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Sample records for quercus serrata thunb

  1. Carbon transfer from photosynthesis to below ground fine root/hyphae respiration in Quercus serrata using stable carbon isotope pulse labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannoura, M.; Kominami, Y.; Takanashi, S.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Studying carbon allocation in trees is a key to better understand belowground carbon cycle and its response to climate change. Tracing 13C in tree and soil compartments after pulse labeling is one of powerful tool to study the fate of carbon in forest ecosystems. This experiment was conducted in Yamashiro experimental forest, Kyoto, Japan. Annual mean temperature and precipitation from 1994 to 2009 are 15.5 ° C and 1,388 mm respectively. The branch pulse labeling were done 7 times in 2011 using same branch of Quercus serrata (H:11.7 m, DBH; 33.7 cm) to see seasonal variations of carbon velocity. Whole crown labeling of Quercus serrata (H:9 m, DBH; 13.7 cm) was done in 2012 to study carbon allocation and to especially focus on belowground carbon flux until to the hyphae respiration. Pure 13CO2 (99.9%) was injected to the labeling chamber which was set to branch or crown. Then, after one hour of branch labeling and 3.5 hour for crown labeling, the chamber was opened. Trunk respiration chambers, fine root chambers and hyphae chambers were set to the target tree to trace labeled carbon in the CO2 efflux. 41 μm mesh was used to exclude ingrowth of roots into hyphae chambers. The results show that the velocity of carbon through the tree varied seasonally, with higher velocity in summer than autumn, averaging 0.47 m h-1. Half-lives of labeled carbon in autotrophic respiration were similar above and below ground during the growing season, but they were twice longer in trunk than in root in autumn. From the whole crown labeling done end of growing season, the 13CO2 signal was observed 25 hours after labeling in trunk chamber and 34-37.7 hours after labeling in fine root and hyphae respiration almost simultaneously. Half-lives of 13 was longer in trunk than below ground. Trunk respiration was still using labelled carbon during winter suggesting that winter trunk respiration is partly fueled by carbon stored in the trunk at the end of the growing season.

  2. IR-SNOM analysis of occluding substances in lumina of xylem elements in sapwood of Quercus serrata attacked by Platypus quercivorus.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Takayuki; Aizawa, Kento; Yamada, Toshihiro; Matsumoto, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    A new microspectroscopic technique was applied to the analysis of occluding deposits in xylem elements of Quercus serrata. The production of this substance is believed to be a defense response of the sapwood against fungal infection. An occluding substance about 10 μm across was analyzed by Infrared-Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (IR-SNOM), which allows for the measurement of IR spectrum with high spatial resolution. The near-field IR spectrum of an occluding substance was different from those of xylem elements and featured a lack of the clear C-H absorption band that should appear at 3000-2850 cm(-1). On the other hand, the absorption band of ester bond exhibited a very strong peak. Among the near-field IR spectra of related compounds, a similar ester absorption peak was observed in the spectrum of pectin and tannic acid. The presence of a C-H absorption band as a very week peak was similar to (+)-catechin and tannic acid. PMID:23574667

  3. Volatile Organic Compound Emission from Quercus suber, Quercus canariensis, and its hybridisation product Quercus afares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welter, S.; Bracho Nuñez, A.; Staudt, M.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2009-04-01

    Oaks represent one of the most important plant genera in the Northern hemisphere and include many intensively VOC emitting species. The major group constitutes the isoprene emitters, but also monoterpene emitters and non-emitters can be found. These variations in the oak species might partly be due to their propensity for inter- and intraspecific hybridisation. This study addresses the foliar VOC production of the former hybridisation product the deciduous Quercus afares and its parents, two very distant species: the evergreen monoterpene emitter Quercus suber and the deciduous isoprene emitter Quercus canariensis. The measurements were performed in Southern France, applying two different methods. Plants were investigated in situ in the field with a portable gas exchange measuring system as well as in the laboratory on cut branches with an adapted enclosure system. Quercus afares was found to be a monoterpene emitting species. However, the monoterpene emission was lower and the composition different to that of Quercus suber. Whereas Quercus suber trees belonged to the pinene type most individuals of Quercus afares were identified to represent a limonene type. Quercus canariensis emitted besides high amounts of isoprene also linalool and (Z)-3-hexenylacetate. Emissions from Quercus suber and Quercus afares were higher in the field measurements than in the laboratory on cut branches whereas Quercus canariensis exhibited lower isoprene emissions from cut branches. The results demonstrate the need of further emission studies on a plant species level.

  4. Isoprene Emission from Quercus Serrata in the deciduous broad-leaved forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, M.; Tani, A.; Kominami, Y.; Takanashi, S.; Kosugi, Y.; Tohno, S.

    2006-12-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Isoprene is a biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emitted by many plant species. Isoprene emission contributes to the reactive carbon budget entering the troposphere. In Japan efforts to measure and understand the mechanism controlling BVOC emissions and to establish their emission inventories for the country have not been extensive, despite the fact that Japan has a large area of forests composed of coniferous and/or deciduous tree species (about 70% of total land area) and that forestry statistics across Japan are available (Tani et al. 2002). 2. METHODS The measurements were taken in the deciduous broad-leaved forest, Yamashiro, Kyoto. The isoprene emission, net assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air and leaf temperature, relative humidity was measured on June, July, August 2006 using a LI-6400 portable photosynthesis system (Li-Cor Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA). Isoprene samples from the LI-6400 cuvette was trapped by adsorbents (Tenax 200mg and Carbotrap 100mg) packed into stainless steel tubes (Perkin Elmer). Samples were analyzed using GC-MS system (Shimadzu QP5050A). Samples underwent two stage thermal desorption (Perkin-Elmer ATD). 3. RESULTS The obvious effect of PAR on isoprene emissions and photosynthesis rates were investigated. Temporal variations of isoprene emissions and photosynthesis rates for sun leaves and a shade leaves were investigated. Isoprene sampling term is 7:00-9:00, 9:00-11:00, 11:00-13:00, 13:00-15:00, 15:00-17:00, and 17:00-18:30. Number of samples is 4-6 leaves. Both sun leaves and shade leaves, isoprene emissions reached their peak around noon, while for sun leaves the largest photosynthesis rates during morning and the subsequent decrease were observed as shown. Carbon ratio (carbon of isoprene emission /carbon of photosynthesis by mass unit) were about 1-3%. REFERENCES Tani, A., Nozoe, S., Aoki, M., Hewiit, C. N., 2002. Monoterpene fluxes measured above a Japanese red pine forest at Oshiba plateau, Japan. Atmospheric Environment, 36(21) : 41-52. Tani, A., Fushimi, K., 2005. Effects of temperature and light intensity on isoprene emission of Edgeworthia chrysantha. J. Agric. Meteorol, 61(2): 113-122.

  5. Analgesic principles from Aralia cordata Thunb.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, E; Nishimura, S; Yamazaki, M

    1991-02-01

    The analgesic principles from Aralia cordata Thunb, were identified with (ent)-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (KA) and (ent)-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid (PA), respectively. Both compounds were significantly effective regarding analgesics, hypothermia, duration of pentobarbital-induced anesthesia, and depression of locomotor activity enhanced by methamphetamine at doses of 300 mg/kg (KA) and 500 mg/kg (PA) by oral administration.

  6. Linguatula serrata in the anterior chamber of the eye

    PubMed Central

    Bhende, Muna; Abhishek; Biswas, Jyotirmoy; Raman, M; Bhende, Pramod S

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of intraocular Linguatula in healthy young female who presented with a history of trivial trauma, dislocated lens, inflammation and secondary glaucoma. A mobile worm was seen in the anterior chamber. Pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy was planned to remove both the cataractous lens and the parasite during which the worm disappeared from view but was later recovered from the cassette fluid. It was identified as the nymphal form of Linguatula serrata (tongue worm). PMID:25579362

  7. Caspase mediated synergistic effect of Boswellia serrata extract in combination with doxorubicin against human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Singh, Mhaveer; Khan, Masood Shah; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the growth-inhibiting and apoptosis mediating effects of B. serrata extract as monotherapy and combination therapy with DOX against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Boswellic acid rich fraction of B. serrata extract was prepared. MTT assay on HepG2 and Hep3B cells was carried out using B. serrata alone and in combination with DOX. Further, caspase-3 activity, TNF-α level, and IL-6 level were estimated. Isobolographic analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of combination therapy. Additionally, protective effect of B. serrata extract on DOX induced hepatic toxicity was also evaluated in Wistar rats. B. serrata extract inhibited growth of HepG2 (IC50 value of 21.21 ± 0.92 μg/mL) as well as HepG2 (IC50 value of 18.65 ± 0.71 μg/mL). DOX inhibited growth in HepG2 and Hep3B cells with an IC50 of 1.06 ± 0.04 μg/mL and 1.92 ± 0.09 μg/mL. Isobolographic analysis showed combination index (CI) of DOX and B. serrata extract of 0.53 ± 0.03 to 0.79 ± 0.02 suggesting synergistic behavior against the two cell lines. B. serrata extract also caused dose dependent increase in caspase-3 activity, TNF-α level, and IL-6 level which was higher (P < 0.001) with DOX (1 μM) and B. serrata extract (20 μg/mL) combination. B. serrata extract also protected Wistar rats against DOX induced hepatic toxicity. PMID:25177685

  8. Caspase Mediated Synergistic Effect of Boswellia serrata Extract in Combination with Doxorubicin against Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Ahmed; Singh, Mhaveer; Khan, Masood Shah; Najmi, Abul Kalam

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the growth-inhibiting and apoptosis mediating effects of B. serrata extract as monotherapy and combination therapy with DOX against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Boswellic acid rich fraction of B. serrata extract was prepared. MTT assay on HepG2 and Hep3B cells was carried out using B. serrata alone and in combination with DOX. Further, caspase-3 activity, TNF-α level, and IL-6 level were estimated. Isobolographic analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of combination therapy. Additionally, protective effect of B. serrata extract on DOX induced hepatic toxicity was also evaluated in Wistar rats. B. serrata extract inhibited growth of HepG2 (IC50 value of 21.21 ± 0.92 μg/mL) as well as HepG2 (IC50 value of 18.65 ± 0.71 μg/mL). DOX inhibited growth in HepG2 and Hep3B cells with an IC50 of 1.06 ± 0.04 μg/mL and 1.92 ± 0.09 μg/mL. Isobolographic analysis showed combination index (CI) of DOX and B. serrata extract of 0.53 ± 0.03 to 0.79 ± 0.02 suggesting synergistic behavior against the two cell lines. B. serrata extract also caused dose dependent increase in caspase-3 activity, TNF-α level, and IL-6 level which was higher (P < 0.001) with DOX (1 μM) and B. serrata extract (20 μg/mL) combination. B. serrata extract also protected Wistar rats against DOX induced hepatic toxicity. PMID:25177685

  9. Seasonal variability of antioxidant biomarkers in mud crabs (Scylla serrata).

    PubMed

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Chainy, G B N

    2013-01-01

    Studies on oxidative stress (OS) in crustacea are widely used as ecotoxicological indices to assess the environment risk produced by the impact of several stressor and pollutants. In the present study, effects of seasonality on OS physiology markers such as antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), small antioxidant molecules (ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione), oxidative stress indices (lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and hydrogen peroxide) and total antioxidant capacity in hepatopancreas, gills and abdominal muscle of adult mud crab Scylla serrata, sampled from Chilika lagoon of India, were determined in winter, summer and rainy seasons. Results indicate that variations in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants with relation to season were not only tissue specific but also were gender specific. The levels of OS parameters were higher in hepatopancreas in comparison to gills and abdominal muscle of the crabs in all seasons. OS indices in tissues of the crabs were mainly higher in summer season when temperature and salinity of the lagoon were high with low oxygen content. Although OS was lower in winter season and moderate in rainy season in tissues of male crabs, it was higher in gills and hepatopancreas of females in rainy season. Correlation analyses between hydrological parameters of the lagoon (temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen content) and OS physiology parameters in tissues of crabs suggest that abiotic factors influence the levels of antioxidant enzymes and, thereby the OS status in a tissue and sex specific manner. Collectively, the results of the present work suggest that further investigation is warranted before using OS parameters in S. serrata as biomarkers to monitor estuarine environment as these are influenced by gender, tissue and season.

  10. [Content of rare earth elements in wild Hypericum japonicum Thunb].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhen-Lin; Rui, Yu-Kui; Tian, Zhi-Huan

    2009-06-01

    Rare earth elements are important nutritional elements for human health, and today more and more attention has been paid to the effective components in Chinese traditional medicine, especially to rare earth elements. Fifteen rare earth elements in wild hypericum japonicum Thunb were analyzed by the methods of ICP-MS. The results showed that the concentrations of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Tm, Lu and Y ranged from 6 ng x g(-1) x DW to 14 522 ng x g(-1) x DW, and among them the concentrations of La, Ce and Nd were higher than 2 000 ng x g(-1) x DW. Compared with the concentration of rare earth elements in rice, corn, wheat and barley, the total concentration of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb was much higher, which could be the mechanism of curative effect of hypericum japonicum Thunb on liverish diseases. The character of elements and the content of rare earth elements in soil should be responsible for the difference, but the distributive mechanism of rare earth elements in hypericum japonicum Thunb should be further studied.

  11. Selective apoptotic effect of Zelkova serrata twig extract on mouth epidermoid carcinoma through p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hoe-Jin; Jang, Young-Joo

    2012-06-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death plays an essential role in chemotherapy-induced tumor cell killing, and inducers of apoptosis are commonly used in cancer therapy. Treatment with Zelkova serrata extracts was performed in human gingival fibroblast (HGF), mouth epidermoid carcinoma cell (KB), lower gingival squamous cancer cell (YD38) and tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (YD15). We observed that extract prepared from Zelkova serrata twig selectively inhibited proliferation of various oral cancer cells, but not normal gingival fibroblasts, in a dose-dependent manner. Caspase-8-mediated apoptosis was induced by treatment with the extract only in mouth epidermoid carcinoma and not in other types of cancer cells, including lower gingival squamous cell carcinoma. The selective apoptotic effect of Zelkova serrata twig extract in mouth epidermoid carcinoma was dependent on normal p53 status. Apoptosis was not remarkably induced by treatment with the extract in either lower gingival squamous or tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells, both of which contain abnormalities of p53. Upon treatment with Zelkova serrata twig extract, mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells accumulated in S phase by activation of p21. These data indicate that Zelkova serrata twig extract exerted a cancer type-specific, p53-dependent apoptotic effect and disturbed the cell cycle, which suggests that herbal medicine could be a treatment for specific types of cancers. PMID:22498930

  12. Prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in slaughtered sheeps in Isfahan province, southwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Kheirabadi, Khodadad Pirali; Fallah, Aziz A; Azizi, Hamidreza; Samani, Amir Dehghani; Dehkordi, Shahram Danesh

    2015-09-01

    Linguatula serrata, well known as tongue worm; is an aberrant cosmopolitan parasite, which inhabits the carnivorous mammals (especially Canidae) respiratory system. The discharged eggs infect many plant feeder animals including human that produces visceral and nasopharyngeal linguatulosis which is known as Marrara syndrome in man. In current study, the prevalence rate of infection with L. serrata nymphs in mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) of slaughtered sheeps was investigated in Esfahan Province, Iran. The MLNs of 506 slaughtered sheeps, including 236 females and 270 males, were examined for L. serrata nymphs by cutting the MLNs longitudinally and then microscopic studies for L. serrata nymphs. Sheeps were categorized into four age groups, including <1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and >3 years. Results showed that 11.66 % of examined sheeps were infected with L. serrata. Age had significant effect on the prevalence rate of this parasite in sheeps (infection in sheeps with >3 years old was more than other groups significantly) and sex had no significant effect on the prevalence rate of this parasite in sheeps. Infection rate in winter was significantly lower than infection rate in spring; but there were no significant differences between the other seasons. As high prevalence rate of infection in sheeps, suggesting possibly similar high rate of infection in other animals and man in the investigated area, which this emphasizes undertaking strict control measures to reduce risk of zoonotic outbreaks. This study was demonstrated infection rate of L. serrata in sheeps in central parts of Iran. PMID:26345063

  13. A-90 Day Gavage Safety Assessment of Boswellia serrata in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pooja; Chacko, K. Mathai; Aggarwal, M. L.; Bhat, Binu; Khandal, R. K.; Sultana, Sarwat; Kuruvilla, Binu T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation and assessment of the safety/toxic potential of Boswellia serrata, a well known Ayurvedic herb used to treat disorders of digestive system, respiratory ailments and bone related diseases. A repeated dose oral (90 days) toxicity study of Boswellia serrata was carried out. For this, 10 rats of each sex were treated with the Boswellia serrata at three different doses i.e. 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg B. wt. /day. As a control, 10 rats of each sex were treated with corn oil only which was the vehicle. Two groups consisting of five male and five female rats were kept as control recovery and high dose recovery group which were treated with the vehicle (corn oil) and the Boswellia serrata at the dose of 1000 mg/kg B. wt. Animals of control recovery and high dose recovery groups were further observed for 28 days without any treatment. From this study, it was found that the rats treated with high dose of the Boswellia serrata gained their body weight with much less rate than that of the control group. However, during the recovery period, the loss in body weight gain as observed during the study period exhibits a reversible effect on the metabolic activity and recovered. The results also indicate that Boswellia serrata is relatively safe in rat up to the dose of 500 mg/kg B.wt. as no adverse impact on health factors was observed. Thus, the No observed adverse effect level is 500 mg/kg B. wt. PMID:23293466

  14. Identification and RNA segment assignment of six structural proteins of Scylla serrata reovirus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yangyang; Fan, Dongyang; Zhang, Zhao; Yang, Jifang; Liu, Jingwen; Chen, Jigang

    2016-08-01

    Scylla serrata reovirus (SsRV) is one of the most prevalent viral pathogens of the mud crab (S. serrata). The virus represents an unassigned novel genus in the Reoviridae family, and contains 12 double-stranded RNA genomic segments. Previous analysis of virion proteins concluded that SsRV contains at least eight structural proteins, ranging from 25 to 160 kDa. Here, tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry and Western blotting were used to re-identify the structural proteins. The results indicate that proteins encoded by SsRV segments S1, S3, S6, S9, S11, and S12 are structural proteins.

  15. Ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador: case report and morphometric study of the larva of Linguatula serrata.

    PubMed

    Lazo, R F; Hidalgo, E; Lazo, J E; Bermeo, A; Llaguno, M; Murillo, J; Teixeira, V P

    1999-03-01

    Linguatula serrata is a pentastomid, a cosmopolitan parasite belonging to the Phylum Pentastomida. Humans may act as an intermediate or accidental definitive host of this parasite, manifesting the nasopharyngeal or visceral form, with the latter having been described more frequently. The occurrence of ocular linguatuliasis is extremely rare, but it has been reported in the United States and Israel. The objective of the present paper was to report the first case of ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador and to extend the morphologic study of L. serrata by morphometric analysis. The patient studied was a 34-year old woman from Guayaquil, Ecuador who complained of ocular pain with conjunctivitis and visual difficulties of two-months duration. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a mobile body in the anterior chamber of the eye. The mobile body was surgically removed. The specimen was fixed in alcohol, cleared using the technique of Loos, stained with acetic carmine, and mounted on balsam between a slide and a coverslip. It was observed with stereoscopic and common light microscopes in combination with an automatic system for image analysis and processing. The morphologic and morphometric characteristics corresponded to the third-instar larval form of L. serrata. To our knowledge, ocular linguatuliasis has not been previously described in South America, with this being the first report for Ecuador and South America. The present study shows that computer morphometry can adequately contribute both to the morphologic study and to the systematic classification of Pentastomids, and L. serrata in particular. PMID:10466969

  16. Stock structure and demographic history of the Indo-West Pacific mud crab Scylla serrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratini, Sara; Ragionieri, Lapo; Cannicci, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of mangrove forests, without any sustainable planning, has been seriously compromising the survival of this ecosystem and of its exclusive resources. Scylla serrata is one of the most commercially exploited crabs inhabiting mangroves and estuaries of the Indo-Pacific region. This species is extensively harvested, mainly for selling to the tourist market, and, as a consequence, its populations are in constant decline. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of genetic exchange of S. serrata within the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), using a population genetic structure approach. To achieve this goal, we reconstructed the intra-specific geographic pattern of genetic variation by partial sequencing the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I, in samples from seven mangrove sites of the WIO. Our data set then encompassed all the sequences for the same genetic marker deposited in Genbank and corresponding to samples from South East Asia, Australia and some Pacific Islands: this allowed us to estimate the level of connectivity among S. serrata populations within its distribution area. Our results show that an unique Scylla serrata metapopulation exists within the WIO; while throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region at least three distinct genetic stocks occur, corresponding to well-defined geographic regions (WIO, Eastern Australia and Pacific Ocean, North-Western Australia). South East China appears as the depositary of the most ancient haplotype and at the present time shares a haplotype with the Red Sea. The WIO populations show the signature of recent population bottlenecks, as expected for populations deeply exploited in a recent past. On the basis of our results, we can conclude that both the S. serrata populations and their habitats, i.e. mangrove forests and estuaries, of the WIO require future management and conservation regulations to avoiding overexploitation of this important key predator and marketable resource.

  17. Extraction of total DNA and optimization of the RAPD reaction system in Dioscorea opposita Thunb.

    PubMed

    Wen, G Q; Li, J; Liu, X H; Zhang, Y S; Wen, S S

    2014-02-28

    Dioscorea opposita Thunb. has been used as health food and herbal medicinal ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, the total DNA of D. opposita Thunb. was extracted using an improved cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method, and the extracted DNA was further used for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) reaction system by design of the L16 (4(4)) orthogonal diagram. The results showed that the improved CTAB method can be used to isolate high-quality and high-concentration DNA, and the optimized protocol can overcome the instability of RAPD reaction system. The knowledge stated here can be used to study the genetic diversity of D. opposita Thunb.

  18. [EST-SSR identification of Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Liu, Gui-Ming; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Xu-Min; Yu, Jun; Chen, Min

    2012-06-01

    Simple and effective methods are needed for the identification of Chinese medicinal material species and their variety. Lonicera japonica Thunb. is one of Chinese herbal medicines widely demanded. A total of 3 705 EST-SSRs of L. japonica and 2 818 EST-SSRs of L. japonica var. chinensis Thunb. were identified from EST database in our lab. In average, there was one EST-SSR per 4.05 kb in L. japonica ESTs and per 7.49 kb in L. japonica var. chinensis ESTs, separately. The identified SSRs in L. japonica were consisted of 51.98% dinucleotide and 34.61% trinucleotide repeats, while SSRs in L. japonica var. chinensis had 57.45% dinucleotide and 30.09% trinucleotide. The results reviewed that the classes AG/TC and GAG/TCT were predominant in the dinucleotide motifs and the trinucleotide motifs, respectively. Total 87 EST-SSRs were identified of significant difference between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. PCR products were obtained from 52 L. japonica samples in 13 out of 15 SSR markers tested. The polymorphism in L. japonica, L. japonica var. chinensis and other honeysuckles could be distinguished by three markers (jp.ssr4, jp.ssr64 and jp.ssr65) tested.

  19. An effective method for extracting total RNA from Dioscorea opposita Thunb.

    PubMed

    Liao, C M; Li, J; Liu, X H; Zhang, Y S

    2014-01-21

    Dioscorea opposita Thunb., included in the genus Dioscorea of the family Dioscoreaceae, is an important herb with great edible and medicinal value. In this study, the total RNA from leaves of Lichuan Dioscorea opposita Thunb. was isolated by an improved Trizol method. The results showed that the RNA extracted by the improved Trizol method had good integrity, and the RNA could be used for down-stream molecular biology operations including reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

  20. Indentification of huperzine A-producing endophytic fungi isolated from Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Hui; Fan, San-Wei; Ling, Qing-Zhi; Huang, Bei-Bei; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2014-03-01

    This present study was designed to investigate the production of huperzine A (HupA), an acetylcholine inhibitor, which was produced by an endophytic fungi isolated from Huperzia serrata. Screening of 94 endophytic fungal isolates obtained from plant H. serrata was carried out for the production of HupA. Their morphological characteristics were studied and rDNA sequence analysis was carried out. The cultures were grown in liquid culture medium and the extracted metabolites were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatograph for the presence of HupA. The DPPH scavenging ratio and inhibition ratio of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) of the same were determined. 3 out of 94 strains i.e. S29, L44 and S94 showed significant AchE-inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity. Strain L44 which exhibited maximum yield of HupA (37.63 μg/g on dry weight basis) was identified as Trichoderma species by ITS sequence analysis. In conclusion, endophytic fungi from H. serrata can be used as a new resource of HupA.

  1. Hormetic Responses of Lonicera Japonica Thunb. To Cadmium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhouli; Chen, Wei; Jia, Lian; Yu, Shuai; Zhao, Mingzhu

    2015-01-01

    The hormetic responses of Lonicera japonica Thunb. to cadmium (Cd) stress were investigated in a hydroponic experiment. The present results showed that root length and total biomass dry weight increased in comparison with the control at low concentrations Cd. The height of the plant exposed to 2.5 and 5 mg L-1 Cd increased significantly by 11.9% and 12.8% relative to the control, and with the increase of Cd concentrations in the medium, plant height began to decrease. The responses of photosynthetic pigments contents and relative water content to Cd stress had a similar trend, which all showed significantly an inverted U-shaped dose–response curve and confirmed that the stimulatory effect of low concentrations Cd occurred in the plant. Furthermore, L. japonica, as a new Cd-hyperaccumulator, could be considered as a new plant model to study the underlying mechanisms of the hormesis. PMID:26672952

  2. [Bioinformatics analysis of DNA demethylase genes in Lonicera japonica Thunb].

    PubMed

    Qi, Lin-jie; Yuan, Yuan; Wu, Chong; Huang, Lu-qi; Chen, Ping

    2015-03-01

    The DNA demethylase genes are widespread in plants. Four DNA demethylase genes (LJDME1, LJDME2, LJDME3 and LJDME4) were obtained from transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica Thunb by using bioinformatics methods and the proteins' physicochemical properties they encoded were predicted. The phylogenetic tree showed that the four DNA demethylase genes and Arabidopsis thaliana DME had a close relationship. The result of gene expression model showed that four DNA demethylase genes were different between species. The expression levels of LJDME1 and LJDME2 were even more higher in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis than those in L. japonica. LJDME] and LJDME2 maybe regulate the active compounds of L. japonica. This study aims to lay a foundation for further understanding of the function of DNA demethylase genes in L. japonica.

  3. Hormetic Responses of Lonicera Japonica Thunb. To Cadmium Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouli; Chen, Wei; He, Xingyuan; Jia, Lian; Yu, Shuai; Zhao, Mingzhu

    2015-01-01

    The hormetic responses of Lonicera japonica Thunb. to cadmium (Cd) stress were investigated in a hydroponic experiment. The present results showed that root length and total biomass dry weight increased in comparison with the control at low concentrations Cd. The height of the plant exposed to 2.5 and 5 mg L(-1) Cd increased significantly by 11.9% and 12.8% relative to the control, and with the increase of Cd concentrations in the medium, plant height began to decrease. The responses of photosynthetic pigments contents and relative water content to Cd stress had a similar trend, which all showed significantly an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve and confirmed that the stimulatory effect of low concentrations Cd occurred in the plant. Furthermore, L. japonica, as a new Cd-hyperaccumulator, could be considered as a new plant model to study the underlying mechanisms of the hormesis. PMID:26672952

  4. Spatial segregation and aggregation of ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi in the seedlings of two Quercus species.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Hidaka, Amane; Kadowaki, Kohmei; Toju, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Diverse clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi are potentially involved in competitive or facilitative interactions within host-plant roots. We investigated the potential consequences of these ecological interactions on the assembly process of root-associated fungi by examining the co-occurrence of pairs of fungi in host-plant individuals. Based on massively-parallel pyrosequencing, we analyzed the root-associated fungal community composition for each of the 249 Quercus serrata and 188 Quercus glauca seedlings sampled in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Pairs of fungi that co-occurred more or less often than expected by chance were identified based on randomization tests. The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that not only ectomycorrhizal fungi but also endophytic fungi were common in the root-associated fungal community. Intriguingly, specific pairs of these ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi showed spatially aggregated patterns, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions between fungi in different functional groups. Due to the large number of fungal pairs examined, many of the observed aggregated/segregated patterns with very low P values (e.g., < 0.005) turned non-significant after the application of a multiple comparison method. However, our overall results imply that the community structures of ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi could influence each other through interspecific competitive/facilitative interactions in root. To test the potential of host-plants' control of fungus-fungus ecological interactions in roots, we further examined whether the aggregated/segregated patterns could vary depending on the identity of host plant species. Potentially due to the physiological properties shared between the congeneric host plant species, the sign of hosts' control was not detected in the present study. The pyrosequencing-based randomization analyses shown in this study provide a platform of the high-throughput investigation of fungus

  5. Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-cancer Investigation of Boswellia serrata Bioactive Constituents In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; Abd-Rabou, Ahmed A; Hassan, Amal Z; Kotob, Soheir E

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major health obstacle around the world, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) as major causes of morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, there isgrowing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for HCC and CRC, owing to the anticancer activity of their bioactive constituents. Boswellia serrata oleo gum resin has long been used in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate a variety of health problems such as inflammatory and arthritic diseases. The current study aimed to identify and explore the in vitro anticancer effect of B. Serrata bioactive constituents on HepG2 and HCT 116 cell lines. Phytochemical analysis of volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin was carried out using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Oleo-gum-resin of B. Serrata was then successively extracted with petroleum ether (extract 1) and methanol (extract 2). Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of the lipoidal matter was also performed. In addition, a methanol extract of B. Serrata oleo gum resin was phytochemically studied using column chromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) to obtain four fractions (I, II, III and IV). Sephadex columns were used to isolate β-boswellic acid and identification of the pure compound was done using UV, mass spectra, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analysis. Total extracts, fractions and volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo-gum resin were subsequently applied to HCC cells (HepG2 cell line) and CRC cells (HCT 116 cell line) to assess their cytotoxic effects. GLC analysis of the lipoidal matter resulted in identification of tricosane (75.32%) as a major compound with the presence of cholesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. Twenty two fatty acids were identified of which saturated fatty acids represented 25.6% and unsaturated fatty acids 74.4% of the total saponifiable fraction. GC/MS analysis of three chromatographic fractions (I,II and III) of B. Serrata oleo gum resin revealed the

  6. Cork Oak Trees (Quercus suber L.).

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Rubén; Toribio, Mariano; Cortizo, Millán; Ordás Fernández, Ricardo-Javier

    2006-01-01

    A transformation system for selected mature Quercus suber L. trees using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been established. Embryos obtained from recurrent proliferating embryogenic masses are inoculated with AGL1 strain harbouring the plasmid pBINUbiGUSint, which carries the nptII and uidA genes. Evidence of stable transgene integration is obtained by polymerase chain reaction for nptII and uidA genes, Southern blotting and expression of the uidA gene. The transgenic embryos are germinated and successfully transferred to soil.

  7. Boswellia serrata Preserves Intestinal Epithelial Barrier from Oxidative and Inflammatory Damage

    PubMed Central

    Catanzaro, Daniela; Rancan, Serena; Orso, Genny; Dall’Acqua, Stefano; Brun, Paola; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Carrara, Maria; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Caparrotta, Laura; Montopoli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are currently the therapeutic choices in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), however, with limited remission and often serious side effects. Meanwhile complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is increasing, particularly herbal medicine. Boswellia serrata is a traditional Ayurvedic remedy with anti-inflammatory properties, of interest for its usefulness in IBDs. The mechanism of this pharmacological potential of Boswellia serrata was investigated in colonic epithelial cell monolayers exposed to H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α, chosen as in vitro experimental model of intestinal inflammation. The barrier function was evaluated by the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and paracellular permeability assay, and by the tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, ZO-1 and occludin) immunofluorescence. The expression of phosphorylated NF-κB and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined by immunoblot and cytofluorimetric assay, respectively. Boswellia serrata oleo-gum extract (BSE) and its pure derivative acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), were tested at 0.1-10 μg/ml and 0.027μg/ml, respectively. BSE and AKBA safety was demonstrated by no alteration of intestinal cell viability and barrier function and integrity biomarkers. H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α treatment of Caco-2 cell monolayers significantly reduced TEER, increased paracellular permeability and caused the disassembly of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1. BSE and AKBA pretreatment significantly prevented functional and morphological alterations and also the NF-κB phosphorylation induced by the inflammatory stimuli. At the same concentrations BSE and AKBA counteracted the increase of ROS caused by H2O2 exposure. Data showed the positive correlation of the antioxidant activity with the mechanism involved in the physiologic maintenance of the integrity and function of the intestinal epithelium. This study elucidates the

  8. Boswellia serrata Preserves Intestinal Epithelial Barrier from Oxidative and Inflammatory Damage.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Daniela; Rancan, Serena; Orso, Genny; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Brun, Paola; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Carrara, Maria; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Caparrotta, Laura; Montopoli, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are currently the therapeutic choices in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), however, with limited remission and often serious side effects. Meanwhile complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is increasing, particularly herbal medicine. Boswellia serrata is a traditional Ayurvedic remedy with anti-inflammatory properties, of interest for its usefulness in IBDs. The mechanism of this pharmacological potential of Boswellia serrata was investigated in colonic epithelial cell monolayers exposed to H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α, chosen as in vitro experimental model of intestinal inflammation. The barrier function was evaluated by the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and paracellular permeability assay, and by the tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1, ZO-1 and occludin) immunofluorescence. The expression of phosphorylated NF-κB and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were determined by immunoblot and cytofluorimetric assay, respectively. Boswellia serrata oleo-gum extract (BSE) and its pure derivative acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), were tested at 0.1-10 μg/ml and 0.027 μg/ml, respectively. BSE and AKBA safety was demonstrated by no alteration of intestinal cell viability and barrier function and integrity biomarkers. H2O2 or INF-γ+TNF-α treatment of Caco-2 cell monolayers significantly reduced TEER, increased paracellular permeability and caused the disassembly of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1. BSE and AKBA pretreatment significantly prevented functional and morphological alterations and also the NF-κB phosphorylation induced by the inflammatory stimuli. At the same concentrations BSE and AKBA counteracted the increase of ROS caused by H2O2 exposure. Data showed the positive correlation of the antioxidant activity with the mechanism involved in the physiologic maintenance of the integrity and function of the intestinal epithelium. This study elucidates the

  9. Cloning and characterisation of a prophenoloxidase from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chi-Fong; Chiou, Tzu-Ting; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Lu, Jenn-Kan; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2007-01-01

    A prophenoloxidase (proPO) cDNA was cloned from the haemocytes of mud crab Scylla serrata using oligonucleotide primers and RT-PCR. Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has a full length of 2663bp, with an open reading frame of 2019bp, a 124-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 520-bp 3'-untranslated region containing a poly A signal. It encodes a protein of 673 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 77.5kDa and with an estimated pI of 5.96. It contains two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six histidine residues (copper A, 185, 189, 211, and copper B, 346, 350, 386). The proPO has thiol-ester-like motif (GCGWPQHM), which showed similar structural features of proPOs from other decapod crustaceans. It also contains five possible glycosylation sites, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. Sequence comparison showed that the proPO-deduced amino acid of mud crab S. serrata has an overall similarity of 78%, 57%, 56%, 51-55%, 54%, 53%, 52%, 52%, and 52% to that of Dungeness crab Cancer magister, American lobster Homarus americanus, European lobster Homarus gammarus, kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus, crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus, and giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, respectively. The proPO was strongly expressed in haemocytes, but not in heart, eyestalk, gill, muscle, ovary, hepatopancreas, stomach, and intestine. The proPO transcript of mud crab S. serrata increased significantly in 12 and 24h post-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection, but returned to the original values in 72h post injection. PMID:16806468

  10. Annual dormancy cycles in buried seeds of shrub species: germination ecology of Sideritis serrata (Labiatae).

    PubMed

    Copete, M A; Herranz, J M; Ferrandis, P; Copete, E

    2015-07-01

    The germination ecology of Sideritis serrata was investigated in order to improve ex-situ propagation techniques and management of their habitat. Specifically, we analysed: (i) influence of temperature, light conditions and seed age on germination patterns; (ii) phenology of germination; (iii) germinative response of buried seeds to seasonal temperature changes; (iv) temperature requirements for induction and breaking of secondary dormancy; (v) ability to form persistent soil seed banks; and (vi) seed bank dynamics. Freshly matured seeds showed conditional physiological dormancy, germinating at low and cool temperatures but not at high ones (28/14 and 32/18 °C). Germination ability increased with time of dry storage, suggesting the existence of non-deep physiological dormancy. Under unheated shade-house conditions, germination was concentrated in the first autumn. S. serrata seeds buried and exposed to natural seasonal temperature variations in the shade-house, exhibited an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, coming out of conditional dormancy in summer and re-entering it in winter. Non-dormant seeds were clearly induced into dormancy when stratified at 5 or 15/4 °C for 8 weeks. Dormant seeds, stratified at 28/14 or 32/18 °C for 16 weeks, became non-dormant if they were subsequently incubated over a temperature range from 15/4 to 32/18 °C. S. serrata is able to form small persistent soil seed banks. The maximum seed life span in the soil was 4 years, decreasing with burial depth. This is the second report of an annual conditional dormancy/non-dormancy cycle in seeds of shrub species.

  11. Antioxidant and Antiglycating Constituents from Leaves of Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Niyaz; Naqvi, Atta Abbas; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Upadhyay, Atul; Tuenter, Emmy; Foubert, Kenn; Apers, Sandra; Hermans, Nina; Pieters, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela Serrata plants have a folkloric use in Pakistan for treatments of different ailments, i.e., Jaundice, Hepatitis, Diabetes, and antimicrobial. Until now, none of the research studies have reported any phytochemical work on leaves of these two plants. This study aimed to isolate and perform phytochemical analysis in order to search for the constituent having the active role in treatment of the aforementioned ailments. A bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedure was used to isolate the concerned phytochemicals present in leaf extracts of Z. oxyphylla and C. serrata. The process involved the hyphenated techniques, i.e., Flash Chromatography, Semi-Preparative HPLC/DAD, UPLC/MS, and NMR in order to isolate and elucidate the structure of the phytochemicals. Seven compounds (1–7) were isolated and identified as flavonoids, more in particular glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. They showed DPPH scavenging activity, compound 3 (isoquercitrin) being the most active one with an IC50 of 10.8 µg/mL (positive control quercetin; IC50 3.6 µg/mL). The superoxide-radical scavenging and total antioxidant (ABTS) assays indicated IC50 values ranging from 200 to 910 µg/mL and 170 to 320 µg/mL, respectively (positive control quercetin: 374 and 180 µg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, these compounds had low IC50 values for inhibition of protein glycation (AGEs inhibition), ranging from 530 to 818 µg/mL, comparable to aminoguanidine (510 µg/mL) used as a positive control. This study resulted in the identification of seven flavonoid glycosides for the first time from the leaves of Z. oxyphylla and C. serrata with antioxidative and antiglycating activities. PMID:26999227

  12. [Study of Dioscorea opposita Thunb from different producing areas with XRF and PXRD].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Chao; Zhu, Yan-Ying; Ding, Xi-Feng; Liu, Mei-Yi; Guo, Xi-Hua; Wu, Peng-Le; Guan, Ying

    2012-07-01

    The contents of various elements in rhizoma dioscoreae were analyzed and compared with those of shishou D. opposita Thunb on the whole jointly by XRF and PXRD. The results showed that the element Cu, Al and Mn could not be detected in rhizoma dioscoreae, but the element Mg, Zn and Cr were found, and other elements contents changed to different degrees; there are starch and whewellite in both groups, the crystal type of starches separated from rhizoma dioscoreae cultivars was a typical B-type pattern, but as C-type and V-type in shishou D. opposita Thunb, which is a mixture of A-type, B-type and V-type. The combination of two testing techniques could be applied to the mensuration and analysis of the elements and micro-structural of Dioscorea opposita Thunb which could be from different producing areas.

  13. Interaction between Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf pigment and rice proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Xu, Yuan; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang; Fan, Meihua

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. leaf (VBTL) pigment and rice proteins. In the presence of rice protein, VBTL pigment antioxidant activity and free polyphenol content decreased by 67.19% and 68.11%, respectively, and L(∗) of the protein-pigment complex decreased significantly over time. L(∗) values of albumin, globulin and glutelin during 60-min pigment exposure decreased by 55.00, 57.14, and 54.30%, respectively, indicating that these proteins had bound to the pigment. A significant difference in protein surface hydrophobicity was observed between rice proteins and pigment-protein complexes, indicating that hydrophobic interaction is a major binding mechanism between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. A significant difference in secondary structures between proteins and protein-pigment complexes was also uncovered, indicating that hydrogen bonding may be another mode of interaction between VBTL pigment and rice proteins. Our results indicate that VBTL pigment can stain rice proteins with hydrophobic and hydrogen interactions. PMID:26471554

  14. In vitro propagation of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Giordani, Edgardo; Naval, Mar; Benelli, Carla

    2013-01-01

    Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is a temperate fruit tree species diffused in all continents. The traditional propagation method adopted by the nursery industry is based on budding/grafting scion cultivars on seedlings from D. kaki, Diospyros lotus, and Diospyros virginiana, the most important species used as rootstock, reproduced by seeds since they are not easy to root. Furthermore, most of nonastringent cultivars of persimmon are not compatible with D. lotus, a rootstock largely utilized because of its hardiness and frost resistance. The main in vitro tissue culture techniques, developed for persimmon, deal with direct regeneration (from dormant buds and root tips), and indirect regeneration through callus from dormant buds, apexes, and leaves. The bottlenecks of micropropagation are (1) the recalcitrance of many cultivars to in vitro establishment, (2) the low multiplication ratio of D. kaki compared to other fruit tree species, (3) the very low rooting ability of ex novo microcuttings both from direct and indirect regeneration, (4) the high sensitivity to transplant from in vitro to in vivo conditions. The development of reliable in vitro regeneration procedures is likely to play a key role for production of both clonal rootstocks and self-rooted cultivars. The general protocol for micropropagation of persimmon reported here is based on the establishment of winter dormant buds in vitro, shoot development, multiplication and elongation, and shoot rooting, using cytokinins (BA or zeatin) in a MS media along with an auxinic pretreatment for rooting induction.

  15. Phytic Acid Metabolism in Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) Pollen 1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jih-Jing; Dickinson, David B.; Ho, Tuan-Hua David

    1987-01-01

    The accumulation of phytic acid during development of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) pollen and its degradation during germination have been studied. A substantial amount of phytic acid accumulates in lily pollen by 5 days before anthesis, and little change occurs during subsequent maturation. Mature lily pollen contains 7 to 8 micrograms phytic acid per milligram pollen. Considerable degradation of phytic acid occurs by 15 minutes of incubation in glucose culture medium, and very little is left by 3 hours. No partially phosphorylated myo-inositol accumulates during germination. The breakdown of phytic acid proceeds at a constant rate during this time period. The rate is calculated to be 0.037 microgram phytic acid/milligram pollen/minute. Two phytases are detected in germinated lily pollen extract using high performance liquid chromatography with an anion exchange column (diethylaminoethyl-5PW). The results suggest that one of the phytases is already present in mature ungerminated lily pollen and the other one is newly synthesized during germination from a long-lived, pre-existing mRNA. PMID:16665258

  16. Germplasm preservation in vitro of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He-Ping; Wang, Jian; Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Shan-Lin; Huang, Peng; Wang, Dian-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Background: The root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. is a common traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, the wild resources of P. multiflorum have been seriously broken, and the cultivated varieties have been degrading. The germplasm resources of P. multiflorum need protection and preservation. So far, no in vitro germplasm preservation of P. multiflorum has been reported. Objective: To explore a method for the in vitro germplasm preservation of P. multiflorum. Materials and Methods: A large number of buds from seed explants were induced by tissue culture. The single buds were used as experimental materials to study the effects of plant growth regulator, temperature, and osmotic pressure on the preservation time, growth recovery, and genetic stability. Results: When the buds were inoculated onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media containing 4% w/v sucrose, 2% w/v mannitol, and 1% w/v sorbitol, supplemented with paclobutrazol (PP333) 1.0 mg/l, abscisic acid (ABA) 5.0 mg/l, and daminozide (B9) 30.0 mg/l in an illuminated chamber under a 16 h photoperiod of 1500 lx light intensity at 15°C for 10 months, the survival rate was over 70% with good growth recovery and genetic stability. Conclusion: The results of this study can be used for medium-term in vitro germplasm preservation of P. multiflorum, and meeting actual needs of research and production. PMID:24914285

  17. Electrophoretic pattern of Linguatula serrata larva isolated goat mesenteric lymph node.

    PubMed

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Tabaripour, Rabeeh; Gerami, Abbas; Omrani, Vahid Fallah

    2016-06-01

    Linguatula serrata, one of the parasitic zoonoses, inhabits the canid and felid respiratory system. The parasite is tongue-shaped, lightly convex dorsally and flattened ventrally. Males measure 1.8-2 cm, while females measure 8-13 cm in length. Disease due to infection with this parasite in humans is more likely to cause pharyngitis, nausea and vomiting, sore and itchy throat, cough, phlegm and runny nose. Present study aimed to determine linguatula's larva somatic antigens in lymph nodes of infected goats and also reveal the major component of antigenic protein. To determine the electrophoretic pattern of L. serrata's larvae, 50 samples were taken from goat's referred to the slaughter house of Amol, Mazandaran, Iran. After performing SDS-PAGE on somatic antigens, 6 bands (19, 20, 36, 48, 75,100 KDa) were seen in which the 36, 48 and 75 KDa bands were more prominent. In conclusion, it is recommended to determine the most important antigenic protein of this parasite could be used an experimental model in infection up to determine the most significant component of this parasite's antigen and use of that in immunogenicity and detection of infection. PMID:27413296

  18. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained.

  19. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

  20. The Nature and Extent of Mutational Pleiotropy in Gene Expression of Male Drosophila serrata

    PubMed Central

    McGuigan, Katrina; Collet, Julie M.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Yixin H.; Allen, Scott L.; Chenoweth, Stephen F.; Blows, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    The nature and extent of mutational pleiotropy remain largely unknown, despite the central role that pleiotropy plays in many areas of biology, including human disease, agricultural production, and evolution. Here, we investigate the variation in 11,604 gene expression traits among 41 mutation accumulation (MA) lines of Drosophila serrata. We first confirmed that these expression phenotypes were heritable, detecting genetic variation in 96% of them in an outbred, natural population of D. serrata. Among the MA lines, 3385 (29%) of expression traits were variable, with a mean mutational heritability of 0.0005. In most traits, variation was generated by mutations of relatively small phenotypic effect; putative mutations with effects of greater than one phenotypic standard deviation were observed for only 8% of traits. With most (71%) traits unaffected by any mutation, our data provide no support for universal pleiotropy. We further characterized mutational pleiotropy in the 3385 variable traits, using sets of 5, randomly assigned, traits. Covariance among traits chosen at random with respect to their biological function is expected only if pleiotropy is extensive. Taking an analytical approach in which the variance unique to each trait in the random 5-trait sets was partitioned from variance shared among traits, we detected significant (at 5% false discovery rate) mutational covariance in 21% of sets. This frequency of statistically supported covariance implied that at least some mutations must pleiotropically affect a substantial number of traits (>70; 0.6% of all measured traits). PMID:24402375

  1. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of extracts of Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang Keun; Hah, Dae Sik; Kim, Chung Hui; Kim, Euikyung; Kim, Jong Shu

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the activity of methanol extracts from Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HC) in a reverse mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium, and a chromosome aberration assay in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line and to evaluate its effect on the occurrence of polychromatic erythrocytes in mice. In the reverse mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537 and Escherichia coli WP2urvA(-), methanol extracts of HC (5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.62, or 0.312 mg/plate) did not induce reverse mutations in the presence or absence of an S9 metabolic activation mixture. In the chromosome aberration test using CHO cells, methanol extracts (1.25, 2.5 or 5 μg/ml) caused a few incidences of structural and numerical aberrations, in both of absence or presence of an S9 metabolic activation mixture, but in comparison with the positive control group, these incidences were not significantly increased. In the mouse micronucleus test, no significant increases in the occurrence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were observed in male ICR mice that were orally administered methanol extracts of HC at doses of 2.0, 1.0, or 0.5 g/kg. From these results, we concluded that the methanol extracts of HC did not induce harmful effects on genes in bacteria, a mammalian cell system or in mouse bone marrow cells. Thus, HC's use for health promotion and/or a sick remedy for humans may be safe. PMID:22928832

  2. Use of multiple chemical tracers to define habitat use of Indo-Pacific mangrove crab, Scylla serrata (Decapoda: Portunidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demopoulos, A.W.J.; Cormier, N.; Ewel, K.C.; Fry, B.

    2008-01-01

    The mangrove or mud crab, Scylla serrata, is an important component of mangrove fisheries throughout the Indo-Pacific. Understanding crab diets and habitat use should assist in managing these fisheries and could provide additional justification for conservation of the mangrove ecosystem itself. We used multiple chemical tracers to test whether crab movements were restricted to local mangrove forests, or extended to include adjacent seagrass beds and reef flats. We sampled three mangrove forests on the island of Kosrae in the Federated States of Micronesia at Lelu Harbor, Okat River, and Utwe tidal channel. Samples of S. serrata and likely food sources were analyzed for stable carbon (??13C), nitrogen (??15N), and sulfur (??34S) isotopes. Scylla serrata tissues also were analyzed for phosphorus (P), cations (K, Ca, Mg, Na), and trace elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and B). Discriminant analysis indicated that at least 87% of the crabs remain in each site as distinct populations. Crab stable isotope values indicated potential differences in habitat use within estuaries. Values for ??13C and ??34S in crabs from Okat and Utwe were low and similar to values expected from animals feeding within mangrove forests, e.g., feeding on infauna that had average ??13C values near -26.5???. In contrast, crabs from Lelu had higher ?? 13C and ??34S values, with average values of -21.8 and 7.8???, respectively. These higher isotope values are consistent with increased crab foraging on reef flats and seagrasses. Given that S. serrata have been observed feeding on adjacent reef and seagrass environments on Kosrae, it is likely that they move in and out of the mangroves for feeding. Isotope mixing model results support these conclusions, with the greatest mangrove ecosystem contribution to S. serrata diet occurring in the largest mangrove forests. Conserving larger island mangrove forests (> 1 km deep) appears to support crab foraging activities. ?? 2007 Coastal and Estuarine Research

  3. Relationship of European Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) Cultivars to Asian Cultivars, Characterized Using AFLPs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty one persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) selections, including 17 Italian, 11 Spanish, 13 Japanese, six Korean, five Chinese, one Israeli, and eight of unknown origin, were evaluated for genetic differences by AFLP analysis. Relationships among cultivars were evaluated by UPGMA clustering, Neigh...

  4. Boswellia serrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Tawab, Mona; Werz, Oliver; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred

    2011-06-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) intake is associated with high prevalence of gastrointestinal or cardiovascular adverse effects. All efforts to develop NSAIDs that spare the gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovasculature are still far from achieving a breakthrough. In the last two decades, preparations of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata (a traditional ayurvedic medicine) and of other Boswellia species have experienced increasing popularity in Western countries. Animal studies and pilot clinical trials support the potential of B. serrata gum resin extract (BSE) for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and asthma. Moreover, in 2002 the European Medicines Agency classified BSE as an 'orphan drug' for the treatment of peritumoral brain oedema. Compared to NSAIDs, it is expected that the administration of BSE is associated with better tolerability, which needs to be confirmed in further clinical trials. Until recently, the pharmacological effects of BSE were mainly attributed to suppression of leukotriene formation via inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) by two boswellic acids, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA) and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA). These two boswellic acids have also been chosen in the monograph of Indian frankincense in European Pharmacopoiea 6.0 as markers to ensure the quality of the air-dried gum resin exudate of B. serrata. Furthermore, several dietary supplements advertise the enriched content of KBA and AKBA. However, boswellic acids failed to inhibit leukotriene formation in human whole blood, and pharmacokinetic data revealed very low concentrations of AKBA and KBA in plasma, being far below the effective concentrations for bioactivity in vitro. Moreover, permeability studies suggest poor absorption of AKBA following oral administration. In view of these results, the previously assumed mode of action - that is, 5-LO inhibition - is

  5. Phylogenetic relationships among Linguatula serrata isolates from Iran based on 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Tavassoli, Mousa; Peters, Andrew; Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Hajipour, Naser

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among seven Linguatula serrata (L. serrata) isolates collected from cattle, goats, sheep, dogs and camels in different geographical locations of Iran were investigated using partial 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences. The nucleotide sequences were analysed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships between the isolates. Higher sequence diversity and intraspecies variation was observed in the cox1 gene compared to 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 gene placed all L. serrata isolates in a sister clade to L. arctica. The Mantel regression analysis revealed no association between genetic variations and host species or geographical location, perhaps due to the small sample size. However, genetic variations between L. serrata isolates in Iran and those isolated in other parts of the world may exist and could reveal possible evolutionary relationships.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among Linguatula serrata isolates from Iran based on 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Tavassoli, Mousa; Peters, Andrew; Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Hajipour, Naser

    2016-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among seven Linguatula serrata (L. serrata) isolates collected from cattle, goats, sheep, dogs and camels in different geographical locations of Iran were investigated using partial 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequences. The nucleotide sequences were analysed in order to determine the phylogenetic relationships between the isolates. Higher sequence diversity and intraspecies variation was observed in the cox1 gene compared to 18S rRNA sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the cox1 gene placed all L. serrata isolates in a sister clade to L. arctica. The Mantel regression analysis revealed no association between genetic variations and host species or geographical location, perhaps due to the small sample size. However, genetic variations between L. serrata isolates in Iran and those isolated in other parts of the world may exist and could reveal possible evolutionary relationships. PMID:27149706

  7. Comparative mapping in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai].

    PubMed

    Sandlin, Katherine; Prothro, Jason; Heesacker, Adam; Khalilian, Nelly; Okashah, Rebecca; Xiang, Wenwen; Bachlava, Eleni; Caldwell, David G; Taylor, Chris A; Seymour, Danelle K; White, Victoria; Chan, Eva; Tolla, Greg; White, Cathy; Safran, Dolores; Graham, Elaine; Knapp, Steven; McGregor, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    The first single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai] were constructed and compared. Three populations were developed from crosses between two elite cultivars, Klondike Black Seeded × New Hampshire Midget (KBS × NHM), an elite cultivar and wild egusi accession, Strain II × PI 560023 (SII × Egusi) and an elite cultivar and a wild citron accession, ZWRM50 × PI 244019 (ZWRM × Citroides). The SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides F(2) populations consisted of 187 and 182 individuals respectively while the KBS × NHM recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisted of 164 lines. The length of the genetic maps were 1,438, 1,514 and 1,144 cM with average marker distances of 3.8, 4.2, and 3.4 cM for the KBS × NHM, SII × Egusi and ZWRM × Citroides populations, respectively. Shared markers were used to align the three maps so that the linkage groups (LGs) represented the 11 chromosomes of the species. Marker segregation distortion were observed in all three populations, but was highest (12.7 %) in the ZWRM × Citroides population, where Citroides alleles were favored. The three maps were used to construct a consensus map containing 378 SNP markers with an average distance of 5.1 cM between markers. Phenotypic data was collected for fruit weight (FWT), fruit length (FL), fruit width (FWD), fruit shape index (FSI), rind thickness (RTH) and Brix (BRX) and analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with these traits. A total of 40 QTL were identified in the three populations, including major QTL for fruit size and shape that were stable across genetic backgrounds and environments. The present study reports the first SNP maps for Citrullus and the first map constructed using two elite parents. We also report the first stable QTL associated with fruit size and shape in Citrullus lanatus. These maps, QTL and SNPs should be useful for the watermelon community and represent a significant step towards the

  8. Hepatoprotective Activity of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) Bulb Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenping; Munafo, John P; Palatini, Kimberly; Esposito, Debora; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Ho, Chi-Tang; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-11-11

    The hepatoprotective activities of two different extracts, a hydroethanolic crude bulb extract (CB) and a steroidal glycoside-rich 1-butanol extract (BuOH), prepared from the bulbs of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.), were evaluated in a 24 week study in the female KK.Cg-A(y)/J Type 2 diabetic mouse model. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 16): control mice received Easter lily bulb extract-free drinking water together with a low- or high-fat diet (diabetic control); drinking water for the remaining groups was supplemented with CB extract (1%), BuOH extract (0.1 or 0.2%), and reference drug Metformin (0.001%), together with a high-fat diet. Both CB and BuOH extract treatment groups exhibited significantly improved liver function based on comparisons of triglycerides [diabetic 219 ± 34 mg/dL, CB 131 ± 27 mg/dL, BuOH(0.2%) 114 ± 35 mg/dL], CB total cholesterol (TC) (diabetic 196 ± 12 mg/dL, CB 159 ± 5 mg/dL), average liver mass [diabetic 2.96 ± 0.13 g, CB 2.58 ± 0.08 g, BuOH(0.1%) 2.48 ± 0.13 g], alanine transferase [diabetic 74 ± 5 units/L, CB 25 ± 1 units/L, BuOH(0.1%) 45 ± 1 units/L], and histological examinations. Glucose metabolism was improved only in CB, which was confirmed by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice exposed to CB extract. These data suggest that steroidal glycosides 1-5 might play a role in the hepatoprotective activity of the BuOH extracts, while the results of the TC measurements and OGTT study indicate that other constituents present in the CB extract are responsible for its hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic activity.

  9. Multihydroxylation of ursolic acid by Pestalotiopsis microspora isolated from the medicinal plant Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shao-bin; Yang, Jun-shan; Cui, Jin-long; Meng, Qing-feng; Feng, Xu; Sun, Di-An

    2011-10-01

    The structural modification of ursolic acid by an endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora, isolated from medicinal plant Huperzia serrata was reported for the first time. The structure diversity was very important for the SAR study of ursolic acid and its derivatives. Incubation of ursolic acid 1 with P. microspora afforded four metabolites: 3-oxo-15α, 30-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 3β, 15α-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (3), 3β, 15α, 30- trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (4) and 3,4-seco-ursan-4,30-dihydroxy-12-en-3,28-dioic acid (5). All products were new compounds and their structures elucidation was mainly based on the spectroscopic data.

  10. In vitro study of neuroendocrine regulation over the testicular development in mud crabs Scylla serrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Haihui; Huang, Huiyang; Li, Shaojing; Wang, Guizhong; Li, Qifu

    2006-06-01

    The reproductive endocrine activities of neuroendocrine organs and androgenic glands (AG) in male Scylla serrata were investigated with co-incubation technology. In vitro studies show that: (1) the AG in Stage III can significantly accelerate the development of seminiferous tubules and spermic maturation; (2) the brain, thoracic ganglia and optic ganglia have no direct influence over the testicular development; (3) the brain and thoracic ganglia can significantly promote the growth of the AG cells and highly significantly boost the ratio of Type B cells, while the optic ganglia have no such effects. It is the first time for in vitro investigations to confirm that the brain and thoracic ganglia can regulate, testicular development through AG in male crustaceans.

  11. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained. PMID:24828752

  12. Infection rates of Linguatula serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes from water buffaloes in North India.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Shanker, Daya

    2014-09-15

    The literature pertaining to prevalence of Linguatula serrata in large ruminants is limited. In abattoir survey, the infection rate of L. serrata in 1440 mesenteric lymph nodes collected from 480 buffaloes from North India was investigated. Results revealed 88 (18.3%) buffaloes and 288 (20.0%) mesenteric lymph nodes having parasite's nymphs. Nonsignificant difference (P>0.05), between 1 and 3 years age (51.5%) and above three years of age (48.5%) groups was observed. Nonsignificant difference (P>0.05) between the infection rate of male (51.5%) and female (48.5%) was also observed. Infection in haemorrhagic (57.2%) and black-coloured (67.5%) nymph nodes were significantly (P<0.05) higher than normal-coloured nodes (8.8%). When compared based on consistency, the results showed soft lymph nodes (61.3%) were significantly (P<0.05) more infected than normal (12.8%) and hard (30.0%) lymph nodes. The intensity of infection in normal, haemorrhagic and black lymph nodes were 1.81 ± 0.21, 4.23 ± 0.0.62 and 5.12 ± 0.73, nymphs respectively. The mean numbers of parasites in haemorrhagic and black-coloured lymph nodes were significantly (P<0.0005) more than mean number of parasites in normal-coloured nodes. Again intensity of infection in normal, soft and hard lymph nodes was 2.31 ± 0.18, 5.84 ± 0.74 and 3.21 ± 0.68, respectively. When compared based on lymph nodes consistency, the soft lymph nodes were significantly (P<0.0005) more severely infected than normal and hard ones. The study has generated some vital data about the prevalence of this underreported disease amongst the bubaline intermediate hosts along with important gross changes in the affected lymph nodes.

  13. Isolation, diversity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the culturable endophytic fungi harboured in Huperzia serrata from Jinggang Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Lai, Zheng; Li, Xi-Xi; Yan, Ri-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Hui-Lin; Zhu, Du

    2016-02-01

    Huperzia serrata has many important medicinal properties with proven pharmacological potential. Some of these properties may be mediated by its endophytic fungi. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we provided a first insights into evaluating the species composition and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of the culturable endophytic fungi of H. serrata from the regional at Jinggang Mountain in southeastern China. A total number of 885 fungal isolates distributed across 44 genera and 118 putative species were obtained from 1422 fragments of fine H. serrata roots, stems and leaves base on ITS-rDNA sequences BLAST analysis. The endophytic fungi were phylogenetically diverse and species-rich, with high rate of colonization and isolation. The assemble of endophytic fungi consisted mainly of Ascomycota (97.15%), followed by Basidiomycota (1.92%) and unknown fungal species (0.90%). Colletotrichum (64.29%), Phyllosticta (3.39%), Hypoxylon (2.81%), Xylaria (2.25%) and Nigrospora (2.04%) were the most abundant genera, whereas the remaining genera were infrequent groups. Although, roots yielded low abundance strains, the diverse and species-rich were both higher than that of stems and leaves. In addition, out of the 247 endophytic fungi strains determinated, 221 fungal extracts showed AChE inhibition activities in vitro. Among them, 22 endophytic fungi strains achieved high inhibitory activity (≥50%) on AChE which belongs to 13 genera and five incertae sedis strains. Four endophytic fungi designated as JS4 (Colletotrichum spp.), FL14 (Ascomycota spp.), FL9 (Sarcosomataceae spp.) and FL7 (Dothideomycetes spp.) were displayed highly active (≥80%) against AChE, which the inhibition effects were even more intense than the positive control. Our findings highlight that H. serrata grown in Jinggang Mountain harbors a rich and fascinating endophytic fungus community with potential AChE inhibitory activity, which could further broaden the natural

  14. The occurrence of nymphal stage of Linguatula serrata in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): nymphal morphometry and lymph node pathology.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, P; Sankar, M; Nambi, P A; Praveena, P E; Singh, N

    2005-12-01

    The mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of buffaloes (n = 100) were examined for the presence of parasitic infection. The nymphal stage of Linguatula serrata was observed in two buffaloes. A single white-coloured nymph with transversely striated spines on a segmented body, two pairs of oral suckers and hooks was observed in the MLN. The morphometrics of the nymphs were studied. The affected lymph nodes were grossly enlarged with cyst and showed pathological lesions of fibroblastic reaction with a mild underlying inflammatory zone.

  15. Effect of Boswellia serrata supplementation on blood lipid, hepatic enzymes and fructosamine levels in type2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is an endocrine disorder that affects a large percentage of patients. High blood glucose causes fatty deposits in the liver which is likely to increase in SGOT and SGPT activities. Significant increase in SGOT/SGPT and low HDL levels is observed in patients with diabetes. Serum fructosamine concentration reflects the degree of blood glucose control in diabetic patients. This study was aimed to investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of supplementation of Boswellia serrata in type2 diabetic patients. Methods 60 type 2 diabetic patients from both sexes (30 males and 30 females) were dedicated to the control and intervention groups (30 subjects per group). Boswellia serrata gum resin in amount of 900 mg daily for 6 weeks were orally administered (as three 300 mg doses) in intervention group and the control group did not receive anything. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks. Blood levels of fructosamine, lipid profiles as well as hepatic enzyme in type 2 diabetic patients were measured. Results Treatment of diabetic patient with Boswellia serrata was caused to significant increase in blood HDL levels as well as a remarkable decrease in cholesterol, LDL, fructosamine (p < 0.05) SGPT and SGOT levels after 6 weeks (p < 0.01). In spite of reduction of serum triglyceride, VLDL levels in intervention group, we did not detect a significant difference after 6 weeks. Conclusion This study showed that Boswellia serrata supplementation can be beneficial in controlling blood parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, its use can be useful in patients with medicines. PMID:24495344

  16. Assessment of Quercus flowering trends in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Jato, V; Rodríguez-Rajo, F J; Fernandez-González, M; Aira, M J

    2015-05-01

    This paper sought to chart airborne Quercus pollen counts over the last 20 years in the region of Galicia (NW Spain) with a view to detecting the possible influence of climate change on the Quercus airborne pollen season (APS). Pollen data from Ourense, Santiago de Compostela, Vigo and Lugo were used. The Quercus airborne pollen season was characterized in terms of the following parameters: pollen season start and end dates, peak pollen count, pollen season length and pollen index. Several methods, dates and threshold temperatures for determining the chill and heat requirements needed to trigger flowering were applied. A diverse APS onset timing sequence was observed for the four cities as Quercus flowers few days in advance in Vigo. The variations observed could be related to differences in the meteorological conditions or the thermal requirements needed for flowering. Thermal requirements differed depending on local climate conditions in the study cities: the lowest values for chilling accumulation were recorded in Vigo and the highest in Lugo, whereas the lowest heat accumulation was achieved in Vigo. Differences in APS trends between cities may reflect variations in weather-related trends. A significant trend towards rising Quercus pollen indices and higher maximum daily mean pollen counts was observed in Ourense, linked to the more marked temperature increase across southern Galicia. A non-uniform trend towards increased temperatures was noted over the study period, particularly in late summer and early autumn in all four study cities. Additionally, an increase in spring temperatures was observed in south-western Galicia.

  17. Effects of Mesh Size and Escape Gaps on Discarding in an Australian Giant Mud Crab (Scylla serrata) Trap Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Broadhurst, Matt K.; Butcher, Paul A.; Cullis, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    In response to concerns over excessive discarding from Australian recreational round traps (with four funnel entrances) used to target giant mud crabs, Scylla serrata, an experiment was done to assess the independent and cumulative utility of paired, bottom-located horizontal escape gaps (46×120 mm) and increasing mesh size (from 51 to 101 mm). Compared to conventional traps comprising 51-mm mesh throughout, those with the same mesh size and escape gaps caught significantly fewer (by 95%) undersize (<85 mm carapace length – CL) crabs while maintaining legal catches. Traps made from 101-mm mesh (but with the same funnel entrances as conventional designs) and with and without escape gaps similarly retained fewer undersize crabs and also yellowfin bream Acanthopagrus australis (the key bycatch species) by up to 94%, but there were concomitant reductions in fishing power for legal sizes of S. serrata. Although there were no immediate mortalities among any discarded crabs, there was a greater bias towards wounding among post molts than late inter-molts and less damage to individuals in the 101-mm conventional than 51-mm conventional traps (without escape gaps). The results support retrospectively fitting escape gaps in conventional S. serrata traps as a means for reducing discarding, but additional work is required to determine appropriate mesh sizes/configurations that maximize species and size selectivity. PMID:25180770

  18. Characterisation of microsatellite loci in two species of lice, Polyplax serrata (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Polyplacidae) and Myrsidea nesomimi (Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Menoponidae).

    PubMed

    Martinu, Jana; Roubova, Veronika; Novakova, Milena; Smith, Vincent S; Hypsa, Vaclav; Stefka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphic microsatellite loci were characterised for two louse species, the anopluran Polyplax serrata Burmeister, 1839, parasitising Eurasian field mice of the genus Apodemus Kaup, and the amblyceran Myrsidea nesomimi Palma et Price, 2010, found on mocking birds endemic to the Galápagos Islands. Evolutionary histories of the two parasites show complex patterns influenced both by their geographic distribution and through coevolution with their respective hosts, which renders them prospective evolutionary models. In P. serrata, 16 polymorphic loci were characterised and screened across 72 individuals from four European populations that belong to two sympatric mitochondrial lineages differing in their breadth of host-specificity. In M. nesomimi, 66 individuals from three island populations and two host species were genotyped for 15 polymorphic loci. The observed heterozygosity varied from 0.05 to 0.9 in P. serrata and from 0.0 to 0.96 in M. nesomimi. Deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were frequently observed in the populations of both parasites. Fst distances between tested populations correspond with previous phylogenetic data, suggesting the microsatellite loci are an informative resource for ecological and evolutionary studies of the two parasites.

  19. Polygonumnolides C1-C4; minor dianthrone glycosides from the roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Bo; Li, Li; Dai, Zhong; Wu, Yu; Geng, Xing-Chao; Li, Bo; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2016-09-01

    Four new dianthrone glycosides, named polygonumnolides C1-C4 (1-4), were isolated from the dried roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, together with two known emodin dianthrones (5-6). Their hepatotoxicities were evaluated against L-02 cell lines. Compounds 1-4 showed weak hepatotoxicity against L-02 cell lines with IC50 values of 313.05, 205.20, 294.20, and 207.35 μM, respectively. PMID:27139982

  20. [Cloning and bioinformatic analysis of FatB genes in Lonicera japonica Thunb and its substitutes].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhou-yong; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Min; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan; Lin, Shu-fang; Wu, Zhi-gang

    2012-10-01

    A FatB unigene was obtained from the transcriptome dataset of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Full-length FatB cDNA was cloned from buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb., Lonicera japonica Thunb. var. chinensis (Wats.) Bak., Lonicera hypoglauca Miq. and Lonicera dasystyla Rehd. using RT-PCR technology, and named as LJFatB, LHFatB, LJCFatB and LDFatB. The results of bioinformatic analysis showed that LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB and Arabidopsis thaliana AtFatB had a closely relationship. Nucleotide sequences and protein secondary structure of LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB are different and their proteins had conserved FatB substrate binding sites and catalytic activity sites. Transcriptive level of LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB in bud was not significantly different. Therefore, LJFatB, LJCFatB, LHFatB and LDFatB could have the same biological function as AtFatB.

  1. Bioclimatic characteristic of oak species Quercus macranthera subsp. syspirensis and Quercus petraea subsp. pinnatiloba in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kargioglu, Mustafa; Serteser, Ahmet; Senkul, Cetin; Konuk, Muhsin

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine some bioclimatic characteristics such as humidity category (Q2), winter variant (m), the length of the dry season (LDS) and the dry season water deficit (DSWD) of naturally growing two endemic oak taxa, Quercus macranthera subsp. syspirensis and Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba, living in Turkey. Our findings showed that bioclimatic tolerance range of Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis possess 7 different types of Mediterranean bioclimate while Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba had 8 of them. Although Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis was ranging among the semiarid, freezing and very cold, Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba was among sub-humid, freezing and very cold ambient. It was briefly established that Q. macranthera subsp. syspirensis prefers semi-arid and very cold/freezing conditions and Q. petraea subsp. pinnatiloba prefers sub-humid and cold/very cold climatic conditions.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the black mud crab, Scylla serrata (Crustacea: Brachyura: Portunidae) and its phylogenetic position among (pan)crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Jondeung, Amnuay; Karinthanyakit, Wirangrong; Kaewkhumsan, Jitlada

    2012-12-01

    The black mud crab, Scylla serrata (Forskål 1775), is the most economically important edible crab in South-East Asia. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of black mud crab, S. serrata, was determined with the sequential polymerase chain reaction and primer walking sequencing. The complete mitochondrial genome was 15,721 bp in length with an A+T content of 69.2 % and contained 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) and a control region (CR). The analysis of the CR sequence shows that it contains a multitude of repetitive fragments which can fold into hairpin-like or secondary structures and conserved elements as in other arthropods. The gene order of S. serrata mainly retains as the pancrustacean ground pattern, except for a single translocation of trnH. The gene arrangement of S. serrata appears to be a typical feature of portunid crabs. Phylogenetic analyses with concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs establishes that S. serrata in a well-supported monophyletic Portunidae and is consistent with previous morphological classification. Moreover, the phylogenomic results strongly support monophyletic Pancrustacea (Hexapoda plus "Crustaceans"). Within Pancrustacea, this study identifies Malacostraca + Entomostraca and Branchiopoda as the sister group to Hexapoda, which confirms that "Crustacea" is not monophyletic. Cirripedia + Remipedia appear to be a basal lineage of Pancrustacea. The present study also provides considerable data for the application of both population and phylogenetic studies of other crab species.

  3. Mangrove crab ( Scylla serrata) populations may sometimes be best managed locally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewel, Katherine C.

    2008-02-01

    Mangrove crabs ( Scylla serrata) were trapped in summer and fall 2004 at four sites, each in a separate municipality on the Pacific island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. Carapace width (CW) of the 219 crabs averaged 15.1 ± 0.13 cm (SE), slightly larger than the mean size of 221 crabs trapped from the same sites 4 y earlier. Mean CW of the 56 crabs in the upper quartile was 17.5 ± 0.17 cm (SE). In the current study, both sizes of crabs as well as degree and direction of change in size from summer to winter varied among the municipalities. The average CW of crabs from one municipality was significantly larger than from any of the other municipalities. Average CW of crabs from another municipality decreased from summer to fall. These results suggest that although the island-wide crab population appears to be stable, some municipalities may wish to enact site-specific management policies to obtain a harvest regimen that will meet local needs.

  4. Do female fruit flies (Drosophila serrata) copy the mate choice of others?

    PubMed

    Auld, Heather L; Punzalan, David; Godin, Jean-Guy J; Rundle, Howard D

    2009-09-01

    Female mate-choice copying is a social learning phenomenon whereby a female's observation of a successful sexual interaction between a male and another female increases her likelihood of subsequently preferring that male. Although mate-choice copying has been documented in several vertebrate species, to our knowledge it has not yet been investigated in insects. Here, we investigated whether female mate-choice copying occurs in the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, a model system for the study of mate preferences and the sexual selection they generate. We used two complementary experiments in which focal females were given a choice between two males that differed in either their apparent (as determined visually by the focal female) or actual recent mating success. Mate-choice copying was evaluated by testing whether focal females mated more frequently with the 'preferred' male as opposed to the other male. In both experiments, however, we found no evidence for mate-choice copying. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent absence of mate-choice copying in this species.

  5. Condition dependence of a multicomponent sexual display trait in Drosophila serrata.

    PubMed

    Delcourt, Matthieu; Rundle, Howard D

    2011-06-01

    Theory predicts that costly sexual displays should evolve condition dependence if the marginal fitness gain from trait exaggeration is greater for high- than for low-condition individuals and that the strength of condition dependence should increase with the strength of directional selection. While there is substantial support for the first prediction, evidence for the latter is much weaker. We undertook a quantitative test of this prediction for a multivariate sexual display consisting of a suite of contact pheromones termed "cuticular hydrocarbons" (CHCs) in Drosophila serrata. We performed a dietary manipulation of condition (i.e., the pool of metabolic resources available for allocation to fitness-enhancing traits) within a half-sibling breeding design, thereby also providing insight into the genetic basis of condition dependence. As predicted, the linear combination of CHCs under the strongest sexual selection from female mate preferences was unusually condition dependent relative to other CHC combinations within the population ([Formula: see text]). A significant positive correlation also existed between the strengths of condition dependence and sexual selection among different CHC blends ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Finally, sires varied in their response to the dietary manipulation, demonstrating significant genetic variance in condition dependence. Our results are consistent with the evolution of heightened condition dependence of sexual displays in response to persistent sexual selection.

  6. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro.

    PubMed

    von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites.

  7. Functional role of anthocyanins in the leaves of Quintinia serrata A. Cunn.

    PubMed

    Gould, K S; Markham, K R; Smith, R H; Goris, J J

    2000-06-01

    The protective functions that have been ascribed to anthocyanins in leaves can be performed as effectively by a number of other compounds. The possibility that anthocyanins accumulate most abundantly in leaves deficient in other phytoprotective pigments has been tested. Pigment concentrations and their histological distribution were surveyed for a sample of 1000 leaves from a forest population of Quintinia serrata, which displays natural polymorphism in leaf colour. Eight leaf phenotypes were recognized according to their patterns of red coloration. Anthocyanins were observed in almost all combinations of every leaf tissue, but were most commonly located in the vacuoles of photosynthetic cells. Red leaves contained two anthocyanins (Cy-3-glc and Cy-3-gal), epicuticular flavones, epidermal flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. Green leaves lacked anthocyanins, but had otherwise similar pigment profiles. Foliar anthocyanin levels varied significantly between branches and among trees, but were not correlated to concentrations of other pigments. Anthocyanins were most abundant in older leaves on trees under canopies with south-facing gaps. These data indicate that anthocyanins are associated with photosynthesis, but do not serve an auxiliary phytoprotective role. They may serve to protect shade-adapted chloroplasts from brief exposure to high intensity sunflecks. PMID:10948238

  8. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro.

    PubMed

    von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites. PMID:26611396

  9. Comparing the intersex genetic correlation for fitness across novel environments in the fruit fly, Drosophila serrata

    PubMed Central

    Punzalan, D; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-01-01

    Sexually antagonistic genetic variation can pose limits to the independent evolution and adaptation of the sexes. The extent of sexually antagonistic variation is reflected in the intersex genetic correlation for fitness (rwFM). Previous estimates of this correlation have been mostly limited to populations in environments to which they are already well adapted, making it difficult to gauge the importance of sexually antagonistic genetic variance during the early stages of adaptation, such as that occurring following abrupt environmental change or upon the colonization of new habitat. Here we assayed male and female lifetime fitness in a population of Drosophila serrata in four novel laboratory environments. We found that rwFM varied significantly across environments, with point estimates ranging from positive to negative values of considerable magnitude. We also found that the variability among estimates was because, at least in part, of significant differences among environments in the genetic variances of both male and female fitness, with no evidence of any significant changes in the intersex covariance itself, although standard errors of these estimates were large. Our results illustrate the unpredictable nature of rwFM in novel environments and suggest that, although sexually antagonistic genetic variance can be pronounced in some novel environments, it may have little effect in constraining the early stages of adaptation in others. PMID:24045292

  10. Functional role of anthocyanins in the leaves of Quintinia serrata A. Cunn.

    PubMed

    Gould, K S; Markham, K R; Smith, R H; Goris, J J

    2000-06-01

    The protective functions that have been ascribed to anthocyanins in leaves can be performed as effectively by a number of other compounds. The possibility that anthocyanins accumulate most abundantly in leaves deficient in other phytoprotective pigments has been tested. Pigment concentrations and their histological distribution were surveyed for a sample of 1000 leaves from a forest population of Quintinia serrata, which displays natural polymorphism in leaf colour. Eight leaf phenotypes were recognized according to their patterns of red coloration. Anthocyanins were observed in almost all combinations of every leaf tissue, but were most commonly located in the vacuoles of photosynthetic cells. Red leaves contained two anthocyanins (Cy-3-glc and Cy-3-gal), epicuticular flavones, epidermal flavonols, hydroxycinnamic acids, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. Green leaves lacked anthocyanins, but had otherwise similar pigment profiles. Foliar anthocyanin levels varied significantly between branches and among trees, but were not correlated to concentrations of other pigments. Anthocyanins were most abundant in older leaves on trees under canopies with south-facing gaps. These data indicate that anthocyanins are associated with photosynthesis, but do not serve an auxiliary phytoprotective role. They may serve to protect shade-adapted chloroplasts from brief exposure to high intensity sunflecks.

  11. Ellagitannins and complex tannins from Quercus petraea bark.

    PubMed

    König, M; Scholz, E; Hartmann, R; Lehmann, W; Rimpler, H

    1994-10-01

    The ellagitannins 2,3-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-glucose, pedunculagin, vescalagin, and castalagin; the flavanoellagitannins acutissimin A, acutissimin B, eugenigrandin A, guajavin B, and stenophyllanin C; and the procyanidinoellagitannin mongolicanin have been isolated from the bark of Quercus petraea. The ellagitannin fraction had a weak antisecretory effect.

  12. Plastome data reveal multiple geographic origins of Quercus Group Ilex.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Marco Cosimo; Grimm, Guido W; Papini, Alessio; Vessella, Federico; Cardoni, Simone; Tordoni, Enrico; Piredda, Roberta; Franc, Alain; Denk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the plastome are currently the main source for assessing taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships in flowering plants and their historical biogeography at all hierarchical levels. One major exception is the large and economically important genus Quercus (oaks). Whereas differentiation patterns of the nuclear genome are in agreement with morphology and the fossil record, diversity patterns in the plastome are at odds with established taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships. However, the extent and evolutionary implications of this incongruence has yet to be fully uncovered. The DNA sequence divergence of four Euro-Mediterranean Group Ilex oak species (Quercus ilex L., Q. coccifera L., Q. aucheri Jaub. & Spach., Q. alnifolia Poech.) was explored at three chloroplast markers (rbcL, trnK/matK, trnH-psbA). Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed including worldwide members of additional 55 species representing all Quercus subgeneric groups. Family and order sequence data were harvested from gene banks to better frame the observed divergence in larger taxonomic contexts. We found a strong geographic sorting in the focal group and the genus in general that is entirely decoupled from species boundaries. High plastid divergence in members of Quercus Group Ilex, including haplotypes shared with related, but long isolated oak lineages, point towards multiple geographic origins of this group of oaks. The results suggest that incomplete lineage sorting and repeated phases of asymmetrical introgression among ancestral lineages of Group Ilex and two other main Groups of Eurasian oaks (Cyclobalanopsis and Cerris) caused this complex pattern. Comparison with the current phylogenetic synthesis also suggests an initial high- versus mid-latitude biogeographic split within Quercus. High plastome plasticity of Group Ilex reflects geographic area disruptions, possibly linked with high tectonic activity of past and modern distribution ranges, that did not

  13. Plastome data reveal multiple geographic origins of Quercus Group Ilex

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Guido W.; Papini, Alessio; Vessella, Federico; Cardoni, Simone; Tordoni, Enrico; Piredda, Roberta; Franc, Alain; Denk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the plastome are currently the main source for assessing taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships in flowering plants and their historical biogeography at all hierarchical levels. One major exception is the large and economically important genus Quercus (oaks). Whereas differentiation patterns of the nuclear genome are in agreement with morphology and the fossil record, diversity patterns in the plastome are at odds with established taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships. However, the extent and evolutionary implications of this incongruence has yet to be fully uncovered. The DNA sequence divergence of four Euro-Mediterranean Group Ilex oak species (Quercus ilex L., Q. coccifera L., Q. aucheri Jaub. & Spach., Q. alnifolia Poech.) was explored at three chloroplast markers (rbcL, trnK/matK, trnH-psbA). Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed including worldwide members of additional 55 species representing all Quercus subgeneric groups. Family and order sequence data were harvested from gene banks to better frame the observed divergence in larger taxonomic contexts. We found a strong geographic sorting in the focal group and the genus in general that is entirely decoupled from species boundaries. High plastid divergence in members of Quercus Group Ilex, including haplotypes shared with related, but long isolated oak lineages, point towards multiple geographic origins of this group of oaks. The results suggest that incomplete lineage sorting and repeated phases of asymmetrical introgression among ancestral lineages of Group Ilex and two other main Groups of Eurasian oaks (Cyclobalanopsis and Cerris) caused this complex pattern. Comparison with the current phylogenetic synthesis also suggests an initial high- versus mid-latitude biogeographic split within Quercus. High plastome plasticity of Group Ilex reflects geographic area disruptions, possibly linked with high tectonic activity of past and modern distribution ranges, that did not

  14. Antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites from Streptomyces sp. K15, an endophyte in Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huabao; Yang, Chunping; Ke, Tao; Zhou, Miaomiao; Li, Zhaojun; Zhang, Min; Gong, Guoshu; Hou, Taiping

    2015-01-01

    We isolated Streptomyces sp. K15 from the root tissue of Houttuynia cordata Thunb and found that some of its secondary metabolites exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Botrytis cinerea. Moreover, we separated, purified and identified the major active ingredient to be 2-pyrrol formic acid by using silica gel column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and NMR analysis of the spectral data. 2-Pyrrol formic acid critically inhibited the growth of some phytopathogenic bacteria. Therefore, it has potential value in agricultural applications. PMID:25675117

  15. Pharmacological activity of compounds extracted from persimmon peel (Diospyros kaki THUNB.).

    PubMed

    Fukai, Satomi; Tanimoto, Shinichi; Maeda, Aki; Fukuda, Hitomi; Okada, Yoshiharu; Nomura, Masato

    2009-01-01

    Persimmon peels (Diospyros kaki THUNB.) are discarded during the production of dried fruit. The 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (8) which is component of persimmon peel had high antioxidant activity on the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay and SOD (superoxide dismutase) assay. And (8) had higher tyrosinase inhibiting activity than that of arbutin using both L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as substrates. In addition, tyrosinase inhibiting activity of synthesized 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol glycoside (8a) was studied. (8a) had tyrosinase inhibiting activity, suggesting that (8a) has possibilities for ingredient of cosmetics that are possessed of whitening effect.

  16. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations. PMID:27443456

  17. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations.

  18. First discovery of Quercus feeding Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) in Central America.

    PubMed

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Schuster, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high taxonomic diversity of oaks in Mexico and Central America, no Quercus feeding Nepticulidae have ever been recorded from the region. Here, we present seven species whose larvae are leaf-miners of Quercus (section Lobatae) in Guatemala. Except Stigmella nigriverticella (Chambers 1875), which was previously known from the United States, all other discovered species are new. We describe and name five new species (Stigmella jaguari Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. lauta Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. sublauta Remeikis & Stonis, sp. nov., S. aurifasciata Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and S. guatemalensis Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov.); the remaining new species is described but left unnamed because of lack of adults (i. e. moths and genitalia are described from developed pupae). All seven treated species are illustrated with photographs of the leaf-mines, adults, and genitalia. PMID:25112733

  19. Analysis of the Functional Morphology of Mouthparts of the Beetle Priacma serrata, and a Discussion of Possible Food Sources

    PubMed Central

    Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Bond, Jake; Young, Philippe G.

    2013-01-01

    With the help of scanning electron microscopy, high resolution X-ray tomography (µCT), and finite element analysis, the mechanical and functional properties of the mandibles and associated muscles of the beetle Priacma serrata (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Archostemata) were studied. The combination of these techniques allowed for studying mechanical properties of the headmandible- system without using living animals. The µCT analysis delivered precise volumetric data of the geometry of the system to be studied. Dimensions of the cuticle of the parts involved could be readily deduced from the µCT-data. Thus, an exact representation of the specimen without significant artifacts like deformations and misalignments, usually resulting from histological sectioning, could be reconstructed. A virtual 3D model built from these data allowed for investigating different stress scenarios with finite element analysis. Combining these methods showed that P. serrata most likely uses its robustly-built mandibles for cutting hard material. In combination with available information on its habitat, possible food sources are discussed. PMID:24786670

  20. Phytochemical screening and anti-oxidant activity of the two plants Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew and Cedrela serrata Royle.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Mansoor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Phytochemical studies of medicinal plants are a basic and helping tool for the isolation of active secondary metabolites. The isolation of active compounds is made easy by the help of preliminary phytochemical studies, which shows the presence of a specific class or group of compounds present in these medicinal plants. Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata are medicinal plants with valuable local uses. The present study is for the first Phytochemical investigation of these two medicinal plants which consists of, Quantitative tests showing very good results except Ziziphus oxyphylla plants which does not showed the results for Ester value and Peroxide value. Color reactions are studied for all the crude extracts showing the presence of a number of chemical groups belonging to the class of Alkaloids, Phenol compounds, Phenothiazines, Aromatic compounds, Amino acids, Sulfur compounds etc. Brine shrimp activity was performed which showed a LD50 value of 45.74 and 53.36 in the case of Ziziphus oxyphylla roots and Cedrela serrata bark respectively, which is comparable to the standard drug Cyclophosphamide results of 16.09. Insecticidal activity did not show any promising result indicating the absence of any insect killing potency. Antioxidant activity was very positive for all the extract particularly, the Ziziphus oxyphylla roots, which showed even better results than the standard drug Ascorbic acid used in various dilutions.

  1. Molecular characterization of eight segments of Scylla serrata reovirus (SsRV) provides the complete genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jigang; Xiong, Juan; Cui, Bojing; Yang, Jifang; Li, Wenchen; Mao, Zhijuan

    2012-08-01

    Scylla serrata reovirus (SsRV) is one of the most prevalent viral pathogens of mud crabs (S. serrata). Of the 12 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomic segments (S1-S12), the three largest (S1-S3) and S7 were sequenced previously and were shown to have no or only low sequence homology to known members within the family Reoviridae. The sequences of the remaining segments, S4-S6 and S8-S12, are reported here. With the exception of S4, all have single open reading frames (ORFs) on their positive strands, and the terminal sequences 5'-AUAAA(U)/(C) (A)/(U)…G(A)/(G) (A)/(U) (A)/(C)AAC(G)/(U)AU-3' are conserved among currently and previously sequenced segments. S4 contains two out-of-phase ORFs on the positive strand, suggesting that this segment is bicistronic. The ORFs of segments S4-S6 and S8-S12 have low or no homology to other reovirus genes, with the exception that all of the SsRV segments have high sequence similarity to those of mud crab reovirus (MCRV) and share the same 5'- and 3'-terminal nucleotide sequences, suggesting that the two viruses belong to the same species in the family Reoviridae. Analysis of virion proteins revealed that SsRV contains at least eight structural proteins, with sizes ranging from 25 to 160 kDa.

  2. Analysis of the functional morphology of mouthparts of the beetle Priacma serrata, and a discussion of possible food sources.

    PubMed

    Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Bond, Jake; Young, Philippe G

    2013-01-01

    With the help of scanning electron microscopy, high resolution X-ray tomography (µCT), and finite element analysis, the mechanical and functional properties of the mandibles and associated muscles of the beetle Priacma serrata (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Archostemata) were studied. The combination of these techniques allowed for studying mechanical properties of the headmandible- system without using living animals. The µCT analysis delivered precise volumetric data of the geometry of the system to be studied. Dimensions of the cuticle of the parts involved could be readily deduced from the µCT-data. Thus, an exact representation of the specimen without significant artifacts like deformations and misalignments, usually resulting from histological sectioning, could be reconstructed. A virtual 3D model built from these data allowed for investigating different stress scenarios with finite element analysis. Combining these methods showed that P. serrata most likely uses its robustly-built mandibles for cutting hard material. In combination with available information on its habitat, possible food sources are discussed. PMID:24786670

  3. Phytochemical screening and anti-oxidant activity of the two plants Ziziphus oxyphylla Edgew and Cedrela serrata Royle.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rizwan; Ahmad, Mansoor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Phytochemical studies of medicinal plants are a basic and helping tool for the isolation of active secondary metabolites. The isolation of active compounds is made easy by the help of preliminary phytochemical studies, which shows the presence of a specific class or group of compounds present in these medicinal plants. Ziziphus oxyphylla and Cedrela serrata are medicinal plants with valuable local uses. The present study is for the first Phytochemical investigation of these two medicinal plants which consists of, Quantitative tests showing very good results except Ziziphus oxyphylla plants which does not showed the results for Ester value and Peroxide value. Color reactions are studied for all the crude extracts showing the presence of a number of chemical groups belonging to the class of Alkaloids, Phenol compounds, Phenothiazines, Aromatic compounds, Amino acids, Sulfur compounds etc. Brine shrimp activity was performed which showed a LD50 value of 45.74 and 53.36 in the case of Ziziphus oxyphylla roots and Cedrela serrata bark respectively, which is comparable to the standard drug Cyclophosphamide results of 16.09. Insecticidal activity did not show any promising result indicating the absence of any insect killing potency. Antioxidant activity was very positive for all the extract particularly, the Ziziphus oxyphylla roots, which showed even better results than the standard drug Ascorbic acid used in various dilutions. PMID:25176241

  4. Effects of stomatal development on stomatal conductance and on stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in Syringa oblata and Euonymus japonicus Thunb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing-Jie; Chow, Wah Soon; Liu, Yu-Jun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuang-Dao

    2014-12-01

    During leaf development, the increase in stomatal conductance cannot meet photosynthetic demand for CO2, thus leading to stomatal limitation of photosynthesis (Ls). Considering the crucial influences of stomatal development on stomatal conductance, we speculated whether stomatal development limits photosynthesis to some extent. To test this hypothesis, stomatal development, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were carefully studied in both Syringa oblata (normal greening species) and Euonymus japonicus Thunb (delayed greening species). Our results show that the size of stomata increased gradually with leaf expansion, resulting in increased stomatal conductance up to the time of full leaf expansion. During this process, photosynthesis also increased steadily. Compared to that in S. oblata, the development of chloroplasts in E. japonicus Thunb was obviously delayed, leading to a delay in the improvement of photosynthetic capacity. Further analysis revealed that before full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation increased rapidly in both S. oblata and E. japonicus Thunb; after full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation continually increased in E. japonicus Thunb. Accordingly, we suggested that the enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is the main factor leading to stomatal limitation during leaf development but that stomatal development can alleviate stomatal limitation with the increase of photosynthesis by controlling gas exchange. PMID:25443830

  5. The influences of inorganic elements in soil on the development of famous - region Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiwanqi; Ouyang, Zhen; Zhao, Ming; Wei, Yuan; Peng, Huasheng; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background: Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC., is an important medicinal plant in China. Recently, researches of A. Lancea were focused on chemical composition and genetics, only a few were concerned with soil factors. Objective: The aim was to discuss the relationship between geo-herbalism of A. Lancea (Thunb.) DC. and inorganic elements in soil. Materials and Methods: The contents of 15 kinds of inorganic elements in the rhizoma of A. Lancea (Thunb.) DC. and soils from various regions were determined with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and the data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 20.0 software. Results: The contents of inorganic elements in rhizoma of A. Lancea and in soil with different geological background were different. The soils in the famous region contained high aluminum, iron, sodium and low sulfur content. The rhizoma of A. Lancea contained high aluminum, lithium, manganese and low iron, sulfur content. The famous-region crude drugs had a strong tendency to accumulate selenium, manganese. Ten characteristic elements of A. Lancea were K, Ca, S, Al, Li, Ti, Mn, Pb, Ni, SE. Conclusion: The contents of inorganic elements in rhizoma of A. Lancea showed a significant positive interrelationship with those in soil. It was identified that inorganic elements play an important role in forming authenticity A. Lancea (Thunb.) DC. PMID:25829773

  6. Effects of stomatal development on stomatal conductance and on stomatal limitation of photosynthesis in Syringa oblata and Euonymus japonicus Thunb.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing-Jie; Chow, Wah Soon; Liu, Yu-Jun; Shi, Lei; Jiang, Chuang-Dao

    2014-12-01

    During leaf development, the increase in stomatal conductance cannot meet photosynthetic demand for CO2, thus leading to stomatal limitation of photosynthesis (Ls). Considering the crucial influences of stomatal development on stomatal conductance, we speculated whether stomatal development limits photosynthesis to some extent. To test this hypothesis, stomatal development, stomatal conductance and photosynthesis were carefully studied in both Syringa oblata (normal greening species) and Euonymus japonicus Thunb (delayed greening species). Our results show that the size of stomata increased gradually with leaf expansion, resulting in increased stomatal conductance up to the time of full leaf expansion. During this process, photosynthesis also increased steadily. Compared to that in S. oblata, the development of chloroplasts in E. japonicus Thunb was obviously delayed, leading to a delay in the improvement of photosynthetic capacity. Further analysis revealed that before full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation increased rapidly in both S. oblata and E. japonicus Thunb; after full leaf expansion, stomatal limitation continually increased in E. japonicus Thunb. Accordingly, we suggested that the enhancement of photosynthetic capacity is the main factor leading to stomatal limitation during leaf development but that stomatal development can alleviate stomatal limitation with the increase of photosynthesis by controlling gas exchange.

  7. Morphological Response of Eight Quercus Species to Simulated Wind Load

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Geoff G.; Yu, Mukui

    2016-01-01

    Leaf shape, including leaf size, leaf dissection index (LDI), and venation distribution, strongly impacts leaf physiology and the forces of momentum exerted on leaves or the canopy under windy conditions. Yet, little has been known about how leaf shape affects the morphological response of trees to wind load. We studied eight Quercus species, with different leaf shapes, to determine the morphological response to simulated wind load. Quercus trees with long elliptical leaves, were significantly affected by wind load (P< 0.05), as indicted by smaller specific leaf area (SLA), stem base diameter and stem height under windy conditions when compared to the control. The Quercus trees with leaves characterized by lanceolate or sinuous edges, showed positive morphological responses to wind load, such as bigger leaf thickness, larger stem diameter, allocation to root biomass, and smaller stem height (P< 0.05). These morphological responses to wind can reduce drag and increase the mechanical strength of the tree. Leaf dissection index (LDI), an important index of leaf shape, was correlated with morphological response to wind load (P< 0.05), including differences in SLA, in stem base diameter and in allocation to root biomass. These results suggest that trees with higher LDI, such as those with more and/or deeper lobes, are better adapted to wind load. PMID:27662594

  8. Effect of tannins from Quercus suber and Quercus coccifera leaves on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Khennouf, Seddik; Benabdallah, Hassiba; Gharzouli, Kamel; Amira, Smain; Ito, Hideyuki; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yoshida, Takashi; Gharzouli, Akila

    2003-02-26

    The gastroprotective effects of 70% acetone extracts of Quercus suber and Quercus coccifera leaves and of tannins (pedunculagin, castalagin, phillyraeoidin A, and acutissimin B) purified from these extracts were examined in the mouse using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Both extracts (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), given orally, prevented the formation of ethanol-induced lesions in the stomach. The percent protection varied between 68 and 91%. Purified tannins (50 mg/kg) were also effective in protecting the stomach against ethanol, and the percent protection varied from 66 to 83%. Castalagin was the most potent. Both extracts and all of the tannins tested (10, 25, and 50 microg/mL) strongly inhibited (55-65%) the lipid peroxidation of rabbit brain homogenate. These results suggest that the gastroprotective effects of extracts of Q. suber and Q. coccifera leaves and the purified tannins in this experimental model are related to their anti-lipoperoxidant properties.

  9. Phylogeographic structure and late Quaternary population history of the Japanese oak Quercus mongolica var. crispula and related species revealed by chloroplast DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Okaura, Takatomi; Quang, Nguyen Duc; Ubukata, Masatoshi; Harada, Ko

    2007-12-01

    Generally, oaks dominate the broadleaf deciduous forests in Japan. The genetic variation in 6 cpDNA regions (trnT-trnL, trnL-trnF, atpB-rbcL, and trnH-psbA speacers, trnL intron, and matK gene) with regard to the Japanese oak (Quercus mongolica var. crispula) and 3 related species in the section Prinus (Q. serrata, Q. dentata and Q. aliena) was investigated in 598 trees belonging to 44 populations distributed throughout the Japanese archipelago. Additional samples were collected from Korea, China, and Russia (Sakhalin). Thirteen haplotypes (I to XIII) were identified on the bases of 15 nucleotide substitutions and 3 indels. Haplotypes I and II were discovered in northeastern Japan, whereas haplotypes III to IX were distributed in southwestern Japan. The boundary distinguishing these 2 groups was located in central Japan coincident with the Itoigawa-Shzuoka tectonic line. Haplotype I was also found in Sakhalin, whereas haplotypes VI, VII, VIII, X, XI, XII, and XIII were found in Korea and China. Four oak species in the same location shared identical haplotypes, suggesting cpDNA introgression by occasional hybridization. Both the values of total haplotype diversity (HT) and haplotype diversity within populations (HS) in Q. mongolica var. crispula were higher in the southwestern populations than in the northeastern populations. A haplotype network indicated that haplotype VI is the ancestral haplotype. The presence of identical haplotypes in Korea, China, and Japan suggested that the haplotypes diversified on the Eurasian continent before the last glacial period. The difference in genetic structure between the northeastern and southwestern regions indicates a difference in the history of migration and recolonization in Japan during the last glacial period.

  10. Natural hybridisation between Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Quercus pubescens Willd. within an Italian stand as revealed by microsatellite fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Salvini, D; Bruschi, P; Fineschi, S; Grossoni, P; Kjaer, E D; Vendramin, G G

    2009-09-01

    Interspecific gene flow is frequently reported in the genus Quercus. However, interfertile oak species often seem to remain distinct, even within areas of sympatry. This study employed molecular markers to verify, at a fine scale, the presence of interspecific gene flow in a natural population of Quercus petraea and Quercus pubescens. Within a delimited area of 6 ha, all adult trees belonging to the studied oak complex and seeds from a subsample of such trees were collected and analysed using molecular microsatellite markers. A low interspecific genetic differentiation and a high level of interspecific genetic admixture suggested past hybridisation. Paternity inference of seeds allowed the estimation of pollination frequencies from the three groups of pollen donors (Q. petraea, Q. pubescens, intermediate). We also assayed pollen viability and germinability of each species group. We observed natural hybridisation between Q. petraea and Q. pubescens, with a predominant component in the direction Q. petraea --> Q. pubescens: Q. pubescens displayed a higher level of heterospecific pollination by Q. petraea (25.8%) and intermediate morphotypes (14.7%), compared to Q. petraea acting as pollen receptor (with less than 5% heterospecific pollinations). Intermediate 'mother trees' were pollinated in similar proportions by Q. petraea (23.1%), Q. pubescens (37.8%) and intermediate morphotypes (39.1%). The asymmetrical introgression observed for the studied generation may be caused, among other factors, by the relative abundance of trees from each species group in the studied area. PMID:19689784

  11. Mycorrhization of Quercus robur L., Quercus cerris L. and Corylus avellana L. seedlings with Tuber macrosporum Vittad.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Gógán Csorbai, Andrea; Baciarelli Falini, Leonardo; Bencivenga, Mattia; Di Massimo, Gabriella; Donnini, Domizia

    2012-11-01

    Tuber macrosporum Vittad. is not a common truffle species, but with remarkable organoleptic qualities and much economic interest. After the addition of truffle spore slurry, 30 seedlings of Quercus robur L., Quercus cerris L. and Corylus avellana L. were grown inside a greenhouse for 11 months before evaluation of the mycorrhizal level. Two different potting mixes were used: a natural soil-based potting mix for Q. robur, Q. cerris and C. avellana and a peat-based potting mix for Q. robur. Quercus robur planted in soil potting mix was the most receptive towards the truffle spore inoculum, with a level of formation of T. macrosporum ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) of approximately 14 %, ranging from a minimum of ∼4 % to a maximum of ∼44 % in different seedlings. No T. macrosporum ECMs developed on Q. cerris (soil potting mix) or on Q. robur (peat potting mix), whereas a low percentage of ECMs was detected on only three C. avellana (soil potting mix) seedlings. The fungus Sphaerosporella brunnea (Alb. & Schwein.) Svrček & Kubička was also detected as a contaminant on almost half the truffle-inoculated seedlings. A new detailed description of the morphological and anatomical characteristics of T. macrosporum ECMs and their DNA-based verification with species-specific markers were also reported.

  12. Mycorrhization of Quercus robur L., Quercus cerris L. and Corylus avellana L. seedlings with Tuber macrosporum Vittad.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Gógán Csorbai, Andrea; Baciarelli Falini, Leonardo; Bencivenga, Mattia; Di Massimo, Gabriella; Donnini, Domizia

    2012-11-01

    Tuber macrosporum Vittad. is not a common truffle species, but with remarkable organoleptic qualities and much economic interest. After the addition of truffle spore slurry, 30 seedlings of Quercus robur L., Quercus cerris L. and Corylus avellana L. were grown inside a greenhouse for 11 months before evaluation of the mycorrhizal level. Two different potting mixes were used: a natural soil-based potting mix for Q. robur, Q. cerris and C. avellana and a peat-based potting mix for Q. robur. Quercus robur planted in soil potting mix was the most receptive towards the truffle spore inoculum, with a level of formation of T. macrosporum ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) of approximately 14 %, ranging from a minimum of ∼4 % to a maximum of ∼44 % in different seedlings. No T. macrosporum ECMs developed on Q. cerris (soil potting mix) or on Q. robur (peat potting mix), whereas a low percentage of ECMs was detected on only three C. avellana (soil potting mix) seedlings. The fungus Sphaerosporella brunnea (Alb. & Schwein.) Svrček & Kubička was also detected as a contaminant on almost half the truffle-inoculated seedlings. A new detailed description of the morphological and anatomical characteristics of T. macrosporum ECMs and their DNA-based verification with species-specific markers were also reported. PMID:22565651

  13. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max).

  14. [Effects of simulating acid rain on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Quercus glauca Quercus glauca].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai; Yi, Li-Ta; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Jing-Jing

    2014-08-01

    At three levels of simulated acid rainfall intensities with pH values of 2.5 (severe), 40 (medium) and 5.6 (light) respectively, the responses of chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters of Quercus glauca seedlings were studied in three acid rainfall treatments, i. e. only the aboveground of seedlings exposed to acid rain (T1), both of the seedlings and soil exposed to acid rain (T2), only the soil exposed to acid rain (T3) compared with blank control (CK). Under the severe acid rainfall, T1 significantly inhibited chlorophyll synthesis, and thus reduced the primary photochemical efficiency of PS II ( F(v)/F(m)), potential activity of PS II (F(v)/F(o)) , apparent quantum (Y), net photosynthetic rate (P(n)), and transpiration rate (T(r)), but increased the light compensation point (LCP) and dark respiration rate (R(d)) of Q. glauca seedlings. T2 inhibited, but T3 played a little enhancement on the aforementioned parameters of Q. glauca seedlings. Under the conditions of medium and light acid rainfall intensities, the above parameters in the three treatments were higher than that of CK, except with lower R(d). The chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters showed a similar tendency in the three treatments, i. e. T2>T3 >T1. It indicated that T1 had the strongest inhibition on seedlings in condition of the severe acid rainfall, while T2 had the most dramatic facilitating effect on seedlings under the medium and light acid rainfall. Intensity of acid rainfall had significant influences on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o), Y, P(n), T(r), and maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), whereas treatments of acid rainfall affected SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n), T(r), A(max) and light saturation point (LSP). The interaction of acid rainfall intensities and treatments played significant effects on SPAD, F(v)/F(m), Y, P(n) and A(max). PMID:25509066

  15. Foliar micromorphology of Felicia muricata Thunb., A South African medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Ashafa, A O T; Grierson, D S; Afolayan, A J

    2008-07-01

    The foliar micromorphology of Felicia muricata (Thunb.) Nees (Asteraceae) was observed with the JEOL (JSM-6390LV) Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Both the abaxial and adaxial surfaces were characterized by anisocytic stomata which were more prevalent on the abaxial surface than the adaxial surface. The leaves have only one type of multicellular non-glandular trichomes that are long and cylindrical, tapering to a sharp point and running parallel to the leaf surface in the direction of the apices. Crystal deposits were also observed on the surfaces of the leaves near the stomata. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy-SEM shows that Na, Al, Si, and K were the major constituents of the crystal analyzed. Since no glandular trichomes were present on the leaves of this herb, the bioactive components present in this plant may be produced in some other tissues in the leaf other than the trichomes. PMID:18819624

  16. Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds

    PubMed Central

    Bounda, Guy-Armel; Feng, YU

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT), officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines known as He shou wu in China and East Asia, and as Fo-ti in North America. Mounting pharmacological studies have stressed out its key benefice for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions such as liver injury, cancer, diabetes, alopecia, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases as well. International databases such as PubMed/Medline, Science citation Index and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies recently published on P. multiflorum. Various clinical studies published articles were retrieved, providing information relevant to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis, sleep disorders, dyslipidemia treatment, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an effort to update the clinical picture of investigations ever carried on PMT and/or its isolated bio-compounds and to enlighten its therapeutic assessment. PMID:26130933

  17. Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fractions of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Dried fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) are a traditional food in Japan and contain large quantities of tannins. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of non-extractable fractions from dried persimmons. Hydrolysed non-extractable fractions showed the highest antioxidant activities in vitro. In subsequent experiments, the plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values in rats supplemented with a 5% non-extractable fraction were approximately 1.5times higher than those in control rats after 1week in vivo. Furthermore, using an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract, the ORAC values of the non-extractable fraction were significantly increased with colonic fermentation in the large bowel stage. These data indicate that non-extractable fractions may possess significant antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26920271

  18. Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fractions of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Dried fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) are a traditional food in Japan and contain large quantities of tannins. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potentials of non-extractable fractions from dried persimmons. Hydrolysed non-extractable fractions showed the highest antioxidant activities in vitro. In subsequent experiments, the plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values in rats supplemented with a 5% non-extractable fraction were approximately 1.5times higher than those in control rats after 1week in vivo. Furthermore, using an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract, the ORAC values of the non-extractable fraction were significantly increased with colonic fermentation in the large bowel stage. These data indicate that non-extractable fractions may possess significant antioxidant potential in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Hypoglycemic effects of a sesquiterpene glycoside isolated from leaves of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.).

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Li, W L; Wu, J L; Ren, B R; Zhang, H Q

    2008-01-01

    Sesquiterpene glycoside, nerolidol-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->4)-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside was isolated from dried leaves of loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl., Rosaceae]. Hypoglycemic effects of this natural product were assessed in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice model. Animals received orally administration of the sesquiterpene glycoside in dose of 25 and 75 mg/kg. The anti-hyperglycemic effect was compared with gliclazide's. The dose of 25 and 75 mg/kg both exerted a significant (p<0.05) hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-diabetic mice throughout the test and a slight effect in normal mice.

  20. Antinociceptive and anti-pyretic activity of Benincasa hispida (thunb.) cogn. in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Qadrie, Zulfkar Latief; Hawisa, Najat Tayeb; Khan, Mohd Wajid Ali; Samuel, Moses; Anandan, R

    2009-07-01

    The seeds of Benincasa hispida (Thunb) COGN. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) was extracted with ethanol and was used to study acute toxicity, antinociceptive and anti-pyretic effects. Brewer's yeast (15%) was used to induce pyrexia in rats. The extract was non lethal to the rats up to the dose of 5000 mg/kg b.w. At doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, the extract significantly (P<0.05) increased the antinociceptive effective in a dose dependent manner in rats. Similarly, at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w the extract significantly (P<0.05) decreased yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. These results indicate that ethanolic extract of Benincasa hispida possesses potent antinociceptive and antipyretic effects and thus pharmacologically justifying its folkloric use in the management of fever and pain conditions. PMID:19553176

  1. Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Bounda, Guy-Armel; Feng, Y U

    2015-01-01

    Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT), officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines known as He shou wu in China and East Asia, and as Fo-ti in North America. Mounting pharmacological studies have stressed out its key benefice for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions such as liver injury, cancer, diabetes, alopecia, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases as well. International databases such as PubMed/Medline, Science citation Index and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies recently published on P. multiflorum. Various clinical studies published articles were retrieved, providing information relevant to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis, sleep disorders, dyslipidemia treatment, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an effort to update the clinical picture of investigations ever carried on PMT and/or its isolated bio-compounds and to enlighten its therapeutic assessment. PMID:26130933

  2. Avertoxins A-D, Prenyl Asteltoxin Derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor Y10, an Endophytic Fungus of Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingzi; Sun, Mingwei; Hao, Huilin; Lu, Chunhua

    2015-12-24

    Aspergillus versicolor Y10 is an endophytic fungus isolated from Huperzia serrata, which showed inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase. An investigation of the chemical constituents of Y10 led to the isolation of four new prenylated asteltoxin derivatives, named avertoxins A-D (2-5), together with the known mycotoxin asteltoxin (1). In the present study, we report structure elucidation for 2-5 and the revised NMR assignments for asteltoxin and demonstrated that avertoxin B (3) is an active inhibitor against human acetylcholinesterase with the IC50 value of 14.9 μM (huperzine A as the positive control had an IC50 of 0.6 μM). In addition, the cytotoxicity of asteltoxin (1) and avertoxins A-D (2-5) against MDA-MB-231, HCT116, and HeLa cell lines was evaluated. PMID:26618211

  3. Clinical evaluation of a formulation containing Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts in the management of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kizhakkedath, Reji

    2013-11-01

    A formulation containing Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts (CB formulation) was evaluated for safety and efficacy in osteoarthritic patients and directly compared with the selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib. In total, 54 subjects were screened, 30 subjects were enrolled and 28 completed the study. The treatment was well tolerated and did not produce any adverse effect in patients, as judged by the vital signs, hemogram, liver and renal function tests. The CB formulation at 500 mg administered twice a day, was more successful than administering celecoxib 100 mg twice a day for symptom scoring and clinical examination. The formulation was found to be safe and no dose-related toxicity was found. PMID:24002213

  4. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Quercus fabri (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z Z; Chen, W W; Bao, W; Wang, R; Li, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Quercus fabri is a pioneer species of secondary succession in evergreen broadleaved forests in China. In this study, we isolated and developed 12 polymorphic and 2 monomorphic microsatellite loci for Q. fabri using the biotin-streptavidin capture method. We characterized 12 polymorphic loci in 52 individuals from two populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 23. The observed and expected heterozygosities per locus were 0.033-0.773 and 0.138-0.924, respectively. These microsatellite loci will facilitate the studies on genetic variation, mating system, and gene flow of Q. fabri. PMID:27420954

  5. Improved genetic transformation of cork oak (Quercus suber L.).

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Fernández, Rubén; Ordás, Ricardo-Javier

    2012-01-01

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for selected mature Quercus suber L. trees has been established. Leaf-derived somatic embryos in an early stage of development are inoculated with an AGL1 strain harboring a kanamycin-selectable plasmid carrying the gene of interest. The transformed embryos are induced to germinate and the plantlets transferred to soil. This protocol, from adult cork oak to transformed plantlet, can be completed in about one and a half years. Transformation efficiencies (i.e., percentage of inoculated explants that yield independent transgenic embryogenic lines) vary depending on the cork oak genotype, reaching up to 43%.

  6. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, cross over study to evaluate the analgesic activity of Boswellia serrata in healthy volunteers using mechanical pain model

    PubMed Central

    Prabhavathi, K.; Chandra, U. Shobha Jagdish; Soanker, Radhika; Rani, P. Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Experimental pain models in human healthy volunteers are advantageous for early evaluation of analgesics. All efforts to develop nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which are devoid of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular system effects are still far from achieving a breakthrough. Hence we evaluated the analgesic activity of an ayurvedic drug, Boswellia serrata by using validated human pain models which has shown its analgesic activity both in-vitro and preclinical studies to evaluate the analgesic activity of single oral dose (125 mg, 2 capsules) of Boswellia serrata compared to placebo using mechanical pain model in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods: After taking written informed consent, twelve healthy subjects were randomized (1:1) to receive single oral dose of Boswellia serrata (Shallaki®) 125 mg, 2 capsules or identical placebo in a crossover design. Mechanical pain was assessed using Ugo basile analgesymeter (by Randall Selitto test) at baseline and at 1 hr, 2 hrs and 3 hrs after test drug administration. Pain Threshold force and time and Pain Tolerance force and time were evaluated. Statistical analysis was done by paired t-test. Results: Twelve healthy volunteers have completed the study. Mean percentage change from baseline in Pain Threshold force and time with Boswellia serrata when compared to placebo had significantly increased [Force: 9.7 ± 11.0 vs 2.9 ± 3.4 (P = 0.05) and time: 9.7 ± 10.7 vs 2.8 ± 3.4 (P = 0.04)] at third hr. Mean Percentage change from baseline in Pain Tolerance force and time with Boswellia serrata when compared to placebo had significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased at 1 hr, 2 hrs and 3 hrs. Conclusion: In the present study, Boswellia serrata significantly increased the Pain Threshold and Pain Tolerance force and time compared to placebo. Both study medications were well tolerated. Further multiple dose studies may be needed to establish the analgesic efficacy of the drug. PMID:25298573

  7. Vulnerability of Quercus ilex facing increasing drought: which functional adjustments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limousin, Jean-Marc; Rambal, Serge; Misson, Laurent; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Rocheteau, Alain; Rodriguez, Raquel

    2010-05-01

    In the Mediterranean basin, precipitation is expected to decline as a consequence of climate change, and so will induce summer drought duration and intensity increase. The responses of a Quercus ilex coppice to such a decline in water availability were studied for several years within a throughfall exclusion experiment. This study focuses on the ecophysiological and morphological responses that modify transpiration and productivity. The main mechanisms regulating transpiration under decreasing water availability were assessed: stomatal control, twig and stem hydraulic conductance and leaf area adjustment. The decline of transpiration due to the reduced water availability was mainly driven by a reduced leaf area. In the meantime, other hydraulic traits were not significantly modified by the increased drought severity. The phenotypic plasticity of Quercus ilex leaves yielded some modifications of leaf traits, but with slight concurrent consequences on leaf photosynthesis. The decreased water availability reduced carbon assimilation and, in turn, the primary growth and the starch storage of trees. Finally, none of the several adjustments to the long-term experimentally increased drought was observed to reduce the individual vulnerability to water stress.

  8. Investigating the Conformational Structure and Potential Site Interactions of SOD Inhibitors on Ec-SOD in Marine Mud Crab Scylla serrata: A Molecular Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Sablok, Gaurav; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Chainy, G B N

    2016-09-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) act as a first line of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system to control cellular superoxide anion toxicity. Previously, several inhibitors have been widely identified and catalogued for inhibition of SOD activity; however, still the information about the mechanism of interaction and points toward the inhibitor interactions in structures of SODs in general and in extracellular (Ec)-SOD in particular is still in naive. In the present research, we present an insight to elucidate the molecular basis of interactions of SOD inhibitors with Ec-SOD in mud crab Scylla serrata using molecular modeling and docking approaches. Different inhibitors of SOD such as hydrogen peroxide [Formula: see text], potassium cyanide, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), [Formula: see text]-mercaptoethanol and dithiocarbamate were screened to understand the potential sites that may act as sites for cleavage or blocking in the protein. SOD-SDS and [Formula: see text] complex interactions indicate residues Pro72 and Asp102 of the predicted crab Ec-SOD as common targets. The GOLD result indicates that Pro72, Asp102 and Thr103 are commonly acting as the site of interaction in Ec-SOD of S. serrata with SOD inhibitors. For the first time, the results of this study provide an insight into the structural properties of Ec-SOD of S. serrata and define the possible involvements between the amino acids present in its active sites, i.e., in the regions from 70 to 84 and from 101 to 103 and different inhibitors.

  9. Estimating anisotropic pollen dispersal: a case study in Quercus lobata.

    PubMed

    Austerlitz, F; Dutech, C; Smouse, P E; Davis, F; Sork, V L

    2007-08-01

    The pollen dispersal distribution is an important element of the neighbourhood size of plant populations. Most methods aimed at estimating the dispersal curve assume that pollen dispersal is isotropic, but evidence indicates that this assumption does not hold for many plant species, particularly wind-pollinated species subject to prevailing winds during the pollination season. We propose here a method of detecting anisotropy of pollen dispersal and of gauging its intensity, based on the estimation of the differentiation of maternal pollen clouds (TWOGENER extraction), assuming that pollen dispersal is bivariate and normally distributed. We applied the new method to a case study in Quercus lobata, detecting only a modest level of anisotropy in pollen dispersal in a direction roughly similar to the prevailing wind direction. Finally, we conducted a simulation to explore the conditions under which anisotropy can be detected with this method, and we show that while anisotropy is detectable, in principle, it requires a large volume of data.

  10. Quaternary tectonic activity of the Carboneras Fault in the La Serrata range (SE Iberia): Geomorphological and chronological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ximena; Masana, Eulàlia; Pallàs, Raimon; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Rodés, Ángel; Bordonau, Jaume

    2015-11-01

    The Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ) in Southern Iberia is known to accommodate part of the 4-5 mm/yr convergence between Africa and Iberia, but its seismic hazard is not sufficiently understood for an accurate risk assessment. One of the main structures of the EBSZ, the left-lateral 150 km-long Carboneras Fault, displays no clear instrumental and historical activity despite being morphologically expressive. Detailed geomorphological mapping, geochronological analysis, and structural observation on the La Serrata segment of the Carboneras Fault were designed to investigate its recent evolution. Quaternary sediments and geomorphic features were targeted and 42 new numerical ages were obtained based on 66 samples (thermoluminescence, U-series, 14C, 10Be). The chronological framework of La Serrata was constructed by combining these numerical ages with a conceptual model previously developed in the region, which assumes that alluvial fan aggradation was produced during cold and dry periods (glacials and stadials), whereas stability and phases of calcrete formation were favored during warm and wetter periods (interglacials and interstadials). The spatial distribution of dated alluvial fans suggests an early phase of uplift that probably occurred between 1 Ma and 56.6 ka in the northeastern portion of the study area, whereas in the southwest sector the main uplift phase occurred later than 110.3 ka. A decline in fault activity would have taken place after 30.8 ka. Vertically offset dated units indicate minimum dip-slip rates of 0.05 mm/yr and 0.18 mm/yr, averaged for the last 1 Ma and the last 110.3 ka, respectively. Deflected channels and associated dated units yield a minimum left-lateral strike-slip rate of 1.31 mm/yr, averaged for the last 110.3 ka. The most recent fault movement of the fault could be younger than AD 637. Our results suggest therefore that the Carboneras Fault is among the fastest in Iberia, and should be considered in future hazard analyses.

  11. Regeneration patterns of European oak species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in dependence of environment and neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Annighöfer, Peter; Beckschäfer, Philip; Vor, Torsten; Ammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Quercus robur L. (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (sessile oak) are two European oak species of great economic and ecological importance. Even though both oaks have wide ecological amplitudes of suitable growing conditions, forests dominated by oaks often fail to regenerate naturally. The regeneration performance of both oak species is assumed to be subject to a variety of variables that interact with one another in complex ways. The novel approach of this research was to study the effect of many ecological variables on the regeneration performance of both oak species together and identify key variables and interactions for different development stages of the oak regeneration on a large scale in the field. For this purpose, overstory and regeneration inventories were conducted in oak dominated forests throughout southern Germany and paired with data on browsing, soil, and light availability. The study was able to verify the assumption that the occurrence of oak regeneration depends on a set of variables and their interactions. Specifically, combinations of site and stand specific variables such as light availability, soil pH and iron content on the one hand, and basal area and species composition of the overstory on the other hand. Also browsing pressure was related to oak abundance. The results also show that the importance of variables and their combinations differs among the development stages of the regeneration. Light availability becomes more important during later development stages, whereas the number of oaks in the overstory is important during early development stages. We conclude that successful natural oak regeneration is more likely to be achieved on sites with lower fertility and requires constantly controlling overstory density. Initially sufficient mature oaks in the overstory should be ensured. In later stages, overstory density should be reduced continuously to meet the increasing light demand of oak seedlings and saplings

  12. Regeneration Patterns of European Oak Species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in Dependence of Environment and Neighborhood

    PubMed Central

    Annighöfer, Peter; Beckschäfer, Philip; Vor, Torsten; Ammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Quercus robur L. (pedunculate oak) and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. (sessile oak) are two European oak species of great economic and ecological importance. Even though both oaks have wide ecological amplitudes of suitable growing conditions, forests dominated by oaks often fail to regenerate naturally. The regeneration performance of both oak species is assumed to be subject to a variety of variables that interact with one another in complex ways. The novel approach of this research was to study the effect of many ecological variables on the regeneration performance of both oak species together and identify key variables and interactions for different development stages of the oak regeneration on a large scale in the field. For this purpose, overstory and regeneration inventories were conducted in oak dominated forests throughout southern Germany and paired with data on browsing, soil, and light availability. The study was able to verify the assumption that the occurrence of oak regeneration depends on a set of variables and their interactions. Specifically, combinations of site and stand specific variables such as light availability, soil pH and iron content on the one hand, and basal area and species composition of the overstory on the other hand. Also browsing pressure was related to oak abundance. The results also show that the importance of variables and their combinations differs among the development stages of the regeneration. Light availability becomes more important during later development stages, whereas the number of oaks in the overstory is important during early development stages. We conclude that successful natural oak regeneration is more likely to be achieved on sites with lower fertility and requires constantly controlling overstory density. Initially sufficient mature oaks in the overstory should be ensured. In later stages, overstory density should be reduced continuously to meet the increasing light demand of oak seedlings and saplings

  13. Moisture sorption isotherms and thermodynamic properties of Oak wood (Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis): optimization of the processing parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar, Rim; Azzouz, Soufien; Remond, Romain; Ouertani, Sahbi; Elaieb, Mohamed Taher; El Cafci, Mohamed Afif

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the moisture desorption isotherms and essentials thermodynamic properties of two Oak wood varieties. Desorption isotherms were measured using a static gravimetric method at 50, 60, 70 and 80 °C within the range of 5-90 % relative humidity. The equilibrium moisture content decreased with increasing temperature and decreased with decreasing relative humidity at a constant temperature. The `Thermodynamic' sorption equation was found to be the best for describing the experimental moisture sorption isotherms of woods within the range of temperature and water activity investigated. The Fiber saturation point, deduced from the `Thermodynamic' model parameters, depends on the temperature and varying from 22.6 to 54.4 (% kg water/kg dry matter). Isosteric heat of desorption and differential entropy were calculated by applying Clausius-Clapeyron equation to the desorption data fitted by the `Thermodynamic' model. The isosteric heat of desorption and the differential entropy decreased with increasing moisture content according to an exponential law equation and varying from 2.03 to 31.14 kJ/mol and from 73.98 to 4.34 J/(mol K), respectively. The linear relationship between differential enthalpy and entropy satisfied the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory. The sign of Gibbs free energy was found to be positive (+283 J/mol) and (+97 J/mol) for Quercus robur and Quercus canariensis, respectively. The isokinetic temperature was found to be greater than the harmonic temperature. Based on the enthalpy-entropy compensation theory, it could be concluded that the moisture desorption isotherm of Oak wood is a non-spontaneous and enthalpy-controlled process.

  14. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a potential hyperaccumulator--Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhouli; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Fenghui; Yan, Kun; Tao, Dali

    2009-09-30

    Phytoremediation using hyperaccumulators is a promising technique of removing soil pollutants. In the study, growth responses, cadmium (Cd) accumulation capability and physiological mechanisms of Lonicera japonica Thunb. under Cd stress were investigated. Exposed to 5 and 10 mg L(-1) Cd, the plants did not show any visual symptoms, furthermore, the height, dry biomass of leaves, roots and total and the chlorophyll (CHL) content were obtained different grade increase. When the concentration of Cd was up to 50 mg L(-1), the height, dry biomass of leaves and roots had not significant differences compared with the control. The indexes of tolerance (IT) were all above 0.8. The maintenance of high superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, suggesting strong internal detoxification mechanisms inside plant cells. After 21 days exposure to 25 mg L(-1) Cd, stem and shoot Cd concentrations reached 344.49+/-0.71 and 286.12+/-9.38 microg g(-1) DW, respectively and the plant had higher bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF). According to these results, it was shown L. japonica had strong tolerance and accumulation capability to Cd, therefore it is a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator. PMID:19380199

  15. Proteomics analysis of UV-irradiated Lonicera japonica Thunb. with bioactive metabolites enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Li, Ximin; Zheng, Wen; Fu, Zhirong; Li, Wenting; Ma, Luyu; Li, Ke; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui

    2013-12-01

    A previous study showed that the contents of caffeoylquinic acids and iridoids, the major bioactive components in the postharvest Lonicera japonica Thunb., were induced by enhanced ultraviolet (UV)-A or UV-B irradiation. To clarify the UV-responsive key enzymes in the bioactive metabolites biosynthetic pathway and the related plant defense mechanism in L. japonica, 2DE in combination with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS was employed. Seventy-five out of 196 differential proteins were positively identified. Based on the functions, these proteins were grouped into nine categories, covering a wide range of molecular processes including the secondary metabolites (caffeoylquinic acids and iridoids) biosynthetic-related proteins, photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, stress, DNA, transport-related proteins, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, cell wall. Of note is the increasing expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase and 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase, which was crucial to supply more precursor for the secondary metabolites including caffeoylquinic acids and iridoids. Thus, this study provides both the clues at the protein level for the increase of the two bioactive components upon UV irradiation and the profile of UV-responsive proteins in L. japonica.

  16. Effects of Lonicera japonica Thunb. on Type 2 Diabetes via PPAR-γ Activation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Min; Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Lee, Haesu; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2015-10-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine and has been used to treat diabetic symptoms. Notwithstanding its use, the scientific basis on anti-diabetic properties of L. japonica is not yet established. This study is designed to investigate anti-diabetic effects of L. japonica in type 2 diabetic rats. L. japonica was orally administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-induced rats. After the treatment of 4 weeks, L. japonica reduced high blood glucose level and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in diabetic rats. In addition, body weight and food intake were restored by the L. japonica treatment. In the histopathologic examination, the amelioration of damaged β-islet in pancreas was observed in L. japonica-treated diabetic rats. The administration of L. japonica elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor subunit-1 protein expressions. The results demonstrated that L. japonica had anti-diabetic effects in type 2 diabetic rats via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulatory action of L. japonica as a potential mechanism.

  17. A glucan isolated from flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb. inhibits aggregation and neurotoxicity of Aβ42.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peipei; Liao, Wenfeng; Fang, Jianping; Liu, Qin; Yao, Jian; Hu, Minghua; Ding, Kan

    2014-09-22

    Inhibition of Aβ aggregation and attenuation of its cytotoxicity are considered to valuable therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, a glucan named as LJW0F2 was purified from flowers of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Using monosaccharides composition analysis, methylation analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy, this polysaccharide was elucidated to be an α-D-(1→4)-glucan with an α-(1→4) linked branch attached to the C-6 position. Its inhibitory effect on Aβ42 aggregation was measured by fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavine T (ThT) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We showed that polysaccharide LJW0F2 could inhibit Aβ42 aggregation in a dose-dependent-manner. Besides, LJW0F2 could attenuate the cytotoxicity induced by Aβ42 aggregation in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report that the exogenous plant-derived polysaccharide might block Aβ42 aggregation directly and reduce its toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells.

  18. Contrasting photosynthesis and photoinhibition in tetraploid and its autodiploid honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) under salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kun; Wu, Congwen; Zhang, Lihua; Chen, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a popular landscape plant. This study was to explore leaf photosynthetic characterization with emphasis on the coordination between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) in tetraploid and its autodiploid honeysuckle (TH and DH) upon salt stress (300 mM NaCl). Leaf photosynthetic rate and carboxylation efficiency in DH and TH were significantly decreased under salt stress, and the decrease was greater in DH. PSII photoinhibition was induced in DH under salt stress, as the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was significantly decreased. PSII photoinhibition declined electron flow to PSI, but did not prevent PSI photoinhibition, as the maximal photochemical capacity of PSI (MR/MR0) was significantly decreased by salt stress. According to the significant decrease in PSI oxidation amplitude in the first 1 s red illumination, PSI photoinhibition was more severe than PSII photoinhibition. As a result, PSII and PSI coordination was destroyed. Comparatively, salt-induced photoinhibition did not occur in TH, as no significant change was observed in Fv/Fm and MR/MR0. Consequently, PSII and PSI coordination was not significantly affected by salt stress. In conclusion, TH maintained normal coordination between PSII and PSI by preventing photoinhibition and exhibited higher leaf photosynthetic activity than DH under salt stress. Compared with DH, lower leaf ionic toxicity due to greater root Na+ extrusion and restriction of Na+ transport to leaf might be responsible for maintaining higher leaf photosynthetic capacity in TH under salt stress. PMID:25914706

  19. Burkholderia aspalathi sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of the South African legume Aspalathus abietina Thunb.

    PubMed

    Mavengere, Natasha R; Ellis, Allan G; Le Roux, Johannes J

    2014-06-01

    During a study to investigate the diversity of rhizobia associated with native legumes in South Africa's Cape Floristic Region, a Gram-negative bacterium designated VG1C(T) was isolated from the root nodules of Aspalathus abietina Thunb. Based on phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA and recA genes, VG1C(T) belongs to the genus Burkholderia, with the highest degree of sequence similarity to the type strain of Burkholderia sediminicola (98.5% and 98%, respectively). The DNA G+C content of strain VG1C(T) was 60.1 mol%, and DNA-DNA relatedness values to the type strain of closely related species were found to be substantially lower than 70%. As evidenced by results of genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic tests provided here, we conclude that isolate VG1C(T) represents a novel rhizosphere-associated species in the genus Burkholderia, for which the name Burkholderia aspalathi sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain VG1C(T) ( = DSM 27239(T) = LMG 27731(T)).

  20. Transcriptome changes in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. roots induced by methyl jasmonate* #

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-chang; Wu, Wei; Hou, Kai; Chen, Jun-wen; Zhao, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome profiling has been widely used to analyze transcriptomic variation in plants subjected to abiotic or biotic stresses. Although gene expression changes induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) have been profiled in several plant species, no information is available on the MeJA-triggered transcriptome response of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., a species with highly valuable medicinal properties. In this study, we used transcriptome profiling to investigate transcriptome changes in roots of P. multiflorum seedlings subjected to a 0.25 mmol/L-MeJA root irrigation treatment. A total of 18 677 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were induced by MeJA treatment, of which 4535 were up-regulated and 14 142 were down-regulated compared with controls. These DEGs were associated with 125 metabolic pathways. In addition to various common primary and secondary metabolic pathways, several secondary metabolic pathways related to components with significant pharmacological effects were enriched by MeJA, including arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, and stilbenoid biosynthesis. The MeJA-induced transcriptome changes uncovered in this study provide a solid foundation for future study of functional genes controlling effective components in secondary metabolic pathways of P. multiflorum. PMID:26642186

  1. Liver Damage Associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Ren, Jingtian; Li, Yan; Zhai, Jingbo; Mu, Wei; Zhang, Li; Zheng, Wenke; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To summarize the characteristics and analysis of relevant factors and to give references for prevention and further study of liver damage associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (HSW), we provide a systematic review of case reports and case series about liver damage associated with HSW. Methods. An extensive search of 6 medical databases was performed up to June 2014. Case reports and case series involving liver damage associated with HSW were included. Results. This review covers a total of 450 cases in 76 articles. HSW types included raw and processed HSW decoction pieces and many Chinese patent medicines that contain HSW. Symptoms of liver damage occur mostly a month or so after taking the medicine, mainly including jaundice, fatigue, anorexia, and yellow or tawny urine. Of the 450 patients, two cases who received liver transplantation and seven who died, the remaining 441 cases recovered or had liver function improvement after discontinuing HSW products and conservative care. Conclusion. HSW causes liver toxicity and may cause liver damage in different degrees and even lead to death; most of them are much related to long-term and overdose of drugs. Liver damage associated with HSW is reversible, and, after active treatment, the majority can be cured. People should be alert to liver damage when taking HSW preparations. PMID:25648693

  2. Antihyperglycemic Activity of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Satyendra K.; Krishnamurthy, Sairam; Hemalatha, Siva

    2014-01-01

    Present study is an attempt to investigate plausible mechanism involved behind antidiabetic activity of standardized Houttuynia cordata Thunb. extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The plant is used as a medicinal salad for lowering blood sugar level in North-Eastern parts of India. Oral administration of extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg dose level daily for 21 days showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in fasting plasma glucose and also elevated insulin level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It also significantly reversed all the alterations in biochemical parameters, that is, total lipid profile, blood urea, creatinine, protein, and antioxidant enzymes in liver, pancreas, and adipose tissue of diabetic rats. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the extract significantly reversed the expression patterns of various glucose homeostatic enzyme genes like GLUT-2, GLUT-4, and caspase-3 levels but did not show any significant effect on PPAR-γ protein expressions. Additionally, the extract positively regulated mitochondrial membrane potential and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in diabetic rats. The findings justified the antidiabetic effect of H. cordata which is attributed to an upregulation of GLUT-4 and potential antioxidant activity, which may play beneficial role in resolving complication associated with diabetes. PMID:24707284

  3. Protective Effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. on Gentamicin-induced Oxidative Stress and Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changgeun; Lee, Hyungkyoung; Hah, Do-Yun; Heo, Jung Ho; Kim, Chung Hui; Kim, Euikyung; Kim, Jong Shu

    2013-03-01

    Development of a therapy providing protection from, or reversing gentamicin-sulfate (GS)-induced oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity would be of great clinical significance. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HC) against gentamicin sulfate-induced renal damage in rats. Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, GS 100 mg/kg/d, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection; group 3, GS 100 mg/kg/d, i.p. + HC 500 mg/kg/d, oral; and group 4, GS 100 mg/kg/d i.p. + HC 1000 mg/kg/d, oral administration). Treatments were administered once daily for 12 d. After 12 d, biochemical and histopathological analyses were conducted to evaluate oxidative stress and renal nephrotoxicity. Serum levels of creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), together with renal levels of MDA, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were quantified to evaluate antioxidant activity. Animals treated with GS alone showed a significant increase in serum levels of creatinine, BUN, and MDA, with decreased renal levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT. Treatment of rats with HC showed significant improvement in renal function, presumably as a result of decreased biochemical indices and oxidative stress parameters associated with GS-induced nephrotoxicity. Histopathological examination of the rat kidneys confirmed these observations. Therefore, the novel natural antioxidant HC may protect against GSinduced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. PMID:24278630

  4. Hepatoprotective Effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb Extract against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H.; Koppula, S.

    2014-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (Saururaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb used to treat several disease symptoms. The present study was focused on the hepatoprotective effects of H. cordata ethyl acetate extract in experimental mice. Further the antioxidant potential of the extract was also evaluated to substantiate its hepatoprotective properties. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice was used to measure the serum biochemical parameters. Morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were studied by haematoxylin and eosin staining. In vitro alkyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant effect. Administration of H. cordata extract significantly reduced the elevated serum levels and regulated the altered levels of serum cholesterol in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice (P<0.05). The morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by H. cordata treatment. Further, the extract showed significant antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% scavenging of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 15.5 and 410 μg/ml, respectively. H. cordata extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective property in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The strong antioxidant activities possessed by the extract might be responsible for such actions. PMID:25284923

  5. Correlation analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Houttuynia cordata Thunb with regard to environment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, J; Wu, F-C; Qiu, P; Dai, L-J

    2016-01-01

    To study the levels of genetic diversity, and population structure, of Houttuynia cordata Thunb, the genetic background and relationships of populations were analyzed in terms of environmental factors. The genetic diversity and population structure of H. cordata were investigated using sequence-related amplified polymorphisms and correlation with environmental factors was analyzed using the SPSS software. Two thousand one hundred sixty-three sites were amplified from 41 pairs of primers, 1825 of which were polymorphic, and the percentage of polymorphic loci was 84.37%; the percentage of polymorphic sites was 72.14 and 67.77% at the species and population level, respectively. The observed number of alleles was 1.52 and 1.30 at species and population level, respectively. The effective number of alleles was 1.38 and 1.24 at species and population level, respectively. The Nei's diversity was 0.26 and 0.15 at species and population level, respectively. The Shannon's information index was 0.87 and 0.63 at species and population level, respectively. The genetic differentiation coefficient of populations was 0.51, and 12 populations were divided into three classes based on D = 0.20; the genetic diversities of different populations are correlated at different significance levels (P < 0.05) with environmental factors. Genetic differentiation existed among populations and the populations exhibited heteroplasmy. PMID:27525953

  6. Hepatoprotective Effect of Houttuynia cordata Thunb Extract against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Koppula, S

    2014-07-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (Saururaceae) is a traditional medicinal herb used to treat several disease symptoms. The present study was focused on the hepatoprotective effects of H. cordata ethyl acetate extract in experimental mice. Further the antioxidant potential of the extract was also evaluated to substantiate its hepatoprotective properties. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice was used to measure the serum biochemical parameters. Morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were studied by haematoxylin and eosin staining. In vitro alkyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging assays were performed to evaluate the antioxidant effect. Administration of H. cordata extract significantly reduced the elevated serum levels and regulated the altered levels of serum cholesterol in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice (P<0.05). The morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by H. cordata treatment. Further, the extract showed significant antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% scavenging of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 15.5 and 410 μg/ml, respectively. H. cordata extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective property in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The strong antioxidant activities possessed by the extract might be responsible for such actions. PMID:25284923

  7. Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human primary colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kuang-Chi; Chiu, Yu-Jen; Tang, Yih-Jing; Lin, Kuei-Li; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Jiang, Yi-Lin; Jen, Hsiu-Fang; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Agamaya, Sakae; Chung, Jing-Gung; Yang, Jai-Sing

    2010-09-01

    It is reported that Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has many biological properties such as antiviral, antibacterial and antileukemic activities. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human primary colorectal cancer cells are not clear. In this study, whether HCT induced cytotoxicity in primary colorectal cancer cells obtained from three patients was investigated. The results indicated that HCT inhibited growth of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. After treatment with HCT (250 μg/ml) for 24 h, cells exhibited chromatin condensation (an apoptotic characteristic). HCT increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) in examined cells. Mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway was shown to be involved as determined by increase in the levels of cytochrome c, Apaf-1, and caspase-3 and -9. The decrease in the level of ΔΨ(m) was associated with an increase in the BAX/BCL-2 ratio which led to activation of caspase-9 and -3. Based on our results, HCT induced apoptotic cell death in human primary colorectal cancer cells through a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:20944136

  8. A current update on the phytopharmacological aspects of Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Satyendra K; Hemalatha, S

    2014-01-01

    The present review is an attempt to put an insight into a medicinal plant Houttuynia cordata Thunb, which is indigenous to North-East India and China. It is an aromatic medicinal herb belonging to family Saururaceae and is restricted to specialized moist habitats. The review provides detailed information regarding the morphology, distribution, phytochemistry, ethnopharmacological uses and also describes various pharmacological activities reported on the plant H. cordata. The review describes therapeutic efficacy of the whole plant and its extracts, fractions and isolated compounds in different diseased condition. Among the important pharmacological activities reported includes, anti-mutagenic, anti-cancer, adjuvanticity, anti-obesity, hepatoprotective, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging, anti-microbial, anti-allergic, anti-leukemic, chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps activities. Thus, the present review will act as a source of referential information to researchers to perform clinical studies on isolated compounds that may serve the society and will help in improving human health care system. PMID:24600193

  9. Antihyperglycemic Activity of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Prasad, Satyendra K; Krishnamurthy, Sairam; Hemalatha, Siva

    2014-01-01

    Present study is an attempt to investigate plausible mechanism involved behind antidiabetic activity of standardized Houttuynia cordata Thunb. extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The plant is used as a medicinal salad for lowering blood sugar level in North-Eastern parts of India. Oral administration of extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg dose level daily for 21 days showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in fasting plasma glucose and also elevated insulin level in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It also significantly reversed all the alterations in biochemical parameters, that is, total lipid profile, blood urea, creatinine, protein, and antioxidant enzymes in liver, pancreas, and adipose tissue of diabetic rats. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the extract significantly reversed the expression patterns of various glucose homeostatic enzyme genes like GLUT-2, GLUT-4, and caspase-3 levels but did not show any significant effect on PPAR- γ protein expressions. Additionally, the extract positively regulated mitochondrial membrane potential and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity in diabetic rats. The findings justified the antidiabetic effect of H. cordata which is attributed to an upregulation of GLUT-4 and potential antioxidant activity, which may play beneficial role in resolving complication associated with diabetes. PMID:24707284

  10. Transcriptome changes in Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. roots induced by methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-chang; Wu, Wei; Hou, Kai; Chen, Jun-wen; Zhao, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Transcriptome profiling has been widely used to analyze transcriptomic variation in plants subjected to abiotic or biotic stresses. Although gene expression changes induced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) have been profiled in several plant species, no information is available on the MeJA-triggered transcriptome response of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb., a species with highly valuable medicinal properties. In this study, we used transcriptome profiling to investigate transcriptome changes in roots of P. multiflorum seedlings subjected to a 0.25 mmol/L-MeJA root-irrigation treatment. A total of 18 677 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were induced by MeJA treatment, of which 4535 were up-regulated and 14 142 were down-regulated compared with controls. These DEGs were associated with 125 metabolic pathways. In addition to various common primary and secondary metabolic pathways, several secondary metabolic pathways related to components with significant pharmacological effects were enriched by MeJA, including arachidonic acid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, and stilbenoid biosynthesis. The MeJA-induced transcriptome changes uncovered in this study provide a solid foundation for future study of functional genes controlling effective components in secondary metabolic pathways of P. multiflorum. PMID:26642186

  11. Hormesis phenomena under Cd stress in a hyperaccumulator--Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lian; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhouli; Huang, Yanqing; Yu, Shuai

    2013-04-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to investigate possible hormetic response induced by cadmium (Cd) in a potential hyperaccumulator-Lonicera japonica Thunb. The results showed that Cd at low concentrations induced a significant increase in plant growth, leaf water content and content of photosynthetic pigments in L. japonica, but decreased them at high concentrations, displayed inverted U-shaped dose response curves, confirming a typical biphasic hormetic response. The U-shaped dose response curves were displayed in malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage in leaves at low doses of Cd, indicating reduce oxidative stress and toxic effect. The increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was observed along with the increased Cd concentration, indicative of increase in anti-oxidative capacity that ensures redox homeostasis is maintained. After 28 days exposure to 10 mg L(-1) Cd, stem and leaf Cd concentrations reached 502.96 ± 28.90 and 103.22 ± 5.62 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively and the plant had high bioaccumulation coefficient (BC) and translocation factor (TF'). Moreover, the maximum TF value was found at 2.5 mg L(-1) Cd treatment, implying that low Cd treatment improved the ability to transfer Cd from medium via roots to aerial structures. Taking together, L. japonica could be considered as a new plant to investigate the underlying mechanisms of hormesis and Cd tolerance. Our results suggest that hormetic effects should be taken into consideration in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:23359063

  12. Transferability of retrotransposon primers derived from Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) across other plant species.

    PubMed

    Du, X Y; Hu, Q N; Zhang, Q L; Wang, Y B; Luo, Z R

    2013-06-06

    Retrotransposon-based molecular markers are powerful molecular tools. However, these markers are not readily available due to the difficulty in obtaining species-specific retrotransposon primers. Although recent techniques enabling the rapid isolation of retrotransposon sequences have facilitated primer development, this process nonetheless remains time-consuming and costly. Therefore, research into the transferability of retrotransposon primers developed from one plant species onto others would be of great value. The present study investigated the transferability of retrotransposon primers derived from 'Luotian-tianshi' persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) across other fruit crops, as well as within the genus using inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism molecular marker. Fourteen of the 26 retrotransposon primers tested (53.85%) produced robust and reproducible amplification products across all fruit crops tested, indicating their applicability across plant species. Four of the 13 fruit crops showed the best transferability performances: persimmon, grape, citrus, and peach. Furthermore, similarity coefficients and UPGMA clustering indicated that these primers could further offer a potential tool for germplasm differentiation, parentage identification, genetic diversity assessment, classification, and phylogenetic studies across a variety of plant species. Transferability was further confirmed by examining published primers derived from Rosaceae, Gramineae, and Solanaceae. This study is one of the few currently available studies concerning the transferability of retrotransposon primers across plant species in general, and is the first successful study of the transferability of retrotransposon primers derived from persimmon. The primers presented here will help reduce costs for future retrotransposon primer development and therefore contribute to the popularization of retrotransposon molecular markers.

  13. Genetic diversity of loquat germplasm (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb) Lindl) assessed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Soriano, José Miguel; Romero, Carlos; Vilanova, Santiago; Llácer, Gerardo; Badenes, María Luisa

    2005-02-01

    Genetic relationships among 40 loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb) Lindl) accessions that originated from different countries and that are part of the germplasm collection of the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA) (Valencia, Spain) were evaluated using microsatellites. Thirty primer pairs flanking microsatellites previously identified in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) were assayed. Thirteen of them amplified polymorphic products and unambiguously distinguished 34 genotypes from the 40 accessions analyzed. Six accessions showing identical marker patterns were Spanish local varieties thought to have been derived from 'Algerie' by a mutational process very common in loquat species. A total of 39 alleles were detected in the population studied, with a mean value of 2.4 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.46 and 51% on average, respectively, leading to a negative value of the Wright's fixation index (-0.20). The values of these parameters indicate a smaller degree of genetic diversity in the set of loquat accessions analyzed than in other members of the Rosaceae family. Unweighted pair-group method (UPGMA) cluster analysis, based on Nei's genetic distance, generally grouped genotypes according to their geographic origins and pedigrees. The high number of alleles and the high expected heterozygosity detected with SSR markers developed in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) make them a suitable tool for loquat cultivar identification, confirming microsatellite marker transportability among genera in the Rosaceae family.

  14. Effects of Lonicera japonica Thunb. on Type 2 Diabetes via PPAR-γ Activation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Min; Kim, Mi Hye; Choi, You Yeon; Lee, Haesu; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2015-10-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) is a traditional herbal medicine and has been used to treat diabetic symptoms. Notwithstanding its use, the scientific basis on anti-diabetic properties of L. japonica is not yet established. This study is designed to investigate anti-diabetic effects of L. japonica in type 2 diabetic rats. L. japonica was orally administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg in high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-induced rats. After the treatment of 4 weeks, L. japonica reduced high blood glucose level and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in diabetic rats. In addition, body weight and food intake were restored by the L. japonica treatment. In the histopathologic examination, the amelioration of damaged β-islet in pancreas was observed in L. japonica-treated diabetic rats. The administration of L. japonica elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor subunit-1 protein expressions. The results demonstrated that L. japonica had anti-diabetic effects in type 2 diabetic rats via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulatory action of L. japonica as a potential mechanism. PMID:26174209

  15. Enhanced antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles-Lonicera Japonica Thunb combo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Aguilar, Zoraida P; Qu, Feng; Xu, Hong; Xu, Hengyi; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Silver metals have long been known to possess antimicrobial properties. Recently, even the nanoparticle version of silver (AgNPs) has also been established as antimicrobials. In this study AgNPs were combined with extracts of the medicinal plant Chinese honeysuckle, Lonicera japonica Thunb. The antimicrobial activity of the AgNPs-herb was tested against pathogenic Escherichia coli CMCC44113. Using different AgNPs or herb (honeysuckle water extract or HWE) ratios in the presence of a fixed concentration of E. coli CMCC44113, potencies were found to be proportional with concentrations. The antimicrobial activities of AgNPs-HWE combo were significant enhanced, when compared with solely AgNPs or HWE. Thus, atomic force microscopic and propidium monoazide-PCR were used to probe the damages caused by AgNPs-HWE combo on the cell morphology and cell membrane integrity of E. coli. The mechanism of AgNPs-HWE combo against E. coli may attribute to AgNPs leads to cell wall lysis and damages cell membrane integrity, and thus increases the penetration of HWE into the bacterium, which results in more serious damage to bacterial cells. These findings indicated that AgNPs-herb was more potent than the AgNPs alone and holds promise for the development of nanoparticle enhanced herbal pharmaceuticals. PMID:26766870

  16. Zingiber mioga (Thunb.) Roscoe attenuates allergic asthma induced by ovalbumin challenge.

    PubMed

    Shin, Na-Rae; Shin, In-Sik; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Hong, Ju-Mi; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Hui-Seong; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Hahn, Kyu-Woung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2015-09-01

    Zingiber mioga (Thunb.) Roscoe (ZM) is a traditional medicine, used to treat inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of ZM on the inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells and in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)‑induced allergic asthma. Mice received OVA sensitization on day 0 and 14, and were challenged with OVA between days 21 and 23. ZM was administered to the mice at a dose of 30 mg/kg, 1 h prior to OVA challenge. In LPS‑stimulated RAW264.7 cells, ZM significantly decreased nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α production in a concentration‑dependent manner, and mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), TNF‑α and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑9 was reduced. In addition, treatment with ZM decreased the inflammatory cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the mice, and reduced the expression of interleukin (IL)‑4, IL‑5, IL‑13, eotaxin and immunoglobulin E. ZM also reduced airway hyperresponsiveness in OVA‑challenged mice, and attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells and mucus production in the airways, with a decrease in the expression of iNOS and MMP‑9 in lung tissue. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that ZM effectively inhibits inflammatory responses. Therefore, it may be that ZM has potential as a therapeutic agent for use in inflammatory diseases.

  17. Houttuynia cordata Thunb extract induces cytotoxicity in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells: Raman spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiwei; Li, Zuanfang; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Huang, Hao; Shi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity induced by Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells was investigated by Raman spectroscopy (RS). The average Raman spectra of cell groups treated with HCT (0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 μg ml-1) for 24 h were measured separately. Compared to the control group, the intensities of the selected bands (1002, 1338, and 1448 cm-1) related to protein, DNA, and lipid in the treatment groups decreased obviously as the concentration of HCT increased. Both cell groups treated with 250 and 500 μg ml-1 of HCT could be differentiated from the control group by principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminate analysis (LDA) with a diagnostic accuracy of 100%, suggesting that cytotoxicity occurred and that 250 μg ml-1 was the proper dose for treatment. Simultaneously, the Raman spectra of cells treated with different treatment times with 250 μg ml-1 of HCT were obtained. We can get that treatment with HCT decreased cell viability in a dose and time-dependent fashion. The results indicated that the RS combined with PCA-LDA can be used for pharmacokinetics studies of HCT in NPC cells, which could also provide useful data for clinical dosage optimization for HCT.

  18. Correlation analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of Houttuynia cordata Thunb with regard to environment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, J; Wu, F-C; Qiu, P; Dai, L-J

    2016-01-01

    To study the levels of genetic diversity, and population structure, of Houttuynia cordata Thunb, the genetic background and relationships of populations were analyzed in terms of environmental factors. The genetic diversity and population structure of H. cordata were investigated using sequence-related amplified polymorphisms and correlation with environmental factors was analyzed using the SPSS software. Two thousand one hundred sixty-three sites were amplified from 41 pairs of primers, 1825 of which were polymorphic, and the percentage of polymorphic loci was 84.37%; the percentage of polymorphic sites was 72.14 and 67.77% at the species and population level, respectively. The observed number of alleles was 1.52 and 1.30 at species and population level, respectively. The effective number of alleles was 1.38 and 1.24 at species and population level, respectively. The Nei's diversity was 0.26 and 0.15 at species and population level, respectively. The Shannon's information index was 0.87 and 0.63 at species and population level, respectively. The genetic differentiation coefficient of populations was 0.51, and 12 populations were divided into three classes based on D = 0.20; the genetic diversities of different populations are correlated at different significance levels (P < 0.05) with environmental factors. Genetic differentiation existed among populations and the populations exhibited heteroplasmy.

  19. Characterization and antihyperglycemic activity of a polysaccharide from Dioscorea opposita Thunb roots.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yijun; He, Qinyi; Luo, Aoshuang; Wang, Miaoyu; Luo, Aoxue

    2015-03-19

    A polysaccharide DOTP-80 from Dioscorea opposita Thunb was obtained by using the method of acid water-extraction and ethanol-precipitation. After being purified by chromatography, the structure characteristics of DOTP-80 were established. Based on the calibration curve obtained with standard dextrans, the molecular weight of the polysaccharide fraction DOTP-80 was calculated to be 123 kDa. The results of Infrared spectrum (FT-IR) indicated that the polysaccharide contained the α-configuration of sugar units. GC-MS analysis revealed that DOTP-80 was mainly composed of mannose and glucose. Alloxan-induced diabetic rats and mice models were developed to evaluate the in vivo hypoglycemic activity of the polysaccharide. The results indicated that a high dose DOTP-80 (400 mg/kg) had strong hypoglycemic activity. Moreover, DOTP-80 could increase the level of antioxidant enzymes (SOD) activity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice and stimulate an increase in glucose disposal in diabetic rats. Therefore, the polysaccharide DOTP-80 should be evaluated as a candidate for future studies on diabetes mellitus.

  20. The Efficacy of Boswellia Serrata Gum Resin for Control of Lipid Profile and Blood Glucose in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mehrzadi, Saeed; Tavakolifar, Bahreh; Huseini, Hasan Fallah; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regarding preclinical evidence for antidiabetic effects of Boswellia serrata, we evaluated anti-hyperglycemic and lipid-lowering effects of Boswellia serrate gum resin in type 2 diabetic patients in a double-blind randomized placebo-control trial. Methods: Fifty-six diabetic patients were randomly allocated to two groups to receive 250 mg of the Boswellia serrate gum resin or placebo twice daily for 8 weeks, in addition to their routine antidiabetic treatments. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin level, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride of serum were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Although there was a considerable reduction after the intervention in FBS (P=0.04), HbA1c (P=0.02) and triglyceride (P=0.01) in the Boswellia serrate gum resin group, no significant difference was observed in all outcome measures between the two groups at the end of the study (FBS P=0.09, HbA1c P=0.20, total cholesterol P=0.31, LDL P=0.49, HDL P=0.10, triglyceride P=0.78 and insulin level P=0.86). Conclusion: The current study showed the 8 weeks complementary use of Boswellia serrate gum resin with a daily dose of 500 mg had no better glucose and lipid lowering effect than placebo in diabetic patients. PMID:27516696

  1. Cadmium induced inhibition of Na sup + /K sup + ATPase activity in tissues of crab Scylla serrata (Forskal)

    SciTech Connect

    Dhavale, D.M. ); Masurekar, V.B. ); Giridhar, B.A. )

    1988-06-01

    Heavy metals discharged from industries these days are a major source of pollution which has become threat to all forms of life. A measure of metabolism may be a most sensitive parameter since it integrates many factors such as enzyme activity, biochemical contents and physiological response. The ability to accurately characterize enzymes with respect to their distribution and kinetics makes them attractive indices of stress. The concept of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase being intimately involved in active transport of ions across biological membranes has gained wide acceptance in recent years. Interference with osmoregulation may restrict the animal's ability to adapt to salinity changes. Several studies have shown that crustacenas are highly sensitive to metal pollutants, particularly when acclimated to low salinities. The present study was initiated to compare the characteristics of Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity in hepatopancreas and gills of crabs Scylla serrata (Forskal) exposed to acute and sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride for defined periods with those from undosed animals.

  2. Inhibitory kinetics of beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase from green crab (Scylla serrata) by zinc ion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Ping; Hu, Yong-Hua; Wang, Qin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ye; Yan, Jiang-Hua; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2010-08-11

    Heavy metal pollution such as chromium and zinc in the seawater has been increasing in recent years in the China Sea. Marine shellfish such as prawn and crab are sensitive to this pollution. Beta-N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase, EC 3.2.1.52) catalyzes the cleavage the oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) into the monomer. In this study, taking p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminide (pNP-NAG) as substrate, the effects of Zn(2+) on NAGase from green crab ( Scylla serrata ) have been studied. The results showed that appropriate concentrations of zinc could lead to reversible inhibition on the enzyme, and the IC(50) has been estimated to be 0.5 +/- 0.012 mM. Furthermore, it has been shown that Zn(2+) could reduce the thermal stability of NAGase depending on the concentration of Zn(2+). The inhibitory kinetics of zinc on the enzyme in the appropriate concentrations has been studied using the kinetic method of substrate reaction. The inhibition model has been set up, and the rate constants have been determined. The results showed that Zn(2+) was a mixed-type inhibitor of NAGase and that it could combine at the free enzyme and the enzyme-substrate active sites.

  3. Collembola populations under sclerophyllous coppices in Provence (France): comparison between two types of vegetation, Quercus ilex L. and Quercus coccifera L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortet, Jérôme; Poinsot-Balaguer, Nicole

    1998-10-01

    A comparative analysis of soil Collembola using two types of sclerophyllous vegetation ( Quercus ilex and Quercus coccifera) was performed at a calcareous site in Provence (France). Collembola populations were examined over a one-year period (11 successive months) in three different soil layers. Although no statistically significant differences could be observed for Collembola abundance and diversity, multivariate analyses (FCA) differentiated the two coppices. Phenologies of some species showed specific responses to the microclimate induced by edaphic conditions. Even though the two coppices were sclerophyllous, the structure of each vegetation, the quantity and quality of litter, which were different, could influence environmental conditions and thus the dynamics of collembolan populations.

  4. The Influence of Pleistocene Climatic Changes and Ocean Currents on the Phylogeography of the Southern African Barnacle, Tetraclita serrata (Thoracica; Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Terry V.; Matthee, Conrad A.; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary effects of glacial periods are poorly understood for Southern Hemisphere marine intertidal species, particularly obligatory sessile organisms. We examined this by assessing the phylogeographic patterns of the southern African volcano barnacle, Tetraclita serrata, a dominant species on rocky intertidal shores. Restricted gene flow in some geographical areas was hypothesized based on oceanic circulation patterns and known biogeographic regions. Barnacle population genetic structure was investigated using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) region for 410 individuals sampled from 20 localities spanning the South African coast. The mtDNA data were augmented by generating nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences from a subset of samples. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA data reveal two distinct clades with mostly sympatric distributions, whereas nuclear analyses reveal only a single lineage. Shallow, but significant structure (0.0041–0.0065, P<0.01) was detected for the mtDNA data set, with the south-west African region identified as harbouring the highest levels of genetic diversity. Gene flow analyses on the mtDNA data show that individuals sampled in south-western localities experience gene flow primarily in the direction of the Benguela Current, while south and eastern localities experience bi-directional gene flow, suggesting an influence of both the inshore currents and the offshore Agulhas Current in the larval distribution of T. serrata. The mtDNA haplotype network, Bayesian Skyline Plots, mismatch distributions and time since expansion indicate that T. serrata population numbers were not severely affected by the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), unlike other southern African marine species. The processes resulting in the two morphologically cryptic mtDNA lineages may be the result of a recent historical allopatric event followed by secondary contact or could reflect selective pressures

  5. The influence of Pleistocene climatic changes and ocean currents on the phylogeography of the southern African barnacle, Tetraclita serrata (Thoracica; Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Terry V; Matthee, Conrad A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary effects of glacial periods are poorly understood for Southern Hemisphere marine intertidal species, particularly obligatory sessile organisms. We examined this by assessing the phylogeographic patterns of the southern African volcano barnacle, Tetraclita serrata, a dominant species on rocky intertidal shores. Restricted gene flow in some geographical areas was hypothesized based on oceanic circulation patterns and known biogeographic regions. Barnacle population genetic structure was investigated using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) region for 410 individuals sampled from 20 localities spanning the South African coast. The mtDNA data were augmented by generating nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences from a subset of samples. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA data reveal two distinct clades with mostly sympatric distributions, whereas nuclear analyses reveal only a single lineage. Shallow, but significant structure (0.0041-0.0065, P<0.01) was detected for the mtDNA data set, with the south-west African region identified as harbouring the highest levels of genetic diversity. Gene flow analyses on the mtDNA data show that individuals sampled in south-western localities experience gene flow primarily in the direction of the Benguela Current, while south and eastern localities experience bi-directional gene flow, suggesting an influence of both the inshore currents and the offshore Agulhas Current in the larval distribution of T. serrata. The mtDNA haplotype network, Bayesian Skyline Plots, mismatch distributions and time since expansion indicate that T. serrata population numbers were not severely affected by the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), unlike other southern African marine species. The processes resulting in the two morphologically cryptic mtDNA lineages may be the result of a recent historical allopatric event followed by secondary contact or could reflect selective pressures

  6. Effects of temperature on complexes I and II mediated respiration, ROS generation and oxidative stress status in isolated gill mitochondria of the mud crab Scylla serrata.

    PubMed

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Chainy, G B N

    2014-04-01

    Effects of fluctuations in habitat temperature (18-30°) on mitochondrial respiratory behavior and oxidative metabolic responses in the euryhaline ectotherm Scylla serrata are not fully understood. In the present study, effects of different temperatures ranging from 12 to 40°C on glutamate and succinate mediated mitochondrial respiration, respiratory control ratio (RCR), ATP generation rate, ratio for the utilization of phosphate molecules per atomic oxygen consumption (P/O), levels of lipid peroxidation and H2O2 in isolated gill mitochondria of S. serrata are reported. The pattern of variation in the studied parameters was similar for the two substrates at different temperatures. The values recorded for RCR (≥3) and P/O ratio (1.4-2.7) at the temperature range of 15-25°C were within the normal range reported for other animals (3-10 for RCR and 1.5-3 for P/O). Values for P/O ratio, ATP generation rate and RCR were highest at 18°C when compared to the other assay temperatures. However, at low and high extreme temperatures, i.e. at 12 and 40°C, states III and IV respiration rates were not clearly distinguishable from each other indicating that mitochondria were completely uncoupled. Positive correlations were noticed between temperature and the levels of both lipid peroxidation and H2O2. It is inferred that fluctuations on either side of ambient habitat temperature may adversely influence mitochondrial respiration and oxidative metabolism in S. serrata. The results provide baseline data to understand the impacts of acute changes in temperature on ectotherms inhabiting estuarine or marine environments.

  7. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, on E. saccharina and F. serrata infestation. Two pot trials with three levels of N (60, 120, and 180 kg ha-1) and two levels each of calcium silicate and dolomitic lime (5 and 10 t ha-1) were naturally infested with thrips, then artificially water stressed and infested with borer. Higher N levels increased borer survival and stalk damage, while Si reduced these compared with controls. Silicon significantly reduced stalk damage in N27 but not in N33; hence, Si provided relatively greater protection for susceptible cultivars than for resistant ones. High N treatments were associated with greater thrips numbers, while Si treatments did not significantly influence thrips infestation. The reduction in borer survival and stalk damage by Si application at all N rates indicates that under field conditions, the opportunity exists for optimizing sugarcane yields through maintaining adequate N nutrition, while reducing populations of E. saccharina using integrated pest management (IPM) tactics that include improved Si nutrition of the crop and reduced plant water stress. Improved management of N nutrition may also provide an option for thrips IPM. The contrasting effects of Si on stalk borer and thrips indicate that Si-mediated resistance to insect herbivores in sugarcane has mechanical and biochemical components that are well developed in the stalk tissues targeted by E. saccharina but poorly developed in the young leaf spindles where F. serrata occurs. PMID:24999349

  8. The influence of Pleistocene climatic changes and ocean currents on the phylogeography of the southern African barnacle, Tetraclita serrata (Thoracica; Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Terry V; Matthee, Conrad A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary effects of glacial periods are poorly understood for Southern Hemisphere marine intertidal species, particularly obligatory sessile organisms. We examined this by assessing the phylogeographic patterns of the southern African volcano barnacle, Tetraclita serrata, a dominant species on rocky intertidal shores. Restricted gene flow in some geographical areas was hypothesized based on oceanic circulation patterns and known biogeographic regions. Barnacle population genetic structure was investigated using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) region for 410 individuals sampled from 20 localities spanning the South African coast. The mtDNA data were augmented by generating nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequences from a subset of samples. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA data reveal two distinct clades with mostly sympatric distributions, whereas nuclear analyses reveal only a single lineage. Shallow, but significant structure (0.0041-0.0065, P<0.01) was detected for the mtDNA data set, with the south-west African region identified as harbouring the highest levels of genetic diversity. Gene flow analyses on the mtDNA data show that individuals sampled in south-western localities experience gene flow primarily in the direction of the Benguela Current, while south and eastern localities experience bi-directional gene flow, suggesting an influence of both the inshore currents and the offshore Agulhas Current in the larval distribution of T. serrata. The mtDNA haplotype network, Bayesian Skyline Plots, mismatch distributions and time since expansion indicate that T. serrata population numbers were not severely affected by the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), unlike other southern African marine species. The processes resulting in the two morphologically cryptic mtDNA lineages may be the result of a recent historical allopatric event followed by secondary contact or could reflect selective pressures

  9. A report on the hybridization between two species of threatenedAsian box turtles (Testudines: Cuora) in the wild on Hainan Island(China) with comments on the origin of 'Serrata'-like turtles.

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, H.; Parham, James F.; Simison, W. Brian; Wang, J.; Gong, S.; Fu, B.

    2004-03-01

    Ten new turtle taxa were described from pet trade specimens from China since the 1980s (see Fritz and Obst, 1998; Fritz and Obst, 1999; Parham et al., 2001 for a review). Specimens similar to one of these taxa, Cuora serrata Iverson and McCord, 1992 (originally Cuora galbinifrons serrata, elevated by Fritz and Obst, 1997), were shown to be hybrids of male Cuora mouhotii (Gray, 1862; formerly Pyxidea, but see Stuart and Parham, 2004) and females of Cuora galbinifrons Bourret, 1939 or Cuora bourreti Obst and Reimann, 1994 (Parham et al., 2001; and Stuart and Parham, 2004).

  10. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Savitri; Kaushik, Vasuki Srinivas; Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Ramanna, Latha Muuaiah; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications. PMID:24144128

  11. Temperature stress effects in Quercus suber leaf metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Inês; Passarinho, José António P; Capitão, Cláudio; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Fevereiro, Pedro; Ricardo, Cândido P P

    2011-10-15

    Based on projections that climate changes are will intensify in the near future, it is important to understand how plants respond to climate. Consequently, we have been studying the effect of contrasting temperatures on leaf metabolism of Quercus suber, an important Mediterranean oak. Potted plants were grown under controlled conditions for 53 days at 28°C or 10°C. The accumulation of major soluble metabolites was analyzed by NMR. The relative levels of transcripts of genes encoding key enzymes of the shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathway (CS, PAL, CAD and ChS) were examined by means of quantitative, real-time RT-PCR. At 10°C, in the pre-existing leaves, the concentrations of sucrose, quercitol and catechin were higher, as were PAL and ChS transcripts. At 28°C, however, it was the concentration of quinic acid that was higher, as were the concentrations of CS and CAD transcripts. We conclude that contrasting temperatures greatly influence Q. suber metabolism and that a deeper analysis of the effects of more extreme temperatures is needed to understand the possible effects of temperature changes on Q. suber metabolism and physiology. PMID:21676491

  12. [Nutrient dynamics in Quercus mongolica leaves at different canopy positions].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu-bing; Han, Shi-jie; Zhang, Zhong-hui; Zhou, Yu-mei; Wang, Shu-qi; Wang, Xue-juan

    2011-09-01

    Taking the dominant tree species Quercus mongolica in natural coniferous-broadleaved mixed forest in Changbai Mountains as test object, this paper studied the variations of leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA), leaf carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contents per unit mass and per unit area, as well as the leaf N and P resorption efficiency and use efficiency at upper and lower canopy positions during growth season (from June to October). In the growth season, and at both upper and lower canopy positions, the LMA and leaf C content per unit area had obvious monthly fluctuation, the leaf N and P contents per unit area had the similar monthly variation trend with the leaf N and P contents per unit mass, but the leaf N and P resorption efficiency per unit mass had no significant difference with the leaf N and P resorption efficiency per unit area. The leaf N resorption efficiency and use efficiency were less affected by canopy position, but the leaf P resorption efficiency and use efficiency were higher at upper canopy than at lower canopy. Under the scenario of future climate change, the higher survival and competitive capabilities of Q. mongolica would benefit the nutrient cycling in the test forest ecosystem.

  13. The effect of Quercus castaneifolia extract on pathogenic enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bahador, N; Baserisalehi, M

    2011-12-01

    The family of Enterobacteriaceae is a major group of gram negative bacteria, some of these microorganisms are pathogen and could cause disease mainly gastroenteritis. Recently, due to drug resistant nature of these bacteria specially in developing countries treatment of the patient considered as important investigate. Quercus castaneifolia is a native plant of Yasuj province in Iran, which the people who living in this area consume the fruit of this plant for treatment of enteric disease. Hence, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fruit of Q. castaneifolia extract on pathogenic enteric bacteria viz., E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae and Yersinia enterocolitica. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts were assessed by gel diffusion method and modification of E-test respectively. All the experiments were performed in triplicate and the statistical analysis was carried out on the results. The results obtained from this study indicated that alcoholic extract was shown antimicrobial effect on the microorganisms tested. In addition, S. dysentriae was more sensitive with zone of inhibition 18 mm and MIC value was 2.5 × 10(-4) whereas, E. coli was less sensitive with zone of inhibition 12 mm and MIC value 1 × 10(-2). Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica showed relatively intermediate susceptibility to the extract with zone of inhibition of 14 mm and MIC value 5 × 10(-3). Overall, Q. castaneifolia may be considered for treatment of the patients suffering from enteric disease.

  14. Landscape-level spatial genetic structure in Quercus acutissima (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Yoon; Nason, John; Chung, Myong Gi; Kim, Ki-Joong; Park, Chong-Wook; Sun, Byung-Yun; Pak, Jae-Hong

    2002-08-01

    Quercus acutissima (Fagaceae), a deciduous broad-leaved tree, is an important forest element in hillsides of South Korea. We used allozyme loci, Wright's F statistics, and multilocus spatial autocorrelation statistics to examine the distribution of genetic diversity within and among three local populations and the spatial genetic structure at a landscape scale (15 ha, 250 × 600 m) on Oenaro Island, South Korea. Levels of genetic diversity in Q. acutissima populations were comparable to mean values for other oak species. A moderate but significant deficit of heterozygotes (mean F(IS) = 0.069) was detected within local populations and low but significant differentiation was observed among populations (F(ST) = 0.010). Spatial autocorrelation analyses revealed little evidence of significant genetic structure at spatial scales of 100-120 m. The failure to detect genetic structure within populations may be due to intraspecific competition or random mortality among saplings, resulting in extensive thinning within maternal half-sib groups. Alternatively, low genetic differentiation at the landscape scale indicates substantial gene flow among local populations. Although wind-borne pollen may be the primary source of gene flow in Q. acutissima, these results suggest that acorn movement by animals may be more extensive than previously anticipated. Comparison of these genetic data for Oenaro Island with a disturbed isolated inland population suggests that population-to-population differences in internal genetic structure may be influenced by local variation in regeneration environment (e.g., disturbance).

  15. Identification and Expression of Nine Oak Aquaporin Genes in the Primary Root Axis of Two Oak Species, Quercus petraea and Quercus robur

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed-Depardieu, Claire; Parent, Claire; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Parelle, Julien; Tatin-Froux, Fabienne; Le Provost, Grégoire; Capelli, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) belong to the Major Intrinsic Protein family that conducts water and other small solutes across biological membranes. This study aimed to identify and characterize AQP genes in the primary root axis of two oak species, Quercus petraea and Quercus robur. Nine putative AQP genes were cloned, and their expression was profiled in different developmental root zones by real-time PCR. A detailed examination of the predicted amino acid sequences and subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated AQPs could be divided into two subfamilies, which included six plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) and three tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs). We characterized the anatomical features of the roots and defined three developmental root zones: the immature, transition and mature zones. Expression analysis of the AQPs was performed according to these root developmental stages. Our results showed that the expression of PIP2;3 and TIP1 was significantly higher in Quercus petraea compared with Quercus robur in the three root zones. However, PIP2;1 and TIP2;1 were found to be differentially expressed in the mature zone of the two oak species. Of the nine AQP genes identified and analyzed, we highlighted four genes that might facilitate a deeper understanding of how these two closely related tree species adapted to different environments. PMID:23284785

  16. Effect of Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (yam) supplementation on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Lee, S Y; Palanivel, G; Kwak, H S

    2011-04-01

    A study was conducted to examine the physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties of yogurt made by supplementing powdered yam Dioscorea opposita Thunb. (YPT) at different concentrations (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8%, wt/vol) into milk, which was pasteurized and then fermented at 43°C for 6 h and stored for 16 d. The pH values of all samples decreased, whereas viscosity values and mean microbial counts increased during storage. The L* and a* color values (indicators of lightness and redness, respectively) of yogurt samples were not remarkably influenced by adding YPT, whereas the b* values (indicating yellowness) significantly increased with the addition of YPT at all concentrations at 0 d of storage, probably due to the original yellow color of yam powder. In functional component analyses, when the concentration of YPT increased, the amount of allantoin and diosgenin proportionally increased. The content of allantoin was 3.22 and diosgenin 4.69 μg/mL when 0.2% (wt/vol) YPT was supplemented and did not change quantitatively during the storage period (16 d). The sensory test revealed that the overall acceptability scores of YPT-supplemented yogurt samples (0.2 to 0.6%, wt/vol) were quite similar to those of the control throughout the storage period of 16 d. Based on the data obtained from the present study, it was concluded that the concentrations (0.2 to 0.6%, wt/vol) of YPT could be used to produce YPT-supplemented yogurt without significant adverse effects on physicochemical, microbial, and sensory properties, and enhance functional components from the supplementation.

  17. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of a Nonpolar Fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yantao; Huang, Jiajun; Lin, Wanjun; Yuan, Zhongwen; Feng, Senling; Xie, Ying; Ma, Wenzhe

    2016-01-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (GpM) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Most previous studies have focused primarily on polar fractions of GpM for anticancer activities. In this study, a nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM showed potent growth inhibitory activities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 31.62 μg/mL to 38.02 μg/mL. Furthermore, EA1.3A also inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 time-dependently, as well as its colony formation ability. EA1.3A induced apoptosis on MDA-MB-453 cells both dose-dependently and time-dependently as analyzed by flow cytometry and verified by western blotting analysis of apoptosis marker cleaved nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (cPARP). Additionally, EA1.3A induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Chemical components analysis of EA1.3A by GC-MS revealed that this nonpolar fraction from GpM contains 10 compounds including four alkaloids, three organic esters, two terpenes, and one catechol substance, and all these compounds have not been reported in GpM. In summary, the nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle progression. Our study shed light on new chemical bases for the anticancer activities of GpM and feasibilities to develop new anticancer agents from this widely used medicinal plant. PMID:27034692

  18. In vitro metabolism, permeation, and brain availability of six major boswellic acids from Boswellia serrata gum resins.

    PubMed

    Gerbeth, Kathleen; Hüsch, Jan; Fricker, Gert; Werz, Oliver; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts (BSE) revealed potent anti-inflammatory actions in preclinical and clinical studies. In 2002 BSE was assigned an orphan drug status by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the treatment of peritumoral edema. In the past pharmacological effects of BSE were mainly attributed to 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (KBA) and 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA). Therefore pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies focused mainly on these two boswellic acids (BAs). However, other BAs, like β-boswellic acid (βBA), might also contribute to the anti-inflammatory actions of BSE. Here, we determined the metabolic stability, permeability and brain availability of six major BAs, that is, KBA, AKBA, βBA, 3-acetyl-β-boswellic acid (AβBA), α-boswellic acid (αBA), and 3-acetyl-α-boswellic acid (AαBA). For permeability studies, the Caco-2 model was adapted to physiological conditions by the addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to the basolateral side and the use of modified fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) on the apical side. Under these conditions the four BAs lacking the 11-keto moiety revealed moderate permeability. Furthermore the permeability of AKBA and KBA was improved compared to earlier studies. In contrast to Aα- and AβBA, βBA and αBA were intensively metabolized after incubation with human and rat liver microsomes. Finally, the availability of all six major BAs could be confirmed in rat brain 8h after oral administration of 240mg/kg BSE to rats showing mean concentrations of 11.6ng/g for KBA, 37.5ng/g for AKBA, 485.1ng/g for αBA, 1066.6ng/g for βBA, 43.0ng/g for AαBA and 163.7ng/g for AβBA. PMID:23103296

  19. Determination of arsenic species in Solanum Lyratum Thunb using capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Pei-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Qiu, Zong-Qing; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Zhu, Xi; Pokhrel, Ganga Raj; Fu, Yu-Ying; Ye, Hui-Min; Lin, Wen-Xiong; Yang, Gui-Di

    2016-08-01

    A simple and highly efficient interface to couple capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry by a microflow polyfluoroalkoxy nebulizer and a quadruple ion deflector was developed in this study. By using this interface, six arsenic species, including arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenobetaine, and arsenocholine, were baseline-separated and determined in a single run within 11 min under the optimized separation conditions. The instrumental detection limit was in the range of 0.02-0.06 ng/mL for the six arsenic compounds. Repeatability expressed as the relative standard deviation (n = 5) of both migration time and peak area were better than 2.5 and 4.3% for six arsenic compounds. The proposed method, combined with a closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction procedure, was successfully applied for the determination of arsenic species in the Solanum Lyratum Thunb samples from Anhui province in China with the relative standard deviations (n = 5) ≤4%, method detection limits of 0.2-0.6 ng As/g and a recovery of 98-104%. The experimental results showed that arsenobetaine was the main speciation of arsenic in the Solanum Lyratum Thunb samples from different provinces in China, with a concentration of 0.42-1.30 μg/g. PMID:27378629

  20. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice modulates oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray in mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Zakaria, Ainul Mardhiyah; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure.

  1. Shade, leaf growth and crown development of Quercus rubra, Quercus velutina, Prunus serotina and Acer rubrum seedlings.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Kurt W.

    1994-01-01

    The study was conducted in an open field to determine the optimum irradiance for establishment and growth of two oak species and two major associated woody species. Half-sib seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and black oak (Q. velutina Lam.) were grown for two years under shade-cloth tents. Eight shade treatments (94, 70, 57, 45, 37, 27, 20 and 8% of full sunlight) with three replications each were used. Measurements were made on seedlings harvested at the end of the first and second growing seasons. In the second year, shading significantly decreased the number of leaves for all species except black cherry, but only significantly decreased leaf area in northern red oak. Shading significantly decreased average leaf size of red maple. Average leaf size of black cherry was largest in the intermediate shade treatments and decreased significantly with increased and decreased shade. Leaf weight/leaf area (mg cm(-2)) increased significantly in a quadratic pattern with decreasing shade for all four species. Leaf area ratio (cm(2) g(-1)) decreased significantly with decreasing shade for all species except red maple in the first year and black oak in the second year. Total branch development increased significantly with decreasing shade in red maple and northern red oak, whereas indeterminate branches increased significantly with decreasing shade only in black cherry, and short branches increased significantly with decreasing shade only in red maple. PMID:14967644

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genomes of Five Quercus Species

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanci; Zhou, Tao; Duan, Dong; Yang, Jia; Feng, Li; Zhao, Guifang

    2016-01-01

    Quercus is considered economically and ecologically one of the most important genera in the Northern Hemisphere. Oaks are taxonomically perplexing because of shared interspecific morphological traits and intraspecific morphological variation, which are mainly attributed to hybridization. Universal plastid markers cannot provide a sufficient number of variable sites to explore the phylogeny of this genus, and chloroplast genome-scale data have proven to be useful in resolving intractable phylogenetic relationships. In this study, the complete chloroplast genomes of four Quercus species were sequenced, and one published chloroplast genome of Quercus baronii was retrieved for comparative analyses. The five chloroplast genomes ranged from 161,072 bp (Q. baronii) to 161,237 bp (Q. dolicholepis) in length, and their gene organization and order, and GC content, were similar to those of other Fagaceae species. We analyzed nucleotide substitutions, indels, and repeats in the chloroplast genomes, and found 19 relatively highly variable regions that will potentially provide plastid markers for further taxonomic and phylogenetic studies within Quercus. We observed that four genes (ndhA, ndhK, petA, and ycf1) were subject to positive selection. The phylogenetic relationships of the Quercus species inferred from the chloroplast genomes obtained moderate-to-high support, indicating that chloroplast genome data may be useful in resolving relationships in this genus. PMID:27446185

  3. Photosynthesis as a temperature indicator in Quercus ilex L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratani, L.; Pesoli, P.; Crescente, M. F.; Aichner, K.; Larcher, W.

    2000-03-01

    Net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), leaf temperature (LT), transpiration rate ( E) and in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence were monitored February 1996-February 1997 in Quercus ilex plants growing in the climax area (Rome) and in the Garda lake region. Photosynthetic activity is an appropriate temperature-dependent functional trait linked to plant metabolism and performance. We employed photosynthesis as a stress temperature indicator. Regression analysis showed that in such regional climatic conditions, net photosynthetic rates were primarily correlated with temperature. The introduction of rainfall in the function did not significantly improve the theoretical prevision, in the range of temperature and rainfall analysed. The favourable leaf temperatures allowing 90-100% of the highest photosynthetic rates were 14-28°C, decreasing over 50% when leaf temperature were respectively below 6°C and over 37°C: the low potential photochemical efficiency of 0.71 PSII (Fv/Fm) at Castelporziano during summer, confirmed the state of stress. Transpiration rates remained high with the increase of leaf temperature in summer, in spite of the 46% decrease of stomatal conductance. Nevertheless, this decrease allowed the maintenance of acceptable Pn rates in stressful conditions. The potential productivity of Q. ilex lied on high peaks of activity during periods of lower evaporative demand and a rapid stomatal response to an increase in air temperature and soil water deficit. Although it is difficult to forecast Q. ilex productivity and plant structure, we may hypothesize its future presence in the Mediterranean Basin by the capability of vegetative activity in a wide range of temperatures, the high stomatal control in stressful conditions, the high plasticity index and water use efficiency (WUE).

  4. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  5. Quercus ilex L. carbon sequestration capability related to shrub size.

    PubMed

    Gratani, Loretta; Catoni, Rosangela; Varone, Laura

    2011-07-01

    CO(2) sequestration capacity of Quercus ilex L., an evergreen species developing in shrub and forest communities widely distributed in the Mediterranean Basin, was analysed. Experiments were carried out in the period of January to December 2009 on 20 shrubs of different size, growing at the Botanical Garden of Rome. At shrub level, the largest differences concern total photosynthetic leaf surface area per shrub and shrub volume. Shrubs structure significantly contribute to reduce total irradiance and air temperature below the canopy. Leaf mass per area is higher in sun leaves than in shade ones (20 ± 1 and 12 ± 2 mg cm( -2), respectively). Sun leaves are also characterised by the highest leaf thickness (78% higher in sun than in shade leaves), the spongy parenchyma thickness (71% higher in sun than in shade leaves) and the highest adaxial cuticle thickness (7.2 ± 1.2 and 4.7 ± 0.5 μm, respectively). Net photosynthetic rates (P (N)) of sun and shade leaves are the highest in spring, and shade leaves contribute 6% to the whole shrub P (N). Q. ilex CO(2) sequestration depends on shrub size. In particular, the CO(2) sequestration per shrub was 0.20 ± 0.02 Kg CO(2) year( -1) in small shrubs, and it was 75% and 98% lower than in medium and large ones. The highest CO(2) sequestration is measured in spring, decreasing 77% during drought. Q. ilex may play a significant role in mitigating carbon dioxide concentration and lowering air and soil temperature in areas around the Mediterranean Basin.

  6. [Aboveground architecture and biomass distribution of Quercus variabilis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bi-yun; Zhang, Wen-hui; Hu, Xiao-jing; Shen, Jia-peng; Zhen, Xue-yuan; Yang, Xiao-zhou

    2015-08-01

    The aboveground architecture, biomass and its allocation, and the relationship between architecture and biomass of Quercus variabilis of different diameter classes in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains were researched. The results showed that differences existed in the aboveground architecture and biomass allocation of Q. variabilis of different diameter classes. With the increase of diameter class, tree height, DBH, and crown width increased gradually. The average decline rate of each diameter class increased firstly then decreased. Q. variabilis overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio increased then declined. The specific leaf areas of Q. variabilis of all different diameter classes at vertical direction were 0.02-0.03, and the larger values of leaf mass ratio, LAI and leaf area ratio at vertical direction in diameter level I , II, III appeared in the middle and upper trunk, while in diameter level IV, V, VI, they appeared in the central trunk, with the increase of diameter class, there appeared two peaks in vertical direction, which located in the lower and upper trunk. The trunk biomass accounted for 71.8%-88.4% of Q. variabilis aboveground biomass, while the branch biomass accounted for 5.8%-19.6%, and the leaf biomass accounted for 4.2%-8.6%. With the increase of diameter class, stem biomass proportion of Q. variabilis decreased firstly then increased, while the branch and leaf biomass proportion showed a trend that increased at first then decreased, and then increased again. The aboveground biomass of Q. variabilis was significantly positively correlated to tree height, DBH, crown width and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R2:1), and positively related to the overall bifurcation ratio and stepwise bifurcation ratio (R3:2), but there was no significant correlation. Trunk biomass and total biomass aboveground were negatively related to the trunk decline rate, while branch biomass and leaf biomass were positively related to trunk decline

  7. Copper toxicity in the crab, Scylla serrata, copper levels in tissues and regulation after exposure to a copper-rich medium

    SciTech Connect

    Arumugam, M.; Ravindranath, M.H.

    1987-10-01

    In the decapod crustaceans copper is distributed in various tissues. In these animals the tissue copper generally exists in four forms; ionic, bound to proteins, lipids and membrane. In the estuarine crab Scylla serrata, the haemolymph copper exists only in association with proteins, whereas in the hepatopancreas it exists in all the four forms and in gills it exists in all the forms except in combination with lipids. Although food is the major source of copper in decapod crustaceans evidence indicate that copper may be directly obtained from the environment. It was postulated earlier that in Scylla serrata the haemolymph and hepatopancreas may be involved in copper regulation. In the present work the authors have studied the nature and levels of copper in different tissues after exposing the crabs to copper-rich medium. The results indicate the relative importance of various tissues in accumulation an the possible mechanisms of regulation of the environmental copper. Besides, as a pre-requisite for studies of this kind, the toxic levels for different forms of copper were estimated since the form of toxicant is known to influence the toxicity to the decapod crustaceans.

  8. Effect of phospholipid-based formulations of Boswellia serrata extract on the solubility, permeability, and absorption of the individual boswellic acid constituents present.

    PubMed

    Hüsch, Jan; Gerbeth, Kathleen; Fricker, Gert; Setzer, Constanze; Zirkel, Jürgen; Rebmann, Herbert; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2012-10-26

    Boswellia serrata gum resin extracts are used widely for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, very low concentrations in the plasma and brain were observed for the boswellic acids (1-6, the active constituents of B. serrata). The present study investigated the effect of phospholipids alone and in combination with common co-surfactants (e.g., Tween 80, vitamin E-TPGS, pluronic f127) on the solubility of 1-6 in physiologically relevant media and on the permeability in the Caco-2 cell model. Because of the high lipophilicity of 1-6, the permeability experiments were adapted to physiological conditions using modified fasted state simulated intestinal fluid as apical (donor) medium and 4% bovine serum albumin in the basolateral (receiver) compartment. A formulation composed of extract/phospholipid/pluronic f127 (1:1:1 w/w/w) increased the solubility of 1-6 up to 54 times compared with the nonformulated extract and exhibited the highest mass net flux in the permeability tests. The oral administration of this formulation to rats (240 mg/kg) resulted in 26 and 14 times higher plasma levels for 11-keto-β-boswellic acid (1) and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (2), respectively. In the brain, five times higher levels for 2 compared to the nonformulated extract were determined 8 h after oral administration.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Phenylpropanoid Glycerol Glucosides in Different Organs of Easter Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-05-20

    The Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is esteemed worldwide as an attractive ornamental plant, and the flower buds and bulbs are used for both culinary and medicinal purposes in many parts of the world. L. longiflorum contains significant amounts of phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides, a group of compounds that may contribute to plant pathogen defense, ultraviolet/high-intensity visible light (UV/high light) protection, and the purported medicinal uses of lilies. To define the natural distribution of these compounds within the plant, a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method performed in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode was employed for the quantitative analysis of five phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides, namely, (2S)-1-O-caffeoyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylglycerol, 1; (2R)-1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-O-p-coumaroylglycerol, 2; (2S)-1-O-p-coumaroyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosylglycerol, 3; (2S)-1-O-caffeoyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-acetylglycerol, 4; and (2S)-1-O-p-coumaroyl-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-acetylglycerol, 5, in the different organs of L. longiflorum. The p-coumaroyl-based 3 and its acetylated derivative 5 were determined to be the most abundant of the phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides found in Easter lily bulbs, at 776.3 ± 8.4 and 650.7 ± 32.6 μg/g dry weight, respectively. The acetylated p-coumaroyl- and caffeoyl-based derivatives, 5 and 4, accumulated to the highest concentration in the closed flower buds, at 4925.2 ± 512.8 and 3216.8 ± 406.4 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Compound 4, followed by 5 and 1, proved to be the most abundant in the mature flowers, occurring at 6006.2 ± 625.8, 2160.3 ± 556.5, and 1535.8 ± 174.1 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Total concentrations of the phenylpropanoid glycerol glucosides were 10-100-fold higher in the above-ground plant organs as compared to the bulbs and fleshy roots. Two of the five compounds, 1 and 2, were identified in L. longiflorum for the first time. The quantitative

  10. Salinity Stress Is Beneficial to the Accumulation of Chlorogenic Acids in Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kun; Cui, Mingxing; Zhao, Shijie; Chen, Xiaobing; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is a traditional medicinal plant in China that is particularly rich in chlorogenic acids, which are phenolic compounds with various medicinal properties. This study aimed to examine the effects of salinity stress on accumulation of chlorogenic acids in honeysuckle, through hydroponic experiments and field trials, and to examine the mechanisms underlying the effects. NaCl stress stimulated the transcription of genes encoding key enzymes in the synthesis of chlorogenic acids in leaves; accordingly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids in leaves were significantly increased under NaCl stress, as was antioxidant activity. Specifically, the total concentration of leaf chlorogenic acids was increased by 145.74 and 50.34% after 30 days of 150 and 300 mM NaCl stress, respectively. Similarly, the concentrations of chlorogenic acids were higher in the leaves of plants in saline, compared with non-saline, plots, with increases in total concentrations of chlorogenic acids of 56.05 and 105.29% in October 2014 and 2015, respectively. Despite leaf biomass reduction, absolute amounts of chlorogenic acids per plant and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were significantly increased by soil salinity, confirming that the accumulation of chlorogenic acids in leaves was a result of stimulation of their synthesis under salinity stress. Soil salinity also led to elevated chlorogenic acid concentrations in honeysuckle flower buds, with significant increases in total chlorogenic acids concentration of 22.42 and 25.14% in May 2014 and 2015, respectively. Consistent with biomass reduction, the absolute amounts of chlorogenic acid per plant declined in flower buds of plants exposed to elevated soil salinity, with no significant change in PAL activity. Thus, salinity-induced chlorogenic acid accumulation in flower buds depended on an amplification effect of growth reduction. In conclusion, salinity stress improved the medicinal quality of

  11. The Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-diabetic Effect of Boswellia serrata Triana and Planch Aqueous Extract in Fertile Female Diabetic Rats and the Possible Effects on Reproduction and Histological Changes in the Liver and Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Azemi, Mohamad Ebrahim; Namjoyan, Foroogh; Khodayar, Mohammad Javad; Ahmadpour, Forouzan; Darvish Padok, Azam; Panahi, Marziyeh

    2012-01-01

    Background Boswellia serrata has been used in a wide variety of diseases, including diabetes mellitus and inflammatory diseases. Objectives This study focused on the effects of Boswellia serrata aqueous extract on blood glucose and the complications of diabetes in the liver and kidneys and examined the impact of plant on reproduction in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods The antioxidant capacity of plant extract was performed using FRAP assay. Diabetic and control rats were administered 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg Boswellia serrata extract. Vaginal plaque was mentioned as a positive sign of pregnancy ;and treatment started with extract or vehicle from 1th to 17th day of gestation by gastric gavage. Blood glucose was measured during 17 days. Results The Administration of Boswellia serrata in diabetic rats significantly decreased the level of blood glucose and HbA1c after 17th days (P ≤ 0.01). In diabetic group that received no treatment, the abortion of fetus spontaneous was 19.14%. The percentage of absorptions significantly was elevated in vehicle-treated diabetic rats, in comparison with vehicle- treated healthy rats. In the diabetic group, separated necrosis of hepatocytes, anarchism of liver plates, and lymphocytic inflammation were improved. Diabetic complications were not seen and the severity of damage was reduced. These damages include: lymphocytic inflammation in the port areas, irregularities, apoptosis of liver cells, and dilatation of the sinusoids. Conclusions The results suggest that Boswellia serrata extract has the antidiabetic effects and can prevent the complications of diabetes in the kidneys and liver. PMID:24624177

  12. Houttuynia cordata Thunb reverses oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain in rat by regulating Th17/Treg balance.

    PubMed

    Wan, Cheng-Fu; Zheng, Li-Li; Liu, Yan; Yu, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a widely used anti-advanced colorectal cancer drug, while it could induce neuropathy. Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) has a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and immune regulation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCT on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in rat models. HCT (1000 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased the number of withdrawal responses and the withdrawal latency in oxaliplatin-treated rats. HCT could down-regulated the serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage inflammatory protein1-α (MIP-1α) in oxaliplatin-treated rats. Th17/Treg balance was reversed by HCT in oxaliplatin-treated rats by regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. The present results suggest that HCT is useful as a therapeutic drug for oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:27186286

  13. Houttuynia cordata Thunb reverses oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain in rat by regulating Th17/Treg balance

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Cheng-Fu; Zheng, Li-Li; Liu, Yan; Yu, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a widely used anti-advanced colorectal cancer drug, while it could induce neuropathy. Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) has a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and immune regulation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCT on oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy in rat models. HCT (1000 mg/kg/day) significantly decreased the number of withdrawal responses and the withdrawal latency in oxaliplatin-treated rats. HCT could down-regulated the serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage inflammatory protein1-α (MIP-1α) in oxaliplatin-treated rats. Th17/Treg balance was reversed by HCT in oxaliplatin-treated rats by regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. The present results suggest that HCT is useful as a therapeutic drug for oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:27186286

  14. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.)" (Matsumura et al., 2016) [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables. PMID:27547805

  15. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.)" (Matsumura et al., 2016) [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables.

  16. Report of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) from Scylla serrata: Ontogeny, molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis following ligand stimulation, and upon bacterial and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Vidya, R; Makesh, M; Purushothaman, C S; Chaudhari, A; Gireesh-Babu, P; Rajendran, K V

    2016-09-15

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are present in all living organisms, and their participation in signal transduction and defense mechanisms has been elucidated in humans and mosquitoes. LRRs possibly involve in protein-protein interactions also and show differential expression pattern upon challenge with pathogens. In the present study, a new LRR gene was identified in mud crab, Scylla serrata. LRR gene mRNA levels in different developmental stages and various tissues of S. serrata were analysed. Further, the response of the gene against different ligands, Gram-negative bacterium, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Full-length cDNA sequence of S. serrata LRR (SsLRR) was found to be 2290 nucleotide long with an open reading frame of 1893bp. SsLRR encodes for a protein containing 630 deduced amino acids with 17 conserved LRR domains and exhibits significant similarity with crustacean LRRs so that these could be clustered into a branch in the phylogenetic tree. SsLRR mRNA transcripts were detected in all the developmental stages (egg, Zoea1-5, megalopa and crab instar), haemocytes and various tissues such as, stomach, gill, muscle, hepatopancreas, hematopoietic organ, heart, epithelial layer and testis by reverse-transcriptase PCR. SsLRR transcripts in cultured haemocytes showed a 2-fold increase in expression at 1.5 and 12h upon Poly I:C induction. WSSV challenge resulted in significant early up-regulation at 3h in-vitro and late up-regulation at 72h in-vivo. Peptidoglycan (PGN)-induction resulted in marginal up-regulation of SsLRR at timepoints, 6, 12 and 24h (fold change below 1.5) and no significant change in the expression at early timepoints. LPS-stimulation, on the other hand, showed either down-regulation or normal level of expression at all timepoints. However, a delayed 5-fold up-regulation was observed in vivo against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection at 72hpi. The constitutive expression of the LRR gene in all the

  17. KINETICS OF LEAF TEMPERATURE FLUCTUATION AFFECT ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM RED OAK (QUERCUS RUBRA) LEAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because the rate of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) emission from plants is highly temperature-dependent, we investigated the natural fluctuations on leaf temperature and the effects of rapid temperature change on isoprene emission of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) leaves at the to...

  18. Maternal influences on seed mass effect and initial seedling growth in four Quercus species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Villar, Rafael; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

    2011-01-01

    Seed mass represents the reserves available for growth in the first stages of plant establishment. Variation in seed mass is an important trait which may have consequences for growth and survival of seedlings. Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain how seed mass influences seedling development: the reserve use effect, the metabolic effect and the seedling-size effect. Few studies have evaluated at the same time the three hypotheses within species and none have evaluated the effect of the mother trees. We studied four Quercus species by selecting five mother trees per species. Seeds were sown in a glasshouse and the use of seed reserves, seedling growth and morphology were measured. Considering all mothers of the same species together, we did not find the reserve effect for any species, the metabolic effect was observed in all species except for Quercus suber, and the seedling-size effect was matched for all the species. Within species, maternal origin modified the studied relationships and thus the studied mechanisms as we did not observe seed mass effects on all mothers from each species. Moreover, the metabolic effect was not found in any mother of Quercus ilex and Quercus faginea. We concluded that a maternal effect can change seed mass relationships with traits related to seedling establishment. The conservation of this high intra-specific variability must be considered to guarantee species performance in heterogeneous environments and in particular in the current context of climate change.

  19. The application of histo-cytopathological biomarkers in the mud crab Scylla serrata (Forskal) to assess heavy metal toxicity in Pulicat Lake, Chennai.

    PubMed

    Arockia Vasanthi, Lourduraj; Muruganandam, Azhagu; Revathi, Peranandam; Baskar, Balakrishnan; Jayapriyan, Kodhilmozhian; Baburajendran, Ramaswamy; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2014-04-15

    The concentrations of heavy metals and their associated structural deformities in the gills, muscles and hepatopancreas of Scylla serrata from Pulicat Lake were determined and compared with crabs live along Kovalam coast. The concentrations of metals were high in the hepatopancreas and gills of crab from Pulicat Lake, whereas, low in crab from the Kovalam coast. Data were visualized using a principal component analysis (PCA). Significant differences were found for all variables at the plot scale; however, the overall variation was relatively low for muscle tissues in both stations. The structural deformities observed in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscle was due to metal toxicity, and the degree of damage was correlated with the elevated metal concentration. The results showed significant metal accumulation and histo-cytological lesions in the crabs from Pulicat Lake. The results suggest that these biomarkers are useful for assessing the impact of metal pollution in the coastal environments.

  20. Molecular mechanism of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) induced suppression of ecdysteroidogenesis in the Y-organ of mud crab: Scylla serrata.

    PubMed

    Imayavaramban, L; Dhayaparan, D; Devaraj, Halagowder

    2007-11-13

    The present study was focused on the regulation of ecdysteroidogenesis in the Y-organ of Scylla serrata during molting cycle. A strong expression of molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and phosphorylation of ERK was predominantly observed in the postmolt and intermolt stages of Y-organs, whereas protein kinase C, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450(scc) activity were exclusively seen in the premolt stages. Interestingly, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation by PD98059 in the early postmolt (A), middle postmolt (B) and intermolt (C) stages resulted in the prominent expression of PKC and StAR in the postmolt stages. This result indicates that phosphorylation of ERK is required for suppression of ecdysteroid biosynthesis with the involvement of protein kinase C, and StAR protein. PMID:17949720

  1. Micropropagation and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic agent boswellic acid production in callus cultures of Boswellia serrata Roxb.

    PubMed

    Nikam, Tukaram D; Ghorpade, Ravi P; Nitnaware, Kirti M; Ahire, Mahendra L; Lokhande, Vinayak H; Chopra, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation through cotyledonary and leaf node and boswellic acid production in stem callus of a woody medicinal endangered tree species Boswellia serrata Roxb. is reported. The response for shoots, roots and callus formation were varied in cotyledonary and leafy nodal explants from in vitro germinated seeds, if inoculated on Murshige and Skoog's (MS) medium fortified with cytokinins and auxins alone or together. A maximum of 8.0 ± 0.1 shoots/cotyledonary node explant and 6.9 ± 0.1 shoots/leafy node explants were produced in 91 and 88 % cultures respectively on medium with 2.5 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 200 mg l(-1) polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Shoots treated with 2.5 μM IBA showed the highest average root number (4.5) and the highest percentage of rooting (89 %). Well rooted plantlets were acclimatized and 76.5 % of the plantlets showed survival upon transfer to field conditions. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of the micropropagated plants compared with mother plant revealed true-to-type nature. The four major boswellic acid components in calluses raised from root, stem, cotyledon and leaf explants were analyzed using HPLC. The total content of four boswellic acid components was higher in stem callus obtained on MS with 15.0 μM IAA, 5.0 μM BA and 200 mg l(-1) PVP. The protocol reported can be used for conservation and exploitation of in vitro production of medicinally important non-steroidal anti-inflammatory metabolites of B. serrata.

  2. Mitochondrial genome of the intertidal acorn barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Sessilia): Gene order comparison and phylogenetic consideration within Sessilia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) is presented. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,200 bp, which encodes 13 PCGs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All non-coding regions are 591 bp in length, with the longest one speculated as the control region (389 bp), which is located between srRNA and trnK. The overall A+T content of the mitochondrial genome of T. serrata is 65.4%, which is lowest among all the eight mitochondrial genomes reported from sessile barnacles. There are variations of initiation and stop codons in the reported sessile barnacle mitochondrial genomes. Large-scale gene rearrangements are found in these genomes as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. ML and Bayesian analyses of all 15 complete mitochondrial genomes available from Maxillopoda lead to identical phylogenies. The phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that Argulus americanus (Branchiura) cluster with Armillifer armillatus (Pentastomida), distinct from all ten species from Cirripedia. Within the order Sessilia, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Balanidae) clusters with Striatobalanus amaryllis (Archaeobalanidae), and Nobia grandis (Pyrgomatidae). However, the two Megabalanus (Balanidae) are separated from the above grouping, resulting in non-monophyly of the family Balanidae. Moreover, the two Megabalanus have large-scale rearrangements as compared to the gene order shared by former three species. Therefore, both phylogenetic analysis using PCG sequences and gene order comparison suggest that Balanidae is not a monophyletic group. Given the limited taxa and moderate support values of the internal branches, the non-monophyly of the family Balanidae requires further verification. PMID:25907711

  3. Mitochondrial genome of the intertidal acorn barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Sessilia): Gene order comparison and phylogenetic consideration within Sessilia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) is presented. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,200 bp, which encodes 13 PCGs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All non-coding regions are 591 bp in length, with the longest one speculated as the control region (389 bp), which is located between srRNA and trnK. The overall A+T content of the mitochondrial genome of T. serrata is 65.4%, which is lowest among all the eight mitochondrial genomes reported from sessile barnacles. There are variations of initiation and stop codons in the reported sessile barnacle mitochondrial genomes. Large-scale gene rearrangements are found in these genomes as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. ML and Bayesian analyses of all 15 complete mitochondrial genomes available from Maxillopoda lead to identical phylogenies. The phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that Argulus americanus (Branchiura) cluster with Armillifer armillatus (Pentastomida), distinct from all ten species from Cirripedia. Within the order Sessilia, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Balanidae) clusters with Striatobalanus amaryllis (Archaeobalanidae), and Nobia grandis (Pyrgomatidae). However, the two Megabalanus (Balanidae) are separated from the above grouping, resulting in non-monophyly of the family Balanidae. Moreover, the two Megabalanus have large-scale rearrangements as compared to the gene order shared by former three species. Therefore, both phylogenetic analysis using PCG sequences and gene order comparison suggest that Balanidae is not a monophyletic group. Given the limited taxa and moderate support values of the internal branches, the non-monophyly of the family Balanidae requires further verification.

  4. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW) has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H. cordata Thunb with unpleasant and fishy odors shows a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and insect repellent. The aim of this study is to show a novel quality control by GC/SAW methodology for the discrimination of the three different parts of the plant such as leaves, aerial stems, and underground stems for H. cordata Thunb. Sixteen compounds were identified. β-Myrcene, cis-ocimene and decanal are the dominant volatiles for leaves (71.0%) and aerial stems (50.1%). While, monoterpenes (74.6%) are the dominant volatiles for underground stems. 2-Undecanone (1.3%) and lauraldehyde (3.5%) were found to be the characteristic components for leaves. Each part of the plant has its own characteristic fragrance pattern owing to its individual chemical compositions. Moreover, its individual characteristic fragrance patterns are conducive to discrimination of the three different parts of the plant. Consequently, fast GC/SAW can be a useful analytical method for quality control of the different parts of the plant with pharmacological volatiles as it provides second unit analysis, a simple and fragrant pattern recognition. PMID:26046325

  5. An Effective Quality Control of Pharmacologically Active Volatiles of Houttuynia cordata Thunb by Fast Gas Chromatography-Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor.

    PubMed

    Oh, Se Yeon

    2015-06-03

    Fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor (GC/SAW) has been applied for the detection of the pharmacological volatiles emanated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb which is from South Korea. H. cordata Thunb with unpleasant and fishy odors shows a variety of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and insect repellent. The aim of this study is to show a novel quality control by GC/SAW methodology for the discrimination of the three different parts of the plant such as leaves, aerial stems, and underground stems for H. cordata Thunb. Sixteen compounds were identified. β-Myrcene, cis-ocimene and decanal are the dominant volatiles for leaves (71.0%) and aerial stems (50.1%). While, monoterpenes (74.6%) are the dominant volatiles for underground stems. 2-Undecanone (1.3%) and lauraldehyde (3.5%) were found to be the characteristic components for leaves. Each part of the plant has its own characteristic fragrance pattern owing to its individual chemical compositions. Moreover, its individual characteristic fragrance patterns are conducive to discrimination of the three different parts of the plant. Consequently, fast GC/SAW can be a useful analytical method for quality control of the different parts of the plant with pharmacological volatiles as it provides second unit analysis, a simple and fragrant pattern recognition.

  6. Leaf morphological and physiological adaptations of a deciduous oak (Quercus faginea Lam.) to the Mediterranean climate: a comparison with a closely related temperate species (Quercus robur L.).

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Díaz-Espejo, Antonio; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    'White oaks'--one of the main groups of the genus Quercus L.--are represented in western Eurasia by the 'roburoid oaks', a deciduous and closely related genetic group that should have an Arcto-Tertiary origin under temperate-nemoral climates. Nowadays, roburoid oak species such as Quercus robur L. are still present in these temperate climates in Europe, but others are also present in southern Europe under Mediterranean-type climates, such as Quercus faginea Lam. We hypothesize the existence of a coordinated functional response at the whole-shoot scale in Q. faginea under Mediterranean conditions to adapt to more xeric habitats. The results reveal a clear morphological and physiological segregation between Q. robur and Q. faginea, which constitute two very contrasting functional types in response to climate dryness. The most outstanding divergence between the two species is the reduction in transpiring area in Q. faginea, which is the main trait imposed by the water deficit in Mediterranean-type climates. The reduction in leaf area ratio in Q. faginea should have a negative effect on carbon gain that is partially counteracted by a higher inherent photosynthetic ability of Q. faginea when compared with Q. robur, as a consequence of higher mesophyll conductance, higher maximum velocity of carboxylation and much higher stomatal conductance (gs). The extremely high gs of Q. faginea counteracts the expected reduction in gs imposed by the stomatal sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit, allowing this species to diminish water losses maintaining high net CO2 assimilation values along the vegetative period under nonlimiting soil water potential values. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that Q. faginea can be regarded as an example of adaptation of a deciduous oak to Mediterranean-type climates.

  7. Effect of habitat and age on variations in volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street, R. A.; Owen, S.; Duckham, S. C.; Boissard, C.; Hewitt, C. N.

    A dynamic branch enclosure was used to measure emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under field conditions from two common native Mediterranean species, Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea. In addition to α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, limonene and cineole, a suite of lesser known compounds were tentatively identified including cis- and trans-ocimene, cis- and trans-linalool oxide and sabinaketone. Emissions of isoprene from Quercus ilex were insignificant in comparison to those of the monoterpenes and were not detected from Pinus pinea. Variability in emission rates between two habitats, the forest and the dunes, were assessed for Quercus ilex. Temperature sensitivities of emissions and total summed emission rates from Quercus ilex were clearly related to environmental conditions. Emission rates from Pinus pinea showed great variability, but differences between normalised mean emission rates from mature forest and young plantation trees may be significant. Existing emission rate models were found to inadequately describe the observed data.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of molluscicidal activity of extracts from Cotula cinerea (L) and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls (Oliv.).

    PubMed

    Redwane, A; Markouk, M; Lazrek, H B; Amarouch, H; Jana, M

    1998-01-01

    In this work, we have studied the molluscicidal activity of different extracts obtained from Cotula cinerea and Quercus lusitania var. infectoria galls. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea, acetonic extract and gallotanin of Quercus infectoria galls have presented high activity against Bulinus truncatus. The hydroalcoholic extract of Cotula cinerea was fractionated by chromatography on silica gel column. We have isolated two very active fractions at concentrations respectively of 52.5 and 27.5 ppm.

  9. Phylogenetic position of Linguatula arctica and Linguatula serrata (Pentastomida) as inferred from the nuclear 18S rRNA gene and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Bjørn

    2013-10-01

    Genomic DNA was isolated from a Linguatula serrata female expelled from a dog imported to Norway from Romania and from four Linguatula arctica females collected from semi-domesticated reindeer from northern Norway and subjected to PCR amplification of the complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene and a 1,045-bp portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (cox1). The two species differed at two of 1,830 nucleotide positions (99.9% identity) of the complete 18S rRNA gene sequences and at 102 of 1,045 nucleotide positions (90.2% identity) of the partial cox1 sequences. The four isolates of L. arctica showed no genetic variation in either gene. The new cox1 primers may facilitate the diagnosis of various developmental stages of L. arctica and L. serrata in their hosts. In separate phylogenetic analyses using the maximum likelihood method on sequence data from either gene, L. arctica and L. serrata clustered with members of the order Cephalobaenida rather than with members of the order Porocephalida, in which the genus Linguatula is currently placed based on morphological characters. The phylogenetic relationship of L. arctica, L. serrata and other pentastomids to other metazoan groups could not be clearly resolved, but the pentastomids did not seem to have a sister relationship to crustaceans of the subclass Branchiura as found in other studies. A more extensive taxon sampling, including molecular characterisation of more pentastomid taxa across different genera, seems to be necessary in order to estimate the true relationship of the Pentastomida to other metazoan groups.

  10. A neighborhood analysis of the consequences of Quercus suber decline for regeneration dynamics in Mediterranean forests.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Beatriz; Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Stoll, Peter; Ávila, José M; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-01-01

    In forests, the vulnerable seedling stage is largely influenced by the canopy, which modifies the surrounding environment. Consequently, any alteration in the characteristics of the canopy, such as those promoted by forest dieback, might impact regeneration dynamics. Our work analyzes the interaction between canopy neighbors and seedlings in Mediterranean forests affected by the decline of their dominant species (Quercus suber). Our objective was to understand how the impacts of neighbor trees and shrubs on recruitment could affect future dynamics of these declining forests. Seeds of the three dominant tree species (Quercus suber, Olea europaea and Quercus canariensis) were sown in six sites during two consecutive years. Using a spatially-explicit, neighborhood approach we developed models that explained the observed spatial variation in seedling emergence, survival, growth and photochemical efficiency as a function of the size, identity, health, abundance and distribution of adult trees and shrubs in the neighborhood. We found strong neighborhood effects for all the performance estimators, particularly seedling emergence and survival. Tree neighbors positively affected emergence, independently of species identity or health. Alternatively, seedling survival was much lower in neighborhoods dominated by defoliated and dead Q. suber trees than in neighborhoods dominated by healthy trees. For the two oak species, these negative effects were consistent over the three years of the experimental seedlings. These results indicate that ongoing changes in species' relative abundance and canopy trees' health might alter the successional trajectories of Mediterranean oak-forests through neighbor-specific impacts on seedlings. The recruitment failure of dominant late-successional oaks in the gaps opened after Q. suber death would indirectly favor the establishment of other coexisting woody species, such as drought-tolerant shrubs. This could lead current forests to shift into

  11. A Neighborhood Analysis of the Consequences of Quercus suber Decline for Regeneration Dynamics in Mediterranean Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Beatriz; Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Stoll, Peter; Ávila, José M.; Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Marañón, Teodoro

    2015-01-01

    In forests, the vulnerable seedling stage is largely influenced by the canopy, which modifies the surrounding environment. Consequently, any alteration in the characteristics of the canopy, such as those promoted by forest dieback, might impact regeneration dynamics. Our work analyzes the interaction between canopy neighbors and seedlings in Mediterranean forests affected by the decline of their dominant species (Quercus suber). Our objective was to understand how the impacts of neighbor trees and shrubs on recruitment could affect future dynamics of these declining forests. Seeds of the three dominant tree species (Quercus suber, Olea europaea and Quercus canariensis) were sown in six sites during two consecutive years. Using a spatially-explicit, neighborhood approach we developed models that explained the observed spatial variation in seedling emergence, survival, growth and photochemical efficiency as a function of the size, identity, health, abundance and distribution of adult trees and shrubs in the neighborhood. We found strong neighborhood effects for all the performance estimators, particularly seedling emergence and survival. Tree neighbors positively affected emergence, independently of species identity or health. Alternatively, seedling survival was much lower in neighborhoods dominated by defoliated and dead Q. suber trees than in neighborhoods dominated by healthy trees. For the two oak species, these negative effects were consistent over the three years of the experimental seedlings. These results indicate that ongoing changes in species’ relative abundance and canopy trees’ health might alter the successional trajectories of Mediterranean oak-forests through neighbor-specific impacts on seedlings. The recruitment failure of dominant late-successional oaks in the gaps opened after Q. suber death would indirectly favor the establishment of other coexisting woody species, such as drought-tolerant shrubs. This could lead current forests to shift

  12. Rapid Detection of Ophiostoma piceae and O. quercus in Stained Wood by PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Uzunovic, Adnan; Breuil, Colette

    1999-01-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and simple method was developed to detect the sapstain fungi Ophiostoma piceae and O. quercus in stained wood. By using microwave heating for DNA extraction and PCR with internal transcribed spacer-derived-specific primers, detection was feasible within 4 h, even with DNA obtained from a single synnema. This method can easily be extended for the detection of other wood-inhabiting fungi. PMID:9872792

  13. Unilateral compatibility and genotypic difference in crossability in interspecific hybridization between Dianthus caryophyllus L. and Dianthus japonicus Thunb.

    PubMed

    Nimura, M; Kato, J; Mii, M; Morioka, K

    2003-05-01

    Reciprocal interspecific crosses were carried out between six lines of Dianthus caryophyllus L. and one line of Dianthus japonicus Thunb. Although no seed was set when D. japonicus was used as the seed parent, six seedlings were successfully obtained from 2,380 immature ovules by applying the embryo-rescue technique. However, they showed seed parent-like morphology and no evidence for the hybridity by flow cytometry and RAPD analyses. When six lines of D. caryophyllus were used as seed parents, a total of 192 seedlings were successfully obtained without using the embryo-rescue technique. Among these seedlings, 12 out of 25 progenies obtained from the carnation line '98sp1651' were confirmed to be the hybrids. The remaining 13 progenies of this line, and the total 167 progenies obtained from the other carnation lines, had carnation-like morphology without any evidence of hybridity by flow cytometry and RAPD analyses. The progenies confirmed as hybrids had intermediate characters of the parents with respect to leaf width and flower size, but they had a uniform flower color, reddish purple, which was different from that of either parent. Since the hybrids obtained in the present study have some profitable characters such as vigorous growth in summer time, upright robust stem, broad leaves and early flowering, they are expected to be used for the breeding of carnation which is suitable for growing under the Japanese climate.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Immature Flower Buds Using Combinatorial Peptide Ligand Libraries and Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Xiaobao; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. flower is a well-known medicinal plant that has been widely used for the treatment of human disease. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used in combination with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) fractionation for the enrichment of low-abundance proteins and removal of high-abundance proteins, respectively. A total of 177, 614, and 529 proteins were identified in crude protein extraction, CPLL fractions, and PEG fractions, respectively. Among the identified proteins, 283 and 239 proteins were specifically identified by the CPLL and PEG methods, respectively. In particular, proteins related to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, signaling, hormone metabolism, and transport were highly enriched by CPLL and PEG fractionation compared to crude protein extraction. A total of 28 secondary metabolism-related proteins and 25 metabolites were identified in L. japonica immature flower buds. To determine the specificity of the identified proteins and metabolites for L. japonica immature flower buds, Cerasus flower buds were used, which resulted in the abundance of hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase in L. japonica immature flower buds being 10-fold higher than that in Cerasus flower buds. These results suggest that proteins related to secondary metabolism might be responsible for the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds.

  15. Rapid and quantitative determination of 10 major active components in Lonicera japonica Thunb. by ultrahigh pressure extraction-HPLC/DAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Lin, Changhu; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    An ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD) method was established to evaluate the quality of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Ten active components, including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, luteoloside, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, and quercetin, were qualitatively evaluated and quantitatively determined. Scanning electron microscope images elucidated the bud surface microstructure and extraction mechanism. The optimal extraction conditions of the UPE were 60% methanol solution, 400 MPa of extraction pressure, 3 min of extraction time, and 1:30 (g/mL) solid:liquid ratio. Under the optimized conditions, the total extraction yield of 10 active components was 57.62 mg/g. All the components showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9994) and recoveries. This method was successfully applied to quantify 10 components in 22 batches of L. japonica samples from different areas. Compared with heat reflux extraction and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, UPE can be considered as an alternative extraction technique for fast extraction of active ingredient from L. japonica.

  16. Houttuynia cordata Thunb fraction induces human leukemic Molt-4 cell apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

    PubMed

    Prommaban, Adchara; Kodchakorn, Kanchanok; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Banjerdpongchai, Ratana

    2012-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is a native herb found in Southeast Asia which features various pharmacological activities against allergy, inflammation, viral and bacterial infection, and cancer. The aims of this study were to determine the cytotoxic effect of 6 fractions obtained from silica gel column chromatography of alcoholic HCT extract on human leukemic Molt-4 cells and demonstrate mechanisms of cell death. Six HCT fractions were cytotoxic to human lymphoblastic leukemic Molt-4 cells in a dose-dependent manner by MTT assay, fraction 4 exerting the greatest effects. Treatment with IC50 of HCT fraction 4 significantly induced Molt-4 apoptosis detected by annexinV-FITC/propidium iodide for externalization of phosphatidylserine to the outer layer of cell membrane. The mitochondrial transmembrane potential was reduced in HCT fraction 4-treated Molt-4 cells. Moreover, decreased expression of Bcl-xl and increased levels of Smac/Diablo, Bax and GRP78 proteins were noted on immunoblotting. In conclusion, HCT fraction 4 induces Molt-4 apoptosis cell through an endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. PMID:22901157

  17. Quality evaluation of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection (HPLC-DAD).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhan-nan; Sun, Yi-ming; Luo, Shi-qiong; Chen, Jin-wu; Chen, Jin-wu; Yu, Zheng-wen; Sun, Min

    2014-03-01

    A new, validated method, developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 phenolics (chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, vitexin, rutin, afzelin, isoquercitrin, narirutin, kaempferitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, chrysosplenol D, vitexicarpin, 5-hydroxy-3,3',4',7-tetramethoxy flavonoids, 5-hydroxy-3,4',6,7-tetramethoxy flavonoids and kaempferol-3,7,4'-trimethyl ether) in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. was successfully applied to 35 batches of samples collected from different regions or at different times and their total antioxidant activities (TAAs) were investigated. The aim was to develop a quality control method to simultaneously determine the major active components in H. cordata. The HPLC-DAD method was performed using a reverse-phase C18 column with a gradient elution system (acetonitrile-methanol-water) and simultaneous detection at 345 nm. Linear behaviors of method for all the analytes were observed with linear regression relationship (r(2)>0.999) at the concentration ranges investigated. The recoveries of the 16 phenolics ranged from 98.93% to 101.26%. The samples analyzed were differentiated and classified based on the contents of the 16 characteristic compounds and the TAA using hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results analyzed showed that similar chemical profiles and TAAs were divided into the same group. There was some evidence that active compounds, although they varied significantly, may possess uniform anti-oxidant activities and have potentially synergistic effects. PMID:24577906

  18. A Novel Biosurfactant Produced by Aureobasidium pullulans L3-GPY from a Tiger Lily Wild Flower, Lilium lancifolium Thunb.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Shik; Lee, In Kyoung; Yun, Bong Sik

    2015-01-01

    Yeast biosurfactants are important biotechnological products in the food industry, and they have medical and cosmeceutical applications owing to their specific modes of action, low toxicity, and applicability. Thus, we have isolated and examined biosurfactant-producing yeast for various industrial and medical applications. A rapid and simple method was developed to screen biosurfactant-producing yeasts for high production of eco-friendly biosurfactants. Using this method, several potential niches of biosurfactant-producing yeasts, such as wild flowers, were investigated. We successfully selected a yeast strain, L3-GPY, with potent surfactant activity from a tiger lily, Lilium lancifolium Thunb. Here, we report the first identification of strain L3-GPY as the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans. In addition, we isolated a new low-surface-tension chemical, designated glycerol-liamocin, from the culture supernatant of strain L3-GPY through consecutive chromatography steps, involving an ODS column, solvent partition, silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and an ODS Sep-Pak cartridge column. The chemical structure of glycerol-liamocin, determined by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicates that it is a novel compound with the molecular formula C33H62O12. Furthermore, glycerol-liamocin exhibited potent biosurfactant activity (31 mN/m). These results suggest that glycerol-liamocin is a potential novel biosurfactantfor use in various industrial applications. PMID:25849549

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of triterpenoic Acids of Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Leaf on rat model of chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Wang, Ting-Yu; Zhao, Bin; Lv, Xiong-Wen; Jin, Yong; Peng, Lei; Yu, Shi-Chun; Li, Jun

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Triterpenoic Acids from Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (TAL) on chronic bronchitis (CB) in rats. CB model was established by combination of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG, 5 mg/kg, injected through the caudal vein) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 g/L, injected through endotracheal intubation). Rats with CB model were treated with TAL (50, 150 and 450 mg/kg) for 3 weeks. The leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted after Wright staining, the levels of cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-10 in the supernatants of lung homogenate were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the protein expression of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on bronchial epithelium were tested by immunohistochemical staining. As compared to the normal and sham groups, the total number of leukocyte, the differential counts of neutrophils and alveolar macrophage (AM) in BALF, the levels of TNF-alpha and IL-8 in the supernatants of lung homogenate, and the expression of NF-kappaB and ICAM-1 on bronchial epithelium in CB rats were significantly increased, while the level of IL-10 was decreased. TAL (50, 150 and 450 mg/kg) attenuated these alterations in model CB rats, which indicates that TAL has anti-inflammatory effect in the rats with CB.

  20. Proteomic Analysis of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Immature Flower Buds Using Combinatorial Peptide Ligand Libraries and Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Xiaobao; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb. flower is a well-known medicinal plant that has been widely used for the treatment of human disease. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used in combination with combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) fractionation for the enrichment of low-abundance proteins and removal of high-abundance proteins, respectively. A total of 177, 614, and 529 proteins were identified in crude protein extraction, CPLL fractions, and PEG fractions, respectively. Among the identified proteins, 283 and 239 proteins were specifically identified by the CPLL and PEG methods, respectively. In particular, proteins related to the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, signaling, hormone metabolism, and transport were highly enriched by CPLL and PEG fractionation compared to crude protein extraction. A total of 28 secondary metabolism-related proteins and 25 metabolites were identified in L. japonica immature flower buds. To determine the specificity of the identified proteins and metabolites for L. japonica immature flower buds, Cerasus flower buds were used, which resulted in the abundance of hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase in L. japonica immature flower buds being 10-fold higher than that in Cerasus flower buds. These results suggest that proteins related to secondary metabolism might be responsible for the biological activities of L. japonica immature flower buds. PMID:26573373

  1. Anti-inflammatory functions of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. and its compounds: A perspective on its potential role in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    LI, JUN; ZHAO, FUTAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to take a look at the anti-inflammatory functions of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HCT) that have been illustrated in the literature and to explore new fields in which HCT could be used in the future. The use of HCT has been described in broad inflammatory domains, where it has exhibited a variety of activities, including antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic and immunostimulant activity, with high efficiency, mild features and definite therapeutic effects. The numerous anti-inflammatory functions of HCT have demonstrated that HCT has wide application prospects. New uses of HCT and the full extent of its utilization await further investigation. The basic pathological change of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is synovial proliferation which leads to joint destruction in the long-term. There are types of drugs that have been used clinically for patients with RA, however, due to their side-effects or high prices their broad usage is limited. A safe and low-cost drug is urgently required to be developed for the clinical usage of patients with RA. Thus, HCT has the potential to be a good candidate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:26170903

  2. Effect of different plant growth regulators on micro-tuber induction and plant regeneration of Pinellia ternate (Thunb) Briet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junli; Wang, Qian; Wang, Jue; Lu, Yuan; Xiao, Xuan; Gong, Weizhen; Liu, Jikai

    2009-10-01

    An efficient micropropagation system for Pinellia ternate (Thunb) Briet, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, has been developed. Petiole and lamina of P. ternate were used as explants and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different concentrations of different plant growth regulators. The results indicated that low concentration of 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) were suitable for micro-tuber induction, but callus induction rate increased with increasing concentrations of growth regulators. Tubers induction rates of petiole and leaf were (81.8 %-100 %) and (89.4 %-96.0 %) respectively, when 0.2 mg l(-1) 2, 4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid, indole-3-acetic acid or α-naphthalene acetic acid were present in the medium. Tubers induction rates of petiole and leaf cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.2-0.5 mg l(-1) 6-benzyl amino purine (6-BAP) were (94.1 %-100 %) and (96.0 %-100 %) respectively. When the concentration of 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid, α-naphthalene acetic acid and 6-benzyl amino purine was increased to 2.0 mg l(-1), callus induction rates of petiole and leaf were 100 % and 98.2 %, 91.0 % and 36.0 %, 62.3 % and 70.0 %, respectively. Different concentration of kinetin (KT) and zeatin (ZT) had no significant effect on micro-tuber induction of petiole. Most petioles showed polarity during the cultivation of explants, when supplemented with different concentrations of auxin or cytokinin in the MS medium.

  3. Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Activity by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Ko, Yong-Hyun; Seo, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effects of Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. methanol extract (VBME) on microglial activation and to identify the underlying mechanisms of action of these effects. The anti-inflammatory properties of VBME were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. We measured the production of nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as inflammatory parameters. We also examined the effect of VBME on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65). VBME significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of NO and PGE2 and LPS-mediated upregulation of iNOS and COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner; importantly, VBME was not cytotoxic. VBME also significantly reduced the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In addition, VBME significantly dampened intracellular ROS production and suppressed NF-κB p65 translocation by blocking IκB-α phosphorylation and degradation in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Our findings indicate that VBME inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in BV-2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB signaling. Thus, VBME may be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases due to its ability to inhibit inflammatory mediator production in activated BV-2 microglial cells. PMID:27169820

  4. Isolation and characterization of a laccase gene potentially involved in proanthocyanidin polymerization in Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qianni; Luo, Chun; Zhang, Qinglin; Luo, Zhengrong

    2013-04-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs, condensed tannins) are important health-promoting phytochemicals that are abundant in many plants. Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) is an excellent source of PAs because of its unique ability to accumulate large quantities of these compounds in its young fruit. There are two different spontaneous mutant phenotypes of oriental persimmons which lose their astringent taste naturally on the tree; while plants without these mutations remain rich in soluble PAs until the fruit fully ripened. The mutations are referred to as pollination-constant non-astringent genotypes named J-PCNA and C-PCNA, and are from Japan and China respectively. In this work we speculated that the loss of astringency in C-PCNA fruit is due to the soluble PAs transferred into insoluble upon polymerization, which was quite different from that of the J-PCNA. A DkLAC1 gene was isolated by the homology-based clone method. The predicted protein product of this gene showed that the DkLAC1 is a plant laccase which is phylogenetically related to the known enzyme AtLAC15 involved in the polymerization of PAs. Expression patterns of PAs biosynthetic genes associated with soluble PAs contents in three types of Oriental persimmons. Expression levels of DkLAC1 in C-PCNA type plants were linked with the reduction of soluble PAs in the flesh of the fruit. In addition the cis-elements in the DkLAC1 promoter regions indicated that the gene might also be regulated by the DkMYB4 as is seen with other well-known structural genes in Oriental persimmon. We conclude that DkLAC1 is potentially involved in PA polymerization in C-PCNA during normal ripening in C-PCNA persimmon.

  5. Deep sequencing reveals transcriptome re-programming of Polygonum multiflorum thunb. roots to the elicitation with methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongchang; Wu, Wei; Hou, Kai; Chen, Junwen; Zhao, Zhi

    2016-02-01

    The phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) has been successfully used as an effective elicitor to enhance production of stilbenoid which is induced in plants as a secondary metabolite possibly in defense against herbivores and pathogens. However, the mechanism of MeJA-mediated stilbenoid biosynthesis remains unclear. Genomic information for Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (P. multiflorum) is currently unavailable. To obtain insight into the global regulation mechanism of MeJA in the steady state of stilbene glucoside production (26 h after MeJA elicitation), especially on stilbene glucoside biosynthesis, we sequenced the transcriptomes of MeJA-treated and untreated P. multiflorum roots and obtained more than 51 million clean reads, from which 79,565 unigenes were obtained by de novo assembly. 56,972 unigenes were annotated against databases including Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG. 18,677 genes expressed differentially between untreated and treated roots. Expression level analysis indicated that a large number of genes were associated with plant-pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction, stilbenoid backbone biosynthesis, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. 15 known genes involved in the biosynthesis of stilbenoid backbone were found with 7 genes showing increased transcript abundance following elicitation of MeJA. The significantly up (down)-regulated changes of 70 genes in stilbenoid biosynthesis were validated by qRT-PCR assays and PCR product sequencing. According to the expression changes and the previously proposed enzyme functions, multiple candidates for the unknown steps in stilbene glucoside biosynthesis were identified. We also found some genes putatively involved in the transcription factors. This comprehensive description of gene expression information could greatly facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of MeJA-mediated stilbenoid biosynthesis in P. multiflorum roots. Our results shed new light on the global regulation

  6. Genetic transformation of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) for herbicide resistance.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Rubén; Alvarez, José M; Humara, Jaime M; Revilla, Angeles; Ordás, Ricardo J

    2009-09-01

    The bar gene was introduced into the cork oak genome. Cork oak embryogenic masses were transformed using the Agrobacterium strain AGL1 which carried the plasmid pBINUbiBar. This vector harbours the genes, nptII and bar, the latter under control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. The transgenic embryogenic lines were cryopreserved. Varying activities of phosphinothricin acetyl transferase were detected among the lines, which carried 1-4 copies of the insert. Molecular and biochemical assays confirmed the stability and expression of the transgenes 3 months after thawing the cultures. These results demonstrate genetic engineering of herbicide tolerance in Quercus spp.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal association of three Lactarius species with Carpinus and Quercus trees in a Mexican montane cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Lamus, Valentina; Montoya, Leticia; Aguilar, Carlos J; Bandala, Victor M; Ramos, David

    2012-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are being monitored in the Santuario del Bosque de Niebla in the central region of Veracruz (eastern Mexico). Based on the comparison of DNA sequences (ITS rDNA) of spatiotemporally co-occurring basidiomes and EM root tips, we discovered the EM symbiosis of Lactarius indigo, L. areolatus and L. strigosipes with Carpinus caroliniana, Quercus xalapensis and Quercus spp. The host of the EM tips was identified by comparison of the large subunit of the ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL). Descriptions coupled with photographs of ectomycorrhizas and basidiomes are presented.

  8. Induction of ecdysteroidogenesis, methyl farnesoate synthesis and expression of ecdysteroid receptor and retinoid X receptor in the hepatopancreas and ovary of the giant mud crab, Scylla serrata by melatonin.

    PubMed

    Girish, B P; Swetha, Ch; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin, a chronobiotic molecule, is known to modulate several physiological functions in crustaceans including reproduction, molting and glucose homeostasis. In our earlier studies (Sainath and Reddy, 2010a), we observed hyperglycemia in crabs after melatonin administration and concluded that melatonin is another crustacean hyperglycemic hormone. In the current study, we have further examined the role of melatonin in regulating the levels of methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroid in the giant mud crab Scylla serrata and determined that melatonin indeed is a reproductive hormone. Further, we have determined partial nucleotide sequences of retinoid X receptor (RXR) and ecdysone receptor (EcR) in S. serrata and also studied the effect of melatonin on expression of these genes. Cloned RXR and EcR possess high sequence similarity with other Brachyuran genes. Administration of melatonin elevated circulatory methyl farnesoate (MF) and ecdysteroid levels in crabs. Since MF and ecdysteroid act through RXR and EcR respectively and these receptors are involved in the regulation of reproduction in crustaceans, we measured the expression levels of RXR and EcR in hepatopancreas and ovary after melatonin administration. The expression levels of both RXR and EcR increased significantly in the hepatopancreas and ovary of melatonin injected crabs when compared to the controls. In vitro culture of mandibular organ (MO) and Y-organ (YO) in the presence of melatonin resulted in a significant increase in the secretion of methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroid respectively. From the above studies it is clear that melatonin stimulates YO and MO, resulting in increased synthesis of ecdysteroids and methyl farnesoate, and thereby inducing reproduction in S. serrata.

  9. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L.) used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus. PMID:22554280

  10. Photosynthesis of Quercus suber is affected by atmospheric NH3 generated by multifunctional agrosystems.

    PubMed

    Pintó-Marijuan, Marta; Da Silva, Anabela Bernardes; Flexas, Jaume; Dias, Teresa; Zarrouk, Olfa; Martins-Loução, Maria Amélia; Chaves, Maria Manuela; Cruz, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    Montados are evergreen oak woodlands dominated by Quercus species, which are considered to be key to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. This ecosystem is often used for cattle breeding in most regions of the Iberian Peninsula, which causes plants to receive extra nitrogen as ammonia (NH(3)) through the atmosphere. The effect of this atmospheric NH(3) (NH(3atm)) on ecosystems is still under discussion. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an NH(3atm) concentration gradient downwind of a cattle barn in a Montado area. Leaves from the selected Quercus suber L. trees along the gradient showed a clear influence of the NH(3) on δ(13)C, as a consequence of a strong limitation on the photosynthetic machinery by a reduction of both stomatal and mesophyll conductance. A detailed study of the impact of NH(3atm) on the photosynthetic performance of Q. suber trees is presented, and new mechanisms by which NH(3) affects photosynthesis at the leaf level are suggested.

  11. Factors affecting catches of the crab Scylla serrata (Forskål) (Decapoda: Portunidae) in baited traps: Soak time, time of day and accessibility of the bait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W. D.

    1989-08-01

    The effect of soak time, time of day and accessibility of the bait on catches of Scylla serrata in baited box traps was investigated. Catches over 24 h were compared on nine occasions at two different sites in traps that were cleared of their catch every 2 h and in traps that were not cleared. Mean catches differed between sites by factors of 4·5 in cleared traps and 2·2 in uncleared traps, indicating different crab densities. Catch did not increase linearly with soak time but tended towards an asymptote. Curves were fitted using the equation Ct = Cx (1- e- βt), where Ct is catch at time t, C∞ is the asymptotic catch and β is a constant. Catches after 24 h were 1·3 to 4·3 times higher in cleared traps than in uncleared traps. This was attributed to saturation of the uncleared traps. Estimated saturation levels varied between 0·8 and 6·1 crabs per trap, indicating that this parameter is not a constant for a particular design of trap. As catch was asymptotic, catch per unit effort (CPUE) expressed as catch per trap hour decreased with soak time. CPUE is, therefore, considered to be a poor index of abundance. The possibility of using either the asymptotic catch of regularly cleared traps or the rate at which this asymptotic catch is approached, as an index of abundance, is recommended for further research. Night catches were not significantly higher than day catches. There was no significant improvement in catch if trapped crabs were prevented from eating the bait.

  12. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of two antimicrobial peptides: Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor and crustin from the brown mud crab, Scylla serrata.

    PubMed

    Afsal, V V; Antony, Swapna P; Sathyan, Naveen; Philip, Rosamma

    2011-01-01

    AMPs are evolutional weapons, widely used by animals and plants in their innate immune system to fend off invading microbes. The present study reports characterization of a new ALF isoform (Sc-ALF; HQ638024) and the first crustin (Sc-crustin; HQ638025) from the mud crab, Scylla serrata. The full-length cDNA of Sc-ALF consisted of 477 bp with an ORF of 123 amino acids and a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acids. Sc-ALF had a predicted molecular weight (MW) of 11.17 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 9.95. Two highly conserved cysteine residues and putative LPS binding domain were observed in Sc-ALF. Comparison of amino acid sequences with neighbor-joining tree indicated that Sc-ALF shared maximum similarity with ALF of S. paramamosain. Peptide model of Sc-ALF created using SWISS-MODEL server was found to consist of two α-helices crowded against a four-strand β-sheet. The full-length cDNA of Sc-crustin consisted of 433 base pairs with an ORF of 111 amino acids and a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids. Comparison of amino acid sequences with a neighbor-joining tree revealed that Sc-crustin shared high identity with other known crustins characterized from S. paramamosain, P. trituberculatus, H. araneus, C. maenas and F. chinensis. A whey-acidic-protein domain could be detected at the C-terminus with the characteristic four disulfide core. Sc-crustin had a predicted MW of 10.24 kDa and a pI of 8.76. Peptide model of Sc-crustin created using SWISS-MODEL server indicated a random coiled structure that is with two possible β-sheets but no helices. PMID:24371546

  13. Identification, cloning, characterization and recombinant expression of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from the hemocytes of Indian mud crab, Scylla serrata.

    PubMed

    Yedery, Roshan Dinesh; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2009-08-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALF) are a group of small basic proteins which are released into the hemolymph as a result of rapid degranulation of hemocytes in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the present study, using a combined approach of degenerate and RACE PCR, the gene coding for Scylla serrata anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (SsALF) was cloned and characterized. The full-length SsALF cDNA sequence consists of 607 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 97 amino acids, constituting a molecular mass of 11172 Da with an estimated pI of 10.01. The SsALF protein showed upto 92% similarity with ALF from Scylla paramamosain and about 33-53% amino acid sequence identity with other known ALF sequences. SsALF protein sequence demonstrated the presence of two highly conserved cysteine residues and putative LPS binding domain. An in vivo expression study showed that SsALF mRNA was expressed predominantly in hemocytes, heart and muscle of healthy mud crabs. The recombinant form of SsALF protein (rSsALF) was expressed with a Histag, in Escherichia coli, using the pTriEx-4 Ek/LIC vector. The purified rSsALF protein demonstrated antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The recombinant protein was able to significantly neutralize LPS-induced expression on SsALF in vivo as demonstrated by real-time PCR. rSsALF was able to permeabilize artificial phospholipid membranes as demonstrated by calcein enclosed liposome model. These studies strongly suggest that SsALF is one among the important antimicrobial factors produced in the crab during a microbial invasion. PMID:19490944

  14. Toll-like receptor of mud crab, Scylla serrata: molecular characterisation, ontogeny and functional expression analysis following ligand exposure, and bacterial and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Vidya, R; Paria, Anutosh; Deepika, A; Sreedharan, K; Makesh, M; Purushothaman, C S; Chaudhari, Aparna; Gireesh Babu, P; Rajendran, K V

    2014-10-01

    Toll-like receptors are sentinels of innate immune system, which recognise pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and subsequently activate production of antimicrobial peptides to contain the infection. In the present study, we cloned and characterised a Toll gene from Scylla serrata (SsToll) encoding 1005 amino acids with typical Toll-like receptor domain topology. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that it belongs to insect-type invertebrate Toll family showing 100 % identity with Scylla paramamosain (SpToll). The expression pattern of mRNA in different tissues indicated that SsToll is constitutively expressed in all the tissues examined, with varying expression levels. The expression was also detected in all the life-stages (egg, zoea stages 1-5, megalopa and crab instar) with the highest level observed in zoea 2. In-vitro studies using crab haemocyte culture demonstrated that SsToll transcripts are distinctly modulated in response to ligands such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide at all time-points. A significant change in SsToll expression was also noticed in haemocytes exposed to poly I:C (3-9 h). On the contrary, the transcription level of SsToll in response to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge was noticeably different. The change in expression in vitro was not significant at early time-points until 3 h; the transcripts showed a significant up-regulation commencing from 6 h, but not beyond 12 h. However, in vivo expression was unaffected at early time-points of WSSV challenge (until 12 h) and a gradual up-regulation was detected at 24 h. In-vivo challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus resulted in delayed up-regulation of the gene. The results obtained in the present study suggest that SsToll might be involved in the innate immunity of mud crab.

  15. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of two antimicrobial peptides: Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor and crustin from the brown mud crab, Scylla serrata

    PubMed Central

    Afsal, V.V.; Antony, Swapna P.; Sathyan, Naveen; Philip, Rosamma

    2011-01-01

    AMPs are evolutional weapons, widely used by animals and plants in their innate immune system to fend off invading microbes. The present study reports characterization of a new ALF isoform (Sc-ALF; HQ638024) and the first crustin (Sc-crustin; HQ638025) from the mud crab, Scylla serrata. The full-length cDNA of Sc-ALF consisted of 477 bp with an ORF of 123 amino acids and a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acids. Sc-ALF had a predicted molecular weight (MW) of 11.17 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 9.95. Two highly conserved cysteine residues and putative LPS binding domain were observed in Sc-ALF. Comparison of amino acid sequences with neighbor-joining tree indicated that Sc-ALF shared maximum similarity with ALF of S. paramamosain. Peptide model of Sc-ALF created using SWISS-MODEL server was found to consist of two α-helices crowded against a four-strand β-sheet. The full-length cDNA of Sc-crustin consisted of 433 base pairs with an ORF of 111 amino acids and a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids. Comparison of amino acid sequences with a neighbor-joining tree revealed that Sc-crustin shared high identity with other known crustins characterized from S. paramamosain, P. trituberculatus, H. araneus, C. maenas and F. chinensis. A whey-acidic-protein domain could be detected at the C-terminus with the characteristic four disulfide core. Sc-crustin had a predicted MW of 10.24 kDa and a pI of 8.76. Peptide model of Sc-crustin created using SWISS-MODEL server indicated a random coiled structure that is with two possible β-sheets but no helices. PMID:24371546

  16. Beneficial effect of Boswellia serrata gum resin on spatial learning and the dendritic tree of dentate gyrus granule cells in aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini-Sharifabad, Mohammad; Kamali-Ardakani, Razieh; Hosseini-Sharifabad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The hippocampal formation, particularly the dentate gyrus (DG), shows age-related morphological changes that could cause memory decline. It is indicated that Boswellia resins attenuates memory deficits and the major component of Boswellia serrata (Bs) gum resin, beta boswellic acid increased neurite outgrowth and branching in hippocampal neurons. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Boswellia treatment on spatial learning performance and the morphology of dentate granule cells in aged rats. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male Wistar rats (24 months old) were divided into experimental and control groups. Experimental group was intragastrically administered with the aqueous extract of Bs (100 mg/kg/d for 8 weeks) and control group received a similar volume of water. Spatial learning performance of rats was tested using Morris water maze task. At the end of experiment, the brain was removed and the right hippocampus was serially sectioned for morphometric analysis. The Cavalieri principle was employed to estimate the volume of the DG. A quantitative Golgi study was used to analyze the dendritic trees of dentate granule cells. Results: Chronic treatment with Bs improved spatial learning capability during the three acquisition days. Comparisons also revealed that Bs-treated aged rat had greater DG with increased dendritic complexity in the dentate granule cells than control rats. Hippocampal granule cells of Bs-treated aged rats had more dendritic segments, larger arbors, more numerical branching density and more dendritic spines in comparison to control animals. Conclusion: This study provided a neuro-anatomical basis for memory improvement due to chronic treatment with Bs. PMID:27222832

  17. In Vitro Antibacterial and Time-Kill Evaluation of the Erythrina caffra Thunb. Extract against Bacteria Associated with Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso Olusola; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activities of stem bark ethanolic extract of Erythrina caffra Thunb. against bacteria in diarrhoea was determined in vitro by the agar diffusion and dilution, macrobroth dilution, and time-kill assay methods. The result showed that the extract produced inhibition zones ranging between 15 ± 1.0 mm and 23 ± 1.0 mm, and the bacteria were susceptible at concentrations ranging between ≤100 and ≤1000 μg/mL. While the MICs of the extract ranged between 39.1 and 625 μg/mL, and the MBCs ranged between 78.1 and 625 μg/mL, the MICs of Micrococcus luteus, Proteus vulgaris CSIR 0030, Enterococcus faecalis KZN, and Staphylococcus aureus OK3 were less than 100 μg/mL, and the mechanisms of antibiosis indicated that the crude ethanolic extract was highly bactericidal against the entire test bacteria isolates. In the time-kill assay, the average log reduction of the viable cell count ranged between 0.916log 10 and 1.851log 10 cfu/mL on incubating the bacteria for 4 h at the MICs, while the reduction ranged between 0.183log 10 and 1.105log 10 cfu/mL after 8 h of incubation. Incubating the bacteria for 4 h at 2 × MICs resulted in the reduction of the viable cell count to between −0.264log 10 and 0.961log 10 cfu/mL, while the average log reduction ranged between −3.968log 10 and −0.425log 10 cfu/mL after 8 h of incubation with Micrococcus luteus, Proteus vulgaris CSIR 0030, and Staphylococcus aureus OK3 being the most highly affected bacteria. The result showed that the extract exhibited broader-spectrum antibacterial activity and justifies the use of Erythrina caffra in the folkloric medicine for treating gastrointestinal infections in South Africa. PMID:23213297

  18. CANOPY CONDUCTANCE OF PINUS TAEDA, LIQUIDAMBAR STYRACIFLUA AND QUERCUS PHELLOS UNDER VARYING ATMOSPHERIC AND SOIL WATER CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sap flow, and atmospheric and soil water data were collected in closed-top chambers under conditions of high soil water potential for saplings of Liquidambar styraciflua L., Quercus phellos L., and Pinus taeda L., three co-occurring species in the southeastern USA. Responses of c...

  19. Characterizing water use strategies of Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. during a severe drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, K.; Novick, K. A.; Dragoni, D.; Moore, W.; Roman, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas, drought is expected to occur more frequently and intensely in the future due to climate change; however, drought effects on ecosystem-scale fluxes in diverse forests will reflect the diversity of water use strategies among the dominant tree species. For three years (2011-2013) that included a severe drought event (in 2012), we measured the sap flow densities along the sapwood profiles (four radial depths: 1, 2, 3, 4 cm) in Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. using the compensation heat pulse technique at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (Indiana, USA). Sap flow velocity varies along the radial profile of the stem, and thus characterizing its pattern is important for estimating whole tree sap flow, and for characterizing the extent to which water stress alters the radial pattern of flow. We also focused on the nocturnal sap flow, which may be used to replenish stored water depleted during the daytime, in order to assess the extent to which the three species rely on hydraulic capacitance to cope with water stress. Sap flow densities along the sapwood profile of all three species tended to increase toward the cambium under moderate climate, while the tendency was reversed under severe drought. This shift may indicate greater reliance on stored water in the inner sapwood or cavitation of outer sapwood during the drought. It was also noticeable that Quercus spp. showed lower maximum sap flow density and narrower range (1.5 - 4.6 cm h-1) than other species (A. saccharum: 1.0 - 20.8 cm h-1, L. tulipifera: < 0.1 - 45.2 cm h-1) during 3 years of measurements. In addition, nocturnal/diurnal ratios of volumetric sap flows were significantly higher in the drought year for A. saccharum (0.140.01 in 2011 and 0.200.01 in 2013 vs. 0.290.01 in 2012) and L. tulipifera (0.140.00 in 2011 and 0.090.01 in 2013 vs. 0.300.01 in 2012), while Quercus spp. didn't show a significant difference between moderate and drought years. This may be due to the

  20. Aluminum and temperature alteration of cell membrane permeability of Quercus rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Junping Chen; Sucoff, E.I.; Stadelmann, E.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Al toxicity is the major factor limiting plant growth in acid soils. This report extends research on Al-induced changes in membrane behavior of intact root cortex cells of Northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Membrane permeability was determined by the plasmometric method for individual intact cells at temperatures from 2 or 4 to 35 C. Al (0.37 millimolar) significantly increased membrane permeability to urea and monoethyl urea and decreased permeability to water. Al significantly altered the activation energy required to transport water (+ 32%), urea (+ 9%), and monoethyl urea ({minus}7%) across cell membranes. Above 9 C, Al increased the lipid partiality of the cell membranes; below 7 C, Al decreased it. Al narrowed by 6 C the temperature range over which plasmolysis occurred without membrane damage. These changes in membrane behavior are explainable if Al reduced membrane lipid fluidity and kink frequency and increases packing density and the occurrence of straight lipid chains.

  1. Larvicidal activity of oak Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) gall extracts against Anopheles stephensi Liston.

    PubMed

    Aivazi, Ali-Ashraf; Vijayan, V A

    2009-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of botanical insecticides to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides in order to avoid environmental side effects. Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria, an endemic disease in India. So, an effort to assay An. stephensi larvae with gall extracts of Quercus infectoria was made under laboratory conditions at Mysore. Ethyl-acetate extract was found to be the most effective of all the five extracts tested for larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae, with LC(50) of 116.92 ppm followed by gallotannin, n-butanol, acetone, and methanol with LC(50) values of 124.62, 174.76, 299.26, and 364.61 ppm, respectively. The efficacy in killing mosquito larvae may make this plant promising for the development of new botanical larvicide.

  2. [Age structure and dynamics of Quercus wutaishanica population in Lingkong Mountain of Shanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Shangguan, Tie-Liang; Duan, Yi-Hao; Guo, Wei; Liu, Wei-Hua; Guo, Dong-Gang

    2014-11-01

    Using the plant survivorship theory, the age structure, and the relationship between tree height and diameter (DBH) of Quercus wutaishanica population in Lingkong Mountain were analyzed, and the static life table was compiled and the survival curve plotted. The shuttle shape in age structure of Q. wutaishanica population suggested its temporal stability. The linear regression significantly fitted the positive correlation between tree height and DBH. The maximal life expectancy was observed among the trees beyond the age of the highest mortality and coincided with the lowest point of mortality density, suggesting the strong vitality of the seedlings and young trees that survived in the natural selection and intraspecific competition. The population stability of the Q. wutaishanica population was characterized by the Deevey-II of the survival curve. The dynamic pattern was characterized by the recession in the early phase, growth in the intermediate phase, and stability in the latter phase. PMID:25898607

  3. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Vicent; Cerveró, Júlia; Calvo, Esperanza; García-Breijo, Francisco-José; Reig-Armiñana, José; Sanz, María José

    2011-01-01

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD1.6) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels.

  4. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching.

  5. Genetic transformation of selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R; Alonso, P; Cortizo, M; Celestino, C; Hernández, I; Toribio, M; Ordás, R J

    2004-10-01

    A transformation system for selected mature cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been established. Embryos obtained from recurrent proliferating embryogenic masses were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strains EHA105, LBA4404 or AGL1 harbouring the plasmid pBINUbiGUSint [carrying the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) and beta-glucuronidase (uidA) genes]. The highest transformation efficiency (4%) was obtained when freshly isolated explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1. Evidence of stable transgene integration was obtained by PCR for the nptII and uidA genes, Southern blotting and expression of the uidA gene. The transgenic embryos were germinated and successfully transferred to soil.

  6. Scaling foliar respiration to the stand level throughout the growing season in a Quercus rubra forest.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Griffin, Kevin L

    2008-04-01

    Stand-level, canopy foliar carbon loss (R(can)) was modeled for a virtual Quercus rubra L. monoculture at two sites differing in soil water availability in a northeastern deciduous forest (USA) throughout the 2003 growing season. Previously reported foliar respiratory temperature responses of Q. rubra were used to parameterize a full distributed physiology model that estimates R(can) by integrating the effects of season, site and canopy position, and represents the best estimation of R(can). Model sensitivity to five simplified parameterization scenarios was tested, and a reasonable procedure of simplification was established. Neglecting effects of season, site or canopy position on respiration causes considerable relative error in R(can) estimation. By contrast, assuming a constant E(0) (a temperature response variable of the respiration model), or a constant night temperature (mean nighttime temperature) caused only a small relative error (< 10%) compared with the full model. From June 8 to October 28, 2003, modeled R(can) of the virtual Q. rubra monoculture was, on average, 45.3 mmol CO(2) m(-2) night(-1) on a ground-area basis (or 334 mmol CO(2) kg(-1) night(-1) on a biomass basis) and 101 mmol CO(2) m(-2) night(-1) (or 361 mmol CO(2) kg(-1) night(-1)) at the drier site and the more mesic site, respectively. To model R(can) of Q. rubra (or other Quercus species with similar respiratory properties), variations in the base respiration rate across season, site and canopy position need to be fully accounted for, but E(0) may be assumed constant. Modeling R(can) at the mean nighttime temperature would not strongly affect estimated canopy carbon loss.

  7. Considerations for Sustainable Biomass Production in Quercus-Dominated Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckman, Viktor; Yan, Shuai; Hochbichler, Eduard

    2013-04-01

    Our current energy system is mainly based on carbon (C) intensive metabolisms, resulting in great effects on the earth's biosphere. The majority of the energy sources are fossil (crude oil, coal, natural gas) and release CO2 in the combustion (oxidation) process which takes place during utilization of the energy. C released to the atmosphere was once sequestered by biomass over a time span of millions of years and is now being released back into the atmosphere within a period of just decades. In the context of green and CO2 neutral Energy, there is an on-going debate regarding the potentials of obtaining biomass from forests on multiple scales, from stand to international levels. Especially in the context of energy, it is highlighted that biomass is an entirely CO2 neutral feedstock since the carbon stored in wood originates from the atmospheric CO2 pool and it was taken up during plant growth. It needs systems approaches in order to justify this statement and ensure sustainability covering the whole life-cycle from biomass production to (bio)energy consumption. There are a number of Quercus woodland management systems focussing solely on woody biomass production for energetic utilization or a combination with traditional forestry and high quality timber production for trades and industry. They have often developed regionally as a consequence of specific demands and local production capacities, which are mainly driven by environmental factors such as climate and soil properties. We assessed the nutritional status of a common Quercus-dominated forest ecosystem in northern Austria, where we compared biomass- with belowground C and nutrient pools in order to identify potential site limits if the management shifts towards systems with a higher level of nutrient extraction. Heterogeneity of soils, and soil processes are considered, as well as other, growth-limiting factors (e.g. precipitation) and species-specific metabolisms and element translocation.

  8. Scaling foliar respiration to the stand level throughout the growing season in a Quercus rubra forest.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Griffin, Kevin L

    2008-04-01

    Stand-level, canopy foliar carbon loss (R(can)) was modeled for a virtual Quercus rubra L. monoculture at two sites differing in soil water availability in a northeastern deciduous forest (USA) throughout the 2003 growing season. Previously reported foliar respiratory temperature responses of Q. rubra were used to parameterize a full distributed physiology model that estimates R(can) by integrating the effects of season, site and canopy position, and represents the best estimation of R(can). Model sensitivity to five simplified parameterization scenarios was tested, and a reasonable procedure of simplification was established. Neglecting effects of season, site or canopy position on respiration causes considerable relative error in R(can) estimation. By contrast, assuming a constant E(0) (a temperature response variable of the respiration model), or a constant night temperature (mean nighttime temperature) caused only a small relative error (< 10%) compared with the full model. From June 8 to October 28, 2003, modeled R(can) of the virtual Q. rubra monoculture was, on average, 45.3 mmol CO(2) m(-2) night(-1) on a ground-area basis (or 334 mmol CO(2) kg(-1) night(-1) on a biomass basis) and 101 mmol CO(2) m(-2) night(-1) (or 361 mmol CO(2) kg(-1) night(-1)) at the drier site and the more mesic site, respectively. To model R(can) of Q. rubra (or other Quercus species with similar respiratory properties), variations in the base respiration rate across season, site and canopy position need to be fully accounted for, but E(0) may be assumed constant. Modeling R(can) at the mean nighttime temperature would not strongly affect estimated canopy carbon loss. PMID:18244949

  9. Adaptations and responses to drought in Quercus species of North America.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Marc D.

    1990-12-01

    Most North American oaks (Quercus spp.) are adapted to drought-prone sites by an ability either to avoid, or to tolerate, water stress, or both. Generally, they have deep-penetrating root systems, enabling them to maintain relatively high predawn water potentials during drought. Oaks have thick leaves and some have relatively small stomata, both characteristics that favor high water use efficiency. However, some species, from warm regions, have large stomatal pores. The rapid evaporative cooling made possible by large stomata, may be an adaptation to high temperature. Some southeastern species display leaf curling during drought, and Q. douglasii a native of California is drought deciduous. Oaks have a ring-porous xylem anatomy, allowing rapid sap movement in large diameter, early-wood vessels when soil water is plentiful, and slower, but sustained, water movement in narrower, late-wood vessels, which are more resistant to cavitation, during drought. Oaks frequently maintain a higher rate of photosynthesis at low leaf water potentials and high vapor pressure deficits than co-occurring species of other genera. An exception is Quercus rubra, which is generally restricted to relatively mesic sites. During drought, many oak species, especially those native to arid regions, undergo changes in tissue osmotic potential. However, it remains to be shown whether such changes are phenological or drought induced. Reported values for bulk modulus of elasticity vary widely among species and studies, and have been observed to both increase and decrease during drought in a way that is unrelated to region or to changes in predawn water potential or osmotic potential. Diurnal leaf water potential during drought is probably a poor indicator of differences among oak species in gas exchange rate, because of interspecific variation in desiccation avoidance and tolerance.

  10. Comparative Pollen Morphological Analysis and Its Systematic Implications on Three European Oak (Quercus L., Fagaceae) Species and Their Spontaneous Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Danielewicz, Władysław; Bocianowski, Jan; Maliński, Tomasz; Janyszek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphology of three parental Quercus species (Q. robur L., Q. petraea (Matt) Liebl, Q. pubescens Willd.) and two spontaneous hybrids of these species (Q. ×calvescens Vuk. = Q. petraea × Q. pubescens and Q. ×rosacea Bechst. = Q. robur × Q. petraea) was investigated in this study. The pollen originated from 18 natural oak sites and 67 individuals (oak trees). Each individual was represented by 30 pollen grains. In total, 2010 pollen grains were measured. They were analysed for nine quantitative and four qualitative features. Pollen size and shape were important features to diagnosing Quercus parental species and hybrids. On the basis of exine ornamentation, it was possible to identify only Q. pubescens, while the remaining species and hybrids did not differ significantly with respect to this feature. The determination of the diagnostic value of endoaperture features requires further palynological studies. On the basis of pollen size and shape Q. robur × Q. petraea was clearly separated. Grouping of 67 oak trees on the basis of pollen grain features has shown that individuals from different as well as same taxa occurred in the same groups. Likewise, with respect to natural sites, oak trees originating from the same places as well as from geographically distant ones, grouped together. Pollen morphological features allow to distinguish a part of the studied Quercus taxa. Therefore, it can be used as an auxiliary feature in the taxonomy. PMID:27564015

  11. Comparative Pollen Morphological Analysis and Its Systematic Implications on Three European Oak (Quercus L., Fagaceae) Species and Their Spontaneous Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Wrońska-Pilarek, Dorota; Danielewicz, Władysław; Bocianowski, Jan; Maliński, Tomasz; Janyszek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphology of three parental Quercus species (Q. robur L., Q. petraea (Matt) Liebl, Q. pubescens Willd.) and two spontaneous hybrids of these species (Q. ×calvescens Vuk. = Q. petraea × Q. pubescens and Q. ×rosacea Bechst. = Q. robur × Q. petraea) was investigated in this study. The pollen originated from 18 natural oak sites and 67 individuals (oak trees). Each individual was represented by 30 pollen grains. In total, 2010 pollen grains were measured. They were analysed for nine quantitative and four qualitative features. Pollen size and shape were important features to diagnosing Quercus parental species and hybrids. On the basis of exine ornamentation, it was possible to identify only Q. pubescens, while the remaining species and hybrids did not differ significantly with respect to this feature. The determination of the diagnostic value of endoaperture features requires further palynological studies. On the basis of pollen size and shape Q. robur × Q. petraea was clearly separated. Grouping of 67 oak trees on the basis of pollen grain features has shown that individuals from different as well as same taxa occurred in the same groups. Likewise, with respect to natural sites, oak trees originating from the same places as well as from geographically distant ones, grouped together. Pollen morphological features allow to distinguish a part of the studied Quercus taxa. Therefore, it can be used as an auxiliary feature in the taxonomy. PMID:27564015

  12. Seasonal fluctuations and temperature dependence of leaf gas exchange parameters of co-occurring evergreen and deciduous trees in a temperate broad-leaved forest.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Yoshiko; Matsuo, Naoko

    2006-09-01

    Seasonal fluctuations in leaf gas exchange parameters were investigated in three evergreen (Quercus glauca Thunb., Cinnamomum camphora Sieb. and Castanopsis cuspidata Schottky) and one deciduous (Quercus serrata Thunb.) co-occurring, dominant tree species in a temperate broad-leaved forest. Dark respiration rate (Rn), maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax) and stomatal coefficient (m), the ratio of stomatal conductance to net assimilation rate after adjustment to the vapor pressure deficit and internal carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, were derived inversely from instantaneous field gas exchange data (one-point method). The normalized values of Rn and Vcmax at the reference temperature of 25 degrees C (Rn25, Vcmax25) and their temperature dependencies (Delta Ha(Rn), Delta Ha(Vcmax)) were analyzed. Parameter Vcmax25 ranged from 24.0-40.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and Delta Ha(Vcmax) ranged from 29.1- 67.0 kJ mol(-1). Parameter Rn25 ranged from 0.6-1.4 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and Delta Ha(Rn) ranged from 47.4-95.4 kJ mol(-1). The stomatal coefficient ranged from 7.2-8.2. For the three evergreen trees, a single set of Vcmax25 and Rn25 parameters and temperature dependence curves produced satisfactory estimates of carbon uptake throughout the year, except during the period of simultaneous leaf fall and leaf expansion, which occurs in April and May. In the deciduous oak, declines in Vcmax25 were observed after summer, along with changes in Vcmax25 and Rn25 during the leaf expansion period. In all species, variation in m during periods of leaf expansion and drought should be considered in modeling studies. We conclude that the changes in normalized gas exchange parameters during periods of leaf expansion and drought need to be considered when modeling carbon uptake of evergreen broad-leaved species.

  13. Quercus Suber L. Cork Extracts Induce Apoptosis in Human Myeloid Leukaemia HL-60 Cells.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Ignacio; Godoy-Cancho, Belén; Franco, Lourdes; Martínez-Cañas, Manuel A; Tormo, María A

    2015-08-01

    Quercus suber L. cork contains a diversity of phenolic compounds, mostly low molecular weight phenols. A rising number of reports support with convergent findings that polyphenols evoke pro-apoptotic events in cancerous cells. However, the literature related to the anti-cancer bioactivity of Q. suber L. cork extractives (QSE) is still limited. Herein, we aim to describe the antitumor potential displayed by cork extractives obtained by different extraction methods in the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells. In order to quantify the effects of QSE on cancer cells viability, phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase-3 activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle were evaluated. The results indicated that the QSE present a time-dependent and dose-dependent cytotoxicity in the human promyelocytic leukaemia cells. Such a noxious effect leads these leukaemia cells to their death through apoptotic processes by altering the mitochondrial outer membrane potential, activating caspase-3 and externalizing phosphatidylserine. However, cells cycle progression was not affected by the treatments. This study contributes to open a new way to use this natural resource by exploiting its anti-cancer properties. Moreover, it opens new possibilities of application of cork by-products, being more efficient in the sector of cork-based agriculture. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Chloroplast DNA variation of Quercus rubra L. in North America and comparison with other Fagaceae.

    PubMed

    Magni, C R; Ducousso, A; Caron, H; Petit, R J; Kremer, A

    2005-02-01

    Quercus rubra is one of the most important timber and ornamental tree species from eastern North America. It is a widespread species growing under variable ecological conditions. Chloroplast DNA variation was studied by PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) in 290 individuals from 66 populations sampled throughout the natural range. A total of 12 haplotypes were detected, with one found in 75% of the trees. Population differentiation is relatively low (G(ST) = 0.46), even when similarities between haplotypes are taken into account (N(ST) = 0.50), pointing to a weak phylogeographical structure. Furthermore, no spatial structure of genetic diversity could be detected. The genetic differentiation increased northwards, reflecting the postglacial history of Q. rubra. The unusual aspect of this study was the low level of chloroplast DNA genetic differentiation in Q. rubra compared to that typically observed in other oak species. Palynological evidence indicates that during the last glacial maximum, Q. rubra had one major distribution range with populations located relatively far to the north, resulting in only modest movement northwards when climate improved, whereas European white oaks were largely restricted to the southern European peninsulas and experienced extensive movements during the postglacial period. The contrasted geographical features and levels of tree species richness of both continents might further explain why congeneric species sharing similar life history traits have genetic structures that are so different. PMID:15660942

  15. Seed-mass effects in four Mediterranean Quercus species (Fagaceae) growing in contrasting light environments.

    PubMed

    Quero, José Luis; Villar, Rafael; Marañón, Teodoro; Zamora, Regino; Poorter, Lourens

    2007-11-01

    Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the functional relationship between seed mass and seedling performance: the reserve effect (larger seeds retain a larger proportion of reserves after germinating), the metabolic effect (seedlings from larger seeds have slower relative growth rates), and the seedling-size effect (larger seeds produce larger seedlings). We tested these hypotheses by growing four Mediterranean Quercus species under different light conditions (3, 27, and 100% of available radiation). We found evidence for two of the three hypotheses, but none of the four species complied with all three hypotheses at the same time. The reserve effect was not found in any species, the metabolic effect was found in three species (Q. ilex, Q. pyrenaica, and Q. suber), and the seedling-size effect in all species. Light availability significantly affected the relationships between seed size and seedling traits. For Q. ilex and Q. canariensis, a seedling-size effect was found under all three light conditions, but only under the lowest light (3%) for Q. suber and Q. pyrenaica. In all species, the correlation between seed mass and seedling mass increased with a decrease in light, suggesting that seedlings growing in low light depend more upon their seed reserves. A causal model integrates the three hypotheses, suggesting that larger seeds generally produced larger seedlings. PMID:21636374

  16. Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi are common root associates of a Mediterranean ectomycorrhizal plant (Quercus ilex).

    PubMed

    Bergero, R; Perotto, S; Girlanda, M; Vidano, G; Luppi, A M

    2000-10-01

    Mycorrhiza samples of neighbouring Quercus ilex and Erica arborea plants collected in a postcutting habitat were processed to see whether plants differing in mycorrhizal status harbour the same root endophytes. Three experiments were performed in parallel: (i) isolation, identification and molecular characterization of fungi from surface-sterilized roots of both plant species; (ii) re-inoculation of fungal isolates on axenic E. arborea and Q. ilex seedlings; (iii) direct inoculation of field-collected Q. ilex ectomycorrhizas onto E. arborea seedlings. About 70 and 150 fungal isolates were obtained from roots of Q. ilex and E. arborea, respectively. Among them, Oidiodendron species and five cultural morphotypes of sterile isolates formed typical ericoid mycorrhizas on E. arborea in vitro. Fungi with such mycorrhizal ability were derived from both host plants. Isolates belonging to one of these morphotypes (sd9) also exhibited an unusual pattern of colonization, with an additional extracellular hyphal net. Ericoid mycorrhizas were also readily obtained by direct inoculation of E. arborea seedlings with Q. ilex ectomycorrhizal tips. Polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA analyses of the shared sterile morphotypes demonstrate, in the case of sd9, the occurrence of the same genet on the two host plants. These results indicate that ericoid mycorrhizal fungi associate with ectomycorrhizal roots, and the ecological significance of this finding is discussed. PMID:11050558

  17. Studies on the ectomycorrhizal community in a declining Quercus suber L. stand.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Enrico; Franceschini, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    This survey was carried out in a Quercus suber L. stand with many trees affected by the disease "oak decline". Its aim was to obtain information about both the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal community in a declining Q. suber stand as a whole, and the ectomycorrhizal fungal community of individual tree (EFT) detected in healthy and diseased plants. To this end, we first categorized the trees into four different decline classes (one for healthy plants and three for diseased plants) and then, by using morphological and molecular tools, we identified the ectomycorrhizas isolated from samples collected near the trees with different declining classes. The ectomycorrhizal community as a whole was seen to be composed of numerous ectomycorrhizal fungal species, only some of which appeared to be dominant (Cenococcum geophilum, Lactarius chrysorrheus, and some species of Tomentella genus), while most occurred sporadically. Results show that all root tips observed are mycorrhized and that decline class does not influence the number of ectomycorrhizal root tips found in the EFTs, thus oak decline does not impact the investment in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. However, some statistical differences can be observed in the values of evenness and taxonomic distinctness in the EFT associated with trees with different states of health. Finally, both the analysis of similarity test and the ordination technique highlight a compositional difference between the EFT associated with trees in different health conditions, but also suggest that other factors may play a role in causing these differences. PMID:23503869

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungus communities of Quercus liaotungensis Koidz of different ages in a northern China temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; He, Xin Hua; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2012-08-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities of Quercus liaotungensis of different ages (seedlings, young trees and mature trees) in the growing seasons (June and September) between 2007 and 2009 were studied in a temperate forest of northern China. A total of 66 ECM fungal taxa were identified based on ECM morphotyping, PCR-RFLP, and DNA sequence data. Of these fungal taxa, 51 were Basidiomycetes (77.3%) and 15 were Ascomycetes (22.7%). Cenococcum geophilum was the dominant species. Thelephoraceae (16 taxa), Sebacinaceae (12 taxa) and Russulaceae (seven taxa) were the most species-rich and abundant ECM fungi, accounting for 19.5%, 17.6% and 8.3% of the total ECM root tips, respectively. Results of multiple response permutation procedure (MRPP) analysis indicated that there were marginally significant effects of tree ages (A = 0.01801, P = 0.054) and growing seasons (A = 0.01908, P = 0.064) on the ECM fungal species composition of Q. liaotungensis in a temperate forest. PMID:22138969

  19. [Predicting the impact of global warming on the geographical distribution pattern of Quercus variabilis in China].

    PubMed

    Li, Yao; Zhang, Xing-wang; Fang, Yan-ming

    2014-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Quercus variabilis in China with its climate characteristics was analyzed based on DIVA-GIS which was also used to estimate the response of future potential distribution to global warming by Bioclim and Domain models. Analysis results showed the geographical distribution of Q. variabilis could be divided into 7 subregions: Henduan Mountains, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, North China, East China, Liaodong-Shandong Peninsula, Taiwan Island, and Qinling-Daba Mountains. These subregions are across 7 temperature zones, 2 moisture regions and 17 climatic subregions, including 8 climate types. The modern abundance center of Q. variabilis is Qinling, Daba and Funiu mountains. The condition of mean annual temperature 7.5-19.8 degrees C annual precipitation 471-1511 mm, is suitable for Q. variabilis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values), of Domain and Boiclim models were 0.910, 0.779; the former predicted that the potential regions of high suitability for Q. variabilis are Qinling, Daba, Funiu, Tongbai, and Dabie mountains, eastern and western Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, hills of southern Jiangsu and Anhui, part of the mountains in North China. Global warming might lead to the shrinking in suitable region and retreating from the south for Q. variabilis.

  20. Hydraulic conductivity of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) leaf tissue does not respond to light.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, F E; Holbrook, N M; Zwieniecki, M A

    2011-04-01

    The permeability of leaf tissue to water has been reported to increase under illumination, a response reputed to involve aquaporins. We studied this 'light response' in red oak (Quercus rubra L.), the species in which the phenomenon was first detected during measurements of leaf hydraulic conductance with the high-pressure flow meter (HPFM). In our HPFM measurements, we found that pre-conditioning leaves in darkness was not sufficient to bring them to their minimum conductance, which was attained only after an hour of submersion and pressurization. However, pre-conditioning leaves under anoxic conditions resulted in an immediate reduction in conductance. Leaves light- and dark-acclimated while on the tree showed no differences in the time course of HPFM measurement under illumination. We also studied the effect of light level and anoxia on rehydration kinetics, finding that anoxia slowed rehydration, but light had no effect either in the lab (rehydration under low light, high humidity) or on the tree (acclimation under high light, 10 min of dark prior to rehydration). We conclude that the declines in conductance observed in the HPFM must involve a resistance downstream of the extracellular air space, and that in red oak the hydraulic conductivity of leaf tissue is insensitive to light. PMID:21309791

  1. The effect of drought stress on heterozygosity–fitness correlations in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur)

    PubMed Central

    Vranckx, Guy; Jacquemyn, Hans; Mergeay, Joachim; Cox, Karen; Janssens, Pieter; Gielen, Bie An Sofie; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The interaction between forest fragmentation and predicted climate change may pose a serious threat to tree populations. In small and spatially isolated forest fragments, increased homozygosity may directly affect individual tree fitness through the expression of deleterious alleles. Climate change-induced drought stress may exacerbate these detrimental genetic consequences of forest fragmentation, as the fitness response to low levels of individual heterozygosity is generally thought to be stronger under environmental stress than under optimal conditions. Methods To test this hypothesis, a greenhouse experiment was performed in which various transpiration and growth traits of 6-month-old seedlings of Quercus robur differing in multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) were recorded for 3 months under a well-watered and a drought stress treatment. Heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFC) were examined by correlating the recorded traits of individual seedlings to their MLH and by studying their response to drought stress. Key Results Weak, but significant, effects of MLH on several fitness traits were obtained, which were stronger for transpiration variables than for the recorded growth traits. High atmospheric stress (measured as vapour pressure deficit) influenced the strength of the HFCs of the transpiration variables, whereas only a limited effect of the irrigation treatment on the HFCs was observed. Conclusions Under ongoing climate change, increased atmospheric stress in the future may strengthen the negative fitness responses of trees to low MLH. This indicates the necessity to maximize individual multilocus heterozygosity in forest tree breeding programmes. PMID:24638819

  2. Temporal variations in PAH concentrations in Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) leaves in an urban area.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Flavia; Maisto, Giulia; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Alfani, Anna

    2005-10-01

    Temporal variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in leaves of a Mediterranean evergreen oak, Quercus ilex L., were investigated in order to assess the suitability of this species to biomonitor PAH air contamination. Leaf samples were collected at six sites of the urban area of Naples (Italy) and at a control site in the Vesuvius National Park, in May and September 2001, and in January and May 2002. PAH extraction was conducted by sonication in dichloromethane-acetone and quantification by GC-MS. In winter, leaf total PAH concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, values 2-fold higher than in all the other samplings, reflecting the temporal trend reported for PAH air contamination in the Naples urban area. Moreover, leaf PAH concentrations showed, at all the urban sites, a decrease in May 2002 after the winter accumulation. At the control site leaf PAH concentrations showed lower values and smaller temporal variations than at the urban sites. The findings support the suitability of Q. ilex leaves to monitor temporal variations in PAH contamination. The highest winter concentrations of total PAHs were due to the medium molecular weight PAHs that increased with respect to both low and high molecular weight PAHs. The medium molecular weight PAHs showed the same temporal trend both at the urban and remote sites.

  3. Soil development in OSL dated sandy dune substrates under Quercus robur Forest (Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mourik, J. M.; Nierop, Ir. K.; Verstraten, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal dune landscapes are very dynamic. The present distribution of vegetation and soil is the result of over 2000 years of natural processes and human management. The initial soil development was controlled by an increase of the organic matter content, which consisted mainly of decomposed roots of grasses (rhizomull), and a decrease of the soil pH to 3-4 by decalcification. This stage was followed by the development of a deciduous forest, which was dominated by Quercus robur. Since 1600 AD, a large part of the deciduous forest that dominated the east side of the coastal dune landscape transferred in expensive residential areas and urbanizations. Nevertheless some parts of the oak forest belt remained. The present forest soils are acid and the controlling soil processes are leaching of sesquioxides and storage of organic matter in mormoder humus forms. The sustainability of ecosystems is closely related to the quality of the humus form, controlling nutrient cycling and water supply. Therefore, improve of knowledge of humus form development and properties is important. We applied soil micromorphology and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to investigate more details of humus form development at two locations (Duivendrift and Hoek van Klaas) in the coastal dune area of the Amsterdamse Waterleidingduinen (near Haarlem, the Netherlands). However, to understand forest soil development, including the organic matter composition in the humus form, the age of the substrate and the forest is required. Therefore, we used tradition techniques as pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating but also the recently introduced optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating technique. OSL dating works excellent for aeolian sandy deposits with a high percentage of quartz grains. The OSL age is defined as the time after the last bleaching by solar radiation of mineral grains. Or in other words, the start of a stable period without sand drifting. In the Ah horizons we

  4. Process-based modelling of isoprenoid emissions from evergreen leaves of Quercus ilex (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grote, R.; Mayrhofer, S.; Fischbach, R. J.; Steinbrecher, R.; Staudt, M.; Schnitzler, J.-P.

    Monoterpenes play an important role in regulating the trace gas composition of the lower troposphere. Therefore, realistic estimates of the daily as well as seasonal variations of monoterpene emission source strength on the Earth surface are required. Monoterpenes are emitted by Holm oak ( Quercus ilex L.) and other species lacking specific foliar terpene storage structures and their development is dependent on light and temperature. In the present work we describe a process-based emission model taking into account the physiological/phenological state of Holm oak leaves and biochemical processes leading to the formation of monoterpenes. The model 'seasonal isoprenoid synthase model-biochemical isoprenoid biosynthesis model' (SIM-BIM2) is developed based on a previous version which was used to simulate isoprene emissions from deciduous oaks. The current model considers additional enzymatic reactions in Holm oak chloroplasts that lead to the formation of monoterpenes. The comparison of simulated and measured biochemical properties as well as emission rates displayed that the ability of the model to dynamically adjust monoterpene biosynthesis capacity by modulating the amount of monoterpene synthase activities in dependence of the weather pattern led to realistic simulations of light-dependent monoterpene emission rates. Differences to simulation results obtained by a widely used alternative model [Guenther, A.B., Zimmerman, P.R., Harley, P.C., Monson, R.K., Fall, R., 1993. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability—model evaluations and sensitivity analyses. Journal of Geophysical Research 98, 12609-12617] are discussed.

  5. Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. (Araneae, Eutichuridae), a novel spider species associated with Holm Oaks (Quercus ilex).

    PubMed

    Morano, Eduardo; Bonal, Raul

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel species Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. (Araneae, Eutichuridae) collected in the province of Toledo (Central Spain). It was found during a systematic sampling campaign carried out in an agricultural landscape with isolated Holm oaks Quercus ilex and small forest patches. Its morphology and affinities with other species of the genus are discussed. Furthermore, one mitochondrial gene was sequenced to confirm species membership and its differentiation from other Cheiracanthium species. The molecular phylogenies based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes showed a close relationship of Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. with Cheiracanthium inclusum and Cheiracanthium mildei, with which it also shares morphological similarities. Nonetheless, the sparse sampling of the phylogeny, due to the low number of sequences available, impedes drawing any definitive conclusion about these relationships; it is first necessary to perform an extensive review of the genus worldwide and more thorough phylogenies. Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. also shares certain ecological and phenological characteristics with Cheiracanthium inclusum and Cheiracanthium mildei. Like them, Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. is an obligate tree dweller that prefers a tree canopy habitat and reproduces primarily in late spring and summer. From a conservation perspective, the present study suggests the need to preserve isolated trees in agricultural landscapes. They are not only the refuge of common forest organisms but also of novel species yet to be discovered. PMID:27551185

  6. Morphological and molecular diversity among Italian populations of Quercus petraea (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Bruschi, Piero; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Bussotti, Filippo; Grossoni, Paolo

    2003-05-01

    Quercus petraea (sessile oak) has a scattered distribution in southern and central Italy. The objective of this work was to evaluate the level and distribution of diversity in five Italian populations of Q. petraea by using morphological markers and hypervariable molecular markers such as microsatellites. Forty-eight morphological traits and six nuclear and three plastid loci were scored for each population. Evidence for differentiation in both sets of traits was found, but patterns of differentiation of morphological traits did not coincide with microsatellite differentiation. Morphological variation was correlated with ecological conditions at the site of origin. Analysis of molecular variance revealed significant genetic variation among populations (P < 0.001), both at the nuclear and plastid levels. There was a slight, but significant, correlation between nuclear genetic distance and geographic distance. The relatively high genetic diversity in the populations analysed indicates that the maintenance of their evolutionary potential is possible if population sizes are maintained or increased. Low levels of haplotype diversity found within the small southernmost population (Piano Costantino) indicates that genetic erosion may increase the extinction risk for this population.

  7. Stem responses to damage: the evolutionary ecology of Quercus species in contrasting fire regimes.

    PubMed

    Romero, Claudia; Bolker, Benjamin M; Edwards, Christine E

    2009-01-01

    * The ability of tree stems to recover from damage is critical for tree survival and may explain species distributions across disturbance regimes. Two primary responses to stem damage, decay compartmentalization and wound closure, act in concert to limit decay and pathogen spread. A previous study demonstrated a tradeoff between wound responses that varied with anatomical traits, but its wide taxonomic range made it hard to analyze responses in an evolutionary context. * Here, we tested the stem wound responses of 13 species of Quercus inhabiting three habitats across a gradient of fire intensity. We also quantified anatomical and structural traits and phylogenetic position, in order to assess the relative contributions of ecological adaptation and phylogenetic history in determining traits. * Xylem anatomical traits were phylogenetically constrained, while phloem traits and damage responses varied with habitat. Across habitats, hammock and sandhill species closed bark wounds effectively, whereas scrub species limited the spread of xylem decay. There was a tradeoff between wound closure and decay compartmentalization within the white+live oaks. * The fact that some wound response traits are phylogenetically constrained while others respond to ecological pressures suggests that damage responses integrate mechanisms operating at several levels within plants. PMID:19140949

  8. Seawater spray injury to Quercus acutissima leaves: crystal deposition, stomatal clogging, and chloroplast degeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Koo, Kyosang; Kim, Pan-Gi

    2011-05-01

    Effects of seawater spray on leaf structure were investigated in Quercus acutissima by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Two-year-old seedlings of Q. acutissima were sprayed with seawater and kept in a greenhouse maintained at 25°C. The most recognizable symptoms of seawater-sprayed seedlings included leaf necrosis, crystal deposition, stomatal clogging, and chloroplast degeneration. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the leaf surface was covered with additional layers of remnants of seawater spray. Composed of sodium and chloride, cube-shaped crystals (halite) were prevalently found on trichomes and epidermis, and formed aggregates. Meanwhile, wedge-shaped crystals were deposited on epidermis and consisted of calcium and sulfur. As a result of stomatal clogging by crystal deposition on the abaxial surface, it was conceivable that plant respiration became severely hampered. Transmission electron microscopy showed degenerated cytoplasm of seawater-sprayed leaves. It was common to observe severe plasmolysis and disrupted chloroplasts with a reduced number of thylakoids in grana. These results indicate that foliar applications of seawater were sufficient to induce necrosis of Q. acutissima seedlings as an abiotic disturbance factor. PMID:20931628

  9. Recurrent fires and environment shape the vegetation in Quercus suber L. woodlands and maquis.

    PubMed

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Curt, Thomas; Véla, Errol; Tatoni, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    The effects of fire recurrence on vegetation patterns in Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus communities in Mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems of south-eastern France were examined on stands belonging to 5 fire classes, corresponding to different numbers of fires (from 0 to 4) and time intervals between fires since 1959. A common pool of species was identified among the plots, which was typical of both open and closed maquis. Fire recurrence reduced the abundance of trees and herbs, whereas it increased the abundance of small shrubs. Richness differed significantly between the most contrasting classes of fire recurrence, with maximal values found in control plots and minimal values in plots that had burned recurrently and recently. Equitability indices did not vary significantly, in contrast to Shannon's diversity index which mostly correlated with richness. Forest ecosystems that have burnt once or twice in the last 50 years were resilient; that is to say they recovered a biomass and composition similar to that of the pre-fire state. However, after more than 3-4 fires, shrubland communities displayed lower species richness and diversity indices than unburned plots. The time since the last fire and the number of fires were the most explanatory fire variables, governing the structure of post-fire plant communities. However, environmental factors, such as slope or exposure, also made a significant contribution. Higher rates of fire recurrence can affect the persistence or expansion of shrublands in the future, as observed in other Mediterranean areas.

  10. Effect of sowing depth on performance of Quercus castaneifolia seedling at different levels of canopy cover.

    PubMed

    Jalali; Gh, A; Ali-Arab, A R; Tabari, M; Akbarinia, M; Hosseini, S M

    2007-04-01

    Due to failure of oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Meyer) natural regeneration, investigation on the best acorn sowing depth of this species under different levels of canopy cover is an important consideration in the Caspian forests, north of Iran. For this purpose, a study site with north-facing slope, clay-loam soil and 260-280 m a.s.l. was chosen in a mixed oak forest. The experiment was conducted as a Complete Randomized Split Plot Design (CRSPD) and the measurements made in one growing season in nine fenced circular 1000 m2 plots with three canopy densities (25, 50 and 75%) at three soil depths (5, 10 and 15 cm). The results revealed that under all canopy densities the maximum seedling emergence occurred at 5 cm depth. The highest emergence rate was appeared in June and the lowest in October. Neither canopy density nor sowing depth did prominently reduce seedling establishment, but a high quotient of mortality likely could be attributed to rodent populations, particularly Hystrix indica. Under all canopies, ground line diameter decreased with increasing sowing depth, the biggest being at 5 cm depth. Neither canopy density nor sowing depth influenced the seedling height. It can be concluded that the best performance of Q. castaneifolia seedling occurs at 5 cm sowing depth and 25% canopy cover.

  11. Quercus rubra-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of disturbed urban sites and mature forests.

    PubMed

    Karpati, Amy S; Handel, Steven N; Dighton, John; Horton, Thomas R

    2011-08-01

    The presence and quality of the belowground mycorrhizal fungal community could greatly influence plant community structure and host species response. This study tests whether mycorrhizal fungal communities in areas highly impacted by anthropogenic disturbance and urbanization are less species rich or exhibit lower host root colonization rates when compared to those of less disturbed systems. Using a soil bioassay, we sampled the ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities associating with Quercus rubra (northern red oak) seedlings in soil collected from seven sites: two mature forest reference sites and five urban sites of varying levels of disturbance. Morphological and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of fungi colonizing root tips revealed that colonization rates and fungal species richness were significantly lower on root systems of seedlings grown in disturbed site soils. Analysis of similarity showed that EMF community composition was not significantly different among several urban site soils but did differ significantly between mature forest sites and all but one urban site. We identified a suite of fungal species that occurred across several urban sites. Lack of a diverse community of belowground mutualists could be a constraint on urban plant community development, especially of late-successional woodlands. Analysis of urban EMF communities can add to our understanding of urban plant community structure and should be addressed during ecological assessment before pragmatic decisions to restore habitats are framed.

  12. Drought enhances folivory by shifting foliar metabolomes in Quercus ilex trees.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Oravec, Michal; Mateu-Castell, Laia; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Parella, Teodor; Ogaya, Romà; Urban, Otmar; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-05-01

    At the molecular level, folivory activity on plants has mainly been related to the foliar concentrations of nitrogen (N) and/or particular metabolites. We studied the responses of different nutrients and the whole metabolome of Quercus ilex to seasonal changes and to moderate field experimental conditions of drought, and how this drought may affect folivory activity, using stoichiometric and metabolomic techniques. Foliar potassium (K) concentrations increased in summer and consequently led to higher foliar K : phosphorus (P) and lower carbon (C) : K and N : K ratios. Foliar N : P ratios were not lowest in spring as expected by the growth rate hypothesis. Trees exposed to moderate drought presented higher concentrations of total sugars and phenolics and these trees also experienced more severe folivory attack. The foliar increases in K, sugars and antioxidant concentrations in summer, the driest Mediterranean season, indicated enhanced osmoprotection under natural drought conditions. Trees under moderate drought also presented higher concentrations of sugars and phenolics; a plant response to avoid water loss. These shifts in metabolism produced an indirect relationship between increased drought and folivory activity. PMID:24443979

  13. Biogeographic patterns of nutrient resorption from Quercus variabilis Blume leaves across China.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Kang, H; Chen, H Y H; Björn, B; Samuel, B F; Liu, C

    2016-05-01

    The variation in nutrient resorption has been studied at different taxonomic levels and geographic ranges. However, the variable traits of nutrient resorption at the individual species level across its distribution are poorly understood. We examined the variability and environmental controls of leaf nutrient resorption of Quercus variabilis, a widely distributed species of important ecological and economic value in China. The mean resorption efficiency was highest for phosphorus (P), followed by potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), magnesium (Mg) and carbon (C). Resorption efficiencies and proficiencies were strongly affected by climate and respective nutrients concentrations in soils and green leaves, but had little association with leaf mass per area. Climate factors, especially growing season length, were dominant drivers of nutrient resorption efficiencies, except for C, which was strongly related to green leaf C status. In contrast, green leaf nutritional status was the primary controlling factor of leaf nutrient proficiencies, except for C. Resorption efficiencies of N, P, K and S increased significantly with latitude, and were negatively related to growing season length and mean annual temperature. In turn, N, P, K and S in senesced leaves decreased with latitude, likely due to their efficient resorption response to variation in climate, but increased for Mg and did not change for C. Our results indicate that the nutrient resorption efficiency and proficiency of Q. variabilis differed strongly among nutrients, as well as growing environments. Our findings provide important insights into understanding the nutrient conservation strategy at the individual species level and its possible influence on nutrient cycling.

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Free Radical Scavenging, and Antimicrobial Activity of Quercus incana Roxb.

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Rizwana; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Ajmal; Naz, Sadia; Khan, Sara; Khan, Afsar; Rauf, Abdur; Bahadar, Haji; Uddin, Reaz

    2015-01-01

    Considering the indigenous utilization of Quercus incana Roxb., the present study deals with the investigation of antioxidant, free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content, and antimicrobial activity of Q. incana Roxb. In vitro antioxidant activity of the plant fractions were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and nitric oxide scavenging method. Total phenolic contents were determined by gallic acid equivalent and antimicrobial activities were determined by agar well diffusion method. It was observed that Q. incana Roxb. showed significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. n-Butanol fraction showed maximum activity against Micrococcus leuteus with 19 mm zone of inhibition. n-Butanol fraction of Q. incana Roxb. showed immense antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (32 mm ± 0.55) and A. flavus (28 mm ± 0.45). Similarly n-butanol fraction showed relatively good antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 55.4 ± 0.21 μg/mL. The NO scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction (IC50 = 23.21 ± 0.31 μg/mL) was fairly good compared to other fractions. The current study of Q. incana Roxb. suggests the presences of synergetic action of some biological active compounds that may be present in the leaves of medicinal plant. Further studies are needed to better characterize the important active constituents responsible for the antimicrobial, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. PMID:26635607

  15. Effect of different isolation methods on structure and properties of lignin from valonea of Quercus variabilis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Yawei

    2016-04-01

    Valonea of Quercus variabilis Blume, an abundant feedstock in China, can be used for tannin. However, there are little studies about lignin from this material. The present study aimed at lignin from the valonea: (1) Ethanol lignin (EL), alkali lignin (AL), milled wood lignin (MWL) and enzyme hydrolysis lignin (EHL) were prepared from the valonea of Q.variabilis Blume. (2) The effect of different isolation processes on the lignin chemical and physical features were studied by UV-vis, FT-IR, GPC, TG and (1)H NMR. (3) Antioxidant activities of four lignin preparations were evaluated by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays. The results showed that the valonea of Q. variabilis contained mass lignin and four lignin preparations were GSH-type with little differences. The MWL contained the least functional groups (1.75 mmol/g MeO, 0.87 mmol/g ArOH and 1.27 mmol/g AlkOH), the poorest thermostability (onset degradation temperature=111°C, maximum rate of degradation=268°C) and the highest antioxidant activity. The EHL had the highest molecular weight (Mw=1,429 g/mol; Mn=746.18 g/mol). This study provided a theoretical basis for the development and utilization of lignin from the valonea of Q. variabilis.

  16. Bur oak blight, a new disease on Quercus macrocarpa caused by Tubakia iowensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Thomas C; McNew, Doug; Yun, Hye Young

    2012-01-01

    A newly recognized, late-season leaf disease of Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak) has become increasingly severe across Iowa and in neighboring states since the 1990s. Vein necrosis and leaf death may occur over the whole crown or only on the lower branches. Symptoms typically intensify year-to-year in individual trees, and there appears to be substantial variation in susceptibility. Distinctive conidiomata (pycnothyria with a shield of radiating, setae-like hyphae) of a Tubakia sp. are found along the necrotic leaf veins. The same species produces a second type of pycnothyrium with a crustose covering and smaller conidia on the petioles of killed leaves, which remain on the tree through the winter and provide the primary inoculum to infect newly emerging shoots and leaves in spring. Comparison of the Tubakia sp. on bur oak with T. dryina and other species of Tubakia led to the conclusion that the species on bur oak is new, distinct from T. dryina, which herein is defined more narrowly. Inoculation studies confirmed that Tubakia iowensis sp. nov. is the cause of bur oak blight. Bur oak blight appears to be particularly severe on Q. macrocarpa var. oliviformis, which is well adapted to the dry, upland sites where the disease is found most frequently. The recent climatic trend in Iowa to higher spring precipitation might have led to increased severity of the disease.

  17. Epigenetic and hormonal profile during maturation of Quercus Suber L. somatic embryos.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Marta; Viejo, Marcos; LaCuesta, Maite; Toorop, Peter; Cañal, María Jesús

    2015-01-15

    Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful alternative to conventional mass propagation of Quercus suber L. However, poor quality and incomplete maturation of somatic embryos restrict any application. Given that epigenetic and hormonal control govern many developmental stages, including maturation of zygotic embryos, global DNA methylation and abscisic acid (ABA) were analyzed during development and maturation of cork oak somatic embryos. Our results indicated that development of somatic embryos concurred with a decrease in 5-mdC. In contrast, endogenous ABA content showed a transient increase with a peak in immature E2 embryos denoting the onset of the maturation phase. A cold stratification phase was necessary for embryos to acquire germination ability, which coincided with a significant decrease in 5-mdC and ABA content. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that there was a specific spatial-temporal regulation during embryogenesis, particularly after the cold treatment. The acquisition of germination capacity concurred with a general low 5-mdC signal in the root meristem, while retention of the 5-mdC signal was mainly located in the shoot meristem and provascular tissues. Conversely, ABA immunolocalization was mainly located in the root and shoot apical meristems. Furthermore, a strong decrease in the ABA signal was observed in the root cap after the stratification treatment suggesting a role for the root cap during development of somatic embryos. These results suggest that, in addition to ABA, epigenetic control appears to play an important role for the correct maturation and subsequent germination of cork oak somatic embryos.

  18. Net Photosynthesis and Early Growth Trends of a Dominant White Oak (Quercus alba L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Phillip M.; Teskey, Robert O.; Phelps, John E.; Hinckley, Thomas M.

    1979-01-01

    Examination of the relationship between photosynthesis and growth of a dominant white oak (Quercus alba L.) tree has shown that most growth processes were either completed or well underway before the establishment of significant positive rates of net photosynthesis. Growth was initiated first in the root system (March 3), followed by stem cambial growth (March 26) and later by flower, leaf, and branch growth (April 10). During the period of rapid leaf and branch growth, root and cambial growth ceased and then resumed as the leaves approached maturity. The rapid rate of leaf maturation, the early appearance of positive rates of net photosynthesis in leaves (15% of final size) and the CO2-refixing capability of elongating branch tissue reduced the period of time that this white oak tree was dependent on stored reserves. Lower temperature optima and compensation points in developing leaves and stems indicated that the growth-temperature response was optimized for the lower seasonal temperatures observed during the spring. This temperature adaptation further reduced the time that this tree was dependent on stored reserves. Images PMID:16661108

  19. Characterization of the responses of cork oak (Quercus suber) to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gogorcena, Y; Molias, N; Larbi, A; Abadía, J; Abadía, A

    2001-12-01

    We studied responses of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) to iron (Fe) deficiency by comparing seedlings grown hydroponically in nutrient solution with and without Fe. Seedlings grown without Fe developed some responses typical of the Strategy I group of Fe-efficient plants, including two- and fourfold increases in plasma membrane ferric chelate reductase activity of root tips after 2 and 4 weeks of culture in the absence of Fe, respectively. Moreover, seedlings grown hydroponically for 2 weeks without Fe caused marked decreases in the pH of the nutrient solution, indicating that root plasma membrane ATPase activity was induced by Fe deficiency. Iron deficiency also caused marked decreases in leaf chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, and chlorophyll concentrations were decreased more than carotenoid concentrations. Iron deficiency resulted in an 8% decrease in the dark-adapted efficiency of photosystem II and a 43% decrease in efficiency of photosystem II at steady-state photosynthesis. No major root morphological changes were observed in seedlings grown without Fe, although seedlings grown in Fe-deficient nutrient solution had light-colored roots in contrast to the dark brown color of control roots.

  20. Nutrient composition and starch characteristics of Quercus glandulifera Bl. seeds from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Songnan; Zhou, Yibin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Yang; Cao, Shengnan

    2015-10-15

    The chemical composition and starch characteristics of acorn (Quercus glandulifera Bl.) were studied. The moisture content of acorn seeds was 7.55%. The crude fat, crude protein, dietary fiber, total ash, and nitrogen-free extract contents of acorn seed were 4.20%, 10.16%, 2.95%, 0.03%, and 82.66%, respectively, on a dry weight basis. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic were the most predominant fatty acids. UFA:SFA and SFA:MUFA:PUFA ratios were 2.6:1 and 1.25:1.34:1, respectively. The essential amino acid content from acorn seeds was low based on FAO reference values. Acorn seeds were a good source of Fe, Zn, and Mn. The contents of vitamins A and E were 1.40 mg RE/100g and 10.78 mg/100 g, respectively. Starch extracted from acorn seeds had round, triangle, and elliptical morphology with granule size of 3.3-126.2 μm. The ratio between amylose and amylopectin contents was 25.39:72.94. Acorn starch had a typical A-type crystal pattern with 23.53% relative crystallinity. The gelatinization temperature was 66.53 °C and the transition enthalpy was 4.33 J/g.

  1. An evaluation of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) decline in the urban forest of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catton, H.A.; St., George; Remphrey, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, has a large, indigenous population of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.). In the 1980s, many of these trees were showing signs of decline, a disease caused by a complex of abiotic and secondary biotic stressing agents. Potential causal factors were investigated by comparing various aspects of 120 bur oaks visually rated as healthy or declined based on crown dieback levels. The results indicated that many selected bur oak trees predated surrounding urban development and that declined trees were significantly older with more severe stem wounds and competition from surrounding trees than healthy specimens. Average annual growth ring widths of healthy and declined trees were similar in the early part of the 20th century. However, decline actually began decades before symptoms were noticed, coinciding with a period of in tense city-wide urban development, as growth of declined trees was slower than that of healthy trees beginning sporadically in the 1940s and consistently from 1974 to 2001. During the early years of decline, the year-by-year separation in ring width between the two categories was significantly positively related to precipitation levels. This suggested that in wet years, declined trees may have been surrounded by unfavorable water-logged soils, possibly as a result of natural drainage patterns being impeded by urban development. ?? 2007 International Society of Arboriculture.

  2. PAH detection in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles: A fast method for biomonitoring purpose.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Concha Graña, E; Aboal, J R; Carballeira, A; Fernández, J Á; López Mahía, P; Prada Rodríguez, D; Muniategui Lorenzo, S

    2016-06-01

    Due to the complexity and heterogeneity of plant matrices, new procedure should be standardized for each single biomonitor. Thus, here is described a matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction method, previously used for moss samples, improved and modified for the analyses of PAHs in Quercus robur leaves and Pinus pinaster needles, species widely used in biomonitoring studies across Europe. The improvements compared to the previous procedure are the use of Florisil added with further clean-up sorbents, 10% deactivated silica for pine needles and PSA for oak leaves, being these matrices rich in interfering compounds, as shown by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses acquired in full scan mode. Good trueness, with values in the range 90-120% for the most of compounds, high precision (intermediate precision between 2% and 12%) and good sensitivity using only 250mg of samples (limits of quantification lower than 3 and 1.5ngg(-1), respectively for pine and oak) were achieved by the selected procedures. These methods proved to be reliable for PAH analyses and, having advantage of fastness, can be used in biomonitoring studies of PAH air contamination. PMID:27130099

  3. [Identification of Epmedii Folium and its counterfeit leaf of Quercus variabilis].

    PubMed

    Kang, Shuai; Zhou, Chao; He, Yi; Zhang, Ji; Wei, Ai-hua; Lu, Jing; Ma, Shuang-cheng

    2015-05-01

    Epmedii Folium is a commonly used traditional Chinese drug, and is beneficial for the "liver" and "kidney" s function in Chinese medicine. Recently, the origin of this drug is more complex. Most of the identification studies are emphasized on the species certified by the pharmacopoeia and other related species from the same genus of Epimedium, but few was emphasized on the counterfeit. In this paper, one counterfeit of Epmedii Folium, identified as the dried leaf of Quercus variabilis (Fam. Fagaceae), has been reported based on field investigation, comparing specimen of Epmedii Folium and Q. variabilis,using the macroscopic, microscopic and TmC methods. It is resulted that they could be identified clearly not only by the macroscopic features, such as the vein character and the tooth apex, but also by the microscopic features, such as the vascular bundles of the midrib, the non-glandular hair, the anticlinal wall of the epidermis cell and the calcium oxalate crystal. Furthermore their TLC chromatograms showed also difference. This study will give reference for the identification of Epmedii Folium and the related supervision and inspection work. PMID:26323128

  4. The Effect of Quercus salicina Leaf Extracts on Vascular Endothelial Function: Role of Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Hee; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Yoon, Jun-Seong; Lee, Hye-Won; Park, Gye-Choon; Yi, Eunyoung; Yoon, Goo; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Dysfunction of the vascular endothelium is reported as a hallmark of cardiovascular diseases. Many evidences suggest that polyphenols are associated with a decreased global mortality and might be involved in protection against cardiovascular risk. This beneficial effect of polyphenol may be due to many actions as antioxidant that increases bioavailability of nitric oxide, vasodilation or anti-hypertensive properties. To identify new natural medicine candidate for cardiovascular protection, plant extracts used in traditional medicine were evaluated by vascular reactivity system. Porcine coronary artery rings were suspended in organ chambers for the measurement of changes in isometric tension. Screening results indicated that the ethanolic extract of leaf from Quercus salicina (QSE) has been found to exhibit potent vasorelaxant activity. QSE dose-dependently induced endothelium-dependent relaxations, which were abolished by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine). In addition, QSE strongly and dose-dependently activate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in porcine coronary artery endothelial cell. Taken together, the present study has demonstrated that QSE is a powerful endothelium-dependentvasodilator and that this effect involves increased nitric oxide bioavailability. In conclusion, QSE could be a cardiovascular protective herbal medicine candidate associated with cardiovascular diseases and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27433730

  5. Imprints of Natural Selection Along Environmental Gradients in Phenology-Related Genes of Quercus petraea

    PubMed Central

    Alberto, Florian J.; Derory, Jérémy; Boury, Christophe; Frigerio, Jean-Marc; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Kremer, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    We explored single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation in candidate genes for bud burst from Quercus petraea populations sampled along gradients of latitude and altitude in Western Europe. SNP diversity was monitored for 106 candidate genes, in 758 individuals from 32 natural populations. We investigated whether SNP variation reflected the clinal pattern of bud burst observed in common garden experiments. We used different methods to detect imprints of natural selection (FST outlier, clinal variation at allelic frequencies, association tests) and compared the results obtained for the two gradients. FST outlier SNPs were found in 15 genes, 5 of which were common to both gradients. The type of selection differed between the two gradients (directional or balancing) for 3 of these 5. Clinal variations were observed for six SNPs, and one cline was conserved across both gradients. Association tests between the phenotypic or breeding values of trees and SNP genotypes identified 14 significant associations, involving 12 genes. The results of outlier detection on the basis of population differentiation or clinal variation were not very consistent with the results of association tests. The discrepancies between these approaches may reflect the different hierarchical levels of selection considered (inter- and intrapopulation selection). Finally, we obtained evidence for convergent selection (similar for gradients) and clinal variation for a few genes, suggesting that comparisons between parallel gradients could be used to screen for major candidate genes responding to natural selection in trees. PMID:23934884

  6. Drought changes the dynamics of trace element accumulation in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex forest.

    PubMed

    Sardans, J; Peñuelas, J

    2007-06-01

    We conducted a field drought manipulation experiment in an evergreen oak Mediterranean forest from 1999 to 2005 to investigate the effects of the increased drought predicted for the next decades on the accumulation of trace elements that can be toxic for animals, in stand biomass, litter and soil. Drought increased concentrations of As, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr in roots of the dominant tree species, Quercus ilex, and leaf Cd concentrations in Arbutus unedo and of Phillyrea latifolia codominant shrubs. The increased concentration of As and Cd can aggravate the toxic capacity of those two elements, which are already next or within the levels that have been shown to be toxic for herbivores. The study also showed a great reduction in Pb biomass content (100-135 gha(-1)) during the studied period (1999-2005) showing the effectiveness of the law that prohibited leaded fuel after 2001. The results also indicate that drought increases the exportation of some trace elements to continental waters. PMID:17137692

  7. Impact of drought on seasonal monoterpene emissions from Quercus ilex in southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, Michael; Rambal, Serge; Joffre, Richard; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2002-11-01

    We studied monoterpene emissions from the evergreen oak Quercus ilex exposed to different levels of summer drought to examine the seasonal variation of emissions in the Mediterranean area and to test the role of water limitations therein. Measurements were made in seven campaigns between June and January on intact leaves of mature trees growing in two adjacent sites, in one of which the natural water supply was reduced by a ground roof. In both sites, actual emission rates as well as light- and temperature-normalized emission rates (i.e., emission factor (EF)) significantly changed during the seasons: Mean EFs increased from June to July to a broad summer maximum between 5.2 and 9.4 nmol m-2 leaf area s-1 (12-21 μg g-1 leaf dry mass h-1), dropped in October and November and reached a minimum of about 0.77 nmol m-2 s-1 (1.7 μg g-1 h-1) in January. From June to July, mean EFs of the trees with reduced water supply were significantly lower than those of trees with normal water supply. The lowered EF in summer was paralleled by lower predawn water potentials, leaf transpiration, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance with respect to control trees. The results suggest that in natural Q. ilex habitats the seasonal evolution of EF follows a marked summer-winter cycle whose shape and intensity can be modified by summer drought.

  8. Organic matter and nutrients associated with fine root turnover in a white oak stand. [Quercus albus

    SciTech Connect

    Joslin, J.D.; Henderson, G.S.

    1987-06-01

    Organic matter and nutrients cycled by fine root turnover were quantified in a mature white oak (Quercus alba L.) stand and compared to contributions from litterfall. The budget method, a revised version of the traditional repeated sampling method, was used to measure root turnover. The magnitude of the live and dead pools of three size classes of fine (<5 mm diameter) roots were monitored bimonthly for 14 months. Decomposition rates over these intervals were also measured, while production and mortality were calculated. Litterfall was collected simultaneously, and the nutrient concentrations of the various detritus components determined. Root pools fluctuated less, and total root turnover biomass (220 g m/sup -2/ yr/sup -1/) was also less than previously noted in most other stands studied. Fine root turnover accounted for 30% of the total detritus production and 20-40% of the turnover of the five macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) studied. Differences with previous studies suggest that there may be rather large species and/or site-related differences in the amount of energy various stands allocate for fine root maintenance. For. Sci. 33(2):330-346.

  9. Photosynthesis and Photosynthetic Electron Flow in the Alpine Evergreen Species Quercus guyavifolia in Winter

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species must regularly cope with low night temperatures in winter. However, the effects of low night temperatures on photosynthesis in alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species are unclear. We measured the diurnal photosynthetic parameters before and after cold snap for leaves of Quercus guyavifolia growing in its native habitat at 3290 m. On 11 and 12 December 2013 (before cold snap), stomatal and mesophyll conductances (gs and gm), CO2 assimilation rate (An), and total electron flow through PSII (JPSII) at daytime were maintained at high levels. The major action of alternative electron flow was to provide extra ATP for primary metabolisms. On 20 December 2013 (after cold snap), the diurnal values of gs, gm, An, and JPSII at daytime largely decreased, mainly due to the large decrease in night air temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio of photorespiration and alternative electron flow to JPSII largely increased on 20 December. Furthermore, the high levels of alternative electron flow were accompanied with low rates of extra ATP production. A quantitative limitation analysis reveals that the gm limitation increased on 20 December with decreased night air temperature. Therefore, the night air temperature was an important determinant of stomatal/mesophyll conductance and photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is inhibited following freezing night temperatures, photorespiration and alternative electron flow are important electron sinks, which support the role of photorespiration and alternative electron flow in photoportection for alpine plants under low temperatures. PMID:27812359

  10. Weak trophic interactions among birds, insects and white oak saplings (Quercus alba)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichtenberg, J.S.; Lichtenberg, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the interactions among insectivorous birds, arthropods and white oak saplings (Quercus alba L.) in a temperate deciduous forest under 'open' and 'closed' canopy environments. For 2 y, we compared arthropod densities, leaf damage and sapling growth. Saplings from each canopy environment were assigned to one of four treatments: (1) reference, (2) bird exclosure, (3) insecticide and (4) exclosure + insecticide. Sap-feeding insects were the most abundant arthropod feeding guild encountered and birds reduced sap-feeder densities in 1997, but not in 1998. Although there was no detectable influence of birds on leaf-chewer densities in either year, leaf damage to saplings was greater within bird exclosures than outside of bird exclosures in 1997. Insecticide significantly reduced arthropod densities and leaf damage to saplings, but there was no corresponding increase in sapling growth. Growth and biomass were greater for saplings in more open canopy environments for both years. Sap-feeder densities were higher on closed canopy than open canopy saplings in 1997, but canopy environment did not influence the effects of birds on lower trophic levels. Although previous studies have found birds to indirectly influence plant growth and biomass, birds did not significantly influence the growth or biomass of white oak saplings during our study.

  11. Global 5-methylcytosine alterations in DNA during ageing of Quercus robur seeds

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Marcin; Plitta-Michalak, Beata P.; Naskręt-Barciszewska, Mirosława; Barciszewski, Jan; Bujarska-Borkowska, Barbara; Chmielarz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the management of plant growth, development and response to stress factors, and several reports have indicated that DNA methylation plays a critical role in seed development and viability. This study examines changes in 5-methylcytosine (m5C) levels in the DNA of seeds during ageing, a process that has important implications for plant conservation and agriculture. Methods Changes in the global level of m5C were measured in mature seeds of oak, Quercus robur. The extent of DNA methylation was measured using a protocol based on two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography. Viability of seeds was determined by germination and seedling emergence tests. Key Results An ageing-related decrease in total m5C during storage of recalcitrant seeds was highly and significantly correlated with a decrease in seed viability, as reflected by a reduction in germination (r = 0·8880) and seedling emergence (r = 0·8269). Conclusions The decrease in viability during ageing of Q. robur seeds is highly correlated with a global decline in the amount of m5C in genomic DNA, and it is possible that this may represent a typical response to ageing and senescence in recalcitrant seeds. Potential mechanisms that drive changes in genomic DNA methylation during ageing are discussed, together with their implications for seed viability. PMID:26133690

  12. Diurnal changes in photoprotective mechanisms in leaves of cork oak (Quercus suber) during summer.

    PubMed

    Faria, T.; García-Plazaola, J. I.; Abadía, A.; Cerasoli, S.; Pereira, J. S.; Chaves, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Daily variations in photoprotective mechanisms were studied in sun and shade leaves of 40-year-old cork oak (Quercus suber L.) trees during early summer in Portugal. Although trees were not severely water stressed because predawn leaf water potentials remained high, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased at midday. The midday depression in gas exchange was not reversed by short-term exposure to "optimal" conditions of temperature, light and vapor pressure deficit. Chlorophyll a fluorescence, maximum photochemical yield of photosystem II and the quantum yield of noncyclic electron transport showed midday depressions, but recovered by the evening. Both short-term changes in the components of the xanthophyll cycle (reversible de-epoxidation of violaxanthin during the day) as well as long-term changes (higher xanthophyll content in sun compared with shade leaves) were detected and may play a role in the dissipation of excess energy at midday. Because the activities of enzymes of the antioxidant system, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, were high enough to cope with the increase in oxygen reactive species likely to arise under the stressful conditions of midday, we conclude that these enzymes may provide an additional mechanism for energy dissipation.

  13. Diurnal and seasonal emissions of volatile organic compounds from cork oak ( Quercus suber) trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio, C. A.; Silva, P. A.; Cerqueira, M. A.; Nunes, T. V.

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds from Quercus suber (cork oak) were investigated at two rural sites in Portugal using a branch enclosure method with subsequent analysis by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Q. suber leaves released important amounts of monoterpenes, mainly in the form of limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene and sabinene. However, significant temporal and intraspecific variations in the relative abundance of the dominant compounds were found during this survey. Emissions from Q. suber were strongly dependent on light and temperature, showing a similar behaviour to that of plant species known to be isoprene producers. But, this work also revealed that, although at lower rates, emissions of monoterpenes continued in the dark for several hours. Emission rates were quite well predicted by algorithms based on the Guenther and Tingey equations; correlations of measurements with modelled data were, on average, r2=0.80. A pronounced seasonal variation was recorded for the emissions of monoterpenes. During the 1-yr study period, standard emission rates ranged between a minimum of 0.2 μg g dw-1 h -1, in winter, and a maximum of 20-30 μg g dw-1 h -1, in summer.

  14. PAHs in decaying Quercus ilex leaf litter: mutual effects on litter decomposition and PAH dynamics.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, F; Baldantoni, D; Alfani, A

    2014-11-01

    The investigation of the relationships between litter decomposition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is important to shed light not only on the effects of these pollutants on fundamental ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition, but also on the degradation of these pollutants by soil microbial community. This allows to understand the effect of atmospheric PAH contamination on soil PAH content via litterfall. At this aim, we studied mass and PAH dynamics of Quercus ilex leaf litters collected from urban, industrial and remote sites, incubated in mesocosms under controlled conditions for 361d. The results highlighted a litter decomposition rate of leaves sampled in urban>industrial>remote sites; the faster decomposition of litter of the urban site is also related to the low C/N ratio of the leaves. The PAHs showed concentrations at the beginning of the incubation of 887, 650 and 143 ng g(-1)d.w., respectively in leaf litters from urban, industrial and remote sites. The PAHs in litter decreased along the time, with the same trend observed for mass litter, showing the highest decrease at 361 d for the urban leaf litter. Anyway, PAH dynamics in all the litters exhibited two phases of loss, separated by a PAH increase observed at 246 d and mainly linked to benzo[e]pyrene.

  15. Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. (Araneae, Eutichuridae), a novel spider species associated with Holm Oaks (Quercus ilex)

    PubMed Central

    Morano, Eduardo; Bonal, Raul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a novel species Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. (Araneae, Eutichuridae) collected in the province of Toledo (Central Spain). It was found during a systematic sampling campaign carried out in an agricultural landscape with isolated Holm oaks Quercus ilex and small forest patches. Its morphology and affinities with other species of the genus are discussed. Furthermore, one mitochondrial gene was sequenced to confirm species membership and its differentiation from other Cheiracanthium species. The molecular phylogenies based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes showed a close relationship of Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. with Cheiracanthium inclusum and Cheiracanthium mildei, with which it also shares morphological similarities. Nonetheless, the sparse sampling of the phylogeny, due to the low number of sequences available, impedes drawing any definitive conclusion about these relationships; it is first necessary to perform an extensive review of the genus worldwide and more thorough phylogenies. Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. also shares certain ecological and phenological characteristics with Cheiracanthium inclusum and Cheiracanthium mildei. Like them, Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. is an obligate tree dweller that prefers a tree canopy habitat and reproduces primarily in late spring and summer. From a conservation perspective, the present study suggests the need to preserve isolated trees in agricultural landscapes. They are not only the refuge of common forest organisms but also of novel species yet to be discovered. PMID:27551185

  16. Genetic variation and metabolic pathway intricacy govern the active compound content and quality of the Chinese medicinal plant Lonicera japonica thunb

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine uses various herbs for the treatment of various diseases for thousands of years and it is now time to assess the characteristics and effectiveness of these medicinal plants based on modern genetic and molecular tools. The herb Flos Lonicerae Japonicae (FLJ or Lonicera japonica Thunb.) is used as an anti-inflammatory agent but the chemical quality of FLJ and its medicinal efficacy has not been consistent. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomes and metabolic pathways to evaluate the active medicinal compounds in FLJ and hope that this approach can be used for a variety of medicinal herbs in the future. Results We assess transcriptomic differences between FLJ and L. japonica Thunb. var. chinensis (Watts) (rFLJ), which may explain the variable medicinal effects. We acquired transcriptomic data (over 100 million reads) from the two herbs, using RNA-seq method and the Illumina GAII platform. The transcriptomic profiles contain over 6,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for each of the three flower development stages from FLJ, as well as comparable amount of ESTs from the rFLJ flower bud. To elucidate enzymatic divergence on biosynthetic pathways between the two varieties, we correlated genes and their expression profiles to known metabolic activities involving the relevant active compounds, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, and fatty acids. We also analyzed the diversification of genes that process the active compounds to distinguish orthologs and paralogs together with the pathways concerning biosynthesis of phenolic acid and its connections with other related pathways. Conclusions Our study provides both an initial description of gene expression profiles in flowers of FLJ and its counterfeit rFLJ and the enzyme pool that can be used to evaluate FLJ quality. Detailed molecular-level analyses allow us to decipher the relationship between metabolic pathways involved in processing active medicinal compounds and gene

  17. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Normalization under Abiotic Stresses and Hormone Stimulation in Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peihong; Xiong, Aisheng; Gao, Zhihong; Yu, Xinyi; Li, Man; Hou, Yingjun; Sun, Chao; Qu, Shenchun

    2016-01-01

    The success of quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to quantify gene expression depends on the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. To date, systematic screening for reference genes in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb) has never been reported. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were cloned from 'Nantongxiaofangshi' using information available in the transcriptome database. Their expression stability was assessed by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms under abiotic stress and hormone stimulation. Our results showed that the most suitable reference genes across all samples were UBC and GAPDH, and not the commonly used persimmon reference gene ACT. In addition, UBC combined with RPII or TUA were found to be appropriate for the "abiotic stress" group and α-TUB combined with PP2A were found to be appropriate for the "hormone stimuli" group. For further validation, the transcript level of the DkDREB2C homologue under heat stress was studied with the selected genes (CYP, GAPDH, TUA, UBC, α-TUB, and EF1-α). The results suggested that it is necessary to choose appropriate reference genes according to the test materials or experimental conditions. Our study will be useful for future studies on gene expression in persimmon. PMID:27513755

  18. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Materials and Methods: A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. Results: C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Conclusion: Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips.

  19. Effect of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb on the expression of obesity-related genes in mice on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nukitrangsan, Natthanan; Okabe, Takafumi; Toda, Takayoshi; Inafuku, Masashi; Iwasaki, Hironori; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Oku, Hirosuke

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb (PJT) intake on the expression of obesity-related genes in mice fed a high-fat diet. To explore the mechanism underlying the effect of PJT, This study focused on the expression of genes, especially those related to obesity and metabolism syndrome, in the liver and adipose tissues. In agreement with our previous observations, intake of 10 % PJT for 4 weeks significantly reduced serum triglyceride (TG), leptin, abdominal fat, and adipocyte size. PJT also significantly increased fecal excretion of TG, decreased that of bile acid, and tended to increase the fecal excretion of total cholesterol. Microarray analysis was used to monitor changes in 324 metabolic syndrome-related genes in the liver. Statistically significant upregulation of PPP1R10, RORC, and PBEF1 genes and downregulation of DUSP1, INSIG2, and SERPINA12 genes were noted and confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. These changes were indicative of increased fatty acid oxidation in the maintenance of lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in the livers of PJT-fed mice. PJT increased the expression of PPARγ, FXRα, DGAT1, and ATGL genes, suggesting an enhancement of adipocyte differentiation and normalization of functionality of adipose tissue.

  20. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Normalization under Abiotic Stresses and Hormone Stimulation in Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb).

    PubMed

    Wang, Peihong; Xiong, Aisheng; Gao, Zhihong; Yu, Xinyi; Li, Man; Hou, Yingjun; Sun, Chao; Qu, Shenchun

    2016-01-01

    The success of quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to quantify gene expression depends on the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. To date, systematic screening for reference genes in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb) has never been reported. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were cloned from 'Nantongxiaofangshi' using information available in the transcriptome database. Their expression stability was assessed by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms under abiotic stress and hormone stimulation. Our results showed that the most suitable reference genes across all samples were UBC and GAPDH, and not the commonly used persimmon reference gene ACT. In addition, UBC combined with RPII or TUA were found to be appropriate for the "abiotic stress" group and α-TUB combined with PP2A were found to be appropriate for the "hormone stimuli" group. For further validation, the transcript level of the DkDREB2C homologue under heat stress was studied with the selected genes (CYP, GAPDH, TUA, UBC, α-TUB, and EF1-α). The results suggested that it is necessary to choose appropriate reference genes according to the test materials or experimental conditions. Our study will be useful for future studies on gene expression in persimmon. PMID:27513755

  1. Molecular identification of 1-Cys peroxiredoxin and anthocyanidin/flavonol 3-O-galactosyltransferase from proanthocyanidin-rich young fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Ayako; Akagi, Takashi; Potter, Daniel; Yamada, Masahiko; Sato, Akihiko; Yonemori, Keizo; Kitajima, Akira; Inoue, Kentaro

    2009-09-01

    Fruits of persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) accumulate large amounts of proanthocyanidins (PAs) in the early stages of development. Astringent (A)-type fruits remain rich in soluble PAs even after they reach full-mature stage, whereas non-astringent (NA)-type fruits lose these compounds before full maturation. As a first step to elucidate the mechanism of PA accumulation in this non-model species, we used suppression subtractive hybridization to identify transcripts accumulating differently in young fruits of A- and NA-type. Interestingly, only a few clones involved in PA biosynthesis were identified in A-NA libraries. Represented by multiple clones were those encoding a novel 1-Cys peroxiredoxin and a new member of family 1 glycosyltransferases. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses confirmed correlation of the amount of PAs and accumulation of transcripts encoding these proteins in young persimmon fruits. Furthermore, the new family 1 glycosyltransferase was produced in Escherichia coli and shown to efficiently catalyze galactosylation at 3-hydroxyl groups of several anthocyanidins and flavonols. These findings suggest a complex mechanism of PA accumulation in persimmon fruits.

  2. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Normalization under Abiotic Stresses and Hormone Stimulation in Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb).

    PubMed

    Wang, Peihong; Xiong, Aisheng; Gao, Zhihong; Yu, Xinyi; Li, Man; Hou, Yingjun; Sun, Chao; Qu, Shenchun

    2016-01-01

    The success of quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to quantify gene expression depends on the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. To date, systematic screening for reference genes in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb) has never been reported. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were cloned from 'Nantongxiaofangshi' using information available in the transcriptome database. Their expression stability was assessed by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms under abiotic stress and hormone stimulation. Our results showed that the most suitable reference genes across all samples were UBC and GAPDH, and not the commonly used persimmon reference gene ACT. In addition, UBC combined with RPII or TUA were found to be appropriate for the "abiotic stress" group and α-TUB combined with PP2A were found to be appropriate for the "hormone stimuli" group. For further validation, the transcript level of the DkDREB2C homologue under heat stress was studied with the selected genes (CYP, GAPDH, TUA, UBC, α-TUB, and EF1-α). The results suggested that it is necessary to choose appropriate reference genes according to the test materials or experimental conditions. Our study will be useful for future studies on gene expression in persimmon.

  3. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Materials and Methods: A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. Results: C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Conclusion: Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips. PMID:27635195

  4. Effect of triterpene acids of Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. leaf and MAPK signal transduction pathway on inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in alveolar macrophage of chronic bronchitis rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Li, J; Meng, X M; Jiang, G L; Li, H; Cao, Q; Yu, S C; Lv, X W; Cheng, W M

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the possible therapy mechanism of triterpene acids of Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. Leaf (TAL) in alveolar macrophage (AM) of chronic bronchitis (CB) rats. CB model was established by injection of bacillus calmette guein (BCG) plus lipopolisacharide (LPS) in rats. TAL significantly inhibited the increased NO concentration, iNOS expression and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in alveolar macrophages (AMs) of CB rats. Using in vivo test, we found that SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, (10 muM) significantly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression in AM. This data indicate that TAL highly decreases excessive iNOS expression and NO induction, and p38 MAPK signal transduction participates in iNOS expression and NO induction in AM of CB rats. The effect of TAL on iNOS expression in AM may be related to its inhibition of p38 MAPK signal transduction. PMID:19938219

  5. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6%-248%. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  6. Molecular characterization of Quercus suber MYB1, a transcription factor up-regulated in cork tissues.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Tânia; Menéndez, Esther; Capote, Tiago; Ribeiro, Teresa; Santos, Conceição; Gonçalves, Sónia

    2013-01-15

    The molecular processes associated with cork development in Quercus suber L. are poorly understood. A previous molecular approach identified a list of genes potentially important for cork formation and differentiation, providing a new basis for further molecular studies. This report is the first molecular characterization of one of these candidate genes, QsMYB1, coding for an R2R3-MYB transcription factor. The R2R3-MYB gene sub-family has been described as being involved in the phenylpropanoid and lignin pathways, both involved in cork biosynthesis. The results showed that the expression of QsMYB1 is putatively mediated by an alternative splicing (AS) mechanism that originates two different transcripts (QsMYB1.1 and QsMYB1.2), differing only in the 5'-untranslated region, due to retention of the first intron in one of the variants. Moreover, within the retained intron, a simple sequence repeat (SSR) was identified. The upstream regulatory region of QsMYB1 was extended by a genome walking approach, which allowed the identification of the putative gene promoter region. The relative expression pattern of QsMYB1 transcripts determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that both transcripts were up-regulated in cork tissues; the detected expression was several times higher in newly formed cork harvested from trees producing virgin, second or reproduction cork when compared with wood. Moreover, the expression analysis of QsMYB1 in several Q. suber organs showed very low expression in young branches and roots, whereas in leaves, immature acorns or male flowers, no expression was detected. These preliminary results suggest that QsMYB1 may be related to secondary growth and, in particular, with the cork biosynthesis process with a possible alternative splicing mechanism associated with its regulatory function.

  7. Light response of hydraulic conductance in bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) leaves.

    PubMed

    Voicu, Mihaela C; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Tyree, Melvin T

    2008-07-01

    A four- to seven-fold enhancement of leaf hydraulic conductance by light has been reported in three temperate tree species. The enhancement occurs in the liquid-flow pathway between the petiole and the site of water evaporation. The enhancement occurs within 1 h, and dissipates in darkness over a period of 1 to 10 h depending on species. Here we report light-induced enhancement of leaf hydraulic conductance in a fourth species, bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.), the dependence of the effect on light flux and color, its absence in leaves of seedlings, and the impact on the response of leaf vein severance and several metabolic inhibitors. The light response of leaf hydraulic conductance approached saturation at a photosynthetic photon flux of 150 mumol m(-2) s(-1). Hydraulic enhancement was greater in response to blue and green light than to visible radiation of longer wavelengths, although at the same irradiance, the response to white light was greater than to light of any single color. Atrazine (a photosystem II inhibitor), fusicoccin (which stimulates plasma membrane-bound H(+)-ATPase) and HgCl(2) (an aquaporin blocker) reduced the light response of leaf lamina hydraulic conductance. When 2-mercaptoethanol was added following mercury treatment, the light response was totally suppressed. Our results are consistent with the notion that the effect of light on leaf lamina hydraulic conductance is controlled by factors acting outside the leaf veins, possibly through light-induced changes in membrane permeability of either mesophyll or bundle sheath cells, or both.

  8. Field Patterns of Leaf Plasticity in Adults of the Long-lived Evergreen Quercus coccifera

    PubMed Central

    Rubio De Casas, Rafael; Vargas, Pablo; Pérez-Corona, Esther; Manrique, Esteban; Quintana, José Ramón; García-Verdugo, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Quercus coccifera, as a long-lived sprouter, responds plastically to environmental variation. In this study, the role of foliar plasticity as a mechanism of habitat selection and modification within the canopy and across contrasted habitats was characterized. An examination was made of the differential contribution of inner and outer canopy layers to the crown plasticity expressed in the field by adult individuals and its dependence on environmental and genetic factors. Methods Within-crown variation in eight foliar traits was examined in nine populations dominated by Q. coccifera. The difference between mean trait values at the inner and outer canopy layers was used as a proxy for crown plasticity to light. Correlations between geographic distances, environmental differences (climatic and edaphic) and phenotypic divergence (means and plasticities) were assessed by partial Mantel tests. A subset of field measurements was compared with data from a previous common garden experiment. Key Results Phenotypic adjustment of sun leaves contributed significantly to the field variation in crown plasticity. Plasticity in leaf angle, lobation, xanthophyll cycle pigments and β-carotene content was expressed in sun and shade leaves concurrently and in opposite directions. Phenotypic plasticity was more strongly correlated with environmental variation than mean trait values. Populations of taller plants with larger, thinner (higher specific leaf area) and less spiny leaves exhibited greater plasticity. In these populations, the midday light environment was more uniform at the inner than at the outer canopy layers. Field and common garden data ranked populations in the same order of plasticity. Conclusions The expression of leaf plasticity resulted in a phenotypic differentiation that suggests a mechanism of habitat selection through division of labour across canopy layers. Signs of plasticity-mediated habitat modification were found only in the most plastic

  9. Canopy structural alterations to nitrogen functions of the soil microbial community in a Quercus virginiana forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, L. D.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Rosier, C. L.; Gay, T. E.; Wu, T.

    2014-12-01

    Forest canopy structure controls the timing, amount and chemical character of precipitation supply to soils through interception and drainage along crown surfaces. Yet, few studies have examined forest canopy structural connections to soil microbial communities (SMCs), and none have measured how this affects SMC N functions. The maritime Quercus virginiana Mill. (southern live oak) forests of St Catherine's Island, GA, USA provide an ideal opportunity to examine canopy structural alterations to SMCs and their functioning, as their throughfall varies substantially across space due to dense Tillandsia usneoides L. (spanish moss) mats bestrewn throughout. To examine the impact of throughfall variability on SMC N functions, we examined points along the canopy coverage continuum: large canopy gaps (0%), bare canopy (50-60%), and canopy of heavy T. usneoides coverage (>=85%). Five sites beneath each of the canopy cover types were monitored for throughfall water/ions and soil leachates chemistry for one storm each month over the growing period (7 months, Mar-2014 to Sep-2014) to compare with soil chemistry and SMC communities sampled every two months throughout that same period (Mar, May, Jul, Sep). DGGE and QPCR analysis of the N functioning genes (NFGs) to characterize the ammonia oxidizing bacterial (AOB-amoA), archaea (AOA-amoA), and ammonification (chiA) communities were used to determine the nitrification and decomposition potential of these microbial communities. PRS™-probes (Western Ag Innovations Inc., Saskatoon, Canada) were then used to determine the availability of NO3-N and NH4+N in the soils over a 6-week period to evaluate whether the differing NFG abundance and community structures resulted in altered N cycling.

  10. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber

    PubMed Central

    Rocheta, Margarida; Sobral, Rómulo; Magalhães, Joana; Amorim, Maria I.; Ribeiro, Teresa; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Monoecious species provide a comprehensive system to study the developmental programs underlying the establishment of female and male organs in unisexual flowers. However, molecular resources for most monoecious non-model species are limited, hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development of these species. The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes during the development of male and female flowers of the monoecious species Quercus suber, an economically important Mediterranean tree. Total RNA was extracted from different developmental stages of Q. suber flowers. Non-normalized cDNA libraries of male and female flowers were generated using 454 pyrosequencing technology producing a total of 962,172 high-quality reads with an average length of 264 nucleotides. The assembly of the reads resulted in 14,488 contigs for female libraries and 10,438 contigs for male libraries. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed genes differentially expressed in early and late stages of development of female and male flowers, some of which have been shown to be involved in pollen development, in ovule formation and in flower development of other species with a monoecious, dioecious, or hermaphroditic sexual system. Moreover, we found differentially expressed genes that have not yet been characterized and others that have not been previously shown to be implicated in flower development. This transcriptomic analysis constitutes a major step toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development in a monoecious tree with a potential contribution toward the knowledge of conserved developmental mechanisms in other species. PMID:25414713

  11. [Effects of simulated acid rain on Quercus glauca seedlings photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence].

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Jiang, Fu-wei; Yin, Xiu-min; Lu, Mei-juan

    2009-09-01

    Taking the seedlings of Quercus glauca, a dominant evergreen broadleaf tree species in subtropical area, as test materials, this paper studied their photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content under effects of simulated acid rain with pH 2.5, 4.0, and 5.6 (CK). After 2-year acid rain stress, the net photosynthetic rate of Q. glauca increased significantly with decreasing pH of acid rain. The acid rain with pH 2.5 and 4.0 increased the stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and the effect was more significant under pH 2.5. The intercellular CO2 concentration decreased in the order of pH 2.5 > pH 5.6 > pH 4.0. The maximum photosynthetic rate, light compensation point, light saturation point, and dark respiration rate were significantly higher under pH 2.5 and 4.0 than under pH 5.6, while the apparent quantum yield was not sensitive to acid rain stress. The maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II and the potential activity of PS II under pH 2.5 and 4.0 were significantly higher than those under pH 5.6. The relative chlorophyll content was in the order of pH 2.5 > pH 5.6 > pH 4.0, and there was a significant difference between pH 2.5 and 4.0. All the results suggested that the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of Q. glauca increased under the effects of acid rain with pH 2.5 and 4.0, and the acid rain with pH 2.5 had more obvious effects.

  12. How drought severity constrains GPP and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-06-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments has a crucial role in the carbon sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought prone forests. We analyzed the fate of GPP in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Gross and net carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy-covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy-covariance fluxes with annual productions we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic and heterotrophic respirations, NPP and carbon use efficiency (CUE, the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly NEP, GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding ANPP components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems. Gross and net carbon exchange between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected, the stem growth, to the least affected, the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease more slightly in response to drought than GPP and NPP, probably due to drought-acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem and highlight the value of maintaining continuous experimental

  13. Is thinning adequate for adapting old Quercus ilex coppices to climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Calcerrada, Jesus; Perez-Ramos, Ignacio-Manuel; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Misson, Laurent; Joffre, Richard; Rambal, Serge; Martin, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Future climatic scenarios call for an increasing involvement of management for forest preservation, but little is known on how forestry practices will benefit stands in facing variation of climatic components. We investigated how thinning affected tree responses to six years of continued throughfall reduction in a Mediterranean Quercus ilex stand formerly managed as a coppice. Thinned plots (≈33% basal area removal) and unthinned plots were subsequently subject to either throughfall exclusion (≈28% throughfall reduction) or normal rainfall. Stem-diameter growth, stem survival and seed production were monitored over the following six years; the presence, abundance and growth of new sprouts were measured in the last year. In the absence of thinning, throughfall exclusion accelerated the mortality of small stems, reduced the production of viable acorns and stimulated the emergence of new sprouts. Throughfall exclusion did not have any effect on stem growth. Rather, trees responded to the imposed reduction on throughfall by decreasing the leaf area and thus by minimizing the risk of xylem cavitation. Thinning reduced the mortality of stems, enhanced the diameter growth of residual stems and caused a profuse emission of resprouts. Thinning also increased total seed production but the crop had a large proportion of aborted seeds. Overall, the results point out to a better disposition of thinned Q. ilex coppice stands to cope with future (probably longer and more intense) droughts, at least in the short term. The reduction in standing dead biomass reduces the probability of occurrence of wildfires while the increase in growth and probably carbon reserves may help trees to overcome dry summers where CO2 assimilation is strongly limited. The mere felling of dominated and diseased stems, however, will probably not result in any longer-term advantage derived from seed regeneration without any further silvicultural treatment that promote seedling recruitment.

  14. Biogeographic patterns of nutrient resorption from Quercus variabilis Blume leaves across China.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Kang, H; Chen, H Y H; Björn, B; Samuel, B F; Liu, C

    2016-05-01

    The variation in nutrient resorption has been studied at different taxonomic levels and geographic ranges. However, the variable traits of nutrient resorption at the individual species level across its distribution are poorly understood. We examined the variability and environmental controls of leaf nutrient resorption of Quercus variabilis, a widely distributed species of important ecological and economic value in China. The mean resorption efficiency was highest for phosphorus (P), followed by potassium (K), nitrogen (N), sulphur (S), magnesium (Mg) and carbon (C). Resorption efficiencies and proficiencies were strongly affected by climate and respective nutrients concentrations in soils and green leaves, but had little association with leaf mass per area. Climate factors, especially growing season length, were dominant drivers of nutrient resorption efficiencies, except for C, which was strongly related to green leaf C status. In contrast, green leaf nutritional status was the primary controlling factor of leaf nutrient proficiencies, except for C. Resorption efficiencies of N, P, K and S increased significantly with latitude, and were negatively related to growing season length and mean annual temperature. In turn, N, P, K and S in senesced leaves decreased with latitude, likely due to their efficient resorption response to variation in climate, but increased for Mg and did not change for C. Our results indicate that the nutrient resorption efficiency and proficiency of Q. variabilis differed strongly among nutrients, as well as growing environments. Our findings provide important insights into understanding the nutrient conservation strategy at the individual species level and its possible influence on nutrient cycling. PMID:26597338

  15. Effects of cadmium on cork oak (Quercus suber L.) plants grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Gogorcena, Yolanda; Larbi, Ajmi; Andaluz, Sofia; Carpena, Ramón O; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2011-12-01

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is an autochthonous tree species that is being used for reforestation in heavy-metal-contaminated areas in Spain. A hydroponics experiment was carried out to characterize the effects of Cd on several morphological and physiological parameters in this species, including shoot length, nutrient concentrations and allocation in different organs, leaf pigment concentrations, photosynthetic efficiency, root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity and organic acid concentrations in xylem sap. Four different Cd treatments were applied, adding Cd chelated with EDTA or as chloride salt at two different concentrations (10 and 50 µM Cd). After 1 month of Cd treatment, plant growth was significantly inhibited in all treatments. Results indicate that Cd accumulates in all organs 7- to 500-fold when compared with control plants. The highest Cd concentration was found in the 50 µM CdCl(2) treatment, which led to concentrations of ~30, 123 and 1153 µg Cd g(-1) dry weight in leaves, stems and roots, respectively. In the strongest Cd treatments the concentrations of P and Ca decreased in some plant parts, whereas the Mn leaf concentrations decreased with three of the four Cd treatments applied. The concentrations of chlorophyll and carotenoids on an area basis decreased, whereas the (zeaxanthin plus antheraxanthin)/(total violaxanthin cycle carotenoids) ratio and the non-photochemical quenching increased significantly in all Cd treatments. Cadmium treatments caused significant increases in the activity of the enzyme FCR in roots and in the concentrations of organic acids in xylem sap. Some of the physiological changes found support the fact that Cd induces a deficiency of Fe in cork oak, although the plant Fe concentrations were not reduced significantly. At higher concentrations the effects of Cd were more pronounced, and were more marked when Cd was in the free ion form than when present in the form of Cd-EDTA.

  16. Soil Respiration in Relation to Photosynthesis of Quercus mongolica Trees at Elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yumei; Li, Mai-He; Cheng, Xu-Bing; Wang, Cun-Guo; Fan, A-Nan; Shi, Lian-Xuan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Han, Shijie

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of soil respiration and photosynthesis under elevated CO2 is crucial for exactly understanding and predicting the carbon balance in forest ecosystems in a rapid CO2-enriched world. Quercus mongolica Fischer ex Ledebour seedlings were planted in open-top chambers exposed to elevated CO2 (EC = 500 µmol mol−1) and ambient CO2 (AC = 370 µmol mol−1) from 2005 to 2008. Daily, seasonal and inter-annual variations in soil respiration and photosynthetic assimilation were measured during 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. EC significantly stimulated the daytime soil respiration by 24.5% (322.4 at EC vs. 259.0 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) in 2007 and 21.0% (281.2 at EC vs. 232.6 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) in 2008, and increased the daytime CO2 assimilation by 28.8% (624.1 at EC vs. 484.6 mg CO2 m−2 hr−1 at AC) across the two growing seasons. The temporal variation in soil respiration was positively correlated with the aboveground photosynthesis, soil temperature, and soil water content at both EC and AC. EC did not affect the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. The increased daytime soil respiration at EC resulted mainly from the increased aboveground photosynthesis. The present study indicates that increases in CO2 fixation of plants in a CO2-rich world will rapidly return to the atmosphere by increased soil respiration. PMID:21151897

  17. Climate change effect on Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen seasons in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Bielory, Leonard; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-07-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect the spatiotemporal patterns of airborne allergenic pollen, which has been found to act synergistically with common air pollutants, such as ozone, to cause allergic airway disease (AAD). Observed airborne pollen data from six stations from 1994 to 2011 at Fargo (North Dakota), College Station (Texas), Omaha (Nebraska), Pleasanton (California), Cherry Hill and Newark (New Jersey) in the US were studied to examine climate change effects on trends of annual mean and peak value of daily concentrations, annual production, season start, and season length of Betula (birch) and Quercus (oak) pollen. The growing degree hour (GDH) model was used to establish a relationship between start/end dates and differential temperature sums using observed hourly temperatures from surrounding meteorology stations. Optimum GDH models were then combined with meteorological information from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and land use land coverage data from the Biogenic Emissions Land use Database, version 3.1 (BELD3.1), to simulate start dates and season lengths of birch and oak pollen for both past and future years across the contiguous US (CONUS). For most of the studied stations, comparison of mean pollen indices between the periods of 1994-2000 and 2001-2011 showed that birch and oak trees were observed to flower 1-2 weeks earlier; annual mean and peak value of daily pollen concentrations tended to increase by 13.6 %-248 %. The observed pollen season lengths varied for birch and for oak across the different monitoring stations. Optimum initial date, base temperature, and threshold GDH for start date was found to be 1 March, 8 °C, and 1,879 h, respectively, for birch; 1 March, 5 °C, and 4,760 h, respectively, for oak. Simulation results indicated that responses of birch and oak pollen seasons to climate change are expected to vary for different regions.

  18. Seasonal changes in carbon and nitrogen compound concentrations in a Quercus petraea chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Gilson, Angélique; Barthes, Laure; Delpierre, Nicolas; Dufrêne, Éric; Fresneau, Chantal; Bazot, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Forest productivity declines with tree age. This decline may be due to changes in metabolic functions, resource availability and/or changes in resource allocation (between growth, reproduction and storage) with tree age. Carbon and nitrogen remobilization/storage processes are key to tree growth and survival. However, studies of the effects of tree age on these processes are scarce and have not yet considered seasonal carbon and nitrogen variations in situ. This study was carried out in a chronosequence of sessile oak (Quercus petraea Liebl.) for 1 year to survey the effects of tree age on the seasonal changes of carbon and nitrogen compounds in several tree compartments, focusing on key phenological stages. Our results highlight a general pattern of carbon and nitrogen function at all tree ages, with carbon reserve remobilization at budburst for growth, followed by carbon reserve formation during the leafy season and carbon reserve use during winter for maintenance. The variation in concentrations of nitrogen compounds shows less amplitude than that of carbon compounds. Storage as proteins occurs later, and mainly depends on leaf nitrogen remobilization and root uptake in autumn. We highlight several differences between tree age groups, in particular the loss of carbon storage function of fine and medium-sized roots with tree ageing. Moreover, the pattern of carbon compound accumulation in branches supports the hypothesis of a preferential allocation of carbon towards growth until the end of wood formation in juvenile trees, at the expense of the replenishment of carbon stores, while mature trees start allocating carbon to storage right after budburst. Our results demonstrate that at key phenological stages, physiological and developmental functions differ with tree age, and together with environmental conditions, influence the carbon and nitrogen concentration variations in sessile oaks. PMID:25122620

  19. Evaluation of biofilm removal activity of Quercus infectoria galls against Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi-Sichani, Maryam; Karbasizadeh, Vajihe; Dokhaharani, Samaneh Chaharmiri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting humans of all ages. Streptococcus mutans has an important role in the development of dental caries by acid production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and biofilm disinfective effects of the oak tree Quercus infectoria galls against S. mutans. Materials and Methods: The bacterial strain used in this study was S. mutans (ATCC: 35668). Two kinds of galls, Mazouj and Ghalghaf were examined. Galls were extracted by methanol, ethanol and acetone by Soxhlet apparatus, separately. Extracts were dissolved in sterile distilled water to a final concentration of 10.00, 5.00, 2.50, 1.25, 0.63, 0.31, and 0.16 mg/ml. Microdilution determined antibacterial activities. The biofilm removal activities of the extracts were examined using crystal violet-stained microtiter plate method. One-way ANOVA was used to compare biofilm formation in the presence or absence of the extracts. Results: The methanolic, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Q. infectoria galls showed the strong inhibitory effects on S. mutans (P < 0.05). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for the Mazouj and Ghalghaf gall extracts against S. mutans were identical. The MIC values ranged from 160 μg/ml to 320 μg/ml, whereas the MBC values ranged from 320 μg/ml to 640 μg/ml. All extracts of Q. infectoria galls significantly (P < 0.05) reduced biofilm biomass of S. mutans at the concentrations higher than 9.8 μg/ml. Conclusion: Three different extracts of Q. infectoria galls were similar in their antibacterial activity against S. mutans. These extracts had the highest biofilm removal activities at 312.5 μg/ml concentration. The galls of Q. infectoria are potentially good sources of antibacterial and biofilm disinfection agent. PMID:26962315

  20. Antiviral activity of Quercus persica L.: High efficacy and low toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Ali; Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Saeedi, Mojtaba; Asgari, Sedigheh; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Drug-resistant strain of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-I) has increased the interest in the use of natural substances. Aims: This study was aimed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of hydroalchoholic extract of a traditionally used herbal plant, Quercus persica L., on HSV-1 replication on baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Setting: The study was conducted in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Design: This was an experimental study. Materials and Methods: BHK cells were grown in monolayer culture with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum and plated onto 48-well culture plates. Fifty percent cytotoxic concentration (CC50%) of Q. persica L. on BHK cells was determined. Subsequently, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50%) of the extract on replication of HSV-1 both in interacellular and exteracellular cases was assessed. Statistical Analysis: Statistic Probit model was used for statistical analysis. The dose-dependent effect of antiviral activity of the extracts was determined by linear regression. Results: Q. persica L. had no cytotoxic effect on this cell line. There was significant relationship between the concentration of the extract and cell death (P<0.01). IC50s of Q. persica L. on HSV-1, before and after attachment to BHK cells were 1.02 and 0.257 μg/mL, respectively. There was significant relationship between the concentration of this extract and inhibition of cytopathic effect (CPE) (P<0.05). Antioxidant capacity of the extract was 67.5%. Conclusions: The hydroalchoholic extract of Q. persica L. is potentially an appropriate and promising anti herpetic herbal medicine. PMID:24516836

  1. Influence of Pericarp, Cotyledon and Inhibitory Substances on Sharp Tooth Oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) Germination

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Guangquan; Li, Qingmei; Liu, Yong; Hou, Longyu; Li, GuoLei

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the mechanism of delayed and uneven germination in sharp tooth oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) (STO), mechanical scarification techniques were used to study STO root and shoot germination and growth. The techniques used were: removing cup scar (RS), removing the pericarp (RP), and cutting off 1/2 (HC) and 2/3 (TC) cotyledons. Germination percentage and root and shoot length for Chinese cabbage (Beassica pekinensis) seeds (CCS) were also investigated for CCS cultivated in a Sanyo growth cabinet watered by distilled water and 80% methanol extracts from the acorn embryo, cotyledon and pericarp with concentrations of 1.0 g, 0.8 g, 0.6 g and 0.4 g dry acorn weight per ml methanol. The results showed that the majority of roots and shoots from acorns with RP and HC treatment emerged two weeks earlier, more simultaneously, and their total emergences were more than 46% and 28% higher, respectively. TC accelerated root and shoot emergence time and root length, but root and shoot germination rate and shoot height had no significant difference from the control. Positive consequences were not observed on all indices of RS treatment. The germination rates of CCS watered by 1.0 g·ml−1 methanol extracts from the embryo and cotyledon were significantly lower than those from the pericarp, and all concentrations resulted in decreased growth of root and shoot. Methanol extracts from pericarp significantly reduced root length of CCS, but presented little response in germination percentage and shoot length. The inhibitory effect was gradually increased with the increasing concentration of the methanol extract. We conclude that both the mechanical restriction of the pericarp and the presence of germination inhibitors in the embryo, cotyledon and pericarp are the causes for delayed and asynchronous germination of STO acorns. PMID:23133517

  2. Physiological Adjustments of Leaf Respiration to Atmospheric Warming in Betula alleghaniensis and Quercus rubra

    SciTech Connect

    Vollmar, A.; Gunderson, C.

    2006-01-01

    Global air temperatures are predicted to rise 1° to 4.5° Celsius by the year 2100. This climatic change is expected to have a great effect on the succession and migration of temperate deciduous forest species. Most physiologically based models of forest response to climatic change focus on the ecosystems as a whole instead of on individual tree species, assuming that the effects of warming on respiration are generally the same for each species, and that processes can not adjust to a changing climate. Experimental data suggest that physiological adjustments are possible, but there is a lack of data in deciduous species. In order to correctly model the effects of climate change on temperate species, species-specific respiration acclimation (adjustment) to rising temperatures is being determined in this experiment. Two temperate deciduous tree species Betula alleghaniensis (BA) and Quercus rubra (QR) were grown over a span of four years in open-top chambers and subjected to two different temperature treatments; ambient and ambient plus 4° Celsius (E4). Between 0530 hours and 1100 hours, respiration was measured over a range of leaf temperatures on several comparable, fully expanded leaves in each treatment. Circular punches were taken from the leaves and dried at 60°C to determine leaf mass per area (LMA). Respiration rates at a common temperature decreased by 15-18% in both species, and the entire resperation versus temperature curve shifted by at least 4°C, indicating a large degree of physiological acclimation. Foliar mass per area decreased with increasing growth temperature for both species. It can be concluded that there is a relationship between leaf respiration and foliar mass as it relates to respiratory acclimation, and that these two species had similar patterns of adjustment to warming.

  3. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Quercus suber.

    PubMed

    Marum, Liliana; Miguel, Andreia; Ricardo, Cândido P; Miguel, Célia

    2012-01-01

    The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber), have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1α, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old) or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy). The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method) used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks.

  4. Quercus suber range dynamics by ecological niche modelling: from the Last Interglacial to present time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vessella, Federico; Simeone, Marco Cosimo; Schirone, Bartolomeo

    2015-07-01

    Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) is widely used to depict species potential occurrence according to environmental variables under different climatic scenarios. We tested the ENM approach to infer past range dynamics of cork oak, a keystone species of the Mediterranean Biome, from 130 ka to the present time. Hindcasting implications would deal with a better species risk assessment and conservation management for the future. We modelled present and past occurrence of cork oak using seven ENM algorithms, starting from 63,733 spatially unique presence points at 30 arc-second resolution. Fourteen environmental variables were used and four time slices were considered (Last Interglacial, Last Glacial Maximum, mid-Holocene and present time). A threshold-independent evaluation of the goodness-of-fit of the models was evaluated by means of ROC curve and fossil or historical evidences were used to validate the results. Four weighted average maps depicted the dynamics of area suitability for cork oak in the last 130 ka. The derived species autoecology allowed its long-term occurrence in the Mediterranean without striking range reduction or shifting. Fossil and historical post-processing validation support the modelled past spatial extension and a neglected species presence at Levantine until the recent time. Despite the severe climatic oscillation since the Last Glacial Maximum, cork oak potential distribution area experienced limited range changes, confirming its strong link with the Mediterranean Basin. The ecological amplitude of Quercus suber could be therefore adopted as a reference to trace the Mediterranean bioclimate area. A better knowledge of the past events of Mediterranean vegetation, a wider range of study species and environmental determinants are essential to inform us about its current state, its sensitivity to human impact and the potential responses to future changes.

  5. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber.

    PubMed

    Rocheta, Margarida; Sobral, Rómulo; Magalhães, Joana; Amorim, Maria I; Ribeiro, Teresa; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M R

    2014-01-01

    Monoecious species provide a comprehensive system to study the developmental programs underlying the establishment of female and male organs in unisexual flowers. However, molecular resources for most monoecious non-model species are limited, hampering our ability to study the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development of these species. The objective of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes during the development of male and female flowers of the monoecious species Quercus suber, an economically important Mediterranean tree. Total RNA was extracted from different developmental stages of Q. suber flowers. Non-normalized cDNA libraries of male and female flowers were generated using 454 pyrosequencing technology producing a total of 962,172 high-quality reads with an average length of 264 nucleotides. The assembly of the reads resulted in 14,488 contigs for female libraries and 10,438 contigs for male libraries. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed genes differentially expressed in early and late stages of development of female and male flowers, some of which have been shown to be involved in pollen development, in ovule formation and in flower development of other species with a monoecious, dioecious, or hermaphroditic sexual system. Moreover, we found differentially expressed genes that have not yet been characterized and others that have not been previously shown to be implicated in flower development. This transcriptomic analysis constitutes a major step toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in flower development in a monoecious tree with a potential contribution toward the knowledge of conserved developmental mechanisms in other species.

  6. Influence of host species on ectomycorrhizal communities associated with two co-occurring oaks (Quercus spp.) in a tropical cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melissa H; Pérez-Pérez, Miguel A; Smith, Matthew E; Bledsoe, Caroline S

    2009-08-01

    Interactions between host tree species and ectomycorrhizal fungi are important in structuring ectomycorrhizal communities, but there are only a few studies on host influence of congeneric trees. We investigated ectomycorrhizal community assemblages on roots of deciduous Quercus crassifolia and evergreen Quercus laurina in a tropical montane cloud forest, one of the most endangered tropical forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by sequencing internal transcribed spacer and partial 28S rRNA gene. We sampled 80 soil cores and documented high ectomycorrhizal diversity with a total of 154 taxa. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that oak host was significant in explaining some of the variation in ectomycorrhizal communities, despite the fact that the two Quercus species belong to the same red oak lineage (section Lobatae). A Tuber species, found in 23% of the soil cores, was the most frequent taxon. Similar to oak-dominated ectomycorrhizal communities in temperate forests, Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae and Sebacinales were diverse and dominant.

  7. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    PubMed

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations.

  8. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    PubMed

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations. PMID:16637699

  9. Antibacterial activity of a synthetic peptide that mimics the LPS binding domain of Indian mud crab, Scylla serrata anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (SsALF) also involved in the modulation of vaginal immune functions through NF-kB signaling.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sachin; Yedery, R D; Patgaonkar, M S; Selvaakumar, C; Reddy, K V R

    2011-01-01

    Recently the cDNA coding for anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) has been identified from the Indian mud crab, Scylla serrata and has been named S. serrata anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (SsALF). SsALF protein sequence demonstrated the presence of two highly conserved cystine residues between which the putative lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding domain is known to be located. In this study, we have designed and synthesized a 24 amino acid linear (lSsALF24) and a cyclic (cSsALF24) peptides based on this putative LPS binding domain and demonstrated the ability of these peptides to bind to LPS. The peptides were active against vaginal pathogens demonstrated by MIC, CFU and phagocytosis assays. cSsALF24 did not show toxicity to human vaginal epithelial cells (HeLa-S3), macrophages and rabbit erythrocytes even at high concentration (64.64 μM). Flow cytometry results demonstrated that cSsALF24 peptide suppressed LPS induced phagocytosis of FITC labeled E. coli. HeLa cells were stimulated with LPS (10 μg/ml) alone for 6 h or after two washings with PBS, treated for 1 h with cSsALF24 (64.64 μM). After washing, the cells were cultured for 24 h in fresh media. The spent media as well as cells were collected for the determination of cytokine/chemokine levels such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) interleukin-8 (IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-1α (IL-1α) using ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. Similar results were obtained with LPS stimulated cells treated with c/nSsALF24 or unstimulated cells treated with c/nSsALF24. The expression of cytokine/chemokines and mRNA's coding these proteins were unaffected in c/nSsALF24 treated cells. In contrast, in LPS stimulated cells, the expression levels of these molecules were up-regulated via the induction of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) levels. However, the expression of these pro-inflammatory markers was decreased in LPS stimulated cells following the treatment with cSsALF24, attributing anti

  10. Where the woodland ends: How edges affect landscape structure and physiological responses of Quercus agrifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Chant, Timothy Paul

    Forests and woodlands are integral parts of ecosystems across the globe, but they are threatened by a variety of factors, including urbanization and introduced forest pathogens. These two forces are fundamentally altering ecosystems, both by removing forest cover and reshaping landscapes. Comprehending how these two processes have changed forest ecosystems is an important step toward understanding how the affected systems will function in the future. I investigated the range of edge effects that result from disturbance brought about by forest pathogens and urbanization in two coastal oak woodlands in Marin County, California. Oak woodlands are a dynamic part of California's landscape, reacting to changes in their biotic and abiotic environments across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Sudden Oak Death, caused by the introduced forest pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, has led to widespread mortality of many tree species in California's oak woodlands. I investigated how the remaining trees respond to such rapid changes in canopy structure (Chapter 2), and my results revealed a forest canopy quick to respond to the new openings. Urbanization, another disturbance regime, operates on a longer time scale. Immediately following urban development, forest edges are strikingly linear, but both forest processes and homeowner actions likely work in concert to disrupt the straight edge (Chapter 3). Forest edges grew more sinuous within 14 years of the initial disturbance, and continued to do so for the remainder of the study, another 21 years. Individual Quercus agrifolia trees also respond to urban edges decades after disturbance (Chapter 4), and their reaction is reflected in declining stable carbon isotope values (delta13C). This change suggests trees may have increased their stomatal conductance in response to greater water availability, reduced their photosynthetic rate as a result of stress, or some combination of both. Edges have far reaching and long lasting effects

  11. Drought impact on Quercus pubescens Willd. isoprene emissions over the Mediterranean area: what future?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Anne; Boissard, Christophe; Ormeño, Elena; Lathière, Juliette; Guenet, Bertrand; Gauquelin, Thierry; Fernandez, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) released by plants mostly originate from their secondary metabolism. Their emissions are modulated, in terms of intensity and molecule diversity, by environmental conditions. Among BVOCs, isoprene has been especially studied due to its high emission fluxes and its contribution to tropospheric photochemistry, both in the gaseous and particulate phases. However, the way isoprene emissions are impacted by some abiotic factors, especially water stress, is still under debate. In a world facing climatic changes, global climate models expect air temperature and drought intensity to strengthen in the Mediterranean area by 2100. Our work focuses on the impact of water stress on isoprene emissions (ERiso) from Quercus pubescens Willd. This species covers large areas of the Mediterranean area where it appears to be the main isoprene emitter. An in situ experimentation was performed at the O3HP (Oak Observatory at OHP, southern France) in a pubescent oak forest with trees adapted to long lasting stress periods. We investigated during a whole seasonal cycle (from June 2012 to June 2013) the course of ERiso under both natural water stress (control treatment: C) and intensified water stress (stress treatment: S) by artificially reducing rain by 30% using a specific rain exclusion device. Restricted rain did not modify either the net CO2 assimilation or ERiso during the whole season. However, isoprene emission factors (Is) for trees under S were significantly higher (a factor of ˜ 2) than for trees growing under C in August (137.8 compared to 75.3 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively) and September (75.3 compared to 40.2 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively). Based on our experimental emission database, an appropriate isoprene emission algorithm (GZ2014) was developed using a statistic approach (an artificial neural network). Using ambient and edaphic environmental parameters integrated over up to 3 weeks, GZ2014 was found to represent more than 80% of

  12. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Quercus coccifera exhibit interacting responses to light and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, M.; Lhoutellier, L.

    2011-06-01

    Light and temperature are known to be the most important environmental factors controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants, but little is known about their interdependencies especially for BVOCs other than isoprene. We studied light responses at different temperatures and temperature responses at different light levels of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence on Quercus coccifera, an evergreen oak widespread in Mediterranean shrublands. More than 50 BVOCs were detected in the emissions from Q. coccifera leaves most of them being isoprenoids plus a few green leaf volatiles (GLVs). Under standard conditions non-oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-hc) accounted for about 90 % of the total BVOC release (mean ± SD: 738 ± 378 ng m-2 projected leaf area s-1 or 13.1 ± 6.9 μg g-1 leaf dry weight h-1) and oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-ox) and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) accounted for the rest in about equal proportions. Except GLVs, emissions of all BVOCs responded positively to light and temperature. The light responses of MT and SQT emissions resembled that of CO2-assimilation and were little influenced by the assay temperature: at high assay temperature, MT-hc emissions saturated at lower light levels than at standard assay temperature and tended even to decrease in the highest light range. The emission responses to temperature showed mostly Arrhenius-type response curves, whose shapes in the high temperature range were clearly affected by the assay light level and were markedly different between isoprenoid classes: at non-saturating light, all isoprenoids showed a similar temperature optimum (~43 °C), but, at higher temperatures, MT-hc emissions decreased faster than MT-ox and SQT emissions. At saturating light, MT-hc emissions peaked already around 37 °C and rapidly dropped at higher temperatures, whereas MT-ox and SQT emissions strongly increased between 40 and 50 °C accompanied by a burst of GLVs. In all experiments

  13. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Quercus coccifera exhibit interacting responses to light and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, M.; Lhoutellier, L.

    2011-09-01

    Light and temperature are known to be the most important environmental factors controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants, but little is known about their interdependencies especially for BVOCs other than isoprene. We studied light responses at different temperatures and temperature responses at different light levels of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence on Quercus coccifera, an evergreen oak widespread in Mediterranean shrublands. More than 50 BVOCs were detected in the emissions from Q. coccifera leaves most of them being isoprenoids plus a few green leaf volatiles (GLVs). Under standard conditions non-oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-hc) accounted for about 90% of the total BVOC release (mean ± SD: 738 ± 378 ng m-2 projected leaf area s-1 or 13.1 ± 6.9 μg g-1 leaf dry weight h-1) and oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-ox) and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) accounted for the rest in about equal proportions. Except GLVs, emissions of all BVOCs responded positively to light and temperature. The light responses of MT and SQT emissions resembled that of CO2-assimilation and were little influenced by the assay temperature: at high assay temperature, MT-hc emissions saturated at lower light levels than at standard assay temperature and tended even to decrease in the highest light range. The emission responses to temperature showed mostly Arrhenius-type response curves, whose shapes in the high temperature range were clearly affected by the assay light level and were markedly different between isoprenoid classes: at non-saturating light, all isoprenoids showed a similar temperature optimum (~43 °C), but, at higher temperatures, MT-hc emissions decreased faster than MT-ox and SQT emissions. At saturating light, MT-hc emissions peaked around 37 °C and rapidly dropped at higher temperatures, whereas MT-ox and SQT emissions strongly increased between 40 and 50 °C accompanied by a burst of GLVs. In all experiments

  14. Physiological Responses to Prolonged Drought Differ Among Three Oak (Quercus) Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. E.; Moore, G. W.; Vogel, J. G.; Muir, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The physiological response of plants to water stress provides insights into which species may survive in exceptional drought conditions. This study conducted on a remnant post oak savanna site in College Station, Texas, examined how drought affected the physiology of three native oak species. In June 2014, after a period of equal watering, we subjected three year old Quercus shumardii (Shumard oak; SO), Q. virginiana (live oak; LO), and Q. macrocarpa (bur oak; BO) saplings to one of two watering treatments: 1) watered, receiving the equivalent of theaverage precipitation rate and 2) droughted, receiving a 100% reduction in precipitation. We measured predawn (ΨPD) and midday (ΨMD) leaf water potential; midday gas exchange (MGE) parameters including photosynthesis (Al), transpiration (T), stomatal conductance (gsw); and leaf soluble (SS) and non-soluble sugar (NSS) concentrations monthly between June and October 2014. Drought stress responses were evident after only one month of induced drought. Droughted saplings showed reduced ΨPD, ΨMD, and MGE (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison to watered saplings of the same species. LO saplings exhibited greater MGE (P ≤ 0.05) while maintaining similar LWP to their respective watered and droughted BO and SO counterparts. Droughted LO exhibited MGE rates similar to those of watered BO and SO (P ≤ 0.05), while watered LO adjusted its MGE rates to changes in water availability better than BO and LO during short-term drought. Compared to water saplings, droughted saplings had greater leaf SS (P = 0.08) and lower NSS concentrations (P = 0.10), possibly due to the conversion of NSS to SS and other simple compounds and reduced consumption of SS for growth by the droughted saplings. Although SO and BO exhibited similar photosynthesis rates, leaf total sugar (SS+NSS) concentration was greater in SO (P ≤ 0.05). By displaying the greatest average photosynthesis rate (P ≤ 0.05), LO should have accumulated the greatest amount of carbon

  15. Xylem hydraulic adjustment and growth response of Quercus canariensis Willd. to climatic variability.

    PubMed

    Gea-Izquierdo, G; Fonti, P; Cherubini, P; Martín-Benito, D; Chaar, H; Cañellas, I

    2012-04-01

    Global change challenges forest adaptability at the distributional limit of species. We studied ring-porous Quercus canariensis Willd. xylem traits to analyze how they adjust to spatio-temporal variability in climate. Trees were sampled along altitudinal transects, and annual time series of radial growth (ring width (RW)) and several earlywood vessel (EV) traits were built to analyze their relationships with climate. The trees responded to increasing water constraints with decreasing altitude and changes in climate in the short term but the analyses showed that xylem did not acclimate in response to long-term temperature increase during the past 30 years. The plants' adjustment to climate variability was expressed in a different but complementary manner by the different xylem traits. At low elevations, trees exhibited higher correlations with water stress indices and trees acclimated to more xeric conditions at low elevations by reducing radial growth and hydraulic diameter (D(H)) but increasing the density of vessels (DV). Average potential conductivity (K(H)) was similar for trees at different altitudes. However, inter-tree differences in xylem traits were higher than those between altitudes, suggesting a strong influence of individual genetic features or micro-site conditions. Trees exhibited higher RW those years with larger D(H) and particularly the linear density of vessels (DV(l)), but partly, climatic signals expressed in RW differed from those in EVs. Trees produced larger D(H) after cold winters and wet years. Ring width responded positively to wet and cool weather in fall and spring, whereas the response to climate of DV and K(H) was generally opposite to that of RW. These relationships likely expressed the negative impact of high respiration rates in winter on the carbon pools used to produce the EVs in the next spring and the overall positive influence of water availability for trees. Our results showed that trees at different sites were able to adjust

  16. Reduced translocation of current photosynthate precedes changes in gas exchange for Quercus rubra seedlings under flooding stress.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Joshua L; Islam, M Anisul; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2016-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings are frequently planted on suboptimal sites in their native range in North America, subjecting them to environmental stresses, such as flooding, for which they may not be well adapted. Members of the genus Quercus exhibit a wide range of responses to flooding, and responses of northern red oak to flooding remain inadequately described. To better understand the physiological effects of root system inundation in post-transplant northern red oak seedlings and the effects of flooding on endogenous patterns of resource allocation within the plant, we observed the effects of short-term flooding initiated at the linear shoot growth stage on net photosynthetic rates, dark respiration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate. Downward translocation of current photosynthate declined after 4 days of flooding and was the first measured physiological response to flooding; net photosynthetic rates decreased and dark respiration rates increased after 7 days of flooding. Short-term flooding did not affect maximal potential efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The finding that decreased downward translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate preceded reduced net photosynthesis and increased dark respiration during flooding suggests the occurrence of sink-limited photosynthesis under these conditions.

  17. Determinants of the N content of Quercus wutaishanica leaves in the Loess Plateau: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Xing, Kaixiong; Kang, Muyi; Chen, Han Y H; Zhao, Mingfei; Wang, Yuhang; Wang, Guoyi; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yang; Dong, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    Most terrestrial ecosystems are nitrogen (N)-limited. The elucidation of the multivariate relationships among environmental drivers, leaf morphological traits, and foliar N of dominant species which are critical to the functioning of forests remains a critical challenge for ecologists. We sampled leaves of Quercus wutaishanica across a broad natural gradient in the Loess Plateau, China, and employed structural equation modelling to evaluate the causal pathways and the relative importance of drivers of the foliar N per unit area (Narea) and per unit mass (Nmass). We found that (1) Nmass and Narea were primarily affected by leaf morphological traits instead of environmental variables and that leaf morphological traits accounted for most of their variations; (2) the total soil potassium and phosphorus and mean annual precipitation had different effects on Nmass and Narea via different pathways and path coefficients, whereas the mean annual temperature and total soil N had non-significant effects on Nmass and Narea. Our results demonstrated that variations in Nmass and Narea within Quercus wutaishanica were strongly linked to their leaf morphological traits and that the leaf N was also influenced by mean annual precipitation and soil phosphorus and potassium instead of soil N in the Loess Plateau, China. PMID:27228948

  18. Determinants of the N content of Quercus wutaishanica leaves in the Loess Plateau: a structural equation modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Kaixiong; Kang, Muyi; Chen, Han Y. H.; Zhao, Mingfei; Wang, Yuhang; Wang, Guoyi; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yang; Dong, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    Most terrestrial ecosystems are nitrogen (N)-limited. The elucidation of the multivariate relationships among environmental drivers, leaf morphological traits, and foliar N of dominant species which are critical to the functioning of forests remains a critical challenge for ecologists. We sampled leaves of Quercus wutaishanica across a broad natural gradient in the Loess Plateau, China, and employed structural equation modelling to evaluate the causal pathways and the relative importance of drivers of the foliar N per unit area (Narea) and per unit mass (Nmass). We found that (1) Nmass and Narea were primarily affected by leaf morphological traits instead of environmental variables and that leaf morphological traits accounted for most of their variations; (2) the total soil potassium and phosphorus and mean annual precipitation had different effects on Nmass and Narea via different pathways and path coefficients, whereas the mean annual temperature and total soil N had non-significant effects on Nmass and Narea. Our results demonstrated that variations in Nmass and Narea within Quercus wutaishanica were strongly linked to their leaf morphological traits and that the leaf N was also influenced by mean annual precipitation and soil phosphorus and potassium instead of soil N in the Loess Plateau, China. PMID:27228948

  19. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Noraisah Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg) served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P < 0.05) by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec). Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min), the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA) of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity. PMID:25254062

  20. Diversity and specificity of ectomycorrhizal fungi retrieved from an old-growth Mediterranean forest dominated by Quercus ilex.

    PubMed

    Richard, F; Millot, S; Gardes, M; Selosse, M-A

    2005-06-01

    We analysed the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal diversity in a Mediterranean old-growth Quercus ilex forest stand from Corsica (France), where Arbutus unedo was the only other ECM host. On a 6400 m2 stand, we investigated whether oak age and host species shaped below-ground ECM diversity. Ectomycorrhizas were collected under Q. ilex individuals of various ages (1 yr seedlings; 3-10 yr saplings; old trees) and A. unedo. They were typed by ITS-RFLP analysis and identified by match to RFLP patterns of fruitbodies, or by sequencing. A diversity of 140 taxa was found among 558 ectomycorrhizas, with many rare taxa. Cenococcum geophilum dominated (35% of ECMs), as well as Russulaceae, Cortinariaceae and Thelephoraceae. Fungal species richness was comparable above and below ground, but the two levels exhibited < 20% overlap in fungal species composition. Quercus ilex age did not strongly shape ECM diversity. The two ECM hosts, A. unedo and Q. ilex, tended to share few ECM species (< 15% of the ECM diversity). Implications for oak forest dynamics are discussed. PMID:15869659

  1. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of bud development as related to climate in two coexisting Mediterranean Quercus species

    PubMed Central

    Alla, Arben Q.; Camarero, J. Julio; Montserrat-Martí, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In trees, bud development is driven by endogenous and exogenous factors such as species and climate, respectively. However, knowledge is scarce on how these factors drive changes in bud size across different time scales. Methods The seasonal patterns of apical bud enlargement are related to primary and secondary growth in two coexisting Mediterranean oaks with contrasting leaf habit (Quercus ilex, evergreen; Quercus faginea, deciduous) over three years. In addition, the climatic factors driving changes in bud size of the two oak species were determined by correlating bud mass with climatic variables at different time scales (from 5 to 30 d) over a 15-year period. Key Results The maximum enlargement rate of buds was reached between late July and mid-August in both species. Moreover, apical bud size increased with minimum air temperatures during the period of maximum bud enlargement rates. Conclusions The forecasted rising minimum air temperatures predicted by climatic models may affect bud size and consequently alter crown architecture differentially in sympatric Mediterranean oaks. However, the involvement of several drivers controlling the final size of buds makes it difficult to predict the changes in bud size as related to ongoing climate warming. PMID:23179859

  2. Determinants of the N content of Quercus wutaishanica leaves in the Loess Plateau: a structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Xing, Kaixiong; Kang, Muyi; Chen, Han Y H; Zhao, Mingfei; Wang, Yuhang; Wang, Guoyi; Chen, Chen; Liu, Yang; Dong, Xiaobin

    2016-05-27

    Most terrestrial ecosystems are nitrogen (N)-limited. The elucidation of the multivariate relationships among environmental drivers, leaf morphological traits, and foliar N of dominant species which are critical to the functioning of forests remains a critical challenge for ecologists. We sampled leaves of Quercus wutaishanica across a broad natural gradient in the Loess Plateau, China, and employed structural equation modelling to evaluate the causal pathways and the relative importance of drivers of the foliar N per unit area (Narea) and per unit mass (Nmass). We found that (1) Nmass and Narea were primarily affected by leaf morphological traits instead of environmental variables and that leaf morphological traits accounted for most of their variations; (2) the total soil potassium and phosphorus and mean annual precipitation had different effects on Nmass and Narea via different pathways and path coefficients, whereas the mean annual temperature and total soil N had non-significant effects on Nmass and Narea. Our results demonstrated that variations in Nmass and Narea within Quercus wutaishanica were strongly linked to their leaf morphological traits and that the leaf N was also influenced by mean annual precipitation and soil phosphorus and potassium instead of soil N in the Loess Plateau, China.

  3. Tree-ring growth and wood chemistry response to manipulated precipitation variation for two temperate Quercus species

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Rebekah J.; Kaye, Margot W.; Abrams, Marc D.; Hanson, Paul J; Martin, Madhavi Z

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship among ambient and manipulated precipitation, wood chemistry, and their relationship with radial growth for two oak species in eastern Tennessee. The study took place on the Walker Branch Throughfall Displacement Experiment (TDE) site, located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, TN. Two dominant species, white oak (Quercus alba) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), were selected for study from a 13-year experiment of whole-stand precipitation manipulation (wet, ambient and dry). The relationships between tree-ring width and climate were compared for both species to determine the impact of precipitation manipulations on ring width index. This study used experimental spectroscopy techniques to measure the sensitivity of tree-ring responses to directional changes in precipitation over 13 years, and the results suggest that oaks at this study site are resilient to imposed changes, but sensitive to inter-annual variations in climate. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) allowed us to measure nutrient intensities (similar to element concentrations) at 0.5-1.0 mm spacing along the radial growth axis of trees growing in the wet, ambient, and dry treatment sites. A difference in stemwood nutrient levels was observed between the two oak species and among the three treatments. Significant variation in element intensity was observed across treatments for some elements (Ca, K, Mg, Na, N and P) suggesting the potential for long-term impacts on growth under a changing climate regimes for southeastern oaks.

  4. Frequent cytoplasmic exchanges between oak species that are not closely related: Quercus suber and Q. ilex in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Belahbib, N; Pemonge, M H; Ouassou, A; Sbay, H; Kremer, A; Petit, R J

    2001-08-01

    Chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation were studied in 97 populations of cork oak (Quercus suber) in Morocco; in 31 of these populations, holm oak (Quercus ilex), a clearly distinct species, also occurred and was compared with Q. suber. Three cpDNA and one mtDNA primer pairs were used in the survey, each in combination with one restriction enzyme. Six haplotypes belonging to two very divergent lineages were detected; one lineage predominates in each species, and is probably ancestral, as inferred from comparisons with other oak species. In the mixed-species populations, cytoplasmic genomes were frequently shared across species, as indicated by an introgression ratio of 0.63. This index is a new measure of the propensity of species to share locally genetic markers, varying from zero (complete differentiation) to one (no differentiation). By contrast, more closely related deciduous oak species (Q. robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens) have introgression ratios varying from 0.82 to 0.97. The introgression events appear to have been more frequent in the direction Q. ilex (female) x Q. suber (male), a finding which seems attributable to the flowering phenology of these two species. This asymmetry may have favoured immigration of Q. suber beyond its main range, in regions already colonized by Q. ilex. There, rare hybridization and further introgression through long distance pollen flow have established populations that are morphologically indistinguishable from Q. suber but that have cytoplasmic genomes originating from the local Q. ilex populations.

  5. The Ethanol Extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. Regresses Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Tzeng, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Jou; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Liu, I-Min

    2015-10-21

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized as fat accumulation in the hepatic tissue associated with various degrees of inflammation and progressive fibrosis. The potent anti-inflammatory and ethnopharmacological properties of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) make it an excellent source of novel medicinal targets for the treatment of NASH. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of L. japonica ethanol extract (LJEE) on NASH in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCDD) for eight weeks to promote the development of NASH. After development of the model, the mice were administered LJEE once daily via oral gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg for another four weeks. Simultaneous treatments with LJEE (300 mg/kg/day) resulted in pronounced improvements in liver steatosis, ballooning degeneration, and inflammation. LJEE prevented MCDD-induced plasma level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. LJEE significantly reduced hepatic malondialdehyde level and ameliorated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in MCDD-fed mice, which were associated with down-regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 suppression of multiple proinflammatory and profibrotic genes. LJEE can prevent hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic peroxisome acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 expression, as well as by inducing proliferator-activated receptor α expression. In addition, the LJEE treatments caused significant reduction in the phosphorylated form of Jun N-terminal kinase along with an increase in the phosphorylated level of extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Our study demonstrated the protective role of LJEE in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis.

  6. Lonicera japonica THUNB. Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing NF-κB Signaling in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Hong, Sa-Ik; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2015-07-01

    In the current study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of Lonicera japonica THUNB. (LJ) and its underlying molecular mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Our results indicated that LJ significantly inhibits LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In addition, LJ inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at both the protein and mRNA levels. In LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells, LJ inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) enzymatic activities, and/or mRNA expression, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. LJ significantly suppressed activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, LJ significantly inhibited phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1/3. Collectively, our findings indicated that the antineuroinflammatory properties of LJ in LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells is due to downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines downstream of inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  7. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of eight components in rat plasma by UHPLC-MS/MS after oral administration of Hypericum japonicum Thunb extract.

    PubMed

    Pang, Qian; Tian, Yuanyuan; Mi, Jianping; Wang, Jin; Xu, Yuanjin

    2016-01-25

    A rapid and sensitive assay based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, isoquercitrin, vincetoxicoside B and quercetin in rat plasma using catechin and daidzein as the internal standards (IS). Plasma samples added internal standards were acidified with formic acid then pretreated by direct protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The separation of eight constituents was achieved on a C18 column with gradient elution using methanol and 0.2% acetic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase and detected by multiple reaction monitoring using electrospray ionization source in the positive-negative ionization mode. The method was validated for sufficient specificity, precision, accuracy, and sensitivity over the concentration range of 10-6000 ng mL(-1) for gallic acid, 1.5-3000 ng mL(-1) for protocatechuic acid, 10-15000 ng mL(-1) for vanillic acid, 2-3600 ng mL(-1) for caffeic acid, 1.5-3600 ng mL(-1) for epicatechin, 4-6000 ng mL(-1) for isoquercitrin, 2-9000 ng mL(-1) for vincetoxicoside B, and 20-18000 ng mL(-1) for quercetin. The overall intra‑run precision and the inter‑run precision were showed in the range of 1.0-14.2% and 2.8-12.9%, respectively, and the accuracy was no more than 12.8%. This analytical method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of eight ingredients in rats after oral administration of Hypericum japonicum Thunb extract.

  8. The Ethanol Extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. Regresses Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Tzeng, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Jou; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Liu, I-Min

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized as fat accumulation in the hepatic tissue associated with various degrees of inflammation and progressive fibrosis. The potent anti-inflammatory and ethnopharmacological properties of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) make it an excellent source of novel medicinal targets for the treatment of NASH. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of L. japonica ethanol extract (LJEE) on NASH in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCDD) for eight weeks to promote the development of NASH. After development of the model, the mice were administered LJEE once daily via oral gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg for another four weeks. Simultaneous treatments with LJEE (300 mg/kg/day) resulted in pronounced improvements in liver steatosis, ballooning degeneration, and inflammation. LJEE prevented MCDD-induced plasma level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. LJEE significantly reduced hepatic malondialdehyde level and ameliorated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in MCDD-fed mice, which were associated with down-regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 suppression of multiple proinflammatory and profibrotic genes. LJEE can prevent hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic peroxisome acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 expression, as well as by inducing proliferator-activated receptor α expression. In addition, the LJEE treatments caused significant reduction in the phosphorylated form of Jun N-terminal kinase along with an increase in the phosphorylated level of extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Our study demonstrated the protective role of LJEE in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. PMID:26506376

  9. Transcriptome Analysis of Buds and Leaves Using 454 Pyrosequencing to Discover Genes Associated with the Biosynthesis of Active Ingredients in Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Li, Chunfang; Zhu, Yingjie; Yan, Haixia; Sun, Zhiying; Sun, Chao; Song, Jingyuan; Bi, Yu’an; Shen, Juan; Cheng, Ruiyang; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Shilin

    2013-01-01

    Background Lonicera japonica Thunb. is a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and antiviral pharmacological properties. The major active secondary metabolites of this plant are chlorogenic acid (CGA) and luteoloside. While the biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites are relatively well known, the genetic information available for this species, especially the biosynthetic pathways of its active ingredients, is limited. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained one million reads (average length of 400 bp) in a whole sequence run using a Roche/454 GS FLX titanium platform. Altogether, 85.69% of the unigenes covering the entire life cycle of the plant were annotated and 325 unigenes were assigned to secondary metabolic pathways. Moreover, 2039 unigenes were predicted as transcription factors. Nearly all of the possible enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of CGA and luteoloside were discovered in L. japonica. Three hydroxycinnamoyl transferase genes, including two hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase genes and one hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) gene featuring high similarity to known genes from other species, were cloned. The HCT gene was discovered for the first time in L. japonica. In addition, 188 candidate cytochrome P450 unigenes and 245 glycosyltransferase unigenes were found in the expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset. Conclusion This study provides a high quality EST database for L. japonica by 454 pyrosequencing. Based on the EST annotation, a set of putative genes involved in CGA and luteoloside biosynthetic pathways were discovered. The database serves as an important source of public information on genetic markers, gene expression, genomics, and functional genomics in L. japonica. PMID:23638167

  10. Ethanolic extract of fermented Thunb induces human leukemic HL-60 and Molt-4 cell apoptosis via oxidative stress and a mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2011-01-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is a medicinal plant of the Saururaceae family which features antimutagenic and antiviral properties. For extraction, the whole plants were fermented or non-fermented with yeast and ethanol then the whole plants were dried, ground and extracted with 95% ethanol or water. The aims of this study were to compare cytotoxic effects, apoptosis induction, and mechanism(s) with the ethanolic and water extracts of fermented and non-fermented HCT. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the MTT assay in human leukemic HL-60, Molt-4 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Apoptotic death was characterized by staining with propidium iodide and examined under a fluorescence microscope. Peroxide radical production and reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were determined using 2',7'-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of caspase-9 was identified by immunoblotting. The ethanolic extract of fermented HCT was cytotoxic to HL-60 >Molt- 4 > PBMCs, to a greater extent than the non-fermented preparation and the number of apoptotic cells was higher. The alcoholic (fermented) extract produced more radicals than the non-fermented in HL-60 cells but the converse was observed in Molt-4 cells. Reduction of MTP was found in HL-60 and Molt-4 cells treated with the alcoholic (fermented) extract and caspase-9 was cleaved dose-dependently in both cells. In conclusion, the alcoholic extract of fermented HCT was more toxic to human leukemic cells than the non-fermented and both cell lines underwent apoptosis via oxidative stress and a mitochondrial pathway. PMID:22393956

  11. Houttuynia cordata Thunb inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through inhibition of the NFκB signaling pathway in HMC-1 human mast cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Joe; Seo, Hye-Sook; Kim, Gyung-Jun; Jeon, Chan Yong; Park, Jong Hyeong; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Park, Sun-Ju; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2013-09-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb (HCT) is widely used in oriental medicine as a remedy for inflammation. However, at present there is no explanation for the mechanism by which HCT affects the production of inflammatory cytokines. The current study aimed to determine the effect of an essence extracted from HCT on mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. Inflammatory cytokine production induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus a calcium ionophore, A23187, was measured in the human mast cell line, HMC-1, incubated with various concentrations of HCT. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 secreted protein levels were measured using an ELISA assay. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels were measured using RT-PCR analysis. Nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins were examined by western blot analysis. The NF-κB promoter activity was examined by luciferase assay. It was observed that HCT inhibited PMA plus A23187-induced TNF-α and IL-6 secretion and reduced the mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8. It was also noted that HCT suppressed the induction of NF-κB activity, inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and blocked the phosphorylation of IκBα in stimulated HMC-1 cells. It was concluded that HCT is an inhibitor of NF-κB and cytokines blocking mast cell-mediated inflammatory responses. These results indicate that HCT may be used for the treatment of mast cell-derived allergic inflammatory diseases. PMID:23846481

  12. Antifungal activity and fungal metabolism of steroidal glycosides of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) by the plant pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    Botrytis cinerea Pers. Fr. is a plant pathogenic fungus and the causal organism of blossom blight of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.). Easter lily is a rich source of steroidal glycosides, compounds which may play a role in the plant-pathogen interaction of Easter lily. Five steroidal glycosides, including two steroidal glycoalkaloids and three furostanol saponins, were isolated from L. longiflorum and evaluated for fungal growth inhibition activity against B. cinerea, using an in vitro plate assay. All of the compounds showed fungal growth inhibition activity; however, the natural acetylation of C-6''' of the terminal glucose in the steroidal glycoalkaloid, (22R,25R)-spirosol-5-en-3β-yl O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[6-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), increased antifungal activity by inhibiting the rate of metabolism of the compound by B. cinerea. Acetylation of the glycoalkaloid may be a plant defense response to the evolution of detoxifying mechanisms by the pathogen. The biotransformation of the steroidal glycoalkaloids by B. cinerea led to the isolation and characterization of several fungal metabolites. The fungal metabolites that were generated in the model system were also identified in Easter lily tissues infected with the fungus by LC-MS. In addition, a steroidal glycoalkaloid, (22R,25R)-spirosol-5-en-3β-yl O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), was identified as both a fungal metabolite of the steroidal glycoalkaloids and as a natural product in L. longiflorum for the first time.

  13. The Ethanol Extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb. Regresses Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Tzeng, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Jou; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Liu, I-Min

    2015-10-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized as fat accumulation in the hepatic tissue associated with various degrees of inflammation and progressive fibrosis. The potent anti-inflammatory and ethnopharmacological properties of Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae) make it an excellent source of novel medicinal targets for the treatment of NASH. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of L. japonica ethanol extract (LJEE) on NASH in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed with methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCDD) for eight weeks to promote the development of NASH. After development of the model, the mice were administered LJEE once daily via oral gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg for another four weeks. Simultaneous treatments with LJEE (300 mg/kg/day) resulted in pronounced improvements in liver steatosis, ballooning degeneration, and inflammation. LJEE prevented MCDD-induced plasma level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. LJEE significantly reduced hepatic malondialdehyde level and ameliorated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in MCDD-fed mice, which were associated with down-regulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 suppression of multiple proinflammatory and profibrotic genes. LJEE can prevent hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic peroxisome acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 expression, as well as by inducing proliferator-activated receptor α expression. In addition, the LJEE treatments caused significant reduction in the phosphorylated form of Jun N-terminal kinase along with an increase in the phosphorylated level of extra cellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Our study demonstrated the protective role of LJEE in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. PMID:26506376

  14. Lonicera japonica THUNB. Extract Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Inflammatory Responses by Suppressing NF-κB Signaling in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Hong, Sa-Ik; Lee, Seok-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the current study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of Lonicera japonica THUNB. (LJ) and its underlying molecular mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Our results indicated that LJ significantly inhibits LPS-stimulated production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In addition, LJ inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at both the protein and mRNA levels. In LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells, LJ inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) enzymatic activities, and/or mRNA expression, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. LJ significantly suppressed activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus and suppressed the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Furthermore, LJ significantly inhibited phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt, and Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1/3. Collectively, our findings indicated that the antineuroinflammatory properties of LJ in LPS-induced BV-2 microglial cells is due to downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines downstream of inhibition of NF-κB activation. PMID:25897683

  15. Houttuynia cordata Thunb. volatile oil exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and inhibited nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in LPS-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Fan, Ting; Zhang, Yanmin; Fan, Te; Zhou, Ping; Niu, Xiaofeng; He, Langchong

    2013-11-01

    Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (HC) is a medicinal herb that generally used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating allergic inflammation. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of the volatile oil from HC Thunb. on animal models of inflammation and the production of inflammatory mediators in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, xylene-induced mouse ear edema, formaldehyde-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced mice paw edema were significantly decreased by HC volatile oil. HC volatile oil showed pronounced inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and malondialdehyde production in the edematous exudates. In vitro exposure of mouse resident peritoneal macrophages to 1, 10, 100 and 1000 µg/mL of HC volatile oil significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of NO and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to HC volatile oil had no effect on cell viability and systemic toxicity. Furthermore, HC volatile oil inhibited the production of NO and TNF-α by down-regulating LPS-stimulated iNOS and TNF-α mRNA expression. Western blot analysis showed that HC volatile oil attenuated LPS-stimulated synthesis of iNOS and TNF-α protein in the macrophages, in parallel. These findings add a novel aspect to the biological profile of HC and clarify its anti-inflammatory mechanism. PMID:23280586

  16. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of differentially expressed genes in Quercus suber in response to Phytophthora cinnamomi infection.

    PubMed

    Ebadzad, Ghazal; Cravador, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    cDNA-AFLP methodology was used to gain insight into gene fragments differentially present in the mRNA profiles of Quercus suber roots infected with zoospores of Phytophthora cinnamomi at different post challenge time points. Fifty-three transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified and sequenced. Six candidate genes were selected based on their expression patterns and homology to genes known to play a role in defence. They encode a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase2 (QsCAD2), a protein disulphide isomerase (QsPDI), a CC-NBS-LRR resistance protein (QsRPc), a thaumatin-like protein (QsTLP), a chitinase (QsCHI) and a 1,3-β-glucanase (QsGlu). Evaluation of the expression of these genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that transcript levels of QsRPc, QsCHI, QsCAD2 and QsPDI increased during the first 24 h post-inoculation, while those of thaumatin-like protein decreased. No differential expression was observed for 1,3-β-glucanase (QsGlu). Four candidate reference genes, polymerase II (QsRPII), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (QsEIF-5A), β-tubulin (QsTUB) and a medium subunit family protein of clathrin adaptor complexes (QsCACs) were assessed to determine the most stable internal references for qRT-PCR normalization in the Phytophthora-Q. suber pathosystem in root tissues. Those found to be more stable, QsRPII and QsCACs, were used as internal reference in the present work. Knowledge on the Quercus defence mechanisms against biotic stress is scarce. This study provides an insight into the gene profiling of a few important genes of Q. suber in response to P. cinnamomi infection contributing to the knowledge of the molecular interactions involving Quercus and root pathogens that can be useful in the future to understand the mechanisms underlying oak resistance to soil-borne oomycetes.

  17. Factors affecting stress tolerance in recalcitrant embryonic axes from seeds of four Quercus (Fagaceae) species native to the USA or China

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ke; Hill, Lisa M.; Li, De-Zhu; Walters, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Quercus species are often considered ‘foundation’ components of several temperate and/or subtropical forest ecosystems. However, the populations of some species are declining and there is considerable urgency to develop ex situ conservation strategies. In this study, the storage physiology of seeds within Quercus was explored in order to determine factors that affect survival during cryopreservation and to provide a quantitative assessment of seed recalcitrance to support future studies of this complex trait. Methods Water relations and survival of excised axes in response to water loss and cryo-exposure were compared for four Quercus species from subtropical China (Q. franchetii, Q. schottkyana) and temperate USA (Q. gambelii, Q. rubra). Key Results Seed tissues initially had high water contents and water potentials. Desiccation tolerance of the embryonic axis was not correlated with the post-shedding rainfall patterns where the samples originated. Instead, higher desiccation tolerance was observed in samples growing in areas with colder winters. Survival following cryo-exposure correlated with desiccation tolerance. Among species, plumule tissues were more sensitive than radicles to excision, desiccation and cryo-exposure, and this led to a higher proportion of abnormally developing embryos during recovery following stress. Conclusions Quercus species adapted to arid and semi-humid climates still produce recalcitrant seeds. The ability to avoid freezing rather than drought may be a more important selection factor to increase desiccation tolerance. Cryopreservation of recalcitrant germplasm from temperate species is currently feasible, whilst additional protective treatments are needed for ex situ conservation of Quercus from tropical and subtropical areas. PMID:25326139

  18. Exchangeable Cations in the Soils of Quercus Dominated Forests in Northeastern Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shuai; Bruckman, Viktor J.; Glatzel, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    In northeastern Austria there is a growing interest in increased utilisation of forest biomass for energy. This study focuses on soil properties and nutrient pool characteristics in deciduous forests in order to provide advice for forest management. We (i) quantified selected exchangeable cations in the soils of our study area and (ii) identified the effects of stand age, soil type, soil depth and soil pH on exchangeable cations and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Nine permanent Quercus petraea dominated plots on sandy, clayey cambisols and calcic chernozem were selected for our study. From each plot 18 soil samples were collected in a systematic grid by means of a soil corer with 70 mm diameter to a maximum depth of 60 cm. Soil pH, exchangeable mineral elements K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Al, and Fe were determined in five geometric soil horizons. Statistical analysis showed that (i) forest age did not influence the exchangeable K content of the sandy soils; (ii) the exchangeable K content decreased with increasing stand age in clayey cambisols; (iii) exchangeable K, Na and Mg were higher in calcic chernozems and clayey cambisols (iv) exchangeable Fe was significantly higher in sandy forest soils except in the 60-80 years old stand; (v) exchangeable Fe was below detection limit in calcic chernozem soils. A comparison of exchangeable cations revealed that (i) Ca is the key element of base cations (ii) the content of base cations is strongly significantly higher in calcic chernozem soils (iii) calcic chernozem soils have the highest CEC. CEC ranged from 38 to 190 μmol/g in the entire research area. Base cations, acid cations and CEC differ with soil depth as followed (i) in sandy and clayey cambisols, CEC had a minimum in 20 cm depth and then increased with soil depth to 50 cm; (ii) CEC decreased steadily with soil depth in calcic chernozems. As expected, CEC is significantly positively correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.661, P<0.01) with the pH of the soil. The

  19. Interactions of drought and shade effects on seedlings of four Quercus species: physiological and structural leaf responses.

    PubMed

    Quero, José Luis; Villar, Rafael; Marañón, Teodoro; Zamora, Regino

    2006-01-01

    Here, we investigated the physiological and structural leaf responses of seedlings of two evergreen and two deciduous Quercus species, grown in a glasshouse and subjected to contrasted conditions of light (low, medium and high irradiance) and water (continuous watering vs 2-months drought). The impact of drought on photosynthetic rate was strongest in high irradiance, while the impact of shade on photosynthetic rate was strongest with high water supply, contradicting the hypothesis of allocation trade-off. Multivariate causal models were evaluated using d-sep method. The model that best fitted the dataset proposed that the variation in specific leaf area affects photosynthetic rate and leaf nitrogen concentration, and this trait determines stomatal conductance, which also affects photosynthetic rate. Shade conditions seemed to ameliorate, or at least not aggravate, the drought impact on oak seedlings, therefore, the drought response on leaf performance depended on the light environment. PMID:16684241

  20. Molecular Characterization of Meloidogyne christiei Golden and Kaplan, 1986 (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae) Topotype Population Infecting Turkey Oak (Quercus laevies) in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Brito, J. A.; Subbotin, S. A.; Han, H.; Stanley, J. D.; Dickson, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Meloidogyne christiei isolated from turkey oak, Quercus laevies, from the type locality in Florida was characterized using isozyme profiles and ribosomal and mitochondrial gene sequences. The phenotype N1a detected from a single egg-laying female of M. christiei showed one very strong band of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity; however, no esterase (EST) activity was identified from macerate of one or even 20 females per well. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Meloidogyne as inferred from Bayesian analysis of partial 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), D2-D3 of 28S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA, and cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII)-16S rRNA of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene fragments showed that M. christiei formed a separate lineage within the crown group of Meloidogyne and its relationships with any of three Meloidogyne clades were not resolved. PMID:26527837

  1. Anthropogenic NOx emissions alter the intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi) for Quercus cerris stands under Mediterranean climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Rossella; Siegwolf, Rolf; Saurer, Matthias; Ripullone, Francesco; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Borghetti, Marco

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the effect of N deposition (Ndep) on intrinsic water-use efficiency (WUEi), the ratio of photosynthesis (A) to stomatal conductance (gs), for two Quercus cerris stands at different distances to an oil refinery in Southern Italy. We used delta13C in tree rings for assessing changes in WUEi; while the influence of climate and NOx emission was explored through delta18O and delta15N, respectively. Differences in WUEi between the two sites were significant, with trees exposed to different degrees of NOx emissions showing an abrupt increase with the onset of pollution. Assuming similar gs at the two sites, as inferred through delta18O, the higher N availability at the polluted site caused the shift of the A/gs ratio in favour of A. Overall, our result suggests that an increase of Ndep may enhance tree WUE under a scenario of reduction of precipitation predicted for Mediterranean area.

  2. Assessing the influence of drought on long-term growth and fructification in Quercus ilex through process-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, N. K.; Delpierre, N.; Dufrene, E.; Rambal, S.

    2010-12-01

    Water availability is the main factor limiting ecosystem productivity in Mediterranean ecosystems, and is expected to increase as a result of climate change in the Mediterranean region. Hence, understanding and anticipating the effect of water limitation on those ecosystems is of most importance for future generations. The Puechabon experimental site, located in southern France, is representative of typical Mediterranean forests, dominated by Quercus ilex. This site has been monitored at levels from leaf to ecosystem since 1984, including eddy correlation measurements since 1998 and a partial throughfall interception experiment since 2003. With this contribution, we focused on developing, calibrating and validating a process-based model (CASTANEA, Dufrêne et al., 2005) on the Puechabon site, for simulating the effect of the throughfall interception on stand gross (GPP) and net (NPP) primary productivity. Model developments at the seasonal scale included detailed representations of leaf demography and wood growth seasonal dynamics, based on detailed monitoring of leaf litter (26-year time series) and cambium dynamics (7-year time series), respectively. New biomass compartments (flowers and fruits) were developed and implemented to the original vegetative carbon module, and helped insuring a realistic representation of woody vegetative pools dynamics (as fructification can require on a given year up to 15% NPP) along the 26-year growth time series. Once improved, the model allowed us to assess the influence of water stress on leaf demography (positive covariation of leaf lifespan and drought duration) and on carbon allocation at tree level (negative covariation of leaf area with drought), based on a comparison between the control site (where the model was developed and validated) and the 6-year partial throughfall exclusion. Keywords: Quercus ilex, process-based modeling, net primary production, carbon allocation, fructification, throughfall exclusion

  3. Does Animal-Mediated Seed Dispersal Facilitate the Formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests. PMID:24587099

  4. Using common mycorrhizal networks for controlled inoculation of Quercus spp. with Tuber melanosporum: the nurse plant method.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Guillermo; Palfner, Götz; Chávez, Daniel; Suz, Laura M; Machuca, Angela; Honrubia, Mario

    2013-07-01

    The high cost and restricted availability of black truffle spore inoculum for controlled mycorrhiza formation of host trees produced for truffle orchards worldwide encourage the search for more efficient and sustainable inoculation methods that can be applied globally. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the nurse plant method for the controlled inoculation of Quercus cerris and Quercus robur with Tuber melanosporum by mycorrhizal networks in pot cultures. Pine bark compost, adjusted to pH 7.8 by liming, was used as substrate for all assays. Initially, Q. robur seedlings were inoculated with truffle spores and cultured for 12 months. After this period, the plants presenting 74 % mycorrhizal fine roots were transferred to larger containers. Nurse plants were used for two treatments of two different nursling species: five sterilized acorns or five 45-day-old, axenically grown Q. robur or Q. cerris seedlings, planted in containers around the nurse plant. After 6 months, colonized nursling plant root tips showed that mycorrhiza formation by T. melanosporum was higher than 45 % in the seedlings tested, with the most successful nursling combination being Q. cerris seedlings, reaching 81 % colonization. Bulk identification of T. melanosporum mycorrhizae was based on morphological and anatomical features and confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA of selected root tips. Our results show that the nurse plant method yields attractive rates of mycorrhiza formation by the Périgord black truffle and suggest that establishing and maintaining common mycorrhizal networks in pot cultures enables sustained use of the initial spore inoculum. PMID:23318650

  5. Influence of late Quaternary climate change on present patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata Née.

    PubMed

    Gugger, Paul F; Ikegami, Makihiko; Sork, Victoria L

    2013-07-01

    Phylogeography and ecological niche models (ENMs) suggest that late Quaternary glacial cycles have played a prominent role in shaping present population genetic structure and diversity, but have not applied quantitative methods to dissect the relative contribution of past and present climate vs. other forces. We integrate multilocus phylogeography, climate-based ENMs and multivariate statistical approaches to infer the effects of late Quaternary climate change on contemporary genetic variation of valley oak (Quercus lobata Née). ENMs indicated that valley oak maintained a stable distribution with local migration from the last interglacial period (~120 ka) to the Last Glacial Maximum (~21 ka, LGM) to the present compared with large-scale range shifts for an eastern North American white oak (Quercus alba L.). Coast Range and Sierra Nevada foothill populations diverged in the late Pleistocene before the LGM [104 ka (28-1622)] and have occupied somewhat distinct climate niches, according to ENMs and coalescent analyses of divergence time. In accordance with neutral expectations for stable populations, nuclear microsatellite diversity positively correlated with niche stability from the LGM to present. Most strikingly, nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite variation significantly correlated with LGM climate, even after controlling for associations with geographic location and present climate using partial redundancy analyses. Variance partitioning showed that LGM climate uniquely explains a similar proportion of genetic variance as present climate (16% vs. 11-18%), and together, past and present climate explains more than geography (19%). Climate can influence local expansion-contraction dynamics, flowering phenology and thus gene flow, and/or impose selective pressures. These results highlight the lingering effect of past climate on genetic variation in species with stable distributions.

  6. Using common mycorrhizal networks for controlled inoculation of Quercus spp. with Tuber melanosporum: the nurse plant method.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Guillermo; Palfner, Götz; Chávez, Daniel; Suz, Laura M; Machuca, Angela; Honrubia, Mario

    2013-07-01

    The high cost and restricted availability of black truffle spore inoculum for controlled mycorrhiza formation of host trees produced for truffle orchards worldwide encourage the search for more efficient and sustainable inoculation methods that can be applied globally. In this study, we evaluated the potential of the nurse plant method for the controlled inoculation of Quercus cerris and Quercus robur with Tuber melanosporum by mycorrhizal networks in pot cultures. Pine bark compost, adjusted to pH 7.8 by liming, was used as substrate for all assays. Initially, Q. robur seedlings were inoculated with truffle spores and cultured for 12 months. After this period, the plants presenting 74 % mycorrhizal fine roots were transferred to larger containers. Nurse plants were used for two treatments of two different nursling species: five sterilized acorns or five 45-day-old, axenically grown Q. robur or Q. cerris seedlings, planted in containers around the nurse plant. After 6 months, colonized nursling plant root tips showed that mycorrhiza formation by T. melanosporum was higher than 45 % in the seedlings tested, with the most successful nursling combination being Q. cerris seedlings, reaching 81 % colonization. Bulk identification of T. melanosporum mycorrhizae was based on morphological and anatomical features and confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA of selected root tips. Our results show that the nurse plant method yields attractive rates of mycorrhiza formation by the Périgord black truffle and suggest that establishing and maintaining common mycorrhizal networks in pot cultures enables sustained use of the initial spore inoculum.

  7. Physiological and proteomics analyses of Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota [Desf.] Samp.) responses to Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    PubMed

    Sghaier-Hammami, Besma; Valero-Galvàn, José; Romero-Rodríguez, M Cristina; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael Ma; Abdelly, Chedly; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús

    2013-10-01

    Phytophthora cinnamomi is one of the agents that trigger the decline syndrome in Quercus spp., this being a serious threat to Mediterranean Holm oak forest sustainability and reforestation programs. Quercus ilex responses to Phytophthora cinnamomi have been studied in one-year olds seedlings from two Andalucía provenances, assessing the physiological water status and photosynthesis-related parameters. Upon inoculation with mycelium a reduction in water content, chlorophyll fluorescence, stomatal conductance and gas exchange was observed along a 90 days post inoculation period in both provenances. The reduction was higher in the most susceptible (SSA) provenance, than in the most tolerant (PCO), being these typical plant responses to drought stress. Leaf protein profiles were analyzed in non-inoculated and inoculated seedlings from the two provenances by using a 2-DE coupled to MS proteomics strategy. Ninety seven proteins changing in abundance in response to the inoculation were successfully identified after MALDI-TOF-TOF analyses. The largest group of variable identified proteins were chloroplasts ones, and they were involved in the photosynthesis, Calvin cycle and carbohydrate metabolism. It was noted that a general tendency was a decrease in the protein abundance as a consequence of the inoculation, being it less accused in the least susceptible, the Northern provenance (PCO), than in the most susceptible, the Southern provenance (SSA). This trend is clearly manifested in photosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and stress/defence proteins. On the contrary, some proteins related to starch biosynthesis, glycolysis and stress related peroxiredoxin showed an increase upon inoculation. These changes in protein abundance were correlated to the estimated physiological parameters and have been frequently observed in plants subjected to drought stress.

  8. RNA-seq analysis of Quercus pubescens Leaves: de novo transcriptome assembly, annotation and functional markers development.

    PubMed

    Torre, Sara; Tattini, Massimiliano; Brunetti, Cecilia; Fineschi, Silvia; Fini, Alessio; Ferrini, Francesco; Sebastiani, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Quercus pubescens Willd., a species distributed from Spain to southwest Asia, ranks high for drought tolerance among European oaks. Q. pubescens performs a role of outstanding significance in most Mediterranean forest ecosystems, but few mechanistic studies have been conducted to explore its response to environmental constrains, due to the lack of genomic resources. In our study, we performed a deep transcriptomic sequencing in Q. pubescens leaves, including de novo assembly, functional annotation and the identification of new molecular markers. Our results are a pre-requisite for undertaking molecular functional studies, and may give support in population and association genetic studies. 254,265,700 clean reads were generated by the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, with an average length of 98 bp. De novo assembly, using CLC Genomics, produced 96,006 contigs, having a mean length of 618 bp. Sequence similarity analyses against seven public databases (Uniprot, NR, RefSeq and KOGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG) resulted in 83,065 transcripts annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. These annotations and local BLAST allowed identify genes specifically associated with mechanisms of drought avoidance. Finally, 14,202 microsatellite markers and 18,425 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were, in silico, discovered in assembled and annotated sequences. We completed a successful global analysis of the Q. pubescens leaf transcriptome using RNA-seq. The assembled and annotated sequences together with newly discovered molecular markers provide genomic information for functional genomic studies in Q. pubescens, with special emphasis to response mechanisms to severe constrain of the Mediterranean climate. Our tools enable comparative genomics studies on other Quercus species taking advantage of large intra-specific ecophysiological differences.

  9. Responses of leaf nitrogen and mobile carbohydrates in different Quercus species/provenances to moderate climate changes.

    PubMed

    Li, M-H; Cherubini, P; Dobbertin, M; Arend, M; Xiao, W-F; Rigling, A

    2013-01-01

    Global warming and shortage of water have been evidenced in the recent past and are predicted for the future. Climate change will inevitably have considerable impact on plant physiology, growth, productivity and forest ecosystem functions. The present study determined the effects of simulated daytime air warming (+1 to 1.5 °C during the growing season), drought (-40% and -57% of mean precipitation of 728 mm during the 2007 and 2008 growing season, respectively) and their combination, on leaf nitrogen (N) and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) of two Quercus species (Q. robur and Q. petraea) and provenances (two provenances for each species) grown in two soil types in Switzerland across two treatment years, to test the hypothesis that leaf N and NSC in the more water-sensitive species (Q. robur) and provenances (originating from water-rich locations) will more strongly respond to global warming and water deficit, compared to those in the more drought-tolerant species (Q. petraea) or provenances. No species- and provenance-specific responses in leaf N and NSC to the climate treatment were found, indicating that the results failed to support our hypothesis. The between-species variation of leaf N and NSC concentrations mainly reflected differences in biology of the two species, and the between-provenance variation of N and NSC concentrations apparently mirrored the climate of their origins. Hence, we conclude that (i) the two Quercus species studied are somewhat insensitive, due to their distribution covering a wide geographical and climate range, to moderate climate change within Switzerland, and (ii) a moderate global warming of B1 scenario (IPCC 2007) will not, or at least less, negatively affect the N and carbon physiology in Q. robur and Q. petraea.

  10. Unusually limited pollen dispersal and connectivity of Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) refugial populations at the species' southern range margin.

    PubMed

    Moracho, E; Moreno, G; Jordano, P; Hampe, A

    2016-07-01

    Low-latitudinal range margins of temperate and boreal plant species typically consist of scattered populations that persist locally in microrefugia. It remains poorly understood how their refugial habitats affect patterns of gene flow and connectivity, key components for their long-term viability and evolution. We examine landscape-scale patterns of historical and contemporary gene flow in refugial populations of the widespread European forest tree Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) at the species' southwestern range margin. We sampled all adult trees (n = 135) growing in a 20 km long valley and genotyped 724 acorns from 72 mother trees at 17 microsatellite loci. The ten oak stands that we identified were highly differentiated and formed four distinct genetic clusters, despite sporadic historical dispersal being detectable. By far most contemporary pollination occurred within stands, either between local mates (85.6%) or through selfing (6.8%). Pollen exchange between stands (2.6%) was remarkably rare given their relative proximity and was complemented by long-distance pollen immigration (4.4%) and hybridization with the locally abundant Quercus pyrenaica (0.6%). The frequency of between-stand mating events decreased with increasing size and spatial isolation of stands. Overall, our results reveal outstandingly little long-distance gene flow for a wind-pollinated tree species. We argue that the distinct landscape characteristics of oaks' refugial habitats, with a combination of a rugged topography, dense vegetation and humid microclimate, are likely to increase plant survival but to hamper effective long-distance pollen dispersal. Moreover, local mating might be favoured by high tree compatibility resulting from genetic purging in these long-term relict populations. PMID:27146553

  11. RNA-Seq Analysis of Quercus pubescens Leaves: De Novo Transcriptome Assembly, Annotation and Functional Markers Development

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Sara; Tattini, Massimiliano; Brunetti, Cecilia; Fineschi, Silvia; Fini, Alessio; Ferrini, Francesco; Sebastiani, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Quercus pubescens Willd., a species distributed from Spain to southwest Asia, ranks high for drought tolerance among European oaks. Q. pubescens performs a role of outstanding significance in most Mediterranean forest ecosystems, but few mechanistic studies have been conducted to explore its response to environmental constrains, due to the lack of genomic resources. In our study, we performed a deep transcriptomic sequencing in Q. pubescens leaves, including de novo assembly, functional annotation and the identification of new molecular markers. Our results are a pre-requisite for undertaking molecular functional studies, and may give support in population and association genetic studies. 254,265,700 clean reads were generated by the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, with an average length of 98 bp. De novo assembly, using CLC Genomics, produced 96,006 contigs, having a mean length of 618 bp. Sequence similarity analyses against seven public databases (Uniprot, NR, RefSeq and KOGs at NCBI, Pfam, InterPro and KEGG) resulted in 83,065 transcripts annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains, or gene ontology terms. These annotations and local BLAST allowed identify genes specifically associated with mechanisms of drought avoidance. Finally, 14,202 microsatellite markers and 18,425 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were, in silico, discovered in assembled and annotated sequences. We completed a successful global analysis of the Q. pubescens leaf transcriptome using RNA-seq. The assembled and annotated sequences together with newly discovered molecular markers provide genomic information for functional genomic studies in Q. pubescens, with special emphasis to response mechanisms to severe constrain of the Mediterranean climate. Our tools enable comparative genomics studies on other Quercus species taking advantage of large intra-specific ecophysiological differences. PMID:25393112

  12. The taxonomy of the Japanese oak red scale insect, Kuwania quercus (Kuwana) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kuwaniidae), with a generic diagnosis, a key to species and description of a new species from California.

    PubMed

    San'An, Wu; Nan, Nan; Gullan, Penny; Deng, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The oak red scale insect, Kuwania quercus (Kuwana), was described from specimens collected from the bark of oak trees (Quercus species) in Japan. More recently, the species has been identified from California and China, but Californian specimens differ morphologically from Japanese material and are considered here to be a new species based on both morphological and molecular data. In this paper, an illustrated redescription of K. quercus is provided based on type specimens consisting of adult females, first-instar nymphs and intermediate-stage females, and a lectotype is designated for Sasakia quercus Kuwana. The new Californian species, Kuwania raygilli Wu & Gullan, is described and illustrated based on the adult female, first-instar nymph and intermediate-stage female. A new generic diagnosis for Kuwania Cockerell based on adult females and first-instar nymphs, and a key to species based on adult females are included.

  13. Antistress Effects of Rosa rugosa Thunb. on Total Sleep Deprivation-Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior and Cognitive Dysfunction in Rat: Possible Mechanism of Action of 5-HT6 Receptor Antagonist.

    PubMed

    Na, Ju-Ryun; Oh, Dool-Ri; Han, SeulHee; Kim, Yu-Jin; Choi, EunJin; Bae, Donghyuck; Oh, Dong Hwan; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Kim, Sunoh; Jun, Woojin

    2016-09-01

    Our previous results suggest that the Rosa rugosa Thunb. (family Rosaceae) alleviates endurance exercise-induced stress by decreasing oxidative stress levels. This study aimed to screen and identify the physiological antistress effects of an extract of R. rugosa (RO) on sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and cognitive tests (in vivo) and tested for hippocampal CORT and monoamine levels (ex vivo), corticosterone (CORT)-induced injury, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and serotonin 6 (5-hydroxytryptamine 6, 5-HT6) receptor activities (in vitro) in search of active principles and underlying mechanisms of action. We confirmed the antistress effects of RO in a sleep-deprived stress model in rat and explored the underlying mechanisms of its action. In conclusion, an R. rugosa extract showed efficacy and potential for use as an antistress therapy to treat sleep deprivation through its antagonism of the 5-HT6 receptor and resulting inhibition of cAMP activity. PMID:27331439

  14. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species’ broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species’ abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker’s southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker’s southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker’s broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak’s sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds’ distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior. PMID:26083262

  15. The Geographic Distribution of a Tropical Montane Bird Is Limited by a Tree: Acorn Woodpeckers (Melanerpes formicivorus) and Colombian Oaks (Quercus humboldtii) in the Northern Andes.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Benjamin G; Mason, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Species distributions are limited by a complex array of abiotic and biotic factors. In general, abiotic (climatic) factors are thought to explain species' broad geographic distributions, while biotic factors regulate species' abundance patterns at local scales. We used species distribution models to test the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with a tree, the Colombian oak (Quercus humboldtii), limits the broad-scale distribution of the Acorn Woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus) in the Northern Andes of South America. North American populations of Acorn Woodpeckers consume acorns from Quercus oaks and are limited by the presence of Quercus oaks. However, Acorn Woodpeckers in the Northern Andes seldom consume Colombian oak acorns (though may regularly drink sap from oak trees) and have been observed at sites without Colombian oaks, the sole species of Quercus found in South America. We found that climate-only models overpredicted Acorn Woodpecker distribution, suggesting that suitable abiotic conditions (e.g. in northern Ecuador) exist beyond the woodpecker's southern range margin. In contrast, models that incorporate Colombian oak presence outperformed climate-only models and more accurately predicted the location of the Acorn Woodpecker's southern range margin in southern Colombia. These findings support the hypothesis that a biotic interaction with Colombian oaks sets Acorn Woodpecker's broad-scale geographic limit in South America, probably because Acorn Woodpeckers rely on Colombian oaks as a food resource (possibly for the oak's sap rather than for acorns). Although empirical examples of particular plants limiting tropical birds' distributions are scarce, we predict that similar biotic interactions may play an important role in structuring the geographic distributions of many species of tropical montane birds with specialized foraging behavior. PMID:26083262

  16. Analysis of Ploidy Level and its Effects on Guard Cell Length, Pollen Diameter and Fertility in Hydrangea Macrophylla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ploidy level was estimated in Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ex J.A. Murr.) Ser. using flow cytometry. For H. macrophylla ssp. macrophylla, 42 diploid and 19 triploid cultivars were identified. All 14 H. macrophylla ssp. serrata cultivars tested were diploids. Somatic chromosome counts confirmed th...

  17. Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.).

    PubMed

    Gallego, L; Del Alamo, M; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E

    2012-04-01

    Wood of Quercus pyrenaica has suitable properties for the wine ageing process. However, the forest available for the barrel making from this particular type of tree is very limited. Nevertheless, it is highly advisable to use this kind of wood in order to manufacture alternative oak products. This study presents the results of ageing the same red wine using different pieces of wood (chips and staves) of Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), American oak (Quercus alba) and French oak (Quercus petraea) in conjunction with small, controlled amounts of oxygen. In addition, the phenolic parameters, colour and sensory analysis point out that wines aged with Q. pyrenaica pieces have similar enological characteristics to those aged with American or French oak pieces of wood (chips and staves). Furthermore, the total oxygen consumed and its relation with sensory properties also has been studied in this article in order to know how the oxygen behaves in these processes. Besides, it is going to put forward the fact that chips and staves from Q. pyrenaica oak are suitable for the ageing of red wines and better considered than American or French ones, showing higher aromatic intensity, complexity, woody, balsamic and cocoa. Finally, the tasters valued highly the wines with staves, pointing out its flavour and roundness in mouth.

  18. Changes in DNA methylation fingerprint of Quercus ilex trees in response to experimental field drought simulating projected climate change.

    PubMed

    Rico, L; Ogaya, R; Barbeta, A; Peñuelas, J

    2014-03-01

    Rapid genetic changes in plants have been reported in response to current climate change. We assessed the capacity of trees in a natural forest to produce rapid acclimation responses based on epigenetic modifications. We analysed natural populations of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species of Mediterranean forests, using the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to assess patterns and levels of methylation in individuals from unstressed forest plots and from plots experimentally exposed to drought for 12 years at levels projected for the coming decades. The percentage of hypermethylated loci increased, and the percentage of fully methylated loci clearly decreased in plants exposed to drought. Multivariate analyses exploring the status of methylation at MSAP loci also showed clear differentiation depending on stress. The PCA scores for the MSAP profiles clearly separated the genetic from the epigenetic structure, and also significantly separated the samples within each group in response to drought. Changes in DNA methylation highlight the large capacity of plants to rapidly acclimate to changing environmental conditions, including trees with long life spans, and our results demonstrate those changes. These changes, although unable to prevent the decreased growth and higher mortality associated with this experimental drought, occurred together with a dampening in such decreases as the long-term treatment progressed.

  19. Altertoxins with potent anti-HIV activity from Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se, a fungal endophyte of Quercus emoryi.

    PubMed

    Bashyal, Bharat P; Wellensiek, Brian P; Ramakrishnan, Rajesh; Faeth, Stanley H; Ahmad, Nafees; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2014-11-01

    Screening of a small library of natural product extracts derived from endophytic fungi of the Sonoran desert plants in a cell-based anti-HIV assay involving T-cells infected with the HIV-1 virus identified the EtOAc extract of a fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se inhabiting the stem tissue of Quercus emoryi as a promising candidate for further investigation. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation and identification of two new metabolites, altertoxins V (1) and VI (2) together with the known compounds, altertoxins I (3), II (4), and III (5). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis and those of 3-5 were established by comparison with reported data. When tested in our cell-based assay at concentrations insignificantly toxic to T-cells, altertoxins V (1), I (3), II (4), and III (5) completely inhibited replication of the HIV-1 virus at concentrations of 0.50, 2.20, 0.30, and 1.50 μM, respectively. Our findings suggest that the epoxyperylene structural scaffold in altertoxins may be manipulated to produce potent anti-HIV therapeutics.

  20. Endo- and ectomycorrhizas in Quercus agrifolia Nee. (Fagaceae): patterns of root colonization and effects on seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Egerton-Warburton, L; Allen, M F

    2001-12-01

    We documented the patterns of root occupancy by Glomalean and ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi in Quercus agrifolia, and host plant responses to inoculation with each mycorrhizal type alone or in combination. Glomalean hyphae, coils and vesicles, and EM root tips were recorded. Colonization patterns conformed to a succession from Glomalean and EM fungi in 1-year-old seedlings to predominantly EM in saplings (>11 years old); both mycorrhizal types were rarely detected within the same root segment. Inoculation of Q. agrifolia seedlings with EM or Glomalean fungi (AM) alone or in combination (EM+AM) altered the cost:benefit relationship of mycorrhizas to the host plant. Seedling survival, plant biomass, foliar nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) status were greatest in EM- or AM-only inoculated seedlings. Seedlings inoculated with both mycorrhizal types (AM+EM) exhibited the lowest survival rates, biomass, foliar N, and P levels. Roots of these plants were highly colonized by both EM (38% root length colonized) and Glomalean fungi (34%). Because these levels of colonization were similar to those detected in 1-year-old field seedlings, the presence of both mycorrhizal types may be a carbon cost and, in turn, less beneficial to oaks during establishment in the field. However, the shift to EM colonization in older plants suggests that mycorrhizal effects may become positive with time. PMID:24549348

  1. Stomatal encryption by epicuticular waxes as a plastic trait modifying gas exchange in a Mediterranean evergreen species (Quercus coccifera L.).

    PubMed

    Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Fernández, Victoria; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2013-03-01

    The adaptive benefit of stomatal crypts remains a matter of controversy. This work studies the effect on gas exchange of cuticular rims that overarch the stomatal pore in the Mediterranean species Quercus coccifera L. growing under Mediterranean (lower relative humidities and high summer temperatures) or oceanic conditions (higher daily relative humidities and mild temperatures). After microscopic assessment of the leaf surfaces and stomatal architecture, the impact of the cuticular 'cup' on gas exchange was evaluated by employing three-dimensional finite element models. Here, we provide evidence for a high plasticity of the Q. coccifera cuticular cup, with much larger vents under oceanic conditions compared to small vents under Mediterranean conditions. This structure adds a substantial fixed resistance thereby strongly decreasing gas exchange under Mediterranean conditions. The cuticular cup, which also increases leaf internal humidity, might buffer the rapid changes in vapour pressure deficit (VPD) often observed under Mediterranean conditions. Since water loss of guard and adjacent epidermal cells regulates stomatal aperture, we suggest that this structure allows an efficient regulation of stomatal conductance and optimum use of resources under high VPD. This study provides evidence that plasticity of stomatal architecture can be an important structural component of hydraulic adaptation to different climate conditions. PMID:22897384

  2. [Diurnal variation of Quercus variabilis trunk diameter in response to environmental factors at south aspect of Taihang Mountains].

    PubMed

    Sun, Shou-Jia; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-Song; Jia, Chang-Rong; Ren, Ying-Feng

    2012-08-01

    By using Circumference Dendrometer 2 (DC2), this paper studied the diurnal variation of trunk diameter in Quercus variabilis plantation at the south aspect of Taihang Mountains. During seasonal drought, the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter was quite evident. The time of the diameter shrinkage followed the start-up time of sap flow, but the appearance of the minimum trunk diameter lagged behind the maximum sap flow flux about 3-4 h. The maximum daily shrinkage (MDS) value of the trunk diameter presented a trend low-high-low, being significantly correlated with the diurnal differences of cumulative sap flow flux and leaf water potential and having a significant quadratic relationship with soil moisture content. The MDS value was affected by the variations of meteorological factors, being significantly correlated with the diurnal variations of air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and relative humidity, but less correlated with the diurnal variation of solar radiation. After successive precipitation, soil moisture content was no longer the limiting factor of the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter. The MDS value had less correlations with the diurnal differences of cumulative sap flow flux, leaf water potential, soil moisture content, and other meteorological factors. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that the soil moisture content and air temperature in seasonal drought and rain seasons were the key factors affecting the diurnal variation of Q. variabilis trunk diameter. PMID:23189691

  3. Gas exchange in Quercus rubra (northern red oak) during a drought: analysis of relations among photosynthesis, transpiration, and leaf conductance.

    PubMed

    Weber, J. A.; Gates, D. M.

    1990-12-01

    Development of water stress in leaves of mature Quercus rubra L. caused a marked midday depression in photosynthesis (A) and transpiration (E). At external CO(2) partial pressures of 100-110 Pa, a constant temperature of 30 degrees C and a constant photosynthetic photon flux density of about 1000 micromol m(-2) s(-1), A was 8 micromol m(-2) at low leaf water potentials (-1.5 to -2.0 MPa), whereas it was 20 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in non-stressed leaves (-1.0 MPa). At lower external CO(2) partial pressures, the effect of low leaf water potential on A was less. The midday depression in gas exchange was relieved by an overnight rain of 2.5 cm. No difference in carboxylation efficiency or CO(2) compensation point was found between leaves before and after rain, The relationship between A and E was linear for a given external CO(2) partial pressure, but the slope varied with CO(2) concentration. Modification of the model of stomatal response proposed by Ball et al. (1987) produced a linear relationship between leaf conductance and a factor incorporating A, relative humidity, and CO(2). The data indicate that gas exchange in leaves of mature northern red oak respond rapidly to relief of drought with no indication of long-term photoinhibition. PMID:14972919

  4. Spatial heterogeneity in the relative impacts of foliar quality and predation pressure on red oak, Quercus rubra, arthropod communities.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Caralyn B; Stodola, Kirk W; Cooper, Robert J; Hunter, Mark D

    2010-12-01

    Predation pressure and resource availability often interact in structuring herbivore communities, with their relative influence varying in space and time. The operation of multiple ecological pressures and guild-specific herbivore responses may combine to override simple predictions of how the roles of plant quality and predation pressure vary in space. For 2 years at the Coweeta LTER in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, we conducted a bird exclosure experiment on red oak (Quercus rubra) saplings to investigate the effects of bird predation on red oak arthropod communities. We established bird exclosures at six sites along an elevational gradient and estimated variation in foliar nitrogen and bird predation pressure along this gradient. Foliar nitrogen concentrations increased with elevation while our index of bird predation pressure was variable across sites. Greater arthropod densities were detected inside exclosures; however, this result was mainly driven by the response of phloem feeders which were much more prevalent inside exclosures than on control trees. There was little evidence for an effect of bird predation on the other arthropod guilds. Consequently, there was no evidence of a trophic cascade either in terms of leaf damage or tree growth. Finally, we found more variation in arthropod density among trees within sites than variation in arthropod density among sites, indicating the importance of micro-site variation in structuring arthropod communities. PMID:20711610

  5. Sweets for the foe - effects of nonstructural carbohydrates on the susceptibility of Quercus robur against Phytophthora quercina.

    PubMed

    Angay, Oguzhan; Fleischmann, Frank; Recht, Sabine; Herrmann, Sylvie; Matyssek, Rainer; Oßwald, Wolfgang; Buscot, François; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2014-09-01

    The root-rot pathogen Phytophthora quercina is a key determinant of oak decline in Europe. The susceptibility of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) to this pathogen has been hypothesized to depend on the carbon availability in roots as an essential resource for defense. Microcuttings of Q. robur undergo an alternating rhythm of root and shoot growth. Inoculation of mycorrhizal (Piloderma croceum) and nonmycorrhizal oak roots with P. quercina was performed during both growth phases, that is, root flush (RF) and shoot flush (SF). Photosynthetic and morphological responses as well as concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) were analyzed. Infection success was quantified by the presence of pathogen DNA in roots. Concentrations of NSC in roots depended on the alternating root/shoot growth rhythm, being high and low during RF and SF, respectively. Infection success was high during RF and low during SF, resulting in a significantly positive correlation between pathogen DNA and NSC concentration in roots, contrary to the hypothesis. The alternating growth of roots and shoots plays a crucial role for the susceptibility of lateral roots to the pathogen. NSC availability in oak roots has to be considered as a benchmark for susceptibility rather than resistance against P. quercina.

  6. [Spatial pattern analysis and associations of Quercus aquifolioides population at different growth stages in Southeast Tibet, China].

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-qiang; Hua, Min; Dan, Qu; Lu, Jie; Fang, Jiang-ping

    2016-02-01

    This article analyzed the spatial pattern and its correlation of Quercus aquifolioides, Southeast Tibet at different growing stages by using Ripley' s L function in the method of point pattern, analysis. The results showed the diameter structure of Q. aquifolioides population in Southeast Tibet followed a 'single peak' shape and the saplings and medium trees predominated in number in the whole population. The population had a high regeneration rate and was of increase type. In the growth process of Q. aquifolioides from saplings to large trees, saplings and medium trees showed aggregation distribution at.small scale, while large trees showed basically random distribution at whole scale. There was significant correlation between saplings with medium or large trees at small scale, however, there was no correlation between medium and large trees. In the growth process of Q. aquifolioides population from saplings, medium trees to large trees, its spatial pattern developed from aggregative distribution to random distribution. The natural regeneration of Q. aquifolioides population was affected not only by interspecific competition, but also by intraspecific competition. In the similar natural environment, the most important factors affecting the spatial pattern of Q. aquifoioides population were its own biological and ecological characteristics.

  7. Photosynthetic and stomatal acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} depends on soil type in Quercus prinus

    SciTech Connect

    Bunce, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Quercus prinus (L.) seedlings grown outdoors at ambient and elevated (ambient + 350 ppm) CO{sub 2} with a fertile soil had no photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO{sub 2} and no stomatal response to growth or measurement CO{sub 2}. In contrast, seedlings grown with soil collected from a Q. prinus stand had photosynthetic and stomatal acclimation, and stomatal conductance was sensitive to measurement CO{sub 2}. In plants grown with the native soil, light-saturated stomatal conductance measured at the growth CO{sub 2} was reduced by 54% at elevated CO{sub 2}, compared to the short-term reduction of 36%. Photosynthetic acclimation in plants grown with the native soil reduced the stimulation of light-saturated photosynthesis at elevated CO{sub 2} from a factor of 1.9 to a factor of 1.3. In contrast to the dependence of photosynthetic and stomatal acclimation on soil type, the response of leaf respiration to elevated CO{sub 2} was the same for both soils. Respiration of leaves was reduced in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment by 41 % on a leaf area basis. However, this effect was immediately reversible by altering the measurement CO{sub 2}, indicating that no acclimation of respiration occurred.

  8. Oak powdery mildew (Erysiphe alphitoides)-induced volatile emissions scale with the degree of infection in Quercus robur.

    PubMed

    Copolovici, Lucian; Väärtnõu, Fred; Portillo Estrada, Miguel; Niinemets, Ülo

    2014-12-01

    Oak powdery mildew (Erysiphe alphitoides) is a major foliar pathogen of Quercus robur often infecting entire tree stands. In this study, foliage photosynthetic characteristics and constitutive and induced volatile emissions were studied in Q. robur leaves, in order to determine whether the changes in foliage physiological traits are quantitatively associated with the degree of leaf infection, and whether infection changes the light responses of physiological traits. Infection by E. alphitoides reduced net assimilation rate by 3.5-fold and isoprene emission rate by 2.4-fold, and increased stomatal conductance by 1.6-fold in leaves with the largest degree of infection of ∼60%. These alterations in physiological activity were quantitatively associated with the fraction of leaf area infected. In addition, light saturation of net assimilation and isoprene emission was reached at lower light intensity in infected leaves, and infection also reduced the initial quantum yield of isoprene emission. Infection-induced emissions of lipoxygenase pathway volatiles and monoterpenes were light-dependent and scaled positively with the degree of infection. Overall, this study indicates that the reduction of foliage photosynthetic activity and constitutive emissions and the onset of stress volatile emissions scale with the degree of infection, but also that the infection modifies the light responses of foliage physiological activities.

  9. Influence of environmental factors and air composition on the emission of {alpha}-pinene from Quercus ilex leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Loreto, F.; Tricoli, D.; Ciccioli, P.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the emission of {alpha}-pinene from Quercus ilex leaves. Only the abaxial side of the hypostomatous Q. ilex leaf emits {alpha}-pinene. Light induced photosynthesis and {alpha}-pinene emission. However, the response of photosynthesis to dark-to-light transitions was faster than that of {alpha}-pinene, suggesting that ATP controls the emission. The emission was higher at 30 than at 20{degrees}C, whereas photosynthesis did not change. Therefore, the relationship between photosynthesis and {alpha}-pinene emission does not always hold. When CO{sub 2} was removed from the air, transpiration was stimulated and transpiration was reduced, but {alpha}-pinene emission was unaffected. Therefore, the emission depends on the availability of photosynthetic carbon, is not saturated at ambient CO{sub 2}, and is not dependent on stomatal opening. The pattern of {alpha}-pinene emission from Q. ilex is different from that of plants having specialized structures for storage and emission of terpenes. We suggest that {alpha}-pinene emitted by Q. ilex leaves is synthesized in the chloroplasts and shares the same biochemical pathway with isoprene emitted by isoprene-emitting oak species. 28 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Seasonal variation in chemistry, but not morphology, in roots of Quercus robur growing in different soil types.

    PubMed

    Zadworny, Marcin; McCormack, M Luke; Rawlik, Katarzyna; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2015-06-01

    Patterns of root traits among different root orders and their variation across seasons are of considerable importance for soil resource acquisition and partitioning in forest ecosystems. We evaluated whether morphological, anatomical and biochemical traits varied among root orders of Quercus robur (L.) sampled across spring, summer and fall seasons and growing in two different soil types with contrasting site fertility. We found no consistent differences in root diameter and specific root length in relation to soil type or growing season. There was, however, a strong seasonal variation in patterns of nitrogen (N) concentration among root orders. During spring and summer, N concentration was highest in the most distal, absorptive portion of the root system. At the end of the growing season, we observed a sharp decline in the N concentration of these lower-order, absorptive roots and an increase in N concentration of the higher-order, transport roots. The specific mechanisms driving the seasonally changing N concentration remain unclear but are likely related to different functions of lower-order roots for absorption and higher-order roots for structure and storage. Future work should identify how common the observed seasonal changes in N concentration are across species and determine what specific environmental cues plants or roots use to trigger shifts in resource allocation within the root branching hierarchy.

  11. Effect of flooding on C metabolism of flood-tolerant (Quercus robur) and non-tolerant (Fagus sylvatica) tree species.

    PubMed

    Ferner, Eleni; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    Flooding is assumed to cause an energy crisis in plants because-due to a lack of O(2)-mitochondrial respiration is replaced by alcoholic fermentation which yields considerably less energy equivalents. In the present study, the effect of flooding on the carbon metabolism of flooding-tolerant pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and flooding-sensitive European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings was characterized. Whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations dropped in roots of F. sylvatica, they were constant in Q. robur during flooding. At the same time, root alcohol dehydrogenase activities were decreased in beech but not in oak, suggesting substrate limitation of alcoholic fermentation in beech roots. Surprisingly, leaf and phloem sap sugar concentrations increased in both species but to a much higher degree in beech. This finding suggests that the phloem unloading process in flooding-sensitive beech was strongly impaired. It is assumed that root-derived ethanol is transported to the leaves via the transpiration stream. This mechanism is considered an adaptation to flooding because it helps avoid the accumulation of toxic ethanol in the roots and supports the whole plant's carbon metabolism by channelling ethanol into the oxidative metabolism of the leaves. A labelling experiment demonstrated that in the leaves of flooded trees, ethanol metabolism does not differ between flooded beech and oak, indicating that processes in the roots are crucial for the trees' flooding tolerance. PMID:22367762

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant interactions in combined extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti).

    PubMed

    Ranjbar Nedamani, Elham; Sadeghi Mahoonak, Alireza; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti) are of known medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. They provide substantial antioxidant activities but the possible antioxidant interaction between them has not been studied. In the present study first the bioactive compounds from these three plants were first extracted and thereafter assayed for total phenols, 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and reducing power. In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts individually and in combinations were evaluated in soy bean oil as food system. There was a direct relation between total phenolics and antioxidant activities of extracts. Green tea and oak fruit extracts had the highest and least activity, respectively. All three kinds of interactions (synergistic, antagonistic and additive) were observed. In soy bean oil, the only effect was antagonism but even with this effect, combined extract was significantly (P < 0.05) better than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control sample. Results showed that these three natural extracts and their combination can be effectively used as a substituent of synthetic antioxidant BHT.

  13. [Soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Zha, Tong-Gang; Wang, Yi-Kun; Wang, Gao-min

    2013-03-01

    Based on the field survey and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area. In the two plantations, the contents of soil macro-aggregates decreased with soil depth. In P. tabulaeformis plantation, soil macro-aggregates (>0.25 mm) occupied the majority, accounting for 71% -77% of the total; whereas in Q. variabilis plantation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of soil macro-aggregates and micro-aggregates (< or =0.25 mm), which accounted for 51% -58% and 42% -49%, respectively. Both the mean mass diameter and the geometrical mean mass diameter of the soil aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation were significantly higher than those in Q. variabilis plantation, and the fractal dimension (D) of the soil water-stable aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation was lower than that in Q. variabilis plantation, suggesting that P. tabulaeformis plantation was more favorable for the soil aggregate stability than Q. variabilis plantation. Also in the two plantations, the organic carbon content in soil water-stable aggregates decreased with soil depth. The organic carbon content in soil macro-aggregates was significantly higher in P. tabulaeformis plantation (58% -83%) than in Q. variabilis plantation (49% -66% ). It was suggested that in Beijing area, P. tabulaeformis plantation was more beneficial to the soil organic carbon protection, as compared with Q. variabilis plantation.

  14. Can NPK fertilizers enhance seedling growth and mycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated Quercus ilex seedlings?

    PubMed

    Suz, Laura M; Martín, María P; Fischer, Christine R; Bonet, José A; Colinas, Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Although successful cultivation of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) has inspired the establishment of widespread truffle orchards in agricultural lands throughout the world, there are many unknowns involved in proper management of orchards during the 6-10 years prior to truffle production, and there are conflicting results reported for fertilizer treatments. Here, we systematically evaluate the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium with different doses of each element, applied to either foliage or roots, on plant growth parameters and the mycorrhizal status of outplanted 3-year-old seedlings in five experimental Quercus ilex-T. melanosporum orchards. Fertilization did not significantly improve seedling aboveground growth, but the plants treated with the fertilizer 12-7-7 applied to the roots (HNr) displayed longer field-developed roots. Only the fertilizer with the highest dose of K (10-6-28) applied to the foliage (HKf) increased the probability of fine root tip colonization by T. melanosporum in field-developed roots. However, the plants treated with the same fertilizer applied to the soil (HKr) presented the highest probability for colonization by other competing mycorrhizal soil fungi. Potassium seems to have an important role in mycorrhizal development in these soils. Apart from T. melanosporum, we found 14 ectomycorrhizal morphotypes, from which seven were identified to species level, three to genus, two to family, and two remained unidentified by their morphological characteristics and DNA analyses.

  15. Stomatal encryption by epicuticular waxes as a plastic trait modifying gas exchange in a Mediterranean evergreen species (Quercus coccifera L.).

    PubMed

    Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Fernández, Victoria; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2013-03-01

    The adaptive benefit of stomatal crypts remains a matter of controversy. This work studies the effect on gas exchange of cuticular rims that overarch the stomatal pore in the Mediterranean species Quercus coccifera L. growing under Mediterranean (lower relative humidities and high summer temperatures) or oceanic conditions (higher daily relative humidities and mild temperatures). After microscopic assessment of the leaf surfaces and stomatal architecture, the impact of the cuticular 'cup' on gas exchange was evaluated by employing three-dimensional finite element models. Here, we provide evidence for a high plasticity of the Q. coccifera cuticular cup, with much larger vents under oceanic conditions compared to small vents under Mediterranean conditions. This structure adds a substantial fixed resistance thereby strongly decreasing gas exchange under Mediterranean conditions. The cuticular cup, which also increases leaf internal humidity, might buffer the rapid changes in vapour pressure deficit (VPD) often observed under Mediterranean conditions. Since water loss of guard and adjacent epidermal cells regulates stomatal aperture, we suggest that this structure allows an efficient regulation of stomatal conductance and optimum use of resources under high VPD. This study provides evidence that plasticity of stomatal architecture can be an important structural component of hydraulic adaptation to different climate conditions.

  16. Nickel sorption capacity of ground xylem of Quercus ilex trees and effects of selected ligands present in the xylem sap.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Geórgia C L; Lemos, Sherlan G; Nabais, Cristina

    2009-02-15

    In this work the influence of four different ligands present in the xylem sap of Quercus ilex (histidine, citric, oxalic and aspartic acids) on Ni(II) adsorption by xylem was investigated. Grinded xylem was trapped in acrylic columns and solutions of Ni(II), in the absence and presence of the four ligands prepared in KNO(3) 0.1molL(-1) at pH 5.5, were percolated through the column. Aliquots of solutions were recovered in the column end for Ni determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The experimental data to describe Ni sorption by xylem in both the presence and absence of ligands was better explained by the Freundlich isotherm model. The decreasing affinity order of ligands for Ni was: oxalic acid>citric acid>histidine>aspartic acid. On the other hand, the Ni(II) adsorption by xylem increased following the inverse sequence of ligands. Potentiometric titrations of acidic groups were carried out to elucidate the sorption site groups available in Q. ilex xylem. The potentiometric titration has shown three sorption sites: pK(a) 2.6 (57.7% of the sorption sites), related to monobasic aliphatic carboxylic acids or nitrogen aromatic bases, pK(a) 8.1 (9.6%) and pK(a) 9.9 (32.7%), related to phenolic groups. PMID:18707798

  17. [Changes of foliar delta13C value of Quercus fabric in different root underground habitat types in Karst area].

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu-Hong; Huang, Zong-Sheng; Yu, Li-Fei

    2012-11-01

    Selecting the dominant tree species Quercus fabric in three root underground habitat types (the dolomites of low oblique occurrence with multilayer space, middle oblique occurrence with multilayer space, and high oblique occurrence with multilayer space) in Karst area as test object, this paper studied the foliar delta13C value and its correlations with habitat soil conditions, and the plant water use efficiency. There existed remarkable differences in the foliar delta13C value of Q. fabric among the three habitat types, being decreased in the order of low oblique occurrence with multilayer space type (-26.35 per thousand) > high oblique occurrence with multilayer space type (-26.66 per thousand) > middle oblique occurrence with multilayer space type (-27.07 per thousand). Accordingly, the plant water use efficiency decreased in the same order. The foliar delta13C value had significant correlation with habitat soil moisture content, but less correlation with habitat soil elements contents. The delta13C value increased with the decrease of soil moisture content and soil fertility.

  18. Effect of flooding on C metabolism of flood-tolerant (Quercus robur) and non-tolerant (Fagus sylvatica) tree species.

    PubMed

    Ferner, Eleni; Rennenberg, Heinz; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    2012-02-01

    Flooding is assumed to cause an energy crisis in plants because-due to a lack of O(2)-mitochondrial respiration is replaced by alcoholic fermentation which yields considerably less energy equivalents. In the present study, the effect of flooding on the carbon metabolism of flooding-tolerant pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and flooding-sensitive European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings was characterized. Whereas soluble carbohydrate concentrations dropped in roots of F. sylvatica, they were constant in Q. robur during flooding. At the same time, root alcohol dehydrogenase activities were decreased in beech but not in oak, suggesting substrate limitation of alcoholic fermentation in beech roots. Surprisingly, leaf and phloem sap sugar concentrations increased in both species but to a much higher degree in beech. This finding suggests that the phloem unloading process in flooding-sensitive beech was strongly impaired. It is assumed that root-derived ethanol is transported to the leaves via the transpiration stream. This mechanism is considered an adaptation to flooding because it helps avoid the accumulation of toxic ethanol in the roots and supports the whole plant's carbon metabolism by channelling ethanol into the oxidative metabolism of the leaves. A labelling experiment demonstrated that in the leaves of flooded trees, ethanol metabolism does not differ between flooded beech and oak, indicating that processes in the roots are crucial for the trees' flooding tolerance.

  19. Seasonal Changes Affect Root Prunasin Concentration in Prunus serotina and Override Species Interactions between P. serotina and Quercus petraea.

    PubMed

    Robakowski, Piotr; Bielinis, Ernest; Stachowiak, Jerzy; Mejza, Iwona; Bułaj, Bartosz

    2016-03-01

    The allocation of resources to chemical defense can decrease plant growth and photosynthesis. Prunasin is a cyanogenic glycoside known for its role in defense against herbivores and other plants. In the present study, fluctuations of prunasin concentrations in roots of Prunus serotina seedlings were hypothesized to be: (1) dependent on light, air temperature, and humidity; (2) affected by competition between Prunus serotina and Quercus petraea seedlings, with mulching with Prunus serotina leaves; (3) connected with optimal allocation of resources. For the first time, we determined prunasin concentration in roots on several occasions during the vegetative season. The results indicate that seasonal changes have more pronounced effects on prunasin concentration than light regime and interspecific competition. Prunus serotina invested more nitrogen in the synthesis of prunasin under highly restricted light conditions than in higher light environments. In full sun, prunasin in roots of Prunus serotina growing in a monoculture was correlated with growth and photosynthesis, whereas these relationships were not found when interspecific competition with mulching was a factor. The study demonstrates that prunasin concentration in Prunus serotina roots is the result of species-specific adaptation, light and temperature conditions, ontogenetic shift, and, to a lesser extent, interspecific plant-plant interactions. PMID:26961681

  20. [Effects of elevated O3 on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release of Quercus mongolica in city].

    PubMed

    Su, Li-li; Xu, Sheng; Fu, Wei; He, Xing-yuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yi; Ping, Qin

    2016-02-01

    The leaf litters of 10-year-old Quercus mongolica were put in nylon bags and exposed to elevated 03 level (120 nmol . mol-1) with the control of 40 nmol . mol-1 in open top chambers (OTCs) for 150 days to test the effect of high O3 on the litter decomposition. The results showed that no significant difference was observed in residual mass between elevated O3 treatment and the control. Elevated 03 inhibited the release of C and K during the decomposition, the residual rate of K under elevated O3 treatment (23.9%) was significantly higher than that of the control (17.1%) after 150-day decomposition. Compared with the control, N mineralization and lignin degradation in elevated O3 treatment were inhibited during early period of decomposition (0-60 d), but were promoted in later period (90-150 d). The changes of lignin/N showed no significant difference between elevated O3 treatment and the control during the decomposition. Elevated O3 generally promoted the release of P in leaf litter of Q. mongolica during the decomposition. C/P ratio was higher under elevated 03 than that under control. Significant positive correlation was shown between residual dry mass of leaf litters and the residual rate of C, N, K, C/N ratio during decomposition. Elevated 03 might play an important role in the nutrient cycle of forest ecosystem in high-O3 pollution area.

  1. Paisang (Quercus griffithii): a keystone tree species in sustainable agroecosystem management and livelihoods in Arunachal Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjay K; Singh, Anshuman; Garnett, Stephen T; Zander, Kerstin K; Lobsang; Tsering, Darge

    2015-01-01

    In a study of the traditional livelihoods of 12 Monpa and Brokpa villages in Arunachal Pradesh, India using social-ecological and participatory rural appraisal techniques, we found that the forest tree species paisang (Quercus griffithii, a species of oak) is vital to agroecosystem sustainability. Paisang trees are conserved both by individuals and through community governance, because their leaves play a crucial role in sustaining 11 traditional cropping systems of the Monpa peoples. An Indigenous institution, Chhopa, regulates access to paisang leaves, ensuring that the relationship between paisang and traditional field crop species within Monpa agroecosystems is sustainable. The Monpa farmers also exchange leaves and agricultural products for yak-based foods produced by the transhumant Brokpa, who are primarily yak herders. Yak herds also graze in paisang groves during winter. These practices have enabled the conservation of about 33 landraces, yak breeds, and a number of wild plants. Paisang thus emerged as a culturally important keystone species in the cultures and livelihoods of both Monpa and Brokpa. Ecological and conservation knowledge and ethics about paisang vary with gender, social systems, and altitudes. Labor shortages, however, have already caused some changes to the ways in which paisang leaves are used and yak grazing patterns are also changing in the face of changes in attitude among local landowners. Given new competing interests, incentives schemes are now needed to conserve the ecologically sustainable traditional livelihoods.

  2. Facilitated establishment of Quercus ilex in shrub-dominated communities within a Mediterranean ecosystem: do mycorrhizal partners matter?

    PubMed

    Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André; Gardes, Monique

    2009-04-01

    Positive plant-plant interaction is a widespread phenomenon, especially in harsh environments, which can contribute to secondary successions. Here, we investigated whether Arbutus unedo positively influences Quercus ilex establishment in shrub communities by abiotic and/or biotic interactions in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem, where we previously showed that A. unedo and Q. ilex share numerous species of mycorrhizal fungi. In a first field experiment, patterns of Q. ilex survivorship were documented. During the summer following germination, a majority of seedlings survived in A. unedo chaparral (AU), whereas most of them died in previous succession stages dominated by Erica arborea (EA). These results showed that survival of the Q. ilex seedling is succession stage dependent, probably due to the differential effects of the summer drought. In a second experiment, Q. ilex seedlings were used as bait plants to investigate the mycorrhizal inoculum in EA and AU. Morphotyping and molecular typing revealed 2.5 times higher colonization in AU than in EA, with more diverse fungi. Our results demonstrate that A. unedo facilitates mycorrhization of Q. ilex by hosting compatible ectomycorrhizal symbionts and positively influences seedling survival by buffering abiotic conditions. A comprehensive understanding of facilitation should thus include investigations of the soil biological patterns. PMID:19175678

  3. Seasonality of monoterpene emission potentials in Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea: Implications for regional VOC emissions modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Trevor; Niinemets, ÜLo; Sabate, Santi; Gracia, Carlos; PeñUelas, Josep

    2009-11-01

    VOC emissions from terrestrial ecosystems provide one of the principal controls over oxidative photochemistry in the lower atmosphere and the resulting air pollution. Such atmospheric processes have strong seasonal cycles. Although similar seasonal cycles in VOC emissions from terrestrial ecosystems have been reported, regional emissions inventories generally omit the effect of seasonality on emissions. We compiled measurement data on seasonal variations in monoterpene emissions potentials for two evergreen species (Quercus ilex and Pinus pinea) and used these data to construct two contrasting seasonal response functions for the inclusion in monoterpene emission models. We included these responses in the Niinemets et al. model and compared simulation results to those of the MEGAN model, both with and without its predicted seasonality. The effect of seasonality on regional monoterpene emissions inventories for European Mediterranean forests dominated by these species was tested for both models, using the GOTILWA+ biosphere model platform. The consideration of seasonality in the Niinemets et al. model reduced total estimated annual monoterpene emissions by up to 65% in some regions, with largest reductions at lower latitudes. The MEGAN model demonstrated a much weaker seasonal response than that in the Niinemets et al. model, and did not capture the between species seasonality differences found in this study. Results suggest that previous regional model inventories based on one fixed emission factor likely overestimate regional emissions, and species-specific expressions of seasonality may be necessary. The consideration of seasonality both largely reduces monoterpene emissions estimates, and changes their expected seasonal distribution.

  4. Oak powdery mildew (Erysiphe alphitoides) induced volatile emissions scale with the degree of infection in Quercus robur

    PubMed Central

    Copolovici, Lucian; Väärtnõu, Fred; Estrada, Miguel Portillo; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-01-01

    Oak powdery mildew (Erysiphe alphitoides) is a major foliar pathogen of Quercus robur often infecting entire tree stands. In this study, foliage photosynthetic characteristics and constitutive and induced volatile emissions were studied in Q. robur leaves asking whether the changes in foliage physiological traits are quantitatively associated with the degree of leaf infection, and whether infection changes the light responses of physiological traits. Infection by E. alphitoides reduced net assimilation rate by 3.5-fold, and isoprene emission rate by 2.4-fold and increased stomatal conductance by 1.6-fold in leaves with the largest degree of infection of ca. 60%. These alterations in physiological activity were quantitatively associated with the fraction of leaf area infected. In addition, light-saturation of net assimilation and isoprene emission was reached at lower light intensity in infected leaves, and infection also reduced the initial quantum yield of isoprene emission. Infection-induced emissions of lipoxygenase pathway volatiles and monoterpenes were light-dependent and scaled positively with the degree of infection. Overall, this study indicates that the reduction of foliage photosynthetic activity and constitutive emissions and the onset of stress volatile emissions scales with the degree of infection, but also that infection modifies the light responses of foliage physiological activities. PMID:25428827

  5. Manipulation of VOC emissions with methyl jasmonate and carrageenan in the evergreen conifer Pinus sylvestris and evergreen broadleaf Quercus ilex.

    PubMed

    Semiz, G; Blande, J D; Heijari, J; Işik, K; Niinemets, U; Holopainen, J K

    2012-03-01

    Plant defence can be induced by exposing plants to the plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) or its volatile ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Carrageenans (Carr) - sulphated D-galactans extracted from red algae - can also induce plant defences. In this study, the effects of exogenous MeJA and Carr application (concentration 300 and 12.7 μmol, respectively) on volatile emissions from two widespread evergreen woody species, Pinus sylvestris (nine Turkish and one Finnish provenance) and Quercus ilex (Italian provenance) were investigated. We collected headspace samples from seedlings and analysed the quality and quantity of volatile compounds emitted by treated and control plants. In total, 19 monoterpenes, 10 sesquiterpenes, 10 green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and two aromatic compounds were emitted by P. sylvestris from all the provenances studied. Foliar MeJA application clearly affected the volatile profiles of trees from all the provenances. Effects of Carr were genotype specific. In Q. ilex, emissions of sesquiterpenes, GLVs and the homoterpene (E)-DMNT were all induced by MeJA application. However, emissions of most constitutively emitted monoterpenes were significantly reduced. Carr application also led to a significant reduction in monoterpene emissions, but without corresponding increases in other emissions. Our results indicate that exogenously applied MeJA and Carr can both significantly modify the volatile profiles of P. sylvestris and Q. ilex, but also that there are important provenance- and species-specific differences in the overall degree of elicitation and compositions of elicited compounds. PMID:21973325

  6. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation.

  7. Paisang ( Quercus griffithii): A Keystone Tree Species in Sustainable Agroecosystem Management and Livelihoods in Arunachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranjay K.; Singh, Anshuman; Garnett, Stephen T.; Zander, Kerstin K.; Lobsang; Tsering, Darge

    2015-01-01

    In a study of the traditional livelihoods of 12 Monpa and Brokpa villages in Arunachal Pradesh, India using social-ecological and participatory rural appraisal techniques, we found that the forest tree species paisang ( Quercus griffithii, a species of oak) is vital to agroecosystem sustainability. Paisang trees are conserved both by individuals and through community governance, because their leaves play a crucial role in sustaining 11 traditional cropping systems of the Monpa peoples. An Indigenous institution, Chhopa, regulates access to paisang leaves, ensuring that the relationship between paisang and traditional field crop species within Monpa agroecosystems is sustainable. The Monpa farmers also exchange leaves and agricultural products for yak-based foods produced by the transhumant Brokpa, who are primarily yak herders. Yak herds also graze in paisang groves during winter. These practices have enabled the conservation of about 33 landraces, yak breeds, and a number of wild plants. Paisang thus emerged as a culturally important keystone species in the cultures and livelihoods of both Monpa and Brokpa. Ecological and conservation knowledge and ethics about paisang vary with gender, social systems, and altitudes. Labor shortages, however, have already caused some changes to the ways in which paisang leaves are used and yak grazing patterns are also changing in the face of changes in attitude among local landowners. Given new competing interests, incentives schemes are now needed to conserve the ecologically sustainable traditional livelihoods.

  8. Atmospheric pollutants in peri-urban forests of Quercus ilex: evidence of pollution abatement and threats for vegetation.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Héctor; Aguillaume, Laura; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Valiño, Fernando; Àvila, Anna; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Alastuey, Andrés; Calvete-Sogo, Héctor; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetation is generally accepted as a significant remover of atmospheric pollutants, but it could also be threatened by these compounds, with origin in both urban and non-urban areas. To characterize the seasonal and geographical variation of pollutant concentrations and to improve the empirical understanding of the influence of Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forests on air quality, four forests of Quercus ilex (three peri-urban and one remote) were monitored in different areas in Spain. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3) and ozone (O3) were measured during 2 years in open areas and inside the forests and aerosols (PM10) were monitored in open areas during 1 year. Ozone was the only air pollutant expected to have direct phytotoxic effects on vegetation according to current thresholds for the protection of vegetation. The concentrations of N compounds were not high enough to directly affect vegetation but could be contributing through atmospheric N deposition to the eutrophization of these ecosystems. Peri-urban forests of Q. ilex showed a significant below-canopy reduction of gaseous concentrations (particularly NH3, with a mean reduction of 29-38%), which indicated the feasibility of these forests to provide an ecosystem service of air quality improvement. Well-designed monitoring programs are needed to further investigate air quality improvement by peri-urban ecosystems while assessing the threat that air pollution can pose to vegetation. PMID:26620865

  9. Water-use efficiency in cork oak (Quercus suber) is modified by the interaction of water and light availabilities.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Ismael; Pardos, Marta; Puértolas, Jaime; Jiménez, Maria Dolores; Pardos, Jose Alberto

    2007-05-01

    We studied the interaction of light and water on water-use efficiency in cork oak (Quercus suber L.) seedlings. One-year-old cork oak seedlings were grown in pots in a factorial experiment with four light treatments (68, 50, 15 and 5% of full sunlight) and two irrigation regimes: well watered (WW) and moderate drought stress (WS). Leaf predawn water potential, which was measured at the end of each of two cycles, did not differ among the light treatments. Water-use efficiency, assessed by carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C), tended to increase with increasing irradiance. The trend was similar in the WW and WS treatments, though with lower delta(13)C in all light treatments in the WW irrigation regime. Specific leaf area increased with decreasing irradiance, and was inversely correlated with delta(13)C. Thus, changes in delta(13)C could be explained in part by light-induced modifications in leaf morphology. The relationship between stomatal conductance to water vapor and net photosynthesis on a leaf area basis confirmed that seedlings in higher irradiances maintained a higher rate of carbon uptake at a particular stomatal conductance, implying that shaded seedlings have a lower water-use efficiency that is unrelated to water availability.

  10. Low temperature during winter elicits differential responses among populations of the Mediterranean evergreen cork oak (Quercus suber).

    PubMed

    Aranda, I; Castro, L; Alía, R; Pardos, J A; Gil, L

    2005-08-01

    Populations of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) were assessed for seasonal and inter-population variability in, and temperature responses of, the ratio between light-induced variable and maximum fluorescence of chlorophyll, Fv/Fm, considered a surrogate for the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII). Seedlings from 10 populations throughout the distribution range of Q. suber in the Mediterranean basin were grown in a common garden in central Spain. The Fv/Fm ratio of dark-adapted leaves was measured at dawn every month for 2 years. Air temperature was recorded at a nearby climatic station. During the summer, when maximum air temperatures reached 40 degrees C, there were no significant differences in Fv/Fm among populations, but significant differences were seen during the winter. In colder months, Fv/Fm ranged in all populations between 0.5-0.6 and 0.2-0.3 in 2001 and 2002, respectively. The variance explained by the population effect was greatest during winter months, especially in 2002, reaching a peak value of 10% when minimum air temperature was below -10 degrees C. Populations originating from warmer sites showed the largest decline in Fv/Fm between the end of 2001 and the beginning of 2002. Thus, a negative linear relationship was established between mean annual temperature at the population source and population mean Fv/Fm recorded in the coldest month in 2002 and normalized by the Fv/Fm spring measurement.

  11. Sewage sludge effects on mesofauna and cork oak (Quercus suber L.) leaves decomposition in a Mediterranean forest firebreak.

    PubMed

    Pernin, Céline; Cortet, Jérôme; Joffre, Richard; Le Petit, Jean; Torre, Franck

    2006-01-01

    Effects of sewage sludge on litter mesofauna communities (Collembola and Acari) and cork oak (Quercus suber L.) leaf litter decomposition have been studied during 18 mo using litterbags in an in situ experimental forest firebreak in southeastern France. The sludge (2.74 t DM ha(-1) yr(-1)) was applied to fertilize and maintain a pasture created on the firebreak. Litterbag colonization had similar dynamics on both the control and fertilized plots and followed a typical Mediterranean pattern showing a greater abundance in spring and autumn and a lower abundance in summer. After 9 mo of litter colonization, Collembola and Acari, but mainly Oribatida, were more abundant on the sludge-fertilized plot. Leaf litter decomposition showed a similar pattern on both plots, but it was faster on the control plot. Furthermore, leaves from the fertilized plot were characterized by greater nitrogen content. Both chemical composition of leaves and sludges and the decomposition state of leaves have significantly affected the mesofauna community composition from each plot.

  12. Morphology of foliar trichomes of the Chinese cork oak Quercus variabilis by electron microscopy and three-dimensional surface profiling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Cho, Do-Hyun; Kim, Pan-Gi

    2011-06-01

    Morphology of foliar trichomes was analyzed in Quercus variabilis by electron microscopy and three-dimensional surface profiling. Leaves from suppressed or dominant sprouts of the oak species were collected after a forest fire to unravel the effects of the disturbance factor on sprouting of the oak species. Scanning electron microscopy revealed two types of trichomes depending on the leaf surface. The trichomes on the adaxial surface were branched and constricted, and possessed a single row of thin-walled cells with a collapsed morphology (glandular branched uniseriate trichomes). Meanwhile, the trichomes on the abaxial surface were star-shaped, unfused with each other, and had 6 to 10 rays (nonglandular simple stellate trichomes). An apparent proliferation of trichomes was evident on the adaxial surface of the dominant sprouts. Uniseriate trichomes could be discernable as an elevation from the surface by white light scanning interferometry. By transmission electron microscopy, thin and convoluted cell wall, degenerated cytoplasm, and a single row of cells were characteristic of the trichomes on the adaxial surface. The thick cell walls of the mature trichomes on the abaxial surface represented the nonglandular nature. This is the first report on the morphological and ultrastructural characterization of foliar trichomes of the oak species.

  13. [Effects of elevated O3 on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release of Quercus mongolica in city].

    PubMed

    Su, Li-li; Xu, Sheng; Fu, Wei; He, Xing-yuan; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Yi; Ping, Qin

    2016-02-01

    The leaf litters of 10-year-old Quercus mongolica were put in nylon bags and exposed to elevated 03 level (120 nmol . mol-1) with the control of 40 nmol . mol-1 in open top chambers (OTCs) for 150 days to test the effect of high O3 on the litter decomposition. The results showed that no significant difference was observed in residual mass between elevated O3 treatment and the control. Elevated 03 inhibited the release of C and K during the decomposition, the residual rate of K under elevated O3 treatment (23.9%) was significantly higher than that of the control (17.1%) after 150-day decomposition. Compared with the control, N mineralization and lignin degradation in elevated O3 treatment were inhibited during early period of decomposition (0-60 d), but were promoted in later period (90-150 d). The changes of lignin/N showed no significant difference between elevated O3 treatment and the control during the decomposition. Elevated O3 generally promoted the release of P in leaf litter of Q. mongolica during the decomposition. C/P ratio was higher under elevated 03 than that under control. Significant positive correlation was shown between residual dry mass of leaf litters and the residual rate of C, N, K, C/N ratio during decomposition. Elevated 03 might play an important role in the nutrient cycle of forest ecosystem in high-O3 pollution area. PMID:27396107

  14. [Effects of thinning intensities on population regeneration of natural Quercus variabilis forest on the south slope of Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Zhang, Wen-Hui; He, Jing-Feng; Zhou, Jian-Yun

    2014-03-01

    Taking the natural Quercus variabilis forest in Shangluo, south slope of Qinling Mountains as the object in May 2006 and August 2011, which was under close-to-natural management of different thinning intensities (30%, 20%, 10%), and the un-thinned forest as the control, changes of the stand growth situation before and after thinning, population regeneration, species diversity and soil fertility after 5 years of thinning were analyzed, and the effects of thinning on forestland revegetation and community development were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that the number of 1-6 years old Q. variabilis seedlings increased with increasing thinning intensity, while no significant difference was found for above 6 years old seedlings. The regeneration potentials of population under 10%, 20% and 30% thinning were respectively increased by 10.8%, 28.5% and 32.9% compared with the control. Thinning promoted the DBH and crown of the trees and shrubs, as well as the height of shrubs, especially for light-loving plants, and the effect of promotion increased with increasing thinning intensity. The species diversity and soil fertility were improved after thinning, in order of 30% > 20% > 10% > control. The thinning intensity of 30% (canopy density 0.6) was more conducive to the continuable development of the natural Q. variabilis forest in which canopy density was above 0.85. PMID:24984485

  15. Leaf-age effects on temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration of an alpine oak, Quercus aquifolioides, in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoran; Xu, Ming; Pan, Hongli; Yu, Xiubo

    2015-11-01

    Temperature responses and sensitivity of photosynthesis (A(n_)T) and respiration for leaves at different ages are crucial to modeling ecosystem carbon (C) cycles and productivity of evergreen forests. Understanding the mechanisms and processes of temperature sensitivity may further shed lights on temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration with leaf aging. The current study examined temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration of young leaves (YLs) (fully expanded in current growth season) and old leaves (OLs) (fully expanded in last growth season) of Quercus aquifolioides Rehder and E.H. Wilson in an alpine oak forest, southwestern China. Temperature responses of dark respiration (R(dark)), net assimilation (A(n)), maximal velocity of carboxylation (V(cmax)) and maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)) were significantly different between the two leaf ages. Those differences implied different temperature response parameters should be used for leaves of different ages in modeling vegetation productivity and ecosystem C cycles in Q. aquifolioides forests and other evergreen forests. We found that RuBP carboxylation determined the downward shift of A(n_)T in OLs, while RuBP regeneration and the balance between Rubisco carboxylation and RuBP regeneration made little contribution. Sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit changed in OLs and compensated part of the downward shift. We also found that OLs of Q. aquifolioides had lower An due to lower stomatal conductance, higher stomatal conductance limitation and deactivation of the biochemical processes. In addition, the balance between R(dark) and A(n) changed between OLs and YLs, which was represented by a higher R(dark)/A(n) ratio for OLs.

  16. Leaf functional plasticity decreases the water consumption without further consequences for carbon uptake in Quercus coccifera L. under Mediterranean conditions.

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; García-Plazaola, Jose Ignacio; Niinemets, Ülo; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    The accumulation of epicuticular waxes over stomata in Quercus coccifera L. contributes to a severe reduction in maximum stomatal conductance (g s,max) under Mediterranean (MED) conditions. However, this phenomenon was not observed in this species under temperate (TEM) conditions, which could lead to differences in the ability to assimilate CO2 between the sites. We hypothesise that the overall importance of such a reduction in gs,max on photosynthesis is modulated by other factors affecting carbon gain, mainly mesophyll conductance to CO2 (g m), through a plastic response to changes in environmental conditions (i.e., vapour pressure deficit, VPD, and mean daily quantum flux density, Q int). The results reveal that leaves grown at the TEM site did not show an increased ability for net CO2 assimilation (A N), mainly due to an equal gm at both sites. This fact is explained by a trade-off between an increased conductance of the gas phase (g ias) and a reduced conductance of the liquid phase (g liq) at the TEM site compared with the MED site. In spite of the reduction in gs,max at the MED site, transpiration (E) did not diminish during midsummer to the levels of the TEM site due to a higher VPD found at the MED site, yielding a higher water use efficiency (AN/E) at the TEM site. Moreover, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency was also higher at the TEM site, indicating these leaves can reach similar values of AN with lower nitrogen investment that those at the MED site. These results suggest that Q. coccifera does not always use the main resources (water and nutrients) at leaf level as efficiently as possible. Moreover, the different patterns of resource use (in particular N), together with the functional plasticity, cannot overcome the morpho-functional constraints that limit photosynthetic activity, even under potentially favourable conditions.

  17. Epicormic ontogeny in Quercus petraea constrains the highly plausible control of epicormic sprouting by water and carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Morisset, J. B.; Mothe, F.; Bock, J.; Bréda, N.; Colin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims There is increasing evidence that suppressed bud burst and thus epicormic shoot emergence (sprouting) are controlled by water–carbohydrate supplies to entire trees and buds. This direct evidence is still lacking for oak. In other respects, recent studies focused on sessile oak, Quercus petraea, have confirmed the important constraints of sprouting by epicormic ontogeny. The main objective of this paper was thus to provide provisional confirmation of the water–carbohydrate control and direct evidence of the ontogenic constraints by bringing together results already published in separate studies on water status and distribution of carbohydrates, and on accompanying vegetation and epicormics, which also quantify epicormic ontogeny. Methods This paper analyses results gained from a sessile oak experiment in which part of the site was free from fairly tall, dense accompanying vegetation. This experiment was initially focused on stand water status and more recently on the carbohydrate distribution of dominant trees. External observations of the epicormic composition and internal observations with X-ray computer tomography were undertaken on 60 and six trees, respectively. Key Results Sprouting was more intense in the part of the stand free from accompanying vegetation and on upper trunk segments. A clear effect of epicormic ontogeny was demonstrated as well: the more epicormics a trunk segment bears, the more chances it had to bear sprouts. Conclusions These results indirectly infer water–carbohydrate control and show direct evidence of constraints by epicormic ontogeny. These results have far-reaching consequences related to the quantification of all functions fulfilled by any type of epicormic structure in any part of the tree. PMID:22147545

  18. Both host plant and ecosystem engineer identity influence leaf-tie impacts on the arthropod community of Quercus.

    PubMed

    Wang, H George; Marquis, Robert J; Baer, Christina S

    2012-10-01

    Many insect herbivores build shelters on plants, which are then colonized by other arthropod species. To understand the impacts of such ecosystem engineering on associated species, the contributions of ecosystem engineer and host-plant identities must be understood. We investigated these contingencies at the patch scale using two species of leaf-tying caterpillars, which vary in size and tie construction mode, on eight species of oak (Quercus) trees, which vary in leaf size and leaf chemistry. We created three types of artificial leaf ties by clipping together pairs of adjacent leaves using metal hair clips. We left the first type of leaf tie empty while adding individuals of the leaf-tying caterpillars of either Pseudotelphusa quercinigracella or Psilocorsis cryptolechiella to the other two. We also created a control treatment of untied leaves by affixing clips to single leaves. Leaf ties increased occupancy in the early season and arthropod alpha diversity throughout the experiment, on average fourfold. Furthermore, the presence of leaf ties increased arthropod species density on average three times and abundance 10-35 times, depending on the plant species. The mean phenolic content of the leaves of each oak species was positively correlated with the leaf-tie effect on abundance and negatively correlated with the leaf-tie effect on species diversity. Species diversity, but not abundance, was affected by the identity of the tie-maker. Arthropod species composition differed between untied leaves and artificial leaf ties, and between ties made by the two leaf-tier species. Our results demonstrate that the presence of leaf ties adds to habitat diversity within the oak-herbivore system, not only by creating a new kind of microhabitat (the leaf tie) within trees, but also by exacerbating differences among the eight oak species in apparent habitat quality. The identity of the leaf-tying caterpillar adds to this heterogeneity by creating leaf ties of different size, thus

  19. Specific polyphenols and tannins are associated with defense against insect herbivores in the tropical oak Quercus oleoides.

    PubMed

    Moctezuma, Coral; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Heil, Martin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Oyama, Ken

    2014-05-01

    The role of plant polyphenols as defenses against insect herbivores is controversial. We combined correlative field studies across three geographic regions (Northern Mexico, Southern Mexico, and Costa Rica) with induction experiments under controlled conditions to search for candidate compounds that might play a defensive role in the foliage of the tropical oak, Quercus oleoides. We quantified leaf damage caused by four herbivore guilds (chewers, skeletonizers, leaf miners, and gall forming insects) and analyzed the content of 18 polyphenols (including hydrolyzable tannins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonol glycosides) in the same set of leaves using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Foliar damage ranged from two to eight percent per region, and nearly 90% of all the damage was caused by chewing herbivores. Damage due to chewing herbivores was positively correlated with acutissimin B, catechin, and catechin dimer, and damage by mining herbivores was positively correlated with mongolinin A. By contrast, gall presence was negatively correlated with vescalagin and acutissimin B. By using redundancy analysis, we searched for the combinations of polyphenols that were associated to natural herbivory: the combination of mongolinin A and acutissimin B had the highest association to herbivory. In a common garden experiment with oak saplings, artificial damage increased the content of acutissimin B, mongolinin A, and vescalagin, whereas the content of catechin decreased. Specific polyphenols, either individually or in combination, rather than total polyphenols, were associated with standing leaf damage in this tropical oak. Future studies aimed at understanding the ecological role of polyphenols can use similar correlative studies to identify candidate compounds that could be used individually and in biologically meaningful combinations in tests with herbivores and pathogens.

  20. Early Summer Drought Stress During the First Growing Year Stimulates Extra Shoot Growth in Oak Seedlings (Quercus petraea)

    PubMed Central

    Turcsán, Arion; Steppe, Kathy; Sárközi, Edit; Erdélyi, Éva; Missoorten, Marc; Mees, Ghislain; Mijnsbrugge, Kristine V.

    2016-01-01

    More severe summer droughts are predicted for mid-latitudes in Europe. To evaluate the impact on forest ecosystems and more specifically on forest regeneration, we studied the response to summer drought in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea). Acorns were collected from different mother trees in three stands in Belgium, sown in pots and grown in non-heated greenhouse conditions. We imposed drought on the seedlings in early summer by first watering the pots to saturation and then stopping any watering. Weight of the pots and stomatal conductance were regularly measured. Re-watering followed this drought period of 5 weeks. Height of the seedlings and apical bud development were observed. Stomatal resistance increased toward the end of the experiment in the drought-treated group and was restored after re-watering. The seedlings from the drought treatment displayed a higher probability to produce additional shoot growth after re-watering (p ≤ 0.05). A higher competition for water (two plants per pot) increased this chance. Although this chance was also higher for smaller seedlings, the actual length of the extra growth after re-watering was higher for larger seedlings (p ≤ 0.01). Both in the drought-treated and in the control group the autochthonous provenance growing on a xeric site produced less extra shoots compared to the two other provenances. Finally, stressed plants showed less developed apical buds compared to the control group after re-watering, suggesting a phenological effect on the growth cycle of oaks (p ≤ 0.0001). The higher chance for an extra shoot growth after the drought period can be considered as a compensation for the induced growth arrest during the drought period. PMID:26941760

  1. How drought severity constrains gross primary production(GPP) and its partitioning among carbon pools in a Quercus ilex coppice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambal, S.; Lempereur, M.; Limousin, J. M.; Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ourcival, J. M.; Rodríguez-Calcerrada, J.

    2014-12-01

    The partitioning of photosynthates toward biomass compartments plays a crucial role in the carbon (C) sink function of forests. Few studies have examined how carbon is allocated toward plant compartments in drought-prone forests. We analyzed the fate of gross primary production (GPP) in relation to yearly water deficit in an old evergreen Mediterranean Quercus ilex coppice severely affected by water limitations. Carbon fluxes between the ecosystem and the atmosphere were measured with an eddy covariance flux tower running continuously since 2001. Discrete measurements of litterfall, stem growth and fAPAR allowed us to derive annual productions of leaves, wood, flowers and acorns, and an isometric relationship between stem and belowground biomass has been used to estimate perennial belowground growth. By combining eddy covariance fluxes with annual net primary productions (NPP), we managed to close a C budget and derive values of autotrophic, heterotrophic respirations and carbon-use efficiency (CUE; the ratio between NPP and GPP). Average values of yearly net ecosystem production (NEP), GPP and Reco were 282, 1259 and 977 g C m-2. The corresponding aboveground net primary production (ANPP) components were 142.5, 26.4 and 69.6 g C m-2 for leaves, reproductive effort (flowers and fruits) and stems, respectively. NEP, GPP and Reco were affected by annual water deficit. Partitioning to the different plant compartments was also impacted by drought, with a hierarchy of responses going from the most affected - the stem growth - to the least affected - the leaf production. The average CUE was 0.40, which is well in the range for Mediterranean-type forest ecosystems. CUE tended to decrease less drastically in response to drought than GPP and NPP did, probably due to drought acclimation of autotrophic respiration. Overall, our results provide a baseline for modeling the inter-annual variations of carbon fluxes and allocation in this widespread Mediterranean ecosystem, and

  2. Leaf functional plasticity decreases the water consumption without further consequences for carbon uptake in Quercus coccifera L. under Mediterranean conditions.

    PubMed

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sisó, Sergio; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; García-Plazaola, Jose Ignacio; Niinemets, Ülo; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-03-01

    The accumulation of epicuticular waxes over stomata in Quercus coccifera L. contributes to a severe reduction in maximum stomatal conductance (g s,max) under Mediterranean (MED) conditions. However, this phenomenon was not observed in this species under temperate (TEM) conditions, which could lead to differences in the ability to assimilate CO2 between the sites. We hypothesise that the overall importance of such a reduction in gs,max on photosynthesis is modulated by other factors affecting carbon gain, mainly mesophyll conductance to CO2 (g m), through a plastic response to changes in environmental conditions (i.e., vapour pressure deficit, VPD, and mean daily quantum flux density, Q int). The results reveal that leaves grown at the TEM site did not show an increased ability for net CO2 assimilation (A N), mainly due to an equal gm at both sites. This fact is explained by a trade-off between an increased conductance of the gas phase (g ias) and a reduced conductance of the liquid phase (g liq) at the TEM site compared with the MED site. In spite of the reduction in gs,max at the MED site, transpiration (E) did not diminish during midsummer to the levels of the TEM site due to a higher VPD found at the MED site, yielding a higher water use efficiency (AN/E) at the TEM site. Moreover, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency was also higher at the TEM site, indicating these leaves can reach similar values of AN with lower nitrogen investment that those at the MED site. These results suggest that Q. coccifera does not always use the main resources (water and nutrients) at leaf level as efficiently as possible. Moreover, the different patterns of resource use (in particular N), together with the functional plasticity, cannot overcome the morpho-functional constraints that limit photosynthetic activity, even under potentially favourable conditions. PMID:26705310

  3. Responses and acclimation of Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis Bl.) to metal stress: the inducible antimony tolerance in oak trees.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiulian; Zheng, Lingyu; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun; Lei, Jingpin; Shi, Shengqing; Shi, Xiang; Li, Huiqing; Li, Qinghe; Wei, Yuan; Chang, Ermei; Jiang, Zeping; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-08-01

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has become a pressing environmental problem in recent years. Trees have been proven to have great potential for the feasible phytomanagement; however, little is known about Sb retention and tolerance in trees. The Chinese cork oak (Quercus variabilis Bl.) is known to be capable of growth in soils containing high concentrations of Sb. This study explored in detail the retention and acclimation of Q. variabilis under moderate and high external Sb levels. Results revealed that Q. variabilis could tolerate and accumulate high Sb (1623.39 mg kg(-1) DW) in roots. Dynamics of Sb retention in leaves, stems, and roots of Q. variabilis were different. Leaf Sb remained at a certain level for several weeks, while in roots and stems, Sb concentrations continued to increase. Sb damaged tree's PSII reaction cores but elicited defense mechanism at the donor side of PSII. It affected the electron transport flow after QA (-) more strongly than the oxygen-evolving complex and light-harvesting pigment-protein complex II. Sb also decreased leaf chlorophyll concentrations and therefore inhibited plant growth. During acclimation to Sb toxicity, Sb concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots decreased, with photosynthetic activity and pigments recovering to normal levels by the end of the experiment. These findings suggest that Sb tolerance in Q. variabilis is inducible. Acclimation seems to be related to homeostasis of Sb in plants. Results of this study can provide useful information for trees breeding and selection of Sb phytomanagement strategies, exploiting the established ability of Q. variabilis to transport, delocalize in the leaves, and tolerate Sb pollutions.

  4. Leaf-age effects on temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration of an alpine oak, Quercus aquifolioides, in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoran; Xu, Ming; Pan, Hongli; Yu, Xiubo

    2015-11-01

    Temperature responses and sensitivity of photosynthesis (A(n_)T) and respiration for leaves at different ages are crucial to modeling ecosystem carbon (C) cycles and productivity of evergreen forests. Understanding the mechanisms and processes of temperature sensitivity may further shed lights on temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration with leaf aging. The current study examined temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration of young leaves (YLs) (fully expanded in current growth season) and old leaves (OLs) (fully expanded in last growth season) of Quercus aquifolioides Rehder and E.H. Wilson in an alpine oak forest, southwestern China. Temperature responses of dark respiration (R(dark)), net assimilation (A(n)), maximal velocity of carboxylation (V(cmax)) and maximum rate of electron transport (J(max)) were significantly different between the two leaf ages. Those differences implied different temperature response parameters should be used for leaves of different ages in modeling vegetation productivity and ecosystem C cycles in Q. aquifolioides forests and other evergreen forests. We found that RuBP carboxylation determined the downward shift of A(n_)T in OLs, while RuBP regeneration and the balance between Rubisco carboxylation and RuBP regeneration made little contribution. Sensitivity of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit changed in OLs and compensated part of the downward shift. We also found that OLs of Q. aquifolioides had lower An due to lower stomatal conductance, higher stomatal conductance limitation and deactivation of the biochemical processes. In addition, the balance between R(dark) and A(n) changed between OLs and YLs, which was represented by a higher R(dark)/A(n) ratio for OLs. PMID:26452765

  5. Changes in monoterpene emission rates of Quercus ilex infested by aphids tended by native or invasive Lasius ant species.

    PubMed

    Paris, Carolina I; Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep

    2010-07-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) depends on temperature and light. Other factors such as insect herbivory also may modify VOC emission. In particular, aphid feeding promotes the release of new compounds and changes the composition of plant volatile blends. Given that some aphids are tended by ants, we investigated whether ants change the emission of VOCs indirectly through attendance on aphids. The effect of Lachnus roboris aphids and two different tending ant species on terpene emission rates of 4-year-old holm oak (Quercus ilex) saplings was investigated during a field experiment. There were five treatments: saplings alone (T1), saplings infested with L. roboris aphids (T2), saplings infested with aphids tended by the local ant Lasius grandis (T3), those tended by small colonies of the invasive ant Lasius neglectus (T4), and those tended by large colonies of the same invasive ant species (T5). The infestation by L. roboris elicited the emission of Delta(3)-carene and increased the emission of myrcene and gamma-terpinene. Terpene emissions were modified depending on the tending ant species. Attendance by the local ant L. grandis increased alpha and beta-pinene and sabinene. Attendance by the invasive ant L. neglectus only decreased significantly the emission of myrcene, one of the major compounds of the Q. ilex blend. Aphid abundance decreased with time for all treatments, but there was no difference in aphid abundance among treatments. Total terpene emission rates were not correlated with aphid abundance. These results highlight that aphids and tending ants may change terpene emission rates, depending on the ant species.

  6. Specific polyphenols and tannins are associated with defense against insect herbivores in the tropical oak Quercus oleoides.

    PubMed

    Moctezuma, Coral; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Heil, Martin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Oyama, Ken

    2014-05-01

    The role of plant polyphenols as defenses against insect herbivores is controversial. We combined correlative field studies across three geographic regions (Northern Mexico, Southern Mexico, and Costa Rica) with induction experiments under controlled conditions to search for candidate compounds that might play a defensive role in the foliage of the tropical oak, Quercus oleoides. We quantified leaf damage caused by four herbivore guilds (chewers, skeletonizers, leaf miners, and gall forming insects) and analyzed the content of 18 polyphenols (including hydrolyzable tannins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonol glycosides) in the same set of leaves using high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Foliar damage ranged from two to eight percent per region, and nearly 90% of all the damage was caused by chewing herbivores. Damage due to chewing herbivores was positively correlated with acutissimin B, catechin, and catechin dimer, and damage by mining herbivores was positively correlated with mongolinin A. By contrast, gall presence was negatively correlated with vescalagin and acutissimin B. By using redundancy analysis, we searched for the combinations of polyphenols that were associated to natural herbivory: the combination of mongolinin A and acutissimin B had the highest association to herbivory. In a common garden experiment with oak saplings, artificial damage increased the content of acutissimin B, mongolinin A, and vescalagin, whereas the content of catechin decreased. Specific polyphenols, either individually or in combination, rather than total polyphenols, were associated with standing leaf damage in this tropical oak. Future studies aimed at understanding the ecological role of polyphenols can use similar correlative studies to identify candidate compounds that could be used individually and in biologically meaningful combinations in tests with herbivores and pathogens. PMID:24809533

  7. [Dynamics of Quercus variabilis seed rain and soil seed bank in different habitats on the north slope of Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Zhou, Jian-Yun; Ma, Chuang; Ma, Li-Wei

    2011-11-01

    In order to explore the dynamics of Quercus variabilis seed rain and soil seed bank in different habitats on the north slope of Qinling Mountains, three kinds of micro-habitats (understory, forest gap, and forest edge) were selected, with the seed rain quantity and quality of Q. variabilis, seed amount and viability in soil seed bank, as well as the seedling development of Q. variabilis studied. The seed rain of Q. variabilis started from mid August, reached the peak in mid September-early October, and ended at the beginning of November, and there existed differences in the dissemination process, occurrence time, and composition of the seed rain among the three micro-habitats. The seed rain had the maximum intensity (39.55 +/- 5.56 seeds x m(-2)) in understory, the seeds had the earliest landing time, the longest lasting duration, and the highest viability in forest gap, and the mature seeds had the largest proportion in forest edge, accounting for 58.7% of the total. From the ending time of seed rain to next August, the total reserve of soil seed bank was the largest in understory and the smallest in forest edge. In the three habitats, the amount of mature and immature seeds, that of seeds eaten by animals, and the seed viability in soil seed bank all decreased with time. In contrast, the number of moldy seeds increased. The seeds were mainly concentrated in litter layer, a few of them were in 0-2 cm soil layer, and few were in 2-5 cm soil layer. The density of the seedlings varied with habitats, being the largest in forest gap, followed by in forest edge, and the least in understory, which suggested that forest gap was more suitable for the seed germination and seedling growth of Q. variabilis, and thus, appropriate thinning should be taken to increase forest gap to provide favorable conditions for the natural regeneration of Q. variabilis forest.

  8. Multilevel Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Crown Ratio Models for Individual Trees of Mongolian Oak (Quercus mongolica) in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Liyong; Zhang, Huiru; Lu, Jun; Zang, Hao; Lou, Minghua; Wang, Guangxing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an individual tree crown ratio (CR) model was developed with a data set from a total of 3134 Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) trees within 112 sample plots allocated in Wangqing Forest Bureau of northeast China. Because of high correlation among the observations taken from the same sampling plots, the random effects at levels of both blocks defined as stands that have different site conditions and plots were taken into account to develop a nested two-level nonlinear mixed-effect model. Various stand and tree characteristics were assessed to explore their contributions to improvement of model prediction. Diameter at breast height, plot dominant tree height and plot dominant tree diameter were found to be significant predictors. Exponential model with plot dominant tree height as a predictor had a stronger ability to account for the heteroskedasticity. When random effects were modeled at block level alone, the correlations among the residuals remained significant. These correlations were successfully reduced when random effects were modeled at both block and plot levels. The random effects from the interaction of blocks and sample plots on tree CR were substantially large. The model that took into account both the block effect and the interaction of blocks and sample plots had higher prediction accuracy than the one with the block effect and population average considered alone. Introducing stand density into the model through dummy variables could further improve its prediction. This implied that the developed method for developing tree CR models of Mongolian oak is promising and can be applied to similar studies for other tree species. PMID:26241912

  9. Variations in Quercus sp. pollen seasons (1996-2011) in Poznań, Poland, in relation to meteorological parameters.

    PubMed

    Grewling, Lukasz; Jackowiak, Bogdan; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to supply detailed information about oak (Quercus sp.) pollen seasons in Poznań, Poland, based on a 16-year aerobiological data series (1996-2011). The pollen data were collected using a volumetric spore trap of the Hirst design located in Poznań city center. The limits of the pollen seasons were calculated using the 95 % method. The influence of meteorological parameters on temporal variations in airborne pollen was examined using correlation analysis. Start and end dates of oak pollen seasons in Poznań varied markedly from year-to-year (14 and 17 days, respectively). Most of the pollen grains (around 75 % of the seasonal pollen index) were recorded within the first 2 weeks of the pollen season. The tenfold variation was observed between the least and the most intensive pollen seasons. These fluctuations were significantly related to the variation in the sum of rain during the period second fortnight of March to first fortnight of April the year before pollination (r = 0.799; p < 0.001). During the analyzing period, a significant advance in oak pollen season start dates was observed (-0.55 day/year; p = 0.021), which was linked with an increase in the mean temperature during the second half of March and first half of April (+0.2 °C; p = 0.014). Daily average oak pollen counts correlated positively with mean and maximum daily temperatures, and negatively with daily rainfall and daily mean relative humidity.

  10. The Cd(II)-binding abilities of recombinant Quercus suber metallothionein: bridging the gap between phytochelatins and metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Domènech, Jordi; Orihuela, Rubén; Mir, Gisela; Molinas, Marisa; Atrian, Sílvia; Capdevila, Mercè

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we have analyzed both at stoichiometric and at conformational level the Cd(II)-binding features of a type 2 plant metallothionein (MT) (the cork oak, Quercus suber, QsMT). To this end four peptides, the wild-type QsMT and three constructs previously engineered to characterize its Zn(II)- and Cu(I)-binding behaviour, were heterologously produced in Escherichia coli cultures supplemented with Cd(II), and the corresponding complexes were purified up to homogeneity. The Cd(II)-binding ability of these recombinant peptides was determined through the chemical, spectroscopic and spectrometric characterization of the recovered clusters. Recombinant synthesis of the four QsMT peptides in cadmium-rich media rendered complexes with a higher metal content than those obtained from zinc-supplemented cultures and, consequently, the recovered Cd(II) species are nonisostructural to those of Zn(II). Also of interest is the fact that three out of the four peptides yielded recombinant preparations that included S(2-)-containing Cd(II) complexes as major species. Subsequently, the in vitro Zn(II)/Cd(II) replacement reactions were studied, as well as the in vitro acid denaturation and S(2-) renaturation reactions. Finally, the capacity of the four peptides for preventing cadmium deleterious effects in yeast cells was tested through complementation assays. Consideration of all the results enables us to suggest a hairpin folding model for this typical type 2 plant Cd(II)-MT complex, as well as a nonnegligible role of the spacer in the detoxification function of QsMT towards cadmium.

  11. Experimentally reduced root–microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H.; Callahan, Hilary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. Methods To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Key Results Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10–20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10–30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. Conclusions The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root

  12. Early Summer Drought Stress During the First Growing Year Stimulates Extra Shoot Growth in Oak Seedlings (Quercus petraea).

    PubMed

    Turcsán, Arion; Steppe, Kathy; Sárközi, Edit; Erdélyi, Éva; Missoorten, Marc; Mees, Ghislain; Mijnsbrugge, Kristine V

    2016-01-01

    More severe summer droughts are predicted for mid-latitudes in Europe. To evaluate the impact on forest ecosystems and more specifically on forest regeneration, we studied the response to summer drought in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea). Acorns were collected from different mother trees in three stands in Belgium, sown in pots and grown in non-heated greenhouse conditions. We imposed drought on the seedlings in early summer by first watering the pots to saturation and then stopping any watering. Weight of the pots and stomatal conductance were regularly measured. Re-watering followed this drought period of 5 weeks. Height of the seedlings and apical bud development were observed. Stomatal resistance increased toward the end of the experiment in the drought-treated group and was restored after re-watering. The seedlings from the drought treatment displayed a higher probability to produce additional shoot growth after re-watering (p ≤ 0.05). A higher competition for water (two plants per pot) increased this chance. Although this chance was also higher for smaller seedlings, the actual length of the extra growth after re-watering was higher for larger seedlings (p ≤ 0.01). Both in the drought-treated and in the control group the autochthonous provenance growing on a xeric site produced less extra shoots compared to the two other provenances. Finally, stressed plants showed less developed apical buds compared to the control group after re-watering, suggesting a phenological effect on the growth cycle of oaks (p ≤ 0.0001). The higher chance for an extra shoot growth after the drought period can be considered as a compensation for the induced growth arrest during the drought period.

  13. Early Summer Drought Stress During the First Growing Year Stimulates Extra Shoot Growth in Oak Seedlings (Quercus petraea).

    PubMed

    Turcsán, Arion; Steppe, Kathy; Sárközi, Edit; Erdélyi, Éva; Missoorten, Marc; Mees, Ghislain; Mijnsbrugge, Kristine V

    2016-01-01

    More severe summer droughts are predicted for mid-latitudes in Europe. To evaluate the impact on forest ecosystems and more specifically on forest regeneration, we studied the response to summer drought in oak seedlings (Quercus petraea). Acorns were collected from different mother trees in three stands in Belgium, sown in pots and grown in non-heated greenhouse conditions. We imposed drought on the seedlings in early summer by first watering the pots to saturation and then stopping any watering. Weight of the pots and stomatal conductance were regularly measured. Re-watering followed this drought period of 5 weeks. Height of the seedlings and apical bud development were observed. Stomatal resistance increased toward the end of the experiment in the drought-treated group and was restored after re-watering. The seedlings from the drought treatment displayed a higher probability to produce additional shoot growth after re-watering (p ≤ 0.05). A higher competition for water (two plants per pot) increased this chance. Although this chance was also higher for smaller seedlings, the actual length of the extra growth after re-watering was higher for larger seedlings (p ≤ 0.01). Both in the drought-treated and in the control group the autochthonous provenance growing on a xeric site produced less extra shoots compared to the two other provenances. Finally, stressed plants showed less developed apical buds compared to the control group after re-watering, suggesting a phenological effect on the growth cycle of oaks (p ≤ 0.0001). The higher chance for an extra shoot growth after the drought period can be considered as a compensation for the induced growth arrest during the drought period. PMID:26941760

  14. Drought reduced monoterpene emissions from Quercus ilex trees: results from a throughfall displacement experiment within a forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoir, A. V.; Staudt, M.; Schnitzler, J. P.; Landais, D.; Massol, F.; Rocheteau, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Zimmer, I.; Rambal, S.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of water limitations on the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds are not well understood. Experimental approaches studying drought effects in natural conditions are still missing. To address this question, a throughfall displacement experiment was set up in a natural forest of Quercus ilex, an evergreen Mediterranean oak emitting monoterpenes. Mature trees were exposed in 2005 and 2006 either to an additional drought, to irrigation or to natural drought (untreated control). In both years, absolute monoterpene emission rates as well as the respective standard factors of the trees exposed to normal and additional drought strongly declined during the drought periods. Monoterpene emissions were lower in year 2006 than in year 2005 (factor 2) due to a more pronounced summer drought period in this respective year. We observed a significant difference between the irrigation and additional drought or control treatment: irrigated trees emitted 82% more monoterpenes during the drought period 2006 than the trees of the other treatments. However, no significant effect on monoterpene emission was observed between normal and additional drought treatments, despite a significant effect on leaf water potential and photochemical efficiency. During the development of drought, monoterpene emissions responded exponentially rather than linearly to decreasing leaf water potential. Emissions rapidly declined when the water potential dropped below -2 MPa and photosynthesis was persistently inhibited. Monoterpene synthase activities measured in vitro showed no clear reduction during the same period. From our results we conclude that drought significantly reduces monoterpene fluxes of Mediterranean evergreen forest into the atmosphere due to a sustained inhibition of photosynthetic carbon assimilation.

  15. Drought reduced monoterpene emissions from the evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex: results from a throughfall displacement experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavoir, A.-V.; Staudt, M.; Schnitzler, J. P.; Landais, D.; Massol, F.; Rocheteau, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Zimmer, I.; Rambal, S.

    2009-07-01

    The effects of water limitations on the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds are not well understood. Experimental approaches studying drought effects in natural conditions are still missing. To address this question, a throughfall displacement experiment was set up in a natural forest of Quercus ilex, an evergreen Mediterranean oak emitting monoterpenes. Mature trees were exposed in 2005 and 2006 either to an additional drought, to irrigation or to natural drought (untreated control). In both years, absolute monoterpene emission rates as well as the respective standard factors of the trees exposed to normal and additional drought strongly declined during the drought periods. Monoterpene emissions were lower in year 2006 than in year 2005 (factor 2) due to a more pronounced summer drought period in this respective year. We observed a significant difference between the irrigation and additional drought or control treatment: irrigated trees emitted 82% more monoterpenes during the drought period 2006 than the trees of the other treatments. However, no significant effect on monoterpene emission was observed between normal and additional drought treatments, despite a significant effect on leaf water potential and photochemical efficiency. During the development of drought, monoterpene emissions responded exponentially rather than linearly to decreasing leaf water potential. Emissions rapidly declined when the water potential dropped below -2 MPa and photosynthesis was persistently inhibited. Monoterpene synthase activities measured in vitro showed no clear reduction during the same period. From our results we conclude that drought significantly reduces monoterpene fluxes of Mediterranean Holm oak forest into the atmosphere due to a lack of primary substrates coming from photosynthetic processes.

  16. Stand density, tree social status and water stress influence allocation in height and diameter growth of Quercus petraea (Liebl.).

    PubMed

    Trouvé, Raphaël; Bontemps, Jean-Daniel; Seynave, Ingrid; Collet, Catherine; Lebourgeois, François

    2015-10-01

    Even-aged forest stands are competitive communities where competition for light gives advantages to tall individuals, thereby inducing a race for height. These same individuals must however balance this competitive advantage with height-related mechanical and hydraulic risks. These phenomena may induce variations in height-diameter growth relationships, with primary dependences on stand density and tree social status as proxies for competition pressure and access to light, and on availability of local environmental resources, including water. We aimed to investigate the effects of stand density, tree social status and water stress on the individual height-circumference growth allocation (Δh-Δc), in even-aged stands of Quercus petraea Liebl. (sessile oak). Within-stand Δc was used as surrogate for tree social status. We used an original long-term experimental plot network, set up in the species production area in France, and designed to explore stand dynamics on a maximum density gradient. Growth allocation was modelled statistically by relating the shape of the Δh-Δc relationship to stand density, stand age and water deficit. The shape of the Δh-Δc relationship shifted from linear with a moderate slope in open-grown stands to concave saturating with an initial steep slope in closed stands. Maximum height growth was found to follow a typical mono-modal response to stand age. In open-grown stands, increasing summer soil water deficit was found to decrease height growth relative to radial growth, suggesting hydraulic constraints on height growth. A similar pattern was found in closed stands, the magnitude of the effect however lowering from suppressed to dominant trees. We highlight the high phenotypic plasticity of growth in sessile oak trees that further adapt their allocation scheme to their environment. Stand density and tree social status were major drivers of growth allocation variations, while water stress had a detrimental effect on height in the

  17. Changes in monoterpene emission rates of Quercus ilex infested by aphids tended by native or invasive Lasius ant species.

    PubMed

    Paris, Carolina I; Llusia, Joan; Peñuelas, Josep

    2010-07-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) depends on temperature and light. Other factors such as insect herbivory also may modify VOC emission. In particular, aphid feeding promotes the release of new compounds and changes the composition of plant volatile blends. Given that some aphids are tended by ants, we investigated whether ants change the emission of VOCs indirectly through attendance on aphids. The effect of Lachnus roboris aphids and two different tending ant species on terpene emission rates of 4-year-old holm oak (Quercus ilex) saplings was investigated during a field experiment. There were five treatments: saplings alone (T1), saplings infested with L. roboris aphids (T2), saplings infested with aphids tended by the local ant Lasius grandis (T3), those tended by small colonies of the invasive ant Lasius neglectus (T4), and those tended by large colonies of the same invasive ant species (T5). The infestation by L. roboris elicited the emission of Delta(3)-carene and increased the emission of myrcene and gamma-terpinene. Terpene emissions were modified depending on the tending ant species. Attendance by the local ant L. grandis increased alpha and beta-pinene and sabinene. Attendance by the invasive ant L. neglectus only decreased significantly the emission of myrcene, one of the major compounds of the Q. ilex blend. Aphid abundance decreased with time for all treatments, but there was no difference in aphid abundance among treatments. Total terpene emission rates were not correlated with aphid abundance. These results highlight that aphids and tending ants may change terpene emission rates, depending on the ant species. PMID:20549328

  18. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from Quercus ilex L. measured by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry under different environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzinger, R.; Sandoval-Soto, L.; Rottenberger, S.; Crutzen, P. J.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2000-08-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of the Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) were investigated using a fast Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) instrument for analysis. This technique is able to measure compounds with a proton affinity higher than water with a high time resolution of 1 s per compound. Hence nearly all VOCs can be detected on-line. We could clearly identify the emission of methanol, acetaldehyde, ethanol, acetone, acetic acid, isoprene, monoterpenes, toluene, and C10-benzenes. Some other species could be tentatively denominated. Among these are the masses 67 (cyclo pentadiene), mass 71 (tentatively attributed to methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and metacrolein (MACR)), 73 (attributed to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)), 85 (C6H12 or hexanol), and 95 (vinylfuran or phenol). The emissions of all these compounds (identified as well as nonidentified) together represent 99% of all masses detected and account for a carbon loss of 0.7-2.9% of the net photosynthesis. Of special interest was a change in the emission behavior under changing environmental conditions such as flooding or fast light/dark changes. Flooding of the root system caused an increase of several VOCs between 60 and 2000%, dominated by the emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde, which can be explained by the well described production of ethanol under anoxic conditions of the root system and the recently described subsequent transport and partial oxidation to acetaldehyde within the green leaves. However, ethanol emissions were dominant. Additionally, bursts of acetaldehyde with lower ethanol emission were also found under fast light/dark changes. These bursts are not understood.

  19. Limited Pollen Dispersal Contributes to Population Genetic Structure but Not Local Adaptation in Quercus oleoides Forests of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Deacon, Nicholas John; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine

    2015-01-01

    Background Quercus oleoides Cham. and Schlect., tropical live oak, is a species of conservation importance in its southern range limit of northwestern Costa Rica. It occurs in high-density stands across a fragmented landscape spanning a contrasting elevation and precipitation gradient. We examined genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure in this geographically isolated and genetically distinct population. We characterized population genetic diversity at 11 nuclear microsatellite loci in 260 individuals from 13 sites. We monitored flowering time at 10 sites, and characterized the local environment in order to compare observed spatial genetic structure to hypotheses of isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment. Finally, we quantified pollen dispersal distances and tested for local adaptation through a reciprocal transplant experiment in order to experimentally address these hypotheses. Results High genetic diversity is maintained in the population and the genetic variation is significantly structured among sampled sites. We identified 5 distinct genetic clusters and average pollen dispersal predominately occurred over short distances. Differences among sites in flowering phenology and environmental factors, however, were not strictly associated with genetic differentiation. Growth and survival of upland and lowland progeny in their native and foreign environments was expected to exhibit evidence of local adaptation due to the more extreme dry season in the lowlands. Seedlings planted in the lowland garden experienced much higher mortality than seedlings in the upland garden, but we did not identify evidence for local adaptation. Conclusion Overall, this study indicates that the Costa Rican Q. oleoides population has a rich population genetic history. Despite environmental heterogeneity and habitat fragmentation, isolation-by-distance and isolation-by-environment alone do not explain spatial genetic structure. These results add to studies of genetic

  20. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of native and non-native Pinus and Quercus species in a common garden of 35-year-old trees.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Kałucka, Izabela; Stasińska, Małgorzata; Nowak, Witold; Dabert, Mirosława; Leski, Tomasz; Rudawska, Maria; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2012-02-01

    Non-native tree species have been widely planted or have become naturalized in most forested landscapes. It is not clear if native trees species collectively differ in ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity and communities from that of non-native tree species. Alternatively, EMF species community similarity may be more determined by host plant phylogeny than by whether the plant is native or non-native. We examined these unknowns by comparing two genera, native and non-native Quercus robur and Quercus rubra and native and non-native Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra in a 35-year-old common garden in Poland. Using molecular and morphological approaches, we identified EMF species from ectomycorrhizal root tips and sporocarps collected in the monoculture tree plots. A total of 69 EMF species were found, with 38 species collected only as sporocarps, 18 only as ectomycorrhizas, and 13 both as ectomycorrhizas and sporocarps. The EMF species observed were all native and commonly associated with a Holarctic range in distribution. We found that native Q. robur had ca. 120% higher total EMF species richness than the non-native Q. rubra, while native P. sylvestris had ca. 25% lower total EMF species richness than non-native P. nigra. Thus, across genera, there was no evidence that native species have higher EMF species diversity than exotic species. In addition, we found a higher similarity in EMF communities between the two Pinus species than between the two Quercus species. These results support the naturalization of non-native trees by means of mutualistic associations with cosmopolitan and novel fungi. PMID:21573837

  1. The cytotoxic effect of wastewater from the phosphoric gypsum depot on common oak (Quercus robur L.) and shallot (Allium cepa var. ascalonicum).

    PubMed

    Pavlica, M; Besendorfer, V; Rosa, J; Papes, D

    2000-11-01

    The effect of wastewater from a phosphoric gypsum depot on common oak, Quercus robur L., at cytogenetical level was studied. Allium-test was used as a control. The treatment of common oak seedlings with wastewater under laboratory conditions caused mitodepressive effect. Chromosome aberrations and mitotic irregularities were found. Cytogenetic analysis of common oak seedlings grown from acorns collected near the depot did not show changes in mitotic activity in comparison to control but the number of aberrations was higher than in control. In comparison to Alliumtest common oak was found to be more tolerant to wastewater from the phosphoric gypsum depot.

  2. Warming and drought differentially influence the production and resorption of elemental and metabolic nitrogen pools in Quercus rubra.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Vidya; Tharayil, Nishanth; Xing, Baoshan; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    The process of nutrient retranslocation from plant leaves during senescence subsequently affects both plant growth and soil nutrient cycling; changes in either of these could potentially feed back to climate change. Although elemental nutrient resorption has been shown to respond modestly to temperature and precipitation, we know remarkably little about the influence of increasing intensities of drought and warming on the resorption of different classes of plant metabolites. We studied the effect of warming and altered precipitation on the production and resorption of metabolites in Quercus rubra. The combination of warming and drought produced a higher abundance of compounds that can help to mitigate climatic stress by functioning as osmoregulators and antioxidants, including important intermediaries of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, amino acids including proline and citrulline, and polyamines such as putrescine. Resorption efficiencies (REs) of extractable metabolites surprisingly had opposite responses to drought and warming; drought treatments generally increased RE of metabolites compared to ambient and wet treatments, while warming decreased RE. However, RE of total N differed markedly from that of extractable metabolites such as amino acids; for instance, droughted plants resorbed a smaller fraction of elemental N from their leaves than plants exposed to the ambient control. In contrast, plants in drought treatment resorbed amino acids more efficiently (>90%) than those in ambient (65-77%) or wet (42-58%) treatments. Across the climate treatments, the RE of elemental N correlated negatively with tissue tannin concentration, indicating that polyphenols produced in leaves under climatic stress could interfere with N resorption. Thus, senesced leaves from drier conditions might have a lower nutritive value to soil heterotrophs during the initial stages of litter decomposition despite a higher elemental N content of these tissues. Our results suggest that N

  3. Seasonal trend of photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L; Baldocchi, DD

    2003-09-01

    OAK-B135 Understanding seasonal changes in photosynthetic parameters and stomatal conductance is crucial for modeling long-term carbon uptake and energy fluxes of ecosystems. Gas exchange measurements of CO{sub 2} and light response curves on blue oak leaves (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) were conducted weekly throughout the growing season to study the seasonality of photosynthetic capacity (V{sub cmax}) and Ball-Berry slope (m) under prolonged summer drought and high temperature. A leaf photosynthetic model was used to determine V{sub cmax}. There was a pronounced seasonal pattern in V{sub cmax}. The maximum value of V{sub cmax}, 127 {micro}molm{sup -2} s{sup -1},was reached shortly after leaf expansion in early summer, when air temperature was moderate and soil water availability was high. Thereafter, V{sub cmax} declined as the soil water profile became depleted and the trees experienced extreme air temperatures, exceeding 40 C. The decline in V{sub cmax} was gradual in midsummer, however, despite extremely low predawn leaf water potentials ({Psi}{sub pd}, {approx} -4.0 MPa). Overall, temporal changes in V{sub cmax} were well correlated with changes in leaf nitrogen content. During spring leaf development, high rates of leaf dark respiration (R{sub d}, 5-6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were observed. Once a leaf reached maturity, R{sub d} remained low, around 0.5 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. In contrast to the strong seasonality of V{sub cmax}, m and marginal water cost per unit carbon gain ({partial_derivative}E/{partial_derivative}A) were relatively constant over the season, even when leaf {Psi}{sub pd} dropped to -6.8 MPa. The constancy of {partial_derivative}E/{partial_derivative}A suggests that stomata behaved optimally under severe water-stress conditions. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of modeling carbon and water vapor exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  4. Flood-Ring Formation and Root Development in Response to Experimental Flooding of Young Quercus robur Trees.

    PubMed

    Copini, Paul; den Ouden, Jan; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Tardif, Jacques C; Loesberg, Walter A; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sass-Klaassen, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spring flooding in riparian forests can cause significant reductions in earlywood-vessel size in submerged stem parts of ring-porous tree species, leading to the presence of 'flood rings' that can be used as a proxy to reconstruct past flooding events, potentially over millennia. The mechanism of flood-ring formation and the relation with timing and duration of flooding are still to be elucidated. In this study, we experimentally flooded 4-year-old Quercus robur trees at three spring phenophases (late bud dormancy, budswell, and internode expansion) and over different flooding durations (2, 4, and 6 weeks) to a stem height of 50 cm. The effect of flooding on root and vessel development was assessed immediately after the flooding treatment and at the end of the growing season. Ring width and earlywood-vessel size and density were measured at 25- and 75-cm stem height and collapsed vessels were recorded. Stem flooding inhibited earlywood-vessel development in flooded stem parts. In addition, flooding upon budswell and internode expansion led to collapsed earlywood vessels below the water level. At the end of the growing season, mean earlywood-vessel size in the flooded stem parts (upon budswell and internode expansion) was always reduced by approximately 50% compared to non-flooded stem parts and 55% compared to control trees. This reduction was already present 2 weeks after flooding and occurred independent of flooding duration. Stem and root flooding were associated with significant root dieback after 4 and 6 weeks and mean radial growth was always reduced with increasing flooding duration. By comparing stem and root flooding, we conclude that flood rings only occur after stem flooding. As earlywood-vessel development was hampered during flooding, a considerable number of narrow earlywood vessels present later in the season, must have been formed after the actual flooding events. Our study indicates that root dieback, together with strongly reduced hydraulic

  5. Potential of two submontane broadleaved species (Acer opalus, Quercus pubescens) to reveal spatiotemporal patterns of rockfall activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favillier, Adrien; Lopez-Saez, Jérôme; Corona, Christophe; Trappmann, Daniel; Toe, David; Stoffel, Markus; Rovéra, Georges; Berger, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Long-term records of rockfalls have proven to be scarce and typically incomplete, especially in increasingly urbanized areas where inventories are largely absent and the risk associated with rockfall events rises proportionally with urbanization. On forested slopes, tree-ring analyses may help to fill this gap, as they have been demonstrated to provide annually-resolved data on past rockfall activity over long periods. Yet, the reconstruction of rockfall chronologies has been hampered in the past by the paucity of studies that include broadleaved tree species, which are, in fact, quite common in various rockfall-prone environments. In this study, we test the sensitivity of two common, yet unstudied, broadleaved species - Quercus pubescens Willd. (Qp) and Acer opalus Mill. (Ao) - to record rockfall impacts. The approach is based on a systematic mapping of trees and the counting of visible scars on the stem surface of both species. Data are presented from a site in the Vercors massif (French Alps) where rocks are frequently detached from Valanginian limestone and marl cliffs. We compare recurrence interval maps obtained from both species and from two different sets of tree structures (i.e., single trees vs. coppice stands) based on Cohen's k coefficient and the mean absolute error. A total of 1230 scars were observed on the stem surface of 847 A. opalus and Q. pubescens trees. Both methods yield comparable results on the spatial distribution of relative rockfall activity with similar downslope decreasing recurrence intervals. Yet recurrence intervals vary significantly according to tree species and tree structure. The recurrence interval observed on the stem surface of Q. pubescens exceeds that of A. opalus by > 20 years in the lower part of the studied plot. Similarly, the recurrence interval map derived from A. opalus coppice stands, dominant at the stand scale, does not exhibit a clear spatial pattern. Differences between species may be explained by the bark

  6. Warming and drought differentially influence the production and resorption of elemental and metabolic nitrogen pools in Quercus rubra.

    PubMed

    Suseela, Vidya; Tharayil, Nishanth; Xing, Baoshan; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    The process of nutrient retranslocation from plant leaves during senescence subsequently affects both plant growth and soil nutrient cycling; changes in either of these could potentially feed back to climate change. Although elemental nutrient resorption has been shown to respond modestly to temperature and precipitation, we know remarkably little about the influence of increasing intensities of drought and warming on the resorption of different classes of plant metabolites. We studied the effect of warming and altered precipitation on the production and resorption of metabolites in Quercus rubra. The combination of warming and drought produced a higher abundance of compounds that can help to mitigate climatic stress by functioning as osmoregulators and antioxidants, including important intermediaries of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, amino acids including proline and citrulline, and polyamines such as putrescine. Resorption efficiencies (REs) of extractable metabolites surprisingly had opposite responses to drought and warming; drought treatments generally increased RE of metabolites compared to ambient and wet treatments, while warming decreased RE. However, RE of total N differed markedly from that of extractable metabolites such as amino acids; for instance, droughted plants resorbed a smaller fraction of elemental N from their leaves than plants exposed to the ambient control. In contrast, plants in drought treatment resorbed amino acids more efficiently (>90%) than those in ambient (65-77%) or wet (42-58%) treatments. Across the climate treatments, the RE of elemental N correlated negatively with tissue tannin concentration, indicating that polyphenols produced in leaves under climatic stress could interfere with N resorption. Thus, senesced leaves from drier conditions might have a lower nutritive value to soil heterotrophs during the initial stages of litter decomposition despite a higher elemental N content of these tissues. Our results suggest that N

  7. Flood-Ring Formation and Root Development in Response to Experimental Flooding of Young Quercus robur Trees

    PubMed Central

    Copini, Paul; den Ouden, Jan; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tardif, Jacques C.; Loesberg, Walter A.; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sass-Klaassen, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spring flooding in riparian forests can cause significant reductions in earlywood-vessel size in submerged stem parts of ring-porous tree species, leading to the presence of ‘flood rings’ that can be used as a proxy to reconstruct past flooding events, potentially over millennia. The mechanism of flood-ring formation and the relation with timing and duration of flooding are still to be elucidated. In this study, we experimentally flooded 4-year-old Quercus robur trees at three spring phenophases (late bud dormancy, budswell, and internode expansion) and over different flooding durations (2, 4, and 6 weeks) to a stem height of 50 cm. The effect of flooding on root and vessel development was assessed immediately after the flooding treatment and at the end of the growing season. Ring width and earlywood-vessel size and density were measured at 25- and 75-cm stem height and collapsed vessels were recorded. Stem flooding inhibited earlywood-vessel development in flooded stem parts. In addition, flooding upon budswell and internode expansion led to collapsed earlywood vessels below the water level. At the end of the growing season, mean earlywood-vessel size in the flooded stem parts (upon budswell and internode expansion) was always reduced by approximately 50% compared to non-flooded stem parts and 55% compared to control trees. This reduction was already present 2 weeks after flooding and occurred independent of flooding duration. Stem and root flooding were associated with significant root dieback after 4 and 6 weeks and mean radial growth was always reduced with increasing flooding duration. By comparing stem and root flooding, we conclude that flood rings only occur after stem flooding. As earlywood-vessel development was hampered during flooding, a considerable number of narrow earlywood vessels present later in the season, must have been formed after the actual flooding events. Our study indicates that root dieback, together with strongly reduced hydraulic

  8. Flood-Ring Formation and Root Development in Response to Experimental Flooding of Young Quercus robur Trees.

    PubMed

    Copini, Paul; den Ouden, Jan; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Tardif, Jacques C; Loesberg, Walter A; Goudzwaard, Leo; Sass-Klaassen, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spring flooding in riparian forests can cause significant reductions in earlywood-vessel size in submerged stem parts of ring-porous tree species, leading to the presence of 'flood rings' that can be used as a proxy to reconstruct past flooding events, potentially over millennia. The mechanism of flood-ring formation and the relation with timing and duration of flooding are still to be elucidated. In this study, we experimentally flooded 4-year-old Quercus robur trees at three spring phenophases (late bud dormancy, budswell, and internode expansion) and over different flooding durations (2, 4, and 6 weeks) to a stem height of 50 cm. The effect of flooding on root and vessel development was assessed immediately after the flooding treatment and at the end of the growing season. Ring width and earlywood-vessel size and density were measured at 25- and 75-cm stem height and collapsed vessels were recorded. Stem flooding inhibited earlywood-vessel development in flooded stem parts. In addition, flooding upon budswell and internode expansion led to collapsed earlywood vessels below the water level. At the end of the growing season, mean earlywood-vessel size in the flooded stem parts (upon budswell and internode expansion) was always reduced by approximately 50% compared to non-flooded stem parts and 55% compared to control trees. This reduction was already present 2 weeks after flooding and occurred independent of flooding duration. Stem and root flooding were associated with significant root dieback after 4 and 6 weeks and mean radial growth was always reduced with increasing flooding duration. By comparing stem and root flooding, we conclude that flood rings only occur after stem flooding. As earlywood-vessel development was hampered during flooding, a considerable number of narrow earlywood vessels present later in the season, must have been formed after the actual flooding events. Our study indicates that root dieback, together with strongly reduced hydraulic

  9. Xylem-Transported Glucose as an Additional Carbon Source for Leaf Isoprene Formation in Quercus Robur L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Schnitzler, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Rennenberg, H.

    2003-04-01

    Isoprene is emitted from mature, photosynthesizing leaves of many plant species, particularly of trees. Current interest in understanding the biochemical and physiological mechanisms controlling isoprene formation is caused by the important role isoprene plays in atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) thereby generating oxidizing agents such as ozone and organic peroxides. Ozone causes significant deterioration in air quality and can pose threats to human health therefore its control is a major goal in Europe and the United States. In recent years, much progress has been made in elucidating the pathways of isoprene biosynthesis. Nevertheless the regulatory mechanisms controlling isoprene emission are not completely understood. Light and temperature appear to be the main factors controlling short-term variations in isoprene emission. Exposure of plants to C-13 labeled carbon dioxide showed instantaneous assimilated carbon is the primary carbon source for isoprene formation. However, variations in diurnal and seasonal isoprene fluxes, which cannot be explained by temperature, light, and leaf development led to the suggestion that alternative carbon sources may exist contributing to isoprene emissions. The aim of the present study was to test whether xylem-transported carbohydrates act as additional sources for isoprene biosynthesis. For this purpose, [U-C-13] alpha-D-glucose was fed to photosynthesizing leaves via the xylem of Quercus robur L. seedlings and the incorporation of glucose derived C-13 into emitted isoprene was monitored in real time using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). A rapid incorporation of C-13 from xylem-fed glucose into single (mass 70) and double (mass 71) C-13 labeled isoprene molecules was observed after a lag phase of approximately 5 to 10 minutes. This incorporation was temperature dependent and was highest (up to 13% C-13 of total carbon emitted as isoprene) at the temperature optimum of

  10. Xylem-transported Glucose as an Additional Carbon Source for Leaf Isoprene Formation in Quercus Robur L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Wisthaler, A.; Hansel, A.; Kreuzwieser, J.; Rennenberg, H.; Schnitzler, J.

    2002-12-01

    Isoprene is emitted from mature, photosynthesizing leaves of many plant species, particularly of trees. Current interest in understanding the biochemical and physiological mechanisms controlling isoprene formation is caused by the important role isoprene plays in atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) thereby generating oxidizing agents such as ozone and organic peroxides. Ozone causes significant deterioration in air quality and can pose threats to human health therefore its control is a major goal in Europe and the United States. In recent years, much progress has been made in elucidating the pathways of isoprene biosynthesis. Nevertheless the regulatory mechanisms controlling isoprene emission are not completely understood. Light and temperature appear to be the main factors controlling short-term variations in isoprene emission. Exposure of plants to 13CO2 showed instantaneous assimilated carbon is the primary carbon source for isoprene formation. However, variations in diurnal and seasonal isoprene fluxes, which cannot be explained by temperature, light, and leaf development led to the suggestion that alternative carbon sources may exist contributing to isoprene emissions. The aim of the present study was to test whether xylem-transported carbohydrates act as additional sources for isoprene biosynthesis. For this purpose, [U-13C]α-D-glucose was fed to photosynthesizing leaves via the xylem of {Quercus} {robur} L. seedlings and the incorporation of glucose derived 13C into emitted isoprene was monitored in real time using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). A rapid incorporation of 13C from xylem-fed glucose into single (mass 70) and double (mass 71) 13C-labeled isoprene molecules was observed after a lag phase of approximately 5 to 10 minutes. This incorporation was temperature dependent and was highest (up to 13 % 13C of total carbon emitted as isoprene) at the temperature optimum of isoprene emission (40 - 42

  11. Removal of toxic metals from solution by leaf, stem and root phytomass of Quercus ilex L. (holly oak).

    PubMed

    Prasad, M N; Freitas, H

    2000-11-01

    Increased consciousness for safeguarding the aqueous environment has prompted a search for alternative technologies for the removal of toxic metal ions from aqueous solutions. In this regard, a wide variety of biomass is being considered as adsorbents of heavy metals for treatment of industrial and domestic wastewaters as well as natural waters, including drinking water. In the present investigation, the potential of Quercus ilex phytomass from stem, leaf and root as an adsorbent of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) at ambient temperature was investigated. The metal uptake capacity of the root for different metals was found to be in the order: Ni>Cd>Pb>Cu>Cr; stem Ni>Pb>Cu>Cd>Cr; and leaf Ni>Cd>Cu>Pb>Cr. The highest amount adsorbed was Ni (root>leaf>stem). Data from this laboratory demonstrated that Ni is sequestered mostly in the roots, where concentrations can be as high as 428.4 ng/g dry wt., when 1-year-old seedlings were treated with Ni (2000 mg/l) in pot culture experiments, compared to 7.63 ng/g dry wt., control (garden and greenhouse soil) topsoil where Ni was present in trace amounts. This proves that the root biomass of Q. ilex has the capacity for complexing Ni. Cr exhibited the least adsorption values for all the three types of phytomass compared to other metals. The trend of adsorption of the phytomass was similar for Ni and Cd, i.e. root>leaf>stem. Desorption with 10 mM Na(4) EDTA was effective (55-90%) and, hence, there exists the possibility of recycling the phytomass. The biosorption results of recycled phytomass suggest that the selected adsorbents are re-usable. The advantages and potential of the Q. ilex phytomass as a biofilter of toxic trace metals, the scope and need for enhancing the efficiency of the Q. ilex phytomass as an adsorbent of metals are presented. PMID:15092842

  12. Variability of BVOC emissions from a Mediterranean mixed forest in southern France with a focus on Quercus pubescens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genard-Zielinski, A.-C.; Boissard, C.; Fernandez, C.; Kalogridis, C.; Lathière, J.; Gros, V.; Bonnaire, N.; Ormeño, E.

    2014-06-01

    We aimed at quantifying Biogenic Volatiles Organic Compounds (BVOC) emissions in June from three Mediterranean species located at the O3HP site (Southern France): Quercus pubescens, Acer monspessulanum and C. coggygria (for isoprene only). As Q. pubescens was shown to be the main BVOC emitter with isoprene representing ≈ 99% of the carbon emitted as BVOC, we mainly focused on this species. C. coggygria was found to be a non-isoprene emitter (no other BVOC were investigated). To fully understand both the canopy effect on Q. pubescens isoprene emission and the inter-individual variability (tree to tree and within canopy), diurnal variations of isoprene were investigated from nine branches (seven branches located to the top of canopy at ≈ 4 m Above Ground Level, and two inside the canopy at ≈ 2 m a.g.l.). Q. pubescens daily mean isoprene emission rates (ERd) fluctuated between 23.1 and 97.7 μg C gDM-1 h-1 and were exponentially correlated with net assimilation (Pn). Q. pubescens daily mean Pn ranged between 5.4 and 13.8, and 2.8 and 6.4 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 for sunlit and shaded branches respectively. Both ERd and isoprene emission factors (Is) assessed according to Guenther et al. (1993) algorithm, varied by a factor of 4 among the sunlit branches. While sunlit branches ERm was clearly higher than for shaded branches, there was an non-significant variability on Is (58.5 to 76.5 μg C gDM-1 h-1). Diurnal variations of isoprene emission rates (ER) for sunlit branches were also investigated. ER were detected at dawn 2 h after Pn became positive and, exponentially dependent on Pn. Diurnal variations of ER were not equally well described along the day by temperature (CT) and light (CL) parameters according to G93 algorithm. Temperature had more impact than PAR in the morning emission increase. ER was no more correlated to CL × CT between solar noon (maximum ER) and mid-afternoon, possibly due to thermal stress of the plant. A comparison between measured and

  13. Identification of UGT84A13 as a candidate enzyme for the first committed step of gallotannin biosynthesis in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur).

    PubMed

    Mittasch, Juliane; Böttcher, Christoph; Frolova, Nadezhda; Bönn, Markus; Milkowski, Carsten

    2014-03-01

    A cDNA encoding the ester-forming hydroxybenzoic acid glucosyltransferase UGT84A13 was isolated from a cDNA library of Quercus robur swelling buds and young leaves. The enzyme displayed high sequence identity to resveratrol/hydroxycinnamate and hydroxybenzoate/hydroxycinnamate glucosyltransferases from Vitis species and clustered to the phylogenetic group L of plant glucosyltransferases, mainly involved in the formation of 1-O-β-D-glucose esters. In silico transcriptome analysis confirmed expression of UGT84A13 in Quercus tissues which were previously shown to exhibit UDP-glucose:gallic acid glucosyltransferase activity. UGT84A13 was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli as N-terminal His-tagged protein. In vitro kinetic measurements with the purified recombinant enzyme revealed a clear preference for hydroxybenzoic acids as glucosyl acceptor in comparison to hydroxycinnamic acids. Of the preferred in vitro substrates, protocatechuic, vanillic and gallic acid, only the latter and its corresponding 1-O-ß-D-glucose ester were found to be accumulated in young oak leaves. This indicates that in planta UGT84A13 catalyzes the formation of , 1-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose, the first committed step of gallotannin biosynthesis.

  14. [Effects of fire recurrence on fire behaviour in cork oak woodlands (Quercus suber L.) and Mediterranean shrublands over the last fifty years].

    PubMed

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Pimont, François; Curt, Thomas; Cassagne, Nathalie; Dupuy, Jean-Luc; Tatoni, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Past fire recurrence impacts the vegetation structure, and it is consequently hypothesized to alter its future fire behaviour. We examined the fire behaviour in shrubland-forest mosaics of southeastern France, which were organized along a range of fire frequency (0 to 3-4 fires along the past 50 years) and had different time intervals between fires. The mosaic was dominated by Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus shrubland communities. We described the vegetation structure through measurements of tree height, base of tree crown or shrub layer, mean diameter, cover, plant water content and bulk density. We used the physical model Firetec to simulate the fire behaviour. Fire intensity, fire spread, plant water content and biomass loss varied significantly according to fire recurrence and vegetation structure, mainly linked to the time since the last fire, then the number of fires. These results confirm that past fire recurrence affects future fire behaviour, with multi-layered vegetation (particularly high shrublands) producing more intense fires, contrary to submature Quercus woodlands that have not burnt since 1959 and that are unlikely to reburn. Further simulations, with more vegetation scenes according to shrub and canopy covers, will complete this study in order to discuss the fire propagation risk in heterogeneous vegetation, particularly in the Mediterranean area, with a view to a local management of these ecosystems.

  15. Trace element accumulation in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw. and the trees Quercus ilex L. and Pinus halepensis Mill. in Catalonia.

    PubMed

    Sardans, Jordi; Peñuelas, Josep

    2005-09-01

    We studied trace element accumulation in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme and the widely distributed Mediterranean trees Quercus ilex and Pinus halepensis located at increasing distances from the Barcelona Metropolitan Area. Hypnum cupressiforme, Quercus ilex and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Pinus halepensis, have proved to be adequate as possible accumulative monitoring species in relation to trace elements pollution. No significant effects of crown orientation were found. One-year old leaves generally accumulated more trace elements than current-year leaves. All the studied trace elements showed greatest concentrations in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area, with lead, cadmium and arsenic concentrations being especially high. In general, trace element concentrations in biomass were similar or higher than the values reported from other Mediterranean urban areas of Europe. The top soil-layer concentrations were also higher in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area indicating the existence of mechanisms of atmospheric deposition and/or concentration in the soil. The lower values of Pb of airborne origin relative to other elements such as Cd, Cu, Zn and Sb suggest that traffic exhausts are not the only important focus of pollutants in this area. The results of biomass concentrations and of enrichment factor of biomasses respect to bedrock and soils show that atmospheric inputs account for the higher trace element concentrations in the Barcelona Metropolitan Area.

  16. Suppression of TPA-induced cancer cell invasion by Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. extract through the inhibition of PKCα/NF-κB-dependent MMP-9 expression in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Mi; Noh, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ha-Rim; Kim, Mi-Seong; Song, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Minok; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Lee, Guem-San; Moon, Hyoung-Chul; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Lee, Young-Rae

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic cancers spread from their site of origin (the primary site) to other parts of the body. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the extracellular matrix, is important in metastatic cancers as it plays a major role in cancer cell invasion. The present study examined the inhibitory effect of an ethanol extract of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. (PJT) on MMP-9 expression and the invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Western blot analysis, gelatin zymography, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that PJT significantly suppressed MMP-9 expression and activation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PJT attenuated TPA-induced nuclear translocation and the transcriptional activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. The results indicated that the PJT-mediated inhibition of TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion involved the suppression of the PKCα/NF-κB pathway in MCF-7 cells. Thus, the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by PJT may have potential value as a therapy for restricting the invasiveness of breast cancer.

  17. Regulation of Proinflammatory Mediators via NF-κB and p38 MAPK-Dependent Mechanisms in RAW 264.7 Macrophages by Polyphenol Components Isolated from Korea Lonicera japonica THUNB

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwang-Il; Kang, Sang-Rim; Park, Hyeon-Soo; Lee, Do Hoon; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Kim, Jin A; Shin, Sung Chul; Kim, Eun Hee; Lee, Won Sup; Chung, Hyon-Jong; An, Su Jin; Kim, Gon Sup

    2012-01-01

    Lonicera japonica THUNB., which abundantly contains polyphenols, has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years in East Asian countries because of the anti-inflammation properties. This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of polyphenol components isolated from Korea L. japonica T. by nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. Polyphenols significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, as well as mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and IL-6. Moreover, polyphenols inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, phosphorylation/degradation of the inhibitor of κB, and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, whereas the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Janus N-terminal kinase were not affected. These results indicate that polyphenol components isolated from Korea L. japonica T. should have anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through the decrease of proinflammatory mediators expression by suppressing NF-κB and p38 MAPK activity. PMID:22611435

  18. Suppression of TPA-induced cancer cell invasion by Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. extract through the inhibition of PKCα/NF-κB-dependent MMP-9 expression in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Mi; Noh, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ha-Rim; Kim, Mi-Seong; Song, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Minok; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Lee, Guem-San; Moon, Hyoung-Chul; Kwon, Kang-Beom; Lee, Young-Rae

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic cancers spread from their site of origin (the primary site) to other parts of the body. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the extracellular matrix, is important in metastatic cancers as it plays a major role in cancer cell invasion. The present study examined the inhibitory effect of an ethanol extract of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. (PJT) on MMP-9 expression and the invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Western blot analysis, gelatin zymography, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that PJT significantly suppressed MMP-9 expression and activation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, PJT attenuated TPA-induced nuclear translocation and the transcriptional activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB. The results indicated that the PJT-mediated inhibition of TPA-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion involved the suppression of the PKCα/NF-κB pathway in MCF-7 cells. Thus, the inhibition of MMP-9 expression by PJT may have potential value as a therapy for restricting the invasiveness of breast cancer. PMID:26717978

  19. Molecular Organization of the 25S–18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS), a promoter region, and a 5′-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5′-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5′-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ∼2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family. PMID:24893289

  20. Molecular organization of the 25S-18S rDNA IGS of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Vera; Rocheta, Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) units, repeated in tandem at one or more chromosomal loci, are separated by an intergenic spacer (IGS) containing functional elements involved in the regulation of transcription of downstream rRNA genes. In the present work, we have compared the IGS molecular organizations in two divergent species of Fagaceae, Fagus sylvatica and Quercus suber, aiming to comprehend the evolution of the IGS sequences within the family. Self- and cross-hybridization FISH was done on representative species of the Fagaceae. The IGS length variability and the methylation level of 18 and 25S rRNA genes were assessed in representatives of three genera of this family: Fagus, Quercus and Castanea. The intergenic spacers in Beech and Cork Oak showed similar overall organizations comprising putative functional elements needed for rRNA gene activity and containing a non-transcribed spacer (NTS), a promoter region, and a 5'-external transcribed spacer. In the NTS: the sub-repeats structure in Beech is more organized than in Cork Oak, sharing some short motifs which results in the lowest sequence similarity of the entire IGS; the AT-rich region differed in both spacers by a GC-rich block inserted in Cork Oak. The 5'-ETS is the region with the higher similarity, having nonetheless different lengths. FISH with the NTS-5'-ETS revealed fainter signals in cross-hybridization in agreement with the divergence between genera. The diversity of IGS lengths revealed variants from ∼ 2 kb in Fagus, and Quercus up to 5.3 kb in Castanea, and a lack of correlation between the number of variants and the number of rDNA loci in several species. Methylation of 25S Bam HI site was confirmed in all species and detected for the first time in the 18S of Q. suber and Q. faginea. These results provide important clues for the evolutionary trends of the rDNA 25S-18S IGS in the Fagaceae family.

  1. Drought influence on carbon and water cycling in a Mediterranean Quercus suber L. woodland during the drought year 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piayda, Arndt; Dubbert, Maren; Rebmann, Corinna; Kolle, Olaf; Silva, Filipe Costa e.; Correia, Alexandra; Santos Pereira, Joao; Werner, Christiane; Cuntz, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Savannah-type ecosystems account for 26-30% of the global gross primary production with water being one of the major driving factors. In Europe, savannah-type woodlands cover an area of about 2-2.5 million ha on the Iberian Peninsula. The recent past has shown there a significant decrease of precipitation in winter and spring as well as a decrease of total annual precipitation. Hence, strong effects on local water balance and carbon sink strength have been reported due to these changes in the precipitation regime. The objective of this study is to quantify changes in the water balance, gross primary productivity and carbon sink strength of a typical Portuguese savannah-type woodland (montado) under the changed precipitation pattern of the drought year 2012 compared to the wet year 2011. The physiological response of the dominant tree species Quercus suber (L.) is evaluated, employing combined photosynthesis and stomatal conductance modelling. Precipitation effectiveness ratio increased up to 122% in the dry year 2012 due to ground water access of the Q. suber trees leaving no water for ground water replenishment. By the lack of water in the upper soil and deep ground water reservoirs, the understorey and overstorey gross primary productions were reduced by 53% and 28% in 2012 compared to 2011, respectively, due to the late onset of the autumn rains in 2011 and an additional severe winter/spring drought. However, on an annual basis, the ecosystem was a carbon sink in both years, with a 61% reduced sink strength in the dry year 2012 compared to the wet 2011. Applying a combined photosynthesis and stomatal conductance model, best model fit to gross primary productivity and transpiration of Q. suber trees could be achieved keeping apparent maximum carboxylation rate V c,max as well as stomatal conductivity parameter m and vapor pressure deficit sensitivity parameter D0 of the stomatal conductance formulation variable. The Q. suber trees showed 20% reduced stomatal

  2. Oviposition Preference and Offspring Performance of Mechoris ursulus (Coleoptera: Attelabidae) in Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides (Fagales: Fagaceae) and Quercus franchetii (Fagales: Fagaceae) in Central Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Hu, Shao-Ji; Zhang, Zhi-Ying; Geng, Yu-Peng; Bai, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Mechoris ursulus (Roelofs) (Coleoptera: Attelabidae) is a pest weevil of Fagaceae oak trees in eastern Asia. The female has a distinct branch-cutting behavior in conjunction with oviposition in the acorns of its host plant. This study analyzed the factors influencing oviposition preference by carrying out continuous field surveys over the course of 2009–2010 and through laboratory rearing. The field survey showed that for both of the hosts, Cyclobalanopsis glaucoides Schottky (Fagales: Fagaceae) and Quercus franchetii Skan, M. ursulus preferred branches with fewer acorns and larger acorns on the same branch for oviposition. Laboratory rearing experiments showed offspring performance (i.e., survival rate and fresh weight of larvae) was significantly and positively correlated with acorn size. Preference for larger acorns could maximize the fitness of offspring by providing sufficient food source and space. PMID:25791200

  3. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and type-I procollagen expression by phenolic compounds isolated from the leaves of Quercus mongolica in ultraviolet-irradiated human fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Oh, Myeong Hwan; Park, Kwang Jun; Heo, Jun Hyeok; Lee, Min Won

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Quercus mongolica (QM) which induce anti-photoaging process of skin in vitro. Bioassay-guided isolation of 80 % Me2CO extract of the leaves of QM led to the isolation and identification of six known phenolic compounds: pedunculagin (1), (-)-epigallocatechin (2), (+)-catechin (3), quercetin 3-O-(6″-O-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (5) and kaempferol 3-O-(6″-galloyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (6). The effects of compounds 1-6 on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and type-I procollagen were further evaluated. Among them, compound 1 showed potent inhibitory effect on MMP-1 and the increased type-I procollagen synthesis in ultraviolet B-induced human fibroblast. These results suggest that pedunculagin, an ellagitannin, is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging.

  4. Ultrastructure of minor-vein phloem and assimilate export in summer and winter leaves of the symplasmically loading evergreens Ajuga reptans L., Aucuba japonica Thunb., and Hedera helix L.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann-Thoma, G; van Bel, A J; Ehlers, K

    2001-01-01

    Minor-vein ultrastructure and sugar export were studied in mature summer and winter leaves of the three broadleaf-evergreen species Ajuga reptans var. artropurpurescens L., Aucuba japonica Thunb. and Hedera helix L. to assess temperature effects on phloem loading. Leaves of the perennial herb Ajuga exported substantial amounts of assimilates in form of raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs). Its minor-vein companion cells represent typical intermediary cells (ICs), with numerous small vacuoles and abundant plasmodesmal connectivity to the bundle sheath. The woody plants Hedera and Aucuba translocated sucrose as the dominant sugar species, and only traces of RFOs. Their minor-vein phloem possessed a layer of highly vacuolated cells (VCs) intervening between mesophyll and sieve elements. Depending on their location and ontogeny, VCs were classified either as companion or parenchyma cells. Both cell types showed symplasmic continuity to the adjacent mesophyll tissue although at a lower plasmodesmal frequency compared to the Ajuga ICs. p-Chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid did not reduce leaf sugar export in any of the plants, indicating a symplasmic mode of phloem loading. Winter leaves did not show symptoms of frost injury, and the vacuolar pattern in ICs and VCs was equally prominent in both seasons. Starch accumulation as a result of reduced phloem loading was not observed to be triggered by low temperature. In contrast, high amounts of starch were found in mesophyll and bundle-sheath cells of summer leaves. Physiological data on season-dependent leaf exudation showed the maintenance of sugar export in cold-acclimated winter leaves. PMID:11216844

  5. Drought and air warming affects abundance and exoenzyme profiles of Cenococcum geophilum associated with Quercus robur, Q. petraea and Q. pubescens.

    PubMed

    Herzog, C; Peter, M; Pritsch, K; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Egli, S

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the influence of drought and elevated temperature on relative abundance and functioning of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum geophilum on three oak species differing in adaptation to a warm and dry climate. The experiment QUERCO comprised three Quercus species (Q. robur, Q. petraea, Q. pubescens) grown for 3 years under four treatments: elevated air temperature, drought, a combination of the two, and control. Fine root samples were analysed for relative abundance and potential extracellular enzyme activities of ectomycorrhizae of C. geophilum, a fungal species known to be drought resistant. The relative abundance of C. geophilum on the roots of the oak species was significantly increased by temperature, decreased by drought, but unchanged in the combined treatment compared to the control. Although the extent of treatment effects differed among oak species, no significant influence of tree species on relative abundance of C. geophilum was detected. Exoenzyme activities of C. geophilum on Q. robur and Q. petraea (but not Q. pubescens) significantly increased in the combined treatment, but for all oak species were reduced under drought and air warming alone compared to the control. There was a significant negative correlation between abundance of C. geophilum and its leucine aminopeptidase activity. As this enzyme is not frequent among ectomycorrhizal fungi, this emphasises the functional importance of C. geophilum in the ectomycorrhizal community. Our results indicate that increased temperature and drought will influence the relative abundance and enzyme activity of C. geophilum. However, both the Quercus species and C. geophilum tolerated warming and strong drought.

  6. A comparative study of physiological and morphological seedling traits associated with shade tolerance in introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) and native hardwood tree species in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Christian; Nosko, Peter; Horwath, Tobias; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a moderately shade-tolerant tree species, is failing to regenerate throughout its native North American range, while successful recruitment in Central Europe has been observed since its introduction. To examine whether comparative photosynthetic performance could explain the regeneration success of this non-native species in Central Europe, we compared the physiological and morphological seedling traits of red oak with three co-occurring tree species under three canopy types in southwestern Germany. Native species included a moderately shade-tolerant native oak (Quercus robur L.) and two shade-tolerant species (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Carpinus betulus L.). The photosynthetic traits of non-native red oak seedlings were similar to those reported for this species in the native range, where shade-tolerant competitors readily outperform red oak under low light conditions. However, compared with native shade-tolerant species in Europe, red oak seedlings photosynthesized efficiently, especially under closed canopies and in small canopy gaps, exhibiting high photosynthetic capacity, low leaf dark respiration and leaf-level light compensation points that were similar to the more shade-tolerant species. The superior net carbon gain of red oak seedlings at low and moderate light levels was likely facilitated by high leaf areas and reflected by seedling dry masses that were greater than the observed native European species. A competitive advantage for red oak was not evident because relative height growth was inferior to seedlings of co-occurring species. In North America, the inability of seedlings to compete with shade-tolerant tree species in deeply shaded understories is central to the problem of poor oak recruitment. Our study suggests that the ability of non-native red oak to perform equally well to native shade-tolerant species under a variety of light conditions could contribute to the consistent success of red oak regeneration

  7. A comparative study of physiological and morphological seedling traits associated with shade tolerance in introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) and native hardwood tree species in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Christian; Nosko, Peter; Horwath, Tobias; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a moderately shade-tolerant tree species, is failing to regenerate throughout its native North American range, while successful recruitment in Central Europe has been observed since its introduction. To examine whether comparative photosynthetic performance could explain the regeneration success of this non-native species in Central Europe, we compared the physiological and morphological seedling traits of red oak with three co-occurring tree species under three canopy types in southwestern Germany. Native species included a moderately shade-tolerant native oak (Quercus robur L.) and two shade-tolerant species (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Carpinus betulus L.). The photosynthetic traits of non-native red oak seedlings were similar to those reported for this species in the native range, where shade-tolerant competitors readily outperform red oak under low light conditions. However, compared with native shade-tolerant species in Europe, red oak seedlings photosynthesized efficiently, especially under closed canopies and in small canopy gaps, exhibiting high photosynthetic capacity, low leaf dark respiration and leaf-level light compensation points that were similar to the more shade-tolerant species. The superior net carbon gain of red oak seedlings at low and moderate light levels was likely facilitated by high leaf areas and reflected by seedling dry masses that were greater than the observed native European species. A competitive advantage for red oak was not evident because relative height growth was inferior to seedlings of co-occurring species. In North America, the inability of seedlings to compete with shade-tolerant tree species in deeply shaded understories is central to the problem of poor oak recruitment. Our study suggests that the ability of non-native red oak to perform equally well to native shade-tolerant species under a variety of light conditions could contribute to the consistent success of red oak regeneration

  8. Seeing the forest through the trees: comprehensive inference on individual mating patterns in a mixed stand of Quercus robur and Q. petraea

    PubMed Central

    Chybicki, Igor J.; Burczyk, Jaroslaw

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Sexual reproduction is one of the most important moments in a life cycle, determining the genetic composition of individual offspring. Controlled pollination experiments often show high variation in the mating system at the individual level, suggesting a persistence of individual variation in natural populations. Individual variation in mating patterns may have significant adaptive implications for a population and for the entire species. Nevertheless, field data rarely address individual differences in mating patterns, focusing rather on averages. This study aimed to quantify individual variation in the different components of mating patterns. Methods Microsatellite data were used from 421 adult trees and 1911 seeds, structured in 72 half-sib families collected in a single mixed stand of Quercus robur and Q. petraea in northern Poland. Using a Bayesian approach, mating patterns were investigated, taking into account pollen dispersal, male fecundity, possible hybridization and heterogeneity in immigrant pollen pools. Key Results Pollen dispersal followed a heavy-tailed distribution (283 m on average). In spite of high pollen mobility, immigrant pollen pools showed strong genetic structuring among mothers. At the individual level, immigrant pollen pools showed highly variable divergence rates, revealing that sources of immigrant pollen can vary greatly among particular trees. Within the stand, the distribution of male fecundity appeared highly skewed, with a small number of dominant males, resulting in a ratio of census to effective density of pollen donors of 5·3. Male fecundity was not correlated with tree diameter but showed strong cline-like spatial variation. This pattern can be attributed to environmental variation. Quercus petraea revealed a greater preference (74 %) towards intraspecific mating than Q. robur (36 %), although mating preferences varied among trees. Conclusions Mating patterns can reveal great variation among individuals

  9. Reducing the infectivity and richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous Quercus ilex forest through soil preparations for truffle plantation establishment: A bioassay study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Reyna, Santiago

    2015-11-01

    In the early years of a black truffle plantation, the field proliferation of the nursery-inoculated fungi can be hampered by native ectomycorrhizal fungi colonising the seedling roots. Reducing the soil ectomycorrhizal infectivity in the planting hole before introducing the inoculated seedling could be an effective strategy to reduce this problem. Three bioassays were conducted to evaluate the impact of several soil preparations on the ectomycorrhizal infectivity and richness of a Quercus ilex soil in a truffle-producing region. Microwaves, quicklime, and acetic acid significantly decreased the percent root colonisation and morphotype richness of the native ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, they also decreased seedling survival or growth. Peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite did not show a significant negative effect on the soil ectomycorrhizal community. The results support the potential of soil preparation for reducing the ectomycorrhizal infectivity of forest soils, thus being a promising strategy to reduce the early colonisation by native fungi in truffle plantations. However, the indications of damage to the seedling development must be addressed. PMID:26466886

  10. Critical factors in the limited occurrence of the Japanese tree sap mite Hericia sanukiensis (Acari: Astigmata: Algophagidae) inhabiting the sap of the oak Quercus acutissima.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kyohei; Ichikawa, Toshihide; Yasui, Yukio

    2011-08-01

    Hericia sanukiensis (Astigmata: Algophagidae) is a semi-aquatic mite inhabiting fermented sap flux of the Japanese sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima) and utilizes Nitidulidae (Coleoptera) as the dispersal (phoretic) carrier. Although nitidulid beetles are commonly found in sap flux, the occurrence of H. sanukiensis has been extremely limited to a few trees in Shikoku Island, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan. To elucidate the critical factors limiting the occurrence of this species, we compared several physical and biological characteristics of sap-exudation points, including the structure and temperature of tree trunks, period and abundance of sap exudation, and seasonal occurrence and dispersal behavior of nitidulid beetles between environments with and without mites. During the two consecutive years of field research, we found that only sap-exudation points with obvious tree holes (ringent area >10 cm², depth >10 cm) had sustained mite populations throughout the observation period. In contrast, for the sap-exudation points lacking tree holes, H. sanukiensis temporally (from spring to autumn) colonized only when the sap production was considerably high. Thus, we suggest that the settlement of H. sanukiensis populations requires tree holes as an overwintering habitat. Nitidulid beetles also concentrated in areas with high sap production and did not disperse from such habitats during the sap flow season. This indicates that H. sanukiensis mites may only disperse and colonize new habitats at very limited opportunities, such as drastic habitat deterioration, which may promote the movement of their carrier. Taken together, these findings may explain the limited occurrence of this mite species.

  11. Hydrologic effects on diameter growth phenology for Celtis laevigata and Quercus lyrata in the floodplain of the lower White River, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Scott T; Cochran, Wesley; Krauss, Ken W.; Keim, Richard F.; King, Sammy L.; Schweitzer, Callie Jo; Clatterbuck, Wayne K.; Oswalt, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests represent an extensive wetland system in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and southeastern USA, and it is currently undergoing widespread transition in species composition. One such transition involves increased establishment of sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), and decreased establishment of overcup oak (Quercus lyrata). The ecological mechanisms that control this transition are not well understood. We measured monthly diameter growth with dendrometer bands on 86 sugarberry and 42 overcup oak trees at eight sites in the floodplain of the White River (AR, USA) with differing hydrologic regimes. For both species, growth attenuated earlier at drier sites compared to wetter sites. Overcup oak grew slightly longer through late August, suggesting its growth period extends across both wet and dry periods. In contrast, sugarberry growth rate decreased substantially by mid-July. While these results did not necessarily indicate a mechanism for increased prominence of sugarberry, they suggest sugarberry growing season does not as much coincide with the typically drier period of late summer and may be less affected by these conditions. Overcup oak grows later into the dry season and water table conditions during this period may determine if overcup oak benefits from this relatively extended growth period.

  12. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterization of wines from four Spanish denominations of origin, aged in Spanish Rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam; Poveda, Pilar; Perez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of almost 40 oak-related volatile compounds and the sensorial characteristics of red wines from four Spanish denominations of origin (DOs) (Bierzo, Toro, Ribera de Duero, and Rioja) during aging in barrels made of Rebollo oak wood, Quercus pyrenaica, were studied and compared to the same wines aged in American and French oak barrels. Each oak wood added unique and special characteristics to the wine, and in addition, each wine showed a different ability to extract the compounds, which result in these characteristics from the oak wood. In general, wines aged in Q. pyrenaica wood were characterized by high levels of eugenol, guaiacol, and other volatile phenols. In regards to compounds like cis-whiskylactone or maltol, the behavior of this wood is very similar to that of American oaks. When considering phenolic aldehydes and ketones, the levels of these compounds are intermediate between those of French and American woods and depend greatly on the type of wine. The type of oak, on the other hand, does not affect the chromatic characteristics of the wines. In sensory analysis, the biggest differences are found in the olfactory phase. Among the four DOs studied, wine aged in Q. pyrenaica presented the highest notes of wood, with more aromas of roasting, toasting, milky coffee, spices, or wine-wood interactions. The wines aged in barrels made of Q. pyrenaica wood were highly regarded, and preference was shown for them over those same wines when they had been aged in barrels of American or French oak.

  13. Patterns of nucleotide diversity at the methionine synthase locus in fragmented and continuous populations of a wind-pollinated tree, Quercus mongolica var. crispula.

    PubMed

    Quang, Nguyen D; Ikeda, Sosaku; Harada, Ko

    2009-01-01

    Genetic variation is usually high within populations, and differentiation is usually low among populations of wind-pollinated outcrossing trees. As a result, population contraction causes little change in the degree of genetic diversity and differentiation among populations. The aim of this work was to determine whether or not a recent population decline has influenced the allele frequency spectrum and association among variants of different sites on the nuclear housekeeping locus methionine synthase (1376-1418 bp in length) in the oak species Quercus mongolica var. crispula. A total of 122 sequences from 18 populations were randomly sampled and analyzed in this study. Results showed that nucleotide variation was generally high within populations, and differentiation was very low among populations. Genetic diversity was slightly reduced in samples taken from the area with a recent strong reduction in population size. Nevertheless, the allele frequency spectrum was skewed toward rare variants, and the association among variants of different sites was significantly more nonrandom within these samples compared with those from the area without such a population size reduction. This pattern was robustly supported by coalescent simulations.

  14. Time and dose of irrigation impact Tuber melanosporum ectomycorrhiza proliferation and growth of Quercus ilex seedling hosts in young black truffle orchards.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Antoni; Bonet, José Antonio; Oliach, Daniel; Colinas, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    In Mediterranean climate, young truffle-oak orchards are subjected to drought episodes that can compromise the development of Tuber melanosporum. We investigated the responses of T. melanosporum to water supply in three periods: May to July, August to October, and May to October. In each period, five water doses were established: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo). Five orchards were planted with Quercus ilex inoculated with T. melanosporum, and in each orchard, we arranged a two-factorial design with irrigation period and irrigation dose as main factors to test their combined effects on the development of both T. melanosporum and Q. ilex after 3 years in the field. Irrigation period significantly interacted with irrigation doses for the absolute presence per seedling of T. melanosporum mycorrhizae. Irrigation in May-July increased significantly T. melanosporum colonization in seedlings irrigated with 50% ETo dose compared to the 0% ETo dose. A similar pattern with smaller differences in means was observed in August-October period, but the irrigation doses did not change T. melanosporum colonization when we watered from May to October. We found ectomycorrhizae different from T. melanosporum in 51% of the seedlings studied, but their presence was marginal. Our results suggest that a moderate irrigation dose promotes seedling growth and number of fine root tips per unit of fine root length, which may be potentially colonized by T. melanosporum. PMID:24310929

  15. Nitrogen sink strength of ectomycorrhizal morphotypes of Quercus douglasii, Q. garryana, and Q. agrifolia seedlings grown in a northern California oak woodland.

    PubMed

    He, X H; Horwath, W R; Zasoski, R J; Aanderud, Z; Bledsoe, C S

    2007-12-01

    Little information is known on what the magnitude of nitrogen (N) processed by ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species in the field. In a common garden experiment performed in a northern California oak woodland, we investigated transfer of nitrogen applied as 15NH4 or 15NO3 from leaves to ectomycorrhizal roots of three oak species, Quercus agrifolia, Q. douglasii, and Q. garryana. Oak seedlings formed five common ectomycorrhizal morphotypes on root tips. Mycorrhizal tips were more enriched in 15N than fine roots. N transfer was greater to the less common morphotypes than to the more common types. 15N transfer from leaves to roots was greater when 15NO3(-), not [Formula: see text], was supplied. 15N transfer to roots was greater in seedlings of Q. agrifolia than in Q. douglasii and Q. garryana. Differential N transfer to ectomycorrhizal root tips suggests that ectomycorrhizal morphotypes can influence flows of N from leaves to roots and that mycorrhizal diversity may influence the total N requirement of plants. PMID:17899217

  16. Ectomycorrhizal identity determines respiration and concentrations of nitrogen and non-structural carbohydrates in root tips: a test using Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur saplings.

    PubMed

    Trocha, Lidia K; Mucha, Joanna; Eissenstat, David M; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2010-05-01

    Fine roots play a significant role in plant and ecosystem respiration (RS); therefore, understanding factors controlling that process is important both to advancing understanding and potentially in modelling carbon (C) budgets. However, very little is known about the extent to which ectomycorrhizal (ECM) identity may influence RS or the underlying chemistry that may determine those rates. In order to test these relationships, we examined RS, measured as O(2) consumption, of first-order ECM root tips of Pinus sylvestris L. and Quercus robur L. saplings in relation to their ECM fungal symbionts and associated nitrogen (N), C and non-structural carbohydrate concentrations. Roots of P. sylvestris were colonized by Rhizopogon roseolus, Tuber sp. 1 and an unknown species of Pezizales. Fungal species colonizing Q. robur roots were Hebeloma sp., Tuber sp. 2 and one unidentified ECM fungus described as Tuber-like based on ECM morphology. ECM RS rates for different host species were significantly different and more than 97% of the variation in RS within a host species was explained by ECM root tip N concentrations. This may indicate that some of the variability in fine root RS-N relationships observed between and within different host species or their functional groups may be related to intraspecific host species differences in root tip N concentration among ECM fungal associates. PMID:20304781

  17. An Investigation on Forage Yield Capacity of Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera L.) and Grazing Planning of Mediterranean Maquis Scrublands for Traditional Goat Farming

    PubMed Central

    Tolunay, Ahmet; Adıyaman, Elif; İnce, Duygu; Ayhan, Veysel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated grazing capacities of maquis scrubland and preparation principles of grazing management in forest resources. Kermes oak (Quercus coccifera L.), which is widespread as a main shrub species in maquis vegetation in Turkey, and pure hair goats (Capra hircus L.) feeding on shoots and leaves of this shrub were selected for study. The study was conducted in two stages. Green leaf and shoot samples were taken from kermes oaks in the first stage and the amount of green herbage yield (g∗m−1) and dry matter yield (kg∗ha−1) that may be obtained per unit area from these samples was identified. The considered amount of dry matter consumed by pure hair goats daily and the number of goats being fed within 1 year on land of 1 ha according to different land coverage rates of kermes oaks (goat head∗ha∗yr) were calculated. In the second stage, grazing capacities of sample areas where kermes oak spread were identified and compared with the grazing plan prepared by the forestry administration for this area. Forage yield variance according to land coverage rates of maquis scrublands should be considered when determining optimum animal numbers for grazing per area for sustainable goat farming. PMID:25379526

  18. Drivers of radial growth and carbon isotope discrimination of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) across continental gradients in precipitation, vapour pressure deficit and irradiance.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Steven L; Meinzer, Frederick C; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Brooks, J Renée; Guyette, Richard P

    2014-03-01

    Tree-ring characteristics are commonly used to reconstruct climate variables, but divergence from the assumption of a single biophysical control may reduce the accuracy of these reconstructions. Here, we present data from bur oaks (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) sampled within and beyond the current species bioclimatic envelope to identify the primary environmental controls on ring-width indices (RWIs) and carbon stable isotope discrimination (Δ(13) C) in tree-ring cellulose. Variation in Δ(13) C and RWI was more strongly related to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPD) at the centre and western edge of the range compared with the northern and wettest regions. Among regions, Δ(13) C of tree-ring cellulose was closely predicted by VPD and light responses of canopy-level Δ(13) C estimated using a model driven by eddy flux and meteorological measurements (R(2)  = 0.96, P = 0.003). RWI and Δ(13) C were positively correlated in the drier regions, while they were negatively correlated in the wettest region. The strength and direction of the correlations scaled with regional VPD or the ratio of precipitation to evapotranspiration. Therefore, the correlation strength between RWI and Δ(13) C may be used to infer past wetness or aridity from paleo wood by determining the degree to which carbon gain and growth have been more limited by moisture or light.

  19. Changes in the IgE-reacting protein profiles of Acer negundo, Platanus x acerifolia and Quercus robur pollen in response to ozone treatment.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Helena; Duque, Laura; Sousa, Raquel; Cruz, Ana; Gomes, Carlos; da Silva, Joaquim Esteves; Abreu, Ilda

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of O3 in protein content and immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding profiles of Acer negundo, Platanus x acerifolia and Quercus robur pollen. Pollen was exposed to O3 in an environmental chamber, at half, equal and four times the limit value for the human health protection in Europe. Pollen total soluble protein was determined with Coomassie Protein Assay Reagent, and the antigenic and allergenic properties were investigated by SDS-PAGE and immunological techniques using patients' sera. O3 exposure affected total soluble protein content and some protein species within the SDS-PAGE protein profiles. Most of the sera revealed increased IgE reactivity to proteins of A. negundo and Q. robur pollen exposed to the pollutant compared with the non-exposed one, while the opposite was observed in P. x acerifolia pollen. So, the modifications seem to be species dependent, but do not necessarily imply that increase allergenicity would occur in atopic individuals.

  20. Reducing the infectivity and richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous Quercus ilex forest through soil preparations for truffle plantation establishment: A bioassay study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Reyna, Santiago

    2015-11-01

    In the early years of a black truffle plantation, the field proliferation of the nursery-inoculated fungi can be hampered by native ectomycorrhizal fungi colonising the seedling roots. Reducing the soil ectomycorrhizal infectivity in the planting hole before introducing the inoculated seedling could be an effective strategy to reduce this problem. Three bioassays were conducted to evaluate the impact of several soil preparations on the ectomycorrhizal infectivity and richness of a Quercus ilex soil in a truffle-producing region. Microwaves, quicklime, and acetic acid significantly decreased the percent root colonisation and morphotype richness of the native ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, they also decreased seedling survival or growth. Peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite did not show a significant negative effect on the soil ectomycorrhizal community. The results support the potential of soil preparation for reducing the ectomycorrhizal infectivity of forest soils, thus being a promising strategy to reduce the early colonisation by native fungi in truffle plantations. However, the indications of damage to the seedling development must be addressed.

  1. Response of a gall wasp community to genetic variation in the host plant Quercus crispula: a test using half-sib families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Masato; Ozaki, Kenichi

    2005-02-01

    The structure of a herbivore community may change consistently along the genetic cline of a host plant, change at particular points along the cline, or respond independently of the cline. To reveal such relationships between a gall wasp community and genetic variation in the host plant Quercus crispula, we examined patterns in the species richness and abundance of gall wasps along a genetic cline of the host plant, using 12 half-sib families from six different regions. The genetic relationships among the half-sib families of Q. crispula were quantified on the basis of leaf morphology, which represented a morphological cline from leaves typical of Q. crispula to leaves resembling another oak species, Q. dentata. The morphological cline could be regarded as a genetic cline caused by a history of hybridization with Q. dentata. The mean numbers of gall types varied among the half-sib families, but did not show a consistent increase or decrease along the genetic cline. This pattern could be explained by the fact that responses to host plant variation differed among the gall wasp species. The half-sib families were classified into three groups based on an ordination analysis of the species composition of the gall wasp community that to some extent also reflected the genetic cline of Q. crispula. This suggests that the species composition of gall wasps changed intermittently along the genetic cline, rather than gradually and consistently along the cline.

  2. The role of forest fire severity on vegetation recovery after 18 years. Implications for forest management of Quercus suber L. in Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francos, Marcos; Úbeda, Xavier; Tort, Joan; Panareda, Josep María; Cerdà, Artemio

    2016-10-01

    Wildfires are a widespread phenomenon in Mediterranean environments. Wildfires result in different fire severities, and then in contrasting plant cover and floristic composition. This paper analyses the recovery of the vegetation eighteen years after a wildfire in Catalonia. The Pinus pinaster ssp. forest was affected by three different severities in July 1994, and studied the spring of 1995 and again in 2008. After eighteen years (2012), our research found that burnt sites constitute a dense forest with a broad variety of species, including many young pines, shrubs and herbaceous plants, but that the risk of fire remains very high, due to the large quantity of fuel and the flammability of the species. The management of the post-fire is critical when high severity fires take places, and it is recommended that high-severity fires must be avoided for a sustainable forest management. We recommend that once the timber (Pinus plantations) production is not profitable, Quercus suber L. and Pinus pinaster ssp. forest should be promoted, and pine plantations avoided.

  3. Drivers of radial growth and carbon isotope discrimination of bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) across continental gradients in precipitation, vapour pressure deficit and irradiance.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Steven L; Meinzer, Frederick C; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Brooks, J Renée; Guyette, Richard P

    2014-03-01

    Tree-ring characteristics are commonly used to reconstruct climate variables, but divergence from the assumption of a single biophysical control may reduce the accuracy of these reconstructions. Here, we present data from bur oaks (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.) sampled within and beyond the current species bioclimatic envelope to identify the primary environmental controls on ring-width indices (RWIs) and carbon stable isotope discrimination (Δ(13) C) in tree-ring cellulose. Variation in Δ(13) C and RWI was more strongly related to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (VPD) at the centre and western edge of the range compared with the northern and wettest regions. Among regions, Δ(13) C of tree-ring cellulose was closely predicted by VPD and light responses of canopy-level Δ(13) C estimated using a model driven by eddy flux and meteorological measurements (R(2)  = 0.96, P = 0.003). RWI and Δ(13) C were positively correlated in the drier regions, while they were negatively correlated in the wettest region. The strength and direction of the correlations scaled with regional VPD or the ratio of precipitation to evapotranspiration. Therefore, the correlation strength between RWI and Δ(13) C may be used to infer past wetness or aridity from paleo wood by determining the degree to which carbon gain and growth have been more limited by moisture or light. PMID:24004466

  4. Effect of pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes on Cr(VI) and total chromium removal by acorn shell of Quercus crassipes Humb. & Bonpl.

    PubMed

    Aranda-García, Erick; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Pineda-Camacho, Gabriela; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    The ability of Quercus crassipes acorn shells (QCS) to remove Cr(VI) and total chromium from aqueous solutions was investigated as a function of the solution pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes. It was found that Cr(VI) and total chromium removal by QCS depended strongly on the pH of the solution. Cr(VI) removal rate increased as the solution pH decreased. The optimum pH for total chromium removal varied depending on contact time. NaCl ionic strengths lower than 200 mM did not affect chromium removal. The presence of 20 mM monovalent cations and anions, and of divalent cations, slightly decreased the removal of Cr(VI) and total chromium by QCS; in contrast, divalent anions (SO₄(2-), PO₄(2-), CO₃(2-)) significantly affected the removal of Cr(VI) and total chromium. The biosorption kinetics of chromium ions followed the pseudo-second-order model at all solution pH levels, NaCl ionic strengths and background electrolytes tested. Results suggest that QCS may be a potential low-cost biosorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) and total chromium from aqueous solutions containing various impurities.

  5. Stomatal limitation to CO2 assimilation and down-regulation of photosynthesis in Quercus ilex resprouts in response to slowly imposed drought.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rojas, Karen; Aranda, Xavier; Fleck, Isabel

    2004-07-01

    Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) is native to hot, dry Mediterranean forests where limited water availability often reduces photosynthesis in many species, and forest fires are frequent. Holm oaks resprout after a disturbance, with improved photosynthetic activity and water relations compared with unburned plants. To better understand the role of water availability in this improvement, watering was withheld from container-grown plants, either intact (controls) or resprouts after excision of the shoot, to gradually obtain a wide range of soil water availabilities. At high water availability, gas exchange rates did not differ between controls and resprouts. At moderate soil dryness, net photosynthesis of control plants decreased as a result of increased stomatal limitation, whereas gas exchange rates of resprouts, which had higher midday and predawn leaf water potentials, were unchanged. Under severe drought, resprouts showed a less marked decline in gas exchange than controls and maintained photosystem II integrity, as indicated by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Photosynthesis was down-regulated in both plant types in response to reduced CO2 availability caused by high stomatal limitation. Lower non-stomatal limitations in resprouts than in control plants, as evidenced by higher carboxylation velocity and the capacity for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate regeneration, conferred greater drought resistance under external constraints similar to summer conditions at midday.

  6. Velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling in woody stems of Castanea sativa, Morus nigra and Quercus robur measured by IDTA.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Gilbert; Xu, Bingcheng; Hacker, Juergen

    2010-08-01

    Infrared differential thermal analysis (IDTA) was used to monitor the velocity and pattern of ice propagation and deep supercooling of xylem parenchyma cells (XPCs) during freezing of stems of Castanea sativa L., Morus nigra L. and Quercus robur L. that exhibit a macro- and ring-porous xylem. Measurements were conducted on the surface of cross- and longitudinal stem sections. During high-temperature freezing exotherms (HTEs; -2.8 to -9.4°C), initial freezing was mainly observed in the youngest year ring of the sapwood (94%), but occasionally elsewhere (older year rings: 4%; bark: 2%). Initially, ice propagated rapidly in the largest xylem conduits. This resulted in a distinct freezing pattern of concentric circles in C. sativa and M. nigra. During HTEs, supercooling of XPCs became visible in Q. robur stems, but not in the other species that have narrower pith rays. Intracellular freezing of supercooled XPCs of Q. robur became visible by IDTA during low-temperature freezing exotherms (<-17.4 °C). Infrared differential thermal analysis revealed the progress and the two-dimensional pattern of XPC freezing. XPCs did not freeze at once, but rather small cell groups appeared to freeze at random anywhere in the xylem. By IDTA, ice propagation and deep supercooling in stems can be monitored at meaningful spatial and temporal resolutions.

  7. Effects of temperature and light on photosynthesis of dominant species of a northern hardwood forest. [Populus grandidentata, Quercus rubra, Betula papyrifera

    SciTech Connect

    Jurik, T.W. ); Weber, J.A. ); Gates, D.M. )

    1988-06-01

    The response of CO{sub 2} exchange rate (CER) to temperature and light was determined for 14 dominant plant species of a northern deciduous hardwood forest in northern lower Michigan. Leaves at the top of the canopy had temperature optima near 25 C for CER, whereas leaves in the understory had optima near 20 C. There was no change in optimum temperature over the growing season, and overall shapes of response curves were similar among species. The lack of change in temperature optima may be a result of little change in growing conditions rather than a lack of ability to acclimatize. Nine of 11 species in the understory had no significant differences in light-saturated, maximum CERs, whereas at the top of the canopy Populus grandidentata had a higher maximum CER than Quercus rubra and Betula papyrifera. The species in the understory also differed little in light-saturation points for CER. Species at the top of the canopy had higher values for maximum CER, light-saturation point for CER, and maximum conductance than did species in the understory.

  8. Seasonal variation of leaf wax n-alkane production and δ(2)H values from the evergreen oak tree, Quercus agrifolia.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Dirk; Dawson, Todd E; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the timing of leaf wax synthesis in higher plants, we analysed the variability in leaf wax n-alkane concentration, composition (expressed as average chain length (ACL)), and δ(2)Hwax values as well as plant source water δ(2)H values (xylem and leaf water) in the evergreen tree Quercus agrifolia over a period of 9 months, beginning with leaf flush. We identified three distinct periods of leaf development with the first month following leaf flush being characterized by de novo synthesis and possibly removal of n-alkanes. During the following 3 months, n-alkane concentrations increased sevenfold and δ(2)Hwax and ACL values increased, suggesting this period was the major leaf wax n-alkane formation period. During the remaining 4 months of the experiment, stable values suggest cessation of leaf wax n-alkane formation. We find that n-alkane synthesis in Q. agrifolia takes place over 4 months, substantially longer than that observed for deciduous trees. PMID:25704898

  9. Airborne light detection and ranging laser return intensity-based investigation into crown-inside? A case study on Quercus robur trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; Zhang, Lifu; Wang, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    The significance of laser return intensity has been widely verified in airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR)-based forest canopy mapping, but this does not mean that all of its roles have been played. People still ask such questions as "Is it possible using this optical attribute of lasers to investigate individual tree-crown insides wherein laser intensity data are typically yielded in complicated echo-triggering modes?" To answer this question, this study examined the characteristics of the intensities of the laser points within 10 Quercus robur trees by fitting their peak amplitudes into default Gaussian distributions and then analyzing the resulting asymmetric tails. Exploratory data analyses showed that the laser points lying within the distribution tails can indicate primary tree branches in a sketchy way. This suggests that the question can be positively answered, and the traditional restriction of airborne LiDAR in canopy mapping at the crown level has been broken. Overall, this study found a unique way to detect primary tree branches in airborne LiDAR data and pointed out how to explore more ways this optical intensity attribute of airborne LiDAR data can measure tree organs at fine scales and further learn their properties.

  10. Summer season and long-term drought increase the richness of bacteria and fungi in the foliar phyllosphere of Quercus ilex in a mixed Mediterranean forest.

    PubMed

    Peñuelas, J; Rico, L; Ogaya, R; Jump, A S; Terradas, J

    2012-07-01

    We explored the changes in richness, diversity and evenness of epiphytic (on the leaf surface) and endophytic (within leaf tissues) bacteria and fungi in the foliar phyllosphere of Quercus ilex, the dominant tree species of Mediterranean forests. Bacteria and fungi were assessed during ontogenic development of the leaves, from the wet spring to the dry summer season in control plots and in plots subjected to drought conditions mimicking those projected for future decades. Our aim was to monitor succession in microbiota during the colonisation of plant leaves and its response to climate change. Ontogeny and seasonality exerted a strong influence on richness and diversity of the microbial phyllosphere community, which decreased in summer in the whole leaf and increased in summer in the epiphytic phyllosphere. Drought precluded the decrease in whole leaf phyllosphere diversity and increased the rise in the epiphytic phyllosphere. Both whole leaf bacterial and fungal richness decreased with the decrease in physiological activity and productivity of the summer season in control trees. As expected, the richness of epiphytic bacteria and