSMC. This might play a role in the anti-atherogenic and anti-hypertensive effects of quercetin.

  7. Quercetin induces gadd45 expression through a p53-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tatsushi; Maeda, Ayaka; Horinaka, Mano; Shiraishi, Takumi; Nakata, Susumu; Wakada, Miki; Yogosawa, Shingo; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2005-11-01

    Quercetin, a kind of flavonoid, is found in edible fruits and vegetables and has anti-tumorigenic activity. However, the mechanism of activity has not been elucidated. We show for the first time that gadd45 is a molecular target of quercetin, which inhibits growth of human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Apoptosis was detected in HeLa cells treated with quercetin. At the concentration inducing apoptosis, quercetin also increased gadd45 expression at the mRNA and protein level, however, the 5'-promoter region of the gadd45 gene was not activated by quercetin. Since gadd45 is known to be a downstream gene of the tumor suppressor p53, we examined whether or not quercetin regulates gadd45 induction via a p53 pathway. Quercetin did not activate transcription through p53-binding sites in HeLa cells, although it up-regulated gadd45 in p53-inactivated tumor cells. These results indicate that quercetin induces gadd45 expression in a p53-independent manner.

  8. Quercetin suppresses intracellular ROS formation, MMP activation, and cell motility in human fibrosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Eun; Chung, Min-Yu; Lim, Tae Gyu; Huh, Won Bum; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won

    2013-09-01

    Cell metastasis is a major cause of death from cancer and can arise from excessive levels of oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the natural flavonoid quercetin can inhibit matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 activities through the attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, an event expected to lead to the inhibition of cell motility. To induce sustained ROS formation, cells were treated with phenazine methosulfate (PMS; 1 μM). Noncytotoxic concentrations of quercetin inhibited PMS-induced increases in cell motility in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells. While nearly 100% of cells were observed to migrate after 24 h of PMS treatment, quercetin significantly (P < 0.01) suppressed this effect. We also found that quercetin, up to 10 μg/mL, attenuated PMS-induced MMP-2 activation. We then investigated whether the decreased levels of MMP-2 activation could be attributable to lower levels of ROS formation by quercetin. We found that quercetin treatments significantly attenuated PMS-induced ROS formation (P < 0.01) and resulted in decreased cell motility associated with a reduction in MMP-2 and -9 activitiy in HT1080 cells, even in the absence of PMS treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that quercetin inhibits cell motility via the inhibition of MMP activation in HT1080 cells in the presence and absence of PMS. This is likely to be a result of the suppression of intracellular ROS formation by quercetin. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. The flavonoid quercetin inhibits dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sil; Lee, Hye-Eun; Shin, Ji-Young; Yoon, Sik; Moon, Jeon-Ok

    2003-08-01

    Quercetin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in human diet has been reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of quercetin on hepatic injury induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) in rats. Treatment with DMN caused a significant decrease in body and liver weight. Oral administration of quercetin (10 mg kg(-1) daily for 4 weeks) remarkably prevented this DMN-induced loss in body and liver weight and inhibited the elevation of serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and bilirubin levels. Quercetin also increased serum albumin and hepatic glutathione levels and reduced the hepatic level of malondialdehyde. Furthermore, DMN-induced elevation of hydroxyproline content was reduced in the quercetin treated rats, the result of which was consistent with a reduction in type I collagen mRNA production and histological analysis of liver tissue stained with Sirius red. A reduction in hepatic stellate cell activation, as assessed by alpha-smooth muscle actin staining, was associated with quercetin treatment as well as a reduction in transforming growth factor-beta1 expression. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that quercetin exhibited in-vivo hepatoprotective and anti-fibrogenic effects against DMN-induced liver injury and suggest that quercetin may be useful in the preventing the development of hepatic fibrosis.

  10. Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor is required for efficient quercetin-mediated suppression of TNFα secretion

    PubMed Central

    Serino, Grazia; Galleggiante, Vanessa; Caruso, Maria Lucia; Mastronardi, Mauro; Cavalcanti, Elisabetta; Ranson, Nicole; Pinto, Aldo; Campiglia, Pietro; Santino, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) that in response to microbial infections generate long-lasting adaptive immune response. Following microbial uptake, DCs undergo a cascade of cellular differentiation that ultimately leads to “mature” DCs. Mature DCs produce a variety of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) a key cytokine for the inflammatory cascade. In numerous studies, polyphenols, including quercetin, demonstrated their ability to suppress TNFα secretion and protect from the onset of chronic inflammatory disorders. We show that murine bone marrow derived DCs express Slpi following quercetin exposure. Slpi is known to suppress LPS mediated NFκB activation, thus, it was hypothesized that its expression could be the key step for polyphenol induced inflammatory suppression. Slpi-KO DCs poorly respond to quercetin administration failing to reduce TNFα secretion in response to quercetin exposure. Supernatant from quercetin exposed DCs could also reduce LPS-mediated TNFα secretion by unrelated DCs, but this property is lost using an anti-Slpi antibody. In vivo, oral administration of quercetin is able to induce Slpi expression. Human biopsies from inflamed tract of the intestine reveal the presence of numerous SLPI+ cells and the expression level could be further increased by quercetin administration. We propose that quercetin induces Slpi expression that in turn reduces the inflammatory response. Our data encourages the development of nutritional strategies to improve the efficiency of current therapies for intestinal chronic inflammatory syndrome and reduce the risks of colorectal cancer development. PMID:27716626

  11. Evaluation of anti-fatigue and immunomodulating effects of quercetin in strenuous exercise mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei-qiang

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-fatigue and immunomodulating effects of quercetin in strenuous exercise mice. Mice were given orally either corn oil or quercetin (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight suspended in corn oil) by gavage once a day for 28 day. All mice were sacrificed after rotarod test and the major biochemical parameters were analyzed in serum and liver. The results indicated that quercetin possessed anti-fatigue effects by prolonging retention times, decreasing levels of blood lactate and serum urea nitrogen, and increasing levels of blood glucose, tissue glycogen and serum glucagon. Furthermore, quercetin could improve the immune function of fatigue mice by decreasing tumor necrosis factor-α levels, and elevated interleukin-10 levels. Quercetin possessed anti-fatigue effects may be related to its immunomodulating effects.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and study of antioxidant activity of quercetin-magnesium complex.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Nilanjan; Chakraborty, Tania; Mallick, Sougata; Mana, Supriya; Singha, Deepanwita; Ghosh, Balaram; Roy, Souvik

    2015-12-05

    Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) one of the most abundant dietary flavonoids, has been investigated in the presence of magnesium (II) in methanol. The complex formation between quercetin and magnesium (II) was examined under UV-visible, Infra-red and (1)H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The spectroscopic data denoted that quercetin can reacts with magnesium cation (Mg(+2)) through the chelation site in the quercetin molecule. The free radical antioxidant activity of the complex with respect to the parent molecule was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. It was observed that the free radical scavenging activity of quercetin was increased after complexation of magnesium (Mg(+2)) cation.

  13. [Transient increase of bispectral index in a patient with bronchoconstriction after endotracheal intubation].

    PubMed

    Hidano, Gumi; Nagata, Osamu; Narushima, Mitsuhiro; Ozaki, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman (148 cm, 48.5 kg) with a history of bronchial asthma underwent an emergency appendectomy. Ten days before the operation she developed symptoms of wheezing while under asthma medication. An endotracheal tube (7 mm) was inserted after the induction of general anesthesia with intravenous injection of fentanyl 100 micrograms, propofol 100 mg and vecuronium 10 mg under Sellick's maneuver. Anesthesia was maintained with 1% sevoflurane with oxygen 6l-min-1 just after intubation, but bilateral lung sound soon became weaker and ventilation difficult. Based on a diagnosis of bronchoconstriction, we started hyperventilation with 3% sevoflurane. Ventilation returned to normal after about 5 minutes. Percutaneous O2 saturation was maintained at 100% during this episode, but the BIS transiently rose to 82. Anesthesia was maintained with 2% sevoflurane and 50% nitrous oxide balanced with oxygen, and 250 mg aminophylline was administered. Upon completion of the operation, the endotracheal tube was removed without any events. The patient gave no sign of awareness during the operation. When severe bronchoconstriction prevents the absorption of anesthetics from the lung alveoli, additional intravenous anesthetics should be administered to maintain stable amnesia.

  14. Protective role of quercetin on PCBs-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Kandaswamy; Bavithra, Senthamilselvan; Suganthi, Muralidharan; Benson, Chellakan Selvanesan; Elumalai, Perumal; Arunkumar, Ramachandran; Krishnamoorthy, Gunasekaran; Venkataraman, Prabhu; Arunakaran, Jagadeesan

    2012-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure produces neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress. Neuroprotective role of quercetin, on PCBs induced apoptosis in hippocampus has not yet been studied. The present study is focused to see whether quercetin supplementation precludes against PCBs induced oxidative stress and hippocampal apoptosis. The results have shown that quercetin at 50 mg/kg bwt/30 days has protected oxidative stress in hippocampus of adult male rats. Quercetin, a free radical scavenger decreased the levels of oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus of simultaneous PCB+quercetin treated rats. The pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules such as Bad, Bid, Bax and Bcl2 were altered in the hippocampus of experimental animals. PCBs increased the DNA damage and induced neurodegeneration were assessed by histological studies. PCB induced ROS may be linked to increased hippocampal neuronal apoptosis. Quercetin supplementation decreased the neuronal damage and scavenged the free radicals induced by PCBs and protects PCBs induced apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  15. Steady and transient forced convection heat transfer for water flowing in small tubes with exponentially increasing heat inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibahara, M.; Fukuda, K.; Liu, Q. S.; Hata, K.

    2017-03-01

    Steady and transient heat transfer coefficients for water flowing in small tubes with exponentially increasing heat inputs were measured. Platinum tubes with inner diameters of 1.0 and 2.0 mm were used as test tubes, which were mounted vertically in the experimental water loop. In the experiment, the upward flow velocity ranged from 2 to 16 m/s, and the corresponding Reynolds numbers ranged from 4.77 × 103 to 9.16 × 104 at the inlet liquid temperatures ranged from 298 to 343 K. The heat generation rate exponentially increased with the function. The period of the heat generation rate ranged from 24 ms to 17.5 s. Experimental results indicate that steady heat transfer coefficients decreased with the increase in the inner diameter of the small tube. Moreover, the ratio of bulk viscosity to near-wall viscosity of water increased with the rise in surface temperature of the vertical tube. From the experimental data, correlations of steady-state heat transfer for inner diameters of 1.0 and 2.0 mm were obtained. The heat transfer coefficient increased with decreasing the period of the heat generation rate as the flow velocity decreased. Moreover, the Nusselt number under the transient condition was affected by the Fourier number and the Reynolds number.

  16. Comparative pharmacokinetic interactions of Quercetin and Rutin in rats after oral administration of European patented formulation containing Hipphophae rhamnoides and Co-administration of Quercetin and Rutin.

    PubMed

    Kammalla, Ananth Kumar; Ramasamy, Mohan Kumar; Chintala, Jyothi; Dubey, Govind Prasad; Agrawal, Aruna; Kaliappan, Ilango

    2015-09-01

    Quercetin and Rutin are most common flavone constituents of some herb extracts such as Hippophae rhamnoides L. Inter and intra herb pharmacokinetics interactions of Quercetin and Rutin were investigated in the present study. Pharmacokinetic study was investigated in the two groups of rats (n = 6) for pharmacokinetic interactions between the Quercetin and Rutin (2.5 mg/kg) mixture treated alone with European patented polyherbal formulation containing equivalent weight of the above. The total plasma concentrations of Quercetin and Rutin were determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A method was developed and validated according to the ICH guidelines. The results of the present study shows that there are great differences in the pharmacokinetics of Quercetin and Rutin when they are administered together and from the polyherbal formulation which will be interacted by many other constituents. The bioavailability of Quercetin was lowered from the polyherbal formulation when compared with the co-administration, whereas the Rutin bioavailability has increased from the polyherbal formulation when compared with the co-administration. The maximum plasma concentration of Quercetin from coadministration and polyherbal formulation was 165.3 ± 31.9 and 90.8 ± 21.4 ng/mL, respectively, whereas in the case of Rutin it was 61.1 ± 29.3 and 121.7 ± 19.2 ng/mL. After polyherbal formulation administration to rats the AUC0-24, AUC0-∞ and AUMC0-∞ of both Quercetin and Rutin significantly increased when compared to co-administration. The above results proved that inter and intra herb pharmacokinetic interactions between Quercetin and Rutin. Possible interactions of the other constituents with hydrolyzing enzymes in the formulation enhances the oral bioavailability of Rutin. Accordingly besides the drug herb interactions, inter and intra herb interaction might be brought into view with the wide use of herbal remedies.

  17. Utilizing Ultrasound to Transiently Increase Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability, Modulate of the Tight Junction Proteins, and Alter Cytoskeletal Structure.

    PubMed

    Bae, Mi Jung; Lee, Young Mi; Kim, Yeoun Hee; Han, Hyung Soo; Lee, Hak Jong

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system is protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The tight junction (TJ) proteins claudin-5 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) as well as the cytoskeletal component F-actin play key roles in maintaining homeostasis of the BBB. Increases in BBB permeability may be beneficial for the delivery of pharmacological substances into the brain. Therefore, here, we assessed the use of ultrasound to induce transient enhancement of BBB permeability. We used fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran 40 to detect changes in the membrane permeability of bEnd.3 cells during ultrasound treatment. Ultrasound increased FITC-dextran 40 uptake into bEnd.3 cells for 2-6 h after treatment; however, normal levels returned after 24 h. An insignificant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage also occurred 3 and 6 h after ultrasound treatment, whereas at 24 h, LDH leakage was indistinguishable between the control and treatment groups. Expression of claudin-5, ZO-1, and F-actin at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels was assessed with real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Ultrasound induced a transient decrease in claudin-5 mRNA and protein expression within 2 h of treatment; however, no significant changes in ZO-1 and F-actin expression were observed. Claudin-5, ZO-1, and F-actin immunofluorescence demonstrated that the cellular structures incorporating these proteins were transiently impaired by ultrasound. In conclusion, our ultrasound technique can temporarily increase BBB permeability without cytotoxicity to exposed cells, and the method can be exploited in the delivery of drugs to the brain with minimal damage.

  18. Cooling treatment transiently increases the permeability of brain capillary endothelial cells through translocation of claudin-5.

    PubMed

    Inamura, Akinori; Adachi, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takao; He, Yeting; Tokuda, Nobuko; Nawata, Takashi; Shirao, Satoshi; Nomura, Sadahiro; Fujii, Masami; Ikeda, Eiji; Owada, Yuji; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2013-08-01

    The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is formed by different cell types, of which brain microvascular endothelial cells are major structural constituents. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of cooling on the permeability of the BBB with reference to tight junction formation of brain microendothelial cells. The sensorimotor cortex above the dura mater in adult male Wistar rats was focally cooled to a temperature of 5 °C for 1 h, then immunostaining for immunoglobulin G (IgG) was performed to evaluate the permeability of the BBB. Permeability produced by cooling was also evaluated in cultured murine brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) based on measurement of trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER). Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting of proteins associated with tight junctions in bEnd3 were performed to determine protein distribution before and after cooling. After focal cooling of the rat brain cortex, diffuse immunostaining for IgG was observed primarily around the small vasculature and in the extracellular spaces of parenchyma of the cortex. In cultured bEnd3, TEER significantly decreased during cooling (15 °C) and recovered to normal levels after rewarming to 37 °C. Immunocytochemistry and Western blotting showed that claudin-5, a critical regulatory protein for tight junctions, was translocated from the membrane to the cytoplasm after cooling in cultured bEnd3 cells. These results suggest that focal brain cooling may open the BBB transiently through an effect on tight junctions of brain microendothelial cells, and that therapeutically this approach may allow control of BBB function and drug delivery through the BBB.

  19. Quercetin Blocks Airway Epithelial Cell Chemokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nanua, Suparna; Zick, Suzanna M.; Andrade, Juan E.; Sajjan, Umadevi S.; Burgess, John R.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2006-01-01

    Quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), a dietary flavonoid, is an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and potent antioxidant. We hypothesized that quercetin blocks airway epithelial cell chemokine expression via PI 3-kinase–dependent mechanisms. Pretreatment with quercetin and the PI 3–kinase inhibitor LY294002 each reduced TNF-α–induced IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (also called CCL2) expression in cultured human airway epithelial cells. Quercetin also inhibited TNF-α–induced PI 3-kinase activity, Akt phosphorylation, intracellular H2O2 production, NF-κB transactivation, IL-8 promoter activity, and steady-state mRNA levels, consistent with the notion that quercetin inhibits chemokine expression by attenuating NF-κB transactivation via a PI 3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway. Quercetin also reduced TNF-α–induced chemokine secretion in the presence of the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D, while inducing phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF)-2α, suggesting that quercetin attenuates chemokine expression by post-transcriptional as well as transcriptional mechanisms. Finally, we tested the effects of quercetin in cockroach antigen–sensitized and –challenged mice. These mice show MCP-1–dependent airways hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Quercetin significantly reduced lung MCP-1 and methacholine responsiveness. We conclude that quercetin blocks airway cell chemokine expression via transcriptional and post-transcriptional pathways. PMID:16794257

  20. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin in diabetic rat retina.

    PubMed

    Ola, Mohammad S; Ahmed, M M; Shams, Shakeeb; Al-Rejaie, Salim S

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a severe complication of diabetes and the leading cause of blindness among working adults worldwide. DR is being widely recognized as a neurodegenerative disease of the retina, since, retinal neurons are damaged soon after diabetes onset. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress is considered as central factor that dysregulates neurotrophic factors and activates apoptosis, thereby damages neurons in the diabetic retina. Flavonoids being a powerful antioxidant have been considered to protect neurons in diabetic retina. The purpose of this study was to analyze the beneficial effects of flavonoid, quercetin to protect neurons in the diabetic rat retina. We quantitated the expression levels of BDNF, NGF, TrkB, synaptophysin, Akt, Bcl-2, cytochrome c and caspase-3 using Western blotting techniques in the diabetic retina with and without quercetin treatments and compared with non-diabetic rats. In addition, we employed ELISA techniques to determine the level of BDNF. Caspase-3 activity and the level of glutathione were analyzed by biochemical methods. Our results indicate that quercetin treatment to diabetic rats caused a significant increase in the level of neurotrophic factors and inhibited the level of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activity in the diabetic retina. Furthermore, the level of an anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was augmented in quercetin treated diabetic retina. Thus, quercetin, may protect the neuronal damage in diabetic retina by ameliorating the levels of neurotrophic factors and also by inhibiting the apoptosis of neurons. Therefore, this study suggests that quercetin can be a suitable therapeutic agent to prevent neurodegeneration in diabetic retinopathy.

  1. [Quercetin induces the apoptosis of human PC-3 cells].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing-Yi; Hu, Rui; Liu, Li; Yuan, Lin; Huang, Wei-Zhou; Ma, Long; Gu, Xiao-Jian

    2011-09-01

    To study the effect of quercetin on the apoptosis of human PC-3 cells. Human PC-3 cells were cultured in vitro and then treated with quercetin at the concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 micromol/L. The inhibition rate of quercetin on the PC-3 cells was detected by MTT, the apoptosis of the cells determined by flow cytometry, and the changes of the cellular ultramicrostructure observed by transmission electron microscopy. Quercetin markedly inhibited the proliferation of PC-3 cells in vitro in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Its inhibition rates were (3.01 +/- 1.32)%, (4.84 +/- 1.73)%, (20.35 +/- 1.30)%, (16.78 +/- 1.89)% and (27.25 +/- 4.01)% at 24 hours, and (10.18 +/- 1.16)%, (6.22 +/- 0.04)%, (24.29 +/- 4.19)%, (22.4 +/- 4.26)% and (41.42 +/- 5.43)% at 48 hours in the 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 micromol/L groups, respectively, with statistical significance at the concentration of > 150 micromol/L (P < 0.05). Flow cytometry showed that the apoptosis of PC-3 cells was increased with the elevated concentration and prolonged time of Quercetin treatment, (19.10 +/- 0.28)% and (26.55 +/- 0.78)% at 24 hours, and (27.65 +/- 1.06)% and (38.30 +/- 5.96)% at 48 hours in the 150 and 200 micromol/L groups, respectively (P < 0.05). Typical changes in the morphology of the cells were observed under the transmission electron microscope. Quercetin can inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of human PC-3 cells, but its action mechanism remains to be further investigated.

  2. The critical role of quercetin in autophagy and apoptosis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yijun; Zhang, Wei; Lv, Qiongying; Zhang, Juan; Zhu, Dingjun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the effects of quercetin on autophagy and apoptosis of cancer cells have been widely reported, while effects on HeLa cells are still unclear. Here, HeLa cells were subjected to quercetin treatment, and then proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy were evaluated using MTT, flow cytometry, and MDC staining, respectively. The LC3-I/II, Beclin 1, active caspase-3, and S6K1 phosphorylation were detected using Western blot assay. The ultrastructure of HeLa was observed via transmission electron microscope (TEM). Our findings showed that quercetin can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of HeLa cells. The MDC fluorescence was enhanced with increased concentration of quercetin and hit a plateau at 50 μmol/l. Western blot assay revealed that LC3-I/II ratio, Beclin 1, and active caspase-3 protein were enforced in a dose-dependent method. However, the phosphorylation of S6K1 gradually decreased, concomitant with an increase of autophagy. In addition, TEM revealed that the number of autophagic vacuoles was peaked at 50 μmol/l of quercetin. Besides, interference of autophagy with 3-MA led to proliferation inhibition and increased apoptosis in HeLa cells, accompanied by the decreased LC3-I/II conversion and the increased active caspase-3. In conclusion, quercetin can inhibit HeLa cell proliferation and induce protective autophagy at low concentrations; thus, 3-MA plus quercetin would suppress autophagy and effectively increased apoptosis.

  3. Quercetin Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Trichostatin A through Upregulation of p53 Protein Expression In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Shu-Ting; Yang, Nae-Cherng; Huang, Chin-Shiu; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Yeh, Shu-Lan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of quercetin on the anti-tumor effect of trichostatin A (TSA), a novel anticancer drug, in vitro and in vivo and the possible mechanisms of these effects in human lung cancer cells. We first showed that quercetin (5 µM) significantly increased the growth arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells (expressing wild-type p53) induced by 25 ng/mL of (82.5 nM) TSA at 48 h by about 25% and 101%, respectively. However, such enhancing effects of quercetin (5 µM) were not significant in TSA-exposed H1299 cells (a p53 null mutant) or were much lower than in A549 cells. In addition, quercetin significantly increased TSA-induced p53 expression in A549 cells. Transfection of p53 siRNA into A549 cells significantly but not completely diminished the enhancing effects of quercetin on TSA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that quercetin enhanced TSA-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Transfection of p53 siRNA abolished such enhancing effects of quercetin. However, quercetin increased the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 induced by TSA in A549 cells, even with p53 siRNA transfection as well as in H1299 cells. In a xenograft mouse model of lung cancer, quercetin enhanced the antitumor effect of TSA. Tumors from mice treated with TSA in combination with quercetin had higher p53 and apoptosis levels than did those from control and TSA-treated mice. These data indicate that regulation of the expression of p53 by quercetin plays an important role in enhancing TSA-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. However, p53-independent mechanisms may also contribute to the enhancing effect of quercetin. PMID:23342112

  4. Differential cytotoxic activity of Quercetin on colonic cancer cells depends on ROS generation through COX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Rajendiran, Vijayabharathi; Kasinathan, Nirmal Kumar; P, Amrithalakshmi; Venkatabalasubramanian, Sivaramakrishnan; Murali, Malliga Raman; Devaraj, Halagowder; Devaraj, Sivasithamparam Niranjali

    2017-08-01

    Quercetin is a bioactive compound with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study exemplifies the differential cytotoxic activity of Quercetin on two human colonic cancer cell lines, HT29 and HCT15. IC50 of Quercetin for HT29 and HCT15 cells were 42.5 μM and 77.4 μM, respectively. Activation of caspase-3, increased level of cytosolic cytochrome c, decreased levels of pAkt, pGSK-3β and cyclin D1 in 40 μM Quercetin treated HT29 cells alone. Though, nuclear translocation of NFkB was increased in 40 μM Quercetin treated HT29 and HCT15 cells, over expression of COX-2 was observed in 40 μM Quercetin treated HT29 cells, whereas, Quercetin treated HCT15 cells did not expressed COX-2. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed only in Quercetin treated HT29 cells, which is due to over expression of COX-2, as COX-2 silencing inhibited Quercetin induced apoptosis and ROS generation. Insilico analysis provided evidence that Quercetin could partially inhibit COX-2 enzyme by binding to subunit A which has peroxidase activity and serves as source of ROS. However, Quercetin showed minimal effect on normal intestinal epithelial cells i,e IEC-6. To conclude, differential sensitivity of two cancer cells, HT29 and HCT15, to Quercetin depends on COX-2 dependent ROS generation that induces apoptosis and inhibits cell survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contribute to Quercetin Induced Death in Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca-Silva, Fernanda; Inacio, Job D. F.; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene M.; Almeida-Amaral, Elmo Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, affects more than 12 million people worldwide. Quercetin has generated considerable interest as a pharmaceutical compound with a wide range of therapeutic activities. One such activity is exhibited against the bloodstream parasite Trypanosoma brucei and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani. However, the mechanism of protozoan action of quercetin has not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we report here the mechanism for the antileishmanial activity of quercetin against Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. Quercetin inhibited L. amazonensis promastigote growth in a dose- and time- dependent manner beginning at 48 hours of treatment and with maximum growth inhibition observed at 96 hours. The IC50 for quercetin at 48 hours was 31.4 µM. Quercetin increased ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner after 48 hours of treatment. The antioxidant GSH and NAC each significantly reduced quercetin-induced cell death. In addition, quercetin caused mitochondrial dysfunction due to collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Conclusions/Significance The effects of several drugs that interfere directly with mitochondrial physiology in parasites such as Leishmania have been described. The unique mitochondrial features of Leishmania make this organelle an ideal drug target while minimizing toxicity. Quercetin has been described as a pro-oxidant, generating ROS which are responsible for cell death in some cancer cells. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss can be brought about by ROS added directly in vitro or induced by chemical agents. Taken together, our results demonstrate that quercetin eventually exerts its antileishmanial effect on L. amazonensis promastigotes due to the generation of ROS and disrupted parasite mitochondrial function. PMID:21346801

  6. Quercetin exhibits adjuvant activity by enhancing Th2 immune response in ovalbumin immunized mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Tanwar, Himanshi; Jayashankar, Bindhya; Sharma, Jyoti; Murthy, Swetha; Chanda, Sudipta; Singh, Shashi Bala; Ganju, Lilly

    2017-04-02

    Quercetin, one of the most abundant of plant flavonoids, has been studied with a great deal of attention over the last several decades mainly for its properties in inflammation and allergy. In this study, we are reporting for the first time the in vivo immunostimulatory activity of quercetin in ovalbumin immunized Balb/c mice. Administration of quercetin (50mg/kg body weight) along with ovalbumin antigen showed increased ovalbumin specific serum IgG antibody titres in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Quercetin administration not only showed predominance of Th2 immune response by increasing the IgG1 antibody titres, but also increased the infiltration of CD11c(+) dendritic cells in the mouse peritoneum and also increased LPS activated IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO) production by peritoneal macrophages. Expression of Tbx21, GATA-3 and Oct-2 proteins also enhanced in splenocytes of quercetin administered mice. Quercetin also did not cause any hemolysis in human RBCs. Overall, our findings strongly demonstrate the novel in vivo immunostimulatory and adjuvant potentials of quercetin.

  7. A method to determine quercetin by enhanced luminol electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) and quercetin autoxidation.

    PubMed

    Lei, Rong; Xu, Xiao; Yu, Fei; Li, Na; Liu, Hu-Wei; Li, Kèan

    2008-05-30

    Quercetin greatly enhanced luminol electrochemiluminescence of quercetin in alkaline solution. When the concentration of luminol was 0.1 mol L(-1), the detection limit for quercetin was 2.0x10(-8) mol L(-1) with a linear range from 1.0x10(-7) to 2x10(-5) mol L(-1). The pH and buffer substantially affected ECL intensity. Quercetin was autoxidized in alkaline aqueous solution. The rate of autoxidation of quercetin in various pH buffers and borate concentrations were measured. Borate was found to inhibit quercetin autoxidation and compromise quercetin enhancement effect on luminol ECL to some extent. Two final autoxidation products were identified with LC-MS methods. Autoxidation process was associated with enhancement of ECL intensity. The ROS generated during quercetin autoxidation enhanced the ECL intensity.

  8. Mood and Vigilance Following Quercetin Supplementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    controlled study was undertaken to test whether quercetin aglycone affects mood and vigilance in humans. Block randomization was used to assign 57...2,000 mg quercetin or 2,000 mg placebo 1 hour prior to completing a 45-minute scanning visual vigilance task. Profile of Mood States (POMS... quercetin concentrations were measured in plasma samples collected 2-hours after treatment. The caffeine group significantly outperformed the placebo group

  9. Protective effects of quercetin against arsenic-induced testicular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, B B; Uygur, R; Caglar, V; Aktas, C; Aydin, M; Ozen, O A

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of quercetin on changes in testes due to arsenic exposure. Twenty-seven male rats were divided into three groups: control (10 ml kg(-1)  day(-1) saline), arsenic (10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) sodium arsenite) and arsenic + quercetin (arsenic + 50 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) quercetin). The rats were sacrificed at the end of 15-day experiment. There was no difference between control group and arsenic group in body weight gain, testicular weight and serum total testosterone level. Quercetin treatment did not cause a significant difference in these parameters. In the arsenic group rats, we determined deterioration in the structure of seminiferous tubules, a decrease in the number of spermatogenic cells, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, a decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells, a decrease in SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities, and an increase in the MDA level in testicular tissue. In all these changes, arsenic+quercetin group showed an improved compared to arsenic group. The amount of arsenic increased in the arsenic group was compared to the control group, and there was no difference between arsenic group and arsenic + quercetin group in the amount of arsenic. In conclusion, quercetin prevented arsenic-induced testicular damage with its anti-apoptotic and antioxidant effects.

  10. Alleviative effect of quercetin on rat testis against arsenic: a histological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Iftikhar, Natasha; Ullah, Hizb; Rukh, Gul; Hussain, Ishtiaq

    2015-04-01

    The preventive effect of quercetin on arsenic stimulated reproductive ailments in male Sprague Dawely (SD) rats was investigated. Twenty rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as a control and was provided tap water. The second group of rats was treated with sodium arsenite at the dose of 50 ppm in drinking water. The third group served as a positive control and received an oral dose of quercetin (50 mg/kg). In the fourth group, quercetin (50 mg/kg) was co-administered orally with arsenic (50 ppm in drinking water). All the treatments were carried out for 49 days. Arsenic treatment resulted in adverse morphological and histopathological changes in testis of rats including reduced epithelial height and tubular diameter, and increased luminal diameter. In contrast, these adverse effects of arsenic were eliminated by co-administration of quercetin. Additionally arsenic treatment significantly increased testicular thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels while catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and glutathione reductase (GSR) activities, and plasma and intra-testicular testosterone concentrations, were decreased significantly. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was significantly suppressed and depleted antioxidant defense mechanism was restored by the quercetin co-treatment. Also quercetin treatment resulted in a marked increase in plasma and testicular testosterone concentrations. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that quercetin may be used as a potential therapeutic drug against arsenic induced reproductive toxicity.

  11. Quercetin supplementation does not enhance cerebellar mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative status in exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Casuso, Rafael A; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aranda, Pilar; Martínez-López, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that quercetin may inhibit the mitochondrial and antioxidant adaptations induced by exercise in cerebellar tissue. Thirty-five 6-week-old Wistar rats were randomly allocated into the following groups: quercetin, exercised (Q-Ex; n = 9); quercetin, sedentary (Q-Sed; n = 9); no quercetin, exercised (NQ-Ex; n = 9); and no quercetin, sedentary (NQ-Sed; n = 8). After 6 weeks of quercetin supplementation and/or exercise training, cerebellums were collected. Protein carbonyl content (PCC), sirtuin 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), messenger RNA levels, citrate synthase (CS), and mitochondrial DNA were measured. When Q-Sed was compared with NQ-Sed, PCC (P < .005) showed decreased levels, whereas PGC-1α, sirtuin 1 (both, P < .01), mitochondrial DNA (P < .001), and CS (P < .01) increased. However, when Q-Ex was compared with Q-Sed, PCC showed increased levels (P < .001), whereas CS decreased (P < .01). Furthermore, the NQ-Ex group experienced an increase in PGC-1α messenger RNA levels in comparison with NQ-Sed (P > .01). This effect, however, did not appear in Q-Ex (P < .05). Therefore, we must hypothesize that either the dose (25 mg/kg) or the length of the quercetin supplementation period that was used in the present study (or perhaps both) may impair exercise-induced adaptations in cerebellar tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Adolescent nicotine exposure transiently increases high-affinity nicotinic receptors and modulates inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Counotte, Danielle S.; Goriounova, Natalia A.; Moretti, Milena; Smoluch, Marek T.; Irth, Hubertus; Clementi, Francesco; Schoffelmeer, Anton N. M.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Smit, August B.; Gotti, Cecilia; Spijker, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical developmental period during which most adult smokers initiate their habit. Adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to nicotine’s long-term effects on addictive and cognitive behavior. We investigated whether adolescent nicotine exposure in rats modifies expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the short and/or long term, and whether this has functional consequences. Using receptor binding studies followed by immunoprecipitation of nAChR subunits, we showed that adolescent nicotine exposure, as compared with saline, caused an increase in mPFC nAChRs containing α4 or β2 subunits (24 and 18%, respectively) 24 h after the last injection. Nicotine exposure in adulthood had no such effect. This increase was transient and was not observed 5 wk following either adolescent or adult nicotine exposure. In line with increased nAChRs expression 1 d after adolescent nicotine exposure, we observed a 34% increase in amplitude of nicotine-induced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer II/III mPFC pyramidal neurons. These effects were transient and specific, and observed only acutely after adolescent nicotine exposure, but not after 5 wk, and no changes were observed in adult-exposed animals. The acute nicotine-induced increase in α4β2-containing receptors in adolescents interferes with the normal developmental decrease (37%) of these receptors from early adolescence (postnatal day 34) to adulthood (postnatal day 104) in the mPFC. Together, this suggests that these receptors play a role in mediating the acute rewarding effects of nicotine and may underlie the increased sensitivity of adolescents to nicotine. PMID:22308197

  13. Transient increase in intrathoracic pressure as a contributing factor to cardioembolic stroke.

    PubMed

    Seok, Hung Youl; Seo, Woo-Keun; Eun, Mi-Yeon; Kwon, Do-Young; Park, Moon Ho; Oh, Kyungmi

    2010-12-01

    The hemodynamic effects of increased intrathoracic pressure (ITP) have been the focus of many investigations. However, very little is known about the effects of elevated ITP on the occurrence of stroke. Four young patients with a cardioembolic source of stroke were examined. In all cases the stroke was preceded by an increase in ITP that occurred during coughing, vomiting, or sexual intercourse. We suggest that cardioembolic stroke is facilitated by situations in which ITP is elevated.

  14. Ionizing radiation-induced mutant frequencies increase transiently in male germ cells of older mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guogang; McMahan, C Alex; Hildreth, Kim; Garcia, Rebecca A; Herbert, Damon C; Walter, Christi A

    2012-05-15

    Spontaneous mutant frequency in the male germline increases with age, thereby increasing the risk of siring offspring with genetic disorders. In the present study we investigated the effect of age on ionizing radiation-induced male germline mutagenesis. lacI transgenic mice were treated with ionizing radiation at 4-, 15- and 26-month-old, and mutant frequencies were determined for pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids at 15 days or 49 days after ionizing radiation treatment. Cells collected 15 days after treatment were derivatives of irradiated differentiating spermatogenic cells while cells collected 49 days later were derivatives of spermatogonial stem cells. The results showed that (1) spontaneous mutant frequency increased in spermatogenic cells recovered from nonirradiated old mice (26-months-old), particularly in the round spermatids; (2) mutant frequencies were significantly increased in round spermatids obtained from middle-aged mice (15-months-old) and old age mice (26-months-old) at 15 and 49 days after irradiation compared to the sham-treated old mice; and (3) pachytene spermatocytes obtained from 15- or 26-month-old mice displayed a significantly increased mutant frequency at 15 days post irradiation. This study indicates that age modulates the mutagenic response to ionizing radiation in the male germline.

  15. A Temporal-Specific and Transient cAMP Increase Characterizes Odorant Classical Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Wen; Smith, Andrew; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are proposed to initiate learning in a wide variety of species. Here, we measure changes in cAMP in the olfactory bulb prior to, during, and following a classically conditioned odor preference trial in rat pups. Measurements were taken up to the point of maximal CREB phosphorylation in olfactory…

  16. A Temporal-Specific and Transient cAMP Increase Characterizes Odorant Classical Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Wen; Smith, Andrew; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are proposed to initiate learning in a wide variety of species. Here, we measure changes in cAMP in the olfactory bulb prior to, during, and following a classically conditioned odor preference trial in rat pups. Measurements were taken up to the point of maximal CREB phosphorylation in olfactory…

  17. Ductile creep and compaction: A mechanism for transiently increasing fluid pressure in mostly sealed fault zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleep, Norman H.; Blanpied, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    A simple cyclic process is proposed to explain why major strike-slip fault zones, including the San Andreas, are weak. Field and laboratory studies suggest that the fluid within fault zones is often mostly sealed from that in the surrounding country rock. Ductile creep driven by the difference between fluid pressure and lithostatic pressure within a fault zone leads to compaction that increases fluid pressure. The increased fluid pressure allows frictional failure in earthquakes at shear tractions far below those required when fluid pressure is hydrostatic. The frictional slip associated with earthquakes creates porosity in the fault zone. The cycle adjusts so that no net porosity is created (if the fault zone remains constant width). The fluid pressure within the fault zone reaches long-term dynamic equilibrium with the (hydrostatic) pressure in the country rock. One-dimensional models of this process lead to repeatable and predictable earthquake cycles. However, even modest complexity, such as two parallel fault splays with different pressure histories, will lead to complicated earthquake cycles. Two-dimensional calculations allowed computation of stress and fluid pressure as a function of depth but had complicated behavior with the unacceptable feature that numerical nodes failed one at a time rather than in large earthquakes. A possible way to remove this unphysical feature from the models would be to include a failure law in which the coefficient of friction increases at first with frictional slip, stabilizing the fault, and then decreases with further slip, destabilizing it. ?? 1994 Birkha??user Verlag.

  18. Conditional deletion of gremlin causes a transient increase in bone formation and bone mass.

    PubMed

    Gazzerro, Elisabetta; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna; Zanotti, Stefano; Stadmeyer, Lisa; Durant, Deena; Economides, Aris N; Canalis, Ernesto

    2007-10-26

    Gremlin is a glycoprotein that binds bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) 2, 4, and 7, antagonizing their actions. Gremlin opposes BMP effects on osteoblastic differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo, and its overexpression causes osteopenia. To define the function of gremlin in the skeleton, we generated gremlin 1 (grem1) conditional null mice by mating mice where grem1 was flanked by lox(P) sequences with mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the control of the osteocalcin promoter. grem1 null male mice displayed increased trabecular bone volume due to enhanced osteoblastic activity, because mineral apposition and bone formation rates were increased. Osteoblast number and bone resorption were not altered. Marrow stromal cells from grem1 conditional null mice expressed higher levels of alkaline phosphatase activity. Gremlin down-regulation by RNA interference in ST-2 stromal and MC3T3 osteoblastic cells increased the BMP-2 stimulatory effect on alkaline phosphatase activity, on Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation, and on the transactivation of the BMP/Smad reporter construct 12xSBE-Oc-pGL3. Gremlin down-regulation also enhanced osteocalcin and Runx-2 expression, Wnt 3a signaling, and activity in ST-2 cells. In conclusion, deletion of grem1 in the bone microenvironment results in sensitization of BMP signaling and activity and enhanced bone formation in vivo.

  19. Transient and sustained increases in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate precede the differential growth response in gravistimulated maize pulvini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, I. Y.; Heilmann, I.; Boss, W. F.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The internodal maize pulvinus responds to gravistimulation with differential cell elongation on the lower side. As the site of both graviperception and response, the pulvinus is an ideal system to study how organisms sense changes in orientation. We observed a transient 5-fold increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) within 10 s of gravistimulation in the lower half of the pulvinus, indicating that the positional change was sensed immediately. Over the first 30 min, rapid IP3 fluctuations were observed between the upper and lower halves. Maize plants require a presentation time of between 2 and 4 h before the cells on the lower side of the pulvinus are committed to elongation. After 2 h of gravistimulation, the lower half consistently had higher IP3, and IP3 levels on the lower side continued to increase up to approximately 5-fold over basal levels before visible growth. As bending became visible after 8-10 h, IP3 levels returned to basal values. Additionally, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity in the lower pulvinus half increased transiently within 10 min of gravistimulation, suggesting that the increased IP3 production was accompanied by an up-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate biosynthesis. Neither IP3 levels nor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity changed in pulvini halves from vertical control plants. Our data indicate the involvement of IP3 and inositol phospholipids in both short- and long-term responses to gravistimulation. As a diffusible second messenger, IP3 provides a mechanism to transmit and amplify the signal from the perceiving to the responding cells in the pulvinus, coordinating a synchronized growth response.

  20. Activation of muscarinic receptors in porcine airway smooth muscle elicits a transient increase in phospholipase D activity.

    PubMed

    Mamoon, A M; Smith, J; Baker, R C; Farley, J M

    1999-01-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a phosphodiesterase that catalyses hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to produce phosphatidic acid and choline. In the presence of ethanol, PLD also catalyses the formation of phosphatidylethanol, which is a unique characteristic of this enzyme. Muscarinic receptor-induced changes in the activity of PLD were investigated in porcine tracheal smooth muscle by measuring the formation of [3H]phosphatidic acid ([3H]PA) and [3H]phosphatidylethanol ([3H]PEth) after labeling the muscle strips with [3H]palmitic acid. The cholinergic receptor agonist acetylcholine (Ach) significantly but transiently increased formation of both [3H]PA and [3H]PEth in a concentration-dependent manner (>105-400% vs. controls in the presence of 10(-6) to 10(-4) M Ach) when pretreated with 100 mM ethanol. The Ach receptor-mediated increase in PLD activity was inhibited by atropine (10(-6) M), indicating that activation of PLD occurred via muscarinic receptors. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) increased PLD activity that was effectively blocked by the PKC inhibitors calphostin C (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) and GFX (10(-8) to 10(-6) M). Ach-induced increases in PLD activity were also significantly, but incompletely, inhibited by both GFX and calphostin C. From the present data, we conclude that in tracheal smooth muscle, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-induced PLD activation is transient in nature and coupled to these receptors via PKC. However, PKC activation is not solely responsible for Ach-induced activation of PLD in porcine tracheal smooth muscle.

  1. Transient and sustained increases in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate precede the differential growth response in gravistimulated maize pulvini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, I. Y.; Heilmann, I.; Boss, W. F.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The internodal maize pulvinus responds to gravistimulation with differential cell elongation on the lower side. As the site of both graviperception and response, the pulvinus is an ideal system to study how organisms sense changes in orientation. We observed a transient 5-fold increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) within 10 s of gravistimulation in the lower half of the pulvinus, indicating that the positional change was sensed immediately. Over the first 30 min, rapid IP3 fluctuations were observed between the upper and lower halves. Maize plants require a presentation time of between 2 and 4 h before the cells on the lower side of the pulvinus are committed to elongation. After 2 h of gravistimulation, the lower half consistently had higher IP3, and IP3 levels on the lower side continued to increase up to approximately 5-fold over basal levels before visible growth. As bending became visible after 8-10 h, IP3 levels returned to basal values. Additionally, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity in the lower pulvinus half increased transiently within 10 min of gravistimulation, suggesting that the increased IP3 production was accompanied by an up-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate biosynthesis. Neither IP3 levels nor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity changed in pulvini halves from vertical control plants. Our data indicate the involvement of IP3 and inositol phospholipids in both short- and long-term responses to gravistimulation. As a diffusible second messenger, IP3 provides a mechanism to transmit and amplify the signal from the perceiving to the responding cells in the pulvinus, coordinating a synchronized growth response.

  2. The Influence of Single-Dose and Short-Term Administration of Quercetin on the Pharmacokinetics of Midazolam in Humans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mai Anh; Staubach, Petra; Wolffram, Siegfried; Langguth, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Quercetin is a plant flavonol that is available from both daily diet and nutraceuticals. To investigate the effect of acute and short-term intake of high-dose quercetin on CYP3A-mediated metabolism, 10 healthy volunteers received 7.5 mg oral midazolam without, with a single dose of 1500 mg quercetin and after 1-week supplementation with 1500 mg quercetin daily. A substudy was performed in three subjects to explore the impact of repeated quercetin intake on intravenously administered midazolam. Coadministration with a single dose of quercetin did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and its 1'-hydroxymetabolite, but following short-term quercetin intake, there was a trend to reduced midazolam exposure (geometric mean ratio of test-control area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ ): 0.82; 90% confidence interval: 0.61-1.10) and midazolam-metabolite AUC0-∞ ratios were decreased by 9.7%-47.6% from control in seven subjects. The tendency was opposite when midazolam was given intravenously. We conclude that a single dose of quercetin would not provoke any toxic adverse events when coadministered with midazolam, whereas repeated quercetin intake can reduce systemic exposure to the orally given drug by increasing its CYP3A-catalyzed metabolism. As the effect deviated after intravenous drug administration, different mechanisms of interaction may be involved at the intestinal site compared with the liver. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Quercetin, a Natural Flavonoid Interacts with DNA, Arrests Cell Cycle and Causes Tumor Regression by Activating Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shikha; Somasagara, Ranganatha R.; Hegde, Mahesh; Nishana, Mayilaadumveettil; Tadi, Satish Kumar; Srivastava, Mrinal; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring compounds are considered as attractive candidates for cancer treatment and prevention. Quercetin and ellagic acid are naturally occurring flavonoids abundantly seen in several fruits and vegetables. In the present study, we evaluate and compare antitumor efficacies of quercetin and ellagic acid in animal models and cancer cell lines in a comprehensive manner. We found that quercetin induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cells in a dose-dependent manner, while ellagic acid showed only limited toxicity. Besides leukemic cells, quercetin also induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells, however, its effect on normal cells was limited or none. Further, quercetin caused S phase arrest during cell cycle progression in tested cancer cells. Quercetin induced tumor regression in mice at a concentration 3-fold lower than ellagic acid. Importantly, administration of quercetin lead to ~5 fold increase in the life span in tumor bearing mice compared to that of untreated controls. Further, we found that quercetin interacts with DNA directly, and could be one of the mechanisms for inducing apoptosis in both, cancer cell lines and tumor tissues by activating the intrinsic pathway. Thus, our data suggests that quercetin can be further explored for its potential to be used in cancer therapeutics and combination therapy. PMID:27068577

  4. Towards an Understanding of the Low Bioavailability of Quercetin: A Study of Its Interaction with Intestinal Lipids.

    PubMed

    Rich, Gillian T; Buchweitz, Maria; Winterbone, Mark S; Kroon, Paul A; Wilde, Peter J

    2017-02-05

    We have studied the uptake of quercetin aglycone into CaCo-2/TC7 cells in the presence and absence of mixed micelles that are present in the human small intestine. The micelles inhibited the transport of quercetin into the cells. To gain an understanding of why this is the case we examined the solubilisation of quercetin in micelles of differing composition and into pure lipid phases. We did this by using the environmental sensitivity of quercetin's UV-visible absorption spectra and measurement of free quercetin by filtration of the micellar solutions. The nature of the micelles was also studied by pyrene fluorescence. We found that the partitioning of quercetin into simple bile salt micelles was low and for mixed micelles was inhibited by increasing the bile salt concentration. The affinity of quercetin decreased in the order egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) = lysoPC > mixed micelles > bile salts. These results, together with the innate properties of quercetin, contribute to an understanding of the low bioavailability of quercetin.

  5. Elevated carboxylesterase activity contributes to the lambda-cyhalothrin insensitivity in quercetin fed Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Chen, Chengyu; Liu, Ying; Shi, Xueyan; Desneux, Nicolas; Han, Peng; Gao, Xiwu

    2017-01-01

    Quercetin as one of the key plant secondary metabolite flavonol is ubiquitous in terrestrial plants. In this study, the decrease in sensitivity to lambda-cyhalothrin was observed in quercetin-fed Helicoverpa armigera larvae. In order to figure out the mechanisms underlying the decreased sensitivity of H. armigera larvae to lambda-cyhalothrin by quercetin induction, the changes in carboxylesterase activity and in-vitro hydrolytic metabolic capacity to lambda-cyhalothrin were examined. The LC50 value of quercetin-fed H. armigera larvae to lambda-cyhalothrin showed 2.41-fold higher than that of the control. S, S, S-Tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) treatment showed a synergism effect on lambda-cyhalothrin toxicity to quercetin-fed H. armigera. Moreover, the activity of carboxylesterase was significantly higher in quercetin-fed H. armigera larvae after fed on quercetin for 48 h. The in-vitro hydrolytic metabolic capacity to lambda-cyhalothrin in quercetin-fed H. armigera larvae midgut was 289.82 nmol 3-PBA/mg protein/min, which is significant higher than that in the control group (149.60 nmol 3-PBA/mg protein/min). The elevated CarE enzyme activity and corresponding increased hydrolytic metabolic capacity to lambda-cyhalothrin in quercetin-fed H. armigera contributed to the enhanced tolerance to lambda-cyhalothrin.

  6. Effects of quercetin on human α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-mediated ion currents.

    PubMed

    Shin, Tae-Joon; Choi, Sun-Hye; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Pyo, Mi Kyung; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Kim, Bo-Ra; Lee, Sang-Mok; Han, Ye Sun; Lee, Jun-Ho; Park, Ji-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Rhim, Hyewhon; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin is a low molecular weight flavonoid found in dietary fruits and vegetables. Quercetin, like other flavonoids, has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. However, relatively little is known about how quercetin achieves its neuroprotective abilities. The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor is one of several excitatory receptors, which play an important role in postsynaptic neurotransmission. Over-stimulation of ionotropic glutamate receptor including AMPA receptors is closely associated with excitatory neurotoxicities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of quercetin on the glutamate-induced inward current (IGlu) in Xenopus oocytes that heterologously express human AMPA receptor and stargazin, an auxiliary subunit of AMPA receptor. IGlu was measured using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. In oocytes injected with cRNAs coding AMPA receptor (GluR1) and stargazin, quercetin inhibited IGlu in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. The IC50 was 84.9+/-15.0 microM. Quercetin action on IGlu was attenuated by increasing glutamate concentration, and was membrane holding potential-dependent. These results show a possibility that quercetin interacts with AMPA receptor, which was heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and that quercetin action on IGlu of AMPA receptor could be one of contributions of quercetin-mediated neuroprotections.

  7. Preventive effects of quercetin against benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA damages and pulmonary precancerous pathologic changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Nian-zu; Zhu, Yan-ping; Zhou, Jian-wei; Mao, Li; Zhao, Ren-cheng; Fang, Tai-hui; Wang, Xin-ru

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of quercetin against benzo[a]pyrene-induced blood lymphocyte DNA damages and pulmonary precancerous pathologic changes in mice, and to reveal the potential mechanism behind these effects. In this study, mice in quercetin-treated groups were given quercetin for 90 days. After one week of treatment, mice in the quercetin-treated groups and the positive control group received a single intraperitoneal dose of benzo[a]pyrene (100 mg/kg body weight). The results of single cell gel electrophoresis assay showed that the average lengths of the comet cell tail and DNA damage in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice induced by benzo[a]pyrene decreased significantly as a result of quercetin treatment dose-dependently. Light microscopic examination showed that the degrees of pulmonary precancerous pathologic changes in the quercetin-treated groups decreased significantly compared with those in the positive control group. Meanwhile, the cytochrome P4501A1-linked 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activities in lung microsomes of mice decreased as the dose of quercetin increased. The results of this in vivo study revealed that quercetin had a significant preventive effect on benzo[a]pyrene-induced DNA damage, and had a potential chemopreventive effect on the carcinogenesis of lung cancer induced by benzo[a]pyrene. The mechanism of these effects of quercetin could be related to the inhibition of cytochrome P4501A1 activity.

  8. Transient increase in phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate during activation of human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Traynor-Kaplan, A.E.; Thompson, B.L.; Harris, A.L.; Taylor, P.; Omann, G.M.; Sklar, L.A. )

    1989-09-15

    We recently showed that phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3) was present in a unique lipid fraction generated in neutrophils during activation. Here, we demonstrate that the band containing this fraction isolated from thin layer chromatography consists primarily of PIP3 and that only small amounts of radiolabeled PIP3 exist prior to activation. In addition, high performance liquid chromatography of deacylated phospholipids from stimulated cells reveals an increase in a fraction eluting ahead of glycerophosphoinositol 4,5-P2. After removal of the glycerol we found that it coeluted with inositol 1,3,4-P3 when resubjected to high performance liquid chromatography. Thus, we have detected a second, novel form of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in activated neutrophils, PI-(3,4)P2. The elevation of PIP3 through the formyl peptide receptor is blocked by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, implicating mediation of the increase in PIP3 by a guanosine triphosphate-binding (G) protein. The rise in PIP3 is not secondary to calcium elevation. Buffering the rise in intracellular calcium did not diminish the increase in PIP3. The elevation of PIP3 appears to occur during activation with physiological agonists, its level varying with the degree of activation. Leukotriene B4, which elicits many of the same responses as stimulation of the formyl peptide receptor but with minimal oxidant production, stimulates a much attenuated rise in PIP3. Isoproterenol, which inhibits oxidant production also reduces the rise in PIP3. Hence formation of PI(3,4)P2 and PIP3 (presumed to be PI(3,4,5)P3) correlates closely with the early events of neutrophil activation.

  9. Protective mechanism of quercetin on acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Yang, M; Liu, J W; Yin, G T

    2016-03-11

    To investigate the protective mechanism of quercetin on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rats, an AMI rat model was established by ligating the left coronary anterior descending branch. The rats were randomly divided into the model group and low- and high-dose quercetin groups. The control group comprised sham-operated rats. The rats in the low- and high-dose quercetin groups were administered 100 and 400 mg/kg quercetin, respectively, by gavage. The rats in the control and model groups were administered isometric normal saline once daily for one week. The mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the myocardial tissue of rats were detected in each group by real time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the myocardial tissue and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were detected using a colorimetric method. The level of apoptosis was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling. Compared with those in the control group, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA content in the model, low-, and high-dose groups significantly increased. SOD and CAT activities decreased significantly. The cell apoptosis index increased significantly  (P < 0.05). Compared with those in the model group, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and IL-1β and MDA content in myocardial tissue of rats in the low-dose and high-dose groups decreased significantly. SOD and CAT activities increased significantly. The cell apoptosis index significantly reduced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, quercetin has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects on AMI rats and can effectively protect against myocardium damage.

  10. Effects of transient increased afterload during experimentally induced acute myocardial infarction in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hammerman, H; Kloner, R A; Alker, K J; Schoen, F J; Braunwald, E

    1985-02-15

    Alterations in afterload may occur during acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but it is unknown whether such alterations cause long-term changes in the left ventricular topography or alter healing of the AMI. AMI was produced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in open-chest dogs. Eight dogs were randomized to a methoxamine group with an infusion dose of 30 micrograms/kg/min starting 1 hour after ligation for 4 hours to increase systemic systolic pressure by 40 to 50 mm Hg, and 8 were randomized to a saline control group (n = 8). Seven days later the dogs were killed and the hearts examined. The ratio of infarct wall thickness to noninfarct wall thickness was 1.13 +/- 0.03 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) in control dogs and was 0.98 +/- 0.03 in the dogs treated with methoxamine (p less than 0.005). An expansion index was determined as previously reported and expansion was considered to have occurred if this index exceeded 1.09. The expansion index was 0.98 +/- 0.06 in the control group and 1.18 +/- 0.07 in the methoxamine group (p less than 0.05). Histologic analysis suggested a lag in the healing rate in the methoxamine-treated dogs. Thus, early, brief increases in afterload cause infarct expansion and thinning and appears to slow the early healing phase of AMI in dogs.

  11. Estimation of transient increases in bleeding risk associated with physical activity in children with haemophilia

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Carolyn R; Herbert, Robert D; Latimer, Jane; Barnes, Chris; Curtin, Julie A; Monagle, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Although it is widely appreciated that vigorous physical activity can increase the risk of bleeding episodes in children with haemophilia, the magnitude of the increase in risk is not known. Accurate risk estimates could inform decisions made by children with haemophilia and their parents about participation in physical activity and aid the development of optimal prophylactic schedules. The aim of this study is to provide an accurate estimate of the risks of bleeding associated with vigorous physical activity in children with haemophilia. Methods/Design The study will be a case-crossover study nested within a prospective cohort study. Children with moderate or severe haemophilia A or B, recruited from two paediatric haematology departments in Australia, will participate in the study. The child, or the child's parent or guardian, will report bleeding episodes experienced over a 12-month period. Following a bleeding episode, the participant will be interviewed by telephone about exposures to physical activity in the case period (8 hours before the bleed) and 2 control periods (an 8 hour period at the same time on the day preceding the bleed and an 8 hour period two days preceding the bleed). Conditional logistic regression will be used to estimate the risk of participating in vigorous physical activity from measures of exposure to physical activity in the case and control periods. Discussion This case-control study will provide estimates of the risk of participation in vigorous physical activity in children with haemophilia. PMID:18582359

  12. Perinatal nicotine treatment induces transient increases in NACHO protein levels in the rat frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wichern, Franziska; Jensen, Majbrit M; Christensen, Ditte Z; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C; Thomsen, Morten S

    2017-03-27

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) regulator chaperone (NACHO) was recently identified as an important regulator of nAChR maturation and surface expression. Here we show that NACHO levels decrease during early postnatal development in rats. This decrease occurs earlier and to a greater degree in the frontal cortex (FC) compared with the hippocampus (HIP). We further show that rats exposed to nicotine during pre- and postnatal development exhibit significantly higher NACHO levels in the FC at postnatal day (PND) 21, but not at PND60. Repeated exposure to nicotine selectively during early (PND8-14) or late (PND54-60) postnatal stages did not affect NACHO protein levels in the FC or HIP, neither did exposure to high doses of the selective α7 nAChR agonists SSR180711, A-582941, or PNU-282987. However, we found significantly increased NACHO protein levels in the FC of PND36 rats after a single exposure to a combination of nicotine and the type II α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulator (PAM) PNU-120596, but not the type I PAM AVL-3288. These findings suggest that exposure to nAChR agonism affects NACHO protein levels, and that this effect is more pronounced during pre- or early postnatal development. The effect of PNU-120596 further suggests that the increase in NACHO expression is caused by activation rather than desensitization of nAChRs. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. All rights reserved.

  13. Transient overexpression of adh8a increases allyl alcohol toxicity in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Klüver, Nils; Ortmann, Julia; Paschke, Heidrun; Renner, Patrick; Ritter, Axel P; Scholz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Fish embryos are widely used as an alternative model to study toxicity in vertebrates. Due to their complexity, embryos are believed to more resemble an adult organism than in vitro cellular models. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the embryo's metabolic capacity. We recently identified allyl alcohol, an industrial chemical, to be several orders of magnitude less toxic to zebrafish embryo than to adult zebrafish (embryo LC50 = 478 mg/L vs. fish LC50 = 0.28 mg/L). Reports on mammals have indicated that allyl alcohol requires activation by alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh) to form the highly reactive and toxic metabolite acrolein, which shows similar toxicity in zebrafish embryos and adults. To identify if a limited metabolic capacity of embryos indeed can explain the low allyl alcohol sensitivity of zebrafish embryos, we compared the mRNA expression levels of Adh isoenzymes (adh5, adh8a, adh8b and adhfe1) during embryo development to that in adult fish. The greatest difference between embryo and adult fish was found for adh8a and adh8b expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that these genes might be required for allyl alcohol activation. Microinjection of adh8a, but not adh8b mRNA led to a significant increase of allyl alcohol toxicity in embryos similar to levels reported for adults (LC50 = 0.42 mg/L in adh8a mRNA-injected embryos). Furthermore, GC/MS analysis of adh8a-injected embryos indicated a significant decline of internal allyl alcohol concentrations from 0.23-58 ng/embryo to levels below the limit of detection (< 4.6 µg/L). Injection of neither adh8b nor gfp mRNA had an impact on internal allyl alcohol levels supporting that the increased allyl alcohol toxicity was mediated by an increase in its metabolization. These results underline the necessity to critically consider metabolic activation in the zebrafish embryo. As demonstrated here, mRNA injection is one useful approach to study the role of candidate enzymes involved in

  14. Quercetin protects rat skeletal muscle from ischemia reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Ekinci Akdemir, Fazile Nur; Gülçin, İlhami; Karagöz, Berna; Soslu, Recep

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential beneficial effects of quercetin on skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion injury. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley type rats were randomly divided into four groups. In the sham group, only gastrocnemius muscle were removed and given no quercetin. In ischemia group, all the femoral artery, vein and collaterals were occluded in the left hindlimb by applying tourniquate under general anaesthesia for three hours but reperfusion was not done. In the Quercetin + Ischemia reperfusion group, quercetin (200 mg kg(-1) dose orally) was given during one-week reoperation and later ischemia reperfusion model was done. Finally, gastrocnemius muscle samples were removed to measure biochemical parameters. The biomarkers, MDA levels, SOD, CAT and GPx activities, were evaluated related to skeletal muscle ischemia reperfusion injury. MDA levels reduced and SOD, CAT and GPx activities increased significantly in Quercetin + Ischemia reperfusion group. Results clearly showed that Quercetin have a protective role against oxidative damage induced by ischemia reperfusion in rats.

  15. Quantification of transient increase of the blood-brain barrier permeability to macromolecules by optimized focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lingyan; Palacio-Mancheno, Paolo; Badami, Joseph; Shin, Da Wi; Zeng, Min; Cardoso, Luis; Tu, Raymond; Fu, Bingmei M

    2014-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy using a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody that targets tumor cells has been shown to be efficient for the treatment of many malignant cancers, with reduced side effects. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) inhibits the transport of intravenous antibodies to tumors in the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated that focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with microbubbles (MBs) is a promising method to transiently disrupt the BBB for the drug delivery to the central nervous system. To find the optimal FUS and MBs that can induce reversible increase in the BBB permeability, we employed minimally invasive multiphoton microscopy to quantify the BBB permeability to dextran-155 kDa with similar molecular weight to an antibody by applying different doses of FUS in the presence of MBs with an optimal size and concentration. The cerebral microcirculation was observed through a section of frontoparietal bone thinned with a micro-grinder. About 5 minutes after applying the FUS on the thinned skull in the presence of MBs for 1 minute, TRITC (tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate)-dextran-155 kDa in 1% bovine serum albumin in mammalian Ringer's solution was injected into the cerebral circulation via the ipsilateral carotid artery by a syringe pump. Simultaneously, the temporal images were collected from the brain parenchyma ~100-200 μm below the pia mater. Permeability was determined from the rate of tissue solute accumulation around individual microvessels. After several trials, we found the optimal dose of FUS. At the optimal dose, permeability increased by ~14-fold after 5 minutes post-FUS, and permeability returned to the control level after 25 minutes. FUS without MBs or MBs injected without FUS did not change the permeability. Our method provides an accurate in vivo assessment for the transient BBB permeability change under the treatment of FUS. The optimal FUS dose found for the reversible BBB permeability increase without BBB disruption is reliable and

  16. Contribution of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ regulatory mechanisms to the inflammation-induced increase in the evoked Ca2+ transient in rat cutaneous dorsal root ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Scheff, Nicole N.; Lu, Shao-Gang; Gold, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent inflammation results in an increase in the magnitude and duration of high K+-evoked Ca2+ transients in putative nociceptive cutaneous dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether recruitment of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) contributes to these inflammation-induced changes. Acutely dissociated, retrogradely labeled cutaneous DRG neurons from naïve and complete Freund’s adjuvant inflamed adult male Sprague Dawley rats were studied with ratiometric microfluorimetry. Ryanodine only attenuated the duration but not magnitude of the high K+-evoked Ca2+ transient in neurons from inflamed rats. However, there was no significant impact of inflammation on the potency or efficacy of ryanodine-induced block of the caffeine-evoked Ca2+ transient, or the impact of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (SERCA) inhibition on the high K+-evoked Ca2+ transient. Furthermore, while there was no change in the magnitude, an inflammation-induced increase in the duration of the caffeine-evoked Ca2+ transient was only observed with a prolonged caffeine application. In contrast to the high K+-evoked Ca2+ transient, there was no evidence of direct mitrochondrial involvement or that of the Ca2+ extrusion mechanism, the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, on the caffeine-evoked Ca2+ transient, and block of SERCA only increased the duration of this transient. These results indicate the presence of Ca2+ regulatory domains in cutaneous nociceptive DRG neurons within which cytosolic Ca2+ increased via influx and release are highly segregated. Furthermore, our results suggest that changes in neither CICR machinery nor the coupling between Ca2+ influx and CICR are primarily responsible for the inflammation-induced changes in the evoked Ca2+ transient. PMID:23642703

  17. Transient Increase in Homocysteine but Not Hyperhomocysteinemia during Acute Exercise at Different Intensities in Sedentary Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Egan, Brendan; Díaz-Martínez, Ángel Enrique; Peñalvo, José Luis; González-Medina, Antonio; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; O’Gorman, Donal J.; Úbeda, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    Considering that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of serum homocysteine (tHcy) and the vitamins involved in its metabolism (folates, B12, and B6) in response to acute exercise at different intensities. Eight sedentary males (18–27 yr) took part in the study. Subjects were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal) acute exercise trials on separate occasions at 40% (low intensity, LI) and 80% VO2peak (high intensity, HI). Blood samples were drawn at different points before (pre4 and pre0 h), during (exer10, exer20, exer30, exer45, and exer60 min), and after exercise (post0, post3, and post19 h). Dietary, genetic, and lifestyle factors were controlled. Maximum tHcy occurred during exercise, both at LI (8.6 (8.0–10.1) µmol/L, 9.3% increase from pre0) and HI (9.4 (8.2–10.6) µmol/L, 25.7% increase from pre0), coinciding with an accumulated energy expenditure independent of the exercise intensity. From this point onwards tHcy declined until the cessation of exercise and continued descending. At post19, tHcy was not different from pre-exercise values. No values of hyperhomocysteinemia were observed at any sampling point and intensity. In conclusion, acute exercise in sedentary individuals, even at HI, shows no negative effect on tHcy when at least 400 kcal are spent during exercise and the nutritional status for folate, B12, and B6 is adequate, since no hyperhomocysteinemia has been observed and basal concentrations were recovered in less than 24 h. This could be relevant for further informing healthy exercise recommendations. PMID:23236449

  18. Quercetin improves macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yingjie; Hou, Pengbo; Li, Fahui; Liu, Qinghua; Qin, Shucun; Zhou, Guanghai; Xu, Xuelian; Si, Yanhong; Guo, Shoudong

    2017-01-14

    Quercetin, one of the most widely distributed flavonoids in plants, has been demonstrated to reduce hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerotic lesion formation. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) plays a crucial role in exporting cholesterol from peripheral cells, which is one mechanism utilized in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to investigate whether quercetin reduces lipid accumulation by improving RCT in vivo. Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet were used to investigate the effect of quercetin on RCT by an isotope tracing method, and the underlying mechanisms were clarified by molecular techniques. These novel results demonstrated that quercetin significantly improved [(3)H]-cholesterol transfer from [(3)H]-cholesterol-loaded macrophages to the plasma (approximately 34% increase), liver (30% increase), and bile (50% increase) and finally to the feces (approximately 40% increase) for excretion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, quercetin markedly increased the cholesterol accepting ability of plasma and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and dramatically decreased the content of malondialdehyde in plasma and oxidized phosphocholine carried by HDL. Therefore, the underlying mechanisms of quercetin in improving RCT may be partially due to the elevated cholesterol accepting ability of HDL, the increased expression levels of proteins related to RCT, such as ATP-binding cassettes (ABC) A1 and G1, and the improved antioxidant activity of HDL. Quercetin accelerates RCT in an atherosclerosis model, which is helpful in clarifying the lipid-lowering effect of quercetin.

  19. Role of Bax in quercetin-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Szczepanski, Miroslaw; Lee, Yong J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin, a flavonoid, on the apoptotic pathway in a human prostate cell line (LNCaP). We observed that treatment of cells for 24 h with quercetin induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. A sustained inhibition of the major survival signal, Akt, occurred in quercetin-treated cells. Treatment of LNCaP cells with an apoptosis inducing concentration of quercetin (100 μM) resulted in a rapid decrease in the inhibitory Ser(473) phosphorylation of Akt leading to inhibition of its kinase activity. Quercetin treatment (100 μM) also caused a decrease in Ser(136) phosphorylation of Bad, which is a downstream target of Akt. Protein interaction assay revealed that during treatment with quercetin, Bcl-xL dissociated from Bax and then associated with Bad. Our results also show that quercetin decreases the Bcl-xL:Bax ratio and increases translocation and multimerization of Bax to the mitochondrial membrane. The translocation is accompanied by cytochrome c release, and procaspases-3, -8 and -9 cleavage and increased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Similar results were observed in human colon cancer HCT116Bax+/+ cell line, but not HCT116Bax−/− cell line. Interestingly, at similar concentrations (100 μM), quercetin treatment did not affect the viability or rate of apoptosis in normal human prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) and rat prostate epithelial cell line (YPEN-1). Our results indicate that the apoptotic processes caused by quercetin are mediated by the dissociation of Bax from Bcl-xL and the activation of caspase families in human prostate cancer cells. PMID:18455702

  20. Quercetin Inhibits Intestinal Iron Absorption and Ferroportin Transporter Expression In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Balesaria, Sara; Skinner, Vernon; Debnam, Edward S.; Srai, Surjit K. S.; Sharp, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing systemic iron levels within narrow limits is critical for maintaining human health. There are no known pathways to eliminate excess iron from the body and therefore iron homeostasis is maintained by modifying dietary absorption so that it matches daily obligatory losses. Several dietary factors can modify iron absorption. Polyphenols are plentiful in human diet and many compounds, including quercetin – the most abundant dietary polyphenol – are potent iron chelators. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and longer-term effects of quercetin on intestinal iron metabolism. Acute exposure of rat duodenal mucosa to quercetin increased apical iron uptake but decreased subsequent basolateral iron efflux into the circulation. Quercetin binds iron between its 3-hydroxyl and 4-carbonyl groups and methylation of the 3-hydroxyl group negated both the increase in apical uptake and the inhibition of basolateral iron release, suggesting that the acute effects of quercetin on iron transport were due to iron chelation. In longer-term studies, rats were administered quercetin by a single gavage and iron transporter expression measured 18 h later. Duodenal FPN expression was decreased in quercetin-treated rats. This effect was recapitulated in Caco-2 cells exposed to quercetin for 18 h. Reporter assays in Caco-2 cells indicated that repression of FPN by quercetin was not a transcriptional event but might be mediated by miRNA interaction with the FPN 3′UTR. Our study highlights a novel mechanism for the regulation of iron bioavailability by dietary polyphenols. Potentially, diets rich in polyphenols might be beneficial for patients groups at risk of iron loading by limiting the rate of intestinal iron absorption. PMID:25058155

  1. Long term dietary quercetin enrichment as a cardioprotective countermeasure in mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Ballmann, Christopher; Denney, Thomas; Beyers, Ronald J; Quindry, Tiffany; Romero, Matthew; Selsby, Joshua T; Quindry, John C

    2017-02-13

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) causes declines in cardiac health resulting in premature mortality. As a potential countermeasure, quercetin is a polyphenol possessing inherent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that activate proliferator-activated γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) increasing mitochondrial biogenesis protein abundance. We investigated the extent to which lifelong 0.2% dietary quercetin enrichment attenuates dystrophic cardiopathology in mdx mice. Dystrophic animals were fed quercetin or control diet for 12 months while control C57 mice were fed a control diet. Cardiac function was assessed via 7T MRI at 2, 10, and 14 months. At 14 months hearts were collected for histology and western blotting. Results indicate mdx strain dependent declines in cardiac performance at 14 months and that dietary quercetin enrichment did not attenuate functional losses. In contrast, histological analyses provide evidence that quercetin feeding was associated with decreased fibronectin, and indirect damage indices (Hematoxylin & Eosin) as compared to mdx. Dietary quercetin enrichment increased cardiac protein abundance of PGC-1α, cytochrome-c, ETC complexes I-V, citrate synthase, SOD2, and GPX versus untreated mdx. Protein abundance of inflammatory markers NFκB, P-NFκB, and P-IKBα were decreased by quercetin compared to untreated mdx, while preserving IKBα compared to mdx. Furthermore, quercetin decreased TGF-β1, COX2, and F4/80 versus untreated mdx mice. Data suggest that long term quercetin enrichment does not impact physiologic parameters of cardiac function but improves indices of mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant enzymes, facilitated DGC assembly, and decreased inflammation in dystrophic hearts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Quercetin inhibits intestinal iron absorption and ferroportin transporter expression in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lesjak, Marija; Hoque, Rukshana; Balesaria, Sara; Skinner, Vernon; Debnam, Edward S; Srai, Surjit K S; Sharp, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Balancing systemic iron levels within narrow limits is critical for maintaining human health. There are no known pathways to eliminate excess iron from the body and therefore iron homeostasis is maintained by modifying dietary absorption so that it matches daily obligatory losses. Several dietary factors can modify iron absorption. Polyphenols are plentiful in human diet and many compounds, including quercetin--the most abundant dietary polyphenol--are potent iron chelators. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute and longer-term effects of quercetin on intestinal iron metabolism. Acute exposure of rat duodenal mucosa to quercetin increased apical iron uptake but decreased subsequent basolateral iron efflux into the circulation. Quercetin binds iron between its 3-hydroxyl and 4-carbonyl groups and methylation of the 3-hydroxyl group negated both the increase in apical uptake and the inhibition of basolateral iron release, suggesting that the acute effects of quercetin on iron transport were due to iron chelation. In longer-term studies, rats were administered quercetin by a single gavage and iron transporter expression measured 18 h later. Duodenal FPN expression was decreased in quercetin-treated rats. This effect was recapitulated in Caco-2 cells exposed to quercetin for 18 h. Reporter assays in Caco-2 cells indicated that repression of FPN by quercetin was not a transcriptional event but might be mediated by miRNA interaction with the FPN 3'UTR. Our study highlights a novel mechanism for the regulation of iron bioavailability by dietary polyphenols. Potentially, diets rich in polyphenols might be beneficial for patients groups at risk of iron loading by limiting the rate of intestinal iron absorption.

  3. Involvement of P-glycoprotein in regulating cellular levels of Ginkgo flavonols: quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Cao, Jiang; Zeng, Su

    2005-06-01

    Quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were the most important flavonoid constituents in extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves. Transport studies of Ginkgo flavonols were performed in Caco-2 cell mono-layers. Their apparent permeability in absorptive and secretion directions was determined, and quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin displayed polarized transport, with the Papp,B-A being higher than the Papp,A-B (P<0.01 for quercetin, P<0.001 for kaempferol and isorhamnetin, Student's t-test). Bcap37/MDR1 cells, which were transfected with a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) gene construct, were treated with quercetin, kaempferol or isorhamnetin. The concentrations of Ginkgo flavonol in Bcap37/MDR1 cells were lower than those in parent cells (P<0.05 for quercetin, P<0.01 for isorhamnetin, Mann-Whitney U test). The concentrations of the flavonol in transfected cells increased when incubated with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil (P<0.05 for kaempferol, Mann-WhitneyU test). A colorometric assay for ATPase activity was applied to the detection of interaction of flavonol with P-gp. Quercetin and kaempferol inhibited the ATPase activity, and isorhamnetin stimulated the ATPase activity (P<0.05 for isorhamnetin, Mann Whitney U test). The results indicated that Ginkgo flavonols quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin were substrates of P-gp. The P-gp type efflux pump might limit the bioavailability of Ginkgo flavonols.

  4. Quercetin in Cancer Treatment, Alone or in Combination with Conventional Therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Brito, Ana Filipa; Ribeiro, Marina; Abrantes, Ana Margarida; Pires, Ana Salomé; Teixo, Ricardo Jorge; Tralhão, José Guilherme; Botelho, Maria Filomena

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a problem of global importance, since the incidence is increasing worldwide and therapeutic options are generally limited. Thus, it becomes imperative to find new therapeutic targets as well as new molecules with therapeutic potential for tumors. Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that may be potential therapeutic agents. Several studies have shown that these compounds have a higher anticancer potential. Among the flavonoids in the human diet, quercetin is one of the most important. In the last decades, several anticancer properties of quercetin have been described, such as cell signaling, pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant effects, growth suppression. In fact, it is now well known that quercetin has diverse biological effects, inhibiting multiple enzymes involved in cell proliferation, as well as, in signal transduction pathways. On the other hand, there are also studies reporting potential synergistic effects when combined quercetin with chemotherapeutic agents or radiotherapy. In fact, several studies which aim to explore the anticancer potential of these combined treatments have already been published, the majority with promising results. Actually it is well known that quercetin can act on the chemosensitization and radiosensitization but also as chemoprotective and radioprotective, protecting normal cells of the side effects that results from chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which obviously provides notable advantages in their use in anticancer treatment. Thus, all these data indicate that quercetin may have a key role in anticancer treatment. In this context, this review is focused on the relationship between flavonoids and cancer, with special emphasis on the role of quercetin.

  5. Onion skin waste as a valorization resource for the by-products quercetin and biosugar.

    PubMed

    Choi, In Seong; Cho, Eun Jin; Moon, Jae-Hak; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-12-01

    Onion skin waste (OSW), which is produced from processed onions, is a major industrial waste. We evaluated the use of OSW for biosugar and quercetin production. The carbohydrate content of OSW was analyzed, and the optimal conversion conditions were evaluated by varying enzyme mixtures and loading volumes for biosugar production and quercetin extraction. The enzymatic conversion rate of OSW to biosugar was 98.5% at 0.72 mg of cellulase, 0.16 mg of pectinase, and 1.0mg of xylanase per gram of dry OSW. Quercetin extraction also increased by 1.61-fold after complete enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, the newly developed nano-matrix (terpyridine-immobilized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles-zinc (TSMNP-Zn matrix) was utilized to separate quercetin from OSW extracts. The nano-matrix facilitated easy separation and purification of quercetin. Using the TSMNP-Zn matrix the quercetin was approximately 90% absorbed. In addition, the recovery yield of quercetin was approximately 75% after treatment with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.

  6. Quercetin and alendronate multi-functionalized materials as tools to hinder oxidative stress damage.

    PubMed

    Forte, Lucia; Torricelli, Paola; Boanini, Elisa; Rubini, Katia; Fini, Milena; Bigi, Adriana

    2017-09-02

    In spite of its remarkable anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer properties and its possible inhibition activity towards bone resorption, quercetin therapeutic use is limited by its poor bioavailability. Herein we developed a new multifunctionalized system for the local administration of quercetin and alendronate, one of the most potent anti-osteoporotic drugs, with the aim to get a material with enhanced properties. To this purpose we loaded quercetin on hydroxyapatite functionalized with alendronate, as well as on hydroxyapatite. Characterization was performed by means of X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies, thermogravimetric and spectrophotometric analyses. Loading of quercetin from hydro-alcoholic solution increased with time and reached a constant value of about 5 weight% on both substrates, without causing significant structural and morphological modifications. Quercetin functionalized materials exhibit relevant anti-oxidant properties, in agreement with their high radical scavenging activity, and a quercetin sustained release in phosphate buffer. In vitro osteoblast and osteoclast co-culture in a microenvironment altered by oxidative stress shows that both alendronate and quercetin significantly reduce osteoclast viability, whereas they are able to counteract the negative effect of oxidative stress on osteoblast viability and differentiation, suggesting that their relative amount in the functionalized materials can be utilized to tailor bone cells response. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Quercetin Associated with the Enhancement of Biological Activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jaemin; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2017-08-16

    Nonthermal plasma is a promising technology to improve the safety and to extend the shelf-life of various minimally processed foods. However, research on plasma-induced systemic degradation related to changes in chemical structure and biological activity is still very limited. In this study, the enhancement of biological activity and the mechanism of degradation of the most common type of flavonol, quercetin, induced by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma were investigated. Quercetin is dissolved in methanol and exposed to nonthermal DBD plasma for 5, 10, 20, and 30 min. The quercetin treated with the plasma for 20 min showed rapidly increased α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical scavenging activities compared to those of parent quercetin. The structures of the degradation products 1-3 from the quercetin treated with the plasma for 20 min were isolated and characterized by interpretation of their spectroscopic data. Among the generated products, (±)-alphitonin (1) exhibited significantly improved antidiabetic and antioxidant properties compared to those of the parent quercetin. The antidiabetic and antioxidant properties were measured by α-glucosidase inhibition and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assays. These results suggested that structural changes in quercetin induced by DBD plasma might be attributable to improving the biological activity.

  8. Temozolomide, quercetin and cell death in the MOGGCCM astrocytoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Jakubowicz-Gil, Joanna; Langner, Ewa; Wertel, Iwona; Piersiak, Tomasz; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2010-10-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Temozolomide (an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent) and quercetin (natural flavonoid) on cell death in the human astrocytoma cell line MOGGCCM (WHO grade III). Our results indicate that Temozolomide induces autophagy, while quercetin promotes severe necrosis in the cell line in a manner dependent on the drug concentration. We demonstrated for the first time that combinations of both drugs were much more effective in programmed cell death induction in glioma cells. At a low (5muM) drug concentration, quercetin potentiated a pro-autophagic effect of Temozolomide, while after treatment with a higher drug concentration (30muM), autophagy switched to apoptosis. Temozolomide attenuated the toxic effect of quercetin. Apoptosis was mediated by the mitochondrial pathway and the activation of caspase 3 and cytochrome C release, but no changes in caspase 8 expression was observed. It was accompanied by decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of Hsp27 and Hsp72 expression. Autophagy was correlated with an increased level of LC3II. Temozolomide and quercetin also inhibited migratory phenotype of MOGGCCM cells and changed the nuclei morphology from a circular to an irregular shape. Our results indicate that quercetin acts in synergy with Temozolomide and when used in combination rather than in separate pharmacological application, both drugs are more effective in programmed cell death induction. Temozolomide administered with quercetin seems to be a potent and promising combination which might be useful in glioma therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin-a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in chromosomal aberrations was noted in dimethoate treated Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dimethoate-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in meristematic cells, and these effects were dose dependent. In conclusion, quercetin has a protective role in the abatement of dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in the meristematic cells of Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects.

  10. Onset of pulsatile pressure causes transiently increased filtration through artery wall.

    PubMed

    Alberding, Jonathan P; Baldwin, Ann L; Barton, Jennifer K; Wiley, Elizabeth

    2004-05-01

    Convective fluid motion through artery walls aids in the transvascular transport of macromolecules. Although many measurements of convective filtration have been reported, they were all obtained under constant transmural pressure. However, arterial pressure in vivo is pulsatile. Therefore, experiments were designed to compare filtration under steady and pulsatile pressure conditions. Rabbit carotid arteries were cannulated and excised from male New Zealand White rabbits anesthetized with pentobarbitol sodium (30 mg/kg i.v. administered). Hydraulic conductance was measured in cannulated excised rabbit carotid arteries at steady pressure. Next, pulsatile pressure trains were applied within the same vessels, and, simultaneously, arterial distension was monitored using Optical coherence tomography (OCT). For each pulse train, the volume of fluid lost through filtration was measured (subtracting volume change due to residual distension) and compared with that predicted from steady pressure measurements. At 60- and 80-mmHg baseline pressures, the experimental filtration volumes were significantly increased compared with those predicted for steady pressure (P < 0.05). OCT demonstrated that the excess fluid volume loss was significantly greater than the volume that would be lost through residual distension (P < 0.05). After 30 s, the magnitude of the excess of fluid loss was reduced. These results suggest that sudden onset of pulsatile pressure may cause changes in arterial interstitial hydration.

  11. Fusion partners can increase the expression of recombinant interleukins via transient transfection in 2936E cells

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jane; Zhang, Jue; Dang, Thien-Lan; Hasegawa, Haruki; Cheng, Janet D; Gianan, Irene; O'Neill, Jason W; Wolfson, Martin; Siu, Sophia; Qu, Sheldon; Meininger, David; Kim, Helen; Delaney, John; Mehlin, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The expression levels of five secreted target interleukins (IL-11, 15, 17B, 32, and IL23 p19 subunit) were tested with three different fusion partners in 2936E cells. When fused to the N-terminus, human serum albumin (HSA) was found to enhance the expression of both IL-17B and IL-15, cytokines which did not express at measurable levels on their own. Although the crystallizable fragment of an antibody (Fc) was also an effective fusion partner for IL-17B, Fc did not increase expression of IL-15. Fc was superior to HSA for the expression of the p19 subunit of IL-23, but no partner led to measurable levels of IL-32γ secretion. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) did not enhance the expression of any target and suppressed the production of IL-11, a cytokine which expressed robustly both on its own and when fused to HSA or Fc. Cleavage of the fusion partner was not always possible. The use of HSA or Fc as N-terminal fusions can be an effective technique to express difficult proteins, especially for applications in which the fusion partner need not be removed. PMID:20014434

  12. Quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism by promoting cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and cholesterol efflux in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Xie, Zongkai; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Wei, Jingyu; Guo, Changjiang

    2016-03-01

    Quercetin, a common member of the flavonoid family, is widely present in plant kingdom. Despite that quercetin is implicated in regulating cholesterol metabolism, the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesized that quercetin regulates cholesterol homeostasis through regulating the key enzymes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we compared the profile of key enzymes and transcription factors involved in the hepatic cholesterol metabolism in rats with or without quercetin supplementation. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and quercetin-supplemented groups. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total bile acids in feces and bile were measured. Hepatic enzymatic activities were determined by activity assay kit and high-performance liquid chromatography-based analyses. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. The results showed that the activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, a critical enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was significantly elevated by quercetin. The expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, as well as liver X receptor α, an important transcription factor, was also increased at both mRNA and protein levels by quercetin. However, quercetin exposure had no impact on the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. We also found that quercetin treatment significantly increased ATP binding cassette transporter G1 mRNA and protein expression in the liver, suggesting that quercetin may increase hepatic cholesterol efflux. Collectively, the results presented here indicate that quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism mainly through the pathways that promote cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and

  13. Antiulcer and gastroprotective effects of quercetin: a gross and histologic study.

    PubMed

    Alarcón de la Lastra, C; Martín, M J; Motilva, V

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the cytoprotective properties of quercetin and the involvement of endogenous prostaglandins in mucosal injury produced by absolute ethanol. Gastric glands were also analyzed histologically. Oral pretreatment with the highest dose of quercetin (200 mg/kg), 120 min before absolute ethanol, was most effective in necrosis prevention. Subcutaneous administration of indomethacin (10 mg/kg) to the animals treated with quercetin (200 mg/kg) partially inhibited gastric protection. All treated groups showed a marked increase in the amount of gastric mucus although this increase was less in animals pretreated with indomethacin. Total proteins and the hexosamine content decreased in the groups receiving indomethacin. The histomorphometric evaluation of the gastric damage confirmed a significant increase in mucus production accompanied by a parallel reduction of gastric lesions with the highest dose of quercetin tested.

  14. Antihyperglycemic Effect of Quercetin in Ovariectomized Rats Treated with Tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernanda Coleraus; Bramatti, Isabella Calvo; Toledo, Adrieli Gorlin; Salles, Fernando Marques; Itinose, Ana Maria; Marek, Carla Brugin

    2017-03-01

    Tamoxifen is effective in breast cancer therapy in postmenopausal women; however, it causes adverse effects that alter the glycolytic pathway and induce hyperglycemia. Quercetin, a flavonoid with antioxidant potential, inhibits butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which is positively associated with hyperglycemia. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of quercetin on tamoxifen-induced hyperglycemia, using BuChE activity as a bioindicator in adult ovariectomized Wistar rats. The ovariectomized rats were treated orally for 14 days with different concentrations of quercetin (2.5, 7.5, 22.5, and 67.5 mg.kg(-1) b.w.) and tamoxifen (5 mg.kg(-1) b.w.). Subsequently, they were euthanized; blood and tissue samples were collected. The following biochemical parameters were analyzed: plasma glucose levels and BuChE activity in the plasma, liver, intestine, and adipose tissue. The most effective dose of quercetin in reducing hyperglycemia was 22.5 mg.kg(-1) b.w. (Que/TAM 4.5/1, P < .00000), although the doses of 2.5 (Que/TAM 0.5/1, P < .05) and 7.5 mg.kg(-1) b.w. (Que/TAM 1.5/1, P < .05) were also effective. The BuChE activity decreased in the intestine at all tested doses of quercetin coadministered with tamoxifen (P < .01); however, in adipose tissue, there was a biphasic activity with a decrease (P < .05) and increase (P < .05) in activity at doses of 7.5 and 22.5 mg.kg(-1) b.w. of quercetin, respectively. However, the correlation between BuChE and glucose levels was not significant (P > .05). In summary, the findings of the present study suggest that quercetin when associated with tamoxifen decreases in plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, in these cases, BuChE should not be used as an indicator of hyperglycemia.

  15. Metabonomic analysis of quercetin against the toxicity of acrylamide in rat urine.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wei; Cao, Can; Li, Siqi; Bo, Lu; Zhang, Meiyan; Zhao, Xiujuan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2017-03-22

    This research aims to determine whether quercetin has protective effects against the toxicity of acrylamide (AA) using metabonomic technology. Randomly, the rats were assigned into a control group, AA treatment group, quercetin treatment group and quercetin plus AA treatment group. Quercetin and AA were administered to rats daily via gavage and drinking water for 16 weeks, respectively. To detect the metabonomic profiles of urine, ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used. A total of 15 metabolites, including biomarkers of AA exposure (GAMA, AAMA, and iso-AAMA) and quercetin exposure (quercetin and isorhamnetin), were identified. In comparison with the control group, the intensities of GAMA, AAMA, iso-AAMA, 1-salicylate glucuronide, vinylacetylglycine, PE(20:1(11Z)/14:0), 7-ketodeoxycholic acid, cysteic acid, p-cresol sulfate, and l-cysteine in the AA-treated group were statistically significantly increased (p < 0.01), and the intensities of 2-indolecarboxylic acid, 3-acetamidobutanal, and kynurenic acid in the AA-treated group were statistically significantly decreased (p < 0.01). The above-mentioned metabolites were significantly ameliorated in the quercetin (50 mg per kg bw) plus AA-treated group compared with the AA-treated group (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). However, the intensities of these metabolites in the quercetin (50 mg per kg bw) plus AA-treated groups were still significantly different from those of the control group (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). The above results suggest that quercetin has a partial protective effect on AA-induced toxicity. The protective effects include regulation of fatty acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism and enhancing the antioxidant defense system.

  16. The flavonoid quercetin in disease prevention and therapy: facts and fancies.

    PubMed

    Russo, Maria; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Tedesco, Idolo; Bilotto, Stefania; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical and genetic studies on cellular and animal models on the mechanism(s) of action of phytochemicals provide a functional explanation of how and why a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is considered healthy. It is not unusual to find molecules that protect against diseases, which greatly differ from a physiopathological point of view, such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Quercetin falls into this category and possesses a broad range of biological properties. Uptake, metabolism and circulating concentrations of quercetin and its metabolites suggest that a regular diet provides amounts of quercetin (<1 μM) not compatible with its chemopreventive and/or cardioprotective effects. However, it appears relatively easy to increase total quercetin concentrations in plasma (>10 μM) by supplementation with quercetin-enriched foods or supplements. Multiple lines of experimental evidence suggest a positive association between quercetin intake and improved outcomes of inflammatory cardiovascular risk. The ameliorating effect of quercetin administration can be extended to other chronic inflammatory disorders but only if supplementation occurs in patients. Quercetin can be considered the prototype of a naturally-occurring chemopreventive agent because of its key roles in triggering the "hallmarks of cancer". However, several critical points must be taken into account when considering the potential therapeutic use of this molecule: (1) pharmacological versus nutraceutical doses applied, (2) specificity of its mechanism of action compared to other phytochemicals, and (3) identification of "direct" cellular targets. The design of specific clinical trials is extremely warranted to depict possible applications of quercetin in adjuvant cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perorally active nanomicellar formulation of quercetin in the treatment of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bee-Jen; Liu, Yuanjie; Chang, Kai-Lun; Lim, Bennie KW; Chiu, Gigi NC

    2012-01-01

    Background Realizing the therapeutic benefits of quercetin is mostly hampered by its low water solubility and poor absorption. In light of the advantages of nanovehicles in the delivery of flavanoids, we aimed to deliver quercetin perorally with nanomicelles made from the diblock copolymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-derivatized phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Methods Quercetin-loaded nanomicelles were prepared by using the film casting method, and were evaluated in terms of drug incorporation efficiency, micelle size, interaction with Caco-2 cells, and anticancer activity in the A549 lung cancer cell line and murine xenograft model. Results The incorporation efficiency into the nanomicelles was ≥88.9% when the content of quercetin was up to 4% w/w, with sizes of 15.4–18.5 nm and polydispersity indices of <0.250. Solubilization of quercetin by the nanomicelles increased its aqueous concentration by 110-fold. The quercetin nanomicelles were stable when tested in simulated gastric (pH 1.2) and intestinal (pH 7.4) fluids, and were non-toxic to the Caco-2 cells as reflected by reversible reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance and ≤25% lactose dehydrogenase release. The anticancer activity of quercetin could be significantly improved over the free drug through the nanomicellar formulation when tested using the A549 cancer cell line and murine xenograft model. The nanomicellar quercetin formulation was well tolerated by the tumor-bearing animals, with no significant weight loss observed at the end of the 10-week study period. Conclusion A stable PEG-PE nanomicellar formulation of quercetin was developed with enhanced peroral anticancer activity and no apparent toxicity to the intestinal epithelium. PMID:22334787

  18. [Protective effect of quercetin against immunological liver injury through activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway].

    PubMed

    Wei, Caibing; Zhou, Liandi; Zhang, Yuzhen; Zhang, Jiawei; Zhang, Qihui; Tao, Kun

    2017-03-01

    Objective To observe the protective effect of quercetin against immunological liver injury induced by triptolide, and investigate the involvement of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in the protection. Methods Fifty C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into five groups: control group, model group, (20, 50, 80) mg/kg quercetin pre-treatment groups. Each group included 10 mice. The mice were treated with different doses of quercetin once daily for consecutive 10 days. At the end of the experiment, triptolide (500 μg/kg) was given intragastrically to induce immunological liver injury in all groups except for the control group. Twenty-two hours later, the levels of serum ALT , AST were detected. The contents of GSH, SOD and MDA in liver tissue homogenates were measured through commercial kits. HE staining was performed to observe pathologic changes of the liver. The mRNA expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NQO1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) was tested by quantitative real-time PCR, and the protein expression of Nrf2 was detected by Western blotting. Results Compared with the model group, the serum activities of ALT and AST as well as MDA content remarkably decreased by the administration of quercetin (80 mg/kg), while GSH, SOD contents were elevated in liver tissues; pathologic changes of the liver was ameliorated evidently by quercetin; Nrf2 protein expression in the nucleus as well as mRNA expressions of HO-1, NQO1, GCLC increased. Moreover, the protective effect of 50 mg/kg quercetin was not as good as that of 80 mg/kg quercetin, and 20 mg/kg quercetin did little against the immunological liver injury. Conclusion High-dose quercetin can inhibit immunological liver injury induced by triptolide, and the mechanism may be associated with the activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

  19. The role of AMP-activated protein kinase in quercetin-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Niu, Guomin; Yin, Songmei; Xie, Shuangfeng; Li, Yiqing; Nie, Danian; Ma, Liping; Wang, Xiuju; Wu, Yudan

    2014-05-01

    Our previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits Cox-2 and Bcl-2 expressions, and induces human leukemia HL-60 cell apoptosis. In order to investigate the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on quercetin-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells, we used flow cytometry to detect cell apoptosis. The expressions of LKB1, phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK), and Cox-2 protein were detected in HL-60 cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by western blot. The expressions of LKB1, p-AMPK, and Cox-2 were detected in HL-60 cells after culture with quercetin. The expressions of p-AMPK were detected in HL-60 cells after culture with AMPK inhibitor Compound C. Then, the expressions of LKB1, p-AMPK, and Cox-2 were detected in HL-60 cells after culture with quercetin alone or quercetin + Compound C. It was found that there was no significant difference in LKB1 between PBMCs and HL-60. p-AMPK in PBMCs was higher than that in HL-60, while Cox-2 was lower. After culture of HL-60 with quercetin, p-AMPK was increased, Cox-2 was decreased, but LKB1 remained unchanged. After culture of HL-60 with Compound C, p-AMPK was decreased. There was no significant difference in LKB1 between the quercetin-alone and the quercetin + Compound C groups. p-AMPK decreased more significantly, while Cox-2 increased more significantly in the quercetin + Compound C groups than those in the quercetin-alone groups. Taken together, these findings suggested that quercetin activates AMPK expression in HL-60 cells independent of LKB1 activation, inhibits Cox-2 expression by activating AMPK, and further regulates the Bcl-2-dependent pathways of apoptosis to exert its anti-leukemia effect.

  20. High glucose modifies transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channels via increased oxidative stress and syndecan-4 in human podocytes.

    PubMed

    Thilo, Florian; Lee, Marlene; Xia, Shengqiang; Zakrzewicz, Andreas; Tepel, Martin

    2014-07-18

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels type 6 play an important role in the function of human podocytes. Diabetic nephropathy is characterized by altered TRPC6 expression and functions of podocytes. Thus, we hypothesized that high glucose modifies TRPC6 channels via increased oxidative stress and syndecan-4 (SDC-4) in human podocytes. Human podocytes were exposed to control conditions (5.6 mmol/L D-glucose), high glucose (30 mmol/L D-glucose or L-glucose), 100 μmol/L peroxynitrite, or high glucose and the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol (100 μmol/L). TRPC6 and SDC-4 transcripts and protein expression were measured using RT-PCR and in-cell Western assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytosolic calcium were measured using fluorescent dye techniques. High D-glucose increased TRPC6 transcripts to 8.66±4.08 (p<0.05) and TRPC6 protein expression to 1.44±0.07 (p<0.05) without altering SDC-4 transcripts or protein expression. The D-glucose induced increase of TRPC6 expression was blocked by tempol. Increased oxidative stress using peroxynitrite significantly increased TRPC6 transcripts to 4.29±1.26 (p<0.05) and TRPC6 protein expression to 1.28±0.05 (p<0.05) without altering SDC-4 transcripts or protein expression. In human podocytes transfected with scrambled siRNA, high D-glucose increased ROS after 90 min to 3.55±0.08 arbitrary units while 5.6 mmol/L D-glucose increased ROS to 2.49±0.09 (p<0.001) only. The increase in ROS was inhibited by tempol and by SDC-4 knockdown. High glucose modifies TRPC6 channels and ROS production via SDC-4 in human podocytes.

  1. Fast repair activities of quercetin and rutin toward dGMP hydroxyl radical adducts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chenyang; Shi, Yimin; Wang, Wenfeng; Lin, Weizhen; Fan, Botao; Jia, Zhongjian; Yao, Side; Zheng, Rongliang

    2002-02-01

    The repair activities and mechanisms of both quercetin and rutin towards the oxidizing deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP) hydroxyl radical adduct were investigated with pulse radiolytic technique. On pulse irradiation of nitrous oxide saturated 2 mM dGMP aqueous solution containing 0.1 mM quercetin, the transient absorption spectrum of the dGMP hydroxyl radical adduct decays with the formation of phenoxyl radical of quercetin within tens of microseconds. It indicates that there is a repair reaction between dGMP hydroxyl radical adduct and quercetin. The repair activity of rutin towards hydroxyl radical adducts of dGMP was also observed. The rate constants of the repair reactions were calculated to be 3.05×10 8 and 1.31×10 8 M -1 s -1 for quercetin and rutin, respectively. This result together with our previous studies demonstrated that non-enzymatic, fast repair is a universal repair mechanism of phenolic antioxidants.

  2. Quercetin-induced apoptosis acts through mitochondrial- and caspase-3-dependent pathways in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Chien, Su-Yu; Wu, Yao-Chung; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Tsou, Mei-Fen; Wood, W G; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Dar-Ren

    2009-08-01

    There has been considerable evidence recently demonstrating the anti-tumour effects of flavonols. Quercetin, an ubiquitous bioactive flavonol, inhibits cells proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in different cancer cell types. The precise molecular mechanism of quercetin-induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of quercetin on cell viability and to determine its underlying mechanism in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Quercetin decreased the percentage of viable cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was associated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Quercetin did not increase reactive oxygen species generation but increased cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)). Quercetin treatment promoted activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Caspase inhibitors prevented the quercetin-induced loss of cell viability. Quercetin increased abundance of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreased the levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Confocal laser microscope examination indicated that quercetin promoted apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release from mitochondria and stimulated translocation to the nucleus. Taken together, these findings suggest that quercetin results in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell death through mitochondrial- and caspase-3-dependent pathways.

  3. Effects of quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids on testicular injury induced by ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Uygur, R; Yagmurca, M; Alkoc, O A; Genc, A; Songur, A; Ucok, K; Ozen, O A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids on the changes in testis induced by ethanol. Forty-five rats divided into five groups, control, ethanol, ethanol+quercetin, ethanol+fish n-3 fatty acids and ethanol+quercetin+fish n-3 fatty acids. At the end of 8 weeks, all the rats were sacrificed. Degenerative changes in histopathological analyses, the decreased body weight gain and seminiferous tubule diameters in ethanol group have been observed. TUNEL assay also showed an increase in apoptotic cell number. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), xanthine oxidase (XO) and testosterone levels were decreased as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) were increased in ethanol group. Histopathological changes caused by ethanol have been improved by quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids. It was also found that protection was provided by increasing SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities in groups administered quercetin, fish n-3 fatty acids and quercetin+fish n-3 fatty acids, and by decreasing the levels of MDA and NO in groups administered both quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids together. These results suggest that quercetin and fish n-3 fatty acids are beneficial agents to reduce testicular injury induced by ethanol except for testosterone levels.

  4. The anti-angiogenic VEGF isoform VEGF165b transiently increases hydraulic conductivity, probably through VEGF receptor 1 in vivo.

    PubMed

    Glass, C A; Harper, S J; Bates, D O

    2006-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the principal agent that increases microvascular permeability during physiological and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF is differentially spliced to form two families of isoforms: VEGF(xxx), and VEGF(xxx)b. Whereas VEGF(165) stimulates angiogenesis, VEGF(165)b is anti-angiogenic. To determine the effect of VEGF(165)b on permeability, hydraulic conductivity (L(p)) was measured in individually perfused microvessels in the mesentery of frogs and rats. As with VEGF(165), VEGF(165)b increased L(p) in amphibian (2.4 +/- 0.3-fold) and mammalian (1.9 +/- 0.2-fold) mesenteric microvessels. A dose-response relationship showed that VEGF(165)b (EC(50), 0.65 pm) was approximately 25 times more potent than VEGF(165) (EC(50), 16 pm) in amphibian microvessels. VEGF(165) has been shown to increase permeability through VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) signalling. However, VEGF(165)b increased L(p) of frog vessels to the same extent in the presence of the VEGF-R2 inhibitor ZM323881, indicating that it does not increase permeability via VEGF-R2 signalling, and was inhibited by the VEGF receptor inhibitor SU5416 at doses that are specific for VEGF receptor 1 (VEGF-R1). VEGF(165)b, in contrast to VEGF(165), did not result in a sustained chronic increase in L(p). These results show that although VEGF(165)b is anti-angiogenic in the mesentery, it does signal in endothelial cells in vivo resulting in a transient, but not sustained, increase in microvascular L(p), probably through VEGF-R1.

  5. Transient increase of interleukin-1β after prolonged febrile seizures promotes adult epileptogenesis through long-lasting upregulating endocannabinoid signaling.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bo; Tang, Yangshun; Chen, Bin; Xu, Cenglin; Wang, Yi; Dai, Yunjian; Wu, Dengchang; Zhu, Junmin; Wang, Shuang; Zhou, Yudong; Shi, Liyun; Hu, Weiwei; Zhang, Xia; Chen, Zhong

    2016-02-23

    It remains unclear how infantile febrile seizures (FS) enhance adult seizure susceptibility. Here we showed that the transient increase of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) after prolonged FS promoted adult seizure susceptibility, which was blocked by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) within a critical time window. Postnatal administered IL-1β alone mimicked the effect of FS on adult seizure susceptibility. IL-1R1 knockout mice were not susceptible to adult seizure after prolonged FS or IL-1β treatment. Prolonged FS or early-life IL-1β treatment increased the expression of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) for over 50 days, which was blocked by IL-1Ra or was absent in IL-1R1 knockout mice. CB1R antagonist, knockdown and endocannabinoid synthesis inhibitor abolished FS or IL-1β-enhanced seizure susceptibility. Thus, this work identifies a pathogenic role of postnatal IL-1β/IL-1R1 pathway and subsequent prolonged prominent increase of endocannabinoid signaling in adult seizure susceptibility following prolonged FS, and highlights IL-1R1 as a potential therapeutic target for preventing the development of epilepsy after infantile FS.

  6. Transient increase of interleukin-1β after prolonged febrile seizures promotes adult epileptogenesis through long-lasting upregulating endocannabinoid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Bo; Tang, Yangshun; Chen, Bin; Xu, Cenglin; Wang, Yi; Dai, Yunjian; Wu, Dengchang; Zhu, Junmin; Wang, Shuang; Zhou, Yudong; Shi, Liyun; Hu, Weiwei; Zhang, Xia; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear how infantile febrile seizures (FS) enhance adult seizure susceptibility. Here we showed that the transient increase of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) after prolonged FS promoted adult seizure susceptibility, which was blocked by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) within a critical time window. Postnatal administered IL-1β alone mimicked the effect of FS on adult seizure susceptibility. IL-1R1 knockout mice were not susceptible to adult seizure after prolonged FS or IL-1β treatment. Prolonged FS or early-life IL-1β treatment increased the expression of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) for over 50 days, which was blocked by IL-1Ra or was absent in IL-1R1 knockout mice. CB1R antagonist, knockdown and endocannabinoid synthesis inhibitor abolished FS or IL-1β-enhanced seizure susceptibility. Thus, this work identifies a pathogenic role of postnatal IL-1β/IL-1R1 pathway and subsequent prolonged prominent increase of endocannabinoid signaling in adult seizure susceptibility following prolonged FS, and highlights IL-1R1 as a potential therapeutic target for preventing the development of epilepsy after infantile FS. PMID:26902320

  7. The effect of Platelet Lysate on osteoblast proliferation associated with a transient increase of the inflammatory response in bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ruggiu, Alessandra; Ulivi, Valentina; Sanguineti, Francesca; Cancedda, Ranieri; Descalzi, Fiorella

    2013-12-01

    Platelet Lysate (PL) contains a cocktail of growth factors and cytokines, which actively participates in tissue repair and its clinical application has been broadly described. The aim of this study was to assess the regenerative potential of PL for bone repair. We demonstrated that PL stimulation induces a transient increase of the inflammatory response in quiescent human osteoblasts, via NF-kB activation, COX-2 induction, PGE2 production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, we showed that long-term PL stimulation enhances proliferation of actively replicating osteoblasts, without affecting their differentiation potential, along with changes of cell morphology, resulting in increased cell density at confluence. In confluent resting osteoblasts, PL treatment induced resumption of proliferation, change in cell morphology and increase of cell density at confluence. A burst of PL treatment (24-h) was sufficient to trigger such processes in both conditions. These results correlated with up-regulation of the proliferative and survival pathways ERKs and Akt and with cell cycle re-activation via induction of CyclinD1 and phosphorylation of Rb, following PL stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that PL treatment results in activation and expansion of resting osteoblasts, without affecting their differentiation potential. Therefore PL represents a good therapeutic candidate in regenerative medicine for bone repair.

  8. Aflatoxin B1 disrupts transient receptor potential channel activity and increases COX-2 expression in JEG-3 placental cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yun; Tan, Yan Qin; Leung, Lai K

    2016-12-25

    Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites which pose a major threat to food safety. Although these mycotoxins are established hepatocarcinogens, their effect on the reproductive organ is unknown. Transient Receptor Potential Channels (TRPs) are ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, including the placenta. These channels are associated with various functions in the placenta. The fetus and the placenta are especially sensitive to xenobiotic assault; therefore, exposure to the aflatoxins during gestation might lead to the undesirable outcome. Previously we have shown that aflatoxin B1 administered in late gestation may increase cox-2 expression in mouse placentae. In the present study, we examined the effect of aflatoxin B1 on COX-2 by using the placental cell model JEG-3 and the respective signaling pathway. In our result, COX-2 expression was induced by the mycotoxin administration. The intracellular calcium levels were also increased in cells by aflatoxin B1 treatment as little as 1 nM. Immunoblot result showed that some TRP expressions were elevated. As inflated intracellular calcium might activate MAPKs, the underlying signaling pathway was investigated. With the help of TRP-specific inhibitors, the mycotoxin appeared to increase the expression of TRPC-3 and activate PKCβ and ERK. The significance of COX-2 in pregnancy has been well established. Exposure to this mycotoxin may perturb the physiological processes dictated by COX-2 in pregnancy.

  9. Dermal quercetin lipid nanocapsules: Influence of the formulation on antioxidant activity and cellular protection against hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Hatahet, T; Morille, M; Shamseddin, A; Aubert-Pouëssel, A; Devoisselle, J M; Bégu, S

    2017-02-25

    Quercetin is a plant flavonoid with strong antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties interesting for skin protection. However, its poor water solubility limits its penetration and so its efficiency on skin. For this purpose, quercetin lipid nanocapsules were formulated implementing phase inversion technique wherein several modifications were introduced to enhance quercetin loading. Quercetin lipid nanocapsules were formulated with two particle size range, (50nm and 20nm) allowing a drug loading of 18.6 and 32mM respectively. The successful encapsulation of quercetin within lipid nanocapsules increased its apparent water solubility by more than 5000 fold (from 0.5μg/ml to about 5mg/ml). The physicochemical properties of these formulations such as surface charge, stability and morphology were characterized. Lipid nanocapsules had spherical shape and were stable for 28days at 25°C. Quercetin release from lipid nanocapsules was studied and revealed a prolonged release kinetics during 24h. Using DPPH assay, we demonstrated that the formulation process of lipid nanocapsules did not modify the antioxidant activity of quercetin in vitro (92.3%). With the goal of a future dermal application, quercetin lipid nanocapsules were applied to THP-1 monocytes and proved the cellular safety of the formulation up to 2μg/ml of quercetin. Finally, formulated quercetin was as efficient as the crude form in the protection of THP-1 cells from oxidative stress by exogenous hydrogen peroxide. With its lipophilic nature and occlusive effect on skin, lipid nanocapsules present a promising strategy to deliver quercetin to skin tissue and can be of value for other poorly water soluble drug candidates.

  10. Hypothyroidism Enhanced Ectonucleotidases and Acetylcholinesterase Activities in Rat Synaptosomes can be Prevented by the Naturally Occurring Polyphenol Quercetin.

    PubMed

    Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Santi, Adriana; Schmatz, Roberta; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Martins, Caroline Curry; Dias, Glaecir R Mundstock; Calgaroto, Nicéia Spanholi; Pelinson, Luana Paula; Reichert, Karine Paula; Loro, Vania Lucia; Morsch, Vera Maria Melchiors; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid hormones have an influence on the functioning of the central nervous system. Furthermore, the cholinergic and purinergic systems also are extensively involved in brain function. In this context, quercetin is a polyphenol with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. This study investigated the effects of (MMI)-induced hypothyroidism on the NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase (ADA), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in synaptosomes of rats and whether the quercetin can prevent it. MMI at a concentration of 20 mg/100 mL was administered for 90 days in the drinking water. The animals were divided into six groups: control/water (CT/W), control/quercetin 10 mg/kg, control/quercetin 25 mg/kg, methimazole/water (MMI/W), methimazole/quercetin 10 mg/kg (MMI/Q10), and methimazole/quercetin 25 mg/kg (MMI/Q25). On the 30th day, hormonal dosing was performed to confirm hypothyroidism, and the animals were subsequently treated with 10 or 25 mg/kg quercetin for 60 days. NTPDase activity was not altered in the MMI/W group. However, treatment with quercetin decreased ATP and ADP hydrolysis in the MMI/Q10 and MMI/Q25 groups. 5'-nucleotidase activity increased in the MMI/W group, but treatments with 10 or 25 mg/kg quercetin decreased 5'-nucleotidase activity. ADA activity decreased in the CT/25 and MMI/Q25 groups. Furthermore, AChE activity was reduced in all groups with hypothyroidism. In vitro tests also demonstrated that quercetin per se decreased NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase, and AChE activities. This study demonstrated changes in the 5'-nucleotidase and AChE activities indicating that purinergic and cholinergic neurotransmission are altered in this condition. In addition, quercetin can alter these parameters and may be a promising natural compound with important neuroprotective actions in hypothyroidism.

  11. Neuroprotective effects of pretreatment with quercetin as assessed by acetylcholinesterase assay and behavioral testing in poloxamer-407 induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Braun, Josiane B S; Ruchel, Jader B; Adefegha, Stephen A; Coelho, Ana Paula V; Trelles, Kelly B; Signor, Cristiane; Rubin, Maribel A; Oliveira, Juliana S; Dornelles, Guilherme L; de Andrade, Cinthia M; Castilhos, Lívia G; Leal, Daniela B R

    2017-04-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a group of disorders characterized by excessive lipids in the bloodstream. It is associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and recognized as the most important factor underlying the occurrence of atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to investigate whether pretreatment with quercetin can protect against possible memory impairment and deterioration of the cholinergic system in hyperlipidemic rats. Animals were divided into ten groups (n=7): saline/control, saline/quercetin 5mg/kg, saline/quercetin 25mg/kg, saline/quercetin 50mg/kg, saline/simvastatin (0.04mg/kg), hyperlipidemia, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 5mg/kg, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 25mg/kg, hyperlipidemia/quercetin 50mg/kg and hyperlipidemia/simvastatin. The animals were pretreated with quercetin by oral gavage for a period of 30days and hyperlipidemia was subsequently induced by intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of 500mg/kg of poloxamer-407. Simvastatin was administered after the induction of hyperlipidemia. The results demonstrated that hyperlipidemic rats had memory impairment compared with the saline control group (P<0.001). However, pretreatment with quercetin and simvastatin treatment attenuated the damage caused by hyperlipidemia compared with the hyperlipidemic group (P<0.05). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the cerebral hippocampus was significantly (P<0.001) reduced in the hyperlipidemic group compared with the control saline group. Pretreatment with quercetin and simvastatin treatment in the hyperlipidemic groups significantly (P<0.05) increased AChE activity compared with the hyperlipidemic group. Our results thus suggest that quercetin may prevent memory impairment, alter lipid metabolism, and modulate AChE activity in an experimental model of hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Quercetin induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in triple-negative breast cancer cells through modulation of Foxo3a activity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Lich Thi; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Park, Jong-Bong; Jagga, Supriya; Sharma, Garima

    2017-01-01

    Quercetin, a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables and tea, has been known to possess bioactive properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer. In this study, anti-cancer effect of quercetin and its underlying mechanisms in triple-negative breast cancer cells was investigated. MTT assay showed that quercetin reduced breast cancer cell viability in a time and dose dependent manner. For this, quercetin not only increased cell apoptosis but also inhibited cell cycle progression. Moreover, quercetin increased FasL mRNA expression and p51, p21 and GADD45 signaling activities. We also observed that quercetin induced protein level, transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation of Foxo3a. Knockdown of Foxo3a caused significant reduction in the effect of quercetin on cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In addition, treatment of JNK inhibitor (SP 600125) abolished quercetin-stimulated Foxo3a activity, suggesting JNK as a possible upstream signaling in regulation of Foxo3a activity. Knockdown of Foxo3a and inhibition of JNK activity reduced the signaling activities of p53, p21 and GADD45, triggered by quercetin. Taken together, our study suggests that quercetin induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via modification of Foxo3a signaling in triple-negative breast cancer cells. PMID:28280414

  13. Quercetin induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in triple-negative breast cancer cells through modulation of Foxo3a activity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lich Thi; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Park, Jong-Bong; Jagga, Supriya; Sharma, Garima; Lee, Sang-Soo; Nam, Ju-Suk

    2017-03-01

    Quercetin, a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables and tea, has been known to possess bioactive properties such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer. In this study, anti-cancer effect of quercetin and its underlying mechanisms in triple-negative breast cancer cells was investigated. MTT assay showed that quercetin reduced breast cancer cell viability in a time and dose dependent manner. For this, quercetin not only increased cell apoptosis but also inhibited cell cycle progression. Moreover, quercetin increased FasL mRNA expression and p51, p21 and GADD45 signaling activities. We also observed that quercetin induced protein level, transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation of Foxo3a. Knockdown of Foxo3a caused significant reduction in the effect of quercetin on cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In addition, treatment of JNK inhibitor (SP 600125) abolished quercetin-stimulated Foxo3a activity, suggesting JNK as a possible upstream signaling in regulation of Foxo3a activity. Knockdown of Foxo3a and inhibition of JNK activity reduced the signaling activities of p53, p21 and GADD45, triggered by quercetin. Taken together, our study suggests that quercetin induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via modification of Foxo3a signaling in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

  14. Beneficial effects of quercetin on renal injury and oxidative stress caused by ciprofloxacin in rats: A histological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Elbe, H; Dogan, Z; Taslidere, E; Cetin, A; Turkoz, Y

    2016-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum quinolone antibiotic commonly used in clinical practice. Quercetin is an antioxidant belongs to flavonoid group. It inhibits the production of superoxide anion. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of quercetin on renal injury and oxidative stress caused by ciprofloxacin. Twenty-eight female Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control, quercetin (20 mg kg(-1) day(-1) gavage for 21 days), ciprofloxacin (20 mg kg(-1) twice a day intraperitoneally for 10 days), and ciprofloxacin + quercetin. Samples were processed for histological and biochemical evaluations. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured in kidney tissue. The ciprofloxacin group showed histopathological changes such as infiltration, dilatation in tubules, tubular atrophy, reduction of Bowman's space, congestion, hemorrhage, and necrosis. In the ciprofloxacin + quercetin group, these histopathological changes markedly reduced. MDA levels increased in the ciprofloxacin group and decreased in the ciptofloxacin + quercetin group. SOD and CAT activities and GSH levels significantly decreased in the ciprofloxacin group. On the other hand, in the ciprofloxacin + quercetin group, SOD and CAT activities and GSH levels significantly increased with regard to the ciprofloxacin group. We concluded that quercetin has antioxidative and therapeutic effects on renal injury and oxidative stress caused by ciprofloxacin in rats.

  15. Rat Pial Microvascular Responses to Transient Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion and Reperfusion: Quercetin’s Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Lapi, D.; Vagnani, S.; Pignataro, G.; Esposito, E.; Paterni, M.; Colantuoni, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess quercetin’s mechanism of action in rat pial microvessels during transient bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) and reperfusion. Rat pial microcirculation was visualized using fluorescence microscopy through a closed cranial window. Pial arterioles were classified in five orders of branchings. In ischemic rats, 30 min BCCAO and 60 min reperfusion caused arteriolar diameter decrease, microvascular leakage, leukocyte adhesion in venules, and reduction of capillary perfusion. Quercetin highest dose determined dilation in all arteriolar orders, by 40 ± 4% of baseline in order 2 vessels, and prevented microvascular permeability [0.15 ± 0.02 normalized gray levels (NGL)], leukocyte adhesion, and capillary failure. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition exerted by chelerythrine prior to quercetin attenuated quercetin-induced effects: order 2 arterioles dilated by 19.0 ± 2.4% baseline, while there was an increase in permeability (0.40 ± 0.05 NGL) and leukocyte adhesion with a marked decrease in capillary perfusion. Tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibition by tyrphostin 47 prior to quercetin lessened smaller pial arterioles responses, dilating by 20.7 ± 2.5% of baseline, while leakage increased (0.39 ± 0.04 NGL) sustained by slight leukocyte adhesion and ameliorated capillary perfusion. Inhibition of endothelium nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) prior to PKC or TK reduced the quercetin’s effects on pial arteriolar diameter and leakage. eNOS inhibition by L-NAME reduced quercetin effects on pial arteriolar diameter and leakage. Finally, combined inhibition of PKC and TK prior to quercetin abolished quercetin-induced effects, decreasing eNOS expression, while blocking ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels by glibenclamide suppressed arteriolar dilation. In conclusion, the protective effects of quercetin could be due to different mechanisms resulting in NO

  16. Transient increase in intrahepatic pressure mediates successful treatment of the Gunn rat with reduced doses of lentiviral vector.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Françoise; Flageul, Maude; Dariel, Anne; Pichard, Virginie; Pontes, Cecilia Abarrategui; Boni, Sébastien; Podevin, Guillaume; Myara, Anne; Ferry, Nicolas; Nguyen, Tuan Huy

    2010-10-01

    Lentiviral vectors can stably transduce hepatocytes and are promising tools for gene therapy of hepatic diseases. Although hepatocytes are accessible to blood-borne viral vectors through fenestrations of the hepatic endothelium, improved liver transduction after delivery of vectors to the blood stream is needed. As the normal endothelial fenestration and lentiviral vectors are similar in size (150 nm), we hypothesized that a transient increase in hepatic blood pressure may enhance in vivo gene transfer to hepatocytes. We designed a simple surgical procedure, by which the liver is temporarily excluded from blood flow. Lentiviral vectors were injected in a large volume to increase intrahepatic pressure. We demonstrated that in the Gunn rat, a model of Crigler-Najjar disease, the administration of low vector doses (corresponding to a multiplicity of infection of 0.2) by this procedure resulted in therapeutic correction of hyperbilirubinemia, without toxicity. The correction was sustained for 10 months (end of study). The same vector amounts yielded only partial correction after intraportal delivery. We believe that this new and clinically applicable strategy may broaden the range of genetic liver diseases accessible to gene therapy.

  17. Quercetin inhibits radiation-induced skin fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Horton, Jason A; Li, Fei; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; White, Ayla; Krausz, Kristopher; Gonzalez, Frank; Citrin, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    Radiation induced fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-β signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-β in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-β, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating radiation induced skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis.

  18. Quercetin Inhibits Radiation-Induced Skin Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Jason A.; Li, Fei; Chung, Eun Joo; Hudak, Kathryn; White, Ayla; Krausz, Kristopher; Gonzalez, Frank; Citrin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Radiation induced fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-β signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-β in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-β, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating radiation induced skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis. PMID:23819596

  19. Quercetin-induced cardioprotection against doxorubicin cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer has continually been the leading cause of death worldwide for decades. Thus, scientists have actively devoted themselves to studying cancer therapeutics. Doxorubicin is an efficient drug used in cancer therapy, but also produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce severe cytotoxicity against heart cells. Quercetin, a plant-derived flavonoid, has been proven to contain potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, this in vitro study investigated whether quercetin can decrease doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity and promote cell repair systems in cardiomyocyte H9C2 cells. Results Proteomic analysis and a cell biology assay were performed to investigate the quercetin-induced responses. Our data demonstrated that quercetin treatment protects the cardiomyocytes in a doxorubicin-induced heart damage model. Quercetin significantly facilitated cell survival by inhibiting cell apoptosis and maintaining cell morphology by rearranging the cytoskeleton. Additionally, 2D-DIGE combined with MALDI-TOF MS analysis indicated that quercetin might stimulate cardiomyocytes to repair damage after treating doxorubicin by modulating metabolic activation, protein folding and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Conclusion Based on a review of the literature, this study is the first to report detailed protective mechanisms for the action of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte toxicity based on in-depth cell biology and proteomic analysis. PMID:24359494

  20. Quercetin induces hepatic lipid omega-oxidation and lowers serum lipid levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J M; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C H; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; van Schothorst, Evert M

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9-15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD.

  1. Quercetin Induces Hepatic Lipid Omega-Oxidation and Lowers Serum Lipid Levels in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoek-van den Hil, Elise F.; Keijer, Jaap; Bunschoten, Annelies; Vervoort, Jacques J. M.; Stankova, Barbora; Bekkenkamp, Melissa; Herreman, Laure; Venema, Dini; Hollman, Peter C. H.; Tvrzicka, Eva; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; van Schothorst, Evert M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated circulating lipid levels are known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In order to examine the effects of quercetin on lipid metabolism, mice received a mild-high-fat diet without (control) or with supplementation of 0.33% (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Gas chromatography and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to quantitatively measure serum lipid profiles. Whole genome microarray analysis of liver tissue was used to identify possible mechanisms underlying altered circulating lipid levels. Body weight, energy intake and hepatic lipid accumulation did not differ significantly between the quercetin and the control group. In serum of quercetin-fed mice, triglycerides (TG) were decreased with 14% (p<0.001) and total poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were increased with 13% (p<0.01). Palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were all decreased by 9–15% (p<0.05) in quercetin-fed mice. Both palmitic acid and oleic acid can be oxidized by omega (ω)-oxidation. Gene expression profiling showed that quercetin increased hepatic lipid metabolism, especially ω-oxidation. At the gene level, this was reflected by the up-regulation of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) 4a10, Cyp4a14, Cyp4a31 and Acyl-CoA thioesterase 3 (Acot3). Two relevant regulators, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por, rate limiting for cytochrome P450s) and the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3) were also up-regulated in the quercetin-fed mice. We conclude that quercetin intake increased hepatic lipid ω-oxidation and lowered corresponding circulating lipid levels, which may contribute to potential beneficial effects on CVD. PMID:23359794

  2. Quercetin-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticle Dispersion with Improved Physicochemical Properties and Cellular Uptake.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Ajay; Baskaran, Rengarajan; Jang, Young Soo; Oh, Seung Hyun; Yoo, Bong Kyu

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate and characterize properties of solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) dispersion containing quercetin. SLN was prepared by ultrasonication method using tripalmitin and lecithin as lipid core and then the surface was coated with chitosan. Entrapment efficiency was greater than 99%, and mean particle size of SLN was 110.7 ± 1.97 nm with significant increase in the coated SLN (c-SLN). Zeta potential was proportionally increased and reached plateau at 5% of chitosan coating with respect to tripalmitin. Differential scanning calorimetry showed disappearance of endothermic peak of quercetin in SLNs, indicating conversion of crystalline state to amorphous state. FTIR study of SLNs showed no change in the spectrum of quercetin, which indicates that the lipid and chitosan were not incompatible with quercetin. When coating amount was greater than 2.5% of tripalmitin, particle size and zeta potential were very stable even at 40°C up to 90 days. All SLN dispersions showed significantly faster release profile compared to pure quercetin powder. At pH 7.0, the release rate was increased in proportion to the coating amount. Interestingly, at pH 3.0, chitosan coating of 5.0% or greater decreased the rate. Cellular uptake of quercetin was performed using Caco-2 cells and showed that all SLN dispersions were significantly better than quercetin dispersed in distilled water. However, cellular uptake of quercetin from c-SLN was significantly lower than that from uncoated SLN.

  3. Effect of quercetin against mixture of four organophosphate pesticides induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Sifan; Cao, Can; Shi, Haidan; Yang, Shuang; Qi, Lei; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2016-01-01

    1. It has been demonstrated that the ingestion of foods containing quercetin protects against the toxicity of single pesticides. The aim of this study is to make a comprehensive elaboration about the protective effect of quercetin against multi-organophosphorous pesticides induced nephrotoxicity by measuring indices in rat kidney, urine and serum. Rats were divided into six groups (n = 10/group): control, two different doses of quercetin, pesticide mixture (PM), and different doses of quercetin plus PM-treated groups. 2. The following parameters were significantly changed in PM-treated groups compared with the control (p < 0.01). In kidney, malondialdehyde level raised; catalase, superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione levels were decreased. Comet assay of nephrocytes showed that the proportion of DNA in the tail and tail length increased. In urine, β2-microglobulin, retinol-conjugated protein levels and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity showed increasing response; meanwhile uric acid level was decreased. In serum, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were increased. However, the anomaly changes of indexes mentioned above in PM-treated group were alleviated when simultaneously administrated with 50 mg/kg body weight/day quercetin (p < 0.05). 3. From the present findings, it can be evaluated that quercetin may protect against adverse effects resulted from multi-organophosphorous pesticides with significant high levels of uptake in man provided.

  4. Quercetin protects hamster spermatogenic cells from oxidative damage induced by diethylstilboestrol.

    PubMed

    Li, G; Ma, Aituan; Shi, W; Zhong, Xiuhui

    2010-10-01

    Quercetin has been reported to be an efficient antioxidant which protects chicken spermatogonial cells from oxidative damage through increasing intracellular antioxidants and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Exposure to diethylstilboestrol (DES) could cause reproductive damage in males, which is associated with oxidative stress. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of quercetin on DES-induced oxidative damage in cultured hamster spermatogenic cells. The cells were treated with different concentrations of DES, and their growth status was observed under inverted microscope. The viability of spermatogenic cells was detected by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in supernatants and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in cells were detected with spectrophotography. The results showed that quercetin significantly inhibited the DES-induced damage on spermatogenic cells, with the exception of the low-dose group in which no significant difference was observed. The cell survival rate increased significantly in the middle- and high-dose groups. The contents of SOD and GSH-Px were significantly elevated after medication with quercetin (P < 0.01). It can be concluded that quercetin protects spermatogenic cells against DES-induced oxidative damage through increasing intracellular antioxidants and decreasing lipid peroxidation. Quercetin plays a very important role in ameliorating reproductive toxicity induced by environmental oestrogens.

  5. Quercetin induces apoptosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and decreases the proinflammatory response of human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mamani-Matsuda, Maria; Rambert, Jérôme; Malvy, Denis; Lejoly-Boisseau, Hélène; Daulouède, Sylvie; Thiolat, Denis; Coves, Sara; Courtois, Pierrette; Vincendeau, Philippe; Mossalayi, M Djavad

    2004-03-01

    In addition to parasite spread, the severity of disease observed in cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is associated with increased levels of inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and nitric oxide derivatives. In the present study, quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), a potent immunomodulating flavonoid, was shown to directly induce the death of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, the causative agent of HAT, without affecting normal human cell viability. Quercetin directly promoted T. b. gambiense death by apoptosis as shown by Annexin V binding. In addition to microbicidal activity, quercetin induced dose-dependent decreases in the levels of TNF-alpha and nitric oxide produced by activated human macrophages. These results highlight the potential use of quercetin as an antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of African trypanomiasis.

  6. Uptake of quercetin and quercetin 3-glucoside from whole onion and apple peel extracts by Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Brown, Dan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-11-17

    Evidence suggests that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and phytochemicals from fruits and vegetables may be responsible for this health benefit. However, there is limited knowledge on the bioavailability of specific phytochemicals from whole fruits and vegetables. This study used Caco-2 cells to examine uptake of quercetin aglycon and quercetin 3-glucoside as purified compounds and from whole onion and apple peel extracts. Pure quercetin aglycon was absorbed by the Caco-2 cells in higher concentrations than quercetin 3-glucoside (p < 0.05). Caco-2 cells treated with quercetin 3-glucoside accumulated both quercetin 3-glucoside and quercetin. Caco-2 cells absorbed more onion quercetin aglycon than onion quercetin 3-glucoside (p < 0.05), and the percentage of onion quercetin absorbed was greater than that of pure quercetin, most likely due to enzymatic hydrolysis of quercetin 3-glucoside and other quercetin glucosides found in the onion by the Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 cells absorbed low levels of quercetin 3-glucoside from apple peel extracts, but quercetin aglycon absorption was not detected. Caco-2 cell homogenates demonstrated both lactase and glucosidase activities when incubated with lactose and quercetin 3-glucoside, respectively. This use of the Caco2 cell model appears to be a simple and useful system for studying bioavailability of whole food phytochemicals and may be used to assess differences in bioavailability between foods.

  7. Mild stress of caffeine increased mtDNA content in skeletal muscle cells: the interplay between Ca2+ transients and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuzhe; Riddoch-Contreras, Joanna; Contrevas, Joanna R; Abramov, Andrey Y; Qi, Zhengtang; Duchen, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    Caffeine increases mitochondrial biogenesis in myotubes by evoking Ca(2+) transients. Nitric oxide (NO) also induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells via upregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and PGC-1α. However, the interplay and timing sequence between Ca(2+) transients and NO releases remain unclear. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that caffeine-evoked Ca(2+) transients triggered NO production to increase mtDNA in skeletal muscle cells. Ca(2+) transients were recorded with Fura-2 AM and confocal microscopy; mtDNA staining, mitochondrial membrane potential and NO level were determined using fluorescent probes PicoGreen, tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) and DAF-FM, respectively. In primary cultured myotubes, a subtle and moderate stress of caffeine increased mtDNA exclusively. Mitochondrial membrane potential and mtDNA were increased by 1 mM as well as 5 mM caffeine, whereas 10 mM caffeine did not change the fluorescence intensity of PicoGreen and TMRM. NO level in myocytes increased gradually following the first jump of Ca(2+) transients evoked by caffeine (5 mM) till the end of recording, when Fura-2 indicated that Ca(2+) transients recovered partly and even disappeared. Importantly, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (L-NAME) suppressed caffeine-induced mtDNA biogenesis, whereas NO donor (DETA-NO) increased mtDNA content. These data strongly suggest that caffeine-induced mtDNA biogenesis is dose-sensitive and dependent on a certain level of stress. Further, an increasing level of NO following Ca(2+) transients is required for caffeine-induced mtDNA biogenesis. Additionally, Ca(2+) transients, a usual and first response to caffeine, was either suppressed or attenuated by L-NAME, DETA-NO, AICAR and U0126, suggesting an inability to control [Ca(2+)](i) in these treated cells. There may be an important interplay between NO and Ca(2+) transients in intracellular signaling system involving NOS, AMPK and MEK.

  8. Effects of acute and chronic quercetin administration on methylphenidate-induced hyperlocomotion and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Luiz K S; Vecchia, Débora D; Wendler, Etiéli M; Hocayen, Palloma de A S; Beirão, Paulo S; de Mélo, Manuela L; Dos Reis Lívero, Francislaine A; Corso, Claudia Rita; Stipp, Maria Carolina; Acco, Alexandra; Andreatini, Roberto

    2017-02-15

    Increases in protein kinase C (PKC) and oxidative stress have been related to mania. Drugs with antioxidant effects or inhibitory actions on PKC may have antimanic effects. The flavonoid quercetin has antioxidant and PKC-inhibiting effects that resemble those of lithium, the first-line treatment for mania in bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that quercetin may have antimanic-like effects in an animal model. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic treatment with quercetin (2.5, 5, 10, and 40mg/kg, i.p.) in male Swiss mice that were subjected to methylphenidate (5mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hyperlocomotion, an animal model of mania. Lithium (100mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (5mg/kg, i.p.) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. We also evaluated the effects of these treatments on methylphenidate-induced oxidative stress in the brain by measuring reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Acute and chronic (21-day) treatment with lithium and diazepam reduced methylphenidate-induced hyperlocomotion. Chronic but not acute treatment with quercetin (10 and 40mg/kg) blocked methylphenidate-induced hyperlocomotion. These effects of lithium and quercetin occurred at doses that did not alter spontaneous locomotor activity, whereas diazepam reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. Chronic treatment with lithium and quercetin blocked the methylphenidate-induced increase in LPO levels in the striatum. These results suggest that chronic quercetin treatment has antimanic-like and antioxidant effects, thus encouraging further studies of quercetin as a putative new antimanic drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards an Understanding of the Low Bioavailability of Quercetin: A Study of Its Interaction with Intestinal Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Gillian T.; Buchweitz, Maria; Winterbone, Mark S.; Kroon, Paul A.; Wilde, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the uptake of quercetin aglycone into CaCo-2/TC7 cells in the presence and absence of mixed micelles that are present in the human small intestine. The micelles inhibited the transport of quercetin into the cells. To gain an understanding of why this is the case we examined the solubilisation of quercetin in micelles of differing composition and into pure lipid phases. We did this by using the environmental sensitivity of quercetin’s UV-visible absorption spectra and measurement of free quercetin by filtration of the micellar solutions. The nature of the micelles was also studied by pyrene fluorescence. We found that the partitioning of quercetin into simple bile salt micelles was low and for mixed micelles was inhibited by increasing the bile salt concentration. The affinity of quercetin decreased in the order egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) = lysoPC > mixed micelles > bile salts. These results, together with the innate properties of quercetin, contribute to an understanding of the low bioavailability of quercetin. PMID:28165426

  10. The effect of quercetin on genetic expression of the commensal gut microbes Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Enterococcus caccae and Ruminococcus gauvreauii.

    PubMed

    Firrman, Jenni; Liu, LinShu; Zhang, Liqing; Arango Argoty, Gustavo; Wang, Minqian; Tomasula, Peggy; Kobori, Masuko; Pontious, Sherri; Xiao, Weidong

    2016-12-01

    Quercetin is one of the most abundant polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables. The ability of the gut microbiota to metabolize quercetin has been previously documented; however, the effect that quercetin may have on commensal gut microbes remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of quercetin on the commensal gut microbes Ruminococcus gauvreauii, Bifidobacterium catenulatum and Enterococcus caccae were determined through evaluation of growth patterns and cell morphology, and analysis of genetic expression profiles between quercetin treated and non-treated groups using Single Molecule RNA sequencing via Helicos technology. Results of this study revealed that phenotypically, quercetin did not prevent growth of Ruminococcus gauvreauii, mildly suppressed growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and moderately inhibited growth of Enterococcus caccae. Genetic analysis revealed that in response to quercetin, Ruminococcus gauvreauii down regulated genes responsible for protein folding, purine synthesis and metabolism. Bifidobacterium catenulatum increased expression of the ABC transport pathway and decreased metabolic pathways and cell wall synthesis. Enterococcus caccae upregulated genes responsible for energy production and metabolism, and downregulated pathways of stress response, translation and sugar transport. For the first time, the effect of quercetin on the growth and genetic expression of three different commensal gut bacteria was documented. The data provides insight into the interactions between genetic regulation and growth. This is also a unique demonstration of how RNA single molecule sequencing can be used to study the gut microbiota.

  11. Quercetin ameliorates glucose and lipid metabolism and improves antioxidant status in postnatally monosodium glutamate-induced metabolic alterations.

    PubMed

    Seiva, Fábio R F; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Braga, Camila Pereira; Amorim, João Paulo A; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2012-10-01

    We reported the effects of quercetin on metabolic and hormonal profile as well as serum antioxidant activities in a model of MSG (monosodium glutamate)-induced obesity. Rats were divided into 4 groups: MSG group, submitted to neonatal treatment with high doses of MSG, administrated subcutaneously during 10 days, from 2 day-old; control groups, which received the same volume of saline. After completing 30 day-old, these groups were subdivided into 4 groups: control and MSG groups treated and non-treated with quercetin at doses of 75 mg/kg body weight (i.p.) over 42 days. BW gain and food consumption were higher in MSG treated rats and quercetin significantly reduced BW by 25%. While MSG increased triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and fractions, and reduced HDL concentrations, administration of quercetin normalized HDL-cholesterol and reduced others lipids. Insulin, leptin, glucose and creatinine levels were raised in MSG-treated rats and reduced after quercetin treatment. Alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase activities were lower after MSG-quercetin combination compared to rats given only MSG. MSG-quercetin combination augmented total protein and urea levels as well as glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in contrast to MSG-treated animals. Quercetin normalized serum lipid and glucose profile and minimized the MSG-related toxic effects, which was associated to its antioxidant properties.

  12. Investigation of quercetin-induced HepG2 cell apoptosis-associated cellular biophysical alterations by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pi, Jiang; Li, Baole; Tu, Lvying; Zhu, Haiyan; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Bai, Haihua; Cai, Huaihong; Cai, Jiye

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a wildly distributed bioflavonoid, has been proved to possess excellent antitumor activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, the biophysical properties of HepG2 cells were qualitatively and quantitatively determined using high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) to understand the anticancer effects of quercetin on HCC cells at nanoscale. The results showed that quercetin could induce severe apoptosis in HepG2 cells through arrest of cell cycle and disruption of mitochondria membrane potential. Additionally, the nuclei and F-actin structures of HepG2 cells were destroyed by quercetin treatment as well. AFM morphological data showed some typical apoptotic characterization of HepG2 cells with increased particle size and roughness in the ultrastructure of cell surface upon quercetin treatment. As an important biophysical property of cells, the membrane stiffness of HepG2 cells was further quantified by AFM force measurements, which indicated that HepG2 cells became much stiffer after quercetin treatment. These results collectively suggest that quercetin can be served as a potential therapeutic agent for HCC, which not only extends our understanding of the anticancer effects of quercetin against HCC cells into nanoscale, but also highlights the applications of AFM for the investigation of anticancer drugs.

  13. Quercetin changes purinergic enzyme activities and oxidative profile in platelets of rats with hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Santi, Adriana; Schmatz, Roberta; Zanini, Daniela; Cardoso, Andréia M; Abadalla, Fátima H; Thomé, Gustavo R; Murussi, Camila; Polachini, Carla R N; Delenogare, Diéssica P; Loro, Vania L; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria R C

    2016-12-01

    Diseases related to thyroid hormones have been extensively studied because affect a large number of individuals, and these hormones participate in the regulation of the whole organism homeostasis. However, little is known about the involvement of purinergic signaling related to oxidative stress in hypothyroidism and possible therapeutic adjuncts for treatment of this disorder. Thus, the present study investigates the effects of quercetin on NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities, platelet aggregation and oxidative profile in platelets of rats with methimazole (MMI)-induced hypothyroidism. Methimazole at a concentration of 20mg/100mL was administered for 90days. From the second month the animals received quercetin 10 or 25mg/kg for 60days. Results showed that: Ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity decreased in methimazole/water group and the treatment with quercetin 25mg/kg decreased NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities. Moreover, platelet aggregation increased in methimazole/water group. Lipid peroxidation increased while superoxide dismutase and catalase activities decreased, but, interestingly, the treatment with quercetin reversed these changes. These results demonstrated that quercetin modulates adenine nucleotide hydrolysis decreasing the ADP formation and adenosine deamination. At the same time quercetin improves the oxidative profile, as well as reduces platelet aggregation, which together with the modulation in the nucleotides levels can contribute to the prevention of platelet disorders.

  14. Quercetin but not luteolin suppresses the induction of lethal shock upon infection of mice with Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Kiichiro; Dobashi, Hideki; Miyake, Ryo; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kumazawa, Yoshio

    2008-08-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is important for the induction of systemic inflammatory responses that lead to lethal shock. Quercetin and luteolin, which differ by one hydroxyl group, are known to suppress the lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-alpha in vitro. We show differing inhibitory effects of quercetin and luteolin on the induction of lethal shock in Salmonella typhimurium aroA-infected mice. In a time- and dose-dependent manner, quercetin reduced the plasma levels of TNF-alpha, lowered bacterial titers in livers, prevented liver damage and prolonged survival, while luteolin had little or no effect. Compared with luteolin, quercetin increased the infiltration of Gr-1(+)CD69(+) neutrophils into the peritoneal cavity and lowered heat shock protein 70 expression. Obviously, the additional hydroxyl group in quercetin is important for suppressing infection-induced lethal shock in mice.

  15. Protective Effect of Quercetin on the Development of Preimplantation Mouse Embryos against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin-hua; Yan, Zhi-guang; Liang, Hong-xing; Chai, Wei-ran; Yan, Zheng; Kuang, Yan-ping; Qi, Cong

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin, a plant-derived flavonoid in Chinese herbs, fruits and wine, displays antioxidant properties in many pathological processes associated with oxidative stress. However, the effect of quercetin on the development of preimplantation embryos under oxidative stress is unclear. The present study sought to determine the protective effect and underlying mechanism of action of quercetin against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury in mouse zygotes. H2O2 treatment impaired the development of mouse zygotes in vitro, decreasing the rates of blastocyst formation and hatched, and increasing the fragmentation, apoptosis and retardation in blastocysts. Quercetin strongly protected zygotes from H2O2-induced oxidative injury by decreasing the reactive oxygen species level, maintaining mitochondrial function and modulating total antioxidant capability, the activity of the enzymatic antioxidants, including glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity to keep the cellular redox environment. Additionally, quercetin had no effect on the level of glutathione, the main non-enzymatic antioxidant in embryos. PMID:24586844

  16. Increased accumulation of anthocyanins in Fragaria chiloensis fruits by transient suppression of FcMYB1 gene.

    PubMed

    Salvatierra, Ariel; Pimentel, Paula; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Herrera, Raúl

    2013-06-01

    Anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs), flavonoid-derived metabolites with different physiological roles, are produced by plants in a coordinated manner during fruit development by the action of transcription factors (TFs). These regulatory proteins have either an activating or repressing effect over structural genes from the biosynthetic pathway under their control. FaMYB1, a TF belonging to the R2R3-MYB family and isolated from commercial strawberry fruit (Fragaria×ananassa), was reported as a transcriptional repressor and its heterologous over-expression in tobacco flowers suppressed flavonoid-derived compound accumulation. FcMYB1, an ortholog of FaMYB1 isolated from the white Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis f. chiloensis), showed higher transcript levels in white (F. chiloensis) than in red (F.×ananassa cv. Camarosa) fruits. In order to assess its contribution to the discolored phenotype in F. chiloensis, FcMYB1 was transiently down-regulated in planta using an RNAi-based approach. Quantitative real-time PCR on FcMYB1 down-regulated fruits resulted an up-regulation of anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and a strong repression of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) transcript accumulation. In addition, these fruits showed increased concentrations of anthocyanins and undetectable levels of flavan 3-ols. Altogether, these results indicate a role for FcMYB1 in regulation of the branching-point of the anthocyanin/PA biosynthesis determining the discolored phenotype of the white Chilean strawberry fruit.

  17. Neocortical prodynorphin expression is transiently increased with learning: Implications for time- and learning-dependent neocortical kappa opioid receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ryan; Collins, Sean; Galvez, Roberto

    2017-09-29

    There are several lines of evidence that indicate a prominent role for the opioid system in the acquisition and consolidation of learned associations. Specifically, kappa opioid receptor (KOR) modulation has been demonstrated to alter various behavioral tasks including whisker trace eyeblink conditioning (WTEB). WTEB is an associative conditioning paradigm in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; Whisker stimulation) is paired following a short stimulus free trace interval with a salient unconditioned stimulus that elicits a blink response (US; Eye shock). Work from our laboratory has shown that WTEB conditioning is dependent upon and induces plasticity in primary somatosensory cortex (S1), a likely site for memory storage. Our subsequent studies have shown that WTEB acquisition or consolidation are impaired when the initial or later phase of KOR activation in S1 is respectively blocked. Interestingly, this mechanism by which KOR is activated in S1 during learning remains unexplored. Dynorphin (DYN), KOR's endogenous ligand, is synthesized from the precursor prodynorphin (PD) that is synthesized from preprodynorphin (PPD). In S1, most PPD is found in inhibitory GABAergic somatostatin interneurons (SOM), suggesting that these SOM interneurons are upstream regulators of learning induced KOR activation. Using immunofluorescence to investigate the expression of PD and SOM, the current study found that PD/SOM expression was transiently increased in S1 during learning. Interestingly, these findings have direct implications towards a time- and learning-dependent role for KOR activation in neocortical mechanisms mediating learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Low-Level Blast Exposure Increases Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Expression in the Rat Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Por, Elaine D.; Choi, Jae-Hyek; Lund, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Blast-related ocular injuries sustained by military personnel have led to rigorous efforts to elucidate the effects of blast exposure on neurosensory function. Recent studies have provided some insight into cognitive and visual deficits sustained following blast exposure; however, limited data are available on the effects of blast on pain and inflammatory processes. Investigation of these secondary effects of blast exposure is necessary to fully comprehend the complex pathophysiology of blast-related injuries. The overall purpose of this study is to determine the effects of single and repeated blast exposure on pain and inflammatory mediators in ocular tissues. Methods: A compressed air shock tube was used to deliver a single or repeated blast (68.0 ± 2.7 kPa) to anesthetized rats daily for 5 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed on ocular tissues to determine the expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) following single and repeated blast exposure. Neutrophil infiltration and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression were also assessed in blast tissues via immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis, respectively. Results: TRPV1 expression was increased in rat corneas exposed to both single and repeated blast. Increased secretion of CGRP, SP, and ET-1 was also detected in rat corneas as compared to control. Moreover, repeated blast exposure resulted in neutrophil infiltration in the cornea and stromal layer as compared to control animals. Conclusion: Single and repeated blast exposure resulted in increased expression of TRPV1, CGRP, SP, and ET-1 as well as neutrophil infiltration. Collectively, these findings provide novel insight into the activation of pain and inflammation signaling mediators following blast exposure. PMID:27049881

  19. Chronic enalapril treatment increases transient outward potassium current in cardiomyocytes isolated from right ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Junior, Luiz Fernando; de Azevedo Carvalho, Ana Carolina; Pimentel, Enildo Broetto; Mill, José Geraldo; Nascimento, José Hamilton Matheus

    2017-03-01

    It has been well established that chronic pressure overload resulting from hypertension leads to ventricular hypertrophy and electrophysiological remodeling. The transient outward potassium current (I to) reduction described in hypertensive animals delays ventricular repolarization, leading to complex ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Antihypertensive drugs, as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), can restore I to and reduce the incidence of arrhythmic events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differential effects of long-term treatment with ACEi or direct-acting smooth muscle relaxant on the I to of left and right ventricle myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Animals were divided into four groups: normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), hypertensive (SHR), SHR treated for 6 weeks with enalapril 10 mg/kg/day (SHRE), or hydralazine 20 mg/kg/day (SHRH). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and hypertrophy index (heart weight/body weight (HW/BW)) were determined at the end of treatment period. Cell membrane capacitance (C m) and I to were assessed in cardiomyocytes isolated from left and right ventricles. The SHR exhibited significantly increased SBP and HW/BW when compared to the WKY. The treated groups, SHRE and SHRH, restored normal SBP but not HW/BW. The SHR group exhibited a diminished I to in the left but not the right ventricle. Both the treated groups restored I to in the left ventricle. However, in the right ventricle, only enalapril treatment modified I to. The SHRE group exhibited a significant increase in I to compared to all the other groups. These findings suggest that enalapril may increase I to by a pressure overload independent mechanism.

  20. Low-Level Blast Exposure Increases Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) Expression in the Rat Cornea.

    PubMed

    Por, Elaine D; Choi, Jae-Hyek; Lund, Brian J

    2016-10-01

    Blast-related ocular injuries sustained by military personnel have led to rigorous efforts to elucidate the effects of blast exposure on neurosensory function. Recent studies have provided some insight into cognitive and visual deficits sustained following blast exposure; however, limited data are available on the effects of blast on pain and inflammatory processes. Investigation of these secondary effects of blast exposure is necessary to fully comprehend the complex pathophysiology of blast-related injuries. The overall purpose of this study is to determine the effects of single and repeated blast exposure on pain and inflammatory mediators in ocular tissues. A compressed air shock tube was used to deliver a single or repeated blast (68.0 ± 2.7 kPa) to anesthetized rats daily for 5 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed on ocular tissues to determine the expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) following single and repeated blast exposure. Neutrophil infiltration and myeloperoxidase (MPO) expression were also assessed in blast tissues via immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis, respectively. TRPV1 expression was increased in rat corneas exposed to both single and repeated blast. Increased secretion of CGRP, SP, and ET-1 was also detected in rat corneas as compared to control. Moreover, repeated blast exposure resulted in neutrophil infiltration in the cornea and stromal layer as compared to control animals. Single and repeated blast exposure resulted in increased expression of TRPV1, CGRP, SP, and ET-1 as well as neutrophil infiltration. Collectively, these findings provide novel insight into the activation of pain and inflammation signaling mediators following blast exposure.

  1. Effect of quercetin on metallothionein, nitric oxide synthases and cyclooxygenase-2 expression on experimental chronic cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Ana I.; Vicente-Sanchez, Cesar; Jerkic, Mirjana; Santiago, Jose M.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Penelope D.; Perez-Barriocanal, Fernando; Lopez-Novoa, Jose M. . E-mail: jmlnovoa@usal.es

    2006-01-15

    Inflammation can play a key role in Cd-induced dysfunctions. Quercetin is a potent oxygen free radical scavenger and a metal chelator. Our aim was to study the effect of quercetin on Cd-induced kidney damage and metallothionein expression. The study was performed in Wistar rats that were administered during 9 weeks with either cadmium (1.2 mg Cd/kg/day, s.c.), quercetin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or cadmium + quercetin. Renal toxicity was evaluated by measuring blood urea nitrogen concentration and urinary excretion of enzymes marker of tubular damage. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) renal expression were assessed by Western blot. Renal expression of metallothionein 1 and 2 (MT-1, MT-2) and eNOS mRNA was assessed by Northern blot. Our data demonstrated that Cd-induced renal toxicity was markedly reduced in rats that also received quercetin. MT-1 and MT-2 mRNA levels in kidney were substantially increased during treatment with Cd, being even higher when the animals received Cd and quercetin. Renal eNOS expression was significantly higher in rats receiving Cd and quercetin than in animals receiving Cd alone or in control rats. In the group that received Cd, COX-2 and iNOS expression was markedly higher than in control rats. In the group Cd + quercetin, no changes in COX-2 and iNOS expression were observed compared with the control group. Our results demonstrate that quercetin treatment prevents Cd-induced overexpression of iNOS and COX-2, and increases MT expression. These effects can explain the protection by quercetin of Cd-induced nephrotoxicity.

  2. Quercetin attenuates the ischemia reperfusion induced COX-2 and MPO expression in the small intestine mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Štefan; Jonecová, Zuzana; Čurgali, Kristína; Maretta, Milan; Šoltés, Ján; Švaňa, Martin; Kalpadikis, Theodore; Caprnda, Martin; Adamek, Mariusz; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter

    2017-08-28

    Quercetin, the active substance of tea, fruits and vegetables, exerts a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities and is considered to have potential therapeutic application. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of quercetin against experimental ischemia- reperfusion (IR) injury of the small intestine in rats. Quercetin was administrated intraperitoneally 30min before 1h ischemia of superior mesenteric artery with following reperfusion periods lasting 1, 4 and 24h. The male specific pathogen-free Charles River Wistar rats were used (n=45). In acute phase, 4h after start of reperfusion, the quercetin induced a significant decrease in mucosal injury index (p<0.05) accompanied by a significant decrease in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the epithelial lining of the intestinal villi in comparison with the control group (p<0.01). In the epithelium of the intestinal glands, COX-2 expression resulting from IR injury significantly increased regardless quercetin application (in control group p<0.001; in quercetin group p<0.05), but in quercetin group, significant decrease in it during 24h of reperfusion in a late phase of IR injury was detected (p<0.001). Based on morphology of COX-2 positive cells, the COX-2 positivity was found particularly in goblet cells of the intestinal villi epithelium and enteroendocrine cells respectively, in the glandular epithelium. We concluded that quercetin application attenuated mucosal damage from IR injury by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration which was demonstrated by a lower number of myeloperoxidase positive cells in the lamina propria during both phases of IR injury and the significant decrease in that in a late phase after 24h of reperfusion (p<0.05). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Quercetin as an Emerging Anti-Melanoma Agent: A Four-Focus Area Therapeutic Development Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Zoey; Donovan, Micah G.; Branco, Gisele Morais; Limesand, Kirsten H.; Burd, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Replacing current refractory treatments for melanoma with new prevention and therapeutic approaches is crucial in order to successfully treat this aggressive cancer form. Melanoma develops from neural crest cells, which express tyrosinase – a key enzyme in the pigmentation pathway. The tyrosinase enzyme is highly active in melanoma cells and metabolizes polyphenolic compounds; tyrosinase expression thus makes feasible a target for polyphenol-based therapies. For example, quercetin (3,3′,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is a highly ubiquitous and well-classified dietary polyphenol found in various fruits, vegetables, and other plant products including onions, broccoli, kale, oranges, blueberries, apples, and tea. Quercetin has demonstrated antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity in various cancer cell types. Quercetin is readily metabolized by tyrosinase into various compounds that promote anticancer activity; additionally, given that tyrosinase expression increases during tumorigenesis, and its activity is associated with pigmentation changes in both early- and late-stage melanocytic lesions, it suggests that quercetin can be used to target melanoma. In this review, we explore the potential of quercetin as an anti-melanoma agent utilizing and extrapolating on evidence from previous in vitro studies in various human malignant cell lines and propose a “four-focus area strategy” to develop quercetin as a targeted anti-melanoma compound for use as either a preventative or therapeutic agent. The four areas of focus include utilizing quercetin to (i) modulate cellular bioreduction potential and associated signaling cascades, (ii) affect transcription of relevant genes, (iii) regulate epigenetic processes, and (iv) develop effective combination therapies and delivery modalities/protocols. In general, quercetin could be used to exploit tyrosinase activity to prevent, and/or treat, melanoma with minimal additional side effects. PMID:27843913

  4. Quercetin as an Emerging Anti-Melanoma Agent: A Four-Focus Area Therapeutic Development Strategy.

    PubMed

    Harris, Zoey; Donovan, Micah G; Branco, Gisele Morais; Limesand, Kirsten H; Burd, Randy

    2016-01-01

    Replacing current refractory treatments for melanoma with new prevention and therapeutic approaches is crucial in order to successfully treat this aggressive cancer form. Melanoma develops from neural crest cells, which express tyrosinase - a key enzyme in the pigmentation pathway. The tyrosinase enzyme is highly active in melanoma cells and metabolizes polyphenolic compounds; tyrosinase expression thus makes feasible a target for polyphenol-based therapies. For example, quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is a highly ubiquitous and well-classified dietary polyphenol found in various fruits, vegetables, and other plant products including onions, broccoli, kale, oranges, blueberries, apples, and tea. Quercetin has demonstrated antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity in various cancer cell types. Quercetin is readily metabolized by tyrosinase into various compounds that promote anticancer activity; additionally, given that tyrosinase expression increases during tumorigenesis, and its activity is associated with pigmentation changes in both early- and late-stage melanocytic lesions, it suggests that quercetin can be used to target melanoma. In this review, we explore the potential of quercetin as an anti-melanoma agent utilizing and extrapolating on evidence from previous in vitro studies in various human malignant cell lines and propose a "four-focus area strategy" to develop quercetin as a targeted anti-melanoma compound for use as either a preventative or therapeutic agent. The four areas of focus include utilizing quercetin to (i) modulate cellular bioreduction potential and associated signaling cascades, (ii) affect transcription of relevant genes, (iii) regulate epigenetic processes, and (iv) develop effective combination therapies and delivery modalities/protocols. In general, quercetin could be used to exploit tyrosinase activity to prevent, and/or treat, melanoma with minimal additional side effects.

  5. Long-Term Quercetin Dietary Enrichment Partially Protects Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Spaulding, Hannah R.; Ballmann, Christopher G.; Quindry, John C.; Selsby, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) results from a genetic lesion in the dystrophin gene and leads to progressive muscle damage. PGC-1α pathway activation improves muscle function and decreases histopathological injury. We hypothesized that mild disease found in the limb muscles of mdx mice may be responsive to quercetin-mediated protection of dystrophic muscle via PGC-1α pathway activation. To test this hypothesis muscle function was measured in the soleus and EDL from 14 month old C57, mdx, and mdx mice treated with quercetin (mdxQ; 0.2% dietary enrichment) for 12 months. Quercetin reversed 50% of disease-related losses in specific tension and partially preserved fatigue resistance in the soleus. Specific tension and resistance to contraction-induced injury in the EDL were not protected by quercetin. Given some functional gain in the soleus it was probed with histological and biochemical approaches, however, in dystrophic muscle histopathological outcomes were not improved by quercetin and suppressed PGC-1α pathway activation was not increased. Similar to results in the diaphragm from these mice, these data suggest that the benefits conferred to dystrophic muscle following 12 months of quercetin enrichment were underwhelming. Spontaneous activity at the end of the treatment period was greater in mdxQ compared to mdx indicating that quercetin fed mice were more active in addition to engaging in more vigorous activity. Hence, modest preservation of muscle function (specific tension) and elevated spontaneous physical activity largely in the absence of tissue damage in mdxQ suggests dietary quercetin may mediate protection. PMID:27977770

  6. Anti-Cancer Effect of Quercetin in Xenograft Models with EBV-Associated Human Gastric Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Hee; Lee, Seulki; Shin, Yu Su; Cho, Miyeon; Kang, Hyojeung; Cho, Hyosun

    2016-09-26

    Licorice extracts have been widely used in herbal and folk medications. Glycyrrhiza contains diverse range of biological compounds including triterpenes (glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhizic acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, licoricidin, isoliquiritigenin). The flavonoids in licorice are known to have strong anti-cancer activities. Quercetin, the most abundant flavonoid, has been shown to have anti-ulcer, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection can lead to serious malignancies, such as, Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease and gastric carcinoma(GC), and (Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma) EBVaGC is one of the most common EBV-associated cancers. In this study, the authors first examined the anti-cancer effects of quercetin and isoliquiritigenin in vivo xenograft animal models implanted with EBV(+) human gastric carcinoma (SNU719) or EBV(-) human gastric carcinoma (MKN74), and then explored the molecular mechanisms responsible for their anti-cancer activities. The results obtained showed that anti-cancer effect of quercetin was greater than isoliquiritigenin in mice injected with EBV(+) human gastric carcinoma (SNU719) cells. On the other hand, quercetin and isoliquiritigenin had similar anti-cancer effects in mice injected with EBV(-) human gastric carcinoma (MKN74) cells. Interestingly, quercetin inhibited EBV viral protein expressions, including EBNA-1 and LMP-2 proteins in tumor tissues from mice injected with EBV(+) human gastric carcinoma. Quercetin more effectively induced p53-dependent apoptosis than isoliquiritigenin in EBV(+) human gastric carcinoma, and this induction was correlated with increased expressions of the cleaved forms of caspase-3, -9, and Parp. In EBV(-)human gastric carcinoma (MKN74), both quercetin and isoliquiritigenin induced the expressions of p53, Bax, and Puma and the cleaved forms of caspase-3 and -9 and Parp at similar levels.

  7. Increased Expression of Slit2 and its Robo Receptors During Astroglial Scar Formation After Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xuyan; Shin, Yoo-Jin; Riew, Tae-Ryong; Choi, Jeong-Heon; Lee, Mun-Yong

    2016-12-01

    Slit2, a secreted glycoprotein, has recently been implicated in the post-ischemic astroglial reaction. The objective of this study was to investigate the temporal changes and cellular localization of Slit2 and its receptors, Robo1, Robo2, and Robo4, in a rat transient focal ischemia model induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion. We used double- and triple-immunolabeling to determine the cell-specific changes in Slit2 and its receptors during a 10-week post-ischemia period. The expression profiles of Slit2 and the Robo receptors shared overlapping expression patterns in sham-operated and ischemic striatum. Constitutive expression of Slit2 and Robo receptors was observed in striatal neurons with weak intensity, whereas in rats reperfused after ischemic insults, these immunoreactivities were increased in reactive astrocytes. Astroglial induction of Slit2 and Robo in the peri-infarct region was distinct on days 7-14 after reperfusion and thereafter increased progressively throughout the 10-week experimental period. Slit2 and Robo were prominently expressed in the perinuclear cytoplasm and main processes of reactive astrocytes forming the astroglial scar. This observation was confirmed by quantification of the mean fluorescence intensity of Slit2 and Robo receptors over reactive astrocytes localized at the edge of the infarct area. However, activated microglia/macrophages in the peri-infarct area were devoid of any specific labeling for Slit2 and Robo. Thus, our data revealed a selective and sustained induction of Slit2 and Robo in astrocytes localized throughout the astroglial scar after ischemic stroke, suggesting that Slit2/Robo signaling participates in glial scar formation and brain remodeling following ischemic injury.

  8. Transiently increased glutamate cycling in rat PFC is associated with rapid onset of antidepressant-like effects

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Golam M. I.; Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Monique; Banasr, Mounira; Ma, Xiaoxian; Pittman, Brian; Bristow, Linda; Schaeffer, Eric; Duman, Ronald; Rothman, Douglas; Behar, Kevin; Sanacora, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Several drugs have recently been reported to induce rapid antidepressant effects in clinical trials and rodent models. Although the cellular mechanisms involved remain unclear, reports suggest that increased glutamate transmission contributes to these effects. Here, we demonstrate that the antidepressant-like efficacy of three unique drugs, with reported rapid onset antidepressant properties, is coupled with a rapid transient rise in glutamate cycling in medial prefronal cortex (mPFC) of awake rats as measured by ex vivo 1H-[13C]-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rats were acutely pre-treated by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of ketamine (1,3,10,30,80mg/kg), Ro 25-6981 (1,3,10mg/kg), scopolamine (5,25,100μg/kg) or vehicle (controls). At fixed times after drug injection animals received an intravenous infusion of [1,6-13C2]glucose for 8 min to enrich brain amino acid pools with 13C, followed by rapid euthanasia. The mPFC was dissected, extracted with ethanol and metabolite 13C enrichments measured. We found a clear dose dependent effect of ketamine and Ro 25-6981 on behavior and the percent of 13C-enrichment of glutamate, glutamine and GABA. Further, we also found an effect of scopolamine on both cycling and behavior. These studies demonstrate that three pharmacologically distinct classes of drugs, clinically related through their reported rapid antidepressant actions, share the common ability to rapidly stimulate glutamate cycling at doses pertinent for their antidepressant-like efficacy. We conclude that increased cycling precedes the antidepressant action at behaviorally effective doses and suggests the rapid change in cycling could be used to predict efficacy of novel agents or identify doses with antidepressant activity. PMID:27067013

  9. Quercetin as a shuttle for labile iron.

    PubMed

    Baccan, Mayara Marinovic; Chiarelli-Neto, Orlando; Pereira, Regina Mara Silva; Espósito, Breno Pannia

    2012-02-01

    The antioxidant activity of flavonoids may involve their ability to complex body iron in non-redox-active forms. In this study, it was found that the catechol flavonoids rutin and quercetin are able to suppress redox-active labile plasma iron (LPI) in both buffered solution and in iron-overloaded sera. Both flavonoids are effective in loading the metal into the iron-transport protein transferrin. Iron derivatives of quercetin and rutin are able to permeate cell membranes, however, only free quercetin is able to gain access to the cytosol and decrease intracellular labile iron pools. These results suggest that the antioxidant activity of quercetin may be dependent on its ability to shuttle labile iron from cell compartments followed by its transfer to transferrin.

  10. Quercetin-Induced Cell Death in Human Papillary Thyroid Cancer (B-CPAP) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu Altundağ, Ergül; Kasacı, Tolga; Yılmaz, Ayşe Mine; Karademir, Betül; Koçtürk, Semra; Taga, Yavuz; Yalçın, A. Süha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the antiproliferative effect of quercetin on human papillary thyroid cancer cells and determined the apoptotic mechanisms underlying its actions. We have used different concentrations of quercetin to induce apoptosis and measured cell viability. Apoptosis and cell cycle analysis was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide. Finally, we have measured changes in caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein expression levels as hallmarks of apoptosis and Hsp90 protein expression level as a marker of proteasome activity in treated and control cells. Quercetin treatment of human papillary thyroid cancer cells resulted in decreased cell proliferation and increased rate of apoptosis by caspase activation. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that quercetin induces cancer cell apoptosis by downregulating the levels of Hsp90. In conclusion, we have shown that quercetin induces downregulation of Hsp90 expression that may be involved in the decrease of chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity which, in order, induces inhibition of growth and causes cell death in thyroid cancer cells. Thus, quercetin appears to be a promising candidate drug for Hsp90 downregulation and apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells. PMID:27057371

  11. Melibiose, a Nondigestible Disaccharide, Promotes Absorption of Quercetin Glycosides in Rat Small Intestine.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Seiya; Shinoki, Aki; Hara, Hiroshi

    2016-12-14

    We demonstrated that melibiose, a nondigestible disaccharide composed of galactose and glucose with α-1,6 glycoside linkage, promotes the absorption of water-soluble quercetin glycosides in ligated small intestinal loop of anesthetized rats. Water-soluble quercetin glycoside, a quercetin-3-O-glucoside mixture (Q3GM), includes quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3G, 31.9%), mono (21.2%) and di (17.1%), glucose adducts with α-1,4 linkages. After instillation of Q3GM into the intestinal loop with or without melibiose, the plasma concentration of quercetin derivatives in the portal blood was considerably higher in the melibiose group at 60 min. Furthermore, we evaluated the hydrolytic rate of Q3G by the mucosal homogenate of the small intestine with six different disaccharides. Melibiose and isomaltose, which have α-1,6 glycoside linkage, were found to promote Q3G hydrolysis to aglycone. These results suggest that melibiose promotes quercetin glycoside absorption in rats by increasing glycoside hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen and that α-1,6 linkage is involved in this process.

  12. Apoptotic effect of quercetin on HT-29 colon cancer cells via the AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Sang-Ki; Kim, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Seung-Ho; Park, Young-Seok; Park, Byung-Kwon; Kim, So-Jung; Kim, Jin; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Jong-Suk; Cho, Sung-Dae; Jung, Ji-Won; Roh, Kyong-Hwan; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Jung, Ji-Youn

    2010-08-11

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a physiological cellular energy sensor, strongly suppresses cell proliferation in both nonmalignant and tumor cells. This study demonstrates the mechanism of quercetin-induced apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Treatment of cells with quercetin significantly decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, quercetin increased cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and up-regulated apoptosis-related proteins, such as AMPK, p53, and p21, within 48 h. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that quercetin treatment resulted in a significant reduction in tumor volume over 6 weeks, and apoptosis-related protein induction by quercetin was significantly higher in the 100 mg/kg treated group compared to the control group. All of these results indicate that quercetin induces apoptosis via AMPK activation and p53-dependent apoptotic cell death in HT-29 colon cancer cells and that it may be a potential chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against HT-29 colon cancer.

  13. [Quercetin inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of human gastric carcinoma cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-yan; Guo, Liang-miao; Chen, Yong; Zhao, Xue-hua; Cheng, Cai-lian; Wu, Mian-yun; He, Li-ya

    2006-09-01

    To study the effect of quercetin on the growth and apoptosis of human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC-803. The measurement of inhibitory rate and apoptotic index(AI) of quercetin were done by MTT assay and TUNEL assay. The positive expression rate of P53, C-myc and P16 were detected by immunocytochemical staining. Quercetin at concentrations ranging from 40 mumol/L to 100 mumol/L significantly inhibited the proliferation of MGC-803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.01). TUNEL assay indicated that the number of apoptotic cells in quercetin-treated group was greater than that in the control group (P<0.01). Expression of P53 and C-myc protein decreased following quercetin induction in a dose-dependent manner, whereas P16 expression increased significantly compared with that of the control group (P<0.01). Quercetin can inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis of MGC-803 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Its mechanisms may be relevant to the down-regulation of P53 and C-myc protein expression as well as up-regulation of P16 expression.

  14. Quercetin-induced apoptotic cascade in cancer cells: antioxidant versus estrogen receptor alpha-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Galluzzo, Paola; Martini, Chiara; Bulzomi, Pamela; Leone, Stefano; Bolli, Alessandro; Pallottini, Valentina; Marino, Maria

    2009-06-01

    The flavonol quercetin, especially abundant in apple, wine, and onions, is reported to have anti-proliferative effects in many cancer cell lines. Antioxidant or pro-oxidant activities and kinase inhibition have been proposed as molecular mechanisms for these effects. In addition, an estrogenic activity has been observed but, at the present, it is poorly understood whether this latter activity plays a role in the quercetin-induced anti-proliferative effects. Here, we studied the molecular mechanisms of quercetin committed to the generation of an apoptotic cascade in cancer cells devoid or containing transfected estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha; i.e., human cervix epitheloid carcinoma HeLa cells). Although none of tested quercetin concentrations increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HeLa cells, quercetin stimulation prevents the H(2)O(2)-induced ROS production both in the presence and in the absence of ERalpha. However, this flavonoid induces the activation of p38/MAPK, leading to the pro-apoptotic caspase-3 activation and to the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage only in the presence of ERalpha. Notably, no down-regulation of survival kinases (i.e., AKT and ERK) was reported. Taken together, these findings suggest that quercetin results in HeLa cell death through an ERalpha-dependent mechanism involving caspase- and p38 kinase activation. These findings indicate new potential chemopreventive actions of flavonoids on cancer growth.

  15. Onion extract and quercetin induce matrix metalloproteinase-1 in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-We; Cho, Sun-Young; Lee, Seong-Ryong; Lee, Kyu-Suk

    2010-03-01

    A scar is usually developed by an imbalance of collagen synthesis and degradation. It is believed that the flavonoids (quercetin and kaempferol) in onion extract play a role in reducing scar formation through inhibition of fibroblast activities. Even though several commercial products are composed of onion extract, the precise molecular mechanisms of onion extract in reduction of scar formation in skin are still largely unknown. In this study we investigated the effect both of onion extract and quercetin on the proliferation of fibroblasts, expression of type I collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). Our data show that proliferation rates of fibroblasts were decreased in a dose-dependent manner of the onion extract and quercetin. The expression of type I collagen was not markedly changed by the onion extract and quercetin. Interestingly, the expression of MMP-1 was markedly increased by both onion extract and quercetin in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our data indicate that onion extract and quercetin play a role in the anti-scar effect in skin through up-regulation of MMP-1 expression, implying this agent is a promising material for reducing scar formation.

  16. Protective Effects of Quercetin against Dimethoate-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Allium sativum Test

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Waseem; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Nazam, Nazia; Lone, Mohammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was directed to study the possible protective activity of quercetin—a natural antioxidant against dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in meristematic cells of Allium sativum. So far there is no report on the biological properties of quercetin in plant test systems. Chromosome breaks, multipolar anaphase, stick chromosome, and mitotic activity were undertaken in the current study as markers of cyto- and genotoxicity. Untreated control, quercetin controls (@ 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL for 3 h), and dimethoate exposed groups (@ 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h) were maintained. For protection against cytogenotoxicity, the root tip cells treated with dimethoate at 100 and 200 μg/mL for 3 h and quercetin treatment at 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL for 16 h, prior to dimethoate treatment, were undertaken. Quercetin was found to be neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in Allium sativum control at these doses. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in chromosomal aberrations was noted in dimethoate treated Allium. Pretreatment of Allium sativum with quercetin significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dimethoate-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in meristematic cells, and these effects were dose dependent. In conclusion, quercetin has a protective role in the abatement of dimethoate-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in the meristematic cells of Allium sativum that resides, at least in part, on its antioxidant effects. PMID:27379342

  17. Synthesis and Antiviral Activity of Substituted Quercetins

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Mahendra; Kim, Yunjeong; Desper, John; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Hua, Duy H.

    2011-01-01

    Influenza viruses are important pathogens that cause respiratory infections in humans and animals. In addition to vaccination, antiviral drugs against influenza virus play a significant role in controlling viral infections by reducing disease progression and virus transmission. Plant derived polyphenols are associated with antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic, and cardio- and neuro-protective actions. Some polyphenols, such as resveratrol and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), showed significant anti-influenza activity in vitro and/or in vivo. Recently we showed that quercetin and isoquercetin (quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside), a glucoside form of quercetin, significantly reduced the replication of influenza viruses in vitro and in vivo (isoquercetin). The antiviral effects of isoquercetin were greater than that of quercetin with lower IC50 values and higher in vitro therapeutic index. Thus, we investigated the synthesis and antiviral activities of various quercetin derivatives with substitution of C3, C3’, and C5 hydroxyl functions with various phenolic ester, alkoxy, and aminoalkoxy moieties. Among newly synthesized compounds, quercetin-3-gallate which is structurally related to EGCG showed comparable antiviral activity against influenza virus (porcine H1N1 strain) to that of EGCG with improved in vitro therapeutic index. PMID:22115591

  18. Synthesis and antiviral activity of substituted quercetins.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Mahendra; Kim, Yunjeong; Desper, John; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Hua, Duy H

    2012-01-01

    Influenza viruses are important pathogens that cause respiratory infections in humans and animals. In addition to vaccination, antiviral drugs against influenza virus play a significant role in controlling viral infections by reducing disease progression and virus transmission. Plant derived polyphenols are associated with antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic, and cardio- and neuro-protective actions. Some polyphenols, such as resveratrol and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), showed significant anti-influenza activity in vitro and/or in vivo. Recently we showed that quercetin and isoquercetin (quercetin-3-β-d-glucoside), a glucoside form of quercetin, significantly reduced the replication of influenza viruses in vitro and in vivo (isoquercetin). The antiviral effects of isoquercetin were greater than that of quercetin with lower IC(50) values and higher in vitro therapeutic index. Thus, we investigated the synthesis and antiviral activities of various quercetin derivatives with substitution of C3, C3', and C5 hydroxyl functions with various phenolic ester, alkoxy, and aminoalkoxy moieties. Among newly synthesized compounds, quercetin-3-gallate which is structurally related to EGCG showed comparable antiviral activity against influenza virus (porcine H1N1 strain) to that of EGCG with improved in vitro therapeutic index. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transient Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation Causes a Delayed Loss of Mitochondria and Increases Spontaneous Calcium Signaling in Astrocytic Processes

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, John C.; Jackson, Joshua G.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, mitochondria have been localized to astrocytic processes where they shape Ca2+ signaling; this relationship has not been examined in models of ischemia/reperfusion. We biolistically transfected astrocytes in rat hippocampal slice cultures to facilitate fluorescent confocal microscopy, and subjected these slices to transient oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) that causes delayed excitotoxic death of CA1 pyramidal neurons. This insult caused a delayed loss of mitochondria from astrocytic processes and increased colocalization of mitochondria with the autophagosome marker LC3B. The losses of neurons in area CA1 and mitochondria in astrocytic processes were blocked by ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists, tetrodotoxin, ziconotide (Ca2+ channel blocker), two inhibitors of reversed Na+/Ca2+ exchange (KB-R7943, YM-244769), or two inhibitors of calcineurin (cyclosporin-A, FK506). The effects of OGD were mimicked by NMDA. The glutamate uptake inhibitor (3S)-3-[[3-[[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]amino]phenyl]methoxy]-l-aspartate increased neuronal loss after OGD or NMDA, and blocked the loss of astrocytic mitochondria. Exogenous glutamate in the presence of iGluR antagonists caused a loss of mitochondria without a decrease in neurons in area CA1. Using the genetic Ca2+ indicator Lck-GCaMP-6S, we observed two types of Ca2+ signals: (1) in the cytoplasm surrounding mitochondria (mitochondrially centered) and (2) traversing the space between mitochondria (extramitochondrial). The spatial spread, kinetics, and frequency of these events were different. The amplitude of both types was doubled and the spread of both types changed by ∼2-fold 24 h after OGD. Together, these data suggest that pathologic activation of glutamate transport and increased astrocytic Ca2+ through reversed Na+/Ca2+ exchange triggers mitochondrial loss and dramatic increases in Ca2+ signaling in astrocytic processes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the

  20. Transient Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation Causes a Delayed Loss of Mitochondria and Increases Spontaneous Calcium Signaling in Astrocytic Processes.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, John C; Jackson, Joshua G; Robinson, Michael B

    2016-07-06

    Recently, mitochondria have been localized to astrocytic processes where they shape Ca(2+) signaling; this relationship has not been examined in models of ischemia/reperfusion. We biolistically transfected astrocytes in rat hippocampal slice cultures to facilitate fluorescent confocal microscopy, and subjected these slices to transient oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) that causes delayed excitotoxic death of CA1 pyramidal neurons. This insult caused a delayed loss of mitochondria from astrocytic processes and increased colocalization of mitochondria with the autophagosome marker LC3B. The losses of neurons in area CA1 and mitochondria in astrocytic processes were blocked by ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists, tetrodotoxin, ziconotide (Ca(2+) channel blocker), two inhibitors of reversed Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange (KB-R7943, YM-244769), or two inhibitors of calcineurin (cyclosporin-A, FK506). The effects of OGD were mimicked by NMDA. The glutamate uptake inhibitor (3S)-3-[[3-[[4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoyl]amino]phenyl]methoxy]-l-aspartate increased neuronal loss after OGD or NMDA, and blocked the loss of astrocytic mitochondria. Exogenous glutamate in the presence of iGluR antagonists caused a loss of mitochondria without a decrease in neurons in area CA1. Using the genetic Ca(2+) indicator Lck-GCaMP-6S, we observed two types of Ca(2+) signals: (1) in the cytoplasm surrounding mitochondria (mitochondrially centered) and (2) traversing the space between mitochondria (extramitochondrial). The spatial spread, kinetics, and frequency of these events were different. The amplitude of both types was doubled and the spread of both types changed by ∼2-fold 24 h after OGD. Together, these data suggest that pathologic activation of glutamate transport and increased astrocytic Ca(2+) through reversed Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange triggers mitochondrial loss and dramatic increases in Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytic processes. Astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain

  1. Quercetin induces tumor-selective apoptosis through down-regulation of Mcl-1 and activation of Bax

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Senping; Gao, Ning; Zhang, Zhuo; Chen, Gang; Budhraja, Amit; Ke, Zunji; Son, Young-ok; Wang, Xin; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the in vivo antitumor efficacy of querctin in U937 xenografts and the functional role of Mcl-1 and Bax in quercetin-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells. Experimental Design Leukemia cells were treated with quercetin, after which apoptosis, Mcl-1 expression, and Bax activation and translocation were evaluated. The efficacy of quercein, as well as Mcl-1 expression and Bax activation were investigated in xenografts of leukemia cells. Results Administration of quercetin caused pronounced apoptosis in both transformed and primary leukemia cells, but not in normal blood peripheral mononuclear cells. Quercetin-induced apoptosis was accompanied by Mcl-1 down-regulation and Bax conformational change and mitochondrial translocation which triggered cytochrome c release. Knockdown of Bax by siRNA reversed querctin-induced apoptosis. Knockout of Bax abrogated the activation of caspase and apoptosis. Ectopic expression of Mcl-1 attenuated quercetin-mediated Bax activation, translocation and cell death. Conversely, interruption of Mcl-1 by siRNA enhanced Bax activation and translocation, as well as lethality induced by quercetin. However, the absence of Bax had no effect on quercetin-mediated Mcl-1 down-regulation. Furthermore, in vivo administration of quercetin attenuated tumor growth in U937 xenografts. The TUNEL positive apoptotic cells in tumor sections increased in quercetin-treated mice as compared with controls. Mcl-1 down-regulation and Bax activation were observed in xenografts. Conclusions These data suggest that quercetin may be useful for the treatment of leukemia by preferentially inducing apoptosis in leukemia versus normal hematopoietic cells, through a process involving Mcl-1 down-regulation, which in turn potentiates Bax activation and mitochondrial translocation, culminating in apoptosis. PMID:21138867

  2. Incorporation of quercetin in respirable lipid microparticles: effect on stability and cellular uptake on A549 pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scalia, Santo; Trotta, Valentina; Traini, Daniela; Young, Paul M; Sticozzi, Claudia; Cervellati, Franco; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop controlled release inhalable lipid microparticles (LMs) loaded with the antioxidant flavonoid, quercetin and to investigate the interaction of these microparticles with A549 pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells. The LMs were produced using different lipidic materials and surfactants, by melt emulsification followed by a sonication step. The most efficient modulation of the in vitro release of quercetin was achieved by the LMs prepared with tristearin and hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine, which were used for subsequent studies. These LMs exhibited a quercetin loading of 11.8±0.3%, and a volume median diameter, determined by laser diffraction, of 4.1±0.2μm. Moreover, their mass median aerodynamic diameter (4.82±0.15μm) and fine particle fraction (27.2±3.9%), as measured by multi-stage liquid impinger, were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Quercetin was found to be highly unstable (complete decomposition within 6-h incubation) in Ham's F-12 medium used for A549 cell culture. Degradation was markedly reduced (16.4% of the initial quercetin content still present after 24-h incubation) after encapsulation in the lipid particle system. Viability studies performed by lactate dehydrogenase assay, demonstrated that quercetin LMs showed no significant cytotoxicity on the A549 cells, over the concentration 0.1-5μM. The uptake of quercetin by the A549 lung alveolar cells was also investigated. After 4-h incubation, the accumulation of quercetin in the A549 cells was significantly higher (2.3-fold increase) for the microparticle entrapped flavonoid when compare to non-encapsulated quercetin. The enhanced intracellular delivery of quercetin achieved by the LMs is likely due to the flavonoid stabilization after encapsulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transient atrial fibrillation after open abdominal aortic revascularization surgery is associated with increased length of stay, mortality, and readmission rates.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Barbara A; Kothari, Anai N; Halandras, Pegge M; Blackwell, Robert H; Graunke, Dawn M; Kuo, Paul C; Cho, Jae S

    2017-08-01

    It is well established that transient postoperative atrial fibrillation (TPAF) is associated with adverse postoperative outcomes after major cardiac and noncardiac operations. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the incidence, impact, and risk factors associated with the development of TPAF in patients undergoing revascularization surgery for occlusive diseases of the abdominal aorta and its branches (AAB). By use of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database from Florida and California, patients who underwent open revascularization of AAB between 2006 and 2011 were identified. Patients diagnosed with aortic dissection or abdominal aortic aneurysm were excluded to limit the study cohort to include only patients with occlusive etiology. Also excluded were those with a pre-existing diagnosis of atrial fibrillation and those who underwent thoracic aortic repair and peripheral artery revascularization procedures. Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses with treatment effects were conducted to analyze the association between TPAF and length of stay (LOS); the mortality rates at index admission, 1 month, and 1 year; and the readmission rates at 1 month and 1 year (adjusted for comorbidities and surgical and demographic factors). A backwards stepwise logistic regression model was built to identify predictors of TPAF. A total of 4462 patients were identified; 3253 underwent aortoiliac/femoral bypasses (72.9%), 1514 endarterectomies of AAB (33.9%), and 288 bypasses of AAB (6.5%). The incidence of TPAF was 2.4% (109 patients). Multivariate regression analysis with treatment effects showed that TPAF was associated with significantly increased LOS, mortality, and readmission rates. Factors identified as predictors of TPAF by backwards stepwise logistic regression modeling include electrolyte disorders, increasing age, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (C statistic = .69; accuracy = 58%). TPAF after revascularization of AAB is

  4. Effects of O-methylated metabolites of quercetin on oxidative stress, thermotolerance, lifespan and bioavailability on Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Surco-Laos, Felipe; Cabello, Juan; Gómez-Orte, Eva; González-Manzano, Susana; González-Paramás, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Dueñas, Montserrat

    2011-08-01

    Quercetin is a major flavonoid in the human diet and the most commonly used in studies of biological activity. Most of the knowledge about its biological effects has originated from in vitro studies while in vivo data are scarce. Quercetin mostly occurs in foodstuffs as glycosides that are deglycosylated during absorption and further submitted to different conjugation reactions. Methylation to isorhamnetin (quercetin 3'-O-methylether) or tamarixetin (quercetin 4'-O-methylether) seems to be an important conjugation process in quercetin metabolism. In this work, the effects of quercetin and its 3'- and 4'-O-methylated metabolites on the phenotypic characteristics, stress oxidative resistance, thermotolerance and lifespan of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans have been assessed. The three assayed flavonols significantly prolonged the lifespan of this nematode with an increase from 11% to 16% in the mean lifespan with respect to controls. However, only quercetin significantly increased the reproductive capacity of the worm and enlarged the body size. Exposure to the assayed flavonols also increased significantly the resistance against thermal and juglone-induced oxidative stress, although differences were found depending on the stage of development of the worm. Thus, quercetin offered greater protection when thermal stress was applied in the 1st day of adulthood, whereas tamarixetin was more efficient in worms submitted to stress in the 6th day of adulthood. Similarly, significantly greater protection was provided by quercetin than by its methylated derivatives at the 1st day of adulthood, whilst quercetin and isorhamnetin were equally efficient when the oxidative stress was induced in the 6th of day of adulthood. Further evidence of antioxidant protection was obtained checking the oxidation status of proteins by the OxyBlot™ detection kit. Analyses by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS confirmed that the three flavonols were taken up by C. elegans leading to the formation of

  5. Effect of quercetin-3-O-sambubioside isolated from Eucommia ulmoides male flowers on spontaneous activity and convulsion rate in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Yang, Lipeng; Liu, Shaoyang; Fei, Dongqing; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuxian

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of quercetin-3-O-sambubioside on the neural system. Quercetin-3-O-sambubioside is a monomeric compound found in Eucommia ulmoides male flowers from which it was extracted using a system solvent method. In the experiments, spontaneous activity and convulsion rate in mice were recorded, and quercetin-3-O-sambubioside shows eminent effects similar to nikethamide on increasing spontaneous activity and stimulating the nerve center to enhance excitement. These findings are indicative of the powerful ability of quercetin-3-O-sambubioside to promote the stimulation of the nerve center.

  6. Quercetin potentiates apoptosis by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB signaling in H460 lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Youn, HyeSook; Jeong, Ji-Cheon; Jeong, Young Seok; Kim, Eun-Joo; Um, Soo-Jong

    2013-01-01

    The herbal flavonoid quercetin inhibits the growth of various cancer cells, but how it affects human cancer cells, particularly lung cancer cells, is unclear. We investigated the anticancer activity of quercetin and the underlying molecular mechanisms in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Quercetin strongly inhibited cell proliferation, and increased sub-G1 and apoptotic cell populations regardless of p53 status. Quercetin-induced apoptosis was verified by caspase cleavage, Hoechst staining, trypan blue exclusion, and DNA fragmentation assays. Microarray analysis using H460 cells indicated that quercetin increased the expression of genes associated with death receptor signaling tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAILR), caspase-10, interleukin (IL) 1R DNA fragmentation faotor 45 (DFF45), tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 1, FAS, inhibitor of kappaBalpha (IκBα)) and cell cycle inhibition growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible 45 (GADD45), p21(Cip1)), but decreased the expression of genes involved in nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation (NF-κB, IKKα). Further validation assays confirmed that quercetin inhibited growth by suppressing NF-κB and by increasing the expression of death receptors and cell cycle inhibitors. Taken together, these findings suggest that quercetin may be useful in the prevention and therapy of NSCLC.

  7. Beneficial effect of the bioflavonoid quercetin on cholecystokinin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated rat pancreatic acinar cells.

    PubMed

    Weber, Heike; Jonas, Ludwig; Wakileh, Michael; Krüger, Burkhard

    2014-03-01

    The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is still poorly understood. Thus, a reliable pharmacological therapy is currently lacking. In recent years, an impairment of the energy metabolism of pancreatic acinar cells, caused by Ca(2+)-mediated depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane and a decreased ATP supply, has been implicated as an important pathological event. In this study, we investigated whether quercetin exerts protection against mitochondrial dysfunction. Following treatment with or without quercetin, rat pancreatic acinar cells were stimulated with supramaximal cholecystokinin-8 (CCK). CCK caused a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and ATP concentration, whereas the mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased. Quercetin treatment before CCK application exerted no protection on MMP but increased ATP to a normal level, leading to a continuous decrease in the dehydrogenase activity. The protective effect of quercetin on mitochondrial function was accompanied by a reduction in CCK-induced changes to the cell membrane. Concerning the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effect of quercetin, an increased AMP/ATP ratio suggests that the AMP-activated protein kinase system may be activated. In addition, quercetin strongly inhibited CCK-induced trypsin activity. The results indicate that the use of quercetin may be a therapeutic strategy for reducing the severity of AP.

  8. Modulation of paraoxonase 2 (PON2) in mouse brain by the polyphenol quercetin: a mechanism of neuroprotection?

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Lucio G.; Tait, Leah; de Laat, Rian; Dao, Khoi; Giordano, Gennaro; Pellacani, Claudia; Cole, Toby B.; Furlong, Clement E.

    2013-01-01

    Quercetin is a common flavonoid polyphenol which has been shown to exert neuroprotective actions in vitro and in vivo. Though quercetin has antioxidant properties, it has been suggested that neuroprotection may be ascribed to its ability of inducing the cell’s own defense mechanisms. The present study investigated whether quercetin could increase the levels of paraoxonase 2 (PON2), a mitochondrial enzyme expressed in brain cells, which has been shown to have potent antioxidant properties. PON2 protein, mRNA, and lactonase activity were highest in mouse striatal astrocytes. Quercetin increased PON2 levels, possibly by activating the JNK/AP-1 pathway. The increased PON2 levels induced by quercetin resulted in decreased oxidative stress and ensuing toxicity induced by two oxidants. The neuroprotective effect of quercetin was significantly diminished in cells from PON2 knockout mice. These findings suggest that induction of PON2 by quercetin represents an important mechanism by which this polyphenol may exert its neuroprotective action. PMID:23743621

  9. Rapid increase in total torquetenovirus (TTV) plasma viremia load reveals an apparently transient superinfection by a TTV of a novel group 2 genotype.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Fabrizio; Andreoli, Elisabetta; Lanini, Letizia; Meschi, Silvia; Rocchi, Jara; Fornai, Claudia; Vatteroni, Maria Linda; Pistello, Mauro; Bendinelli, Mauro

    2006-07-01

    An apparently transient infection by a superimposed torquetenovirus (TTV) in a subject who already carried three different genotypes of the virus is described. The superinfection induced a rapid increase in the plasma TTV load and a decline in immunocomplexed virus. The superinfecting TTV was a novel group 2 genotype.

  10. Quercetin, not caffeine, is a major neuroprotective component in coffee.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonhee; McGeer, Edith G; McGeer, Patrick L

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that coffee consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. To determine the factors involved, we examined the protective effects of coffee components. The test involved prevention of neurotoxicity to SH-SY5Y cells that was induced by lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-γ or interferon-γ released from activated microglia and astrocytes. We found that quercetin, flavones, chlorogenic acid, and caffeine protected SH-SY5Y cells from these toxins. They also reduced the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 from the activated microglia and astrocytes and attenuated the activation of proteins from P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB). After exposure to toxin containing glial-stimulated conditioned medium, we also found that quercetin reduced oxidative/nitrative damage to DNA, as well as to the lipids and proteins of SH-SY5Y cells. There was a resultant increase in [GSH]i in SH-SY5Y cells. The data indicate that quercetin is the major neuroprotective component in coffee against Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Quercetin protects liver injury induced by bile duct ligation via attenuation of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase1 expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Kabirifar, Razieh; Ghoreshi, Zohreh-Al-Sadat; Safari, Fatemeh; Karimollah, Alireza; Moradi, Ali; Eskandari-Nasab, Ebrahim

    2017-02-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL) and subsequent cholestasis are correlated with oxidative stress, hepatocellular injury and fibrosis. Quercetin is a flavonoid with antifibrotic, and hepatoprotective properties. However, the molecular mechanism underlying quercetin-mediated hepatoprotection is not fully understood. The current study was to evaluate mechanisms of hepatoprotective effect of quercetin in BDL rat model. We divided male Wistar rats into 4 groups (n=8 for each): sham, sham+quercetin (30 mg/kg per day), BDL, and BDL+quercetin (30 mg/kg per day). Four weeks later, the rats were sacrificed, the blood was collected for liver enzyme measurements and liver for the measurement of Rac1, Rac1-GTP and NOX1 mRNA and protein levels by quantitative PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Quercetin significantly alleviated liver injury in BDL rats as evidenced by histology and reduced liver enzymes. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression of Rac1, Rac1-GTP and NOX1 were significantly increased in BDL rats compared with those in the sham group (P<0.05); quercetin treatment reversed these variables back toward normal (P<0.05). Another interesting finding was that the antioxidant markers e.g. superoxide dismutase and catalase were elevated in quercetin-treated BDL rats compared to BDL rats (P<0.05). Quercetin demonstrated hepatoprotective activity against BDL-induced liver injury through increasing antioxidant capacity of the liver tissue, while preventing the production of Rac1, Rac1-GTP and NOX1 proteins.

  12. Interactions of quercetin and its lanthane complex with double stranded DNA/RNA and single stranded RNA: spectrophotometric sensing of poly G.

    PubMed

    Marinić, Mirna; Piantanida, Ivo; Rusak, Gordana; Zinić, Mladen

    2006-02-01

    Spectrophotometric titrations revealed that stability of the quercetin/double stranded (ds) DNA or double stranded (ds) RNA non-covalent complexes is significantly higher compared to the quercetin/ss-RNA complexes. This observation can easily be correlated with the significantly larger aromatic surface of base pairs compared to single nucleobases, and it is in good agreement with other experimental data pointing toward intercalative binding mode of quercetin. Fluorescence increase of quercetin induced by ds-RNA is significantly stronger than observed for ds-DNA, offering usage of quercetin as the ds-RNA selective fluorescent probe. Also, addition of poly G yielded more than order of magnitude stronger changes in UV/visible and fluorescence spectrum of quercetin compared to the changes upon addition of poly A and poly U revealing possible usage of quercetin as a powerful spectroscopic probe for poly G sequences. Stability and stoichiometry of lanthane(III)/quercetin complexes in physiologically relevant aqueous media was determined. The interactions of (LaQ)(3+) with double stranded DNA and RNA were significantly different compared to the free quercetin, revealing increase of complex stability and thus significant impact of La(III) in binding of (LaQ)(3+) to polynucleotides. Similar results were observed for interactions of (LaQ)(3+) with single stranded RNA.

  13. Aging increases capacitance and spontaneous transient outward current amplitude of smooth muscle cells from murine superior epigastric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hayoz, Sebastien; Bradley, Vanessa; Boerman, Erika M.; Nourian, Zahra; Segal, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    Large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa) contribute to negative feedback regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) tone. However, the effects of aging on BKCa function are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that aging alters SMC BKCa function in superior epigastric arteries (SEAs) by using perforated patch recording of enzymatically isolated SMCs from 3- to 4-mo-old male C57BL/6 mice (Young) and 24- to 26-mo-old male C57BL/6 mice (Old). SMC capacitance from Young (15.7 ± 0.4 pF; n = 110) was less than Old (17.9 ± 0.5 pF; n = 104) (P < 0.05). SMCs displayed spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) at membrane potentials more positive than −30 mV; depolarization increased STOC amplitude and frequency (P < 0.05; n = 19–24). STOC frequency in Young (2.2 ± 0.6 Hz) was less than Old (4.2 ± 0.7 Hz) at −10 mV (P < 0.05, n = 27–30), with no difference in amplitude (1.0 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1 pA/pF, respectively). At +30 mV, STOC amplitude in Young (3.2 ± 0.3 pA/pF) was less than Old (5.0 ± 0.5 pA/pF; P < 0.05, n = 61–67) with no difference in frequency (3.9 ± 0.4 vs. 3.2 ± 0.3 Hz, respectively). BKCa blockers (1 μM paxilline, 100 nM iberiotoxin, 1 mM tetraethylammonium) or a ryanodine receptor antagonist (100 μM tetracaine) inhibited STOCs (n ≥ 6; P < 0.05 each). Western blots revealed increased expression of BKCa α-subunit protein in Old. Pressure myography revealed no effect of age on SEA maximal diameter, myogenic tone, or paxilline-induced constriction (n = 10–12; P > 0.05). Enhanced functional expression of SMC BKCa-dependent STOCs in Old may represent an adaptation of resistance arteries to maintain functional integrity. PMID:24705555

  14. Biotinylated Quercetin as an Intrinsic Photoaffinity Proteomics Probe for the Identification of Quercetin Target Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongsheng E.; Hunt, Clayton R.; Chen, Jiawei; Taylor, John-Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid natural product that is found in many foods and has been found to have a wide range of medicinal effects. Though a number of quercetin binding proteins have been identified, there has been no systematic approach to identifying all potential targets of quercetin. We describe an O7- biotinylated derivative of quercetin (BioQ) that can act as a photoaffinity proteomics reagent for capturing quercetin binding proteins, which can then be identified by LC MS/MS. BioQ was shown to inhibit heat induction of HSP70 with almost the same efficiency as quercetin, and to both inhibit and photocrosslink to CK2 kinase, a known target of quercetin involved in activation of the heat shock transcription factor. BioQ was also able to pull down a number of proteins from unheated and heated Jurkat cells following UV-irradiation that could be detected by both silver staining and Western blot analysis with an anti-biotin antibody. Analysis of the protein bands by trypsinization and LC MS/MS led to the identification of heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90 as possible quercetin target proteins, along with ubiquitin-activating enzyme, a spliceosomal protein, RuvB-like 2 ATPases, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3. In addition, a mitochondrial ATPase was identified that has been previously shown to be a target of quercetin. Most of the proteins identified have also been previously suggested to be potential anticancer targets, suggesting that quercetin's antitumor activity may be due to its ability to inhibit multiple target proteins. PMID:21798748

  15. Quercetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Alia, Mario . E-mail: luisgoya@if.csic.es

    2006-04-15

    Flavonols such as quercetin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities related to their antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cell viability and redox status of cultured HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Concentrations of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde, generation of reactive oxygen species and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of HepG2 with 10 {mu}M quercetin completely prevented lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. Pretreatment for 2 or 20 h with all doses of quercetin (0.1-10 {mu}M) prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione and the increase of malondialdehyde evoked by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells. Reactive oxygen species generation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with 10 {mu}M and for 20 h with 5 {mu}M quercetin. Finally, some of the quercetin treatments prevented the significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase activities induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was also affected by the treatment with the polyphenol. The results of the biomarkers analyzed clearly show that treatment of HepG2 cells in culture with the natural dietary antioxidant quercetin strongly protects the cells against an oxidative insult.

  16. Flavonoid quercetin protects against swimming stress-induced changes in oxidative biomarkers in the hypothalamus of rats.

    PubMed

    Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Radhakrishnan, Ammu; Lee, Nagarajah; Kumar, Ponnusamy

    2009-10-25

    Quercetin is a bioflavonoid abundant in onions, apples, tea and red wine and one of the most studied flavonoids. Dietary quercetin intake is suggested to be health promoting, but this assumption is mainly based on mechanistic studies performed in vitro. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on stress-induced changes in oxidative biomarkers in the hypothalamus of rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to forced swimming stress for 45 min daily for 14 days. Effect of quercetin at three different doses (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight) on serum corticosterone and oxidative biomarkers (lipid hydroperoxides, antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidants) was estimated. Swimming stress significantly increased the serum corticosterone and lipid hydroperoxide levels. A significant decrease in total antioxidant levels and super oxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels was seen in the hypothalamus after stress and treatment with quercetin significantly increased these oxidative parameters and there was a significant decrease in lipid hydroperoxide levels. These data demonstrate that forced swimming stress produced a severe oxidative damage in the hypothalamus and treatment with quercetin markedly attenuated these stress-induced changes. Antioxidant action of quercetin may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of stress-induced oxidative damage in the brain.

  17. Quercetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide.

    PubMed

    Alía, Mario; Ramos, Sonia; Mateos, Raquel; Granado-Serrano, Ana Belén; Bravo, Laura; Goya, Luis

    2006-04-15

    Flavonols such as quercetin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities related to their antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cell viability and redox status of cultured HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Concentrations of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde, generation of reactive oxygen species and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of HepG2 with 10 microM quercetin completely prevented lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. Pretreatment for 2 or 20 h with all doses of quercetin (0.1-10 microM) prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione and the increase of malondialdehyde evoked by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells. Reactive oxygen species generation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with 10 microM and for 20 h with 5 microM quercetin. Finally, some of the quercetin treatments prevented the significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase activities induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was also affected by the treatment with the polyphenol. The results of the biomarkers analyzed clearly show that treatment of HepG2 cells in culture with the natural dietary antioxidant quercetin strongly protects the cells against an oxidative insult.

  18. Quercetin Induces Dose-Dependent Differential Morphological and Proliferative Changes in Rat Uteri in the Presence and in the Absence of Estrogen

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Sekaran, Muniandy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Quercetin could have profound effects on uterine morphology and proliferation, which are known to be influenced by estrogen. This study investigated the effect of quercetin on these uterine parameters in the presence and in the absence of estrogen. Ovariectomized adult female rats received peanut oil, quercetin (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen, or estrogen+quercetin (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) treatment for 7 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, uteri were harvested for histological and molecular biological analyses. Distribution of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein in the uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of expression of PCNA protein and mRNA in uterine tissue homogenates were determined by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Our findings indicated that administration of 10 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in decreased uterine expression of PCNA protein and mRNA with the percentage of PCNA-positive cells in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia markedly reduced compared with estrogen-only treatment. Changes in uterine morphology were the opposite of changes observed following estrogen treatment. Treatment with 100 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in elevated PCNA protein and mRNA expression. In addition, the percentages of PCNA-positive cells in the epithelia, which line the lumen and glands, were increased with morphological features mimicking changes that occur following estrogen treatment. Following 50 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment, the changes observed were in between those changes that occur following 10 and 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment. In conclusion, changes in uterine morphology and proliferation following 10 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to quercetin's antiestrogenic properties, while changes that occur following 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be

  19. Quercetin Induces Dose-Dependent Differential Morphological and Proliferative Changes in Rat Uteri in the Presence and in the Absence of Estrogen.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Huma; Giribabu, Nelli; Sekaran, Muniandy; Salleh, Naguib

    2015-12-01

    Quercetin could have profound effects on uterine morphology and proliferation, which are known to be influenced by estrogen. This study investigated the effect of quercetin on these uterine parameters in the presence and in the absence of estrogen. Ovariectomized adult female rats received peanut oil, quercetin (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen, or estrogen+quercetin (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) treatment for 7 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, uteri were harvested for histological and molecular biological analyses. Distribution of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein in the uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of expression of PCNA protein and mRNA in uterine tissue homogenates were determined by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Our findings indicated that administration of 10 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in decreased uterine expression of PCNA protein and mRNA with the percentage of PCNA-positive cells in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia markedly reduced compared with estrogen-only treatment. Changes in uterine morphology were the opposite of changes observed following estrogen treatment. Treatment with 100 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in elevated PCNA protein and mRNA expression. In addition, the percentages of PCNA-positive cells in the epithelia, which line the lumen and glands, were increased with morphological features mimicking changes that occur following estrogen treatment. Following 50 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment, the changes observed were in between those changes that occur following 10 and 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment. In conclusion, changes in uterine morphology and proliferation following 10 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to quercetin's antiestrogenic properties, while changes that occur following 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to

  20. The impact of quercetin on wound healing relates to changes in αV and β1 integrin expression.

    PubMed

    Doersch, Karen M; Newell-Rogers, M Karen

    2017-08-01

    Overly fibrotic wound healing can lead to excess scar formation, causing functional impairment and undesirable cosmetic results. However, there are few successful treatments available to prevent or remediate scars. This study sought to explore the molecular mechanisms by which quercetin, a naturally-occurring antifibrotic agent, diminishes scar formation. Using both mice and fibroblast cells, we examined quercetin's impact on fibrosis and the wound healing rate, and potential molecular mechanisms underlying the quercetin-mediated reduction of fibrosis. While cultured fibroblasts demonstrated normal growth in response to quercetin, quercetin increased surface αV integrin and decreased β1 integrin. These changes in surface integrin expression may impact factors that contribute to fibrosis including cell migration, proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. In both quercetin-treated and control mice, wounds healed in about 14 days. Masson's trichrome stain revealed diminished fibrosis at the wound site in quercetin-treated animals despite the normal healing rate, indicating the potential for better cosmetic results without delaying healing. An in vitro scratch wound model using cells plated on an artificial extracellular matrix demonstrated delayed closure following quercetin treatment. The extracellular matrix also ameliorated quercetin's effect on αV integrin. Thus, αV integrin recruitment in response to quercetin treatment may promote the quercetin-mediated decrease extracellular matrix because cells require less extracellular matrix to migrate into a wound. With added extracellular matrix, β1 integrin remained diminished in response to quercetin, indicating that quercetin's effect on β1 integrin expression is independent of extracellular matrix -mediated signaling and is likely driven by inhibition of the intracellular mechanisms driving β1 expression. These findings suggest that quercetin could alter the cells' interactions with the extracellular

  1. Quercetin arrests G2/M phase and induces caspase-dependent cell death in U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, On Hee; Kim, Yeoun Hee; Lim, Jun Hee; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2006-08-28

    Quercetin, a natural product derived from grapes, has been shown to prevent carcinogenesis in murine models. We report here that quercetin induces anti-proliferation and arrests G2/M phase in U937 cells. The G2/M phase accumulation was accompanied by an increase in the level of the cyclin B. In contrast, the level of the cyclin D, cyclin E, E2F1, and E2F2 was marked decreased in quercetin-treated U937 cells. Removal of quercetin from the culture medium stimulates U937 cells to synchronously re-enter the cell cycle, decrease expression level of cyclin B, and increased the expression level of cyclin D and cyclin E. These data demonstrate that quercetin causes reversible G2/M phase arrest, which was related with dramatic changes in the level of cyclin B, cyclin D, and cyclin E. Quercetin-induced down-regulation of cyclin D and cyclin E was associated with suppression of transcriptional levels but not protein stability. In addition, quercetin-treated U937 cells showed DNA fragmentation, increased sub-G1 population, and generated a 60kDa cleavage product of PLC-gamma1 in a dose-dependent manner, which were significantly inhibited by z-VAD-fmk. These data clearly indicate that quercetin-induced apoptosis is associated with caspase activation. In summary, the growth inhibition of the quercetin is highly related to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis in human promonocytic U937 cells.

  2. Low Concentration of Quercetin Antagonizes the Cytotoxic Effects of Anti-Neoplastic Drugs in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Xing, Hui; Ma, Ding; Chen, Gang; Weng, Danhui

    2014-01-01

    Objective The role of Quercetin in ovarian cancer treatment remains controversial, and the mechanism is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of Quercetin in combination with Cisplatin and other anti-neoplastic drugs in ovarian cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo, along with the molecular mechanism of action. Methods Quercetin treatment at various concentrations was examined in combination with Cisplatin, taxol, Pirarubicin and 5-Fu in human epithelial ovarian cancer C13* and SKOV3 cells. CCK8 assay and Annexin V assay were for cell viability and apoptosis analysis, immunofluorescence assay, DCFDA staining and realtime PCR were used for reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced injury detection and endogenous antioxidant enzymes expression. Athymic BALB/c-nu nude mice were injected with C13*cells to obtain a xenograft model for in vivo studies. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out to evaluate the ROS-induced injury and SOD1 activity of xenograft tumors. Results Contrary to the pro-apoptotic effect of high concentration (40 µM–100 µM) of Quercetin, low concentrations (5 µM–30 µM) of Quercetin resulted in varying degrees of attenuation of cytotoxicity of Cisplatin treatment when combined with Cisplatin. Similar anti-apoptotic effects were observed when Quercetin was combined with other anti-neoplastic agents: Taxol, Pirarubicin and 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu). Low concentrations of Quercetin were observed to suppress ROS-induced injury, reduce intracellular ROS level and increase the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, suggesting a ROS-mediated mechanism of attenuating anti-neoplastic drugs. In xenogeneic model, Quercetin led to a substantial reduction of therapeutic efficacy of Cisplatin along with enhancing the endogenous antioxidant enzyme expression and reducing ROS-induced damage in xenograft tumor tissue. Conclusion Taken together, these data suggest that Quercetin at low concentrations attenuate the

  3. Effect of Processed Onions on the Plasma Concentration of Quercetin in Rats and Humans.

    PubMed

    Kashino, Yasuaki; Murota, Kaeko; Matsuda, Namiko; Tomotake, Muneaki; Hamano, Takuya; Mukai, Rie; Terao, Junji

    2015-11-01

    Onion is a major dietary source of the bioactive flavonoid, quercetin. Quercetin aglycone (QA) is exclusively distributed in the onion peel, although quercetin-4'-β-O-glucoside (Q4'G) is present in both the peel and the bulb, and quercetin-3,4'-β-O-diglucoside (Q3,4'diG) is present only the bulb. The bioavailability of flavonoids from fruits and vegetables is frequently affected by the manufacturing process and related conditions. The present study aimed to estimate the effect of food processing on the bioavailability of onion QA and its glucosides, Q4'G and Q3,4'diG, provided through the consumption of onion products. Rats were fed onion peel and onion bulb products-mixed meal or pure QA/Q4'G+Q3,4'diG-mixed meal at 5 mg QA equivalent/kg body weight. A comparison of the blood plasma concentrations strongly suggested that quercetin glucosides (Q4'G and Q3,4'diG) are superior or at least equal to QA in their bioavailability, when each purified compound is mixed with the meal. The intake of a peel powder-containing meal provided a significantly higher increase of plasma quercetin concentration than the peel extract, bulb powder, bulb extract, and bulb sauté containing meals at each period tested. A human ingestion study confirmed the superiority of onion peel powder to onion peel extract. The difference of log P for QA between peel powder and peel extract indicated that a food matrix improves the bioavailability of QA in onion peel products. These results demonstrated that the bioavailability of quercetin provided by not the onion bulb but the onion peel is significantly affected by food processing. Onion is a popular source of antioxidative flavonoid quercetin and its vascular function attracts considerable attention in relation to anti-atherosclerotic effect. The present study estimated the effect of food processing on the bioavailability of onion quercetin aglycone and its glucosides provided through the consumption of onion products. The intake of a peel powder

  4. Differential hepatoprotective mechanisms of rutin and quercetin in CCl4-intoxicated BALB/cN mice

    PubMed Central

    Domitrović, Robert; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Vasiljev Marchesi, Vanja; Vladimir-Knežević, Sanda; Cvijanović, Olga; Tadić, Žarko; Romić, Željko; Rahelić, Dario

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of quercetin-rutinoside (rutin) and its aglycone quercetin against CCl4-induced liver damage in mice. Methods: BALB/cN mice were intraperitoneally administered rutin (10, 50, and 150 mg/kg) or quercetin (50 mg/kg) once daily for 5 consecutive days, followed by the intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in olive oil (2 mL/kg, 10% v/v). The animals were sacrificed 24 h later. Blood was collected for measuring the activities of ALT and AST, and the liver was excised for assessing Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GSH and protein concentrations and also for immunoblotting. Portions of the livers were used for histology and immunohistochemistry. Results: Pretreatment with rutin and, to a lesser extent, with quercetin significantly reduced the activity of plasma transaminases and improved the histological signs of acute liver damage in CCl4-intoxicated mice. Quercetin prevented the decrease in Cu/Zn SOD activity in CCl4-intoxicated mice more potently than rutin. However, it was less effective in the suppression of nitrotyrosine formation. Quercetin and, to a lesser extent, rutin attenuated the inflammation in the liver by down-regulating the CCl4-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2). The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was more potently suppressed by rutin than by quercetin. Treatment with both flavonoids significantly increased NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) expression in injured livers, although quercetin was less effective than rutin at an equivalent dose. Quercetin more potently suppressed the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) than rutin. Conclusion: Rutin exerts stronger protection against nitrosative stress and hepatocellular damage but has weaker antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and antifibrotic potential than quercetin, which may be

  5. Synergy and Mode of Action of Ceftazidime plus Quercetin or Luteolin on Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Siriwong, Supatcharee; Thumanu, Kanjana; Hengpratom, Tanaporn; Eumkeb, Griangsak

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The recommended therapy has been often failure through the interfering of beta-lactamase-producing bacteria (BLPB). The present study was to investigate antibacterial activity, synergy, and modes of action of luteolin and quercetin using alone and plus ceftazidime against S. pyogenes. The MICs of ceftazidime, luteolin, and quercetin against all S. pyogenes were 0.50, 128, and 128 µg mL−1, respectively. A synergistic effect was exhibited on luteolin and quercetin plus ceftazidime against these strains at fractional inhibitory concentration indices 0.37 and 0.27, respectively, and was confirmed by the viable count. These combinations increased cytoplasmic membrane (CM) permeability, caused irregular cell shape, peptidoglycan, and CM damage, and decreased nucleic acid but increased proteins in bacterial cells. Enzyme assay demonstrated that these flavonoids had an inhibitory activity against β-lactamase. In summary, this study provides evidence that the inhibitory mode of action of luteolin and quercetin may be mediated via three mechanisms: (1) inhibiting of peptidoglycan synthesis, (2) increasing CM permeability, and (3) decreasing nucleic acid but increasing the protein contents of bacterial cells. So, luteolin and quercetin propose the high potential to develop adjunct to ceftazidime for the treatment of coexistence of the BLPB and S. pyogenes infections. PMID:26576195

  6. Factors modulating bioavailability of quercetin-related flavonoids and the consequences of their vascular function.

    PubMed

    Terao, Junji

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays dietary flavonoids attract much attention in the prevention of chronic diseases. Epidemiological and intervention studies strongly suggest that flavonoid intake has beneficial effects on vascular health. It is unlikely that flavonoids act as direct antioxidants, although oxidative stress profoundly contributes to vascular impairment leading to cardiovascular diseases. Instead, flavonoids may exert their function by tuning the cellular redox state to an adaptive response or tolerable stress. However, the optimum intake of flavonoids from supplements or diet has not been clarified yet, because a number of exogenous and endogenous factors modulating their bioavailability affect their vascular function. This review will focus on the current knowledge of the bioavailability and vascular function of quercetin as a representative of antioxidative flavonoids. Current intervention studies imply that intake of quercetin-rich onion improves vascular health. Onion may be superior to quercetin supplement from the viewpoint of quercetin bioavailability, probably because the food matrix enhances the intestinal absorption of quercetin. α-Glucosylation increases its bioavailability by elevating the accessibility to the absorptive cells. Prenylation may enhance bioaccumulation at the target site by increasing the cellular uptake. However, these chemical modifications do not guarantee health benefits to the vascular system. Dietary quercetin is exclusively present as their conjugated form in the blood stream. Quercetin may exert its vascular function as an aglycone within macrophage cells after inflammation-induced deconjugation and as conjugated metabolites by targeting endothelial cells. The relationship between the bioavailability and bio-efficacy should be clarified, to evaluate the vascular function of a wide variety of dietary flavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diabetic neuropathy: An evaluation of the use of quercetin in the cecum of rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Paulo Emilio Botura; Lopes, Cláudia Regina Pinheiro; Alves, Angela Maria Pereira; Alves, Éder Paulo Belato; Linden, David Robert; Zanoni, Jacqueline Nelisis; Buttow, Nilza Cristina

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of quercetin supplementation on the myenteric neurons and glia in the cecum of diabetic rats. METHODS: Total preparations of the muscular tunic were prepared from the ceca of twenty-four rats divided into the following groups: control (C), control supplemented with quercetin (200 mg/kg quercetin body weight) (CQ), diabetic (D) and diabetic supplemented with quercetin (DQ). Immunohistochemical double staining technique was performed with HuC/D (general population)/nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), HuC-D/S-100 and VIP. Density analysis of the general neuronal population HuC/D-IR, the nNOS-IR (nitrergic subpopulation) and the enteric glial cells (S-100) was performed, and the morphometry and the reduction in varicosity population (VIP-IR) in these populations were analyzed. RESULTS: Diabetes promoted a significant reduction (25%) in the neuronal density of the HuC/D-IR (general population) and the nNOS-IR (nitrergic subpopulation) compared with the C group. Diabetes also significantly increased the areas of neurons, glial cells and VIP-IR varicosities. Supplementation with quercetin in the DQ group prevented neuronal loss in the general population and increased its area (P < 0.001) and the area of nitrergic subpopulation (P < 0.001), when compared to C group. Quercetin induced a VIP-IR and glial cells areas (P < 0.001) in DQ group when compared to C, CQ and D groups. CONCLUSION: In diabetes, quercetin exhibited a neuroprotective effect by maintaining the density of the general neuronal population but did not affect the density of the nNOS subpopulation. PMID:24151360

  8. Role of Quercetin Benefits in Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, Preetham; Lakshmi, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are often life threatening and hired as an economic burden to the health-care system. Nutritional interventions principally involving polyphenols were practiced to arrest or reverse the age-related health disorders. Flavonoids, a class of dietary polyphenols, are rising to superstardom in preventing brain disorders with their potent antioxidant defense mechanism. Quercetin is a ubiquitous flavonoid reported to have all-natural myriad of health benefits. Citrus fruits, apple, onion, parsley, berries, green tea, and red wine comprise the major dietary supplements of quercetin apart from some herbal remedies like Ginkgo biloba. Appositeness of quercetin in reducing risks of neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, allergic disorders, thrombosis, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and arrhythmia, to name a few, is attributed to its highly pronounced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Neurodegeneration, characterized by progressive deterioration of the structure and function of neurons, is crucially accompanied by severe cognitive deficits. Aging is the major risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD) being coequal high hands. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the key players in triggering neurodegeneration. The upsurge of neurodegenerative disorders is always appalling since there exists a paucity in effective treatment practices. Past few years' studies have underpinned the mechanisms through which quercetin boons the brain health in many aspects including betterment in cognitive output. Undoubtedly, quercetin will be escalating as an arable field, both in scientific research and in pharmacological and clinical applications.

  9. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of quercetin in rat plasma after oral administration of biodegradable nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    V, Dinesh Kumar; Verma, Priya Ranjan Prasad; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Viswanathan, S

    2015-11-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of free quercetin in rat plasma, using fisetin as internal standard. The detection was performed by negative ion electrospray ionization under selected reaction monitoring. Chromatographic separation (isocratic elution) was carried out using acetonitrile-10 m m ammonium formate (80:20, v/v) with 0.1% v/v formic acid. The lower limit of quantification (4.928 ng/mL) provided high sensitivity for the detection of quercetin in rat plasma. The linearity range was from 5 to 2000 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day variability (RSD) of quercetin extraction from rat plasma was <4.19 and 1.37% with accuracies of 98.77 and 99.67%. The method developed was successfully applied for estimating free quercetin in rat plasma, after oral administration of quercetin-loaded biodegradable nanoparticles (QLN) and quercetin suspension. QLN (C(max), 1277.34 ± 216.67 ng/mL; AUC, 17,458.25 ± 3152.95 ng hr/mL) showed a 5.38-fold increase in relative bioavailability as compared with quercetin suspension (C(max), 369.2 ± 108.07 ng/mL; AUC, 3276.92 ± 396.67 ng hr/mL).

  10. Quercetin ameliorates learning and memory via the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway in d-galactose-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fuxing; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Yiwen; Yang, Xiao; Jiang, Jiali; Wu, Dejian; Qu, Xuebin; Fan, Hongbin; Yao, Ruiqin

    2017-09-23

    Aging is accompanied by deficits in cognitive function and neuronal degeneration or loss. Quercetin is a flavonoid that exhibits powerful antioxidant activity. This study evaluated the protective effects and mechanisms of quercetin in d-galactose-induced neurotoxicity in mice. Quercetin was administered daily at doses of 20 or 50 mg/kg in d-galactose-injected (50 mg/kg/subcutaneous (s.c.)) mice for eight weeks. Morris water maze tests demonstrated that quercetin significantly improved learning and memory compared to d-galactose-treated control mice. Quercetin also prevented changes in the neuronal cell morphology and apoptosis in the hippocampus as well as increased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and SOD in d-galactose-treated mice. Treatment with the Nrf2 inhibitor Brusatol reversed the effects of quercetin on HO-1 and SOD expression as well as neuronal cell protection. In conclusion, quercetin protected mice from d-galactose-induced cognitive functional impairment and neuronal cell apoptosis via activation of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Amelioration of streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy by melatonin, quercetin, and resveratrol in rats.

    PubMed

    Elbe, H; Vardi, N; Esrefoglu, M; Ates, B; Yologlu, S; Taskapan, C

    2015-01-01

    The role of oxygen radicals are known for the pathogenesis of kidney damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of melatonin, quercetin, and resveratrol on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. A total of 35 male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: control, diabetes mellitus (DM), DM + melatonin, DM + quercetin, and DM + resveratrol. All the injections started on the same day of single-dose STZ injection and continued for 30 days. At the end of this period, kidneys were removed and processed for routine histological procedures. Biochemical parameters and morphological changes were examined. In DM group, blood glucose levels were significantly increased, whereas body weights were decreased compared with the control group. Significant increases in blood urea nitrogen and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and decreases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were detected in DM group. Administration of melatonin, quercetin, and resveratrol significantly reduced these values. Melatonin was more efficient in reducing MDA levels than other antioxidants (p < 0.05). STZ-induced histopathological alterations including epithelial desquamation, swelling, intracytoplasmic vacuolization, brush border loss and peritubular infiltration. Additionally, basement membrane thickening and sclerotic changes were observed in glomerulus. Transforming growth factor-β1 positive cells were also increased. Melatonin, quercetin, and resveratrol significantly reduced these histopathological changes. Our results indicate that melatonin, quercetin, and resveratrol might be helpful in reducing diabetes-induced renal damage.

  12. Quercetin attenuates neuronal death against aluminum-induced neurodegeneration in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, D R; Wani, W Y; Sunkaria, A; Kandimalla, R J; Sharma, R K; Verma, D; Bal, A; Gill, K D

    2016-06-02

    Aluminum is a light weight and toxic metal present ubiquitously on earth, which has gained considerable attention due to its neurotoxic effects. It also has been linked ecologically and epidemiologically to several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Guamanian-Parkinsonian complex and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The mechanism of aluminum neurotoxicity is poorly understood, but it is well documented that aluminum generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Enhanced ROS production leads to disruption of cellular antioxidant defense systems and release of cytochrome c (cyt-c) from mitochondria to cytosol resulting in apoptotic cell death. Quercetin (a natural flavonoid) protects it from oxidative damage and has been shown to decrease mitochondrial damage in various animal models of oxidative stress. We hypothesized that if oxidative damage to mitochondria does play a significant role in aluminum-induced neurodegeneration, and then quercetin should ameliorate neuronal apoptosis. Administration of quercetin (10 mg/kg body wt/day) reduced aluminum (10 mg/kg body wt/day)-induced oxidative stress (decreased ROS production, increased mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity). In addition, quercetin also prevents aluminum-induced translocation of cyt-c, and up-regulates Bcl-2, down-regulates Bax, p53, caspase-3 activation and reduces DNA fragmentation. Quercetin also obstructs aluminum-induced neurodegenerative changes in aluminum-treated rats as seen by Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining. Further electron microscopic studies revealed that quercetin attenuates aluminum-induced mitochondrial swelling, loss of cristae and chromatin condensation. These results indicate that treatment with quercetin may represent a therapeutic strategy to attenuate the neuronal death against aluminum-induced neurodegeneration.

  13. Therapeutic effects of quercetin against bisphenol A induced testicular damage in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Ain, Qurat Ul; Ullah, Hizb

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis were used for histology while blood plasma was used for hormonal and biochemical analysis. BPA administration resulted in a significant reduction in seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelial height with impaired spermatogenesis. Quercetin treatment resulted in restoration of spermatogenesis and reversal of histological damage. In addition, BPA treatment significantly reduced (p < 0.05) plasma testosterone level (ng/ml) while estrogen was not affected. Similarly, BPA caused a significant alteration in the lipid profile. Interestingly, quercetin treatment led to a marked increase in plasma testosterone, decrease in estrogen concentration, as well as a normalized lipid profile. In conclusion, results indicated that BPA administration induces toxic effects on testis and epididymis, impairs spermatogenesis, with an imbalance in hormonal levels and lipid profile while quercetin amended these toxic effects by restoring normal spermatogenesis, testicular tissue damage, and hormonal levels. This suggests that quercetin may be a potential therapeutic against BPA induced testicular toxicity.

  14. Effects of ciprofloxacin on fetal rat liver during pregnancy and protective effects of quercetin.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Z; Elbe, H; Taslidere, E; Soysal, H; Cetin, A; Demirtas, S

    2017-08-24

    Urinary tract infections are common in pregnant women and ciprofloxacin frequently is used as a broad spectrum antibiotic. It has been suggested that ciprofloxacin causes liver damage in fetuses. Quercetin is a flavonoid with antioxidant properties. We investigated the efficacy of quercetin treatment for preventing fetal liver damage caused by ciprofloxacin. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups: untreated control group (C), 20 mg/kg quercetin for 21 days group (Q), 20 mg/kg twice/day ciprofloxacin for 10 days group (CP), and 20 mg/kg, ciprofloxacin + quercetin for 21 days group (CP + Q). Fetal livers were removed on day 21 of gestation to measure antioxidants and for histological observation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in tissue samples. GSH-Px, SOD and CAT activities were significantly lower in the CP group compared to group C. A significant increase in MDA was observed in the CP group compared to group C. There was no significant difference in GSH levels in any group. MDA levels were lower and CAT, SOD and GSH-Px enzyme activities were higher in the CP + Q group compared to group CP. Liver samples of the CP group exhibited central vein dilation, portal vein congestion, pyknotic nuclei and cytoplasmic vacuolization in some hepatocytes. Histological changes were less prominent in the rats treated with quercetin. Use of ciprofloxacin during pregnancy caused oxidative damage in fetal liver tissue. Oxidative stress was ameliorated by quercetin. Quercetin supports the antioxidant defense mechanism and it is beneficial for treating fetal liver damage caused by ciprofloxacin.

  15. Alleviative effects of quercetin and onion on male reproductive toxicity induced by diesel exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Hiromi; Kohara, Machiko; Aizawa, Koichi; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Inakuma, Takahiro; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Sagai, Masaru

    2008-05-01

    Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are particulate matter from diesel exhaust that contain many toxic compounds, such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Some toxicities of PAH are thought to be expressed via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). The male reproductive toxicity of DEPs might depend on AhR activation induced by PAHs. We hypothesized that AhR antagonists protect against the male reproductive toxicity of DEPs. Quercetin is a flavonoid and a well-known AhR antagonist, while onion contains many flavonoids, including quercetin. Hence, we examined whether quercetin and onion have alleviative effects against the male reproductive toxicity induced by DEPs. BALB/c male mice were fed quercetin- or onion-containing diets and received 10 injections of DEP suspension or vehicle into the dorsal subcutaneous layer over 5 weeks. The mice were euthanized at 2 weeks, after the last treatment, and their organs were collected. Daily sperm production and total incidence of sperm abnormalities were significantly affected in the DEP groups as compared with the vehicle group, but the total incidence of sperm abnormalities in the quercetin + DEP-treated mice was significantly reduced as compared with the DEP-treated mice. The numbers of Sertoli cells were significantly decreased in DEP-treated mice as compared with the vehicle-treated mice, but, the numbers of Sertoli cells were significantly increased in the quercetin and the onion + DEP-treated mice as compared with the DEP-treated mice. These results clearly indicate alleviative effects of quercetin and onion against the male reproductive toxicity induced by DEP.

  16. Effects of quercetin on intracavernous pressure and expression of nitrogen synthase isoforms in arterial erectile dysfunction rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yueyang; Huang, Changting; Liu, Shaoming; Bai, Jianqi; Fan, Xiaojing; Guo, Jun; Jia, Yingyu; Zhang, Zhijie; Chen, Xiaojun; Jia, Yusen; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xiuju

    2015-01-01

    Object: Oxidative stress involved in the regulation of arterial erectile dysfunction (A-ED). Previously report have indicated that quercetin have an antioxidant effect. In the current study, we have established the rats’ model for study the therapeutic effect of quercetin on A-ED and further investigated the molecular mechanism of action. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into sham group, A-ED group, A-ED group with low dose of quercetin, and A-ED group with high dose of quercetin. Intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MBp) are two important indicators used for evaluation the A-ED. The changes of ICP and MBp were determined by cavernous nerve electrostimulation after treatment of quercetin at indicated doses. The expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) subtypes was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: Our results indicated that ICP was significantly reduced in A-ED rats model compared with sham group, and was significantly increased after quercetin treatment (P < 0.01), while no significant effect on the MBp. The data also showed that sGC inhibitor ODQ and NOS inhibitor LNNA can significantly inhibited the ICP which induced by quercetin. These results suggest that NO-cGMP signaling pathway plays a crucial role in A-ED. Then, we found that the mRNA and protein levels of eNOS were significantly reduced in A-ED group compared with sham group. After treated with quercetin may cause the eNOS RNA and protein were significantly up-regulated (P < 0.01), showing a dose-dependent effect. iNOS expression have a certain degree of increased after quercetin treatment. nNOS expression was not significantly increased before and after treated with quercetin. In a word, quercetin can improved the A-ED by up-regulated ICP, which related to up-regulation of NO-cGMP signaling pathway. Conclusion: Preliminary results of this study suggested that quercetin protected expression and function of eNOS in cavernous endothelial cells, and restored part of

  17. Visible Photoluminescence of Solid State Quercetin and Rutin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlateva, G.; Mileva, M.; Popdimitrova, N.

    2007-04-01

    Quercetin is found in many foods, as well as in seeds, nuts, flowers, barks, and leaves. It is the most abundant of the flavonoid molecules. Rutin is the sugar-containing homologue of quercetin - quercetin-3-rutinoside. Visible photoluminescence spectra of solid state quercetin and rutin are under attention in this paper. The spectra were obtained at wavelenght of excited light 457.9 nm.

  18. Differential effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Joon-Hee; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Quercetin, a representative flavonoid, is a compound of low molecular weight found in various colored plants and vegetables. Quercetin shows a wide range of neuropharmacological activities. In fact, quercetin naturally exists as monomer-(quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) (Rham1), dimer-(Rutin), or trimer-glycosides [quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside)] (Rham2) at carbon-3 in fruits and vegetables. The carbohydrate components are removed after ingestion into gastrointestinal systems. The role of the glycosides attached to quercetin in the regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid class C (GABAC) receptor channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity by expressing human GABAC alone in Xenopus oocytes using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique and also compared the effects of quercetin glycosides with quercetin. We found that GABA-induced inward current (I GABA ) was inhibited by quercetin or quercetin glycosides. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were concentration-dependent and reversible in the order of Rutin ≈ quercetin ≈ Rham 1 > Rham 2. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were noncompetitive and membrane voltage-insensitive. These results indicate that quercetin and its glycosides regulate GABAC receptor channel activity through interaction with a different site from that of GABA, and that the number of carbohydrate attached to quercetin might play an important role in the regulation of GABAC receptor channel activity.

  19. Characterization of sulfated quercetin and epicatechin metabolites.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, Montserrat; González-Manzano, Susana; Surco-Laos, Felipe; González-Paramas, Ana; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2012-04-11

    Different monosulfates of quercetin and epicatechin with metabolic interest were obtained by hemisynthesis and characterized regarding their chromatographic behavior and absorption and mass spectra. Three of these compounds were further isolated, and their structures were elucidated by mass spectrometry and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance using one- and two-dimensional techniques (heteronuclear single-quantum coherence and heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation). The calculation of the proton and carbon shifts caused by sulfation allowed for the assignment of the position of the sulfate group in the flavonoids, so that the compounds were identified as quercetin-3'-O-sulfate, quercetin 4'-O-sulfate, and epicatechin 4'-O-sulfate. It was found that sulfation at position 3' induced a large upfield shift in the carbon bearing the sulfate group and downfield displacements of the adjacent carbons, whereas no significant upfield or downfield shifts were observed with respect to the parent flavonoid when sulfation was produced at position 4'.

  20. Quercetin Aglycone Is Bioavailable in Murine Pancreas and Pancreatic Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lifeng; Angst, Eliane; Park, Jenny L.; Moro, Aune; Dawson, David W.; Reber, Howard A.; Eibl, Guido; Hines, O. Joe; Go, Vay-Liang W.; Lu, Qing-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Quercetin is a potential chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent for pancreatic and other cancers. This study was to examine the distribution of quercetin in plasma, lung, liver, pancreas and pancreatic cancer xenografts in a murine in vivo model and the uptake of quercetin in pancreatic cancer MiaPaCa-2 cells in cellular in vitro model. Mice were randomly allocated to control diet, 0.2 and 1% quercetin diet groups utilizing the AIN93G-based diet (n=12 per group) for 6 weeks. In addition, 6 mice from each group were injected weekly with chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine (120 mg/kg mouse, i.p.). MiaPaCa cells were collected from culture medium after cells were exposed to 30 µM of quercetin for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hrs. Levels of quercetin and 3-O’-methyl-quercetin in mice tissues and MiaPaCa-2 cells were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography following enzymatic hydrolysis and then extraction. Our study showed that quercetin is accumulated in pancreatic cancer cells, and is absorbed in the circulating system, tumors and tissues of pancreas, liver and lung in vivo. A higher proportion of total quercetin found in tumors and pancreas are aglycones. Gemcitabine co-treatment with quercetin reduced absorption of quercetin in mice circulatory system and liver. Results from the study provide important information on the interpretation of chemo-therapeutic efficacy of quercetin. PMID:20499918

  1. Metabonomic analysis of the protective effect of quercetin on the toxicity induced by mixture of organophosphate pesticides in rat urine.

    PubMed

    Qi, L; Cao, C; Hu, L; Chen, S; Zhao, X; Sun, C

    2017-05-01

    The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of quercetin against the joint toxic action induced by the mixture of four organophosphate pesticides (mixture-OPs) (dimethoate, acephate, dichlorvos, and phorate) at their corresponding no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) using metabonomics. Rats were randomly divided into control, quercetin-treated, mixture-OPs-treated, and quercetin plus mixture-OPs-treated groups. Mixture-OPs and quercetin were given to the rats daily through drinking water and intragastric administration, respectively, for 90 days. The metabonomic profiles of rat urine were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS). The 14 metabolites significantly changed in the treatment groups compared with the control group, including the biomarkers of OPs exposure (dimethylphosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate) and the metabolites of quercetin (quercetin and isorhamnetina). The intensities of gentisic acid, creatinine, suberic acid, hippuric acid, uric acid, and citric acid significantly decreased, whereas the intensities of 7-methylguanine, estrone sulfate, and cholic acid significantly increased, in the mixture-OPs-treated group compared with the control group ( p < 0.01). The variation tendency of the aforementioned metabolites was significantly ameliorated in the high-dose quercetin (50 mg/(kg bw day)) plus mixture-OPs-treated group compared with the mixture-OPs-treated group ( p < 0.05). However, the intensities of these metabolites in the high-dose quercetin plus mixture-OPs-treated group were still significantly different from those of the control group ( p < 0.05). Results indicated that high dose of quercetin elicits a partial protective effect on the toxicity induced by mixture-OPs, including fatty acid and energy metabolism, antioxidant defense system, DNA damage, and liver and kidney function.

  2. Deglycosylation is a key step in biotransformation and lifespan effects of quercetin-3-O-glucoside in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, Montserrat; Surco-Laos, Felipe; González-Manzano, Susana; González-Paramás, Ana M; Gómez-Orte, Eva; Cabello, Juan; Santos-Buelga, Celestino

    2013-10-01

    Due to their purported healthful activities, quercetin and other flavonoids are being increasingly proposed as nutraceuticals. Quercetin occurs in food as glycosides; however, most assays on its activity have been performed with the aglycone, despite glycosylation deeply affects compound bioavailability. In this work, the uptake and lifespan effects of quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3Glc) and quercetin have been assessed in Caenorhabditis elegans. Q3Glc was taken up by this nematode in a concentration-dependent manner and rapidly deglycosylated to quercetin, which was accumulated in the worm and partially biotransformed to conjugated metabolites. Significant mean lifespan extension up to 23% compared to controls was observed in wild type worms cultivated in the presence of low concentrations of Q3Glc (10 μM and 25 μM), whereas exposure to greater concentrations of Q3Glc (50-200 μM) caused a reduction in mean and maximum lifespan compared with the control. By contrast, treatment of klo-1 and klo-2 mutant worms lacking β-glucosidase activity with 200 μM of Q3Glc led to extended mean lifespan (up to 39%), similar to quercetin aglycone at the same concentration levels. In those mutants, Q3Glc was accumulated without important deglycosylation to quercetin was produced. Taken together, these findings indicated that Q3Glc was taken up by the nematode in greater extent than quercetin, and that deglycosylation and subsequent aglycone accumulation in the worm appeared as key points to explain the observed lifespan effects. The obtained results also suggested that facilitated absorption should be more important for the uptake of quercetin derivatives than passive diffusion.

  3. Bioavailability of the flavonol quercetin in neonatal calves after oral administration of quercetin aglycone or rutin.

    PubMed

    Maciej, J; Schäff, C T; Kanitz, E; Tuchscherer, A; Bruckmaier, R M; Wolffram, S; Hammon, H M

    2015-06-01

    Polyphenols, such as flavonoids, are secondary plant metabolites with potentially health-promoting properties. In newborn calves flavonoids may improve health status, but little is known about the systemically availability of flavonoids in calves to exert biological effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the oral bioavailability of the flavonol quercetin, applied either as quercetin aglycone (QA) or as its glucorhamnoside rutin (RU), in newborn dairy calves. Twenty-one male newborn German Holstein calves were fed equal amounts of colostrum and milk replacer according to body weight. On d 2 and 29 of life, 9 mg of quercetin equivalents/kg of body weight, either fed as QA or as RU, or no quercetin (control group) were fed together with the morning meal. Blood samples were taken before and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after feed intake. Quercetin and quercetin metabolites with an intact flavonol structure (isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, and kaempferol) were analyzed in blood plasma after treatment with glucuronidase or sulfatase by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Maximum individual plasma concentration was depicted from the concentration-time-curve on d 2 and 29, respectively. Additional blood samples were taken to measure basal plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, and lactate as well as pre- and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, and cortisol. Plasma concentrations of quercetin and its metabolites were significantly higher on d 2 than on d 29 of life, and administration of QA resulted in higher plasma concentrations of quercetin and its metabolites than RU. The relative bioavailability of total flavonols (sum of quercetin and its metabolites isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, and kaempferol) from RU was 72.5% on d 2 and 49.6% on d 29 when compared with QA (100%). Calves fed QA reached maximum plasma concentrations of total flavonols much earlier than did RU-fed calves. Plasma

  4. Combined Effects of Vincristine and Quercetin in Reducing Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Necrosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sunanda; Kar, Anand

    2015-10-01

    Combined effects of vincristine and quercetin in the regulation of isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac necrosis have been evaluated in rats. ISO administration (100 mg/kg, s.c., for two consecutive days) increased the levels of serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and cardiac troponin (cTnT) as well as cardiac lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides). However, it reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and the glutathione peroxidase and the level of reduced glutathione. It also increased the heart rate and ST-segment elevation in ECG. Pretreatment of vincristine (25 μg/kg) or quercetin (10 mg/kg) alone for 2 weeks ameliorated these cardiotoxic effects partially. However, treatment of both vincristine and quercetin for a similar period reduced the serum CK-MB, LDH, SGPT and cTnT levels near to normal levels in ISO-treated rats. Concomitantly, the test drugs improved the status of antioxidants and decreased the cardiac lipid peroxidation products. Combined treatment of both the drugs also restored the pathological electrocardiographic patterns and reduced the area of myocardial necrosis. Histopathology of heart in ISO-administered rats that received both vincristine and quercetin showed nearly normal myocardium with very little inflammatory infiltration. In conclusion, the present finding appears to be the first one, suggesting a better protection of cardiac tissues by combined treatment of vincristine and quercetin in isoproterenol-induced cardiac toxicity.

  5. Effects of 2 adenosine antagonists, quercetin and caffeine, on vigilance and mood.

    PubMed

    Olson, Craig A; Thornton, Jennifer A; Adam, Gina E; Lieberman, Harris R

    2010-10-01

    Quercetin, a phenolic flavonoid found in small quantities in some fruits and vegetables, is an adenosine receptor antagonist in vitro marketed as a dietary supplement for purported caffeine-like effects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects study was conducted to compare the behavioral effects of quercetin to a central adenosine receptor antagonist, caffeine. Fifty-seven volunteers received either 2000 mg of quercetin dihydrate (a dose estimated based on in vitro receptor binding to be equivalent in potency to 200 mg of caffeine), placebo, or 200 mg of caffeine. One hour later, a 45-minute visual vigilance task was administered. The Profile of Mood States questionnaire was completed before treatment and immediately after vigilance testing. On the vigilance task, caffeine increased the number of stimuli detected (P < 0.02) and decreased the reaction time (P = 0.001). Caffeine increased self-reported vigor and reduced fatigue and total mood disturbance Profile of Mood States scores compared with placebo. Quercetin did not significantly alter any parameter, but values were typically intermediate between caffeine and placebo on those tests affected by caffeine. Quercetin is unlikely to have any effects when consumed by humans in quantities present in the diet or in dietary supplements. Caffeine (200 mg) administration resulted in the expected effects on vigilance and mood.

  6. Quercetin does not affect rating of perceived exertion in athletes during the Western States endurance run.

    PubMed

    Utter, Alan C; Nieman, David C; Kang, Jie; Dumke, Charles L; Quindry, John C; McAnulty, Steven R; McAnulty, Lisa S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of quercetin supplementation on ratings of perceived exertion in ultramarathon runners competing in the 160-km Western States Endurance Run (WSER). Sixty-three runners were randomized to quercetin (Q) and placebo (P) groups, and under double blinded methods ingested four supplements per day with or without 250 mg quercetin for 3 weeks before the WSER. Thirty-nine of the 63 subjects (quercetin N = 18, placebo N = 21) finished the race. At the completion of exercise ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed at aid stations located at 40, 90, 125, 150, and 160 km (finish line). The pattern of change in RPE over time was not significantly different between the Q and P groups. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) did not significantly increase throughout the race (15.2 +/- 2.9 at 40 km -14.2 +/- 4.0 at 160 km) for both groups combined. Race times were not different between the groups (Q = 26.4 +/- 0.7 h and P = 27.5 +/- 0.6 h). Significant time main effects (p < 0.001) were found for both serum glucose and cortisol throughout the race. Quercetin supplementation for 3 weeks prior to the WSER had no effect on RPE during competitive self-paced ultramarathon running. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) did not increase in a linear fashion but instead fluctuated nonmonotonically throughout the self-paced endurance running event.

  7. Quercetin inhibits human breast cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis via Bcl-2 and Bax regulation.

    PubMed

    Duo, Jian; Ying, Guo-Guang; Wang, Guo-Wen; Zhang, Li

    2012-06-01

    Breast cancer is a disease in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the breast. The present study aimed to explore the effect of the flavonoid compound quercetin on the growth and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. Varying concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200 µM) of quercetin were applied to cultured MCF-7 human breast cancer cells for defined lengths of time. At 50 to 200 µM doses, quercetin significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells assessed by MTT colorimetry, in both dose- and time-dependent manners (P<0.05). The compound also increased apoptosis after 48 h of exposure (P<0.05). Furthermore, following quercetin treatment Bcl-2 expression decreased significantly while Bax expression increased significantly (P<0.05). In brief, quercetin inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The mechanisms behind these effects may stem from the downregulation of Bcl-2 protein expression and upregulation of Bax expression.

  8. Quercetin induces oxidative stress and potentiates the apoptotic action of 2-methoxyestradiol in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuh-Fang; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Hung, Hui-Fang; Lee, Hui-Ju; Lui, Wing-Yiu; Chi, Chin-Wen; Wang, Jane-Jen

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Asia. This study evaluated the growth inhibition effect of quercetin and 2-methoxyestradiol in vitro in human HCC cell lines. Combination treatment enhanced the cytotoxic effect in HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cell lines as compared with quercetin or 2-methoxyestradiol alone. The cell population of sub-G0/G1 phase and the level of annexin V binding were increased synergistically after combination treatment with quercetin and 2-methoxyestradiol in both cell lines. Moreover, quercetin combined with 2-methoxyestradiol increased superoxide levels, mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in mRNA, protein levels, and SOD activity. Finally, we also found the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased after combination treatment. The changes of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial disruption were likely to be involved in the mechanism for the synergistic cytotoxicity effects of combination treatment in human hepatoma cells. These results provided a basis for further study of the potential usage of quercetin combination with hormonal agents for the treatment of human hepatoma.

  9. Effects of phyto-oestrogen quercetin on productive performance, hormones, reproductive organs and apoptotic genes in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yang, J X; Chaudhry, M T; Yao, J Y; Wang, S N; Zhou, B; Wang, M; Han, C Y; You, Y; Li, Y

    2017-10-06

    Quercetin, a polyphenolic flavonoid with diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory and antiviral, inhibits lipid peroxidation, prevents oxidative injury and cell death. The purpose of the research was to investigate the effect of quercetin on productive performance, reproductive organs, hormones and apoptotic genes in laying hens between 37 and 45 weeks of age, because of the structure and oestrogenic activities similar to 17β-oestradiol. The trial was conducted using 240 Hessian laying hens (37 weeks old), housed in wire cages with two hens in each cage. These hens were randomly allotted to four treatments with six replicates, 10 hens in each replicate and fed with diets containing quercetin as 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 g/kg feed for 8 weeks. The results showed that dietary quercetin significantly increased (p < .05) the laying rate and was higher in group supplemented with 0.4 g/kg, and feed-egg ratio was decreased (p < .05) by quercetin. Dietary quercetin has no effect (p > .05) on average egg weight and average daily feed intake. Compared with control, secretion of hormones, oestradiol (E2 ), progesterone (P4), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), insulin-like growth factors-1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH), was found to be significantly higher (p < .05) in quercetin-supplemented groups. Also ovary index, uterus index and oviduct index were not significantly influenced (p > .05) by quercetin, whereas magnum index, isthmus index, magnum length, isthmus length and follicle numbers were significantly increased (p < .05) with quercetin supplementation. Additionally, expression of apoptotic genes was significantly (p < .05) up-regulated or down-regulated by quercetin. These results indicated that quercetin improved productive performance, and its mechanism may be due to the oestrogen-like activities of quercetin. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Isolation stress and chronic mild stress induced immobility in the defensive burying behavior and a transient increased ethanol intake in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-León, Priscila; Martínez-Mota, Lucía; Quevedo-Corona, Lucía; Miranda-Páez, Abraham

    2017-09-01

    Stress can be experienced with or without adverse effects, of which anxiety and depression are two of the most important due to the frequent comorbidity with alcohol abuse in humans. Historically, stress has been considered a cause of drug use, particularly alcohol abuse due to its anxiolytic effects. In the present work we exposed male Wistar rats to two different stress conditions: single housing (social isolation, SI), and chronic mild stress (CMS). We compared both stressed groups to group-housed rats and rats without CMS (GH) to allow the determination of a clear behavioral response profile related to their respective endocrine stress response and alcohol intake pattern. We found that SI and CMS, to a greater extent, induced short-lasting increased sucrose consumption, a transient increase in serum corticosterone level, high latency/immobility, and low burying behavior in the defensive burying behavior (DBB) test, and a transient increase in alcohol intake. Thus, the main conclusion was that stress caused by both SI and CMS induced immobility in the DBB test and, subsequently, induced a transient increased voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats with a free-choice home-cage drinking paradigm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Higher plasma quercetin levels following oral administration of an onion skin extract compared with pure quercetin dihydrate in humans.

    PubMed

    Burak, Constanze; Brüll, Verena; Langguth, Peter; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Sausen, Udo; Stehle, Peter; Wolffram, Siegfried; Egert, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the plasma kinetics of quercetin derived from hard capsules filled with onion skin extract powder or quercetin dihydrate in humans. In a randomized, single-blind, diet-controlled crossover study, 12 healthy subjects (six men and six women) aged 21-33 years were administered a single oral supra-nutritional dose of approximately 163 mg quercetin derived from onion skin extract powder (containing 95.3 % of total flavonoids as quercetin aglycone) or quercetin dihydrate (134 mg quercetin aglycone equivalent). Blood samples were collected before and during a 24-h period after quercetin administration. The concentrations of quercetin and its two monomethylated derivatives, isorhamnetin (3'-O-methyl quercetin), and tamarixetin (4'-O-methyl quercetin), were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection after plasma enzymatic treatment. The systemic availability, determined by comparing the plasma concentration-time curves of quercetin, was 4.8 times higher, and the maximum plasma concentration (C max) was 5.4 times higher after ingestion of the onion skin extract than after ingestion of pure quercetin dihydrate. By contrast, t max did not differ significantly between the two formulations. The C max values for isorhamnetin and tamarixetin were 3.8 and 4.4 times higher, respectively, after administration of onion skin extract than after pure quercetin dihydrate. The plasma kinetics of quercetin were not significantly different in men and women. Quercetin aglycone derived from onion skin extract powder is significantly more bioavailable than that from quercetin dihydrate powder filled hard capsules.

  12. Anaerobic transformation of quercetin-3-glucoside by bacteria from the human intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H; Schwiertz, A; Collins, M D; Blaut, M

    1999-01-01

    From human feces two phenotypically different types of bacteria were isolated on quercetin-3-glucoside as carbon and energy source. Isolates of one type were identified as strains of Enterococcus casseliflavus. They utilized the sugar moiety of the glycoside, but did not degrade the aglycon further. The sugar moiety (4 mM) was fermented to 5.5 +/- 2.1 mM formate, 2.1 +/- 0.7 mM acetate, 1.6 +/- 0.3 mM l-lactate, and 1.3 +/- 0.4 mM ethanol. The second type of isolate was identified as Eubacterium ramulus. This organism was capable of degrading the aromatic ring system. Growing cultures of Eubacterium ramulus converted 5 mM quercetin-3-glucoside to 1.7 +/- 0.6 mM 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 7.6 +/- 1.0 mM acetate, and 4.0 +/- 0.4 mM butyrate. Molecular hydrogen, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, and ethanol were detected in small amounts. Phloroglucinol was a transient intermediate in the breakdown of quercetin-3-glucoside. Eubacterium ramulus did not grow on the aglycon quercetin or the ring-fission intermediate phloroglucinol, but cleaved the flavonoid ring system when glucose was present as a cosubstrate. The most probable number of quercetin-3-glucoside-degrading bacteria determined in nine human fecal samples was 10(7)-10(9)/g dry mass. Isolates from these experiments were all identified as Eubacterium ramulus.

  13. Mesoporous silica as topical nanocarriers for quercetin: characterization and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Sapino, Simona; Ugazio, Elena; Gastaldi, Lucia; Miletto, Ivana; Berlier, Gloria; Zonari, Daniele; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta

    2015-01-01

    The flavonoid quercetin is extensively studied for its antioxidant and chemopreventive properties. However the poor water-solubility, low stability and short half-life could restrict its use in skin care products and therapy. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential of aminopropyl functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (NH2-MSN) as topical carrier system for quercetin delivery. Thermo gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherms, FT-IR spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and differential scanning calorimetry allowed analyzing with great detail the organic-inorganic molecular interaction. The protective effect of this vehicle on UV-induced degradation of the flavonoid was investigated revealing a certain positive influence of the inclusion on the photostability over time. Epidermal accumulation and transdermal permeation of this molecule were ex vivo evaluated using porcine skin mounted on Franz diffusion cells. The inclusion complexation with the inorganic nanoparticles increased the penetration of quercetin into the skin after 24h post-application without transdermal delivery. The effect of quercetin alone or given as complex with NH2-MSN on proliferation of JR8 human melanoma cells was evaluated by sulforhodamine B colorimetric proliferation assay. At a concentration 60 μM the complex with NH2-MSN was more effective than quercetin alone, causing about 50% inhibition of cell proliferation.

  14. Quercetin Attenuates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Mitochondrial Damage through Enhanced Mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao; Xu, Yanyan; Zhang, Shanshan; Sun, Jian; Liu, Peiyi; Xiao, Lin; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2016-01-05

    Emerging evidence suggested mitophagy activation mitigates ethanol-induced liver injury. However, the effect of ethanol on mitophagy is inconsistent. Importantly, the understanding of mitophagy status after chronic ethanol consumption is limited. This study evaluated the effect of quercetin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid, on chronic ethanol-induced mitochondrial damage focused on mitophagy. An ethanol regime to mice for 15 weeks (accounting for 30% of total calories) led to significant mitochondrial damage as evidenced by changes of the mitochondrial ultrastructure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and remodeling of membrane lipid composition, which was greatly attenuated by quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw). Moreover, quercetin blocked chronic ethanol-induced mitophagy suppression as denoted by mitophagosomes-lysosome fusion and mitophagy-related regulator elements, including LC3II, Parkin, p62 and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), paralleling with increased FoxO3a nuclear translocation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), instead of AKT and Sirtuin 1, were involved in quercetin-mediated mitophagy activation. Quercetin alleviated ethanol-elicited mitochondrial damage through enhancing mitophagy, highlighting a promising preventive strategy for alcoholic liver disease.

  15. Chemopreventive effect of quercetin in MNU and testosterone induced prostate cancer of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sharmila, Govindaraj; Athirai, Thavadurainathan; Kiruthiga, Balakrishnan; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Elumalai, Perumal; Arunkumar, Ramachandran; Arunakaran, Jagadeesan

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer becomes an ideal target for chemoprevention because of its high incidence and extended natural history. The consumption of quercetin (plant flavonoid) in diet is associated with decreased risk of disease and many cancers but then this was not elucidated in prostate malignancy. Hence, a study in which the male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced prostate cancer by hormone (testosterone) and carcinogen (MNU) and simultaneously supplemented with quercetin (200 mg/Kg body weight) thrice a week, was conducted. After the treatment period, rats were killed; ventral and dorsolateral lobes of the prostate were dissected. Histology and oxidative stress markers LPO, H2O2, and antioxidant GSH level were measured in both lobes. The lipid peroxidation, H2O2, in (MNU+T) treated rats were increased and GSH level was decreased, whereas simultaneous quercetin-treated rats reverted back to normal level in both ventral and dorsolateral regions. The different patterns of PIN were observed with associated hyperplasia and dysplasia; changes in these regions and the occurrence of this lesion were reduced in simultaneous quercetin-treated rats. The study concluded that dietary quercetin prevented MNU + T-induced prostate carcinogenesis on both ventral and dorsolateral lobes of Sprague-Dawley rats.

  16. Quercetin Attenuates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Mitochondrial Damage through Enhanced Mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao; Xu, Yanyan; Zhang, Shanshan; Sun, Jian; Liu, Peiyi; Xiao, Lin; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggested mitophagy activation mitigates ethanol-induced liver injury. However, the effect of ethanol on mitophagy is inconsistent. Importantly, the understanding of mitophagy status after chronic ethanol consumption is limited. This study evaluated the effect of quercetin, a naturally-occurring flavonoid, on chronic ethanol-induced mitochondrial damage focused on mitophagy. An ethanol regime to mice for 15 weeks (accounting for 30% of total calories) led to significant mitochondrial damage as evidenced by changes of the mitochondrial ultrastructure, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and remodeling of membrane lipid composition, which was greatly attenuated by quercetin (100 mg/kg.bw). Moreover, quercetin blocked chronic ethanol-induced mitophagy suppression as denoted by mitophagosomes-lysosome fusion and mitophagy-related regulator elements, including LC3II, Parkin, p62 and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), paralleling with increased FoxO3a nuclear translocation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), instead of AKT and Sirtuin 1, were involved in quercetin-mediated mitophagy activation. Quercetin alleviated ethanol-elicited mitochondrial damage through enhancing mitophagy, highlighting a promising preventive strategy for alcoholic liver disease. PMID:26742072

  17. Quercetin ameliorates polychlorinated biphenyls-induced testicular DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lovato, F L; de Oliveira, C R; Adedara, I A; Barbisan, F; Moreira, K L S; Dalberto, M; da Rocha, M I U M; Marroni, N P; da Cruz, I B; Costabeber, I B

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of environmental contaminants widely reported to cause gonadal toxicity in both humans and animals. This study investigated the amelioratory role of quercetin in PCBs-induced DNA damage in male Wistar rats. Polychlorinated biphenyls were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg kg(-1) alone or in combination with quercetin (orally) at 50 mg kg(-1) for 25 days. Quercetin modulation of PCBs-induced gonadal toxicity was evaluated using selected oxidative stress indices, comet assay, measurement of DNA concentration and histology of the testes. Administration of PCBs alone caused a significant (P < 0.05) depletion in the total thiol level in testes of treated rats. Conversely, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production were markedly elevated in testes of PCBs-treated rats compared with control. Further, PCBs exposure produced statistically significant increases in DNA tail migration, degraded double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) concentration and histological alterations of testes of the treated rats compared to control. Quercetin cotreatment significantly improved the testicular antioxidant status, decreased DNA fragmentation and restored the testicular histology, thus demonstrating the protective effect of quercetin in PCBs-treated rats.

  18. Evaluating the Ameliorative Potential of Quercetin against the Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kushwah, Lokendra; Gohel, Darpesh; Patel, Manish; Marvania, Tulsi; Balakrishnan, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    The current study deals with the effect of a dietary flavanoid quercetin on fibrotic lung tissue in rats. Bleomycin was administered by single intratracheal instillation to Wistar rats to induce lung fibrosis. The pathologies associated with this included significantly reduced antioxidant capacity, ultimately leading to protracted inflammation of the lung tissue. The hallmark of this induced fibrosis condition was an excessive collagen deposition in peribronchial and perialveolar regions of the lung. Oral quercetin treatment over a period of twenty days resulted in significant reversal of the pathologies. The antioxidant defense in lung tissue was revived. Moreover, activity of the collagenase MMP-7, which was high in fibrotic tissue, was seen restored after quercetin administration. Trichome staining of lung tissue sections showed high collagen deposition in fibrotic rats, which may be a direct result of increased mobilization of collagen by MMP-7. This was appreciably reduced in quercetin treated animals. These results point towards an important protective role of quercetin against idiopathic lung fibrosis, which remains a widely prevalent yet incurable condition in the present times. PMID:24396596

  19. Influence of Quercetin and Its Methylglyoxal Adducts on the Formation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds in a Lysine/Glucose Model System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guimei; Xia, Qiuqin; Lu, Yongling; Zheng, Tiesong; Sang, Shengmin; Lv, Lishuang

    2017-03-15

    Increasing evidence has identified α-dicarbonyl compounds, the reactive intermediates generated during Maillard reaction, as the potential factors to cause protein glycation and the development of chronic diseases. Therefore, there is an urgent need to decrease the levels of reactive dicarbonyl compounds in foods. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of quercetin, a major dietary flavonoid, and its major mono- and di-MGO adducts on the formation of dicarbonyl compounds, such as methylglyoxal (MGO) and glyoxal (GO), in a lysine/glucose aqueous system, a model system to reflect the Maillard reaction in food process. Our result indicated that quercetin could efficiently inhibit the formation of MGO and GO in a time-dependent manner. Further mechanistic study was conducted by monitoring the formation of quercetin oxidation and conjugation products using LC-MS/MS. Quercetin MGO adducts, quercetin quinones, and the quinones of quercetin MGO adducts were detected in the system, indicating quercetin plays a dual role in inhibiting the formation of MGO and GO by scavenging free radicals generated in the system and trapping of MGO and GO to form MGO adducts. In addition, we prepared the mono- and di-MGO quercetin adducts and investigated their antioxidant activity and trapping capacity of MGO and GO. Our results indicated that both mono- and di-MGO quercetin adducts could scavenge the DPPH radical in a dose-dependent manner with >40% DPPH scavenged by the MGO adducts at 10 μM, and the di-MGO quercetin adduct could further trap MGO to generate tri-MGO adducts. Therefore, we demonstrate for the first time that quercetin MGO adducts retain the antioxidant activity and trapping capacity of reactive dicarbonyl species.

  20. Molecular mechanisms underlying protective effects of quercetin against mitochondrial dysfunction and progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration in cell culture and MitoPark transgenic mouse models of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ay, Muhammet; Luo, Jie; Langley, Monica; Jin, Huajun; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-06-01

    Quercetin, one of the major flavonoids in plants, has been recently reported to have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative processes. However, since the molecular signaling mechanisms governing these effects are not well clarified, we evaluated quercetin's effect on the neuroprotective signaling events in dopaminergic neuronal models and further tested its efficacy in the MitoPark transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin significantly induced the activation of two major cell survival kinases, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and Akt in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PKD1 blocked the activation of Akt, suggesting that PKD1 acts as an upstream regulator of Akt in quercetin-mediated neuroprotective signaling. Quercetin also enhanced cAMP response-element binding protein phosphorylation and expression of the cAMP response-element binding protein target gene brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Results from qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, mtDNA content analysis, and MitoTracker assay experiments revealed that quercetin augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. Quercetin also increased mitochondrial bioenergetics capacity and protected MN9D cells against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity. To further evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of quercetin against the mitochondrial dysfunction underlying PD, we used the progressive dopaminergic neurodegenerative MitoPark transgenic mouse model of PD. Oral administration of quercetin significantly reversed behavioral deficits, striatal dopamine depletion, and TH neuronal cell loss in MitoPark mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that quercetin activates the PKD1-Akt cell survival signaling axis and suggest that further exploration of quercetin as a promising neuroprotective agent for treating PD may offer clinical benefits. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. The roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway in quercetin-mediated cell death of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuo-Ching; Yen, Chun-Yi; Wu, Rick Sai-Chuen; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Lu, Kung-Wen; Lo, Chyi; Chen, Hung-Yi; Tang, Nou-Ying; Wu, Chih-Chung; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-04-01

    Prostate cancer has its highest incidence and is becoming a major concern. Many studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine exhibited antitumor responses. Quercetin, a natural polyphenolic compound, has been shown to induce apoptosis in many human cancer cell lines. Although numerous evidences show multiple possible signaling pathways of quercetin in apoptosis, there is no report to address the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in quercetin-induced apoptosis in PC-3 cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quercetin on the induction of the apoptotic pathway in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Cells were treated with quercetin for 24 and 48 h and at various doses (50-200 μM), and cell morphology and viability decreased significantly in dose-dependent manners. Flow cytometric assay indicated that quercetin at 150 μM caused G0/G1 phase arrest (31.4-49.7%) and sub-G1 phase cells (19.77%) for 36 h treatment and this effect is a time-dependent manner. Western blotting analysis indicated that quercetin induces the G0/G1 phase arrest via decreasing the levels of CDK2, cyclins E, and D proteins. Quercetin also stimulated the protein expression of ATF, GRP78, and GADD153 which is a hall marker of ER stress. Furthermore, PC-3 cells after incubation with quercetin for 48 h showed an apoptotic cell death and DNA damage which are confirmed by DAPI and Comet assays, leading to decrease the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein and level of ΔΨm , and increase the proapoptotic Bax protein and the activations of caspase-3, -8, and -9. Moreover, quercetin promoted the trafficking of AIF protein released from mitochondria to nuclei. These data suggest that quercetin may induce apoptosis by direct activation of caspase cascade through mitochondrial pathway and ER stress in PC-3 cells. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Quercetin simultaneously induces G0 /G1 -phase arrest and caspase-mediated crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junn-Liang; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Chang, Jer-Hwa; Wen, Yu-Ching; Lin, Yung-Wei; Yang, Shun-Fa; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2017-07-01

    Quercetin is a plant-derived bioflavonoid with high anticancer activity in various tumors. Herein, the molecular mechanisms by which quercetin exerts its anticancer effects against HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells were investigated. Results showed that quercetin suppressed cell proliferation in the HL-60 cell line in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin-induced G0 /G1 -phase arrest occurred when expressions of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2/4 were inhibited and the CDK inhibitors, p16 and p21, were induced. Moreover, quercetin treatment not only activated proapoptotic signaling like poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 cleavage and caspase activation but also triggered autophagy events as shown by the increased expression of light chain 3 (LC3)-II, decreased expression of p62, and formation of acidic vesicular organelles. Interestingly, it was found that use of the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine, significantly enhanced quercetin-mediated apoptotic cell death as analyzed by MTS and DNA fragmentation assays. Moreover, pretreatment of HL-60 cells with the pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, dramatically reversed quercetin-mediated apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Although apoptosis and autophagy are two independent cell death pathways, our findings indicated that quercetin can activate caspases to trigger these two pathways, and both pathways played contrary roles in quercetin-mediated HL-60 cell death. In conclusion, besides promoting apoptosis, quercetin also induced cytoprotective autophagy in HL-60 cells, and inhibition of autophagy may be a novel strategy to enhance the anticancer activity of quercetin in AML. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Preparation and characterization of quercetin/dietary fiber nanoformulations.

    PubMed

    Khor, Chia Miang; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Kok Ping; Dong, Yuancai

    2017-04-01

    Quercetin is well known for its beneficial health effects on the human body. However, the slow dissolution rate leading to poor bioavailability constitutes a barrier to being further developed for nutritional products. In this work, quercetin was co-precipitated with dietary fibers into a fast-dissolving nanoformulation via antisolvent precipitation, followed by spray drying. With the help of cellulose fiber, resistant starch or resistant maltodextrin, a high dissolution rate and good storage stability was achieved for quercetin nanoformulations. In addition, nanoformulations exhibited higher level of antioxidant activities in contrast to raw quercetin. The developed quercetin/dietary fiber nanoformulations could be used as supplements or functional ingredients for food development.

  4. Quercetin and isorhamnetin in sweet and red cultivars of onion (Allium cepa L.) at harvest, after field curing, heat treatment, and storage.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Marie E; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Vågen, Ingunn M

    2010-02-24

    Effects of heat treatment and storage on quercetin and isorhamnetin content, major and minor components of isorhamnetin, and quercetin glucosides and aglycone, were investigated in onion (Allium cepa L.). The sweet onion 'Recorra' and red onions 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron' were cultivated in the south part of Norway and thereafter stored for eight months. The onions were either not field dried, but stored directly, or field dried and then stored, or field dried and then heat treated before storage. Neither storage nor heat treatment caused any major differences in total flavonol content in the investigated sweet onion as well as in the red onion cultivars. The two major quercetin glucosides differed in their changes in content during storage; quercetin-4'-glucoside did not show any consistent changes during storage in the two red cultivars, independent of treatment, whereas quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside increased significantly by 30 or 51%, respectively, during storage in 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron' in the 24 h heat treated onions. Isorhamnetin-4'-glucoside, which might possibly be of special interest from a human health point of view, was present at 2-3 times higher amount in the sweet onion cultivar than in the two red cultivars. Some of the quercetin glucosides present at lower concentrations, isorhamnetin-3,4'-diglucoside, quercetin-3,7,4'-triglucoside, and quercetin-7,4'-diglucoside, increased during storage in all treatments in both 'Hyred' and 'Red Baron', though sometimes a decrease was found at the end of storage.

  5. Therapeutic effect of quercetin in collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Miranda-Hernandez, Socorro; Alim, Md Abdul; Hayes, Linda; Bird, Guy; Ketheesan, Natkunam

    2017-03-22

    Quercetin, a bioactive flavonoid with anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and protective properties, is a potential agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is the most commonly used animal model for studying the pathogenesis of RA. This study analysed the therapeutic role of quercetin in collagen-induced arthritis in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were allocated into five groups that were subjected to the following treatments: negative (untreated) control, positive control (arthritis-induced), arthritis+methotrexate, arthritis+quercetin, and arthritis+methotrexate+quercetin. Assessments of weight, oedema, joint damage, and cytokine production were used to determine the therapeutic effect of quercetin. This study demonstrated for the first time the anti-inflammatory and protective effects of quercetin in vivo in CIA. The results also showed that the concurrent administration of quercetin and methotrexate did not offer greater protection than the administration of a single agent. The use of quercetin as a monotherapeutic agent resulted in the lowest degree of joint inflammation and the highest protection. The reduced severity of the disease in animals treated with quercetin was associated with decreased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and MCP-1. In conclusion, this study determined that quercetin, which was non-toxic, produced better results than methotrexate for the protection of joints from arthritic inflammation in mice. Quercetin may be an alternative treatment for RA because it modulates the main pathogenic pathways of RA.

  6. The Flavonoid Quercetin Reverses Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Enrique; Moral-Sanz, Javier; Barreira, Bianca; Galindo, Pilar; Pandolfi, Rachele; Jimenez, Rosario; Moreno, Laura; Cogolludo, Angel; Duarte, Juan; Perez-Vizcaino, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which exerts vasodilator, antiplatelet and antiproliferative effects and reduces blood pressure, oxidative status and end-organ damage in humans and animal models of systemic hypertension. We hypothesized that oral quercetin treatment might be protective in a rat model of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Three weeks after injection of monocrotaline, quercetin (10 mg/kg/d per os) or vehicle was administered for 10 days to adult Wistar rats. Quercetin significantly reduced mortality. In surviving animals, quercetin decreased pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy and muscularization of small pulmonary arteries. Classic biomarkers of pulmonary arterial hypertension such as the downregulated expression of lung BMPR2, Kv1.5, Kv2.1, upregulated survivin, endothelial dysfunction and hyperresponsiveness to 5-HT were unaffected by quercetin. Quercetin significantly restored the decrease in Kv currents, the upregulation of 5-HT2A receptors and reduced the Akt and S6 phosphorylation. In vitro, quercetin induced pulmonary artery vasodilator effects, inhibited pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. In conclusion, quercetin is partially protective in this rat model of PAH. It delayed mortality by lowering PAP, RVH and vascular remodeling. Quercetin exerted effective vasodilator effects in isolated PA, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in PASMCs. These effects were associated with decreased 5-HT2A receptor expression and Akt and S6 phosphorylation and partially restored Kv currents. Therefore, quercetin could be useful in the treatment of PAH. PMID:25460361

  7. Quercetin modulates keratoconus metabolism in vitro

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Tina B; Sarker-Nag, Akhee; Lyon, Desiree’; Asara, John M; Karamichos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Corneal scarring is the result of a disease, infection or injury. The resulting scars cause significant loss of vision or even blindness. To-date, the most successful treatment is corneal transplantation, but it does not come without side effects. One of the corneal dystrophies that are correlated with corneal scarring is keratoconus (KC). The onset of the disease is still unknown; however, altered cellular metabolism has been linked to promoting the fibrotic phenotype and therefore scarring. We have previously shown that human keratoconus cells (HKCs) have altered metabolic activity when compared to normal human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs). In our current study, we present evidence that quercetin, a natural flavonoid, is a strong candidate for regulating metabolic activity of both HCFs and HKCs in vitro and therefore a potential therapeutic to target the altered cellular metabolism characteristic of HKCs. Targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was performed on HCFs and HKCs with and without quercetin treatment in order to identify variations in metabolite flux. Overall, our study reveals a novel therapeutic target OF Quercetin on corneal stromal cell metabolism in both healthy and diseased states. Clearly, further studies are necessary in order to dissect the mechanism of action of quercetin. PMID:26173740

  8. Quercetin suppresses lung cancer growth by targeting Aurora B kinase.

    PubMed

    Xingyu, Zhu; Peijie, Ma; Dan, Peng; Youg, Wang; Daojun, Wang; Xinzheng, Chen; Xijun, Zhang; Yangrong, Song

    2016-11-01

    aurora B kinase is highly expressed in several cancer cells and promotes tumorigenesis and progression, and therefore, it is an important target for drug to treat tumors. Quercetin was identified to be an antitumor agent. Herein, we report for the first time that quercetin inhibited aurora B activities by directly binding with aurora B in vitro and in vivo. Ex vivo studies showed that quercetin inhibited aurora B activities in JB6 Cl41 cells and A549 lung cancer cells. Moreover, knockdown of aurora B in A549 cells decreased their sensitivities to quercetin. In vivo study demonstrated that injection of quercetin in A549 tumor-bearing mice effectively suppressed cancer growth. The phosphorylation of histone 3 in tumor tissues was also decreased after quercetin treatment. In short, quercetin can suppress growth of lung cancer cells as an aurora B inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Quercetin suppresses immune cell accumulation and improves mitochondrial gene expression in adipose tissue of diet‐induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yumiko; Sakurai, Mutsumi; Akimoto, Yukari; Tsushida, Tojiro; Oike, Hideaki; Ippoushi, Katsunari

    2015-01-01

    Scope To examine the effect of dietary quercetin on the function of epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) in Western diet‐induced obese mice. Methods and results C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet; a Western diet high in fat, cholesterol, and sucrose; or the same Western diet containing 0.05% quercetin for 18 weeks. Supplementation with quercetin suppressed the increase in the number of macrophages, the decrease in the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ T cells in EAT, and the elevation of plasma leptin and tumor necrosis factor α levels in mice fed the Western diet. Comprehensive gene expression analysis revealed that quercetin suppressed gene expression associated with the accumulation and activation of immune cells, including macrophages and lymphocytes in EAT. It also improved the expression of the oxidative stress‐sensitive transcription factor NFκB, NADPH oxidases, and antioxidant enzymes. Quercetin markedly increased gene expression associated with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial DNA content. Conclusion Quercetin most likely universally suppresses the accumulation and activation of immune cells, including antiinflammatory cells, whereas it specifically increased gene expression associated with mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Suppression of oxidative stress and NFκB activity likely contributed to the prevention of the accumulation and activation of immune cells and resulting chronic inflammation. PMID:26499876

  10. Quercetin interacts with Cry1Ac protein to affect larval growth and survival of Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Guan, Xiumin; Michaud, J P; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2016-07-01

    Bt cotton has been widely planted in China for over a decade to control H. armigera, but field surveys indicate increasing resistance in the pest. It has been speculated that accumulating plant secondary compounds in mature cotton may interact with Bt toxins and affect the toxicity of Bt to H. armigera. Both quercetin, one of the main flavonoids in cotton, and the Bt toxin Cry1Ac protein had significant negative effects on the growth, development and survival of H. armigera when added singly to artificial diet, but their effects were inhibited when added in combination. Quercetin was antagonistic to Cry1Ac toxicity at all tested concentrations. The accumulation of quercetin might be one factor contributing to the reduced toxicity of mature Bt cotton plants to H. armigera, and could partially explain the reduced efficacy of Cry1Ac in controlling this pest in the field. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Solid dispersion of quercetin in cellulose derivative matrices influences both solubility and stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Konecke, Stephanie; Harich, Kim; Wegiel, Lindsay; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J

    2013-02-15

    Amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) of quercetin (Que) in cellulose derivative matrices, carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), and cellulose acetate adipate propionate (CAAdP) were prepared with the goal of identifying an ASD that effectively increased Que aqueous solution concentration. Crystalline quercetin and Que/poly(vinylpyrrolidinone) (PVP) ASD were evaluated for comparison. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to examine the crystallinity of ASDs, physical mixtures (PM) and quercetin. ASDs were amorphous up to 50 wt% Que. Que stability against crystallization and solution concentrations from these ASDs were significantly higher than those observed for physical mixtures and crystalline Que. PVP stabilizes against both Que degradation and recrystallization; in contrast, these carboxylated cellulose derivatives inhibit recrystallization but release Que slowly. PVP ASDs afforded fast and complete drug release, while ASDs using these three cellulose derivatives provide slow, incomplete, pH-triggered drug release.

  12. Essential role of Nrf2 in keratinocyte protection from UVA by quercetin

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Shintarou; Warabi, Eiji; Yanagawa, Toru; Ma, Dongmei; Itoh, Ken; Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Tetsuro

    2009-09-11

    Much of the cell injury caused by ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is associated with oxidative stress. Quercetin is a major natural polyphenol that is known to protect cells from UVA-induced damage. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism of this protection. Quercetin pretreatment strongly suppressed UVA-induced apoptosis in human keratinocyte HaCaT cells, markedly increased protein levels of the transcription factor Nrf2, induced the expression of antioxidative genes, and dramatically reduced the production of reactive oxygen species following UVA irradiation. Importantly, these beneficial effects were greatly attenuated by downregulating Nrf2 expression. Thus, quercetin protects cells from UVA damage mainly by elevating intracellular antioxidative activity via the enhanced accumulation of a transcription factor for antioxidant genes, Nrf2.

  13. Chromatographic separation and concentration of quercetin and (+)-catechin using mesoporous composites based on MCM-41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, S. I.; Belanova, N. A.; Korabel'nikova, E. O.; Nedosekina, I. V.; Roessner, F.; Selemenev, V. F.

    2015-05-01

    Data on chromatographic separation of quercetin and (+)-catechin-flavonoids with similar physicochemical (including sorption) properties—are presented. The highest efficiency of chromatographic process at high sorption capacity of the material with respect to quercetin and slightly lower capacity for (+)-catechin were observed when silylated composites of ordered MCM-41 type materials were used. The application of acetonitrile as a solvent increased the sorption capacity of the material and can be recommended for separation of related polyphenol substances and their determination using ordered MCM-41 modified with trimethylchlorosilane as a stationary phase in a chromatographic column.

  14. The effect of transient increases in kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid levels early in life on behavior in adulthood: Implications for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Iaccarino, Hannah F; Suckow, Raymond F; Xie, Shan; Bucci, David J

    2013-11-01

    Kynurenic acid is a tryptophan metabolite that is synthesized and released in the brain by astrocytes and acts as an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptors, both of which are critically involved in cognition as well as neural plasticity and brain development. The concentration of kynurenic acid is increased in the brains of persons with schizophrenia and this increase has been implicated in the cognitive and social impairments associated with the disease. In addition, growing evidence suggests that the increase in kynurenic acid may begin early in life. For example, exposure to influenza A virus during development results in a transient increase in kynurenic acid concentration that could disrupt normal brain development and lead to cognitive deficits later in life. Changes in kynurenic acid may thus provide a link between developmental exposure to viruses and the increased risk of subsequently developing schizophrenia. To test this, we mimicked the effects of influenza A exposure by treating rats with kynurenine, the precursor of kynurenic acid, on postnatal days 7-10. We observed a transient increase in both kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid during treatment. When rats were subsequently behaviorally tested as adults, those previously treated with kynurenine exhibited decreased social behavior and locomotor activity. In contrast, attentional function and fear conditioning were not affected. Together with other recent findings, these data have several implications for understanding how viral-induced changes in tryptophan metabolism during development may contribute to schizophrenia-related symptoms later in life.

  15. Red wine alcohol promotes quercetin absorption and directs its metabolism towards isorhamnetin and tamarixetin in rat intestine in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dragoni, Stefania; Gee, Jennifer; Bennett, Richard; Valoti, Massimo; Sgaragli, Giampietro

    2006-01-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine has been associated with beneficial effects on human health, and this has been attributed to the flavonoid content. Factors that influence the bioavailability of this group of polyphenolic compounds are therefore important. Using the rat cannulated everted jejunal sac technique, we have investigated the effect of alcohol on the intestinal absorption of quercetin and its 3-O-glucoside from red wine. Tissue preparations were incubated in whole or dealcoholised red wine, diluted 1 : 1 with Krebs buffer for 20 min at 37°C, after which the mucosa was removed and processed for HPLC analysis. Tissues exposed to red wine had significantly higher amounts of both quercetin (× 3; P<0.001) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (× 1.5; P<0.01) associated with them, compared with sacs incubated in the dealcoholised equivalent. In addition, both tamarixetin (T) and isorhamnetin (I), in the mucosal tissue from sacs exposed to the whole wine, were significantly elevated approximately two fold (P<0.05; P<0.01, respectively). Similar results were obtained when sacs were incubated in Krebs buffer containing a mixture of pure quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside with or without alcohol, and, although effects on the apparent absorption of Q and Q-3-G were not so marked, concentrations of the metabolites quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and I were significantly increased by the presence of alcohol (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). It is therefore plausible that the moderate alcohol content of red wine contributes to its beneficial health effects in humans by both increasing the absorption of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside and by channelling their metabolism towards O-methylation to yield compounds (T and I), which have potential protective effects against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:16444288

  16. Chemoprotective role of quercetin in manganese-induced toxicity along the brain-pituitary-testicular axis in rats.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Subair, Temitayo I; Ego, Valerie C; Oyediran, Oluwasetemi; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Reproductive dysfunction in response to manganese exposure has been reported in humans and animals. Quercetin, a bioflavonoid widely distributed in fruits, vegetables and beverages has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities in different experimental model systems. However, there is dearth of scientific information on the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced reproductive toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of quercetin on manganese-induced functional alterations along the brain-pituitary- testicular axis in rats. Manganese was administered alone at 15 mg/kg body weight or orally co-treated with quercetin at 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Results indicated that quercetin co-treatment significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited manganese-induced elevation in biomarkers of oxidative stress whereas it increased antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione level in the brain, testes and epididymis of the treated rats. Furthermore, quercetin mediated suppression of inflammatory indices and caspase-3 activity was accompanied by preservation of histo-architectures of the brain, testes and epididymis in manganese-treated rats. The significant reversal of manganese-induced decreases in reproductive hormones (i.e. luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone) and testicular activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase by quercetin was complemented by an increase in sperm quality and quantity in the treated rats. Collectively, quercetin modulated manganese-induced toxicity along the brain-pituitary-testicular axis in rats via its intrinsic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities, and may thus represent a potential pharmacological agent against manganese-induced male reproductive deficits in humans.

  17. Quercetin Modulates the Effects of Chromium Exposure on Learning, Memory and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in F1 Generation Mice.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sumita; Kar, Rajarshi; Mehta, Ashish K; Bhattacharya, Swapan K; Mediratta, Pramod K; Banerjee, Basu D

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether chromium (Cr) administered to the dams (F0) during lactation period could affect memory and oxidative stress in F1 generation mice in their adulthood and whether quercetin could modulate these effects. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to test for spatial memory. Passive avoidance task and elevated plus maze were used to test for acquisition and retention memory. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase activity and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels in the brain tissue. The results of MWM showed that the animals in the Cr-treated group compared to control have better spatial memory that was further enhanced when Cr was administered along with quercetin (50 mg/kg). The elevated plus maze test also showed the Cr-treated group to improve acquisition as well as retention memory compared to control. Co-treatment with quercetin (all doses) also exhibited enhanced acquisition and retention memory compared to control. The passive avoidance task demonstrated no significant improvement in memory in the Cr-treated mice but co-treatment with quercetin (100 mg/kg) showed improved acquisition memory compared to control which was significantly better than the animals treated with chromium alone. GST activity was significantly increased in the Cr-treated animals, and this was further increased in groups treated with Cr and quercetin (all doses). Chromium when administered alone and in combination with quercetin (all doses) significantly reduced MDA levels. However, Cr treatment did not show significant change in catalase activity. Nevertheless, co-treatment with quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg) resulted in significant decrease in catalase activity. Thus, our study demonstrates that Cr exposure during lactation could be beneficial for pups with respect to augmentation of cognitive function and reduction of oxidative stress. Quercetin could probably enhance this effect to some extent.

  18. Quercetin-induced apoptosis of HT-29 colon cancer cells via inhibition of the Akt-CSN6-Myc signaling axis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Liu, Yanqing; Wang, Mei; Qian, Yayun; Dong, Xiaoyun; Gu, Hao; Wang, Haibo; Guo, Shiyu; Hisamitsu, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 signalosome (CSN) consists of a total of eight subunits (CSN1-CSN8) in mammalian cells. CSN6 may promote carcinogenesis by positively regulating v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Myc) and MDM2 proto-oncogene stability, and is regarded as a potential target for cancer therapy. Quercetin has a substantial anticancer effect on various human cancer cells. The present study investigated the effects of quercetin on HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest using an MTT assay, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. It was determined that quercetin inhibited HT-29 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and nuclear collapse were observed in the 50, 100 and 200 µM quercetin groups. The exposure of HT-29 cells to quercetin led to significant cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin reduced the protein expression levels of phosphorylated-Akt and increased CSN6 protein degradation; therefore, affecting the expression levels of Myc, p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein. The overexpression of CSN6 reduced the effect of quercetin treatment on HT-29 cells, suggesting that quercetin-induced apoptosis may involve the Akt-CSN6-Myc signaling axis in HT-29 cells. PMID:27748879

  19. Quercetin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CD133(+) cancer stem cells of human colorectal HT29 cancer cell line and enhances anticancer effects of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Atashpour, Shekoufeh; Fouladdel, Shamileh; Movahhed, Tahereh Komeili; Barzegar, Elmira; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Azizi, Ebrahim

    2015-07-01

    The colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) with the CD133(+) phenotype are a rare fraction of cancer cells with the ability of self-renewal, unlimited proliferation and resistance to treatment. Quercetin has anticancer effects with the advantage of exhibiting low side effects. Therefore, we evaluated the anticancer effects of quercetin and doxorubicin (Dox) in HT29 cancer cells and its isolated CD133(+) CSCs. The CSCs from HT29 cells were isolated using CD133 antibody conjugated to magnetic beads by MACS. Anticancer effects of quercetin and Dox alone and in combination on HT29 cells and CSCs were evaluated using MTT cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis induction. The CD133(+) CSCs comprised about 10% of HT29 cells. Quercetin and Dox alone and in combination inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HT29 cells and to a lesser extent in CSCs. Quercetin enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction of Dox at low concentration in both cell populations. Quercetin and Dox and their combination induced G2/M arrest in the HT29 cells and to a lesser extent in CSCs. The CSCs were a minor population with a significantly high level of drug resistance within the HT29 cancer cells. Quercetin alone exhibited significant cytotoxic effects on HT29 cells and also increased cytoxicity of Dox in combination therapy. Altogether, our data showed that adding quercetin to Dox chemotherapy is an effective strategy for treatment of both CSCs and bulk tumor cells.

  20. Quercetin induces FasL-related apoptosis, in part, through promotion of histone H3 acetylation in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Chen, Yun-Ru; Tseng, Tsui-Hwa

    2011-02-01

    Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid abundant in fruits and vegetables, has been demonstrated as a multipotent bioflavonoid with great potential for the prevention and treatment of cancer. Apoptosis is thought to be an important response to most chemotherapeutic agents in leukemia cells. However, the underlying mechanism of induction of apoptosis by quercetin involving epigenetic regulation is poorly understood. In the present study, by evaluation of fragmentation of DNA, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and procaspases, we found that quercetin was able to induce apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Quercetin triggered the extrinsic apoptosis pathway through activation of caspase-8 and induction of Bid cleavage, Bax conformation change and cytochrome c release. Furthermore, quercetin induced Fas ligand (FasL) expression involving activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Jun N-terminus kinase (JNK) signaling pathways. In addition to activation of c-Jun, quercetin increased histone H3 acetylation which resulted in the promotion of the expression of FasL. Quercetin exhibited potential for the activation of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and the inhibition of histone deacetyltransferase (HADC), both of which contributed to histone acetylation. However, only the activation effect on HAT was associated with the ERK and JNK pathway. These results demonstrated that quercetin induced FasL-related apoptosis by transactivation through activation of c-jun/AP-1 and promotion of histone H3 acetylation in HL-60 cells.

  1. Structural changes in femoral bone microstructure of female rabbits after intramuscular administration of quercetin.

    PubMed

    Babosova, Ramona; Duranova, Hana; Omelka, Radoslav; Kovacova, Veronika; Adamkovicova, Maria; Grosskopf, Birgit; Capcarova, Marcela; Martiniakova, Monika

    2016-06-29

    Quercetin is one of the best known flavonoids being present in a variety of fruits and vegetables. It has cardioprotective, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties. Some studies suggest that quercetin has protective effects on bone. However, its influence on qualitative and quantitative histological characteristics of compact bone is still unknown. In our study, 12 clinically healthy five-month-old female rabbits were divided into four groups of three animals each. Quercetin was applied intramuscularly in various concentrations; 10 µg/kg body weight (bw) in the E1 group, 100 µg/kg bw in the E2 group, and 1000 µg/kg bw in the E3 group for 90 days, 3 times per week. Three rabbits without exposure to quercetin served as a control (C) group. Differences in femoral bone microstructure among groups were evaluated. Qualitative histological characteristics of compact bone differed between rabbits from the E1 and E2 groups. Primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was not found in some areas near the endosteal surface due to increased endocortical bone resorption. In addition, periosteal border of rabbits from the E1 group was composed of a thicker layer of primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue than in the other groups. In all groups of rabbits administered quercetin, a lower density of secondary osteons was observed. Histomorphometrical evaluations showed significantly decreased sizes of the primary osteons' vascular canals in individuals from the E1 and E2 groups. Secondary osteons were significantly smaller in rabbits from the E1, E2, E3 groups when compared to the C group. Cortical bone thickness was significantly increased in females from the E1 and E2 groups. The results indicate that quercetin has not only a positive dose-response on qualitative and quantitative histological characteristics of the compact bone of female rabbits as it would be expected.

  2. Jurkat/A4 cells with multidrug resistance exhibit reduced sensitivity to quercetin.

    PubMed

    Philchenkov, A; Zavelevich, M; Savinska, L; Blokhin, D

    2010-07-01

    While multidrug resistance of cancer cells is a well-known phenomenon, little is known on the cross resistance between cytotoxic chemotherapeutical agents and unrelated substances such as natural flavonoids. To compare the effects of cytotoxic drug, vepeside and natural flavonoid, quercetin in Jurkat cells and their multidrug-resistant subline Jurkat/A4, in particular to analyze the effector mechanisms of apoptosis and the profiles of several pro- and antiapoptotic proteins in these cells upon exposure to vepeside or quercetin. Apoptosis and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage were assessed by flow cytometry. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins was analyzed by Western blotting. Jurkat/A4 cells are less sensitive to antiproliferative effects of quercetin as compared with the parental Jurkat cell line. While vepeside as well as quercetin initially induces apoptosis in both cell lines, the following survival of the exposed cells is essentially different. In resistant Jurkat/A4 cells, vepeside or quercetin treatment activates significantly less caspase-9 and -3 as compared with that in the parental cells. The expression of Bad and BNip1 proteins in Jurkat/A4 cells is lower than in the parental cell line. At the same time, XIAP and CAS levels in Jurkat/A4 cells increase. Upon apoptosis induction, XIAP and CAS levels in Jurkat cells decrease, this effect being negligible in resistant cells. Multidrug-resistant Jurkat/A4 cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to cytotoxic effects of quercetin. The expression profile of Jurkat/A4 cells is characterized by the increased levels of XIAP and CAS representing the endogenous inhibitors of apoptosis.

  3. Increases in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and its promoters after transient forebrain ischemia in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, T; Iihara, K; Hashimoto, N; Nishijima, T; Taniguchi, T

    1998-08-01

    Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a role in the mechanism of neuronal cell death after cerebral ischemia. We investigated the changes in levels of mRNAs encoding BDNF and its promoters in the rat brain after transient forebrain ischemia. Transient forebrain ischemia was induced by occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries and systemic hypotension for 8 min. The alterations in BDNF gene expression in the hippocampus and in the cerebral cortex were examined by in situ hybridization using a mouse BDNF cDNA probe and cDNA probes including exon-specific promoters. BDNF transcripts were rapidly enhanced after the ischemic insult, both in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex. NBQX suppressed the enhanced gene expression of BDNF markedly in the dentate gyrus (DG). In contrast, MK-801 had little effect on BDNF expression. In the piriform cortex, MK-801 or NBQX reduced the expression only moderately. After the ischemic insult, promoter specific BDNF 5'-exon I and exon III were increased remarkably in the DG. The increase in exon I in DG was suppressed partially by MK-801 and NBQX, while the increase in exon III in CA3 was suppressed by MK-801 but that in DG was not suppressed by either antagonist. In the piriform cortex, exon III was increased remarkably and this increase was not influenced by either agonist. These results suggest that the gene expression of BDNF was enhanced by transient ischemia both in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex and that the cerebral ischemia stimulated at least two different promoter- and neuron type-specific pathways regulating expression of the BDNF gene mediated by glutamate receptors of non-NMDA type and NMDA type.

  4. Amelioration of intracellular stress and reduction of neural tube defects in embryos of diabetic mice by phytochemical quercetin

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lixue; Tan, Chengyu; Meng, Fantong; Liu, Peiyan; Reece, E. Albert; Zhao, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus in early pregnancy causes birth defects, including neural tube defects (NTDs). Hyperglycemia increases production of nitric oxide (NO) through NO synthase 2 (Nos2) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), generating nitrosative and oxidative stress conditions in the embryo. The present study aimed to target nitrosative stress using a naturally occurring Nos2 inhibitor, quercetin, to prevent NTDs in the embryos of diabetic mice. Daily administration of quercetin to diabetic pregnant mice during the hyperglycemia-susceptible period of organogenesis significantly reduced NTDs and cell apoptosis in the embryos, compared with those of vehicle-treated diabetic pregnant mice. Using HPLC-coupled ESI-MS/MS, quercetin metabolites, including methylated and sulfonylated derivatives, were detected in the conceptuses. The methylated metabolite, 3-O-methylquercetin, was shown to reduce ROS level in embryonic stem cells cultured in high glucose. Quercetin treatment decreased the levels of Nos2 expression, protein nitrosylation, and protein nitration, alleviating nitrosative stress. Quercetin increased the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, and reduced the levels of oxidative stress markers. Expression of genes of redox regulating enzymes and DNA damage repair factors was upregulated. Our study demonstrates that quercetin ameliorates intracellular stresses, regulates gene expression, and reduces embryonic malformations in diabetic pregnancy. PMID:26887929

  5. Quercetin, an in vitro inhibitor of CYP3A, does not contribute to the interaction between nifedipine and grapefruit juice.

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, J; McKinstry, C; Renwick, A G; Dirnhuber, M; Waller, D G; George, C F

    1993-01-01

    Quercetin, a flavonoid present in various fruits, is a potent in vitro inhibitor of CYP3A. Its role in the reported interaction between grapefruit juice and nifedipine has been determined in vivo in humans. Eight healthy volunteers were given in random order 10 mg nifedipine orally, either alone or with 200 ml double strength grapefruit juice, or with 400 mg quercetin. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for nifedipine with grapefruit juice (mean 320 ng ml(-1) h) was increased significantly (P < 0.01) compared with the AUC when nifedipine was given alone (mean 218 ng ml(-1) h). The time to peak plasma concentration for nifedipine with grapefruit juice (1.5 h) was also increased (P < 0.05) compared with control (0.5 h) suggesting delayed absorption. Although quercetin delayed the time to peak nifedipine concentration (1.3 h) it did not alter the AUC of either the parent drug (mean 209 ng ml(-1) h) or its first-pass metabolite. The results suggest that quercetin does not contribute to the effects of grapefruit juice (which contains <10 mg of quercetin 200 ml(-1)) on the metabolism of nifedipine. Oral doses of quercetin, similar to those possible from the ingestion of other fruits such as strawberries, do not produce in vivo inhibition of CYP3A mediated metabolism of nifedipine. PMID:12959295

  6. Protective effect of quercetin on pig intestinal integrity after transport stress is associated with regulation oxidative status and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, Yi; WEI, Hong Kui; XIANG, Quan-Hang; WANG, Jun; ZHOU, Yuan-Fei; PENG, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of quercetin supplementation on intestinal integrity, intestinal reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and intestinal inflammation in pigs under transport stress. A total of 170 finishing pigs were randomly assigned into two groups. Animals in the control group consumed a basal diet, while those in the treatment group consumed the same diet supplemented with 25 mg quercetin per kg feed. After a 4-week period, pigs were transported for 5 hr. The quercetin-supplemented pigs showed decreased serum levels of endotoxin (P<0.05), increased height of jejunum villi (P<0.05), and increased occludin and zonula occudens-1 (ZO-1) mRNA expression in the jejunum (P<0.05). These parameters are associated with intestinal health and were markedly improved by quercetin supplementation. Pigs consuming the quercetin-supplemented diet had lower intestinal levels of ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) compared with the control group (P<0.05). This finding coincided with greater inhibition of the innate immune system (P<0.05), including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein kinase B (Akt) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways, as well as decreased expression of inflammatory cytokines in the jejunum. These results indicate that quercetin alleviates intestinal injury in pigs during transport, probably through modulation of intestinal oxidative status and inflammation. PMID:27301842

  7. Quercetin Improves Neurobehavioral Performance Through Restoration of Brain Antioxidant Status and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Manganese-Treated Rats.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ego, Valerie C; Subair, Temitayo I; Oyediran, Oluwasetemi; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of quercetin by assessing the biochemical and behavioral characteristics in rats sub-chronically treated with manganese alone at 15 mg/kg body weight or orally co-treated with quercetin at 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Locomotor behavior was monitored using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel environment whereas the brain regions namely the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats were processed for biochemical analyses. Results indicated that co-treatment with quercetin significantly (p < 0.05) prevented manganese-induced locomotor and motor deficits specifically the decrease in total distance travelled, total body rotation, maximum speed, absolute turn angle as well as the increase in time of immobility and grooming. The improvement in the neurobehavioral performance of manganese-treated rats following quercetin co-treatment was confirmed by track and occupancy plot analyses. Moreover, quercetin assuaged manganese-induced decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities and the increase in acetylcholinesterase activity, hydrogen peroxide generation and lipid peroxidation levels in the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats. Taken together, quercetin mechanisms of ameliorating manganese-induced neurotoxicity is associated with restoration of acetylcholinesterase activity, augmentation of redox status and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brain of rats.

  8. TOPAZ: The transient one-dimensional pipe flow analyzer: An update on code improvements and increased capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.S.

    1987-09-01

    TOPAZ is a ''user-friendly'' computer code for modeling the one-dimensional, transient physics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. This report, the fourth in a series of reports documenting TOPAZ, discusses coding improvements and the addition of new capabilities. These improvements make the current version of TOPAZ considerably more versatile than the original version which was distributed last year. For example, the new version does not restrict the user to modeling only hydrogen and helium isotope flows. Users now have the capability of modeling arbitrary gas mixture flows. In addition users may define time-dependent functions for mass generation, energy deposition, flow area, and maximum integration time step. Parallel flow paths and flows through channels having noncircular cross-sections may now be simulated. Improvements in TOPAZ mesh generation have been made which permit users to add additional ''plumbing'' to existing models without renumbering the mesh. 7 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. A Transient Increase in Eosinophils is Associated with Prolonged Survival in Men with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Who Receive Sipuleucel-T

    PubMed Central

    McNeel, Douglas G.; Gardner, Thomas A.; Higano, Celestia S.; Kantoff, Philip W.; Small, Eric J.; Wener, Mark H.; Sims, Robert B.; DeVries, Todd; Sheikh, Nadeem A.; Dreicer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy used to treat asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Traditional short-term indicators of clinical response commonly used with chemotherapy have not correlated with survival in patients treated with sipuleucel-T. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate laboratory parameters as possible early biomarkers associated with clinical benefit following sipuleucel-T treatment. Patients treated with sipuleucel-T from 3 randomized, controlled, phase III clinical trials in mCRPC were considered: IMPACT (NCT00065442, n = 512), D9901 (NCT00005947, n = 127), and D9902A (NCT01133704, n = 98). Patients from these trials were included in this study if their samples were analyzed by the central laboratory, and if data were available from baseline and ≥1 post-treatment time point (n = 377). We found that sipuleucel-T treatment was associated with a transient increase in serum eosinophil count at week 6 that resolved by week 14 in 28% of patients (105/377). This eosinophil increase correlated with induced immune response, longer prostate cancer-specific survival (HR = 0.713; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.525–0.970; P = 0.031) and trend in overall survival (HR = 0.753; 95% CI, 0.563–1.008; P = 0.057). Median serum globulin protein levels also increased transiently, which was associated with antigen-specific antibody responses; however, this did not correlate with longer survival. We conclude that transient increases in eosinophils at week 6 may be a useful, objective, short-term indicator of global immune activation and survival benefit with sipuleucel-T in patients with mCRPC. This observation warrants prospective evaluation in future clinical trials. PMID:25189164

  10. A transient increase in eosinophils is associated with prolonged survival in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who receive sipuleucel-T.

    PubMed

    McNeel, Douglas G; Gardner, Thomas A; Higano, Celestia S; Kantoff, Philip W; Small, Eric J; Wener, Mark H; Sims, Robert B; DeVries, Todd; Sheikh, Nadeem A; Dreicer, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy used to treat asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Traditional short-term indicators of clinical response commonly used with chemotherapy have not correlated with survival in patients treated with sipuleucel-T. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate laboratory parameters as possible early biomarkers associated with clinical benefit following sipuleucel-T treatment. Patients treated with sipuleucel-T from three randomized, controlled, phase III clinical trials in mCRPC were considered: IMPACT (NCT00065442; n = 512), D9901 (NCT00005947; n = 127), and D9902A (NCT01133704; n = 98). Patients from these trials were included in this study if their samples were analyzed by the central laboratory and if data were available from baseline and ≥ 1 posttreatment time point (n = 377). We found that sipuleucel-T treatment was associated with a transient increase in serum eosinophil count at week 6 that resolved by week 14 in 28% of patients (105 of 377). This eosinophil increase correlated with induced immune response, longer prostate cancer-specific survival [HR, 0.713; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.525-0.970; P = 0.031], and a trend in overall survival (HR, 0.753; 95% CI, 0.563-1.008; P = 0.057). Median serum globulin protein levels also increased transiently, which was associated with antigen-specific antibody responses; however, this finding did not correlate with longer survival. We conclude that transient increases in eosinophils at week 6 may be a useful, objective, short-term indicator of global immune activation and survival benefit with sipuleucel-T in patients with mCRPC. This observation warrants prospective evaluation in future clinical trials.

  11. Enhancement of oral bioavailability of rivastigmine with quercetin nanoparticles by inhibiting CYP3A4 and esterases.

    PubMed

    Palle, Suresh; Neerati, Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Quercetin is a well-known flavonoid, has pharmacokinetic interaction with ester drugs due to its capability of esterase inhibition in the gut and liver. However, the interaction between quercetin nanoparticles (NQC) and rivastigmine has not been reported. Hence, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of quercetin alone and its nanoparticles on the pharmacokinetics of rivastigmine in rats. NQC prepared by antisolvent precipitation method. The influence of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of rivastigmine was evaluated by following methods i.e. in vitro inhibitory effect on esterase enzyme in rat liver microsomes and in vitro assessment of CYP3A activity using erythromycin-N-demethylase (EMD) assay. To confirm these findings, an in vivo pharmacokinetic study of orally administered rivastigmine in rats with quercetin and NQC pretreatments was performed. The size of NQC was observed below 300nm. Quercetin significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the esterase-mediated metabolism of rivastigmine. In in vitro assessment of CYP3A activity model the erythromycin-N-demethylation (EMD) levels in quercetin treated group were significantly reduced (p<0.05). Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0- ∞ of rivastigmine were found to be increased in quercetin and NQC pretreated groups. Further, the CL/F and Vd/F of rivastigmine were significantly decreased. The results revealed that enhanced bioavailability of rivastigmine might be caused by the combination of their effects due to CYP3A and esterase inhibition, Therefore, concomitant administration of NQC influences the bioavailability of rivastigmine and also has synergetic effect in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Quercetin promotes the apoptosis of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis by upregulating lncRNA MALAT1.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fang; Zhu, Lihua; Lv, Haozhe; Pei, Chunpeng

    2016-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) are the resident mesenchymal cells of synovial joints. Quercetin is a dietary antioxidant. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanisms responsible for the quercetin-induced apoptosis of FLS from patients with RA (termed RAFLS). RAFLS viability was determined following treatent of the cells with or without quercetin using the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The apoptosis of the RAFLS was analyzed using the Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) apoptosis detection kit I. The results revealed that RAFLS viability decreased and apoptosis increased in following treatment with quercetin. The differentially expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were screened and marked by PCR array following treatment with quercetin. The expression levels of the screened lncRNAs were then determined and compared in the cells treated with or without quercetin by quantitative PCR. The lncRNA metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) was finally selected. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was then used to knock down the expression of MALAT1 in order to determine the role of MALAT1 in the quercetin-induced apoptosis of RAFLS. The results revealed that the knockdown of MALAT1 inhibited RAFLS apoptosis. At the same time, the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was significantly decreased in the cells in which MALAT1 was knocked down. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway was activated; this activation is known to be associated with enhanced cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis. The findings of our study indicate that quercetin promotes RAFLS apoptosis by upregulating lncRNA MALAT1, and that MALAT1 induces apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  13. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 with dietary quercetin reduces obesity-induced hepatic inflammation through macrophage phenotype switching

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chu-Sook; Choi, Hye-Seon; Joe, Yeonsoo; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Obesity-induced steatohepatitis accompanied by activated hepatic macrophages/Kupffer cells facilitates the progression of hepatic fibrinogenesis and exacerbates metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance. Heme oxyganase-1 (HO-1) modulates tissue macrophage phenotypes and thus is implicated in protection against inflammatory diseases. Here, we show that the flavonoid quercetin reduces obesity-induced hepatic inflammation by inducing HO-1, which promotes hepatic macrophage polarization in favor of the M2 phenotype. MATERIALS/METHODS Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a regular diet (RD), high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD supplemented with quercetin (HF+Que, 0.5g/kg diet) for nine weeks. Inflammatory cytokines and macrophage markers were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. HO-1 protein was measured by Western blotting. RESULTS Quercetin supplementation decreased levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-6) and increased that of the anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in the livers of HFD-fed mice. This was accompanied by upregulation of M2 macrophage marker genes (Arg-1, Mrc1) and downregulation of M1 macrophage marker genes (TNFα, NOS2). In co-cultures of lipid-laden hepatocytes and macrophages, treatment with quercetin induced HO-1 in the macrophages, markedly suppressed expression of M1 macrophage marker genes, and reduced release of MCP-1. Moreover, these effects of quercetin were blunted by an HO-1 inhibitor and deficiency of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in macrophages. CONCLUSIONS Quercetin reduces obesity-induced hepatic inflammation by promoting macrophage phenotype switching. The beneficial effect of quercetin is associated with Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction. Quercetin may be a useful dietary factor for protecting against obesity-induced steatohepatitis. PMID:27909560

  14. Protein expression profiling identifies molecular targets of quercetin as a major dietary flavonoid in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Uwe; Herzog, Angelika; Kuntz, Sabine; Daniel, Hannelore

    2004-07-01

    A high dietary intake of plant foods is thought to contribute to the prevention of colorectal cancers in humans and flavonoids as part of such a diet are considered to contribute to those protective effects. Quercetin is a major dietary flavonoid consumed with a diet rich in onions, tea, and apples. We used HT-29 human colon cancer cells and investigated the effects of quercetin on proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation as processes shown to be disregulated during cancer development. To identify the cellular targets of quercetin action, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed and proteins altered in expression level after quercetin exposure of cells were identified by mass spectrometry of peptide fragments generated by tryptic digestion. Quercetin inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells with an IC(50)-value of 81.2 +/- 6.6 microM. Cell differentiation based on surface expression of alkaline phosphatase was enhanced 4-fold and the activity of the pro-apoptotic effector caspase-3 increased 3-fold. Those effects were associated with the regulation of heat-shock proteins and annexins shown to both play a crucial role in the process of apoptosis. Cytoskeletal caspase substrates were found as regulated as well and various proteins involved in intermediary metabolism and in gene regulation showed altered steady-state expression levels upon quercetin treatment of cells. In conclusion, quercetin alters the levels of a variety of proteins involved in growth, differentiation, and apoptosis of colon cancer cells. Their identification as molecular targets of quercetin may explain the anti-cancer activities of this flavonoid.

  15. TRAIL apoptosis is enhanced by quercetin through Akt dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Yong J

    2007-03-01

    TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapy that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, many neoplasms are resistant to TRAIL by mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here we demonstrated that human prostate cancer cells, but not normal prostate cells, are dramatically sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and caspase activation by quercetin. Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive plant flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells. We have shown that quercetin can potentiate TRAIL-induced apoptotic death. Human prostate adenocarcinoma DU-145 and LNCaP cells were treated with various concentrations of TRAIL (10-200 ng/ml) and/or quercetin (10-200 microM) for 4 h. Quercetin, which caused no cytotoxicity by itself, promoted TRAIL-induced apoptosis. The TRAIL-mediated activation of caspase, and PARP (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase) cleavage were both enhanced by quercetin. Western blot analysis showed that combined treatment with TRAIL and quercetin did not change the levels of TRAIL receptors (death receptors DR4 and DR5, and DcR2 (decoy receptor 2)) or anti-apoptotic proteins (FLICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), and Bcl-2). However, quercetin promoted the dephosphorylation of Akt. Quercetin-induced potent inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Taken together, the present studies suggest that quercetin enhances TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity by activating caspases and inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt.

  16. Quercetin reverses experimental cirrhosis by immunomodulation of the proinflammatory and profibrotic processes.

    PubMed

    Casas-Grajales, Sael; Vázquez-Flores, Luis F; Ramos-Tovar, Erika; Hernández-Aquino, Erika; Flores-Beltrán, Rosa E; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Camacho, Javier; Shibayama, Mineko; Tsutsumi, Víctor; Muriel, Pablo

    2017-08-12

    The ability of quercetin to reverse an established cirrhosis has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of this flavonoid in reversing experimental cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by intraperitoneal administration of TAA (200 mg/kg of body weight) three times per week for 8 weeks or by intraperitoneal petrolatum-CCl4 (400 mg/kg of body weight) administration three times per week for 8 weeks. To determine the capacity of quercetin to prevent liver fibrosis, the flavonoid (50 mg/kg of body weight, p.o.) was administered daily to rats during the CCl4 or TAA treatment. To evaluate the ability of quercetin to reverse the previously induced cirrhosis, we first treated rats with CCl4 for 8 weeks, as previously described and then the flavonoid was administered for four more weeks. We found that the liver anti-inflammatory and antinecrotic effects of quercetin are associated with its antioxidant properties, to the ability of the flavonoid to block NF-κB activation and in consequence to reduce cytokine IL-1. The ability of quercetin to reverse fibrosis may be associated with the capacity of the flavonoid to decrease TGF-β levels, hepatic stellate cell activation, and to promote degradation of the ECM by increasing metalloproteinases. The main conclusion is that quercetin, in addition to its liver protective activity against TAA chronic intoxication, is also capable of reversing a well-stablished cirrhosis by blocking the prooxidant processes and by downregulating the inflammatory and profibrotic responses. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  17. Different cardiovascular protective effects of quercetin administered orally or intraperitoneally in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Galindo, P; González-Manzano, S; Zarzuelo, M J; Gómez-Guzmán, M; Quintela, A M; González-Paramás, A; Santos-Buelga, C; Pérez-Vizcaíno, F; Duarte, J; Jiménez, R

    2012-06-01

    We tested whether the administration procedure of quercetin affects its metabolite profile and antihypertensive activity. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly assigned to four experimental treatments: (1) 1 mL of 1% methylcellulose by oral gavage and 2% DMSO i.p. (control group); (2) 10 mg kg⁻¹ quercetin by oral gavage once daily and 2% DMSO i.p.; (3) 10 mg kg⁻¹ quercetin by oral gavage divided in two daily doses (5 + 5 at 12 h intervals) and 2% DMSO i.p.; (4) 1 mL of 1% methylcellulose by oral gavage and 10 mg kg⁻¹ quercetin i.p. injection. Rats were treated daily for 5 weeks. Single dose and two daily doses, in a long-term oral treatment were equally efficient, both restoring the impaired aortic endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and reducing mesenteric contractile response to phenylephrine, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and heart and kidney hypertrophy. Attenuation of vascular NADPH oxidase-driven O₂⁻ production was also found in orally treated rats. Intraperitoneal administration reduced, to lesser extent than oral administration, the increased systolic blood pressure, being without effect to the endothelial dysfunction and vascular oxidative stress. In contrast, greater levels of metabolites were quantified following intraperitoneal compared to oral administration at any time point, except for higher plasma methylated quercetin aglycone in oral as compared to intraperitoneal administration at 2 but not at 8 h. In conclusion, oral quercetin was superior to intraperitoneal administration for the protection from cardiovascular complications in SHR. No differences were found between the oral administration as a single daily dose or divided into two daily doses.

  18. Quercetin ameliorates peripheral nerve ischemia-reperfusion injury through the NF-kappa B pathway.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Mohammadreza; Khayat, Zahra Khanipour; Anbari, Khatereh; Obidavi, Zia; Varzi, Alimohammad; Boroujeni, Mandana Beigi; Alipour, Mohsen; Niapoor, Ali; Gharravi, Anneh Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of quercetin against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury induced in the sciatic nerve of the rat. Quercetin (20 mg/kg) was given during ischemia just before reperfusion. Four groups of rats (Q+IR3, Q+IR7, Q+IR14, and Q+IR28) received 3, 7, 14, and 28 days of reperfusion, respectively, after the intraperitoneal injection of quercetin. After reperfusion, a behavioral test was performed and the sciatic functional index was calculated. Each sciatic nerve was stained to check for edema and ischemic fiber degeneration. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect TNF-alpha and NF-kappa B, and TUNEL staining was carried out to detect apoptosis. The Q+IR3, Q+IR7, and Q+IR14 groups showed significantly increased behavioral scores and ameliorated sciatic functional index values compared to IR-injured rats that received vehicle alone during ischemia and then the same period of reperfusion. The Q+IR3, Q+IR7, Q+IR14, and Q+IR28 groups presented significant ischemic fiber degeneration (IFD), TNF-alpha expression, and apoptosis as compared with the IR-injured and perfused rats that did not receive quercetin. The Q+IR3, Q+IR7, and Q+IR28 groups also exhibited significantly decreased NF-kappa B expression (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.026) as compared with the IR-injured rats that were perfused but did not receive quercetin. These results imply that quercetin may be beneficial in the treatment of sciatic IR injury because of its antiapoptotic and antiinflammatory effects and its ability to decrease the expression of NF-kappa B.

  19. Chronic administration of quercetin prevent spatial learning and memory deficits provoked by chronic stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Hadis Said; Goudarzi, Iran; Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Abrari, Kataneh; Elahdadi Salmani, Mahmoud

    2014-08-15

    There are several reports that cognitive impairment is observed in stress related disorders and chronic stress impairs learning and memory. However, very few studies have looked into the possible ways of preventing this stress-induced deficit. This research study was conducted to evaluate the effects of quercetin, a natural flavonoid, with strong antioxidant and free radical scavenger properties, on chronic stress induced learning and memory deficits and oxidative stress in hippocampus. For chronic stress, rats were restrained daily for 6h/day (from 9:00 to 15:00) for 21 days in well-ventilated plexiglass tubes without access to food and water. The animals were injected with quercetin or vehicle 60 min before restraint stress over a period of 21 days. Then, rats trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. On day 28, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. In addition, oxidative stress markers in the hippocampus were evaluated. Results of this study demonstrated that chronic stress exposure rats exhibited higher escape latency during training trials and reduced time spent in target quadrant, higher escape location latency and average proximity in probe trial test. Quercetin (50mg/kg) treatment during restraint stress (21 days) markedly decreased escape latency and increased time spent in target quadrant during Morris water maze task. In comparison to vehicle treated group, chronic-stress group had significantly higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, significantly higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and significantly lower glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the hippocampus. Quercetin treatment caused a significant decrease in the hippocampus MDA levels and improves SOD and GPx activities in stressed animals. Finally, quercetin significantly decreased plasma corticosterone levels in stressed animals. Based on results of this study, chronic stress has detrimental effects on learning and memory and quercetin treatment

  20. AU-1 from Agavaceae plants causes transient increase in p21/Cip1 expression in renal adenocarcinoma ACHN cells in an miR-34-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Tomofumi; Yokosuka, Akihito; Higurashi, Hideaki; Yokokawa, Rina; Sakurai, Ryo; Harashima, Wataru; Miki, Yuichi; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Hayakawa, Makio

    2017-01-01

    Here, we show that AU-1, spirostanol saponin isolated from Agavaceae plants, causes a transient increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p21/Cip1 through the upregulation of miRNAs, miR-34 and miR-21. AU-1 stimulated p21/Cip1 expression without exerting cytotoxicity against different types of carcinoma cell lines. In renal adenocarcinoma ACHN cells, AU-1 transiently elevated the expression level of p21/Cip1 protein without marked increases in p21/Cip1 mRNA levels. Rapid and transient increases in miR-34 and miR-21, both of which are known to upregulate p21/Cip1, were observed in AU-1-treated cells. Inhibitor for miR-34 and for miR-21 significantly blocked the AU-1-caused increase in p21/Cip1, indicating that elevation of p21/Cip1 protein by AU-1 is dependent on these microRNAs. We further clarified that NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT1, a direct target of miR-34, is decreased by the treatment with AU-1. Furthermore, we found that SIRT1-knockdown increases p21/Cip1 protein levels in an miR-21-dependent manner. On the other hand, ectopic expression of p21/Cip1 resulted in the lowered expression of miR-34 and miR-21, suggesting that reciprocal regulation exists between p21/Cip1 and these miRNAs. We propose that the following feedback network composed of miR-34/SIRT1/miR-21/p21 is triggered by the treatment with AU-1: in cells treated with AU-1, transient elevation of miR-34 leads to the downregulation of SIRT1, thereby miR-21 is freed from SIRT1-dependent suppression. Then, elevated miR-21 upregulates p21/Cip1 protein, followed by the suppression of miR-34 expression.

  1. Metabonomic analysis of quercetin against the toxicity of chronic exposure to a mixture of four organophosphate pesticides in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Cao, Can; Zeng, Yan; Shi, Haidan; Yang, Shuang; Bao, Wei; Qi, Lei; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Xiujun

    2016-09-01

    1. A metabonomics approach was performed to investigate the effect of quercetin on the toxicity of chronic exposure to a mixture of four organophosphate pesticides (OPs) at their corresponding no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL). The rats were divided into six groups (n = 10/group): control, two different doses of quercetin, OPs mixture and different doses of quercetin plus OPs mixture-treated groups. 2. Nine metabolites, including two quercetin metabolites and seven endogenous metabolites were identified in plasma. The intensities of metabolites significantly changed in the OP mixture-treated group compared with the control group (p < 0.01), such as lysoPE (16:0/0:0), lysoPC (17:0/0:0), lysoPC (15:0/0:0) and 4-pyridoxic acid, significantly increased; by contrast, the intensities of arachidonic acid and citric acid significantly decreased. Anomalous intensity changes in aforementioned metabolites were alleviated in the OP mixture plus 50 mg/kgċbw/d quercetin-treated group compared with the OP mixture-treated group (p < 0.05). 3. The results indicated that quercetin elicited partial protective effects against the toxicity induced by a mixture of OPs, which include regulation of lipid metabolism, improvement of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle disorders, enhancement of antioxidant defence system to protect the liver.

  2. Acute, 28days sub acute and genotoxic profiling of Quercetin-Magnesium complex in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Nilanjan; Sandur, Rajendra; Ghosh, Deepanwita; Roy, Souvik; Janadri, Suresh

    2017-02-01

    Quercetin-Magnesium complex is one of the youngest alkaline rare earth metal (Magnesium) complexes with flavonoids (Quercetin) in organo-metalic family. Earlier studies describe the details of the complex formation, characterization and antioxidant study of the complex but toxicity profile is still under darkness. The present study was taken up to investigate the oral acute toxicity, 28days repeated oral sub-acute toxicity study and genotoxicity study of Quercetin-Magnesium complex in Swiss albino mice. Quercetin-Magnesium complex showed mortality at a dose of 185mg/kg in the Swiss albino mice. In 28days repeated oral toxicity study, Quercetin-Magnesium complex was administered to both sex of Swiss albino mice at dose levels of 150, 130 and 100mg/kg body weight respectively. Where 150mg/kg dose shows increased levels of white blood cells and changes in total protein, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histopathological study of Quercetin-Magnesium complex shows minor structural alteration in kidney at 150mg/kg dose. No observed toxic level found in 130mg/kg or below doses. No genotoxic effect found in any doses of the complex. Therefore 130mg/kg or below dose level could be better for further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Quercetin decreases high-fat diet induced body weight gain and accumulation of hepatic and circulating lipids in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoek-van den Hil, E F; van Schothorst, E M; van der Stelt, I; Swarts, H J M; Venema, D; Sailer, M; Vervoort, J J M; Hollman, P C H; Rietjens, I M C M; Keijer, J

    2014-09-01

    Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased circulating lipid levels and hepatic lipid accumulation are known risk factors for CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice with high-fat diet induced body weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation. Adult male mice received a 40 energy% high-fat diet without or with supplementation of 0.33 % (w/w) quercetin for 12 weeks. Body weight gain was 29 % lower in quercetin fed mice (p < 0.01), while the energy intake was not significantly different. Quercetin supplementation lowered hepatic lipid accumulation to 29 % of the amount present in the control mice (p < 0.01). (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance serum lipid profiling revealed that the supplementation significantly lowered serum lipid levels. Global gene expression profiling of liver showed that cytochrome P450 2b (Cyp2b) genes, key target genes of the transcription factor constitutive androstane receptor (Car; official symbol Nr1i3), were downregulated. Quercetin decreased high-fat diet induced body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation and serum lipid levels. This was accompanied by regulation of cytochrome P450 2b genes in liver, which are possibly under transcriptional control of CAR. The quercetin effects are likely dependent on the fat content of the diet.

  4. Development of nanosuspension formulation for oral delivery of quercetin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Gao, Yan; Pei, Yan; Guo, Chenyu; Li, Houli; Cao, Fengliang; Yu, Aihua; Zhai, Guangxi

    2010-08-01

    With the aim to enhance dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of quercetin, a poorly water-soluble drug, quercetin loaded nanosuspension (QT-NS) was fabricated by a tandem of nano-precipitation (NP) and high pressure homogenization (HPH) method. The formulation of nanosuspension was optimized by screening different stabilizers. Characterization of the original QT powder and QT-NS was carried out by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dissolution tests. QT-NS presented a sphere-like shape under transmission electron microscopy with an average diameter of 393.5 nm and the zeta potential of -35.75 mV. XRD study suggested that QT was maintained in the state of crystalline during the fabrication process. The solubility of QT in nanosuspension was about 70-fold that of crude QT, and the dissolution of QT from QT-NS was increased as compared to that of the original QT powder. In plasma, QT-NS exhibited a significant reduction of clearance rate (2 +/- 0.1 mL/min vs. 15 +/- 4 mL/min) and increase of AUC(0-infinity), (53995 +/- 4126 microg/mL x min versus 3470 +/- 110.1 microg/mL x min) compared with the control suspension. Our results showed that the developed nanosuspension formulation had a great potential as a possible formulation of the poorly water-soluble QT to enhance the bioavailability.

  5. Differential protein expression of peroxiredoxin I and II by benzo(a)pyrene and quercetin treatment in 22Rv1 and PrEC prostate cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhary, Amit; Pechan, Tibor; Willett, Kristine L. . E-mail: kwillett@olemiss.edu

    2007-04-15

    Mechanisms of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-mediated toxicity and chemopreventative potential of quercetin in prostate cancer are poorly understood. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to map the differences in protein expression in BaP (1 {mu}M)- and quercetin (5 {mu}M)-treated 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells. As compared to DMSO, 26 proteins in BaP and 41 proteins in quercetin were found to be differentially expressed ({+-} 2-fold). Western blots confirmed that BaP increased peroxiredoxin (Prx) Prx I and decreased Prx II in 22Rv1 cells. Similar results were found in PrEC normal prostate epithelial cells. Quercetin (up to 10 {mu}M) upregulated Prx II without altering Prx I levels in 22Rv1 cells whereas in PrEC cells, it did not alter the constitutive protein expression of Prx I or II. The lack of quercetin-mediated changes in Prx expression suggests that quercetin does not interfere with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels, and thus may have no deleterious effect in normal prostate cells. Quercetin inhibited both BaP-mediated effects on Prx I and II in 22Rv1 cells. In PrEC cells, quercetin inhibited BaP-mediated upregulation of Prx I and had tendency to neutralize BaP-mediated downregulation of Prx II. Quercetin also inhibited BaP-induced concentrations of reactive oxygen species in both 22Rv1 and PrEC cells. These results suggest that Prx I and II may be involved in BaP-mediated toxicity and the potential chemopreventative mechanisms of quercetin.

  6. Quercetin ameliorates paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain by stabilizing mast cells, and subsequently blocking PKCε-dependent activation of TRPV1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Zan, Yan; Wang, Zai-jie Jim; Hu, Xiao-yu; Huang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Severe painful sensory neuropathy often occurs during paclitaxel chemotherapy. Since paclitaxel can activate mast cell and basophils, whereas quercetin, a polyphenolic flavonoid contained in various plants, which can specifically inhibit histamine release as a mast cell stabilizer. In this study we explore whether quercetin could ameliorate paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Quercetin inhibition on histamine release was validated in vitro by detecting histamine release from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells stimulated with paclitaxel (10 μmol/L). In the in vivo experiments, rats and mice received quercetin (20, 40 mg·kg-1·d-1) for 40 and 12 d, respectively. Meanwhile, the animals were injected with paclitaxel (2 mg/kg, ip) four times on d 1, 3, 5 and 7. Heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were evaluated at the different time points. The animals were euthanized and spinal cords and dorsal root ganglions were harvested for analyzing PKCε and TRPV1 expression levels. The plasma histamine levels were assessed in rats on d 31. Results: Pretreatment with quercetin (3, 10, 30 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited excessive histamine release from paclitaxel-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells in vitro, and quercetin administration significantly suppressed the high plasma histamine levels in paclitaxel-treated rats. Quercetin administration dose-dependently raised the thresholds for heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in paclitaxel-treated rats and mice. Furthermore, quercetin administration dose-dependently suppressed the increased expression levels of PKCε and TRPV1 in the spinal cords and DRGs of paclitaxel-treated rats and mice. Moreover, quercetin administration may inhibited the translocation of PKCε from the cytoplasm to the membrane in the spinal cord and DRG of paclitaxel-treated rats. Conclusion: Our results reveal the underlying mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy and

  7. Quercetin induces caspase-dependent extrinsic apoptosis through inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling in HER2-overexpressing BT-474 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hye-Sook; Ku, Jin Mo; Choi, Han-Seok; Choi, Youn Kyung; Woo, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Ilhwan; Na, Chang Hyeok; Hur, Hansol; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-07-01

    Flavonoids are assumed to exert beneficial effects in different types of cancers at high concentrations. Yet, their molecular mechanisms of action remain unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effect of quercetin on proliferation and apoptosis in HER2-expressing breast cancer cells. The anti-proliferative effects of quercetin were examined by proliferation, MTT and clonogenic survival assays. The effect of quercetin on expression of apoptotic molecules was determined by western blotting. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to measure signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcriptional activity. ELISA assay was performed to measure intracellular MMP-9 levels. Immunocytochemistry was performed to evaluate the nuclear STAT3 level. The results revealed that quercetin inhibited the proliferation of BT-474 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Quercetin also inhibited clonogenic survival (anchorage-dependent and -independent) of BT-474 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These growth inhibitions were accompanied with an increase in sub-G0/G1 apoptotic populations. Quercetin induced caspase-dependent extrinsic apoptosis upregulating the levels of cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-3, and inducing the cleavage of poly(ADP‑ribose) polymerase (PARP). In contrast, quercetin did not induce apoptosis via intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway since this compound did not decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential and did not affect the levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX). Quercetin reduced the expression of phospho-JAK1 and phospho-STAT3 and decreased STAT3-dependent luciferase reporter gene activity in the BT-474 cells. Quercetin inhibited MMP-9 secretion and decreased the nuclear translocation of STAT3. Our study indicates that quercetin induces apoptosis at concentrations >20 µM through inhibition of STAT3 signaling and could serve as a useful compound to prevent or treat HER2

  8. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Tudor, Jennifer C; Ferri, Sarah L; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-11-19

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus. Further, it is unclear which cell types are responsible for the memory impairments associated with sleep deprivation. Transgenic approaches lack the spatial resolution to manipulate specific signaling pathways selectively in the hippocampus, while pharmacological strategies are limited in terms of cell-type specificity. Therefore, we used a pharmacogenetic approach based on a virus-mediated expression of a Gαs-coupled Drosophila octopamine receptor selectively in mouse hippocampal excitatory neurons in vivo. With this approach, a systemic injection with the receptor ligand octopamine leads to increased cAMP levels in this specific set of hippocampal neurons. We assessed whether transiently increasing cAMP levels during sleep deprivation prevents memory consolidation deficits associated with sleep loss in an object-location task. Five hours of total sleep deprivation directly following training impaired the formation of object-location memories. Transiently increasing cAMP levels in hippocampal neurons during the course of sleep deprivation prevented these memory consolidation deficits. These findings demonstrate that attenuated cAMP signaling in hippocampal excitatory neurons is a critical component underlying the memory deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks associated with sleep deprivation.

  9. Transiently Increasing cAMP Levels Selectively in Hippocampal Excitatory Neurons during Sleep Deprivation Prevents Memory Deficits Caused by Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Tudor, Jennifer C.; Ferri, Sarah L.; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus. Further, it is unclear which cell types are responsible for the memory impairments associated with sleep deprivation. Transgenic approaches lack the spatial resolution to manipulate specific signaling pathways selectively in the hippocampus, while pharmacological strategies are limited in terms of cell-type specificity. Therefore, we used a pharmacogenetic approach based on a virus-mediated expression of a Gαs-coupled Drosophila octopamine receptor selectively in mouse hippocampal excitatory neurons in vivo. With this approach, a systemic injection with the receptor ligand octopamine leads to increased cAMP levels in this specific set of hippocampal neurons. We assessed whether transiently increasing cAMP levels during sleep deprivation prevents memory consolidation deficits associated with sleep loss in an object–location task. Five hours of total sleep deprivation directly following training impaired the formation of object–location memories. Transiently increasing cAMP levels in hippocampal neurons during the course of sleep deprivation prevented these memory consolidation deficits. These findings demonstrate that attenuated cAMP signaling in hippocampal excitatory neurons is a critical component underlying the memory deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks associated with sleep deprivation. PMID:25411499

  10. Quercetin induces p53-independent apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by modulating Bcl-2-related proteins: a possible mediation by IGFBP-3.

    PubMed

    Vijayababu, Marati R; Kanagaraj, P; Arunkumar, A; Ilangovan, R; Dharmarajan, A; Arunakaran, J

    2006-01-01

    Quercetin, a flavonoid found in onion, grapes, green vegetables, etc., has been shown to possess potent antiproliferative effects against various malignant cells. We report insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) as an effector of quercetin-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cell lines in a p53-independent manner. We evaluated the production of IGFBP-3 in quercetin-treated cells. Apoptosis was studied in quercetin-treated cells to study the IGFBP-3-mediated role with flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation. Protein expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Bax were studied by Western blot. Increased production of IGFBP-3 was associated with the increased ratio of proapoptotic to antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. In quercetin-treated PC-3 cells, an increase in Bax protein expression and a decrease in Bcl-x(L) protein and Bcl-2 protein were observed. As PC-3 is a p53-negative cell line, these modulations of proapoptotic proteins and induction of apoptosis were independent of p53. The level of IGFBP-3 on the response of PC-3 cells to quercetin was examined. There was a twofold increase in IGFBP-3 level in conditioned media of 100 microM quercetin-treated cells. Quercetin also brought a peak at sub-G1 in PC-3 cells. Thus, increased level of IGFBP-3 was associated with increased proapoptotic proteins and apoptosis in response to quercetin, suggesting it may be a p53-independent effector of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via its modulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio.

  11. Quercetin protects against aluminium induced oxidative stress and promotes mitochondrial biogenesis via activation of the PGC-1α signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deep Raj; Sunkaria, Aditya; Wani, Willayat Yousuf; Sharma, Reeta Kumari; Verma, Deepika; Priyanka, Kumari; Bal, Amanjit; Gill, Kiran Dip

    2015-12-01

    The present investigation was carried out to elucidate a possible molecular mechanism related to the protective effect of quercetin administration against aluminium-induced oxidative stress on various mitochondrial respiratory complex subunits with special emphasis on the role of PGC-1α and its downstream targets, i.e. NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam in mitochondrial biogenesis. Aluminium lactate (10mg/kg b.wt./day) was administered intragastrically to rats, which were pre-treated with quercetin 6h before aluminium (10mg/kg b.wt./day, intragastrically) for 12 weeks. We found a decrease in ROS levels, mitochondrial DNA oxidation and citrate synthase activity in the hippocampus (HC) and corpus striatum (CS) regions of rat brain treated with quercetin. Besides this an increase in the mRNA levels of the mitochondrial encoded subunits - ND1, ND2, ND3, Cyt b, COX1, COX3 and ATPase6 along with increased expression of nuclear encoded subunits COX4, COX5A and COX5B of electron transport chain (ETC). In quercetin treated group an increase in the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial content in both the regions of rat brain was observed. The PGC-1α was up regulated in quercetin treated rats along with NRF-1, NRF-2 and Tfam, which act downstream from PGC-1α. Electron microscopy results revealed a significant decrease in the mitochondrial cross-section area, mitochondrial perimeter length and increase in mitochondrial number in case of quercetin treated rats as compared to aluminium treated ones. Therefore it seems quercetin increases mitochondrial biogenesis and makes it an almost ideal flavanoid to control or limit the damage that has been associated with the defective mitochondrial function seen in many neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effect of quercetin against oxidative stress caused by dimethoate in human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of quercetin in alleviating the cytotoxic effects of Dimethoate in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods Lymphocytes were divided into too groups. The first group, lymphocytes were incubated for 4 h at 37°C with different concentrations (0, 40, 60 and 100 mM) of Dimethoate. The second group was preincubated with quercetin for 30 min and followed by Dim incubation for 4 h at 37°C. Results Following in vitro incubation, Dimethoate caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde levels, a significant decrease in thiol levels, as well as a significant increase in superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in lymphocytes at different concentrations. Quercetin pretreated lymphocytes showed a significant protection against the cytotoxic effects inducted by Dimethoate on the studied parameters. Conclusion In conclusion, antioxidant quercetin could protect against Dimethoate-induced oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in human lymphocytes. PMID:21861917

  13. Prognostic value of transient and sustained increase in in-hospital creatinine on outcomes of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Latchamsetty, Rakesh; Fang, Jianming; Kline-Rogers, Eva; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Otten, Richard F; LaBounty, Troy M; Emery, Michael S; Eagle, Kim A; Froehlich, James B

    2007-04-01

    A history of renal insufficiency or increased creatinine level on admission is associated with poor outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study sought to determine whether in-hospital worsening of renal function, either transient or sustained, is an independent risk factor for 6-month mortality in patients admitted with ACS. A total of 1,417 patients admitted with ACS from June 2000 to May 2003 were reviewed. Patients were classified into 3 groups. Group I included patients with an increase in creatinine during hospitalization of increase in creatinine of >0.5 mg/dl that resolved by discharge. Group III included patients with an increase in creatinine of >0.5 mg/dl that did not resolve. The primary end point was 6-month mortality from any cause. Patients in groups II and III had higher 6-month mortality rates (27% and 23%, respectively; both p<0.001) compared with patients in group I (7.4%). After adjustment for known risk factors, a transient increase in creatinine remained a significant independent predictor of 6-month mortality (odds ratio 2.07, 95% confidence interval 1.14 to 3.76), although a sustained increase in creatinine showed a trend (odds ratio 1.58, 95% confidence interval 0.68 to 3.70). In conclusion, independent of a history of renal insufficiency or increased admission creatinine, in-hospital worsening of renal function is an important risk factor for 6-month mortality in patients admitted with ACS. Furthermore, return to baseline function by discharge does not protect against this risk. These findings have implications for management of these high-risk patients.

  14. Determination of quercetin glycosides and free quercetin in buckwheat by capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dadáková, Eva; Kalinová, Jana

    2010-06-01

    A simple and reliable method for determination of quercetin glycosides and free quercetin in buckwheat flower, leaves, stems and achenes was developed. The method consists of flavonoid extraction from freeze-dried homogenous material in 50% v/v methanol solution and in presence of an antioxidant, cleaning of extract and analyte isolation using SPE. Analytical step uses capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography. The working ranges, LOD and LOQ, recovery, precision and measurement uncertainty were calculated. The method is suitable for samples from buckwheat. The highest content of rutin was found in flowers of both kinds of buckwheat (99,400 mg/kg in F. esculentum, 108,000 mg/kg in F. tataricum). The free quercetin occurs in flowers and achenes of F. esculentum, whereas flowers and achenes of F. tataricum contained quercitrin.

  15. Transient physical and psychosocial activities increase the risk of nonpersistent and persistent low back pain: a case-crossover study with 12 months follow-up.

    PubMed

    Machado, Gustavo C; Ferreira, Paulo H; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Steffens, Daniel; Koes, Bart W; Li, Qiang; Ferreira, Manuela L

    2016-12-01

    A previous study has shown that transient physical and psychosocial activities increased the risk of developing low back pain. However, the link between these factors in triggering nonpersistent or persistent episodes remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of transient exposures to physical and psychosocial activities with the development of nonpersistent or persistent low back pain. This was a case-crossover study with 12 months follow-up. We included 999 consecutive participants seeking care for a sudden onset of low back pain. Development of low back pain was the outcome measure. At baseline, participants reported transient exposures to 12 predefined activities over the 4 days preceding pain onset. After 12 months, participants were asked whether they had recovered and the date of recovery. Exposures in the 2-hour period preceding pain onset (case window) were compared with the 2-hour period, 24 hours before pain onset (control window) in a case-crossover design for all participants. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and interaction analyses were used to compare estimates of nonpersistent (i.e., <6 weeks duration) and persistent cases. This study received funding from Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council (APP1003608). There were 832 participants (83%) who completed the 12 months follow-up successfully. Of these, 430 participants had nonpersistent low back pain (<6 weeks duration), whereas 352 reported persistent symptoms (≥6 weeks duration). Exposure to several transient activities, such as manual tasks involving heavy loads, awkward postures, live people or animals, moderate or vigorous physical activity, and being fatigued or tired during a task or activity, significantly increased the risk of both nonpersistent and persistent low back pain, with ORs ranging from 2.9 to 11.7. Overall, the risk of developing a persistent or a nonpersistent episode of

  16. Role of transiently altered sarcolemmal membrane permeability and basic fibroblast growth factor release in the hypertrophic response of adult rat ventricular myocytes to increased mechanical activity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, D; Pimental, D; Prasad, S; Mäki, T; Berger, H J; McNeil, P L; Smith, T W; Kelly, R A

    1996-01-01

    One of the trophic factors that has been implicated in initiating or facilitating growth in response to increased mechanical stress in several tissues and cell types is basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; FGF-2). Although mammalian cardiac muscle cells express bFGF, it is not known whether it plays a role in mediating cardiac adaptation to increased load, nor how release of the cytosolic 18-kD isoform of bFGF would be regulated in response to increased mechanical stress. To test the hypothesis that increased mechanical activity induces transient alterations in sarcolemmal permeability that allow cytosolic bFGF to be released and subsequently to act as an autocrine and paracrine growth stimulus, we examined primary isolates of adult rat ventricular myocytes maintained in serum-free, defined medium that were continually paced at 3 Hz for up to 5 d. Paced myocytes, but not nonpaced control cells, exhibited a "hypertrophic" response, which was characterized by increases in the rate of phenylalanine incorporation, total cellular protein content, and cell size. These changes could be mimicked in control cells by exogenous recombinant bFGF and could be blocked in continually paced cells by a specific neutralizing anti-bFGF antibody. In addition, medium conditioned by continually paced myocytes contained significantly more bFGF measured by ELISA and more mitogenic activity for 3T3 cells, activity that could be reduced by a neutralizing anti-bFGF antibody. The hypothesis that transient membrane disruptions sufficient to allow release of cytosolic bFGF occur in paced myocytes was examined by monitoring the rate of uptake into myocytes from the medium of 10-kD dextran linked to fluorescein. Paced myocytes exhibited a significantly higher rate of fluoresceinlabeled dextran uptake. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that nonlethal, transient alterations in sarcolemmal membrane permeability with release of cytosolic bFGF is one mechanism by which increased

  17. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of quercetin glycosides in humans.

    PubMed

    Graefe, E U; Wittig, J; Mueller, S; Riethling, A K; Uehleke, B; Drewelow, B; Pforte, H; Jacobasch, G; Derendorf, H; Veit, M

    2001-05-01

    Due to its potentially beneficial impact on human health, the polyphenol quercetin has come into the focus of medicinal interest. However, data on the bioavailability of quercetin after oral intake are scarce and contradictory. Previous investigations indicate that the disposition of quercetin may depend on the sugar moiety of the glycoside or the plant matrix. To determine the influence of the sugar moiety or matrix on the absorption of quercetin, two isolated quercetin glycosides and two plant extracts were administered to 12 healthy volunteers in a four-way crossover study. Each subject received an onion supplement or quercetin-4'-O-glucoside (both equivalent to 100 mg quercetin), as well as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and buckwheat tea (both equivalent to 200 mg quercetin). Samples were analyzed by HPLC with a 12-channel coulometric array detector. In human plasma, only quercetin glucuronides, but no free quercetin, could be detected. There was no significant difference in the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters between the onion supplement and quercetin-4'-O-glucoside. Peak plasma concentrations were 2.3 +/- 1.5 microg x mL(-1) and 2.1 +/- 1.6 microg x mL(-1) (mean +/- SD) and were reached after 0.7 +/- 0.2 hours and 0.7 +/- 0.3 hours, respectively. After administration of buckwheat tea and rutin, however, peak plasma levels were--despite the higher dose-only 0.6 +/- 0.7 microg x mL(-1) and 0.3 +/- 0.3 microg x mL(-1), respectively. Peak concentrations were reached 4.3 +/- 1.8 hours after administration of buckwheat tea and 7.0 +/- 2.9 hours after ingestion of rutin. The terminal elimination half-life was about 11 hours for all treatments. Thus, the disposition of quercetin in humans primarily depends on the sugar moiety. To a minor extent, the plant matrix influences both the rate and extent of absorption in the case of buckwheat tea administration compared with the isolated compound. The site of absorption seems to be different for quercetin-4'-O

  18. Quercetin Reverses Rat Liver Preneoplastic Lesions Induced by Chemical Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Torres, Gabriela; Monroy-Ramírez, Hugo Christian; Martínez-Guerra, Arturo Axayacatl; Baltiérrez-Hoyos, Rafael; Romero-Tlalolini, María de Los Ángeles; Villa-Treviño, Saúl; Sánchez-Chino, Xariss; Vásquez-Garzón, Verónica Rocío

    2017-01-01

    Quercetin is a flavonoid widely studied as a chemopreventive agent in different types of cancer. Previously, we reported that quercetin has a chemopreventive effect on the liver-induced preneoplastic lesions in rats. Here, we evaluated if quercetin was able not only to prevent but also to reverse rat liver preneoplastic lesions. We used the modified resistant hepatocyte model (MRHM) to evaluate this possibility. Treatment with quercetin was used 15 days after the induction of preneoplastic lesions. We found that quercetin reverses the number of preneoplastic lesions and their areas. Our results showed that quercetin downregulates the expression of EGFR and modulates this signaling pathway in spite of the activated status of EGFR as detected by the upregulation of this receptor, with respect to that observed in control rats. Besides, quercetin affects the phosphorylation status of Src-1, STAT5, and Sp-1. The better status of the liver after the treatment with quercetin could also be confirmed by the recovery in the expression of IGF-1. In conclusion, we suggest that quercetin reversed preneoplastic lesions by EGFR modulation and the activation state of Src, STAT5, and Sp1, so as the basal IGF-1.

  19. Application of Bioactive Quercetin in Oncotherapy: From Nutrition to Nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ju-Suk; Sharma, Ashish Ranjan; Nguyen, Lich Thi; Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Sharma, Garima; Lee, Sang-Soo

    2016-01-19

    Phytochemicals as dietary constituents are being explored for their cancer preventive properties. Quercetin is a major constituent of various dietary products and recently its anti-cancer potential has been extensively explored, revealing its anti-proliferative effect on different cancer cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo. Quercetin is known to have modulatory effects on cell apoptosis, migration and growth via various signaling pathways. Though, quercetin possesses great medicinal value, its applications as a therapeutic drug are limited. Problems like low oral bioavailability and poor aqueous solubility make quercetin an unreliable candidate for therapeutic purposes. Additionally, the rapid gastrointestinal digestion of quercetin is also a major barrier for its clinical translation. Hence, to overcome these disadvantages quercetin-based nanoformulations are being considered in recent times. Nanoformulations of quercetin have shown promising results in its uptake by the epithelial system as well as enhanced delivery to the target site. Herein we have tried to summarize various methods utilized for nanofabrication of quercetin formulations and for stable and sustained delivery of quercetin. We have also highlighted the various desirable measures for its use as a promising onco-therapeutic agent.

  20. Previous statin use is not associated with an increased prevalence or degree of gradient-echo lesions in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Day, Jason S; Policeni, Bruno A; Smoker, Wendy R K; Dobre, Mircea C; Zhang, Ying; Leira, Enrique C; Davis, Patricia H; Chen, Sherman; Olalde, Heena; Adams, Harold P

    2011-02-01

    Microhemorrhages on gradient-echo T2*-weighted MRI sequences are often found in patients with cerebrovascular disease and are related to intracerebral hemorrhage. Because statin therapy is associated with increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage, we investigated whether statin use was also associated with microhemorrhages in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. We performed a retrospective analysis on prospectively collected data from a stroke registry containing patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. The primary and secondary outcome variables were the prevalence and degree of microhemorrhages as detected on gradient-echo MRI sequences and categorized as mild (1-2), moderate (3-10), or severe (>10). The location of the microhemorrhages was noted and rated by 2 neuroradiologists. Previous use of statins and other covariates were assessed as potential predictors. Three hundred forty-nine patients were admitted from June 2008 to July 2009, and 300 of which were analyzed. Microhemorrhages were detected in 70 subjects (23%); 35 had only lobar lesions, 16 had only deep lesions, and 19 had both lobar and deep lesions. On univariate and multivariate analysis, statin therapy was not associated with the prevalence (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.36-1.51; P=0.40) or degree of microhemorrhages modeled for lesser severity (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 0.61-8.75; P=0.22). Previous statin therapy was not associated with the prevalence or degree of microhemorrhages in patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. The association between statins and intracerebral hemorrhage does not appear to be mediated through microhemorrhages.

  1. Quercetin inhibited cadmium-induced autophagy in the mouse kidney via inhibition of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuan; Ma, Shixun; Qi, Yongmei; Wei, Xue; Cai, Hui; Dong, Li; Lu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yupeng; Guo, Qingjin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to explore the inhibitory effects of quercetin on cadmium-induced autophagy in mouse kidneys. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with cadmium and quercetin once daily for 3 days. The LC3-II/β-actin ratio was used as the autophagy marker, and autophagy was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Oxidative stress was investigated in terms of reactive oxygen species, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde. Cadmium significantly induced typical autophagosome formation, increased the LC3-II/β-actin ratio, reactive oxygen species level, and malondialdehyde content, and decreased total antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, quercetin markedly decreased the cadmium-induced LC3-II/β-actin ratio, reactive oxygen species levels, and malondialdehyde content, and simultaneously increased total antioxidant capacity. Cadmium can inhibit total antioxidant capacity, produce a large amount of reactive oxygen species, lead to oxidative stress, and promote lipid peroxidation, eventually inducing autophagy in mouse kidneys. Quercetin could inhibit cadmium-induced autophagy via inhibition of oxidative stress. This study may provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of cadmium injury. PMID:27821909

  2. Quercetin protects against heat stroke-induced myocardial injury in male rats: Antioxidative and antiinflammatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaojing; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Zhao, Tingbao; Zuo, Dan; Ye, Zhujun; Liu, Lin; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2017-03-01

    Heat stroke is characterized by hyperthermia, systemic inflammation, and multiple organ failure including arterial hypotension. This definition can be fulfilled by a rat model of heat stroke used in the present study. Anesthetized animals were exposed to heat exposure (43 °C for 70 min) and then returned to room temperature (26 °C) for recovery. One hour before heat exposure, an intraperitoneal dose of quercetin (30 mg/kg) or vehicle (normal saline 1 ml/kg) was administered to the experimental groups of rats. Additional injection was administered immediately after the onset of heat stroke. Immediately after the onset of heat stroke. Vehicle-treated rats displayed (i) hyperthermia; (ii) suppressed left ventricular function; (iii) decreased contents of cardiac total antioxiant capacity (e.g., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase); (iv) increased contents of cardiac oxidative capacity malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; (v) increased cardiac levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6; and (vi) decreased cardiac levels of an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10. Histopathologic and survival observation provided supportive evidence for biochemical analyses. These heat stroke reactions all can be significantly attenuated by quercetin therapy. Our data suggest that quercetin therapy might improve outcomes of heat stroke in rats by attenuating excessive hyperthermia as well as myocardial injury. The protective effects of quercetin could be attributed to anti-lipid peroxidative, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties.

  3. Quercetin induces insulin secretion by direct activation of L-type calcium channels in pancreatic beta cells

    PubMed Central

    Bardy, G; Virsolvy, A; Quignard, J F; Ravier, M A; Bertrand, G; Dalle, S; Cros, G; Magous, R; Richard, S; Oiry, C

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Quercetin is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid that displays anti-diabetic properties in vivo. Its mechanism of action on insulin-secreting beta cells is poorly documented. In this work, we have analysed the effects of quercetin both on insulin secretion and on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in beta cells, in the absence of any co-stimulating factor. Experimental Approach Experiments were performed on both INS-1 cell line and rat isolated pancreatic islets. Insulin release was quantified by the homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence method. Variations in [Ca2+]i were measured using the ratiometric fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Fura-2. Ca2+ channel currents were recorded with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Key Results Quercetin concentration-dependently increased insulin secretion and elevated [Ca2+]i. These effects were not modified by the SERCA inhibitor thapsigargin (1 μmol·L−1), but were nearly abolished by the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist nifedipine (1 μmol·L−1). Similar to the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644, quercetin enhanced the L-type Ca2+ current by shifting its voltage-dependent activation towards negative potentials, leading to the increase in [Ca2+]i and insulin secretion. The effects of quercetin were not inhibited in the presence of a maximally active concentration of Bay K 8644 (1 μmol·L−1), with the two drugs having cumulative effects on [Ca2+]i. Conclusions and Implications Taken together, our results show that quercetin stimulates insulin secretion by increasing Ca2+ influx through an interaction with L-type Ca2+ channels at a site different from that of Bay K 8644. These data contribute to a better understanding of quercetin's mechanism of action on insulin secretion. PMID:23530660

  4. Quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate promote glucose disposal in adipocytes with regulation of AMP-activated kinase and/or sirtuin 1 activity.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Na; Mei, Fan; Sun, Yan; Pan, Guojun; Liu, Baolin; Liu, Kang

    2014-08-01

    Quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate are flavonoids abundant in edible and medicinal plants with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. This study explored the action of these flavonoids on glucose disposal in adipocytes. Quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate enhanced glucose consumption with the positive regulation of AMP-activated kinase phosphorylation, and the AMP-activated kinase inhibitor compound C abolished their effects on glucose consumption. Luteolin and epigallocatechin gallate, but not quercetin, increased sirtuin 1 abundance, and their regulation of glucose consumption was also attenuated by co-treatment with sirtuin 1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate suppressed nuclear factor-κB activation by inhibition of p65 phosphorylation with beneficial regulation of adipokine expression, whereas these actions were diminished by coincubation with compound C. The sirtuin 1 inhibitor nicotinamide attenuated the effects of luteolin and EGCG on p65 phosphorylation and adipokine expression without any influence on the activity of quercetin. Results of Western blot and fluorescence microscopy also showed that quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate increased Akt substrate of 160 kDa phosphorylation and promoted 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake by adipocytes under basal and inflammatory conditions. These findings suggested that quercetin, luteolin, and epigallocatechin gallate inhibited inflammation and promoted glucose disposal in adipocytes with the regulation of AMP-activated kinase and/or sirtuin 1.

  5. Quercetin reduces systolic blood pressure and plasma oxidised low-density lipoprotein concentrations in overweight subjects with a high-cardiovascular disease risk phenotype: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Egert, Sarah; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Seiberl, Jasmin; Kürbitz, Claudia; Settler, Uta; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Wagner, Anika E; Frank, Jan; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Rimbach, Gerald; Wolffram, Siegfried; Müller, Manfred J

    2009-10-01

    Regular consumption of flavonoids may reduce the risk for CVD. However, the effects of individual flavonoids, for example, quercetin, remain unclear. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of quercetin supplementation on blood pressure, lipid metabolism, markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and body composition in an at-risk population of ninety-three overweight or obese subjects aged 25-65 years with metabolic syndrome traits. Subjects were randomised to receive 150 mg quercetin/d in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial with 6-week treatment periods separated by a 5-week washout period. Mean fasting plasma quercetin concentrations increased from 71 to 269 nmol/l (P < 0.001) during quercetin treatment. In contrast to placebo, quercetin decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 2.6 mmHg (P < 0.01) in the entire study group, by 2.9 mmHg (P < 0.01) in the subgroup of hypertensive subjects and by 3.7 mmHg (P < 0.001) in the subgroup of younger adults aged 25-50 years. Quercetin decreased serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.001), while total cholesterol, TAG and the LDL:HDL-cholesterol and TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratios were unaltered. Quercetin significantly decreased plasma concentrations of atherogenic oxidised LDL, but did not affect TNF-alpha and C-reactive protein when compared with placebo. Quercetin supplementation had no effects on nutritional status. Blood parameters of liver and kidney function, haematology and serum electrolytes did not reveal any adverse effects of quercetin. In conclusion, quercetin reduced SBP and plasma oxidised LDL concentrations in overweight subjects with a high-CVD risk phenotype. Our findings provide further evidence that quercetin may provide protection against CVD.

  6. The Attentional Boost Effect: Transient Increases in Attention to One Task Enhance Performance in a Second Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swallow, Khena M.; Jiang, Yuhong V.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on event perception suggests that perceptual processing increases when events change. An important question is how such changes influence the way other information is processed, particularly during dual-task performance. In this study, participants monitored a long series of distractor items for an occasional target as they…

  7. Increased expression of three types of transient receptor potential channels (TRPA1, TRPV4 and TRPV3) in burn scars with post-burn pruritus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yoon Seok; Cho, Soo Ick; Choi, Min Gyu; Choi, Young Hee; Kwak, In Suk; Park, Chun Wook; Kim, Hye One

    2015-01-01

    Post-burn pruritus is a common distressing consequence of burn wounds. Empirical treatment often fails to have a satisfactory outcome on post-burn pruritus, as the mechanism of post-burn pruritus has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the manifestation of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in post-burn pruritus. Fifty-one burn patients with (n=33) or without (n=18) pruritus were investigated, including skin biopsies. Not unexpectedly, the scarred body area was larger in the former group. In immunohistochemistry, TPRV3 was significantly elevated in the epidermis of burn scars with pruritus. Furthermore, real time- PCR showed that mRNA of TRPA1 and TRPV4 was increased in itching burn scars. Staining for substance P and CGRP did not differ between the 2 grouped, but the former neuropeptide was increased in burn scars. These results may help determine a specific therapeutic approach for post-burn pruritus.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of gastrointestinal protection by quercetin against indomethacin-induced damage: role of NF-κB and Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Castillo, Rodrigo L; Beltrán, Caroll; Miranda, Alfonso; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Gotteland, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the gastrointestinal protection by quercetin against indomethacin-induced oxidative stress and inflammation, with specific interest in studying the underlying molecular mechanisms. We hypothesized that the quercetin-protective effect relies on its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Rats were pretreated with quercetin (50- or 100-mg/kg, ig single dose), 30 min before INDO administration (40-mg/kg ig single dose). Caco-2 cells were treated with INDO (250 and 500 μM) in the absence or presence of quercetin (10 μg/ml). Quercetin prevented the decrease in nuclear translocation of Nrf2, a key regulator of the antioxidant response, and the increase in reactive oxygen species levels induced by INDO by inhibiting the enhancement of NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase activities as well as the reduction in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in gastric and ileal tissues. Quercetin also prevented INDO-induced ICAM-1 and P-selectin expressions and the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in gastric and ileal tissues and NF-κB activation and IL-8 production in Caco-2 cells. Quercetin did not affect the inhibition of TNFα-mediated production of prostaglandin E2 induced by INDO in Caco-2 cells. The protective effects of quercetin observed in the gastric and ileal mucosa of rats as well as in Caco-2 cells relied on the ability of this flavonol to prevent NF-κB activation and increase Nrf2 translocation. This study supports the concept that quercetin may be useful in the prevention and/or treatment of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-associated side effects, without interfering with their therapeutic efficacy.

  9. Inhibitory Effects of Quercetin on Progression of Human Choriocarcinoma Cells Are Mediated Through PI3K/AKT and MAPK Signal Transduction Cascades.

    PubMed

    Lim, Whasun; Yang, Changwon; Park, Sunwoo; Bazer, Fuller W; Song, Gwonhwa

    2017-06-01

    As a major dietary flavonol, quercetin mitigates proliferation and progression of cancer due to its anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and apoptotic biological effects on cells. Although its apoptotic effects have been reported for various cancers, little is known of the functional role of quercetin in gestational choriocarcinoma. Results of the present study indicated that quercetin reduced proliferation and induced cell death in two choriocarcinoma cell lines, JAR and JEG3 cells, with an increase in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, quercetin induced mitochondrial dysfunction significantly reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both JAR and JEG3 cells. Further, quercetin inhibited phosphorylation of AKT, P70S6K and S6 proteins whereas, it increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, P38, JNK and P90RSK proteins in JAR and JEG3 cells. The decrease in viability of choriocarcinoma cells treated with quercetin was confirmed by using combinations of quercetin and pharmacological inhibitors of the PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways. Classical chemotherapeutic agents, cisplatin (a platinum-based drug) and paclitaxel (a taxene-based drug), inhibited proliferation of JAR and JEG3 cells, and when combined with quercetin, the antiproliferative effects of cisplatin and paclitaxel were enhanced for both choriocarcinoma cell lines. Collectively, these results suggest that quercetin prevents development of choriocarcinoma and may be a valuable therapeutic agent for treatment of choriocarcinoma through its regulation of PI3K and MAPK signal transduction pathways. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1428-1440, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of Caffeic Acid and Quercetin on In Vitro Permeability, Metabolism and In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of Melatonin in Rats: Potential for Herb-Drug Interaction.

    PubMed

    Jana, Snehasis; Rastogi, Himanshu

    2017-01-09

    Melatonin is a popular dietary supplement and also considered as pharmaceutical product for sleep disorders. Caffeic acid and quercetin