Science.gov

Sample records for query answering systems

  1. Smart Query Answering for Marine Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Shahriar, Md. Sumon; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks. PMID:22163772

  2. Producing approximate answers to database queries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrbsky, Susan V.; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a query processor, called APPROXIMATE, that makes approximate answers available if part of the database is unavailable or if there is not enough time to produce an exact answer. The accuracy of the approximate answers produced improves monotonically with the amount of data retrieved to produce the result. The exact answer is produced if all of the needed data are available and query processing is allowed to continue until completion. The monotone query processing algorithm of APPROXIMATE works within the standard relational algebra framework and can be implemented on a relational database system with little change to the relational architecture. We describe here the approximation semantics of APPROXIMATE that serves as the basis for meaningful approximations of both set-valued and single-valued queries. We show how APPROXIMATE is implemented to make effective use of semantic information, provided by an object-oriented view of the database, and describe the additional overhead required by APPROXIMATE.

  3. Answering Geosparql Queries Over Relational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereta, K.; Xiao, G.; Koubarakis, M.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present the system Ontop-spatial that is able to answer GeoSPARQL queries on top of geospatial relational databases, performing on-the-fly GeoSPARQL-to-SQL translation using ontologies and mappings. GeoSPARQL is a geospatial extension of the query language SPARQL standardized by OGC for querying geospatial RDF data. Our approach goes beyond relational databases and covers all data that can have a relational structure even at the logical level. Our purpose is to enable GeoSPARQL querying on-the-fly integrating multiple geospatial sources, without converting and materializing original data as RDF and then storing them in a triple store. This approach is more suitable in the cases where original datasets are stored in large relational databases (or generally in files with relational structure) and/or get frequently updated.

  4. Query Answering Driven by Collaborating Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    We assume that there is a group of collaborating agents where each agent is defined as an Information System coupled with a Query Answering System (QAS). Values of attributes in an information system S form atomic expressions of a language used by the agent associated with S to communicate with other agents. Collaboration among agents is initiated when one of the agent's, say the one associated with S and called a client, is asked by user to resolve a query containing nonlocal attributes for S. Then, the client will ask for help other agents to have that query answered. As the result of this request, knowledge in the form of defnitions of locally foreign attribute values for S is extracted at information systems representing other agents and sent to the client. The outcome of this step is a knowledge-base KB created at the client site and used to answer the query. In this paper we present a method of identifying which agents are semantically the closest to S and show that the precision and recall of QAS is getting increased when only these agents are ask for help by the client.

  5. Consistent Query Answering of Conjunctive Queries under Primary Key Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pema, Enela

    2014-01-01

    An inconsistent database is a database that violates one or more of its integrity constraints. In reality, violations of integrity constraints arise frequently under several different circumstances. Inconsistent databases have long posed the challenge to develop suitable tools for meaningful query answering. A principled approach for querying…

  6. Consistent Query Answering of Conjunctive Queries under Primary Key Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pema, Enela

    2014-01-01

    An inconsistent database is a database that violates one or more of its integrity constraints. In reality, violations of integrity constraints arise frequently under several different circumstances. Inconsistent databases have long posed the challenge to develop suitable tools for meaningful query answering. A principled approach for querying…

  7. Audiotex Information Systems: Answering Consumer Queries Electronically. TDC Research Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlan, Sharon; And Others

    A 14-month pilot of INFO-U, a fully automated telephone information service, assessed the feasibility of the technology in Minnesota Extension Service (MES) county offices to respond to consumer telephone queries. The project was designed to: (1) explore the potential of regional Extension cooperation and resource sharing; (2) increase recognition…

  8. An Agent-based Framework for Web Query Answering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Huaiqing; Liao, Stephen; Liao, Lejian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses discrepancies between user queries on the Web and the answers provided by information sources; proposes an agent-based framework for Web mining tasks; introduces an object-oriented deductive data model and a flexible query language; and presents a cooperative mechanism for query answering. (Author/LRW)

  9. A Practical Approach for Scalable Conjunctive Query Answering on Acyclic {EL}^+ Knowledge Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jing; Liu, Shengping; Xie, Guotong; Kalyanpur, Aditya; Fokoue, Achille; Ni, Yuan; Li, Hanyu; Pan, Yue

    Conjunctive query answering for {EL}^{++} ontologies has recently drawn much attention, as the Description Logic {EL}^{++} captures the expressivity of many large ontologies in the biomedical domain and is the foundation for the OWL 2 EL profile. In this paper, we propose a practical approach for conjunctive query answering in a fragment of {EL}^{++}, namely acyclic {EL}^+, that supports role inclusions. This approach can be implemented with low cost by leveraging any existing relational database management system to do the ABox data completion and query answering. We conducted a preliminary experiment to evaluate our approach using a large clinical data set and show our approach is practical.

  10. Guiding Students to Answers: Query Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmazel, Ozgur

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a guided navigation system built on the textbook search engine developed at Anadolu University to support distance education students. The search engine uses Turkish Language specific language processing modules to enable searches over course material presented in Open Education Faculty textbooks. We implemented a guided…

  11. Cooperative answers in database systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaasterland, Terry; Godfrey, Parke; Minker, Jack; Novik, Lev

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of researchers who seek to improve human-computer communication involves how to move beyond literal interpretations of queries to a level of responsiveness that takes the user's misconceptions, expectations, desires, and interests into consideration. At Maryland, we are investigating how to better meet a user's needs within the framework of the cooperative answering system of Gal and Minker. We have been exploring how to use semantic information about the database to formulate coherent and informative answers. The work has two main thrusts: (1) the construction of a logic formula which embodies the content of a cooperative answer; and (2) the presentation of the logic formula to the user in a natural language form. The information that is available in a deductive database system for building cooperative answers includes integrity constraints, user constraints, the search tree for answers to the query, and false presuppositions that are present in the query. The basic cooperative answering theory of Gal and Minker forms the foundation of a cooperative answering system that integrates the new construction and presentation methods. This paper provides an overview of the cooperative answering strategies used in the CARMIN cooperative answering system, an ongoing research effort at Maryland. Section 2 gives some useful background definitions. Section 3 describes techniques for collecting cooperative logical formulae. Section 4 discusses which natural language generation techniques are useful for presenting the logic formula in natural language text. Section 5 presents a diagram of the system.

  12. Monotonically improving approximate answers to relational algebra queries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kenneth P.; Liu, J. W. S.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a query processing method that produces approximate answers to queries posed in standard relational algebra. This method is monotone in the sense that the accuracy of the approximate result improves with the amount of time spent producing the result. This strategy enables us to trade the time to produce the result for the accuracy of the result. An approximate relational model that characterizes appromimate relations and a partial order for comparing them is developed. Relational operators which operate on and return approximate relations are defined.

  13. Effective retrieval in Hospital Information Systems: the use of context in answering queries to Patient Discharge Summaries.

    PubMed

    Nangle, B; Keane, M T

    1994-06-01

    The move towards the electronic storage of medical records in Hospital Information Systems (HISs) presents significant challenges for AI retrieval techniques. In this paper, we argue that adequate information retrieval in such systems will have to rely on the exploitation of the conceptual knowledge in those records rather than superficial string searches. However, this course of action is dependent on the developments of natural language processing techniques and on retrieval systems that can exploit semantic/conceptual knowledge. We present a retrieval system, which attempts to realise the second of these developments. This system, called CONIR [developed in the context of the European Community project MENELAS (AIM 2023)] operates in the domain of Patient Discharge Summaries on coronary illness. CONIR uses flexible retrieval techniques, that exploit conceptual context information, over a database of elaborated semantic records. In the course of the paper we outline the sorts of knowledge structures that are required to do this type of retrieval and indicate how they are constructed.

  14. Assigning function to CDS through qualified query answering: Beyond alignment and motifs

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T.; Maltsev, N.; Lobo, J.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we show how to use qualitative query answering to annotate CDS-to-function relationships with confidence in the score, confidence in the tool, and confidence in the decision about the function. The system, implemented in Prolog, provides users with a powerful tool to analyze large quantities of data that have been produced by multiple sequence analysis programs. Using qualified query answering techniques, users can easily change the criteria for how tools reinforce each other and for how numbers of occurrences of particular functions reinforce each other. They can also after how different scores for different tools are categorized.

  15. Using ontology databases for scalable query answering, inconsistency detection, and data integration

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Dejing

    2011-01-01

    An ontology database is a basic relational database management system that models an ontology plus its instances. To reason over the transitive closure of instances in the subsumption hierarchy, for example, an ontology database can either unfold views at query time or propagate assertions using triggers at load time. In this paper, we use existing benchmarks to evaluate our method—using triggers—and we demonstrate that by forward computing inferences, we not only improve query time, but the improvement appears to cost only more space (not time). However, we go on to show that the true penalties were simply opaque to the benchmark, i.e., the benchmark inadequately captures load-time costs. We have applied our methods to two case studies in biomedicine, using ontologies and data from genetics and neuroscience to illustrate two important applications: first, ontology databases answer ontology-based queries effectively; second, using triggers, ontology databases detect instance-based inconsistencies—something not possible using views. Finally, we demonstrate how to extend our methods to perform data integration across multiple, distributed ontology databases. PMID:22163378

  16. Data Parallel Bin-Based Indexing for Answering Queries on Multi-Core Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, Luke; Wu, Kesheng; Bethel, E. Wes; Owens, John D.; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2009-06-02

    The multi-core trend in CPUs and general purpose graphics processing units (GPUs) offers new opportunities for the database community. The increase of cores at exponential rates is likely to affect virtually every server and client in the coming decade, and presents database management systems with a huge, compelling disruption that will radically change how processing is done. This paper presents a new parallel indexing data structure for answering queries that takes full advantage of the increasing thread-level parallelism emerging in multi-core architectures. In our approach, our Data Parallel Bin-based Index Strategy (DP-BIS) first bins the base data, and then partitions and stores the values in each bin as a separate, bin-based data cluster. In answering a query, the procedures for examining the bin numbers and the bin-based data clusters offer the maximum possible level of concurrency; each record is evaluated by a single thread and all threads are processed simultaneously in parallel. We implement and demonstrate the effectiveness of DP-BIS on two multi-core architectures: a multi-core CPU and a GPU. The concurrency afforded by DP-BIS allows us to fully utilize the thread-level parallelism provided by each architecture--for example, our GPU-based DP-BIS implementation simultaneously evaluates over 12,000 records with an equivalent number of concurrently executing threads. In comparing DP-BIS's performance across these architectures, we show that the GPU-based DP-BIS implementation requires significantly less computation time to answer a query than the CPU-based implementation. We also demonstrate in our analysis that DP-BIS provides better overall performance than the commonly utilized CPU and GPU-based projection index. Finally, due to data encoding, we show that DP-BIS accesses significantly smaller amounts of data than index strategies that operate solely on a column's base data; this smaller data footprint is critical for parallel processors that possess

  17. InstQL: A Query Language for Virtual Institutions Using Answer Set Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopton, Luke; Cliffe, Owen; de Vos, Marina; Padget, Julian

    Institutions provide a mechanism to capture and reason about "correct" and "incorrect" behaviour within a social context. While institutions can be studied in their own right, their real potential is as instruments to govern open software architectures like multi-agent and service-oriented systems. Our domain-specific action language for normative frameworks, InstAL aims to help focus designers' attention on the expression of issues such as permission, violation and power but does not help the designer in verifying or querying the model they have specified. In this paper we present the query language InstQL which includes a number of powerful features including temporal constraints over events and fluents that can be used in conjunction with InstAL to specify those traces that are of interest in order to investigate and reason over the underlying normative models. The semantics of the query language is provided by translating InstQL queries into AnsProlog, the same computational language as InstAL. The result is a simple, high-level query and constraint language that builds on and uses the reasoning power of ASP.

  18. Learning of Elementary Formal Systems with Two Clauses Using Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirotaka; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Miyahara, Tetsuhiro

    An elementary formal system, EFS for short, is a kind of logic program over strings, and regarded as a set of rules to generate a language. For an EFS Γ, the language L(Γ) denotes the set of all strings generated by Γ. We consider a new form of EFS, called a restricted two-clause EFS, and denote by r{\\\\cal EF\\\\!S} the set of all restricted two-clause EFSs. Then we study the learnability of r{\\\\cal EF\\\\!S} in the exact learning model. The class r{\\\\cal EF\\\\!S} contains the class of regular patterns, which is extensively studied in Learning Theory. Let Γ* be a target EFS in r{\\\\cal EF\\\\!S} of learning. In the exact learning model, an oracle for superset queries answers “yes” for an input EFS Γ in r{\\\\cal EF\\\\!S} if L(Γ) is a superset of L(Γ*), and outputs a string in L(Γ*) - L(Γ), otherwise. An oracle for membership queries answers “yes” for an input string w if w is included in L(Γ*), and answers “no”, otherwise. We show that any EFS in r{\\\\cal EF\\\\!S} is exactly identifiable in polynomial time using membership and superset queries. Moreover, for other types of queries, we show that there exists no polynomial time learning algorithm for r{\\\\cal EF\\\\!S} by using the queries. This result indicates the hardness of learning the class r{\\\\cal EF\\\\!S} in the exact learning model, in general.

  19. A natural language interface plug-in for cooperative query answering in biological databases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the many unique features of biological databases is that the mere existence of a ground data item is not always a precondition for a query response. It may be argued that from a biologist's standpoint, queries are not always best posed using a structured language. By this we mean that approximate and flexible responses to natural language like queries are well suited for this domain. This is partly due to biologists' tendency to seek simpler interfaces and partly due to the fact that questions in biology involve high level concepts that are open to interpretations computed using sophisticated tools. In such highly interpretive environments, rigidly structured databases do not always perform well. In this paper, our goal is to propose a semantic correspondence plug-in to aid natural language query processing over arbitrary biological database schema with an aim to providing cooperative responses to queries tailored to users' interpretations. Results Natural language interfaces for databases are generally effective when they are tuned to the underlying database schema and its semantics. Therefore, changes in database schema become impossible to support, or a substantial reorganization cost must be absorbed to reflect any change. We leverage developments in natural language parsing, rule languages and ontologies, and data integration technologies to assemble a prototype query processor that is able to transform a natural language query into a semantically equivalent structured query over the database. We allow knowledge rules and their frequent modifications as part of the underlying database schema. The approach we adopt in our plug-in overcomes some of the serious limitations of many contemporary natural language interfaces, including support for schema modifications and independence from underlying database schema. Conclusions The plug-in introduced in this paper is generic and facilitates connecting user selected natural language interfaces to

  20. A natural language interface plug-in for cooperative query answering in biological databases.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hasan M

    2012-06-11

    One of the many unique features of biological databases is that the mere existence of a ground data item is not always a precondition for a query response. It may be argued that from a biologist's standpoint, queries are not always best posed using a structured language. By this we mean that approximate and flexible responses to natural language like queries are well suited for this domain. This is partly due to biologists' tendency to seek simpler interfaces and partly due to the fact that questions in biology involve high level concepts that are open to interpretations computed using sophisticated tools. In such highly interpretive environments, rigidly structured databases do not always perform well. In this paper, our goal is to propose a semantic correspondence plug-in to aid natural language query processing over arbitrary biological database schema with an aim to providing cooperative responses to queries tailored to users' interpretations. Natural language interfaces for databases are generally effective when they are tuned to the underlying database schema and its semantics. Therefore, changes in database schema become impossible to support, or a substantial reorganization cost must be absorbed to reflect any change. We leverage developments in natural language parsing, rule languages and ontologies, and data integration technologies to assemble a prototype query processor that is able to transform a natural language query into a semantically equivalent structured query over the database. We allow knowledge rules and their frequent modifications as part of the underlying database schema. The approach we adopt in our plug-in overcomes some of the serious limitations of many contemporary natural language interfaces, including support for schema modifications and independence from underlying database schema. The plug-in introduced in this paper is generic and facilitates connecting user selected natural language interfaces to arbitrary databases using a

  1. A query suggestion workflow for life science IR-systems.

    PubMed

    Esch, Maria; Chen, Jinbo; Weise, Stephan; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Scholz, Uwe; Lange, Matthias

    2014-06-13

    Information Retrieval (IR) plays a central role in the exploration and interpretation of integrated biological datasets that represent the heterogeneous ecosystem of life sciences. Here, keyword based query systems are popular user interfaces. In turn, to a large extend, the used query phrases determine the quality of the search result and the effort a scientist has to invest for query refinement. In this context, computer aided query expansion and suggestion is one of the most challenging tasks for life science information systems. Existing query front-ends support aspects like spelling correction, query refinement or query expansion. However, the majority of the front-ends only make limited use of enhanced IR algorithms to implement comprehensive and computer aided query refinement workflows. In this work, we present the design of a multi-stage query suggestion workflow and its implementation in the life science IR system LAILAPS. The presented workflow includes enhanced tokenisation, word breaking, spelling correction, query expansion and query suggestion ranking. A spelling correction benchmark with 5,401 queries and manually selected use cases for query expansion demonstrate the performance of the implemented workflow and its advantages compared with state-of-the-art systems.

  2. Data Base Query within HOS Systems Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    C?’, HIGHER ORDER SOFTWARE, INC.3 FINAL REPORT CONTRACT NO. N00014-U2-C.@I37 JULY 1962 DATA BASE QUERY HOS SYSTEMS METHODOLOGY PREPARED FOR OFFICE Of...NAVAL RESEARCH j ~ DEPARTMENT oF THE NAVY Ca 600 NORTH QUINCY STREET ARLINGTON, VIRGINIA 22217 0802 NOTICES Copyright 0 1982 by Higher Order Software...permission from Higher Order Software, Inc. DISCLAIMERS The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Navy position

  3. Enabling Ontology Based Semantic Queries in Biomedical Database Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shuai; Wang, Fusheng; Lu, James; Saltz, Joel

    2013-01-01

    While current biomedical ontology repositories offer primitive query capabilities, it is difficult or cumbersome to support ontology based semantic queries directly in semantically annotated biomedical databases. The problem may be largely attributed to the mismatch between the models of the ontologies and the databases, and the mismatch between the query interfaces of the two systems. To fully realize semantic query capabilities based on ontologies, we develop a system DBOntoLink to provide unified semantic query interfaces by extending database query languages. With DBOntoLink, semantic queries can be directly and naturally specified as extended functions of the database query languages without any programming needed. DBOntoLink is adaptable to different ontologies through customizations and supports major biomedical ontologies hosted at the NCBO BioPortal. We demonstrate the use of DBOntoLink in a real world biomedical database with semantically annotated medical image annotations. PMID:23404054

  4. Enabling Ontology Based Semantic Queries in Biomedical Database Systems.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Wang, Fusheng; Lu, James; Saltz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    While current biomedical ontology repositories offer primitive query capabilities, it is difficult or cumbersome to support ontology based semantic queries directly in semantically annotated biomedical databases. The problem may be largely attributed to the mismatch between the models of the ontologies and the databases, and the mismatch between the query interfaces of the two systems. To fully realize semantic query capabilities based on ontologies, we develop a system DBOntoLink to provide unified semantic query interfaces by extending database query languages. With DBOntoLink, semantic queries can be directly and naturally specified as extended functions of the database query languages without any programming needed. DBOntoLink is adaptable to different ontologies through customizations and supports major biomedical ontologies hosted at the NCBO BioPortal. We demonstrate the use of DBOntoLink in a real world biomedical database with semantically annotated medical image annotations.

  5. Enabling Ontology Based Semantic Queries in Biomedical Database Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shuai; Lu, James

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of tools to ease the integration and ontology based semantic queries in biomedical databases, which are often annotated with ontology concepts. We aim to provide a middle layer between ontology repositories and semantically annotated databases to support semantic queries directly in the databases with expressive standard database query languages. We have developed a semantic query engine that provides semantic reasoning and query processing, and translates the queries into ontology repository operations on NCBO BioPortal. Semantic operators are implemented in the database as user defined functions extended to the database engine, thus semantic queries can be directly specified in standard database query languages such as SQL and XQuery. The system provides caching management to boosts query performance. The system is highly adaptable to support different ontologies through easy customizations. We have implemented the system DBOntoLink as an open source software, which supports major ontologies hosted at BioPortal. DBOntoLink supports a set of common ontology based semantic operations and have them fully integrated with a database management system IBM DB2. The system has been deployed and evaluated with an existing biomedical database for managing and querying image annotations and markups (AIM). Our performance study demonstrates the high expressiveness of semantic queries and the high efficiency of the queries. PMID:25541585

  6. Enabling Ontology Based Semantic Queries in Biomedical Database Systems.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuai; Wang, Fusheng; Lu, James

    2014-03-01

    There is a lack of tools to ease the integration and ontology based semantic queries in biomedical databases, which are often annotated with ontology concepts. We aim to provide a middle layer between ontology repositories and semantically annotated databases to support semantic queries directly in the databases with expressive standard database query languages. We have developed a semantic query engine that provides semantic reasoning and query processing, and translates the queries into ontology repository operations on NCBO BioPortal. Semantic operators are implemented in the database as user defined functions extended to the database engine, thus semantic queries can be directly specified in standard database query languages such as SQL and XQuery. The system provides caching management to boosts query performance. The system is highly adaptable to support different ontologies through easy customizations. We have implemented the system DBOntoLink as an open source software, which supports major ontologies hosted at BioPortal. DBOntoLink supports a set of common ontology based semantic operations and have them fully integrated with a database management system IBM DB2. The system has been deployed and evaluated with an existing biomedical database for managing and querying image annotations and markups (AIM). Our performance study demonstrates the high expressiveness of semantic queries and the high efficiency of the queries.

  7. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  8. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  9. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  10. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  11. 28 CFR 25.7 - Querying records in the system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Querying records in the system. 25.7 Section 25.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS The National Instant Criminal Background Check System § 25.7 Querying records in the system. (a) The...

  12. Evaluation methodology for query-based scene understanding systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huster, Todd P.; Ross, Timothy D.; Culbertson, Jared L.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we are proposing a method for the principled evaluation of scene understanding systems in a query-based framework. We can think of a query-based scene understanding system as a generalization of typical sensor exploitation systems where instead of performing a narrowly defined task (e.g., detect, track, classify, etc.), the system can perform general user-defined tasks specified in a query language. Examples of this type of system have been developed as part of DARPA's Mathematics of Sensing, Exploitation, and Execution (MSEE) program. There is a body of literature on the evaluation of typical sensor exploitation systems, but the open-ended nature of the query interface introduces new aspects to the evaluation problem that have not been widely considered before. In this paper, we state the evaluation problem and propose an approach to efficiently learn about the quality of the system under test. We consider the objective of the evaluation to be to build a performance model of the system under test, and we rely on the principles of Bayesian experiment design to help construct and select optimal queries for learning about the parameters of that model.

  13. Concept-based query language approach to enterprise information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Timo; Junkkari, Marko; Järvelin, Kalervo

    2014-01-01

    In enterprise information systems (EISs) it is necessary to model, integrate and compute very diverse data. In advanced EISs the stored data often are based both on structured (e.g. relational) and semi-structured (e.g. XML) data models. In addition, the ad hoc information needs of end-users may require the manipulation of data-oriented (structural), behavioural and deductive aspects of data. Contemporary languages capable of treating this kind of diversity suit only persons with good programming skills. In this paper we present a concept-oriented query language approach to manipulate this diversity so that the programming skill requirements are considerably reduced. In our query language, the features which need technical knowledge are hidden in application-specific concepts and structures. Therefore, users need not be aware of the underlying technology. Application-specific concepts and structures are represented by the modelling primitives of the extended RDOOM (relational deductive object-oriented modelling) which contains primitives for all crucial real world relationships (is-a relationship, part-of relationship, association), XML documents and views. Our query language also supports intensional and extensional-intensional queries, in addition to conventional extensional queries. In its query formulation, the end-user combines available application-specific concepts and structures through shared variables.

  14. A Priori Analysis of Natural Language Queries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegler, Israel; Elata, Smadar

    1988-01-01

    Presents a model for the a priori analysis of natural language queries which uses an algorithm to transform the query into a logical pattern that is used to determine the answerability of the query. The results of testing by a prototype system implemented in PROLOG are discussed. (20 references) (CLB)

  15. Differences between Expected Answers and the Answers Given by Computer Algebra Systems to School Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonisson, Eno

    2015-01-01

    Sometimes Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) offer an answer that is somewhat different from the answer that is probably expected by the student or teacher. These (somewhat unexpected) answers could serve as a catalyst for rich mathematical discussion. In this study, over 120 equations from school mathematics were solved using 8 different CAS. Many…

  16. Design of FastQuery: How to Generalize Indexing and Querying System for Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng

    2011-04-18

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the-art index and query technologies such as FastBit are critical for facilitating interactive exploration of large datasets. These technologies rely on adding auxiliary information to existing datasets to accelerate query processing. To use these indices, we need to match the relational data model used by the indexing systems with the array data model used by most scientific data, and to provide an efficient input and output layer for reading and writing the indices. In this work, we present a flexible design that can be easily applied to most scientific data formats. We demonstrate this flexibility by applying it to two of the most commonly used scientific data formats, HDF5 and NetCDF. We present two case studies using simulation data from the particle accelerator and climate simulation communities. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the new design, we also present a detailed performance study using both synthetic and real scientific workloads.

  17. Domain and Intelligence Based Multimedia Question Answering System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, K. Magesh; Valarmathie, P.

    2016-01-01

    Multimedia question answering systems have become very popular over the past few years. It allows users to share their thoughts by answering a given question or obtain information from a set of answered questions. However, existing QA systems support only textual answer which is not so instructive for many users. The user's discussion can be…

  18. Properties of a federated epidemiology query system.

    PubMed

    Bellika, Johan Gustav; Sue, Hoylen; Bird, Linda; Goodchild, Andrew; Hasvold, Toralf; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to establish knowledge about how online access to epidemiological data from general practitioners (GPs) electronic health record (EHR) system should be provided. Before such systems are developed and deployed a decision about the appropriate system architecture must be made. Such a decision should ideally be based on knowledge about the properties of different system architectures. This choice is important because the system architecture may affect the willingness of GPs to participate in providing epidemiological data from their EHR system. Verifying the performance and properties of an architectural approach by implementing and deploying a system on a trans-institutional level and performing evaluations studies is a very resource demanding method to establish a foundation for the decision of appropriate system architecture. Instead, we have tried to create this foundation by constructing a prototype system, establish knowledge about the properties of the system using experiments, and finally compare the properties of the federated approach to the properties of the centralised approach. By using this methodological approach we provide the best available knowledge, on this stage, for the appropriate system architecture to use for providing access to epidemiological data from the local population. Our experimental results show that it is possible to improve the timeliness and the temporal and spatial resolution of epidemiological data, compared to traditional centralised disease surveillance systems. Up-to-date epidemiological data from the local population may be provided directly from the source EHR system within 4s. The responsiveness of the system is minimally affected (0.1s) as the number of participating data providers grows from 1 to 49 data providers. The comparison of the federated approach to the centralised approach indicates that federated approaches avoid the privacy issues involved, as intended; it offers better scalability

  19. Heterogeneous distributed query processing: The DAVID system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Barry E.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID) project is the development of an easy to use computer system with which NASA scientists, engineers and administrators can uniformly access distributed heterogeneous databases. Basically, DAVID will be a database management system that sits alongside already existing database and file management systems. Its function is to enable users to access the data in other languages and file systems without having to learn the data manipulation languages. Given here is an outline of a talk on the DAVID project and several charts.

  20. On-Line Patient Information System with Query

    PubMed Central

    Hayeck, Elie G.; Berman, William J.; Anné, Antharvedi

    1979-01-01

    Background, current state and future plans for the University of Virginia Biomedical Engineering Division Patient Information System are given. System design is highlighted. When fully implemented, the system will make extensive use of “block transmission,” made for user-computer interaction, for data input, retrieval, and update. Other features will include the possibility of multiple primary keys per patient, frequency distribution, on-line patient query (i.e., search on secondary keys), and general printouts.

  1. Data modeling and query processing for distributed surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Yunyoung; Hong, Sangjin; Rho, Seungmin

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents data modeling and query processing for distributed surveillance systems. We define a metadata rule to search and manage information for distributed or heterogeneous surveillance systems. For human activity recognition, we propose a method that classifies these actions separately from complicated activities as a sequence of basic activities. In addition, we define the domain and range of relations based on the relationship between elements. Furthermore, we describe the state descriptors to represent an image sequence. To address the interaction of multiple objects, we classify human actions into symmetric or asymmetric actions. The prior motion model and the inference approach are applied adaptively according to environments. We define the grammar for the representation of the surveillance video and specify different query criteria for surveillance video retrieval. In the experiments, we show the prototype system that provides event detection, object identification, object tracking, face recognition, and activity recognition.

  2. Bio-TDS: bioscience query tool discovery system.

    PubMed

    Gnimpieba, Etienne Z; VanDiermen, Menno S; Gustafson, Shayla M; Conn, Bill; Lushbough, Carol M

    2017-01-04

    Bioinformatics and computational biology play a critical role in bioscience and biomedical research. As researchers design their experimental projects, one major challenge is to find the most relevant bioinformatics toolkits that will lead to new knowledge discovery from their data. The Bio-TDS (Bioscience Query Tool Discovery Systems, http://biotds.org/) has been developed to assist researchers in retrieving the most applicable analytic tools by allowing them to formulate their questions as free text. The Bio-TDS is a flexible retrieval system that affords users from multiple bioscience domains (e.g. genomic, proteomic, bio-imaging) the ability to query over 12 000 analytic tool descriptions integrated from well-established, community repositories. One of the primary components of the Bio-TDS is the ontology and natural language processing workflow for annotation, curation, query processing, and evaluation. The Bio-TDS's scientific impact was evaluated using sample questions posed by researchers retrieved from Biostars, a site focusing on BIOLOGICAL DATA ANALYSIS: The Bio-TDS was compared to five similar bioscience analytic tool retrieval systems with the Bio-TDS outperforming the others in terms of relevance and completeness. The Bio-TDS offers researchers the capacity to associate their bioscience question with the most relevant computational toolsets required for the data analysis in their knowledge discovery process. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Bio-TDS: bioscience query tool discovery system

    PubMed Central

    Gnimpieba, Etienne Z.; VanDiermen, Menno S.; Gustafson, Shayla M.; Conn, Bill; Lushbough, Carol M.

    2017-01-01

    Bioinformatics and computational biology play a critical role in bioscience and biomedical research. As researchers design their experimental projects, one major challenge is to find the most relevant bioinformatics toolkits that will lead to new knowledge discovery from their data. The Bio-TDS (Bioscience Query Tool Discovery Systems, http://biotds.org/) has been developed to assist researchers in retrieving the most applicable analytic tools by allowing them to formulate their questions as free text. The Bio-TDS is a flexible retrieval system that affords users from multiple bioscience domains (e.g. genomic, proteomic, bio-imaging) the ability to query over 12 000 analytic tool descriptions integrated from well-established, community repositories. One of the primary components of the Bio-TDS is the ontology and natural language processing workflow for annotation, curation, query processing, and evaluation. The Bio-TDS's scientific impact was evaluated using sample questions posed by researchers retrieved from Biostars, a site focusing on biological data analysis. The Bio-TDS was compared to five similar bioscience analytic tool retrieval systems with the Bio-TDS outperforming the others in terms of relevance and completeness. The Bio-TDS offers researchers the capacity to associate their bioscience question with the most relevant computational toolsets required for the data analysis in their knowledge discovery process. PMID:27924016

  4. Concepts and implementations of natural language query systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1984-01-01

    The currently developed user language interfaces of information systems are generally intended for serious users. These interfaces commonly ignore potentially the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This project discusses the concepts and implementations of a natural query language system which satisfy the nature and information needs of casual users by allowing them to communicate with the system in the form of their native (natural) language. In addition, a framework for the development of such an interface is also introduced for the MADAM (Multics Approach to Data Access and Management) system at the University of Southwestern Louisiana.

  5. QCS : a system for querying, clustering, and summarizing documents.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2006-08-01

    Information retrieval systems consist of many complicated components. Research and development of such systems is often hampered by the difficulty in evaluating how each particular component would behave across multiple systems. We present a novel hybrid information retrieval system--the Query, Cluster, Summarize (QCS) system--which is portable, modular, and permits experimentation with different instantiations of each of the constituent text analysis components. Most importantly, the combination of the three types of components in the QCS design improves retrievals by providing users more focused information organized by topic. We demonstrate the improved performance by a series of experiments using standard test sets from the Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) along with the best known automatic metric for summarization system evaluation, ROUGE. Although the DUC data and evaluations were originally designed to test multidocument summarization, we developed a framework to extend it to the task of evaluation for each of the three components: query, clustering, and summarization. Under this framework, we then demonstrate that the QCS system (end-to-end) achieves performance as good as or better than the best summarization engines. Given a query, QCS retrieves relevant documents, separates the retrieved documents into topic clusters, and creates a single summary for each cluster. In the current implementation, Latent Semantic Indexing is used for retrieval, generalized spherical k-means is used for the document clustering, and a method coupling sentence ''trimming'', and a hidden Markov model, followed by a pivoted QR decomposition, is used to create a single extract summary for each cluster. The user interface is designed to provide access to detailed information in a compact and useful format. Our system demonstrates the feasibility of assembling an effective IR system from existing software libraries, the usefulness of the modularity of the design, and the

  6. QCS: a system for querying, clustering and summarizing documents.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Schlesinger, Judith D. (Center for Computing Sciences, Bowie, MD); O'Leary, Dianne P.; Conroy, John M.

    2006-10-01

    Information retrieval systems consist of many complicated components. Research and development of such systems is often hampered by the difficulty in evaluating how each particular component would behave across multiple systems. We present a novel hybrid information retrieval system--the Query, Cluster, Summarize (QCS) system--which is portable, modular, and permits experimentation with different instantiations of each of the constituent text analysis components. Most importantly, the combination of the three types of components in the QCS design improves retrievals by providing users more focused information organized by topic. We demonstrate the improved performance by a series of experiments using standard test sets from the Document Understanding Conferences (DUC) along with the best known automatic metric for summarization system evaluation, ROUGE. Although the DUC data and evaluations were originally designed to test multidocument summarization, we developed a framework to extend it to the task of evaluation for each of the three components: query, clustering, and summarization. Under this framework, we then demonstrate that the QCS system (end-to-end) achieves performance as good as or better than the best summarization engines. Given a query, QCS retrieves relevant documents, separates the retrieved documents into topic clusters, and creates a single summary for each cluster. In the current implementation, Latent Semantic Indexing is used for retrieval, generalized spherical k-means is used for the document clustering, and a method coupling sentence 'trimming', and a hidden Markov model, followed by a pivoted QR decomposition, is used to create a single extract summary for each cluster. The user interface is designed to provide access to detailed information in a compact and useful format. Our system demonstrates the feasibility of assembling an effective IR system from existing software libraries, the usefulness of the modularity of the design, and the

  7. AskHERMES: An online question answering system for complex clinical questions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, YongGang; Liu, Feifan; Simpson, Pippa; Antieau, Lamont; Bennett, Andrew; Cimino, James J.; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Clinical questions are often long and complex and take many forms. We have built a clinical question answering system named AskHERMES to perform robust semantic analysis on complex clinical questions and output question-focused extractive summaries as answers. Design This paper describes the system architecture and a preliminary evaluation of AskHERMES, which implements innovative approaches in question analysis, summarization, and answer presentation. Five types of resources were indexed in this system: MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, eMedicine documents, clinical guidelines and Wikipedia articles. Measurement We compared the AskHERMES system with Google (Google and Google Scholar) and UpToDate and asked physicians to score the three systems by ease of use, quality of answer, time spent, and overall performance. Results AskHERMES allows physicians to enter a question in a natural way with minimal query formulation and allows physicians to efficiently navigate among all the answer sentences to quickly meet their information needs. In contrast, physicians need to formulate queries to search for information in Google and UpToDate. The development of the AskHERMES system is still at an early stage, and the knowledge resource is limited compared with Google or UpToDate. Nevertheless, the evaluation results show that AskHERMES’ performance is comparable to the other systems. In particular, when answering complex clinical questions, it demonstrates the potential to outperform both Google and UpToDate systems. Conclusions AskHERMES, available at http://www.AskHERMES.org, has the potential to help physicians practice evidence-based medicine and improve the quality of patient care. PMID:21256977

  8. Spatiotemporal conceptual platform for querying archaeological information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsinevelos, Panagiotis; Sartzetaki, Mary; Sarris, Apostolos

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal distribution of archaeological sites has been shown to associate with several attributes including marine, water, mineral and food resources, climate conditions, geomorphological features, etc. In this study, archeological settlement attributes are evaluated under various associations in order to provide a specialized query platform in a geographic information system (GIS). Towards this end, a spatial database is designed to include a series of archaeological findings for a secluded geographic area of Crete in Greece. The key categories of the geodatabase include the archaeological type (palace, burial site, village, etc.), temporal information of the habitation/usage period (pre Minoan, Minoan, Byzantine, etc.), and the extracted geographical attributes of the sites (distance to sea, altitude, resources, etc.). Most of the related spatial attributes are extracted with readily available GIS tools. Additionally, a series of conceptual data attributes are estimated, including: Temporal relation of an era to a future one in terms of alteration of the archaeological type, topologic relations of various types and attributes, spatial proximity relations between various types. These complex spatiotemporal relational measures reveal new attributes towards better understanding of site selection for prehistoric and/or historic cultures, yet their potential combinations can become numerous. Therefore, after the quantification of the above mentioned attributes, they are classified as of their importance for archaeological site location modeling. Under this new classification scheme, the user may select a geographic area of interest and extract only the important attributes for a specific archaeological type. These extracted attributes may then be queried against the entire spatial database and provide a location map of possible new archaeological sites. This novel type of querying is robust since the user does not have to type a standard SQL query but

  9. Transport Information System using Query Centric Cyber Physical Systems (QCPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundra, Ankit; Rathee, Geetanjali; Chawla, Meenu; Soni, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    To incorporate the computation and communication with the physical world, next generation architecture i.e. CPS is viewed as a new technology. To improve the better interaction with the physical world or to perk up the electricity delivery usage, various CPS based approaches have been introduced. Recently several GPS equipped smart phones and sensor based frameworks have been proposed which provide various services i.e. environment estimation, road safety improvement but encounter certain limitations like elevated energy consumption and high computation cost. To meet the high reliability and safety requirements, this paper introduces a novel approach based on QCPS model which provides several users services (discussed in this paper). Further, this paper proposed a Transport Information System (TIS), which provide the communication with lower cost overhead by arranging the similar sensors in the form of grids. Each grid has a coordinator which interacts with cloud to process the user query. In order to evaluate the performance of proposed approach we have implemented a test bed of 16 wireless sensor nodes and have shown the performance in terms of computation and communication cost.

  10. Pilot study optimizing MEDLINE queries in an automated disease management telemedicine system.

    PubMed

    Spaeder, Jeffrey A

    2002-01-01

    Clinicians encounter many medical questions while providing outpatient medical care. A significant number of these questions can be answered using MEDLINE; however it has proven to be difficult to incorporate MEDLINE into routine clinical workflow and for clinicians to generate well constructed MEDLINE queries. This study however hypothesized that that well-constructed MEDLINE queries could be semi-automatically generated by an application named LitButton which was incorporated into the TeleWatch telemedicine system. The LitButton application was then prospectively evaluated in a pilot study by four nurse case managers (NCM) who monitored sixty-eight outpatients for three weeks. During this period the NCMs used the LitButton application sixteen times, and they subjectively reported in real-time that they obtained an answer in 56% of the cases, but that none of the successful information retrieval events resulted in a change in a patient's clinical management. The small number of LitButton events and lack of clinical impact was likely due to the fact that the LitButton function was designed to search MEDLINE for treatment related information; however the NCMs had limited medical decision making responsibilities. As a result there was a mismatch between the user's information needs and the system capabilities.

  11. Declarative Visualization Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro da Silva, P.; Del Rio, N.; Leptoukh, G. G.

    2011-12-01

    In an ideal interaction with machines, scientists may prefer to write declarative queries saying "what" they want from a machine than to write code stating "how" the machine is going to address the user request. For example, in relational database, users have long relied on specifying queries using Structured Query Language (SQL), a declarative language to request data results from a database management system. In the context of visualizations, we see that users are still writing code based on complex visualization toolkit APIs. With the goal of improving the scientists' experience of using visualization technology, we have applied this query-answering pattern to a visualization setting, where scientists specify what visualizations they want generated using a declarative SQL-like notation. A knowledge enhanced management system ingests the query and knows the following: (1) know how to translate the query into visualization pipelines; and (2) how to execute the visualization pipelines to generate the requested visualization. We define visualization queries as declarative requests for visualizations specified in an SQL like language. Visualization queries specify what category of visualization to generate (e.g., volumes, contours, surfaces) as well as associated display attributes (e.g., color and opacity), without any regards for implementation, thus allowing scientists to remain partially unaware of a wide range of visualization toolkit (e.g., Generic Mapping Tools and Visualization Toolkit) specific implementation details. Implementation details are only a concern for our knowledge-based visualization management system, which uses both the information specified in the query and knowledge about visualization toolkit functions to construct visualization pipelines. Knowledge about the use of visualization toolkits includes what data formats the toolkit operates on, what formats they output, and what views they can generate. Visualization knowledge, which is not

  12. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  13. Students' Comparison of Their Trigonometric Answers with the Answers of a Computer Algebra System in Terms of Equivalence and Correctness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonisson, Eno; Lepp, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The answers offered by computer algebra systems (CAS) can sometimes differ from those expected by the students or teachers. The comparison of the students' answers and CAS answers could provide ground for discussion about equivalence and correctness. Investigating the students' comparison of the answers gives the possibility to study different…

  14. Students' Comparison of Their Trigonometric Answers with the Answers of a Computer Algebra System in Terms of Equivalence and Correctness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonisson, Eno; Lepp, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The answers offered by computer algebra systems (CAS) can sometimes differ from those expected by the students or teachers. The comparison of the students' answers and CAS answers could provide ground for discussion about equivalence and correctness. Investigating the students' comparison of the answers gives the possibility to study different…

  15. Capabilities-based query rewriting in mediator systems

    SciTech Connect

    Papakonstantinou, Y.; Gupta, A.; Haas, L.

    1996-12-31

    Users today are struggling to integrate a broad range of information sources providing different levels of query capabilities. Currently, data sources with different and limited capabilities are accessed either by writing rich functional wrappers for the more primitive sources, or by dealing with all sources at a {open_quotes}lowest common denominator{close_quotes}. This paper explores a third approach, in which a mediator ensures that sources receive queries they can handle, while still taking advantage of all of the query power of the source. We propose an architecture that enables this, and identify a key component of that architecture, the Capabilities-Based Rewriter (CBR). The CBR takes as input a description of the capabilities of a data source, and a query targeted for that data source. From these, the CBR determines component queries to be sent to the sources, commensurate with their abilities, and computes a plan for combining their results using joins, unions, selections, and projections. We provide a language to describe the query capability of data sources and a plan generation algorithm. Our description language and plan generation algorithm are schema independent and handle SPJ queries.

  16. TQuery: a context-sensitive temporal query language.

    PubMed

    Kahn, M G; Tu, S; Fagan, L M

    1991-10-01

    Users of electronic medical databases request pertinent information by recasting their clinical questions into a formal database query language. Because the query language is the user's only access to the data, the query language must be powerful enough to enable users to express their data requirements. However, a competing need is for the query language to be restrictive enough so that queries can have unambiguous semantics and the query processor can generate correct answers. We describe a query language, called TQuery , that was designed specifically to formulate database queries that are dependent on temporal and contextual relationships. TQuery specifications express contextual constraints without the need to explicitly reference calendar dates. TQuery is the database query language used to retrieve patient data from an object-oriented electronic patient medical-record system called the temporal network (TNET). TNET and TQuery were developed to support the real-time temporal reasoning and representation needs of a LISP workstation-based medical expert system.

  17. The Limitations of Term Co-Occurrence Data for Query Expansion in Document Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Helen J.; Willett, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Identifies limitations in the use of term co-occurrence data as a basis for automatic query expansion in natural language document retrieval systems. The use of similarity coefficients to calculate the degree of similarity between pairs of terms is explained, and frequency and discriminatory characteristics for nearest neighbors of query terms are…

  18. Management Systems: Answers to Questions on Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, J. David; Harris, Robert B.

    An explanation of management systems being utilized in vocational education, this pamphlet is designed for vocational educators, administrative personnel, project directors, and other individuals interested in this aspect of program development. Answered are these questions: (1) What are some systems and techniques that may be adapted for use in…

  19. IQARIS : a tool for the intelligent querying, analysis, and retrieval from information systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J. R.; Silver, R. B.

    2002-04-26

    Information glut is one of the primary characteristics of the electronic age. Managing such large volumes of information (e.g., keeping track of the types, where they are, their relationships, who controls them, etc.) can be done efficiently with an intelligent, user-oriented information management system. The purpose of this paper is to describe a concept for managing information resources based on an intelligent information technology system developed by the Argonne National Laboratory for managing digital libraries. The Argonne system, Intelligent Query (IQ), enables users to query digital libraries and view the holdings that match the query from different perspectives.

  20. FastQuery: A Parallel Indexing System for Scientific Data

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng; Prabhat,

    2011-07-29

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the- art index and query technologies such as FastBit can significantly improve accesses to these datasets by augmenting the user data with indexes and other secondary information. However, a challenge is that the indexes assume the relational data model but the scientific data generally follows the array data model. To match the two data models, we design a generic mapping mechanism and implement an efficient input and output interface for reading and writing the data and their corresponding indexes. To take advantage of the emerging many-core architectures, we also develop a parallel strategy for indexing using threading technology. This approach complements our on-going MPI-based parallelization efforts. We demonstrate the flexibility of our software by applying it to two of the most commonly used scientific data formats, HDF5 and NetCDF. We present two case studies using data from a particle accelerator model and a global climate model. We also conducted a detailed performance study using these scientific datasets. The results show that FastQuery speeds up the query time by a factor of 2.5x to 50x, and it reduces the indexing time by a factor of 16 on 24 cores.

  1. The design and implementation of image query system based on color feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xu-Dong; Jia, Da-Chun; Li, Lin

    2013-07-01

    ASP.NET technology was used to construct the B/S mode image query system. The theory and technology of database design, color feature extraction from image, index and retrieval in the construction of the image repository were researched. The campus LAN and WAN environment were used to test the system. From the test results, the needs of user queries about related resources were achieved by system architecture design.

  2. Towards Building a High Performance Spatial Query System for Large Scale Medical Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Aji, Ablimit; Wang, Fusheng; Saltz, Joel H.

    2013-01-01

    Support of high performance queries on large volumes of scientific spatial data is becoming increasingly important in many applications. This growth is driven by not only geospatial problems in numerous fields, but also emerging scientific applications that are increasingly data- and compute-intensive. For example, digital pathology imaging has become an emerging field during the past decade, where examination of high resolution images of human tissue specimens enables more effective diagnosis, prediction and treatment of diseases. Systematic analysis of large-scale pathology images generates tremendous amounts of spatially derived quantifications of micro-anatomic objects, such as nuclei, blood vessels, and tissue regions. Analytical pathology imaging provides high potential to support image based computer aided diagnosis. One major requirement for this is effective querying of such enormous amount of data with fast response, which is faced with two major challenges: the “big data” challenge and the high computation complexity. In this paper, we present our work towards building a high performance spatial query system for querying massive spatial data on MapReduce. Our framework takes an on demand index building approach for processing spatial queries and a partition-merge approach for building parallel spatial query pipelines, which fits nicely with the computing model of MapReduce. We demonstrate our framework on supporting multi-way spatial joins for algorithm evaluation and nearest neighbor queries for microanatomic objects. To reduce query response time, we propose cost based query optimization to mitigate the effect of data skew. Our experiments show that the framework can efficiently support complex analytical spatial queries on MapReduce. PMID:24501719

  3. Towards Building a High Performance Spatial Query System for Large Scale Medical Imaging Data.

    PubMed

    Aji, Ablimit; Wang, Fusheng; Saltz, Joel H

    2012-11-06

    Support of high performance queries on large volumes of scientific spatial data is becoming increasingly important in many applications. This growth is driven by not only geospatial problems in numerous fields, but also emerging scientific applications that are increasingly data- and compute-intensive. For example, digital pathology imaging has become an emerging field during the past decade, where examination of high resolution images of human tissue specimens enables more effective diagnosis, prediction and treatment of diseases. Systematic analysis of large-scale pathology images generates tremendous amounts of spatially derived quantifications of micro-anatomic objects, such as nuclei, blood vessels, and tissue regions. Analytical pathology imaging provides high potential to support image based computer aided diagnosis. One major requirement for this is effective querying of such enormous amount of data with fast response, which is faced with two major challenges: the "big data" challenge and the high computation complexity. In this paper, we present our work towards building a high performance spatial query system for querying massive spatial data on MapReduce. Our framework takes an on demand index building approach for processing spatial queries and a partition-merge approach for building parallel spatial query pipelines, which fits nicely with the computing model of MapReduce. We demonstrate our framework on supporting multi-way spatial joins for algorithm evaluation and nearest neighbor queries for microanatomic objects. To reduce query response time, we propose cost based query optimization to mitigate the effect of data skew. Our experiments show that the framework can efficiently support complex analytical spatial queries on MapReduce.

  4. Representing and querying conceptual graphs with relational database management systems is possible.

    PubMed Central

    Schadow, G.; Barnes, M. R.; McDonald, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    This is an experimental study on the feasibility of maintaining medical concept dictionaries in production grade relational database management systems (RDBMS.) In the past, RDBMS did not support transitive relational structures and had therefore been unsuitable for managing knowledge bases. The revised SQL-99 standard, however, may change this. In this paper we show that modern RDBMS that support recursive queries are capable of querying transitive relationships in a generic data model. We show a simple but efficient indexed representation of transitive closure. We could confirm that even challenging combined transitive relationships can be queried in SQL. PMID:11825256

  5. On the evaluation of fuzzy quantified queries in a database management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosc, Patrick; Pivert, Olivier

    1992-01-01

    Many propositions to extend database management systems have been made in the last decade. Some of them aim at the support of a wider range of queries involving fuzzy predicates. Unfortunately, these queries are somewhat complex and the question of their efficiency is a subject under discussion. In this paper, we focus on a particular subset of queries, namely those using fuzzy quantified predicates. More precisely, we will consider the case where such predicates apply to individual elements as well as to sets of elements. Thanks to some interesting properties of alpha-cuts of fuzzy sets, we are able to show that the evaluation of these queries can be significantly improved with respect to a naive strategy based on exhaustive scans of sets or files.

  6. On the evaluation of fuzzy quantified queries in a database management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosc, Patrick; Pivert, Olivier

    1992-01-01

    Many propositions to extend database management systems have been made in the last decade. Some of them aim at the support of a wider range of queries involving fuzzy predicates. Unfortunately, these queries are somewhat complex and the question of their efficiency is a subject under discussion. In this paper, we focus on a particular subset of queries, namely those using fuzzy quantified predicates. More precisely, we will consider the case where such predicates apply to individual elements as well as to sets of elements. Thanks to some interesting properties of alpha-cuts of fuzzy sets, we are able to show that the evaluation of these queries can be significantly improved with respect to a naive strategy based on exhaustive scans of sets or files.

  7. Global parallel unification for large question-answering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auguston, J. G.; Minker, J.

    1974-01-01

    An efficient means of storing data in a first-order predicate calculus theorem-proving system is described. The data structure is oriented for large scale question-answering (QA) systems. An algorithm is outlined which uses the data structure to unify a given literal in parallel against all literals in all clauses in the data base. The data structure permits a compact representation of data within a QA system. Some suggestions are made for heuristics which can be used to speed-up the unification algorithm in systems.

  8. Evaluation of a flowchart-based EHR query system: a case study of RetroGuide

    PubMed Central

    Huser, Vojtech; Narus, Scott P.; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2010-01-01

    Provision of query systems which are intuitive for non-experts has been recognized as an important informatics challenge. We developed a prototype of a flowchart-based analytical framework called RetroGuide that enables non-experts to formulate query tasks using a step-based, patient-centered paradigm inspired by workflow technology. We present results of the evaluation of RetroGuide in comparison to Structured Query Language (SQL) in laboratory settings using a mixed method design. We asked 18 human subjects with limited database experience to solve query tasks in RetroGuide and SQL, and quantitatively compared their test scores. A follow-up questionnaire was designed to compare both technologies qualitatively and investigate RetroGuide technology acceptance. The quantitative comparison of test scores showed that the study subjects achieved significantly higher scores using the RetroGuide technology. Qualitative study results indicated that 94% of subjects preferred RetroGuide to SQL because RetroGuide was easier to learn, it better supported temporal tasks, and it seemed to be a more logical modeling paradigm. Additional qualitative evaluation results, based on a technology acceptance model, suggested that a fully developed RetroGuide-like technology would be well accepted by users. Our study is an example of a structure validation study of a prototype query system, results of which provided significant guidance in further development of a novel query paradigm for EHR data. We discuss the strengths and weakness of our study design and results, and their implication for future evaluations of query systems in general. PMID:19560553

  9. Evaluation of a flowchart-based EHR query system: a case study of RetroGuide.

    PubMed

    Huser, Vojtech; Narus, Scott P; Rocha, Roberto A

    2010-02-01

    Provision of query systems which are intuitive for non-experts has been recognized as an important informatics challenge. We developed a prototype of a flowchart-based analytical framework called RetroGuide that enables non-experts to formulate query tasks using a step-based, patient-centered paradigm inspired by workflow technology. We present results of the evaluation of RetroGuide in comparison to Structured Query Language (SQL) in laboratory settings using a mixed method design. We asked 18 human subjects with limited database experience to solve query tasks in RetroGuide and SQL, and quantitatively compared their test scores. A follow-up questionnaire was designed to compare both technologies qualitatively and investigate RetroGuide technology acceptance. The quantitative comparison of test scores showed that the study subjects achieved significantly higher scores using the RetroGuide technology. Qualitative study results indicated that 94% of subjects preferred RetroGuide to SQL because RetroGuide was easier to learn, it better supported temporal tasks, and it seemed to be a more logical modeling paradigm. Additional qualitative evaluation results, based on a technology acceptance model, suggested that a fully developed RetroGuide-like technology would be well accepted by users. Our study is an example of a structure validation study of a prototype query system, results of which provided significant guidance in further development of a novel query paradigm for EHR data. We discuss the strengths and weakness of our study design and results, and their implication for future evaluations of query systems in general.

  10. An Analysis of Ill-Formed Input in Natural Language Queries to Document Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Charlene W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study conducted at the University of South Carolina that examined the frequency of occurrence of several types of errors in a sample of natural language queries submitted by users requesting online searches in information retrieval systems. Implications for system design are suggested, including parsing systems. (28 references) (LRW)

  11. Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

    2010-01-01

    System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

  12. GeoIRIS: Geospatial Information Retrieval and Indexing System-Content Mining, Semantics Modeling, and Complex Queries.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Chi-Ren; Klaric, Matt; Scott, Grant J; Barb, Adrian S; Davis, Curt H; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2007-04-01

    Searching for relevant knowledge across heterogeneous geospatial databases requires an extensive knowledge of the semantic meaning of images, a keen eye for visual patterns, and efficient strategies for collecting and analyzing data with minimal human intervention. In this paper, we present our recently developed content-based multimodal Geospatial Information Retrieval and Indexing System (GeoIRIS) which includes automatic feature extraction, visual content mining from large-scale image databases, and high-dimensional database indexing for fast retrieval. Using these underpinnings, we have developed techniques for complex queries that merge information from heterogeneous geospatial databases, retrievals of objects based on shape and visual characteristics, analysis of multiobject relationships for the retrieval of objects in specific spatial configurations, and semantic models to link low-level image features with high-level visual descriptors. GeoIRIS brings this diverse set of technologies together into a coherent system with an aim of allowing image analysts to more rapidly identify relevant imagery. GeoIRIS is able to answer analysts' questions in seconds, such as "given a query image, show me database satellite images that have similar objects and spatial relationship that are within a certain radius of a landmark."

  13. Small numbers, disclosure risk, security, and reliability issues in Web-based data query systems.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Barbara A; Shah, Gulzar H; Love, Denise

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the process for developing consensus guidelines and tools for releasing public health data via the Web and highlights approaches leading agencies have taken to balance disclosure risk with public dissemination of reliable health statistics. An agency's choice of statistical methods for improving the reliability of released data for Web-based query systems is based upon a number of factors, including query system design (dynamic analysis vs preaggregated data and tables), population size, cell size, data use, and how data will be supplied to users. The article also describes those efforts that are necessary to reduce the risk of disclosure of an individual's protected health information.

  14. Data mining and intelligent queries in a knowledge-based multimedia medical database system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhua; Coleman, John D.

    2000-04-01

    Multimedia medical databases have accumulated large quantities of data and information about patients and their medical conditions. Patterns and relationships within this data could provide new knowledge for making better medical decisions. Unfortunately, few technologies have been developed and applied to discover and use this hidden knowledge. We are currently developing a next generation knowledge-based multimedia medical database, named MedBase, with advanced behaviors for data analysis and data fusion. As part of this R&D effort, a knowledge-rich data model is constructed to incorporate data mining techniques/tools to assist the building of medical knowledge bases, and to facilitate intelligent answering of users' investigative and knowledge queries in the database. Techniques such as data generalization, classification, clustering, semantic structures, and concept hierarchies, are used to acquire and represent both symbolic and spatial knowledge implicit in the database. With the availability of semantic structures, concept hierarchies and generalized knowledge, queries may be posed and answered at multiple levels of abstraction. In this article we provide a general description of the approaches and efforts undertaken so far in the MedBase project.

  15. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  16. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Information Retrieval Systems Using Simulated Queries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a simulation method for estimating recall and fallout in a document retrieval system. Earlier research on simulating document retrieval systems is reviewed, examples are presented of the current method, a probabilistic justification of the method is given, theoretical concerns dealing with retrieval precision are discussed, and further…

  17. A High Speed Mobile Courier Data Access System That Processes Database Queries in Real-Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsheni, Barnabas Ndlovu; Mabizela, Zwelakhe

    A secure high-speed query processing mobile courier data access (MCDA) system for a Courier Company has been developed. This system uses the wireless networks in combination with wired networks for updating a live database at the courier centre in real-time by an offsite worker (the Courier). The system is protected by VPN based on IPsec. There is no system that we know of to date that performs the task for the courier as proposed in this paper.

  18. Automatic Repeat Query (ARQ), Forward Error Corrector (FEC), and hybrid protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, B.

    1982-02-01

    System performance criteria for error protection are reviewed and different error detection techniques are considered. Various forward error corrector (FEC) decoding systems and automatic repeat query (ARQ) coding systems are discussed. Coding systems in satellite communications are characterized. The implementation of FEC coding in time division multiple access is described. Communication efficiency is shown to be suitable and the impact on ground stations is explained.

  19. Spatial query for decision support of cross-country movement. [in image-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, George F.; Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a query language processor for decision support of cross-country movement in an image-based geographic information system is evaluated. It is found that query processing yields results which are comparable to those obtained using conventional cross-country movement techniques and analysis. Query processing also provides a flexibility of information extraction, rapid display, and flexible decision support in time-critical, limited data situations.

  20. Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

  1. Profile-IQ: Web-based data query system for local health department infrastructure and activities.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gulzar H; Leep, Carolyn J; Alexander, Dayna

    2014-01-01

    To demonstrate the use of National Association of County & City Health Officials' Profile-IQ, a Web-based data query system, and how policy makers, researchers, the general public, and public health professionals can use the system to generate descriptive statistics on local health departments. This article is a descriptive account of an important health informatics tool based on information from the project charter for Profile-IQ and the authors' experience and knowledge in design and use of this query system. Profile-IQ is a Web-based data query system that is based on open-source software: MySQL 5.5, Google Web Toolkit 2.2.0, Apache Commons Math library, Google Chart API, and Tomcat 6.0 Web server deployed on an Amazon EC2 server. It supports dynamic queries of National Profile of Local Health Departments data on local health department finances, workforce, and activities. Profile-IQ's customizable queries provide a variety of statistics not available in published reports and support the growing information needs of users who do not wish to work directly with data files for lack of staff skills or time, or to avoid a data use agreement. Profile-IQ also meets the growing demand of public health practitioners and policy makers for data to support quality improvement, community health assessment, and other processes associated with voluntary public health accreditation. It represents a step forward in the recent health informatics movement of data liberation and use of open source information technology solutions to promote public health.

  2. Optimizing query response with XML user profile in mobile clinical systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Heekyong; Yoo, Sooyoung; Kim, Boyoung; Choi, Jinwook; Chun, Jonghoon

    2003-01-01

    Improvements of modern mobile technology, have created a need for a mobile clinical environment. In the field of mobile clinical systems, getting information on time is as important as mission critical aspects. However, web access time with the mobile device is still not feasible clinically. Therefore, the optimisation of query response becomes an important issue. We have developed a query optimising method using a user profile. We analysed user (clinician) specific queries in the medical field. Most of the data retrieval in the medical field is focused on the clinical test results, and the patient inverted exclamation mark s demographic information. Sometimes the information requested in the medical field places a heavy load on the database, since such information may require full database scanning and much joining of tables in the databases. In such cases, constructing profile data and employing it for data retrieval would help to improve the response time. The use of a predefined profile avoids the multiple joining process, and shortens the total response time. The object of our research is to improve query response by creating user profiles and using this profile information for patient data retrieval.

  3. Geodata Modeling and Query in Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Nabil

    1996-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) deal with collecting, modeling, man- aging, analyzing, and integrating spatial (locational) and non-spatial (attribute) data required for geographic applications. Examples of spatial data are digital maps, administrative boundaries, road networks, and those of non-spatial data are census counts, land elevations and soil characteristics. GIS shares common areas with a number of other disciplines such as computer- aided design, computer cartography, database management, and remote sensing. None of these disciplines however, can by themselves fully meet the requirements of a GIS application. Examples of such requirements include: the ability to use locational data to produce high quality plots, perform complex operations such as network analysis, enable spatial searching and overlay operations, support spatial analysis and modeling, and provide data management functions such as efficient storage, retrieval, and modification of large datasets; independence, integrity, and security of data; and concurrent access to multiple users. It is on the data management issues that we devote our discussions in this monograph. Traditionally, database management technology have been developed for business applications. Such applications require, among other things, capturing the data requirements of high-level business functions and developing machine- level implementations; supporting multiple views of data and yet providing integration that would minimize redundancy and maintain data integrity and security; providing a high-level language for data definition and manipulation; allowing concurrent access to multiple users; and processing user transactions in an efficient manner. The demands on database management systems have been for speed, reliability, efficiency, cost effectiveness, and user-friendliness. Significant progress have been made in all of these areas over the last two decades to the point that many generalized database platforms

  4. Foundations of a query and simulation system for the modeling of biochemical and biological processes.

    PubMed

    Antoniotti, M; Park, F; Policriti, A; Ugel, N; Mishra, B

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of large amounts of data, produced as (numerical) traces of in vivo, in vitro and in silico experiments, has become a central activity for many biologists and biochemists. Recent advances in the mathematical modeling and computation of biochemical systems have moreover increased the prominence of in silico experiments; such experiments typically involve the simulation of sets of Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE), e.g., Generalized Mass Action systems (GMA) and S-systems. In this paper we reason about the necessary theoretical and pragmatic foundations for a query and simulation system capable of analyzing large amounts of such trace data. To this end, we propose to combine in a novel way several well-known tools from numerical analysis (approximation theory), temporal logic and verification, and visualization. The result is a preliminary prototype system: simpathica/xssys. When dealing with simulation data simpathica/xssys exploits the special structure of the underlying DAE, and reduces the search space in an efficient way so as to facilitate any queries about the traces. The proposed system is designed to give the user possibility to systematically analyze and simultaneously query different possible timed evolutions of the modeled system.

  5. The distribution and query systems of the RCSB Protein Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Philip E.; Addess, Kenneth J.; Bluhm, Wolfgang F.; Chen, Li; Deshpande, Nita; Feng, Zukang; Fleri, Ward; Green, Rachel; Merino-Ott, Jeffrey C.; Townsend-Merino, Wayne; Weissig, Helge; Westbrook, John; Berman, Helen M.

    2004-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB; http://www.pdb.org) is the primary source of information on the 3D structure of biological macromolecules. The PDB’s mandate is to disseminate this information in the most usable form and as widely as possible. The current query and distribution system is described and an alpha version of the future re-engineered system introduced. PMID:14681399

  6. A natural language query system for Hubble Space Telescope proposal selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornick, Thomas; Cohen, William; Miller, Glenn

    1987-01-01

    The proposal selection process for the Hubble Space Telescope is assisted by a robust and easy to use query program (TACOS). The system parses an English subset language sentence regardless of the order of the keyword phases, allowing the user a greater flexibility than a standard command query language. Capabilities for macro and procedure definition are also integrated. The system was designed for flexibility in both use and maintenance. In addition, TACOS can be applied to any knowledge domain that can be expressed in terms of a single reaction. The system was implemented mostly in Common LISP. The TACOS design is described in detail, with particular attention given to the implementation methods of sentence processing.

  7. Army Non-Programmer System for Working Encyclopedia Request (ANSWER)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    1.2 ANSWER Program Objectives The objective of the ANSWER program is to conduct reseach and develop prototype tools that provide uniform, integrated...Pushbutton "OK" to close the dialog and accept changes to the selected node. - Pushbutton " Cancer to close the dialog and make no changes to the selected node...8217Integrate" to command the integration to take place; enabled if at least one set of items have been declared equivalent - Pushbutton " Cancer to close

  8. A Query Integrator and Manager for the Query Web

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, James F.; Detwiler, Landon T.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce two concepts: the Query Web as a layer of interconnected queries over the document web and the semantic web, and a Query Web Integrator and Manager (QI) that enables the Query Web to evolve. QI permits users to write, save and reuse queries over any web accessible source, including other queries saved in other installations of QI. The saved queries may be in any language (e.g. SPARQL, XQuery); the only condition for interconnection is that the queries return their results in some form of XML. This condition allows queries to chain off each other, and to be written in whatever language is appropriate for the task. We illustrate the potential use of QI for several biomedical use cases, including ontology view generation using a combination of graph-based and logical approaches, value set generation for clinical data management, image annotation using terminology obtained from an ontology web service, ontology-driven brain imaging data integration, small-scale clinical data integration, and wider-scale clinical data integration. Such use cases illustrate the current range of applications of QI and lead us to speculate about the potential evolution from smaller groups of interconnected queries into a larger query network that layers over the document and semantic web. The resulting Query Web could greatly aid researchers and others who now have to manually navigate through multiple information sources in order to answer specific questions. PMID:22531831

  9. A query integrator and manager for the query web.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, James F; Detwiler, Landon T

    2012-10-01

    We introduce two concepts: the Query Web as a layer of interconnected queries over the document web and the semantic web, and a Query Web Integrator and Manager (QI) that enables the Query Web to evolve. QI permits users to write, save and reuse queries over any web accessible source, including other queries saved in other installations of QI. The saved queries may be in any language (e.g. SPARQL, XQuery); the only condition for interconnection is that the queries return their results in some form of XML. This condition allows queries to chain off each other, and to be written in whatever language is appropriate for the task. We illustrate the potential use of QI for several biomedical use cases, including ontology view generation using a combination of graph-based and logical approaches, value set generation for clinical data management, image annotation using terminology obtained from an ontology web service, ontology-driven brain imaging data integration, small-scale clinical data integration, and wider-scale clinical data integration. Such use cases illustrate the current range of applications of QI and lead us to speculate about the potential evolution from smaller groups of interconnected queries into a larger query network that layers over the document and semantic web. The resulting Query Web could greatly aid researchers and others who now have to manually navigate through multiple information sources in order to answer specific questions.

  10. PRoSPer: perceptual similarity queries in medical CBIR systems through user profiles.

    PubMed

    Bugatti, Pedro H; Kaster, Daniel S; Ponciano-Silva, Marcelo; Traina, Caetano; Azevedo-Marques, Paulo M; Traina, Agma J M

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to perform similarity queries over medical images, maintaining the semantics of a given query posted by the user. Content-based image retrieval systems relying on relevance feedback techniques usually request the users to label relevant/irrelevant images. Thus, we present a highly effective strategy to survey user profiles, taking advantage of such labeling to implicitly gather the user perceptual similarity. The profiles maintain the settings desired for each user, allowing tuning of the similarity assessment, which encompasses the dynamic change of the distance function employed through an interactive process. Experiments on medical images show that the method is effective and can improve the decision making process during analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TrustQ: a category reputation based question and answer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuhua; Shen, Haiying

    2014-06-01

    Question and Answering (Q/A) systems aggregate the collected intelligence of all users to provide satisfying answers for questions. A well-developed Q/A system should provide high question response rate, low response delay and good answer quality. Previous works use reputation systems to achieve the goals. However, these reputation systems evaluate a user with an overall rating for all questions the user has answered regardless of the question categories, thus the reputation score cannot accurately reflect the user's ability to answer a question in a specific category. In this paper, we propose TtustQ, a category reputation based Q/A System. TtustQ evaluates users' willingness and capability to answer questions in different categories. Considering a user has different willingness to answer questions from different users, TtustQ lets each node evaluate the reputation of other nodes answering its own questions. User a calculates user b's final reputation by considering both user a's direct rating and the indirect ratings on user b from other nodes. The reputation values facilitate forwarding a question to potential answerers, which improves the question response rate, response delay and answer quality. Our trace-driven simulation on PeerSim demonstrates the effectiveness of TtustQ in providing good user experience in terms of response rate and latency, and the answer quality.

  12. Perceived barriers to information access among medical residents in Iran: obstacles to answering clinical queries in settings with limited Internet accessibility.

    PubMed

    Mazloomdoost, Danesh; Mehregan, Shervineh; Mahmoudi, Hilda; Soltani, Akbar; Embi, Peter J

    2007-10-11

    Studies performed in the US and other Western countries have documented that physicians generate many clinical questions during a typical day and rely on various information sources for answers. Little is known about the information seeking behaviors of physicians practicing in other countries, particularly those with limited Internet connectivity. We conducted this study to document the perceived barriers to information resources used by medical residents in Iran. Our findings reveal that different perceived barriers exist for electronic versus paper-based resources. Notably, paper-based resources are perceived to be limited by resident time-constraints and availability of resources, whereas electronic resources are limited by cost decentralized resources (such as PDAs) and accessibility of centralized, Internet access. These findings add to the limited literature regarding health information-seeking activities in international healthcare settings, particularly those with limited Internet connectivity, and will supplement future studies of and interventions in such settings.

  13. Digital terrain model (DTM) integration and three-dimensional query spaces in geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Dieter; Schmidt, Dieter

    1994-08-01

    The integration of digital terrain models (DTM) in geographic information systems (GIS) implies automatically an extension of the GIS reference surface and its query space. It is trivial that a DTM is the natural boundary representation of the earth's surface. Man-made objects, for instance homes, streets, bridges, dams should be considered in a second step because these objects cannot be represented well by boundary surfaces. The link of these objects to DTM can be realized by keys and pointers. Therefore, an efficient DTM integration in GIS is the first task to be solved. The paper introduces DTM data structures represented by NIAM diagrams. Using the entity-relationship model these diagrams are very capable to describe the power of relations. Next a 3-D query space is defined keeping in mind 3-D coordinates and 2- D topological elements. Based on this query space spatial operators are derived which fit in standard SQL vocabulary. The implementation part of the paper uses the exodus storage manger to map the DTM of the Federal State Baden-Wurrtemberg in a spatial database system.

  14. Querying Proofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspinall, David; Denney, Ewen; Lueth, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We motivate and introduce a query language PrQL designed for inspecting machine representations of proofs. PrQL natively supports hiproofs which express proof structure using hierarchical nested labelled trees. The core language presented in this paper is locally structured (first-order), with queries built using recursion and patterns over proof structure and rule names. We define the syntax and semantics of locally structured queries, demonstrate their power, and sketch some implementation experiments.

  15. 78 FR 56263 - HydroGen Corp., QueryObject Systems Corp., Security Intelligence Technologies, Inc., Skins, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION HydroGen Corp., QueryObject Systems Corp., Security Intelligence Technologies, Inc., Skins, Inc... and accurate information concerning the securities of Security Intelligence Technologies, Inc....

  16. Parallelization Issues of Domain Specific Question Answering System on Cell B.E. Processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Tarun; Mittal, Ankush; Sondhi, Parikshit

    A question answering system is an information retrieval application which allows users to directly obtain appropriate answers to a question. In order to deal with an explosive growth of information over internet and increased number of processing stages in answer retrieval, time and processing hardware required by question answering system has increased. The need of hardware is currently served by connecting thousands of computers in cluster. But faster and less complex alternatives can be found as a multi-core processor. This paper presents a pioneer work by identifying major issues involved in porting a general question answering framework on a cell processor and their possible solutions. The work is evaluated by porting the indexing algorithm of our biomedical question answering system, INDOC (Internet Doctor) on cell processors.

  17. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  18. Computer systems and methods for the query and visualization of multidimensional database

    DOEpatents

    Stolte, Chris; Tang, Diane L.; Hanrahan, Patrick

    2010-05-11

    A method and system for producing graphics. A hierarchical structure of a database is determined. A visual table, comprising a plurality of panes, is constructed by providing a specification that is in a language based on the hierarchical structure of the database. In some cases, this language can include fields that are in the database schema. The database is queried to retrieve a set of tuples in accordance with the specification. A subset of the set of tuples is associated with a pane in the plurality of panes.

  19. Computer systems and methods for the query and visualization of multidimensional databases

    DOEpatents

    Stolte, Chris; Tang, Diane L.; Hanrahan, Patrick

    2006-08-08

    A method and system for producing graphics. A hierarchical structure of a database is determined. A visual table, comprising a plurality of panes, is constructed by providing a specification that is in a language based on the hierarchical structure of the database. In some cases, this language can include fields that are in the database schema. The database is queried to retrieve a set of tuples in accordance with the specification. A subset of the set of tuples is associated with a pane in the plurality of panes.

  20. SPARQLGraph: a web-based platform for graphically querying biological Semantic Web databases.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Dominik; Trajanoski, Zlatko; Pabinger, Stephan

    2014-08-15

    Semantic Web has established itself as a framework for using and sharing data across applications and database boundaries. Here, we present a web-based platform for querying biological Semantic Web databases in a graphical way. SPARQLGraph offers an intuitive drag & drop query builder, which converts the visual graph into a query and executes it on a public endpoint. The tool integrates several publicly available Semantic Web databases, including the databases of the just recently released EBI RDF platform. Furthermore, it provides several predefined template queries for answering biological questions. Users can easily create and save new query graphs, which can also be shared with other researchers. This new graphical way of creating queries for biological Semantic Web databases considerably facilitates usability as it removes the requirement of knowing specific query languages and database structures. The system is freely available at http://sparqlgraph.i-med.ac.at.

  1. User Satisfaction Evaluation of the EHR4CR Query Builder: A Multisite Patient Count Cohort System

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Rey, Iñaki; N'Dja, Aurèle; Cunningham, James; Newe, Axel; Trinczek, Benjamin; Lafitte, Caroline; Sedlmayr, Brita; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-01-01

    The Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) project aims to develop services and technology for the leverage reuse of Electronic Health Records with the purpose of improving the efficiency of clinical research processes. A pilot program was implemented to generate evidence of the value of using the EHR4CR platform. The user acceptance of the platform is a key success factor in driving the adoption of the EHR4CR platform; thus, it was decided to evaluate the user satisfaction. In this paper, we present the results of a user satisfaction evaluation for the EHR4CR multisite patient count cohort system. This study examined the ability of testers (n = 22 and n = 16 from 5 countries) to perform three main tasks (around 20 minutes per task), after a 30-minute period of self-training. The System Usability Scale score obtained was 55.83 (SD: 15.37), indicating a moderate user satisfaction. The responses to an additional satisfaction questionnaire were positive about the design of the interface and the required procedure to design a query. Nevertheless, the most complex of the three tasks proposed in this test was rated as difficult, indicating a need to improve the system regarding complicated queries. PMID:26539525

  2. Design and implementation of the European Space Information System query environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, J.J. ); Ciarlo, A. ); Benso, S. )

    1993-08-01

    The European Space Information System (ESIS) project is a major pilot project undertaken by the European Space Agency's Research and Information center, ESRIN. It has as its primary aim to design and develop a set of information systems which will form an integrated environment for the retrieval, dissemination, and application of space scientific data. One of these information systems which shall form an important part of the ESIS concept is the ESIS Query Environment (ESIS QE). The ESIS QE project is concerned with the development of a distributed software system which shall provide its users with an environment allowing for uniform and easy access to a set of heterogeneous and geographically distributed databases and space science data archives. (AIP)

  3. Benchmarking Query Execution Robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiener, Janet L.; Kuno, Harumi; Graefe, Goetz

    Benchmarks that focus on running queries on a well-tuned database system ignore a long-standing problem: adverse runtime conditions can cause database system performance to vary widely and unexpectedly. When the query execution engine does not exhibit resilience to these adverse conditions, addressing the resultant performance problems can contribute significantly to the total cost of ownership for a database system in over-provisioning, lost efficiency, and increased human administrative costs. For example, focused human effort may be needed to manually invoke workload management actions or fine-tune the optimization of specific queries.

  4. Army technology development. IBIS query. Software to support the Image Based Information System (IBIS) expansion for mapping, charting and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, S. Z.; Walker, R. E.; Aitken, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Image Based Information System (IBIS) has been under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) since 1975. It is a collection of more than 90 programs that enable processing of image, graphical, tabular data for spatial analysis. IBIS can be utilized to create comprehensive geographic data bases. From these data, an analyst can study various attributes describing characteristics of a given study area. Even complex combinations of disparate data types can be synthesized to obtain a new perspective on spatial phenomena. In 1984, new query software was developed enabling direct Boolean queries of IBIS data bases through the submission of easily understood expressions. An improved syntax methodology, a data dictionary, and display software simplified the analysts' tasks associated with building, executing, and subsequently displaying the results of a query. The primary purpose of this report is to describe the features and capabilities of the new query software. A secondary purpose of this report is to compare this new query software to the query software developed previously (Friedman, 1982). With respect to this topic, the relative merits and drawbacks of both approaches are covered.

  5. Army technology development. IBIS query. Software to support the Image Based Information System (IBIS) expansion for mapping, charting and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, S. Z.; Walker, R. E.; Aitken, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Image Based Information System (IBIS) has been under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) since 1975. It is a collection of more than 90 programs that enable processing of image, graphical, tabular data for spatial analysis. IBIS can be utilized to create comprehensive geographic data bases. From these data, an analyst can study various attributes describing characteristics of a given study area. Even complex combinations of disparate data types can be synthesized to obtain a new perspective on spatial phenomena. In 1984, new query software was developed enabling direct Boolean queries of IBIS data bases through the submission of easily understood expressions. An improved syntax methodology, a data dictionary, and display software simplified the analysts' tasks associated with building, executing, and subsequently displaying the results of a query. The primary purpose of this report is to describe the features and capabilities of the new query software. A secondary purpose of this report is to compare this new query software to the query software developed previously (Friedman, 1982). With respect to this topic, the relative merits and drawbacks of both approaches are covered.

  6. A high performance, ad-hoc, fuzzy query processing system for relational databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, William H., Jr.; Fleischman, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Database queries involving imprecise or fuzzy predicates are currently an evolving area of academic and industrial research. Such queries place severe stress on the indexing and I/O subsystems of conventional database environments since they involve the search of large numbers of records. The Datacycle architecture and research prototype is a database environment that uses filtering technology to perform an efficient, exhaustive search of an entire database. It has recently been modified to include fuzzy predicates in its query processing. The approach obviates the need for complex index structures, provides unlimited query throughput, permits the use of ad-hoc fuzzy membership functions, and provides a deterministic response time largely independent of query complexity and load. This paper describes the Datacycle prototype implementation of fuzzy queries and some recent performance results.

  7. A high performance, ad-hoc, fuzzy query processing system for relational databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansfield, William H., Jr.; Fleischman, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Database queries involving imprecise or fuzzy predicates are currently an evolving area of academic and industrial research. Such queries place severe stress on the indexing and I/O subsystems of conventional database environments since they involve the search of large numbers of records. The Datacycle architecture and research prototype is a database environment that uses filtering technology to perform an efficient, exhaustive search of an entire database. It has recently been modified to include fuzzy predicates in its query processing. The approach obviates the need for complex index structures, provides unlimited query throughput, permits the use of ad-hoc fuzzy membership functions, and provides a deterministic response time largely independent of query complexity and load. This paper describes the Datacycle prototype implementation of fuzzy queries and some recent performance results.

  8. The Hub Population Health System: distributed ad hoc queries and alerts.

    PubMed

    Buck, Michael D; Anane, Sheila; Taverna, John; Amirfar, Sam; Stubbs-Dame, Remle; Singer, Jesse

    2012-06-01

    The Hub Population Health System enables the creation and distribution of queries for aggregate count information, clinical decision support alerts at the point-of-care for patients who meet specified conditions, and secure messages sent directly to provider electronic health record (EHR) inboxes. Using a metronidazole medication recall, the New York City Department of Health was able to determine the number of affected patients and message providers, and distribute an alert to participating practices. As of September 2011, the system is live in 400 practices and within a year will have over 532 practices with 2500 providers, representing over 2.5 million New Yorkers. The Hub can help public health experts to evaluate population health and quality improvement activities throughout the ambulatory care network. Multiple EHR vendors are building these features in partnership with the department's regional extension center in anticipation of new meaningful use requirements.

  9. Design and Implementation of a Query Editor for the Amadeus System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    several function buttons . Scroflable query drawing arm naManipulation WindowI "-’ Seam- ’M’ [project v _____ _____ ___1I SC1M name.mini, fnnmo ... I...have to memorize attribute names present in ea. , relation of the current database. Four buttons are provided for the purpose of inserting frequently...used characters during query formulation. By including these buttons , the user can construct his query without typing from the keyboard. This also

  10. Query Evaluation: Strategies and Optimizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turtle, Howard; Flood, James

    1995-01-01

    Discusses two query evaluation strategies used in large text retrieval systems: (1) term-at-a-time; and (2) document-at-a-time. Describes optimization techniques that can reduce query evaluation costs. Presents simulation results that compare the performance of these optimization techniques when applied to natural language query evaluation. (JMV)

  11. Do Online Information Retrieval Systems Help Experienced Clinicians Answer Clinical Questions?

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Johanna I.; Coiera, Enrico W.; Gosling, A. Sophie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of clinicians' use of an online information retrieval system on their performance in answering clinical questions. Design: Pre-/post-intervention experimental design. Measurements: In a computer laboratory, 75 clinicians (26 hospital-based doctors, 18 family practitioners, and 31 clinical nurse consultants) provided 600 answers to eight clinical scenarios before and after the use of an online information retrieval system. We examined the proportion of correct answers pre- and post-intervention, direction of change in answers, and differences between professional groups. Results: System use resulted in a 21% improvement in clinicians' answers, from 29% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.4–32.6) correct pre- to 50% (95% CI 46.0–54.0) post-system use. In 33% (95% CI 29.1–36.9) answers were changed from incorrect to correct. In 21% (95% CI 17.1–23.9) correct pre-test answers were supported by evidence found using the system, and in 7% (95% CI 4.9–9.1) correct pre-test answers were changed incorrectly. For 40% (35.4–43.6) of scenarios, incorrect pre-test answers were not rectified following system use. Despite significant differences in professional groups' pre-test scores [family practitioners: 41% (95% CI 33.0–49.0), hospital doctors: 35% (95% CI 28.5–41.2), and clinical nurse consultants: 17% (95% CI 12.3–21.7; χ2 = 29.0, df = 2, p < 0.01)], there was no difference in post-test scores. (χ2 = 2.6, df = 2, p = 0.73). Conclusions: The use of an online information retrieval system was associated with a significant improvement in the quality of answers provided by clinicians to typical clinical problems. In a small proportion of cases, use of the system produced errors. While there was variation in the performance of clinical groups when answering questions unaided, performance did not differ significantly following system use. Online information retrieval systems can be an effective tool in improving the accuracy of

  12. ConnectomeExplorer: Query-Guided Visual Analysis of Large Volumetric Neuroscience Data

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Johanna; Al-Awami, Ali; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Pfister, Hanspeter; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents ConnectomeExplorer, an application for the interactive exploration and query-guided visual analysis of large volumetric electron microscopy (EM) data sets in connectomics research. Our system incorporates a knowledge-based query algebra that supports the interactive specification of dynamically evaluated queries, which enable neuroscientists to pose and answer domain-specific questions in an intuitive manner. Queries are built step by step in a visual query builder, building more complex queries from combinations of simpler queries. Our application is based on a scalable volume visualization framework that scales to multiple volumes of several teravoxels each, enabling the concurrent visualization and querying of the original EM volume, additional segmentation volumes, neuronal connectivity, and additional meta data comprising a variety of neuronal data attributes. We evaluate our application on a data set of roughly one terabyte of EM data and 750 GB of segmentation data, containing over 4,000 segmented structures and 1,000 synapses. We demonstrate typical use-case scenarios of our collaborators in neuroscience, where our system has enabled them to answer specific scientific questions using interactive querying and analysis on the full-size data for the first time. PMID:24051854

  13. A framework for distributed mediation of temporal-abstraction queries to clinical databases.

    PubMed

    Boaz, David; Shahar, Yuval

    2005-05-01

    The specification and creation of a distributed system that integrates medical knowledge bases with time-oriented clinical databases; the goal is to answer complex temporal queries regarding both raw data and its abstractions, such as are often required in medical applications. (1) Specification, design, and implementation of a generalized access method to a set of heterogeneous clinical data sources, by using a virtual medical-record interface and by mapping the local terms to a set of standardized medical vocabularies; (2) specification of a generalized interface to a set of knowledge sources; (3) specification and implementation of a service, called ALMA that computes complex time-oriented medical queries that include both raw data and abstractions derivable from it; (4) design and implementation of a mediator, called IDAN, that answers raw-data and abstract queries by integrating the appropriate clinical data with the relevant medical knowledge and uses the computation service to answer the queries; (5) an expressive language that enables definition of time-dependent medical queries, which are referred to the mediator; (6) evaluation of the effect of the system, when combined with a new visual interface, called KNAVE-II, on the speed and accuracy of answering a set of complex queries in an oncology sub domain, by a group of clinicians, compared to answering these queries using paper or an electronic spreadsheet. We have implemented the full IDAN architecture. The IDAN/KNAVE-II combination significantly increased the accuracy and speed of answering complex queries about both the data and their abstractions, compared to the standard tools. The implemented architecture proves the feasibility of the distributed integration of medical knowledge sources with clinical data of heterogeneous sources. The results suggest that the proposed IDAN modular architecture has potential significance for supporting the automation of clinical tasks such as diagnosis, monitoring

  14. Reducing the Conflict Factors Strategies in Question Answering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwarningsih, W.; Purwarianti, A.; Supriana, I.

    2017-03-01

    A rule-based system is prone to conflict as new knowledge every time will emerge and indirectly must sign in to the knowledge base that is used by the system. A conflict occurred between the rules in the knowledge base can lead to the errors of reasoning or reasoning circulation. Therefore, when added, the new rules will lead to conflict with other rules, and the only rules that really can be added to the knowledge base. From these conditions, this paper aims to propose a conflict resolution strategy for a medical debriefing system by analyzing scenarios based upon the runtime to improve the efficiency and reliability of systems.

  15. Phase Memory Control in an Inhomogeneously Broadened Ensemble of Three-Level Systems and Stimulated Photon Echo Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefediev, L. A.; Garnaeva, G. I.; Nizamova, E. I.

    2016-09-01

    Phase memory in a three-level system that is associated with the correspondence of isochromates of inhomogeneously broadened lines excited by lasers at various resonant frequencies with a common energy level in different time intervals is studied. It is shown that external spatially inhomogeneous electric fields can control such phase memory and could be used to determine the optimum conditions for forming a stimulated photon echo in a threelevel system.

  16. Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the evaluation of the concept of obtaining significant amount of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System is reported. The Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan is described including: systems definition, environmental assessment, societal assessment, and comparative assessment.

  17. Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

  18. Central Nervous System Vasculitis: Still More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Marco A; Espígol-Frigolé, Georgina; Prieto-González, Sergio; Tavera-Bahillo, Itziar; García-Martínez, Ana; Butjosa, Montserrat; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Cid, Maria C

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) may be involved by a variety of inflammatory diseases of blood vessels. These include primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare disorder specifically targeting the CNS vasculature, and the systemic vasculitides which may affect the CNS among other organs and systems. Both situations are severe and convey a guarded prognosis. PACNS usually presents with headache and cognitive impairment. Focal symptoms are infrequent at disease onset but are common in more advanced stages. The diagnosis of PACNS is difficult because, although magnetic resonance imaging is almost invariably abnormal, findings are non specific. Angiography has limited sensitivity and specificity. Brain and leptomeningeal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis when disclosing blood vessel inflammation and are also useful to exclude other conditions presenting with similar findings. However, since lesions are segmental, a normal biopsy does not completely exclude PACNS. Secondary CNS involvement by systemic vasculitis occurs in less than one fifth of patients but may be devastating. A prompt recognition and aggressive treatment is crucial to avoid permanent damage and dysfunction. Glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide are recommended for patients with PACNS and for patients with secondary CNS involvement by small-medium-sized systemic vasculitis. CNS involvement in large-vessel vasculitis is usually managed with high-dose glucocorticoids (giant-cell arteritis) or glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents (Takayasu’s disease). However, in large vessel vasculitis, where CNS symptoms are usually due to involvement of extracranial arteries (Takayasu’s disease) or proximal portions of intracranial arteries (giant-cell arteritis), revascularization procedures may also have an important role. PMID:22379458

  19. TSANA System -- an EPIC derivative for in-situ dataset queries and downloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Yuan, G.; Decarlo, S.; Potemra, J. T.; Hacker, P. W.

    2005-12-01

    In-situ oceanographic datasets have been widely used by researchers for analysis and by modelers for assimilations. The Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC) has been serving in-situ data using the EPIC system developed at the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL). The APDRC maintains an archive of 3 million profile datasets from Argo, WOCE-WHP (World Ocean Circulation Experiment, WOCE Hydrographic Program), US GODAE/FNMOC (Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment/ Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center) and WOCE-UOT (Upper Ocean Thermal). Our in-situ time series datasets include NCAR DSS rainfall, Pacific Island rainfall and WOCE current meter datasets. With recent improvements the Java Ocean Atlas and increasing demand from users who want to select a subset of these datasets, we have developed an EPIC derivative called the TSANA System. TSANA System allows users to query its database and to make a package of selected datasets for downloading. The package is a tar file containing all the selected datasets along with an inventory file (also known as a pointer file). Currently, Java Ocean Atlas is a well-known client software that can be used to analyze datasets downloaded from TSANA. We also provide a simple Matlab script for users to open datasets through the inventory file. To use TSANA System, please visit http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu/tsana

  20. Complexity in cancer biology: is systems biology the answer?

    PubMed Central

    Koutsogiannouli, Evangelia; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Papanikolaou, Nikolaos A

    2013-01-01

    Complex phenotypes emerge from the interactions of thousands of macromolecules that are organized in multimolecular complexes and interacting functional modules. In turn, modules form functional networks in health and disease. Omics approaches collect data on changes for all genes and proteins and statistical analysis attempts to uncover the functional modules that perform the functions that characterize higher levels of biological organization. Systems biology attempts to transcend the study of individual genes/proteins and to integrate them into higher order information. Cancer cells exhibit defective genetic and epigenetic networks formed by altered complexes and network modules arising in different parts of tumor tissues that sustain autonomous cell behavior which ultimately lead tumor growth. We suggest that an understanding of tumor behavior must address not only molecular but also, and more importantly, tumor cell heterogeneity, by considering cancer tissue genetic and epigenetic networks, by characterizing changes in the types, composition, and interactions of complexes and networks in the different parts of tumor tissues, and by identifying critical hubs that connect them in time and space. PMID:23634284

  1. User Performance with a Natural Language Query System for Command Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Tektronix general—putpose interface bus. The 4051 operated the timing generator under program control in order to measure the latenc ies of various user...first and last characters. Times were obtained under program control by the l~ewlett—Packard timing generator . Use of LADDER Reference Folders. After a...query population). Notice that, on the average, LADDER takes more than 2 .5 times as long to reject a query as faulty (38.4 seconds) than it does to

  2. Content Based Retrieval Database Management System with Support for Similarity Searching and Query Refinement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    REFINEMENT BY MICHAEL ORTEGA–BINDERBERGER M.S., University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 1999 Ingeniero , Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de...concept of query refinement. Instead of forcing users to manually modify the query, they can critique the results and and feed back this information to...capturing multimedia content using textual annotations, non-scalability of the approach to large data sets (due to the high degree of manual effort

  3. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  4. Intelligent query by humming system based on score level fusion of multiple classifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo Nam, Gi; Thu Trang Luong, Thi; Ha Nam, Hyun; Ryoung Park, Kang; Park, Sung-Joo

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the necessity for content-based music retrieval that can return results even if a user does not know information such as the title or singer has increased. Query-by-humming (QBH) systems have been introduced to address this need, as they allow the user to simply hum snatches of the tune to find the right song. Even though there have been many studies on QBH, few have combined multiple classifiers based on various fusion methods. Here we propose a new QBH system based on the score level fusion of multiple classifiers. This research is novel in the following three respects: three local classifiers [quantized binary (QB) code-based linear scaling (LS), pitch-based dynamic time warping (DTW), and LS] are employed; local maximum and minimum point-based LS and pitch distribution feature-based LS are used as global classifiers; and the combination of local and global classifiers based on the score level fusion by the PRODUCT rule is used to achieve enhanced matching accuracy. Experimental results with the 2006 MIREX QBSH and 2009 MIR-QBSH corpus databases show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of single classifier and other fusion methods.

  5. Decomposition: A Strategy for Query Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Eugene; Youssefi, Karel

    Multivariable queries can be processed in the data base management system INGRES. The general procedure is to decompose the query into a sequence of one-variable queries using two processes. One process is reduction which requires breaking off components of the query which are joined to it by a single variable. The other process,…

  6. Robust Quantum Private Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Wang, Shu-Yu; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2016-07-01

    We propose a new quantum private query protocol with the technique of decoherence-free states, which is a theoretical study of how decoherence-free states can be used for the protection of quantum information in such a protocol. This protocol can solve the noise problem that will make the user obtain a wrong answer and hence give rise to a bad influence on the reputation of the database provider. Furthermore, this protocol is also flexible, loss-resistant and easily generalized to a large database similar to the previous works.

  7. START: a system for flexible analysis of hundreds of genomic signal tracks in few lines of SQL-like queries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinjie; Zhang, Qiang; Ho, Eric Dun; Yu, Ken Hung-On; Liu, Chris; Huang, Tim H; Cheng, Alfred Sze-Lok; Kao, Ben; Lo, Eric; Yip, Kevin Y

    2017-09-22

    A genomic signal track is a set of genomic intervals associated with values of various types, such as measurements from high-throughput experiments. Analysis of signal tracks requires complex computational methods, which often make the analysts focus too much on the detailed computational steps rather than on their biological questions. Here we propose Signal Track Query Language (STQL) for simple analysis of signal tracks. It is a Structured Query Language (SQL)-like declarative language, which means one only specifies what computations need to be done but not how these computations are to be carried out. STQL provides a rich set of constructs for manipulating genomic intervals and their values. To run STQL queries, we have developed the Signal Track Analytical Research Tool (START, http://yiplab.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/start/ ), a system that includes a Web-based user interface and a back-end execution system. The user interface helps users select data from our database of around 10,000 commonly-used public signal tracks, manage their own tracks, and construct, store and share STQL queries. The back-end system automatically translates STQL queries into optimized low-level programs and runs them on a computer cluster in parallel. We use STQL to perform 14 representative analytical tasks. By repeating these analyses using bedtools, Galaxy and custom Python scripts, we show that the STQL solution is usually the simplest, and the parallel execution achieves significant speed-up with large data files. Finally, we describe how a biologist with minimal formal training in computer programming self-learned STQL to analyze DNA methylation data we produced from 60 pairs of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples. Overall, STQL and START provide a generic way for analyzing a large number of genomic signal tracks in parallel easily.

  8. Code query by example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien

    2011-02-01

    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  9. Factors associated with successful answering of clinical questions using an information retrieval system*

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, William R.; Crabtree, M. Katherine; Hickam, David H.; Sacherek, Lynetta; Rose, Linda; Friedman, Charles P.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the growing use of online databases by clinicians, there has been very little research documenting how effectively they are used. This study assessed the ability of medical and nurse-practitioner students to answer clinical questions using an information retrieval system. It also attempted to identify the demographic, experience, cognitive, personality, search mechanics, and user-satisfaction factors associated with successful use of a retrieval system. Methods: Twenty-nine students completed questionnaires of clinical and computer experience as well as tests of cognitive abilities and personality type. They were then administered three clinical questions to answer in a medical library setting using the MEDLINE database and electronic and print full-text resources. Results: Medical students were able to answer more questions correctly than nurse-practitioner students before and after searching, but both had comparable improvements in the number of correct questions before and after searching. Successful ability to answer questions was also associated with having experience in literature searching and higher standardized test-score percentiles. Conclusions: Medical and nurse-practitioner students obtained comparable benefits in the ability to answer clinical questions from use of the information retrieval system. Future research must examine strategies that improve successful search and retrieval of clinical questions posed by clinicians in practice. PMID:11055299

  10. A Social Learning Management System Supporting Feedback for Incorrect Answers Based on Social Network Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we propose a Social Learning Management System (SLMS) enabling real-time and reliable feedback for incorrect answers by learners using a social network service (SNS). The proposed system increases the accuracy of learners' assessment results by using a confidence scale and a variety of social feedback that is created and shared…

  11. Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more…

  12. A Social Learning Management System Supporting Feedback for Incorrect Answers Based on Social Network Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we propose a Social Learning Management System (SLMS) enabling real-time and reliable feedback for incorrect answers by learners using a social network service (SNS). The proposed system increases the accuracy of learners' assessment results by using a confidence scale and a variety of social feedback that is created and shared…

  13. Improving Web Search for Difficult Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xuanhui

    2009-01-01

    Search engines have now become essential tools in all aspects of our life. Although a variety of information needs can be served very successfully, there are still a lot of queries that search engines can not answer very effectively and these queries always make users feel frustrated. Since it is quite often that users encounter such "difficult…

  14. Improving Web Search for Difficult Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xuanhui

    2009-01-01

    Search engines have now become essential tools in all aspects of our life. Although a variety of information needs can be served very successfully, there are still a lot of queries that search engines can not answer very effectively and these queries always make users feel frustrated. Since it is quite often that users encounter such "difficult…

  15. The CMS DBS query language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Valentin; Riley, Daniel; Afaq, Anzar; Sekhri, Vijay; Guo, Yuyi; Lueking, Lee

    2010-04-01

    The CMS experiment has implemented a flexible and powerful system enabling users to find data within the CMS physics data catalog. The Dataset Bookkeeping Service (DBS) comprises a database and the services used to store and access metadata related to CMS physics data. To this, we have added a generalized query system in addition to the existing web and programmatic interfaces to the DBS. This query system is based on a query language that hides the complexity of the underlying database structure by discovering the join conditions between database tables. This provides a way of querying the system that is simple and straightforward for CMS data managers and physicists to use without requiring knowledge of the database tables or keys. The DBS Query Language uses the ANTLR tool to build the input query parser and tokenizer, followed by a query builder that uses a graph representation of the DBS schema to construct the SQL query sent to underlying database. We will describe the design of the query system, provide details of the language components and overview of how this component fits into the overall data discovery system architecture.

  16. Injecting New Ideas and New Approaches in Defense Systems: Are "Other Transactions" an Answer?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Termination Liability in MDAPs Strategic Sourcing Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) to Improve Cost Estimates Human Resources Indefinite...ååì~ä=^Åèìáëáíáçå= oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=póãéçëáìã= INJECTING NEW IDEAS AND NEW APPROACHES IN DEFENSE SYSTEMS: ARE “OTHER TRANSACTIONS ” AN ANSWER? Published: 22...Approaches in Defense Systems: Are ’Other Transactions ’ an Answer? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  17. Querying Safety Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Naylor, Dwight; Pai, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Querying a safety case to show how the various stakeholders' concerns about system safety are addressed has been put forth as one of the benefits of argument-based assurance (in a recent study by the Health Foundation, UK, which reviewed the use of safety cases in safety-critical industries). However, neither the literature nor current practice offer much guidance on querying mechanisms appropriate for, or available within, a safety case paradigm. This paper presents a preliminary approach that uses a formal basis for querying safety cases, specifically Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) argument structures. Our approach semantically enriches GSN arguments with domain-specific metadata that the query language leverages, along with its inherent structure, to produce views. We have implemented the approach in our toolset AdvoCATE, and illustrate it by application to a fragment of the safety argument for an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) being developed at NASA Ames. We also discuss the potential practical utility of our query mechanism within the context of the existing framework for UAS safety assurance.

  18. Revisiting the Rise of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Using Search Query Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, John W.; Althouse, Benjamin M.; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Leas, Eric C.; Dredze, Mark; Williams, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Public perceptions of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) remain poorly understood because surveys are too costly to regularly implement and when implemented there are large delays between data collection and dissemination. Search query surveillance has bridged some of these gaps. Herein, ENDS’ popularity in the U.S. is reassessed using Google searches. Methods ENDS searches originating in the U.S. from January 2009 through January 2015 were disaggregated by terms focused on e-cigarette (e.g., e-cig) versus vaping (e.g., vapers), their geolocation (e.g., state), the aggregate tobacco control measures corresponding to their geolocation (e.g., clean indoor air laws), and by terms that indicated the searcher’s potential interest (e.g., buy e-cigs likely indicates shopping); all analyzed in 2015. Results ENDS searches are increasing across the entire U.S., with 8,498,180 searches during 2014. At the same time, searches shifted from e-cigarette- to vaping-focused terms, especially in coastal states and states with more anti-smoking norms. For example, nationally, e-cigarette searches declined 9% (95% CI=1%, 16%) during 2014 compared with 2013, whereas vaping searches increased 136% (95% CI=97%, 186%), surpassing e-cigarette searches. More ENDS searches were related to shopping (e.g., vape shop) than health concerns (e.g., vaping risks) or cessation (e.g., quit smoking with e-cigs), with shopping searches nearly doubling during 2014. Conclusions ENDS popularity is rapidly growing and evolving, and monitoring searches has provided these timely insights. These findings may inform survey questionnaire development for follow-up investigation and immediately guide policy debates about how the public perceives ENDS’ health risks or cessation benefits. PMID:26876772

  19. Translation of the Data Flow Query Language for the Multimodel, Multibackend Database System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    development of the DFQL to ABDL translator. The subsequent implementation of this translator on the MDBS would be a user-oriented enhancement to the...33 A. MAPPING DFQL TO ABDL .................................................. 34 i. T he Select O perator...data language ( ABDL ). In Chapter III, the Data Flow Query Language is examined in detail. Chapter IV discusses the design and translation decisions made

  20. CMU OAQA at TREC 2015 LiveQA: Discovering the Right Answer with Clues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    result. Therefore we also generate keyword queries with only informative noun phrases , bigrams, and unigrams. The different keyword queries are then sent...associated with the challenge, our approach leveraged the vast amount of text data that is available online, especially previously-answered questions from...paper, we describe the OAQA LiveQA system in more detail. 2 Approach As illustrated in Figure 1, the architecture of our system decomposes the solution

  1. Large Catalogue Query Performance in Relational Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Robert A.

    2007-05-01

    The performance of the mysql and oracle database systems have been compared for a selection of astronomy queries using large catalogues of up to a billion objects. The queries tested are those expected from the astronomy community: general database queries, cone searches, neighbour finding and cross matching. The catalogue preparation, sql query formulation and database performance is presented. Most of the general queries perform adequately when appropriate indexes are present in the database. Each system performs well for cone search queries when the Hierarchical Triangular Mesh spatial index is used. Neighbour finding and cross matching are not well supported in a database environment when compared to software specifically developed to solve these problems.

  2. Querying databases of trajectories of differential equations 2: Index functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1991-01-01

    Suppose that a large number of parameterized trajectories (gamma) of a dynamical system evolving in R sup N are stored in a database. Let eta is contained R sup N denote a parameterized path in Euclidean space, and let parallel to center dot parallel to denote a norm on the space of paths. A data structures and indices for trajectories are defined and algorithms are given to answer queries of the following forms: Query 1. Given a path eta, determine whether eta occurs as a subtrajectory of any trajectory gamma from the database. If so, return the trajectory; otherwise, return null. Query 2. Given a path eta, return the trajectory gamma from the database which minimizes the norm parallel to eta - gamma parallel.

  3. Ad-Hoc Queries over Document Collections - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löser, Alexander; Lutter, Steffen; Düssel, Patrick; Markl, Volker

    We discuss the novel problem of supporting analytical business intelligence queries over web-based textual content, e.g., BI-style reports based on 100.000's of documents from an ad-hoc web search result. Neither conventional search engines nor conventional Business Intelligence and ETL tools address this problem, which lies at the intersection of their capabilities. "Google Squared" or our system GOOLAP.info, are examples of these kinds of systems. They execute information extraction methods over one or several document collections at query time and integrate extracted records into a common view or tabular structure. Frequent extraction and object resolution failures cause incomplete records which could not be joined into a record answering the query. Our focus is the identification of join-reordering heuristics maximizing the size of complete records answering a structured query. With respect to given costs for document extraction we propose two novel join-operations: The multi-way CJ-operator joins records from multiple relationships extracted from a single document. The two-way join-operator DJ ensures data density by removing incomplete records from results. In a preliminary case study we observe that our join-reordering heuristics positively impact result size, record density and lower execution costs.

  4. The Silver Bullet Skunk Works: Holistic design of the answering system 1300

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Silver Bullet Skunk Works, and experimental product realization team at AT T Consumer Products, designed and shipped a new telephone answering system to market in eight months, approximately one year faster than previous AT T products of similar complexity. This paper outlines the Design for X'' (DFX) philosophies and the team structure that enabled the group to accelerate the Product Realization Process. The Answering System 1300, developed in record time, was a successful product that met its schedule and cost objectives, and sold out its entire high-volume manufacturing run. Lessons learned from the Skunk Works experience have since been applied to other development activities in AT T Consumer Products. 3 figs.

  5. Natural language query system design for interactive information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-17.

  6. Manchester visual query language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, John P.; Davis, Darryl N.; Shann, Richard T.

    1993-04-01

    We report a database language for visual retrieval which allows queries on image feature information which has been computed and stored along with images. The language is novel in that it provides facilities for dealing with feature data which has actually been obtained from image analysis. Each line in the Manchester Visual Query Language (MVQL) takes a set of objects as input and produces another, usually smaller, set as output. The MVQL constructs are mainly based on proven operators from the field of digital image analysis. An example is the Hough-group operator which takes as input a specification for the objects to be grouped, a specification for the relevant Hough space, and a definition of the voting rule. The output is a ranked list of high scoring bins. The query could be directed towards one particular image or an entire image database, in the latter case the bins in the output list would in general be associated with different images. We have implemented MVQL in two layers. The command interpreter is a Lisp program which maps each MVQL line to a sequence of commands which are used to control a specialized database engine. The latter is a hybrid graph/relational system which provides low-level support for inheritance and schema evolution. In the paper we outline the language and provide examples of useful queries. We also describe our solution to the engineering problems associated with the implementation of MVQL.

  7. In-context query reformulation for failing SPARQL queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Amar; Michaelis, James R.; Cassidy, Taylor; de Mel, Geeth; Hendler, James

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge bases for decision support systems are growing increasingly complex, through continued advances in data ingest and management approaches. However, humans do not possess the cognitive capabilities to retain a bird's-eyeview of such knowledge bases, and may end up issuing unsatisfiable queries to such systems. This work focuses on the implementation of a query reformulation approach for graph-based knowledge bases, specifically designed to support the Resource Description Framework (RDF). The reformulation approach presented is instance-and schema-aware. Thus, in contrast to relaxation techniques found in the state-of-the-art, the presented approach produces in-context query reformulation.

  8. Reformulation of Consumer Health Queries with Professional Terminology: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qing T

    2004-01-01

    Background The Internet is becoming an increasingly important resource for health-information seekers. However, consumers often do not use effective search strategies. Query reformulation is one potential intervention to improve the effectiveness of consumer searches. Objective We endeavored to answer the research question: "Does reformulating original consumer queries with preferred terminology from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus lead to better search returns?" Methods Consumer-generated queries with known goals (n=16) that could be mapped to UMLS Metathesaurus terminology were used as test samples. Reformulated queries were generated by replacing user terms with Metathesaurus-preferred synonyms (n=18). Searches (n=36) were performed using both a consumer information site and a general search engine. Top 30 precision was used as a performance indicator to compare the performance of the original and reformulated queries. Results Forty-two percent of the searches utilizing reformulated queries yielded better search returns than their associated original queries, 19% yielded worse results, and the results for the remaining 39% did not change. We identified ambiguous lay terms, expansion of acronyms, and arcane professional terms as causes for changes in performance. Conclusions We noted a trend towards increased precision when providing substitutions for lay terms, abbreviations, and acronyms. We have found qualitative evidence that reformulating queries with professional terminology may be a promising strategy to improve consumer health-information searches, although we caution that automated reformulation could in fact worsen search performance when the terminology is ill-fitted or arcane. PMID:15471753

  9. Vector measure for the intelligence of a Question-Answering (Q-A) system

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.; Rajaraman, V.

    1995-05-01

    The problem of quantification of intelligence of humans, and of intelligent systems, has been a challenging and controversial topic. IQ tests have been traditionally used to quantify human intelligence based on results of test designed by psychologists. It is in general very difficult to quantify intelligence. In this paper we consider a simple Question-Answering (Q-A) system and use this to quantify intelligence. We quantify intelligence as a vector with three components. The components consist of a measure of knowledge in asking questions, effectiveness of questions asked, and correctness of deduction. We formalize these parameters and have conducted experiments on humans to measure these parameters. 20 refs.

  10. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  11. On Optimal Differentially Private Mechanisms for Count-Range Queries*

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Chen; Cai, Jin-Yi; Lu, Pinyan; Naughton, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    While there is a large and growing body of literature on differentially private mechanisms for answering various classes of queries, to the best of our knowledge “count-range” queries have not been studied. These are a natural class of queries that ask “is the number of rows in a relation satisfying a given predicate between two integers θ1 and θ2?” Such queries can be viewed as a simple form of SQL “having” queries. We begin by developing a provably optimal differentially private mechansim for count-range queries for a single consumer. For count queries (in contrast to count-range queries), Ghosh et al. [9] have provided a differentially private mechanism that simultaneously maximizes utility for multiple consumers. This raises the question of whether such a mechanism exists for count-range queries. We prove that the answer is no — for count range queries, no such mechanism exists. However, perhaps surprisingly, we prove that such a mechanism does exist for “threshold” queries, which are simply count-range queries for which either θ1 = 0 or θ2 = +∞. Furthermore, we prove that this mechanism is a two-approximation for general count-range queries. PMID:25364783

  12. Net improvement of correct answers to therapy questions after pubmed searches: pre/post comparison.

    PubMed

    McKibbon, Kathleen Ann; Lokker, Cynthia; Keepanasseril, Arun; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2013-11-08

    Clinicians search PubMed for answers to clinical questions although it is time consuming and not always successful. To determine if PubMed used with its Clinical Queries feature to filter results based on study quality would improve search success (more correct answers to clinical questions related to therapy). We invited 528 primary care physicians to participate, 143 (27.1%) consented, and 111 (21.0% of the total and 77.6% of those who consented) completed the study. Participants answered 14 yes/no therapy questions and were given 4 of these (2 originally answered correctly and 2 originally answered incorrectly) to search using either the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries narrow therapy filter via a purpose-built system with identical search screens. Participants also picked 3 of the first 20 retrieved citations that best addressed each question. They were then asked to re-answer the original 14 questions. We found no statistically significant differences in the rates of correct or incorrect answers using the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries. The rate of correct answers increased from 50.0% to 61.4% (95% CI 55.0%-67.8%) for the PubMed main screen searches and from 50.0% to 59.1% (95% CI 52.6%-65.6%) for Clinical Queries searches. These net absolute increases of 11.4% and 9.1%, respectively, included previously correct answers changing to incorrect at a rate of 9.5% (95% CI 5.6%-13.4%) for PubMed main screen searches and 9.1% (95% CI 5.3%-12.9%) for Clinical Queries searches, combined with increases in the rate of being correct of 20.5% (95% CI 15.2%-25.8%) for PubMed main screen searches and 17.7% (95% CI 12.7%-22.7%) for Clinical Queries searches. PubMed can assist clinicians answering clinical questions with an approximately 10% absolute rate of improvement in correct answers. This small increase includes more correct answers partially offset by a decrease in previously correct answers.

  13. Start-up and shakedown of Albany New York Solid Waste Energy Recovery System (ANSWERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Nollet, A.R.; Greeley, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the Albany New York Solid Wate Energy Recovery System (ANSWERS), which consists of two plants - a City-owned Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) Plant, and a State-owned Boiler Plant in which RDF is burned. This paper is chiefly concerned with the RDF Plant, and describes shakedown tests, problems encountered and solutions developed. Operational statistics and operations policies for the plant are discussed. Laboratory measurements of the heating value of RDF samples are compared with results actually achieved in the boilers.

  14. Sample to answer: a fully integrated nucleic acid identification system for bacteria monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Elsnab, John; Johnson, Michael; Gale, Bruce K.

    2010-02-01

    A fully integrated microfluidic system was developed and incorporates an EC-MWCNT (electrochemical multiwalled carbon nanotube) sensor for the detection of bacteria. Sample metering, reagent metering and delivery was implemented with microvalves and pumps embedded inside the microfluidic system. The nucleic acid extraction was performed using microchannels controlled using automated platforms and a disposable microfluidic silica cartridge. The target samples were flowed and hybridized with probe ssDNA (single strand DNA) across the MWCNT-EC sensor (built on a silicon chip), which was embedded in a microfluidic cell. The 9-pad sensor was scanned before and after hybridization to measure the quantity of RNA (Ribonucleic acid) bound to the array surface. A rapid and accurate sample-in answer-out nucleic acid system was realized with automated volume metering, microfluidic sample preparation, and integrated nano-biosensors.

  15. Write, read and answer emails with a dry 'n' wireless brain-computer interface system.

    PubMed

    Pinegger, Andreas; Deckert, Lisa; Halder, Sebastian; Barry, Norbert; Faller, Josef; Käthner, Ivo; Hintermüller, Christoph; Wriessnegger, Selina C; Kübler, Andrea; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2014-01-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) users can control very complex applications such as multimedia players or even web browsers. Therefore, different biosignal acquisition systems are available to noninvasively measure the electrical activity of the brain, the electroencephalogram (EEG). To make BCIs more practical, hardware and software are nowadays designed more user centered and user friendly. In this paper we evaluated one of the latest innovations in the area of BCI: A wireless EEG amplifier with dry electrode technology combined with a web browser which enables BCI users to use standard webmail. With this system ten volunteers performed a daily life task: Write, read and answer an email. Experimental results of this study demonstrate the power of the introduced BCI system.

  16. Structured Query Language (SQL) fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Jamison, D Curtis

    2003-02-01

    Relational databases provide the most common platform for storing data. The Structured Query Language (SQL) is a powerful tool for interacting with relational database systems. SQL enables the user to concoct complex and powerful queries in a straightforward manner, allowing sophisticated data analysis using simple syntax and structure. This unit demonstrates how to use the MySQL package to build and interact with a relational database.

  17. Exploring U.S Cropland - A Web Service based Cropland Data Layer Visualization, Dissemination and Querying System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Han, W.; di, L.

    2010-12-01

    The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) of the USDA produces the Cropland Data Layer (CDL) product, which is a raster-formatted, geo-referenced, U.S. crop specific land cover classification. These digital data layers are widely used for a variety of applications by universities, research institutions, government agencies, and private industry in climate change studies, environmental ecosystem studies, bioenergy production & transportation planning, environmental health research and agricultural production decision making. The CDL is also used internally by NASS for crop acreage and yield estimation. Like most geospatial data products, the CDL product is only available by CD/DVD delivery or online bulk file downloading via the National Research Conservation Research (NRCS) Geospatial Data Gateway (external users) or in a printed paper map format. There is no online geospatial information access and dissemination, no crop visualization & browsing, no geospatial query capability, nor online analytics. To facilitate the application of this data layer and to help disseminating the data, a web-service based CDL interactive map visualization, dissemination, querying system is proposed. It uses Web service based service oriented architecture, adopts open standard geospatial information science technology and OGC specifications and standards, and re-uses functions/algorithms from GeoBrain Technology (George Mason University developed). This system provides capabilities of on-line geospatial crop information access, query and on-line analytics via interactive maps. It disseminates all data to the decision makers and users via real time retrieval, processing and publishing over the web through standards-based geospatial web services. A CDL region of interest can also be exported directly to Google Earth for mashup or downloaded for use with other desktop application. This web service based system greatly improves equal-accessibility, interoperability, usability

  18. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  19. The role of economics in the QUERI program: QUERI Series

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark W; Barnett, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Background The United States (U.S.) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) has implemented economic analyses in single-site and multi-site clinical trials. To date, no one has reviewed whether the QUERI Centers are taking an optimal approach to doing so. Consistent with the continuous learning culture of the QUERI Program, this paper provides such a reflection. Methods We present a case study of QUERI as an example of how economic considerations can and should be integrated into implementation research within both single and multi-site studies. We review theoretical and applied cost research in implementation studies outside and within VA. We also present a critique of the use of economic research within the QUERI program. Results Economic evaluation is a key element of implementation research. QUERI has contributed many developments in the field of implementation but has only recently begun multi-site implementation trials across multiple regions within the national VA healthcare system. These trials are unusual in their emphasis on developing detailed costs of implementation, as well as in the use of business case analyses (budget impact analyses). Conclusion Economics appears to play an important role in QUERI implementation studies, only after implementation has reached the stage of multi-site trials. Economic analysis could better inform the choice of which clinical best practices to implement and the choice of implementation interventions to employ. QUERI economics also would benefit from research on costing methods and development of widely accepted international standards for implementation economics. PMID:18430199

  20. Implementing Graph Pattern Queries on a Relational Database

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L; Abdulla, G M; Brugger, S T; Kohn, S R

    2007-12-26

    When a graph database is implemented on top of a relational database, queries in the graph query language are translated into relational SQL queries. Graph pattern queries are an important feature of a graph query language. Translating graph pattern queries into single SQL statements results in very poor query performance. By taking into account the pattern query structure and generating multiple SQL statements, pattern query performance can be dramatically improved. The performance problems encountered with the single SQL statements generated for pattern queries reflects a problem in the SQL query planner and optimizer. Addressing this problem would allow relational databases to better support semantic graph databases. Relational database systems that provide good support for graph databases may also be more flexible platforms for data warehouses.

  1. Structured Query Language for Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirasaki, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Mizumoto, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Honda, S.; Oe, M.; Yasuda, N.; Masunaga, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Currently two query languages are defined as standards for the Virtual Observatory (VO). Astronomical Data Query Language (ADQL) is used for catalog data query and Simple Image Access Protocol (SIAP) is for image data query. As a result, when we query each data service, we need to know in advance which language is supported and then construct a query language accordingly. The construction of SIAP is simple, but it has a limited capability. For example, there is no way to specify multiple regions in one query, and it is difficult to specify complex query conditions. In this paper, we propose a unified query language for any kind of astronomical database on the basis of SQL99. SQL is a query language optimized for table data, so to apply SQL to image and spectral data, the data structures need to be mapped to table-like structures. We present a specification of this query language and an example of the architecture for the database system.

  2. GenoQuery: a new querying module for functional annotation in a genomic warehouse

    PubMed Central

    Lemoine, Frédéric; Labedan, Bernard; Froidevaux, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: We have to cope with both a deluge of new genome sequences and a huge amount of data produced by high-throughput approaches used to exploit these genomic features. Crossing and comparing such heterogeneous and disparate data will help improving functional annotation of genomes. This requires designing elaborate integration systems such as warehouses for storing and querying these data. Results: We have designed a relational genomic warehouse with an original multi-layer architecture made of a databases layer and an entities layer. We describe a new querying module, GenoQuery, which is based on this architecture. We use the entities layer to define mixed queries. These mixed queries allow searching for instances of biological entities and their properties in the different databases, without specifying in which database they should be found. Accordingly, we further introduce the central notion of alternative queries. Such queries have the same meaning as the original mixed queries, while exploiting complementarities yielded by the various integrated databases of the warehouse. We explain how GenoQuery computes all the alternative queries of a given mixed query. We illustrate how useful this querying module is by means of a thorough example. Availability: http://www.lri.fr/~lemoine/GenoQuery/ Contact: chris@lri.fr, lemoine@lri.fr PMID:18586731

  3. Knowledge Query Language (KQL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-12

    making portability of the queries or query-dependent algorithms difficult. This report introduces an ontological declarative approach that is...Expressions using the ontology implemented in a knowledge registry, and returning query results with provenance information...OF CONTENTS Page Executive Summary iii Acknowledgments v List of Figures ix 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. DETAILED DESCRIPTION 3 2.1 Registry Ontology 6

  4. Knowledge Query Language (KQL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    portability of the queries or query-dependent algorithms difficult. This report introduces an ontological declarative approach that is independent...Expressions using the ontology implemented in a knowledge registry, and returning query results with provenance information...Page Executive Summary iii Acknowledgments v List of Figures ix 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. DETAILED DESCRIPTION 3 2.1 Registry Ontology 6 2.2

  5. Queries for Bias Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Diana F.

    1992-01-01

    Selecting a good bias prior to concept learning can be difficult. Therefore, dynamic bias adjustment is becoming increasingly popular. Current dynamic bias adjustment systems, however, are limited in their ability to identify erroneous assumptions about the relationship between the bias and the target concept. Without proper diagnosis, it is difficult to identify and then remedy faulty assumptions. We have developed an approach that makes these assumptions explicit, actively tests them with queries to an oracle, and adjusts the bias based on the test results.

  6. Development of Semantic Web - Markup Languages, Web Services, Rules, Explanation, Querying, Proof and Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    answers. A basic premise of the Semantic Web is that the declarative languages used to represent knowledge on the Web will have a formally ... formal description of the semantic relationships among a query, a query answer, and the knowledge base(s) used to produce the answer. The OWL-QL...logics and other logic-based knowledge representation formalisms often include explicit “structural queries”, such as queries asking about the

  7. Using Bitmap Indexing Technology for Combined Numerical and TextQueries

    SciTech Connect

    Stockinger, Kurt; Cieslewicz, John; Wu, Kesheng; Rotem, Doron; Shoshani, Arie

    2006-10-16

    In this paper, we describe a strategy of using compressedbitmap indices to speed up queries on both numerical data and textdocuments. By using an efficient compression algorithm, these compressedbitmap indices are compact even for indices with millions of distinctterms. Moreover, bitmap indices can be used very efficiently to answerBoolean queries over text documents involving multiple query terms.Existing inverted indices for text searches are usually inefficient forcorpora with a very large number of terms as well as for queriesinvolving a large number of hits. We demonstrate that our compressedbitmap index technology overcomes both of those short-comings. In aperformance comparison against a commonly used database system, ourindices answer queries 30 times faster on average. To provide full SQLsupport, we integrated our indexing software, called FastBit, withMonetDB. The integrated system MonetDB/FastBit provides not onlyefficient searches on a single table as FastBit does, but also answersjoin queries efficiently. Furthermore, MonetDB/FastBit also provides avery efficient retrieval mechanism of result records.

  8. A Novel Two-Tier Cooperative Caching Mechanism for the Optimization of Multi-Attribute Periodic Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, ZhangBing; Zhao, Deng; Shu, Lei; Tsang, Kim-Fung

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks, serving as an important interface between physical environments and computational systems, have been used extensively for supporting domain applications, where multiple-attribute sensory data are queried from the network continuously and periodically. Usually, certain sensory data may not vary significantly within a certain time duration for certain applications. In this setting, sensory data gathered at a certain time slot can be used for answering concurrent queries and may be reused for answering the forthcoming queries when the variation of these data is within a certain threshold. To address this challenge, a popularity-based cooperative caching mechanism is proposed in this article, where the popularity of sensory data is calculated according to the queries issued in recent time slots. This popularity reflects the possibility that sensory data are interested in the forthcoming queries. Generally, sensory data with the highest popularity are cached at the sink node, while sensory data that may not be interested in the forthcoming queries are cached in the head nodes of divided grid cells. Leveraging these cooperatively cached sensory data, queries are answered through composing these two-tier cached data. Experimental evaluation shows that this approach can reduce the network communication cost significantly and increase the network capability. PMID:26131665

  9. A Novel Two-Tier Cooperative Caching Mechanism for the Optimization of Multi-Attribute Periodic Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, ZhangBing; Zhao, Deng; Shu, Lei; Tsang, Kim-Fung

    2015-06-26

    Wireless sensor networks, serving as an important interface between physical environments and computational systems, have been used extensively for supporting domain applications, where multiple-attribute sensory data are queried from the network continuously and periodically. Usually, certain sensory data may not vary significantly within a certain time duration for certain applications. In this setting, sensory data gathered at a certain time slot can be used for answering concurrent queries and may be reused for answering the forthcoming queries when the variation of these data is within a certain threshold. To address this challenge, a popularity-based cooperative caching mechanism is proposed in this article, where the popularity of sensory data is calculated according to the queries issued in recent time slots. This popularity reflects the possibility that sensory data are interested in the forthcoming queries. Generally, sensory data with the highest popularity are cached at the sink node, while sensory data that may not be interested in the forthcoming queries are cached in the head nodes of divided grid cells. Leveraging these cooperatively cached sensory data, queries are answered through composing these two-tier cached data. Experimental evaluation shows that this approach can reduce the network communication cost significantly and increase the network capability.

  10. Querying databases of trajectories of differential equations: Data structures for trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    One approach to qualitative reasoning about dynamical systems is to extract qualitative information by searching or making queries on databases containing very large numbers of trajectories. The efficiency of such queries depends crucially upon finding an appropriate data structure for trajectories of dynamical systems. Suppose that a large number of parameterized trajectories gamma of a dynamical system evolving in R sup N are stored in a database. Let Eta is contained in set R sup N denote a parameterized path in Euclidean Space, and let the Euclidean Norm denote a norm on the space of paths. A data structure is defined to represent trajectories of dynamical systems, and an algorithm is sketched which answers queries.

  11. ISO 13606 based system for biomedical parameter storage, querying and alarm detection.

    PubMed

    Ramos Naveira, Miguel; Broullón Molanes, Javier; Rimada Mora, Dolores; Llamas Gómez, Daniel; Carrajo García, Lino; Vázquez González, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    ACHEGAMED is an unsupervised real-time patient monitoring system, with the goal of decreasing the exam and diagnosis time of the most prevalent diseases in today's healthcare services. We developed, as a component of ACHEGAMED, a system for storing a wide range of biomedical parameters as ISO 13606 extracts. The system is able to detect clinical alarms in those parameters and communicate them, if needed, to the appropriate medical staff. Although a component of ACHEGAMED, it can be integrated in other systems in a semantic interoperable way thanks to the ISO 13606 standard, allowing the continuity of patient care.

  12. Fuzzy Query Processing Using Clustering Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamel, M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problem of processing fuzzy queries in databases and information retrieval systems and presents a prototype of a fuzzy query processing system for databases that is based on data clustering and uses Pascal programing language. Clustering schemes are explained, and the system architecture that uses natural language is described. (14…

  13. Net Improvement of Correct Answers to Therapy Questions After PubMed Searches: Pre/Post Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Keepanasseril, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinicians search PubMed for answers to clinical questions although it is time consuming and not always successful. Objective To determine if PubMed used with its Clinical Queries feature to filter results based on study quality would improve search success (more correct answers to clinical questions related to therapy). Methods We invited 528 primary care physicians to participate, 143 (27.1%) consented, and 111 (21.0% of the total and 77.6% of those who consented) completed the study. Participants answered 14 yes/no therapy questions and were given 4 of these (2 originally answered correctly and 2 originally answered incorrectly) to search using either the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries narrow therapy filter via a purpose-built system with identical search screens. Participants also picked 3 of the first 20 retrieved citations that best addressed each question. They were then asked to re-answer the original 14 questions. Results We found no statistically significant differences in the rates of correct or incorrect answers using the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries. The rate of correct answers increased from 50.0% to 61.4% (95% CI 55.0%-67.8%) for the PubMed main screen searches and from 50.0% to 59.1% (95% CI 52.6%-65.6%) for Clinical Queries searches. These net absolute increases of 11.4% and 9.1%, respectively, included previously correct answers changing to incorrect at a rate of 9.5% (95% CI 5.6%-13.4%) for PubMed main screen searches and 9.1% (95% CI 5.3%-12.9%) for Clinical Queries searches, combined with increases in the rate of being correct of 20.5% (95% CI 15.2%-25.8%) for PubMed main screen searches and 17.7% (95% CI 12.7%-22.7%) for Clinical Queries searches. Conclusions PubMed can assist clinicians answering clinical questions with an approximately 10% absolute rate of improvement in correct answers. This small increase includes more correct answers partially offset by a decrease in previously correct answers

  14. Proactive trust management system (PTMS) for trusted querying in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bao-Hong; Tiwari, Abhishek; Topol, Zvi; Chandra, Harish; Xu, Shuli; Yadegar, Joseph; Srivastava, Mani; Luke, Jahn A.

    2009-05-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are systems that may contain hundreds to thousands of low-power and low-cost sensor nodes. The potential applicability of such systems is enormous; security surveillance and intrusion detection systems for smart buildings and military bases, monitoring chemical plants for safety, wireless body area networks for first responders, and monitoring habitats and natural environments for scientific and other purposes, among others. As sensor network technology matures, we expect to witness an increasing number of such systems deployed in the real world. This renders sensor networks more accessible to a wide variety of possible attacks and functional faults, as they are deployed in remote, un-trusted, hostile environments. While different basic cryptographic building blocks and hardened hardware architectures for most sensor network platforms are currently available and allow for protection on a single sensor node basis, such building blocks are not effective in preventing wider scale attacks once a node has been compromised. To this end, UtopiaCompression is proposing Proactive Trust Management System (PTMS) for WSNs. Our solution is based on an easily extensible framework, tailored to deal with the resource constrained WSNs, and uses a combination of novel outlier detection mechanisms and trust management algorithms to effectively cope with common sensor faults and network attack models. Moreover, our solution is based on distributed in-network processing, which significantly improves scalability and extends life time of the system. This paper also discusses the implementation and evaluation of our solution on Sun SPOT sensors.

  15. A unified web-based query and notification system (QNS) for subject management, adverse events, regulatory, and IRB components of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rick; Shah, Maitri; Ahmad, Sushma; Rogers, Audrey Smith; Ellenberg, Jonas H

    2005-01-01

    Even after intensive review, interpretative questions, ambiguities, contradictions, or errors, will arise once the protocol is scrutinized by site IRBs and implemented at sites. This will occur despite preparation and implementation of site protocol training, and provision of well crafted case report forms for the reporting of clinical and laboratory evaluations and adverse events. Since many staff are involved in each protocol, site investigators or study coordinators might direct protocol queries, participant management, or IRB queries to different network participants, resulting in inconsistent responses. It is important to establish a response mechanism that ensures consistent responses and their systematic documentation. For reporting of adverse events, and the submission of or documentation of completion of regulatory requirements, an easily accessible and structured communications system is also required. This paper describes the development and implementation of a user-friendly web-based query and notification system (QNS) for subject management, adverse events, regulatory, and IRB components. This system was created in the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN), using existing web based tools with minor modifications and minimal cost. The query and notification system is interactive and allows for free flow of information among the site coordinators and both the protocol teams and the regulatory group. The process of the system is transparent to users at the sites, although its use and maintenance is controlled by Data Operations Center staff, to assure that ATN requirements for review and approval are met. This results in consistency of and timeliness of responses to queries, timeliness and accuracy of adverse event reporting and the ability for the data operations center regulatory staff to provide notification of pending or delinquent regulatory submissions.

  16. Developing a registration entry and query system within the scope of harmonizing of the orthophoto metadata with the international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, İ.; Alkış, Z.

    2013-10-01

    Increase in the number of satellites and the utilization of digital cameras in the aerial photography has spread the use of satellite image and oriented aerial photograph as real or near-real time resolution, accessible, cost effective spatial data. Co-registered images or aerial photos corrected for the height variations and orthogonality (scale) have become an essential input for geographical information systems and spatial decision making due to their integration with the other spatial data. Beyond that, images and photographs compose infrastructure for the other information in usage of spatial data with the help of the access and query facility web providing. Although the issue of the aerial photo ortho-rectification has been solved long ago, the problems related with the storage of huge amount of photos and images, their management, processes, and user accesses have been raised. These subjects concern the multitudinous private and governmental institutes. Some governmental organizations and private companies have gained the technical ability to perform these works in recent times. This situation has lead to significant increase in the amount of aerial photograph taking and processing in one year for whole country. General Command of Mapping has been using digital aerial camera since 2008 for the photograph taking. The total area covered by the satellite images, purchased for different purposes, and the aerial photographs, taken for some revision purposes or demands of governmental and private institutes, has reached up to 200.000 km². It is considered that, colored and high resolution orthophotos of the whole country can be achieved within four years; provided that the annual production would continue similarly without any increase in amount. From the numbers given above, it is clear and inevitable that the orthophoto production procedure must be improved in order to produce orthophotos in the same year just after the photograph takings. Necessary studies

  17. Example Level 1 Ada/SQL (Structured Query Language) System Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    identify by block number) IDA Memorandum Report M-361 contains the source code for the demonstration software which implements the specification found in...This Memorandum Report presents the actual software source code which implements the specification found in IDA Memorandum Report M-361, Level 1 Ada...UNCLASSIFIED Copy 22 of 55c, as AD-A 196 632 IDA MEMORANDUM REPORT M-361 ,. h EXAMPLE LEVEL 1 Ada/SQL SYSTEM SOFTWARE Bill Brykczynski Fred Friedman

  18. Interactive Query Processing in Big Data Systems: A Cross Industry Study of MapReduce Workloads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-02

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...MapReduce behavior using existing mental models. We then describe the MapReduce work- load traces (§ 3). The next few sections present empirical evidence...system: − How uniformly or skewed are the data accesses? − How much temporal locality exists ? 2. For workload-level provisioning and load shaping: − How

  19. What Do People Ask for on the Web and How Do They Ask It: ASK JEEVES Query Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Ozmutlu, H. Cenk

    2001-01-01

    Reports findings from a study examining the nature of queries submitted to Ask Jeeves-a publicly accessible question and answer search engine. Some 30,000 queries from a dataset of 800,000, or 3.75%, were analyzed. Results include: many queries not in question format; four types of user queries: keyword, Boolean, question, and request; and common…

  20. Visual graph query formulation and exploration: a new perspective on information retrieval at the edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kase, Sue E.; Vanni, Michelle; Knight, Joanne A.; Su, Yu; Yan, Xifeng

    2016-05-01

    Within operational environments decisions must be made quickly based on the information available. Identifying an appropriate knowledge base and accurately formulating a search query are critical tasks for decision-making effectiveness in dynamic situations. The spreading of graph data management tools to access large graph databases is a rapidly emerging research area of potential benefit to the intelligence community. A graph representation provides a natural way of modeling data in a wide variety of domains. Graph structures use nodes, edges, and properties to represent and store data. This research investigates the advantages of information search by graph query initiated by the analyst and interactively refined within the contextual dimensions of the answer space toward a solution. The paper introduces SLQ, a user-friendly graph querying system enabling the visual formulation of schemaless and structureless graph queries. SLQ is demonstrated with an intelligence analyst information search scenario focused on identifying individuals responsible for manufacturing a mosquito-hosted deadly virus. The scenario highlights the interactive construction of graph queries without prior training in complex query languages or graph databases, intuitive navigation through the problem space, and visualization of results in graphical format.

  1. The CircleSegmentView: a visualization for query preview and visual filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Peter; Reiterer, Harald

    2005-03-01

    Users of Information Retrieval systems have often been the target group of Human-Computer Interaction researchers. A lot of effort has been spent inventing new forms of visualizations to support the information seeking process. Information Retrieval and Information Visualization are tight coupled fields of research. Together with psychology (which answers questions like 'how' do users search) and usability engineering (answering questions like 'what' do user expect from user interfaces and their behavior) the research on improving information seeking systems goes on. This paper will concentrate on a meta-data driven, user-centered approach for the query formulation stage. In contrast to the intense research on result-set visualizations we will focus on the development of a visualization which supports human search behavior at the query stage. Additionally this visualization proved that it can compete with other visualizations like the scatter-plot as a visual filter in the result-set presentation.

  2. Efficient evaluation of radial queries using the target tree.

    PubMed

    Morse, Michael; Patel, Jignesh M; Grosky, William I

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel indexing structure, called the target tree, which is designed to answer a new type of spatial query, called the radial query. A radial query finds all objects in the spatial data set that intersect with line segments emanating from a single target point. Many biomedical applications use radial queries, including neurosurgical planning. A target tree uses a regular hierarchical decomposition of space using wedge shapes that emanate from the target point. We compare the target tree with the R*-tree and quadtree, and show that the target tree is significantly faster than these methods.

  3. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  4. Spatial aggregation query in dynamic geosensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Baolin; Feng, Dayang; Xiao, Shisong; Zhao, Erdun

    2007-11-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been widely used for civilian and military applications, such as environmental monitoring and vehicle tracking. In many of these applications, the researches mainly aim at building sensor network based systems to leverage the sensed data to applications. However, the existing works seldom exploited spatial aggregation query considering the dynamic characteristics of sensor networks. In this paper, we investigate how to process spatial aggregation query over dynamic geosensor networks where both the sink node and sensor nodes are mobile and propose several novel improvements on enabling techniques. The mobility of sensors makes the existing routing protocol based on information of fixed framework or the neighborhood infeasible. We present an improved location-based stateless implicit geographic forwarding (IGF) protocol for routing a query toward the area specified by query window, a diameter-based window aggregation query (DWAQ) algorithm for query propagation and data aggregation in the query window, finally considering the location changing of the sink node, we present two schemes to forward the result to the sink node. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can improve query latency and query accuracy.

  5. [Data coding in the Israeli healthcare system - do choices provide the answers to our system's needs?].

    PubMed

    Zelingher, Julian; Ash, Nachman

    2013-05-01

    The IsraeLi healthcare system has undergone major processes for the adoption of health information technologies (HIT), and enjoys high Levels of utilization in hospital and ambulatory care. Coding is an essential infrastructure component of HIT, and ts purpose is to represent data in a simplified and common format, enhancing its manipulation by digital systems. Proper coding of data enables efficient identification, storage, retrieval and communication of data. UtiLization of uniform coding systems by different organizations enables data interoperability between them, facilitating communication and integrating data elements originating in different information systems from various organizations. Current needs in Israel for heaLth data coding include recording and reporting of diagnoses for hospitalized patients, outpatients and visitors of the Emergency Department, coding of procedures and operations, coding of pathology findings, reporting of discharge diagnoses and causes of death, billing codes, organizational data warehouses and national registries. New national projects for cLinicaL data integration, obligatory reporting of quality indicators and new Ministry of Health (MOH) requirements for HIT necessitate a high Level of interoperability that can be achieved only through the adoption of uniform coding. Additional pressures were introduced by the USA decision to stop the maintenance of the ICD-9-CM codes that are also used by Israeli healthcare, and the adoption of ICD-10-C and ICD-10-PCS as the main coding system for billing purpose. The USA has also mandated utilization of SNOMED-CT as the coding terminology for the ELectronic Health Record problem list, and for reporting quality indicators to the CMS. Hence, the Israeli MOH has recently decided that discharge diagnoses will be reported using ICD-10-CM codes, and SNOMED-CT will be used to code the cLinical information in the EHR. We reviewed the characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of these two coding

  6. How Do Children Reformulate Their Search Queries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Sophie; Ford, Nigel; Clough, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper investigates techniques used by children in year 4 (age eight to nine) of a UK primary school to reformulate their queries, and how they use information retrieval systems to support query reformulation. Method: An in-depth study analysing the interactions of twelve children carrying out search tasks in a primary school…

  7. Delay Assessment Framework for Automated Question-Answering System: An Approach for eLearning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Muhammad Munwar; Saleem, Yasir

    2017-01-01

    Adoption of Electronic Learning (eLearning) for the dissemination of higher education is rapidly increasing day by day. A large number of universities offering hundreds of course and a large number of the students are taking advantage from this type of learning paradigm. The purpose of this study is to investigate the delay factor in answering the…

  8. Delay Assessment Framework for Automated Question-Answering System: An Approach for eLearning Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iqbal, Muhammad Munwar; Saleem, Yasir

    2017-01-01

    Adoption of Electronic Learning (eLearning) for the dissemination of higher education is rapidly increasing day by day. A large number of universities offering hundreds of course and a large number of the students are taking advantage from this type of learning paradigm. The purpose of this study is to investigate the delay factor in answering the…

  9. GMB: an efficient query processor for biological data.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal; Elmasri, Ramez

    2011-08-31

    Bioinformatics applications manage complex biological data stored into distributed and often heterogeneous databases and require large computing power. These databases are too big and complicated to be rapidly queried every time a user submits a query, due to the overhead involved in decomposing the queries, sending the decomposed queries to remote databases, and composing the results. There is also considerable communication costs involved. This study addresses the mentioned problems in Grid-based environment for bioinformatics. We propose a Grid middleware called GMB that alleviates these problems by caching the results of Frequently Used Queries (FUQ). Queries are classified based on their types and frequencies. FUQ are answered from the middleware, which improves their response time. GMB acts as a gateway to TeraGrid Grid: it resides between users’ applications and TeraGrid Grid. We evaluate GMB experimentally.

  10. [Formation of the compensation answer in the system "lipid peroxidation - antioxidant protection" in rats with alimentary dislipidemia].

    PubMed

    Karaman, Iu K; Novgorodtseva, T P; Vitkina, T I; Lobanova, E G

    2011-01-01

    It is investigated conditions of system "lipid peroksidation - antioxidant protection" at rats of the line Wistar at prolonged formation alimentary dyslipidemia (DLP). It is established, that at formation DLP during 46 days in cells there was no increase in resistance and capacity of processes antioxidant protection. In prolonged DLP (90 days) was characterized by occurrence of the compensation-adaptive answer in the system "lipid peroksidation - antioxidant protection".

  11. QU at TREC-2015: Building Real-Time Systems for Tweet Filtering and Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-20

    stream and responds to users’ information needs in real-time. For the microblog track, given a set of users’ interest pro- files, we developed two online...retrieved back their answers. 1. INTRODUCTION Twitter has rapidly developed over the past years and be- come a massive information sharing network...TWEET FILTERING Tweet filtering is the reverse of ad-hoc tweet search, where a user provides an information need at a certain point in time, and the

  12. The answering system to yes-no truth-functional questions in Korean-English bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-06-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961) were provided as questions such as true affirmative (TA), true negative (TN), false affirmative (FA), and false negative (FN). The bilingual children's answers were observed in separate language settings, English and Korean. The results by the bilingual in the Korean setting were compared with those by the monolinguals. The results show that bilingual children can process two systems rather successfully by providing correct responses to the given questions. But difficulty patterns, measured from error rates in each setting, are found different in two languages. The bilinguals' difficulty patterns in English and Korean, however, show deviation from monolinguals' difficulty patterns suggested in previous studies (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961, Akiyama in Dev Psychol 20:219-228, 1984, Kim in Dev Psychol 21(3):462-472, 1985, Choi in Dev Psychol 29(3):407-420, 1991). The present work also shows that negatives are not uniformly reported with more errors than affirmatives when the truth condition and the answering system are further involved. All in all, the current study suggests that bilingual children have two separate processing systems for yes-no truth-functional questions. However, the two systems cannot be understood as a simple coexistence of two monolingual systems. Interaction of the two competing linguistic systems is discussed further.

  13. State & Society: Presidential Candidates Answer Queries on Science Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents views of Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter on the role of science advisors in the Executive Office of the President, national energy needs and the nuclear power program, and federal support for basic and applied science. (MLH)

  14. Intelligent Query Answering Through Rule Learning and Generalization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    substantial possibility that the researcher will never see records deep in the returned list. Other approaches using modern information retrieval methods...2003. [BAZ99] Baeza-Yates, R. and Ribeiro-Neto B. Modern Information Retrieval . New York: ACM Press and Addison-Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999. [BLU97

  15. Perspectives on the Massachusetts Community Health Information Profile (MassCHIP): developing an online data query system to target a variety of user needs and capabilities.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bruce B; Franklin, Saul; West, James K

    2006-01-01

    The Massachusetts Community Health Information Profile (MassCHIP) has many distinctive features. These features evolved to maximize the usefulness of this query system for a broad group of users with varied needs, differing levels of knowledge about public health, and diverse experience using public health data. Three major features of MassCHIP help target our large user population. These features are as follows: (1) multiple avenues of entry to initiate queries ranging from an alphabetical list of simple topics to detailed International Classification of Disease codes; (2) the inclusion of data sets from other state agencies in addition to those of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to reflect a broad view of public health; and (3) the capacity to retrieve data for multiple levels of geography, from the neighborhood through the state, including planning districts and hospitals. In this article, we discuss the history and design of MassCHIP, and focus on the features of MassCHIP that target a great variety of user needs and capabilities, and which are distinctive among Web-based data query systems.

  16. SAM Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target chemical, radiochemical, pathogens, and biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation

  17. SAM Chemical Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target chemical, radiochemical, pathogens, and biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery

  18. SAM Pathogen Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target pathogen analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery for select pathogens.

  19. SAM Biotoxin Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target biotoxin analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods included in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery for select biotoxins.

  20. SAM Radiochemical Methods Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Laboratories measuring target radiochemical analytes in environmental samples can use this online query tool to identify analytical methods in EPA's Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery for select radiochemical analytes.

  1. The RCSB Protein Data Bank: a redesigned query system and relational database based on the mmCIF schema

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nita; Addess, Kenneth J.; Bluhm, Wolfgang F.; Merino-Ott, Jeffrey C.; Townsend-Merino, Wayne; Zhang, Qing; Knezevich, Charlie; Xie, Lie; Chen, Li; Feng, Zukang; Kramer Green, Rachel; Flippen-Anderson, Judith L.; Westbrook, John; Berman, Helen M.; Bourne, Philip E.

    2005-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the central worldwide repository for three-dimensional (3D) structure data of biological macromolecules. The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB) has completely redesigned its resource for the distribution and query of 3D structure data. The re-engineered site is currently in public beta test at http://pdbbeta.rcsb.org. The new site expands the functionality of the existing site by providing structure data in greater detail and uniformity, improved query and enhanced analysis tools. A new key feature is the integration and searchability of data from over 20 other sources covering genomic, proteomic and disease relationships. The current capabilities of the re-engineered site, which will become the RCSB production site at http://www.pdb.org in late 2005, are described. PMID:15608185

  2. The RCSB Protein Data Bank: a redesigned query system and relational database based on the mmCIF schema.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nita; Addess, Kenneth J; Bluhm, Wolfgang F; Merino-Ott, Jeffrey C; Townsend-Merino, Wayne; Zhang, Qing; Knezevich, Charlie; Xie, Lie; Chen, Li; Feng, Zukang; Green, Rachel Kramer; Flippen-Anderson, Judith L; Westbrook, John; Berman, Helen M; Bourne, Philip E

    2005-01-01

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is the central worldwide repository for three-dimensional (3D) structure data of biological macromolecules. The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB) has completely redesigned its resource for the distribution and query of 3D structure data. The re-engineered site is currently in public beta test at http://pdbbeta.rcsb.org. The new site expands the functionality of the existing site by providing structure data in greater detail and uniformity, improved query and enhanced analysis tools. A new key feature is the integration and searchability of data from over 20 other sources covering genomic, proteomic and disease relationships. The current capabilities of the re-engineered site, which will become the RCSB production site at http://www.pdb.org in late 2005, are described.

  3. Neural cryptography with queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttor, Andreas; Kinzel, Wolfgang; Kanter, Ido

    2005-01-01

    Neural cryptography is based on synchronization of tree parity machines by mutual learning. We extend previous key-exchange protocols by replacing random inputs with queries depending on the current state of the neural networks. The probability of a successful attack is calculated for different model parameters using numerical simulations. The results show that queries restore the security against cooperating attackers. The success probability can be reduced without increasing the average synchronization time.

  4. IPSec Database Query Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrante, Alberto; Chandra, Satish; Piuri, Vincenzo

    IPSec is a suite of protocols that adds security to communications at the IP level. Protocols within IPSec make extensive use of two databases, namely the Security Policy Database (SPD) and the Security Association Database (SAD). The ability to query the SPD quickly is fundamental as this operation needs to be done for each incoming or outgoing IP packet, even if no IPSec processing needs to be applied on it. This may easily result in millions of query per second in gigabit networks.

  5. Advanced Query Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    structures I* Data structures a. parse tree D. resolved intermediate query c. data access patn d. lists of matcning i-stances e. requestea fielas 2. Taules... tree (or a forest of trees ). A data relation riow Jescriptively corresponds to a downward oath of label words in tre nierarchy. 4e can reinforce this...general Page 3-10 Handling Natural languaqe Queries syntax-driven narsinq alooritnm for context- tree lanquaqes (41, further auqmented to accept syntactic

  6. Qualified answers that reflect user needs and preferences

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T.; Lobo, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces a formalism to describe the needs and preferences of database users. Because of the precise formulation of these concepts, we have found an automatic and {ital very simple} mechanism to incorporate user needs and preferences into the query answering process. In the formalism, the user provides a lattice of domain independent values that define preferences and needs and a set of domain specific {ital user constraints} qualified with lattice values. The constraints are automatically incorporated into a relational or deductive database through a series of syntactic transformations that produces an annotated deductive database. Query answering procedures for deductive databases are then used, with minor modifications, to obtain annotated answers to queries. Because preference declaration is separated from data representation and management, preferences can be easily altered without touching the database. Also, the query language allows users to ask for answers at different preference levels. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Descriptive Question Answering with Answer Type Independent Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeo-Chan; Lee, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Jang, Myung-Gil; Ryu, Pum Mo; Park, So-Young

    In this paper, we present a supervised learning method to seek out answers to the most frequently asked descriptive questions: reason, method, and definition questions. Most of the previous systems for question answering focus on factoids, lists or definitional questions. However, descriptive questions such as reason questions and method questions are also frequently asked by users. We propose a system for these types of questions. The system conducts an answer search as follows. First, we analyze the user's question and extract search keywords and the expected answer type. Second, information retrieval results are obtained from an existing search engine such as Yahoo or Google. Finally, we rank the results to find snippets containing answers to the questions based on a ranking SVM algorithm. We also propose features to identify snippets containing answers for descriptive questions. The features are adaptable and thus are not dependent on answer type. Experimental results show that the proposed method and features are clearly effective for the task.

  8. Cumulative query method for influenza surveillance using search engine data.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Woo; Jo, Min-Woo; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Lee, JaeHo; Yu, Maengsoo; Kim, Won Young; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Lee, Sang-Il

    2014-12-16

    Internet search queries have become an important data source in syndromic surveillance system. However, there is currently no syndromic surveillance system using Internet search query data in South Korea. The objective of this study was to examine correlations between our cumulative query method and national influenza surveillance data. Our study was based on the local search engine, Daum (approximately 25% market share), and influenza-like illness (ILI) data from the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A quota sampling survey was conducted with 200 participants to obtain popular queries. We divided the study period into two sets: Set 1 (the 2009/10 epidemiological year for development set 1 and 2010/11 for validation set 1) and Set 2 (2010/11 for development Set 2 and 2011/12 for validation Set 2). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated between the Daum data and the ILI data for the development set. We selected the combined queries for which the correlation coefficients were .7 or higher and listed them in descending order. Then, we created a cumulative query method n representing the number of cumulative combined queries in descending order of the correlation coefficient. In validation set 1, 13 cumulative query methods were applied, and 8 had higher correlation coefficients (min=.916, max=.943) than that of the highest single combined query. Further, 11 of 13 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 4 of 13 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. In validation set 2, 8 of 15 cumulative query methods showed higher correlation coefficients (min=.975, max=.987) than that of the highest single combined query. All 15 cumulative query methods had an r value of ≥.7, but 6 of 15 combined queries had an r value of ≥.7. Cumulative query method showed relatively higher correlation with national influenza surveillance data than combined queries in the development and validation set.

  9. Structure of Domain Novice Users' Queries to a History Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles; Leide, John E.; Nwakamma, Emeka; Beheshti, Jamshid; Large, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Presents preliminary results from a study of an information need identification system for interactive information retrieval for undergraduates researching a history topic. Concludes that the query taxonomy must include levels of topic specificity because while general topic-based queries are inappropriate as query terms, more specific topic-based…

  10. Information Retrieval Using UMLS-based Structured Queries

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Lawrence M.; Berrios, Daniel C.; Chan, Albert; Cucina, Russell; Datta, Anupam; Shah, Maulik; Surendran, Sujith

    2001-01-01

    During the last three years, we have developed and described components of ELBook, a semantically based information-retrieval system [1-4]. Using these components, domain experts can specify a query model, indexers can use the query model to index documents, and end-users can search these documents for instances of indexed queries.

  11. A two-way text-messaging system answering health questions for low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Song, Hayeon; May, Amy; Vaidhyanathan, Vishnuvardhan; Cramer, Emily M; Owais, Rami W; McRoy, Susan

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to gauge the effectiveness of a low-cost, automated, two-way text-messaging system to distribute pregnancy and health-related information to low-income expectant women. In total, 20 participants were recruited for a one-month intervention involving the use of cell phones to text pregnancy-related questions to the system. Participants received either a direct answer or encouragement to seek answers from health care providers. Pre- and post-tests as well as a focus group at the end of the intervention were conducted. Participants uniformly found the system easy to use and accessible. Using the system increased levels of perceived pregnancy-related knowledge and facilitated patient-provider communication. Moreover, participants reported significant reductions in stress and depression and improved mental health after using the system. The system responded to most known questions quickly and accurately, and also encountered many new topics and linguistic expressions. Overall, the data indicated that the text messaging system offered psychological benefits and promoted health communication by providing health information and encouraging patient-provider communication. An automated, two-way text messaging system is an efficient, cost-effective, and acceptable method for providing health information to low-income pregnant women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) Query - Popup

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site allows you to to easily query the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) and generate a list of the corresponding Hazardous Ranking System (HRS) factor values, benchmarks, and data elements that you need.

  13. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site allows you to to easily query the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) and generate a list of the corresponding Hazard Ranking System (HRS) factor values, benchmarks, and data elements that you need.

  14. AN ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN LIBRARIES. STUDIES IN THE MAN-SYSTEM INTERFACE IN LIBRARIES, REPORT NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIEBER, CAROLINE E.

    TRADITIONAL METHODS OF ANALYZING QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS AS THEY OCCUR IN REFERENCE LIBRARIES ARE DISCUSSED AND CRITICIZED. METHODS OF EXAMINING QUESTIONS, THE QUESTION-ANSWERING PROCESS, AND ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ARE EVALUATED. A PRAGMATIC SCHEME IS SUGGESTED WHICH CLASSIFIES ANSWERS BY THEIR FORMATS, DIVIDING THEM INTO EXACT-REPRODUCTION TYPE,…

  15. A Generic Metadata Query Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, B.; Duval, E.; Olivie, H.

    This paper discusses a generic query tool that enables an end user to query a metadata store through filters that impose search criteria on attributes. The Metadata Query Tool (MQT) is generic in the sense that it dynamically creates its user interface, based on configuration files that define the metadata scheme and the query functionalities.…

  16. Instance-Based Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    answer clustering, composition, and scoring. Moreover, with the effort dedicated to improving monolingual system performance, system parameters are...text collections: document type, manual or automatic annotations (if any), and stylistic and notational differences in technical terms. Monolingual ...forum in which cross language retrieval systems and question answering systems are tested for various Eu- ropean languages. The CLEF QA monolingual task

  17. Query by transduction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shen-Shyang; Wechsler, Harry

    2008-09-01

    There has been recently a growing interest in the use of transductive inference for learning. We expand here the scope of transductive inference to active learning in a stream-based setting. Towards that end this paper proposes Query-by-Transduction (QBT) as a novel active learning algorithm. QBT queries the label of an example based on the p-values obtained using transduction. We show that QBT is closely related to Query-by-Committee (QBC) using relations between transduction, Bayesian statistical testing, Kullback-Leibler divergence, and Shannon information. The feasibility and utility of QBT is shown on both binary and multi-class classification tasks using SVM as the choice classifier. Our experimental results show that QBT compares favorably, in terms of mean generalization, against random sampling, committee-based active learning, margin-based active learning, and QBC in the stream-based setting.

  18. Retrieval with gene queries.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Aditya K; Srinivasan, Padmini

    2006-04-21

    Accuracy of document retrieval from MEDLINE for gene queries is crucially important for many applications in bioinformatics. We explore five information retrieval-based methods to rank documents retrieved by PubMed gene queries for the human genome. The aim is to rank relevant documents higher in the retrieved list. We address the special challenges faced due to ambiguity in gene nomenclature: gene terms that refer to multiple genes, gene terms that are also English words, and gene terms that have other biological meanings. Our two baseline ranking strategies are quite similar in performance. Two of our three LocusLink-based strategies offer significant improvements. These methods work very well even when there is ambiguity in the gene terms. Our best ranking strategy offers significant improvements on three different kinds of ambiguities over our two baseline strategies (improvements range from 15.9% to 17.7% and 11.7% to 13.3% depending on the baseline). For most genes the best ranking query is one that is built from the LocusLink (now Entrez Gene) summary and product information along with the gene names and aliases. For others, the gene names and aliases suffice. We also present an approach that successfully predicts, for a given gene, which of these two ranking queries is more appropriate. We explore the effect of different post-retrieval strategies on the ranking of documents returned by PubMed for human gene queries. We have successfully applied some of these strategies to improve the ranking of relevant documents in the retrieved sets. This holds true even when various kinds of ambiguity are encountered. We feel that it would be very useful to apply strategies like ours on PubMed search results as these are not ordered by relevance in any way. This is especially so for queries that retrieve a large number of documents.

  19. An SQL query generator for CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, James; Chirica, Laurian

    1990-01-01

    As expert systems become more widely used, their access to large amounts of external information becomes increasingly important. This information exists in several forms such as statistical, tabular data, knowledge gained by experts and large databases of information maintained by companies. Because many expert systems, including CLIPS, do not provide access to this external information, much of the usefulness of expert systems is left untapped. The scope of this paper is to describe a database extension for the CLIPS expert system shell. The current industry standard database language is SQL. Due to SQL standardization, large amounts of information stored on various computers, potentially at different locations, will be more easily accessible. Expert systems should be able to directly access these existing databases rather than requiring information to be re-entered into the expert system environment. The ORACLE relational database management system (RDBMS) was used to provide a database connection within the CLIPS environment. To facilitate relational database access a query generation system was developed as a CLIPS user function. The queries are entered in a CLlPS-like syntax and are passed to the query generator, which constructs and submits for execution, an SQL query to the ORACLE RDBMS. The query results are asserted as CLIPS facts. The query generator was developed primarily for use within the ICADS project (Intelligent Computer Aided Design System) currently being developed by the CAD Research Unit in the California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly). In ICADS, there are several parallel or distributed expert systems accessing a common knowledge base of facts. Expert system has a narrow domain of interest and therefore needs only certain portions of the information. The query generator provides a common method of accessing this information and allows the expert system to specify what data is needed without specifying how to retrieve it.

  20. Managing and Querying Whole Slide Images

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fusheng; Oh, Tae W.; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution pathology images provide rich information about the morphological and functional characteristics of biological systems, and are transforming the field of pathology into a new era. To facilitate the use of digital pathology imaging for biomedical research and clinical diagnosis, it is essential to manage and query both whole slide images (WSI) and analytical results generated from images, such as annotations made by humans and computed features and classifications made by computer algorithms. There are unique requirements on modeling, managing and querying whole slide images, including compatibility with standards, scalability, support of image queries at multiple granularities, and support of integrated queries between images and derived results from the images. In this paper, we present our work on developing the Pathology Image Database System (PIDB), which is a standard oriented image database to support retrieval of images, tiles, regions and analytical results, image visualization and experiment management through a unified interface and architecture. The system is deployed for managing and querying whole slide images for In Silico brain tumor studies at Emory University. PIDB is generic and open source, and can be easily used to support other biomedical research projects. It has the potential to be integrated into a Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) with powerful query capabilities to support pathology imaging. PMID:22844574

  1. Managing and querying whole slide images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Oh, Tae W.; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel

    2012-02-01

    High-resolution pathology images provide rich information about the morphological and functional characteristics of biological systems, and are transforming the field of pathology into a new era. To facilitate the use of digital pathology imaging for biomedical research and clinical diagnosis, it is essential to manage and query both whole slide images (WSI) and analytical results generated from images, such as annotations made by humans and computed features and classifications made by computer algorithms. There are unique requirements on modeling, managing and querying whole slide images, including compatibility with standards, scalability, support of image queries at multiple granularities, and support of integrated queries between images and derived results from the images. In this paper, we present our work on developing the Pathology Image Database System (PIDB), which is a standard oriented image database to support retrieval of images, tiles, regions and analytical results, image visualization and experiment management through a unified interface and architecture. The system is deployed for managing and querying whole slide images for In Silico brain tumor studies at Emory University. PIDB is generic and open source, and can be easily used to support other biomedical research projects. It has the potential to be integrated into a Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) with powerful query capabilities to support pathology imaging.

  2. EHR query language (EQL)--a query language for archetype-based health records.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunlan; Frankel, Heath; Beale, Thomas; Heard, Sam

    2007-01-01

    OpenEHR specifications have been developed to standardise the representation of an international electronic health record (EHR). The language used for querying EHR data is not as yet part of the specification. To fill in this gap, Ocean Informatics has developed a query language currently known as EHR Query Language (EQL), a declarative language supporting queries on EHR data. EQL is neutral to EHR systems, programming languages and system environments and depends only on the openEHR archetype model and semantics. Thus, in principle, EQL can be used in any archetype-based computational context. In the EHR context described here, particular queries mention concepts from the openEHR EHR Reference Model (RM). EQL can be used as a common query language for disparate archetype-based applications. The use of a common RM, archetypes, and a companion query language, such as EQL, semantic interoperability of EHR information is much closer. This paper introduces the EQL syntax and provides example clinical queries to illustrate the syntax. Finally, current implementations and future directions are outlined.

  3. Questions and Answers About the Effects of Septic Systems on Water Quality in the La Pine Area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John S.; Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate levels in the ground-water aquifer underlying the central Oregon city of La Pine and the surrounding area are increasing due to contamination from residential septic systems. This contamination has public health implications because ground water is the sole source of drinking water for area residents. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Deschutes County and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, studied the movement and chemistry of nitrate in the aquifer and developed computer models that can be used to predict future nitrate levels and to evaluate alternatives for protecting water quality. This fact sheet summarizes the results of that study in the form of questions and answers.

  4. FRS EZ Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page is the starting point for EZ Query. This page describes how to select key data elements from EPA's Facility Information Database and Geospatial Reference Database to build a tabular report or a Comma Separated Value (CSV) files for downloading.

  5. Selecting a computer-assisted retrieval system: one answer to office automation.

    PubMed

    Bogue, D T

    1983-11-01

    Computer-assisted retrieval (CAR) systems combine computers with microfilm to create a cost-effective, productive method of managing information. CAR systems range in size from large computerized mass-storage systems utilizing image scanning and digitized technologies to small, tabletop, standalone microprocessor-driven systems. When properly configured, a CAR system can not only provide vital information today, but will also be able to grow and expand into a total office system.

  6. Query Support for Gmz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, A.; Rajan, K. S.

    2017-07-01

    Generic text-based compression models are simple and fast but there are two issues that needs to be addressed. They cannot leverage the structure that exists in data to achieve better compression and there is an unnecessary decompression step before the user can actually use the data. To address these issues, we came up with GMZ, a lossless compression model aimed at achieving high compression ratios. The decision to design GMZ (Khandelwal and Rajan, 2017) exclusively for GML's Simple Features Profile (SFP) seems fair because of the high use of SFP in WFS and that it facilitates high optimisation of the compression model. This is an extension of our work on GMZ. In a typical server-client model such as Web Feature Service, the server is the primary creator and provider of GML, and therefore, requires compression and query capabilities. On the other hand, the client is the primary consumer of GML, and therefore, requires decompression and visualisation capabilities. In the first part of our work, we demonstrated compression using a python script that can be plugged in a server architecture, and decompression and visualisation in a web browser using a Firefox addon. The focus of this work is to develop the already existing tools to provide query capability to server. Our model provides the ability to decompress individual features in isolation, which is an essential requirement for realising query in compressed state. We con - struct an R-Tree index for spatial data and a custom index for non-spatial data and store these in a separate index file to prevent alter - ing the compression model. This facilitates independent use of compressed GMZ file where index can be constructed when required. The focus of this work is the bounding-box or range query commonly used in webGIS with provision for other spatial and non-spatial queries. The decrement in compression ratios due to the new index file is in the range of 1-3 percent which is trivial considering the benefits of

  7. Boolean logic tree of graphene-based chemical system for molecular computation and intelligent molecular search query.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei Tao; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2014-05-06

    The most serious, and yet unsolved, problem of constructing molecular computing devices consists in connecting all of these molecular events into a usable device. This report demonstrates the use of Boolean logic tree for analyzing the chemical event network based on graphene, organic dye, thrombin aptamer, and Fenton reaction, organizing and connecting these basic chemical events. And this chemical event network can be utilized to implement fluorescent combinatorial logic (including basic logic gates and complex integrated logic circuits) and fuzzy logic computing. On the basis of the Boolean logic tree analysis and logic computing, these basic chemical events can be considered as programmable "words" and chemical interactions as "syntax" logic rules to construct molecular search engine for performing intelligent molecular search query. Our approach is helpful in developing the advanced logic program based on molecules for application in biosensing, nanotechnology, and drug delivery.

  8. The Answer Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  9. Getting a Cohesive Answer from a Common Start: Scalable Multidisciplinary Analysis through Transformation of a Systems Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Chung, Seung

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of systems engineering is in working multidisciplinary problems in a cohesive manner. When planning analysis of these problems, system engineers must trade between time and cost for analysis quality and quantity. The quality often correlates with greater run time in multidisciplinary models and the quantity is associated with the number of alternatives that can be analyzed. The trade-off is due to the resource intensive process of creating a cohesive multidisciplinary systems model and analysis. Furthermore, reuse or extension of the models used in one stage of a product life cycle for another is a major challenge. Recent developments have enabled a much less resource-intensive and more rigorous approach than hand-written translation scripts between multi-disciplinary models and their analyses. The key is to work from a core systems model defined in a MOF-based language such as SysML and in leveraging the emerging tool ecosystem, such as Query/View/Transformation (QVT), from the OMG community. SysML was designed to model multidisciplinary systems. The QVT standard was designed to transform SysML models into other models, including those leveraged by engineering analyses. The Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) team has begun to exploit these capabilities. In one case, a Matlab/Simulink model is generated on the fly from a system description for power analysis written in SysML. In a more general case, symbolic analysis (supported by Wolfram Mathematica) is coordinated by data objects transformed from the systems model, enabling extremely flexible and powerful design exploration and analytical investigations of expected system performance.

  10. Getting a Cohesive Answer from a Common Start: Scalable Multidisciplinary Analysis through Transformation of a System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Chung, Seung H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of systems engineering is in working multidisciplinary problems in a cohesive manner. When planning analysis of these problems, system engineers must tradeoff time and cost for analysis quality and quantity. The quality is associated with the fidelity of the multidisciplinary models and the quantity is associated with the design space that can be analyzed. The tradeoff is due to the resource intensive process of creating a cohesive multidisciplinary system model and analysis. Furthermore, reuse or extension of the models used in one stage of a product life cycle for another is a major challenge. Recent developments have enabled a much less resource-intensive and more rigorous approach than handwritten translation scripts or codes of multidisciplinary models and their analyses. The key is to work from a core system model defined in a MOF-based language such as SysML and in leveraging the emerging tool ecosystem, such as Query-View- Transform (QVT), from the OMG community. SysML was designed to model multidisciplinary systems and analyses. The QVT standard was designed to transform SysML models. The Europa Hability Mission (EHM) team has begun to exploit these capabilities. In one case, a Matlab/Simulink model is generated on the fly from a system description for power analysis written in SysML. In a more general case, a symbolic mathematical framework (supported by Wolfram Mathematica) is coordinated by data objects transformed from the system model, enabling extremely flexible and powerful tradespace exploration and analytical investigations of expected system performance.

  11. Getting a Cohesive Answer from a Common Start: Scalable Multidisciplinary Analysis through Transformation of a Systems Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Chung, Seung

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of systems engineering is in working multidisciplinary problems in a cohesive manner. When planning analysis of these problems, system engineers must trade between time and cost for analysis quality and quantity. The quality often correlates with greater run time in multidisciplinary models and the quantity is associated with the number of alternatives that can be analyzed. The trade-off is due to the resource intensive process of creating a cohesive multidisciplinary systems model and analysis. Furthermore, reuse or extension of the models used in one stage of a product life cycle for another is a major challenge. Recent developments have enabled a much less resource-intensive and more rigorous approach than hand-written translation scripts between multi-disciplinary models and their analyses. The key is to work from a core systems model defined in a MOF-based language such as SysML and in leveraging the emerging tool ecosystem, such as Query/View/Transformation (QVT), from the OMG community. SysML was designed to model multidisciplinary systems. The QVT standard was designed to transform SysML models into other models, including those leveraged by engineering analyses. The Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) team has begun to exploit these capabilities. In one case, a Matlab/Simulink model is generated on the fly from a system description for power analysis written in SysML. In a more general case, symbolic analysis (supported by Wolfram Mathematica) is coordinated by data objects transformed from the systems model, enabling extremely flexible and powerful design exploration and analytical investigations of expected system performance.

  12. Getting a Cohesive Answer from a Common Start: Scalable Multidisciplinary Analysis through Transformation of a System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Bjorn; Chung, Seung H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of systems engineering is in working multidisciplinary problems in a cohesive manner. When planning analysis of these problems, system engineers must tradeoff time and cost for analysis quality and quantity. The quality is associated with the fidelity of the multidisciplinary models and the quantity is associated with the design space that can be analyzed. The tradeoff is due to the resource intensive process of creating a cohesive multidisciplinary system model and analysis. Furthermore, reuse or extension of the models used in one stage of a product life cycle for another is a major challenge. Recent developments have enabled a much less resource-intensive and more rigorous approach than handwritten translation scripts or codes of multidisciplinary models and their analyses. The key is to work from a core system model defined in a MOF-based language such as SysML and in leveraging the emerging tool ecosystem, such as Query-View- Transform (QVT), from the OMG community. SysML was designed to model multidisciplinary systems and analyses. The QVT standard was designed to transform SysML models. The Europa Hability Mission (EHM) team has begun to exploit these capabilities. In one case, a Matlab/Simulink model is generated on the fly from a system description for power analysis written in SysML. In a more general case, a symbolic mathematical framework (supported by Wolfram Mathematica) is coordinated by data objects transformed from the system model, enabling extremely flexible and powerful tradespace exploration and analytical investigations of expected system performance.

  13. Flexible Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeley, James

    1997-01-01

    Describes how schools are investigating single-ply roofing systems for new and retrofit construction. Discusses some of the considerations in seaming together a single-ply roof, steps in choosing roofing material and a roofing contractor, warranty advice, and the importance of keeping records on roof maintenance. (RJM)

  14. A Microprocessor Architecture for Bibliographic Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martella, G.; Gobbi, G.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes a microprocessor-based architecture that makes large use of parallelism both in processing and in retrieval operations. The proposed system consists of three functional blocks: the query processor, simple query executers, and the answer composer. Twenty-one references are listed. (FM)

  15. The StarView intelligent query mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, R. D.; Silberberg, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    The StarView interface is being developed to facilitate the retrieval of scientific and engineering data produced by the Hubble Space Telescope. While predefined screens in the interface can be used to specify many common requests, ad hoc requests require a dynamic query formulation capability. Unfortunately, logical level knowledge is too sparse to support this capability. In particular, essential formulation knowledge is lost when the domain of interest is mapped to a set of database relation schemas. Thus, a system known as QUICK has been developed that uses conceptual design knowledge to facilitate query formulation. By heuristically determining strongly associated objects at the conceptual level, QUICK is able to formulate semantically reasonable queries in response to high-level requests that specify only attributes of interest. Moreover, by exploiting constraint knowledge in the conceptual design, QUICK assures that queries are formulated quickly and will execute efficiently.

  16. Multidimensional indexing structure for use with linear optimization queries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Castelli, Vittorio (Inventor); Chang, Yuan-Chi (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Linear optimization queries, which usually arise in various decision support and resource planning applications, are queries that retrieve top N data records (where N is an integer greater than zero) which satisfy a specific optimization criterion. The optimization criterion is to either maximize or minimize a linear equation. The coefficients of the linear equation are given at query time. Methods and apparatus are disclosed for constructing, maintaining and utilizing a multidimensional indexing structure of database records to improve the execution speed of linear optimization queries. Database records with numerical attributes are organized into a number of layers and each layer represents a geometric structure called convex hull. Such linear optimization queries are processed by searching from the outer-most layer of this multi-layer indexing structure inwards. At least one record per layer will satisfy the query criterion and the number of layers needed to be searched depends on the spatial distribution of records, the query-issued linear coefficients, and N, the number of records to be returned. When N is small compared to the total size of the database, answering the query typically requires searching only a small fraction of all relevant records, resulting in a tremendous speedup as compared to linearly scanning the entire dataset.

  17. Querying and tasking in sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaikaeo, Chaiporn; Srisathapornphat, Chavalit; Shen, Chien-Chung

    2000-08-01

    With the advancement of hardware technology, it becomes feasible to develop a networked system of pervasive computing platforms that combine programmable general purpose computers with multiple sensing and wireless communication capability. This networked system of programmable sensor nodes, together called a sensor network, poses unique challenges on how information collected by and stored within the sensor network should be queried and accessed, and how concurrent sensing tasks should be programmed from external clients. In this paper, we describe an architecture that facilitates querying and tasking of sensor networks. The key idea to the architecture lies in the development of the Sensor Querying and Tasking Language (SQTL) and the corresponding Sensor Execution Environment (SEE). We model a sensor network as a distributed set of collaborating nodes that carry out querying and tasking activities programmed in SQTL. A frontend node injects a message, that encapsulates an SQTL program, into a sensor node and starts a diffusion computation. A sensor node may diffuse the encapsulated SQTL program to other nodes as dictated by its logic and collaborately perform the specified querying or tasking activity. We will present the SQTL language and demonstrate its applicability using a maximum temperature querying application and a vehicle tracking application.

  18. The cognitive demands of an innovative query user interface.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Di; Kaufman, David R.; Mendonca, Eneida A.; Seol, Yoon-Hu; Johnson, Stephen B.; Cimino, James J.

    2002-01-01

    Too often, online searches for health information are time consuming and produce results that are not sufficiently precise to answer clinicians' or patients' questions. The PERSIVAL project is designed to circumvent this problem by personalizing and tailoring searches and presentation to the demands of the user and the particular clinical context. This paper focuses on a cognitive evaluation of one component of this project, a Query User Interface (QUI). The study examines the system's ability to allow users to easily and intuitively express their information needs. We performed several analyses including a cognitive walkthrough of the interface and quantitative estimations of cognitive load. The paper also presents a preliminary analysis of usability testing. The analyses suggest that there are features in the QUI that contribute to a greater cognitive load and result in greater effort on the part of the subject. The results of usability testing are consistent with these findings. However, subjects found it to be relatively easy and intuitive to generate well-formed queries using the interface. This study contributed to the iterative design of the interface and to the next generation of the PERSIVAL system. PMID:12463945

  19. The cognitive demands of an innovative query user interface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Kaufman, David R; Mendonca, Eneida A; Seol, Yoon-Hu; Johnson, Stephen B; Cimino, James J

    2002-01-01

    Too often, online searches for health information are time consuming and produce results that are not sufficiently precise to answer clinicians' or patients' questions. The PERSIVAL project is designed to circumvent this problem by personalizing and tailoring searches and presentation to the demands of the user and the particular clinical context. This paper focuses on a cognitive evaluation of one component of this project, a Query User Interface (QUI). The study examines the system's ability to allow users to easily and intuitively express their information needs. We performed several analyses including a cognitive walkthrough of the interface and quantitative estimations of cognitive load. The paper also presents a preliminary analysis of usability testing. The analyses suggest that there are features in the QUI that contribute to a greater cognitive load and result in greater effort on the part of the subject. The results of usability testing are consistent with these findings. However, subjects found it to be relatively easy and intuitive to generate well-formed queries using the interface. This study contributed to the iterative design of the interface and to the next generation of the PERSIVAL system.

  20. A System for Individualizing Instruction. Practical Answers to U-SAIL Implementation Questions. Monograph No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah System Approach to Individualized Learning Project.

    The U-SAIL system is a practical approach to individualization of instruction in which a problem-solving process is employed to install a program in logical sequential phases. U-SAIL is a nationally validated, successfully replicated, cost-feasible system for individualization of instruction which can be implemented in a variety of settings with…

  1. Querying genomic databases

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Hagstrom, R.; Joerg, D.; Overbeek, R.

    1991-09-01

    A natural-language interface has been developed that retrieves genomic information by using a simple subset of English. The interface spares the biologist from the task of learning database-specific query languages and computer programming. Currently, the interface deals with the E. coli genome. It can, however, be readily extended and shows promise as a means of easy access to other sequenced genomic databases as well.

  2. A Semantic Graph Query Language

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L

    2006-10-16

    Semantic graphs can be used to organize large amounts of information from a number of sources into one unified structure. A semantic query language provides a foundation for extracting information from the semantic graph. The graph query language described here provides a simple, powerful method for querying semantic graphs.

  3. Generalized queries on probabilistic context-free grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Pynadath, D.V.; Wellman, M.P.

    1996-12-31

    Probabilistic context-free grammars (PCFGs) provide a simple way to represent a particular class of distributions over sentences in a context-free language. Efficient parsing algorithms for answering particular queries about a PCFG (i.e., calculating the probability of a given sentence, or finding the most likely parse) have been applied to a variety of pattern-recognition problems. We extend the class of queries that can be answered in several ways: (1) allowing missing tokens in a sentence or sentence fragment, (2) supporting queries about intermediate structure, such as the presence of particular nonterminals, and (3) flexible conditioning on a variety of types of evidence. Our method works by constructing a Bayesian network to represent the distribution of parse trees induced by a given PCFG. The network structure mirrors that of the chart in a standard parser, and is generated using a similar dynamic-programming approach. We present an algorithm for constructing Bayesian networks from PCFGs, and show how queries or patterns of queries on the network correspond to interesting queries on PCFGs.

  4. Neuregulins and the neuromuscular system: 10 years of answers and questions.

    PubMed

    Falls, Douglas L

    2003-01-01

    The neuregulins were originally discovered in searches for the acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity (ARIA), glial growth factor (GGF), and a ligand for the oncogene neu (ErbB2/HER2). Neuregulin1 (NRG1)-mediated cell communication is critical in the central and peripheral nervous system, heart, breast, and other organ systems. This review will focus on the functions of NRG1s in the development and maintenance of the neuromuscular system and on the regulation of NRG1 signaling within this system. The roles of NRG1 signaling in the neuromuscular system are far more pervasive than contemplated when neuregulins were discovered 10 years ago. In fact, neuregulin-mediated cell communication plays an essential role in the biology of most components of the neuromuscular system--including motor and sensory neurons, muscle fibers, Schwann cells, and major specializations (neuromuscular synapses, muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and peripheral nerves). It is argued here that while NRG1 proteins are indeed "ARIA" and "GGF", their involvement in regulating synapse-specific transcription and Schwann cell development is more complex than originally proposed. It is also argued that NRG1 isoforms differ in their signaling properties and that these differences tailor specific isoforms for specific signaling tasks; for example, some NRG1 isoforms may be specialized for paracrine signaling and others for juxtacrine signaling. In the first 10 years of neuregulin research there has been much progress in understanding the actions of neuregulins in shaping and maintaining the neuromuscular system. However, major questions, old and new, remain unanswered; and the second 10 years promises to be at least as exciting as the first.

  5. A need for closer examination of FASD by the criminal justice system: has the call been answered?

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Karina Royer; Moore, Timothy E; Green, Melvyn

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with FASD exhibit deficits in many domains that can include memory, learning, behavioural inhibition, executive functioning, interpersonal skills, and language. These deficits have serious implications for affected persons when they become engaged in the legal system. In 2004, Moore and Green reviewed case law and psychological literature which suggested that FASD-related deficits placed affected individuals at a significant disadvantage in the justice system. According to them, this disadvantage stemmed from the limited awareness and knowledge of FASD demonstrated by key players in the justice system, as well as the scarcity of effective interventions in place to rehabilitate affected defendants. The aim of the current paper is to assess the extent to which awareness of FASD-related issues in the Canadian justice system has advanced since the publication of Moore and Green's conclusions. First, the deficits associated with FASD and their implications for the justice system are described. Next, recent case law and psychological evidence are reviewed as we consider issues of witness reliability and false confessions. The significance of FASD for sentencing, fitness to stand trial, and the Not Criminally Responsible by Reason of Mental Disorder defence are also briefly discussed. Finally, emerging system wide responses to FASD-related issues are presented. Overall, it appears that the call for closer examination of FASD by the justice system has been answered, but a need for increased education and awareness remains.

  6. Extended query refinement for content-based access to large medical-image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Thomas M.; Plodowski, Bartosz; Spitzer, Klaus; Wein, Berthold B.; Ney, Hermann; Seidl, Thomas

    2004-04-01

    The differentiating characteristics of text versus images and their impact on large medical image databases intended to allow content-based indexing and retrieval have recently been explored. For the design of powerful user interfaces, we propose a grouping of the various mechanisms into four classes: (i) output modules, (ii) parameter modules, (iii) transaction modules, and (iv) process modules, all of which being controlled by a detailed query logging. Relevance feedback by the physician loops the input, search, and output sequence and is commonly accepted to be most effective for query refinement. Our modular concept provides two additional loops of interaction. Based on the detailed logging of user interaction, an inner loop allows to step back to any previous answer that was given by the system during the interactive session. Boolean linkage of successive queries is provided by an outer loop. Nonetheless, the entire data flow is still controlled within a single web page by means of simple decision rules that are implemented only using push buttons, which can be handled most easily. Our approach is exemplified by means of an application for content-based access to medical images of similar modality, orientation, and body region using global features that model gray scale, texture, structure and global shape characteristics. The three nested loops for interaction provide a maximum of flexibility within a minimum of complexity. The resulting extended query refinement has a significant impact for content-based retrieval in medical applications (IRMA).

  7. An answer to Housing Discrimination: The Need for a Unitary Marketing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Lawrence; White, Beth

    1975-01-01

    Proposes that a central Clearinghouse be established to collect and disseminate information to inner city residents on available suburban units, noting that to be effective, this unitary marketing system would have to be able to identify and seek out those who most need rental vacancy data, and to deliver vacancy listings and related information…

  8. A Multi-Agent Question-Answering System for E-Learning and Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alinaghi, Tannaz; Bahreininejad, Ardeshir

    2011-01-01

    The increasing advances of new Internet technologies in all application domains have changed life styles and interactions. E-learning and collaborative learning environment systems are originated through such changes and aim at providing facilities for people in different times and geographical locations to cooperate, collaborate, learn and work…

  9. A Multi-Agent Question-Answering System for E-Learning and Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alinaghi, Tannaz; Bahreininejad, Ardeshir

    2011-01-01

    The increasing advances of new Internet technologies in all application domains have changed life styles and interactions. E-learning and collaborative learning environment systems are originated through such changes and aim at providing facilities for people in different times and geographical locations to cooperate, collaborate, learn and work…

  10. Four queries concerning the metaphysics of early human embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Howsepian, A A

    2008-04-01

    In this essay, I attempt to provide answers to the following four queries concerning the metaphysics of early human embryogenesis. (1) Following its first cellular fission, is it coherent to claim that one and only one of two "blastomeric" twins of a human zygote is identical with that zygote? (2) Following the fusion of two human pre-embryos, is it coherent to claim that one and only one pre-fusion pre-embryo is identical with that postfusion pre-embryo? (3) Does a live human being come into existence only when its brain comes into existence? (4) At implantation, does a pre-embryo become a mere part of its mother? I argue that either if things have quidditative properties or if criterialism is false, then queries (1) and (2) can be answered in the affirmative; that in light of recent developments in theories of human death and in light of a more "functional" theory of brains, query (3) can be answered in the negative; and that plausible mereological principles require a negative answer to query (4).

  11. Spatial targeting using queries in a 3-D GIS environment with application to mineral exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Kevin; de Kemp, Eric; Wong, Winston; McGaughey, John; Perron, Gervais; Barrie, Tucker

    2006-04-01

    A query framework for spatial targeting within a 3-D geographic information system (GIS) software environment is introduced. Input to a query consists of parameters relevant to the query type together with a set of Common Earth Modelling objects represented as point sets, polygonal lines, surfaces, and grids or a region set (subset) thereof. The result of a 3-D GIS query is a region within each of the input objects that consists of nodes or grid cells where the query criteria was satisfied. We provide example scenarios, drawn from mineral exploration, where 3-D queries are used to guide spatial targeting within a near-mine or regional map scale setting. Query types supported are: proximity query (to a "probe" object), property query (numeric attribute), shell query (containment within a closed surface), meta-data query, feature query (dome, depression, curvature), trend query (dip plane, vector) and intersection query (with a "probe" object). Queries can be specific for a given object type but in general transcend object types. Standard set theoretical operations for a query results in newly defined regions and are supported within the Gocad © development environment. This development focuses on queries relevant in the 3-D data integration and interpretation stages of mature geological model development as well as early analysis, typically undertaken before a fully partitioned and attributed 3-D topological model is available.

  12. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data.

    PubMed

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-08-23

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system-a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset.

  13. A sample-to-answer, real-time convective polymerase chain reaction system for point-of-care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bowen; Zhang, Chunsun; Xing, Da

    2017-11-15

    Timely and accurate molecular diagnostics at the point-of-care (POC) level is critical to global health. To this end, we propose a handheld convective-flow real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system capable of direct sample-to-answer genetic analysis for the first time. Such a system mainly consists of a magnetic bead-assisted photothermolysis sample preparation, a closed-loop convective PCR reactor, and a wireless video camera-based real-time fluorescence detection. The sample preparation exploits the dual functionality of vancomycin-modified magnetic beads (VMBs) for bacteria enrichment and photothermal conversion, enabling cell pre-concentration and lysis to be finished in less than 3min. On the presented system, convective thermocycling is driven by a single-heater thermal gradient, and its amplification is monitored in real-time, with an analysis speed of less than 25min, a dynamic linear range from 10(6) to 10(1) copies/µL and a detection sensitivity of as little as 1 copies/µL. Additionally, the proposed PCR system is self-contained with a control electronics, pocket-size and battery-powered, providing a low-cost genetic analysis in a portable format. Therefore, we believe that this integrated system may become a potential candidate for fast, accurate and affordable POC molecular diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Two-stage sample-to-answer system based on nucleic acid amplification approach for detection of malaria parasites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Nam, Jeonghun; Kim, Sangho; Lim, Chwee Teck; Park, Mi Kyoung; Shin, Yong

    2016-08-15

    Rapid, early, and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential for effective disease management and surveillance, and can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Although significant advances have been achieved for the diagnosis of malaria, these technologies are still far from ideal, being time consuming, complex and poorly sensitive as well as requiring separate assays for sample processing and detection. Therefore, the development of a fast and sensitive method that can integrate sample processing with detection of malarial infection is desirable. Here, we report a two-stage sample-to-answer system based on nucleic acid amplification approach for detection of malaria parasites. It combines the Dimethyl adipimidate (DMA)/Thin film Sample processing (DTS) technique as a first stage and the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer-Isothermal solid-phase DNA Amplification (MZI-IDA) sensing technique as a second stage. The system can extract DNA from malarial parasites using DTS technique in a closed system, not only reducing sample loss and contamination, but also facilitating the multiplexed malarial DNA detection using the fast and accurate MZI-IDA technique. Here, we demonstrated that this system can deliver results within 60min (including sample processing, amplification and detection) with high sensitivity (<1 parasite μL(-1)) in a label-free and real-time manner. The developed system would be of great potential for better diagnosis of malaria in low-resource settings.

  15. Building a Natural Language Interface for the ATNF Pulsar Database for Speeding up Execution of Complex Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rupert; Jenet, F.; Rangel, S.; Dartez, L.

    2010-01-01

    Until now, there has been no available natural language interfaces (NLI's) for querying a database of pulsars (rotating neutron stars emitting radiation at regular intervals). Currently, pulsar records are retrieved through an HTML form accessible via the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) website where one needs to be familiar with pulsar attributes used by the interface (e.g. BLC). Using a NLI relinquishes the need for learning form-specific formalism and allows execution of more powerful queries than those supported by the HTML form. Furthermore, on database access that requires comparison of attributes for all the pulsar records (e.g. what is the fastest pulsar?), using a NLI for retrieving answers to such complex questions is definitely much more efficient and less error-prone. This poster presents the first NLI ever created for the ATNF pulsar database (ATNF-Query) to facilitate database access using complex queries. ATNF-Query is built using a machine learning approach that induces a semantic parser from a question corpus; the innovative application is intended to provide pulsar researchers or laymen with an intelligent language understanding database system for friendly information access.

  16. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system—a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset. PMID:27563900

  17. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-02-20

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)-a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol-is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols.

  18. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)—a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol—is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. PMID:26907293

  19. The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

  20. The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

  1. QVIZ: A FRAMEWORK FOR QUERYING AND VISUALIZING DATA

    SciTech Connect

    T. KEAHEY; P. MCCORMICK; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    Qviz is a lightweight, modular,and easy to use parallel system for interactive analytical query processing and visual presentation of large datasets. Qviz allows queries of arbitrary complexity to be easily constructed using a specialized scripting language. Visual presentation of the results is also easily achieved via simple scripted and interactive commands to our query-specific visualization tools. This paper describes our initial experiences with the Qviz system for querying and visualizing scientific datasets, showing how Qviz has been used in two different applications: ocean modeling and linear accelerator simulations.

  2. Optimizing Phylogenetic Queries for Performance.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Hasan M

    2017-08-24

    The vast majority of phylogenetic databases do not support declarative querying using which their contents can be flexibly and conveniently accessed and the template based query interfaces they support do not allow arbitrary speculative queries. They therefore also do not support query optimization leveraging unique phylogeny properties. While a small number of graph query languages such as XQuery, Cypher and GraphQL exist for computer savvy users, most are too general and complex to be useful for biologists, and too inefficient for large phylogeny querying. In this paper, we discuss a recently introduced visual query language, called PhyQL, that leverages phylogeny specific properties to support essential and powerful constructs for a large class of phylogentic queries. We develop a range of pruning aids, and propose a substantial set of query optimization strategies using these aids suitable for large phylogeny querying. A hybrid optimization technique that exploits a set of indices and ``graphlet" partitioning is discussed. A ``fail soonest" strategy is used to avoid hopeless processing and is shown to produce dividends. Possible novel optimization techniques yet to be explored are also discussed.

  3. Query Expansion Using SNOMED-CT and Weighing Schemes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    For this research, we have used SNOMED-CT along with UMLS Methathesaurus as our ontology in medical domain to expand the queries. General Terms...CT along with UMLS Methathesaurus as our ontology in medical domain to expand the queries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...University of the Basque country discuss their finding on query expansion using external sources headlined by Unified Medical Language System ( UMLS

  4. A Graphical Query Language for Querying Petri Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lan; Zheng, Li; Xiao, Jian; Huang, Yi

    As the number of business process models increases, providing business analysts and IT experts with a query langue for querying business process models is of great practical value. This paper uses Petri net as business process modeling language and develops Petri Net Query Language (PNQL), a graphical query language for Petri nets. The syntax and semantics of PNQL are formally studied. PNQL allows users to get not only the perfectly matched Petri nets but also the Petri nets with high similarity. The complexity of PNQL is studied.

  5. Solving the problem of Trans-Genomic Query with alignment tables.

    PubMed

    Parker, Douglass Stott; Hsiao, Ruey-Lung; Xing, Yi; Resch, Alissa M; Lee, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    The trans-genomic query (TGQ) problem--enabling the free query of biological information, even across genomes--is a central challenge facing bioinformatics. Solutions to this problem can alter the nature of the field, moving it beyond the jungle of data integration and expanding the number and scope of questions that can be answered. An alignment table is a binary relationship on locations (sequence segments). An important special case of alignment tables are hit tables ? tables of pairs of highly similar segments produced by alignment tools like BLAST. However, alignment tables also include general binary relationships, and can represent any useful connection between sequence locations. They can be curated, and provide a high-quality queryable backbone of connections between biological information. Alignment tables thus can be a natural foundation for TGQ, as they permit a central part of the TGQ problem to be reduced to purely technical problems involving tables of locations.Key challenges in implementing alignment tables include efficient representation and indexing of sequence locations. We define a location datatype that can be incorporated naturally into common off-the-shelf database systems. We also describe an implementation of alignment tables in BLASTGRES, an extension of the open-source POSTGRESQL database system that provides indexing and operators on locations required for querying alignment tables. This paper also reviews several successful large-scale applications of alignment tables for Trans-Genomic Query. Tables with millions of alignments have been used in queries about alternative splicing, an area of genomic analysis concerning the way in which a single gene can yield multiple transcripts. Comparative genomics is a large potential application area for TGQ and alignment tables.

  6. SPARQL assist language-neutral query composer.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Luke; Vandervalk, Ben; Wilkinson, Mark

    2012-01-25

    SPARQL query composition is difficult for the lay-person, and even the experienced bioinformatician in cases where the data model is unfamiliar. Moreover, established best-practices and internationalization concerns dictate that the identifiers for ontological terms should be opaque rather than human-readable, which further complicates the task of synthesizing queries manually. We present SPARQL Assist: a Web application that addresses these issues by providing context-sensitive type-ahead completion during SPARQL query construction. Ontological terms are suggested using their multi-lingual labels and descriptions, leveraging existing support for internationalization and language-neutrality. Moreover, the system utilizes the semantics embedded in ontologies, and within the query itself, to help prioritize the most likely suggestions. To ensure success, the Semantic Web must be easily available to all users, regardless of locale, training, or preferred language. By enhancing support for internationalization, and moreover by simplifying the manual construction of SPARQL queries through the use of controlled-natural-language interfaces, we believe we have made some early steps towards simplifying access to Semantic Web resources.

  7. SPARQL Assist language-neutral query composer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background SPARQL query composition is difficult for the lay-person, and even the experienced bioinformatician in cases where the data model is unfamiliar. Moreover, established best-practices and internationalization concerns dictate that the identifiers for ontological terms should be opaque rather than human-readable, which further complicates the task of synthesizing queries manually. Results We present SPARQL Assist: a Web application that addresses these issues by providing context-sensitive type-ahead completion during SPARQL query construction. Ontological terms are suggested using their multi-lingual labels and descriptions, leveraging existing support for internationalization and language-neutrality. Moreover, the system utilizes the semantics embedded in ontologies, and within the query itself, to help prioritize the most likely suggestions. Conclusions To ensure success, the Semantic Web must be easily available to all users, regardless of locale, training, or preferred language. By enhancing support for internationalization, and moreover by simplifying the manual construction of SPARQL queries through the use of controlled-natural-language interfaces, we believe we have made some early steps towards simplifying access to Semantic Web resources. PMID:22373327

  8. Query-Based Outlier Detection in Heterogeneous Information Networks.

    PubMed

    Kuck, Jonathan; Zhuang, Honglei; Yan, Xifeng; Cam, Hasan; Han, Jiawei

    2015-03-01

    Outlier or anomaly detection in large data sets is a fundamental task in data science, with broad applications. However, in real data sets with high-dimensional space, most outliers are hidden in certain dimensional combinations and are relative to a user's search space and interest. It is often more effective to give power to users and allow them to specify outlier queries flexibly, and the system will then process such mining queries efficiently. In this study, we introduce the concept of query-based outlier in heterogeneous information networks, design a query language to facilitate users to specify such queries flexibly, define a good outlier measure in heterogeneous networks, and study how to process outlier queries efficiently in large data sets. Our experiments on real data sets show that following such a methodology, interesting outliers can be defined and uncovered flexibly and effectively in large heterogeneous networks.

  9. Query-Based Outlier Detection in Heterogeneous Information Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kuck, Jonathan; Zhuang, Honglei; Yan, Xifeng; Cam, Hasan; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Outlier or anomaly detection in large data sets is a fundamental task in data science, with broad applications. However, in real data sets with high-dimensional space, most outliers are hidden in certain dimensional combinations and are relative to a user’s search space and interest. It is often more effective to give power to users and allow them to specify outlier queries flexibly, and the system will then process such mining queries efficiently. In this study, we introduce the concept of query-based outlier in heterogeneous information networks, design a query language to facilitate users to specify such queries flexibly, define a good outlier measure in heterogeneous networks, and study how to process outlier queries efficiently in large data sets. Our experiments on real data sets show that following such a methodology, interesting outliers can be defined and uncovered flexibly and effectively in large heterogeneous networks. PMID:27064397

  10. CoPub update: CoPub 5.0 a text mining system to answer biological questions.

    PubMed

    Fleuren, Wilco W M; Verhoeven, Stefan; Frijters, Raoul; Heupers, Bart; Polman, Jan; van Schaik, René; de Vlieg, Jacob; Alkema, Wynand

    2011-07-01

    In this article, we present CoPub 5.0, a publicly available text mining system, which uses Medline abstracts to calculate robust statistics for keyword co-occurrences. CoPub was initially developed for the analysis of microarray data, but we broadened the scope by implementing new technology and new thesauri. In CoPub 5.0, we integrated existing CoPub technology with new features, and provided a new advanced interface, which can be used to answer a variety of biological questions. CoPub 5.0 allows searching for keywords of interest and its relations to curated thesauri and provides highlighting and sorting mechanisms, using its statistics, to retrieve the most important abstracts in which the terms co-occur. It also provides a way to search for indirect relations between genes, drugs, pathways and diseases, following an ABC principle, in which A and C have no direct connection but are connected via shared B intermediates. With CoPub 5.0, it is possible to create, annotate and analyze networks using the layout and highlight options of Cytoscape web, allowing for literature based systems biology. Finally, operations of the CoPub 5.0 Web service enable to implement the CoPub technology in bioinformatics workflows. CoPub 5.0 can be accessed through the CoPub portal http://www.copub.org.

  11. [Benchmarking in the clinical arena. A potential answer to the dynamic changes in the health care system].

    PubMed

    Bredl, K; Hüsig, S; Angele, M K; Lüring, C

    2010-08-01

    Current changes in the health system due to economic restrictions leading to increased competition require the introduction of intelligent management tools in the clinical arena. In a world where change and development are the only constants, flexibility and critical judgment of one's own achievements are requirements for success in all parts of society. Benchmarking, a management tool widely used in industry, represents a potential answer to the dynamic changes in the health system. This article deals with the theoretic basis and the clinical implications of benchmarking. The strategic background of benchmarking is the systematic process of comparison and identification with the best (best practice) leading to improved processes and results in one's own department and hospital. It is the aim of benchmarking in the clinical arena to achieve higher quality and patient directed innovation with less financial resources. This might result in better patient care. In summary, the management tool of benchmarking will be introduced into the clinical arena to keep hospitals competitive. Successful benchmarking will result in a leading position of a certain department in a special field.

  12. VISAGE: Interactive Visual Graph Querying.

    PubMed

    Pienta, Robert; Navathe, Shamkant; Tamersoy, Acar; Tong, Hanghang; Endert, Alex; Chau, Duen Horng

    2016-06-01

    Extracting useful patterns from large network datasets has become a fundamental challenge in many domains. We present VISAGE, an interactive visual graph querying approach that empowers users to construct expressive queries, without writing complex code (e.g., finding money laundering rings of bankers and business owners). Our contributions are as follows: (1) we introduce graph autocomplete, an interactive approach that guides users to construct and refine queries, preventing over-specification; (2) VISAGE guides the construction of graph queries using a data-driven approach, enabling users to specify queries with varying levels of specificity, from concrete and detailed (e.g., query by example), to abstract (e.g., with "wildcard" nodes of any types), to purely structural matching; (3) a twelve-participant, within-subject user study demonstrates VISAGE's ease of use and the ability to construct graph queries significantly faster than using a conventional query language; (4) VISAGE works on real graphs with over 468K edges, achieving sub-second response times for common queries.

  13. VISAGE: Interactive Visual Graph Querying

    PubMed Central

    Pienta, Robert; Navathe, Shamkant; Tamersoy, Acar; Tong, Hanghang; Endert, Alex; Chau, Duen Horng

    2017-01-01

    Extracting useful patterns from large network datasets has become a fundamental challenge in many domains. We present VISAGE, an interactive visual graph querying approach that empowers users to construct expressive queries, without writing complex code (e.g., finding money laundering rings of bankers and business owners). Our contributions are as follows: (1) we introduce graph autocomplete, an interactive approach that guides users to construct and refine queries, preventing over-specification; (2) VISAGE guides the construction of graph queries using a data-driven approach, enabling users to specify queries with varying levels of specificity, from concrete and detailed (e.g., query by example), to abstract (e.g., with “wildcard” nodes of any types), to purely structural matching; (3) a twelve-participant, within-subject user study demonstrates VISAGE’s ease of use and the ability to construct graph queries significantly faster than using a conventional query language; (4) VISAGE works on real graphs with over 468K edges, achieving sub-second response times for common queries. PMID:28553670

  14. AQBE — QBE Style Queries for Archetyped Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Shelly; Yaginuma, Daigo; Chu, Wanming; Bhalla, Subhash

    Large-scale adoption of electronic healthcare applications requires semantic interoperability. The new proposals propose an advanced (multi-level) DBMS architecture for repository services for health records of patients. These also require query interfaces at multiple levels and at the level of semi-skilled users. In this regard, a high-level user interface for querying the new form of standardized Electronic Health Records system has been examined in this study. It proposes a step-by-step graphical query interface to allow semi-skilled users to write queries. Its aim is to decrease user effort and communication ambiguities, and increase user friendliness.

  15. VPipe: Virtual Pipelining for Scheduling of DAG Stream Query Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Song; Gupta, Chetan; Mehta, Abhay

    There are data streams all around us that can be harnessed for tremendous business and personal advantage. For an enterprise-level stream processing system such as CHAOS [1] (Continuous, Heterogeneous Analytic Over Streams), handling of complex query plans with resource constraints is challenging. While several scheduling strategies exist for stream processing, efficient scheduling of complex DAG query plans is still largely unsolved. In this paper, we propose a novel execution scheme for scheduling complex directed acyclic graph (DAG) query plans with meta-data enriched stream tuples. Our solution, called Virtual Pipelined Chain (or VPipe Chain for short), effectively extends the "Chain" pipelining scheduling approach to complex DAG query plans.

  16. Model-based query language for analyzing clinical processes.

    PubMed

    Barzdins, Janis; Barzdins, Juris; Rencis, Edgars; Sostaks, Agris

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays large databases of clinical process data exist in hospitals. However, these data are rarely used in full scope. In order to perform queries on hospital processes, one must either choose from the predefined queries or develop queries using MS Excel-type software system, which is not always a trivial task. In this paper we propose a new query language for analyzing clinical processes that is easily perceptible also by non-IT professionals. We develop this language based on a process modeling language which is also described in this paper. Prototypes of both languages have already been verified using real examples from hospitals.

  17. Scale-Independent Relational Query Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-04

    hopes that the bounded plan will exhibit more predictable behaviour as the amount of data in the system grows. In order to quantify the e↵ect of...instead of each node of the tree having only two children , each B-tree node has many. This allows for much larger nodes, each of which can be retrieved by...database grows. Since the actual execution strategy is divorced from the query specified by the developer, it is possible for a new physical query plan to be

  18. Interpreting natural language queries using the UMLS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S B; Aguirre, A; Peng, P; Cimino, J

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes AQUA (A QUery Analyzer), the natural language front end of a prototype information retrieval system. AQUA translates a user's natural language query into a representation in the Conceptual Graph formalism. The graph is then used by subsequent components to search various resources such as databases of the medical literature. The focus of the parsing method is on semantics rather than syntax, with semantic restrictions being provided by the UMLS Semantic Net. The intent of the approach is to provide a method that can be emulated easily in applications that require simple natural language interfaces.

  19. Query Expansion and Query Translation as Logical Inference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Jian-Yun

    2003-01-01

    Examines query expansion during query translation in cross language information retrieval and develops a general framework for inferential information retrieval in two particular contexts: using fuzzy logic and probability theory. Obtains evaluation formulas that are shown to strongly correspond to those used in other information retrieval models.…

  20. Query Expansion and Query Translation as Logical Inference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nie, Jian-Yun

    2003-01-01

    Examines query expansion during query translation in cross language information retrieval and develops a general framework for inferential information retrieval in two particular contexts: using fuzzy logic and probability theory. Obtains evaluation formulas that are shown to strongly correspond to those used in other information retrieval models.…

  1. Querying Semi-Structured Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abiteboul, Serge

    1997-01-01

    The amount of data of all kinds available electronically has increased dramatically in recent years. The data resides in different forms, ranging from unstructured data in the systems to highly structured in relational database systems. Data is accessible through a variety of interfaces including Web browsers, database query languages, application-specic interfaces, or data exchange formats. Some of this data is raw data, e.g., images or sound. Some of it has structure even if the structure is often implicit, and not as rigid or regular as that found in standard database systems. Sometimes the structure exists but has to be extracted from the data. Sometimes also it exists but we prefer to ignore it for certain purposes such as browsing. We call here semi-structured data this data that is (from a particular viewpoint) neither raw data nor strictly typed, i.e., not table-oriented as in a relational model or sorted-graph as in object databases. As will seen later when the notion of semi-structured data is more precisely de ned, the need for semi-structured data arises naturally in the context of data integration, even when the data sources are themselves well-structured. Although data integration is an old topic, the need to integrate a wider variety of data- formats (e.g., SGML or ASN.1 data) and data found on the Web has brought the topic of semi-structured data to the forefront of research. The main purpose of the paper is to isolate the essential aspects of semi- structured data. We also survey some proposals of models and query languages for semi-structured data. In particular, we consider recent works at Stanford U. and U. Penn on semi-structured data. In both cases, the motivation is found in the integration of heterogeneous data.

  2. Semantic Annotations and Querying of Web Data Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornung, Thomas; May, Wolfgang

    A large part of the Web, actually holding a significant portion of the useful information throughout the Web, consists of views on hidden databases, provided by numerous heterogeneous interfaces that are partly human-oriented via Web forms ("Deep Web"), and partly based on Web Services (only machine accessible). In this paper we present an approach for annotating these sources in a way that makes them citizens of the Semantic Web. We illustrate how queries can be stated in terms of the ontology, and how the annotations are used to selected and access appropriate sources and to answer the queries.

  3. DTI data modeling for unlimited query support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siadat, Mohammad-Reza; Hammad, Rafat; Shetty, Anil; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Sethi, Ishwar K.; Eetemadi, Ameen; Elisevich, Kost V.

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes Data Modeling for unstructured data of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Data Modeling is an essential first step for data preparation in any data management and data mining procedure. Conventional Entity- Relational (E-R) data modeling is lossy, irreproducible, and time-consuming especially when dealing with unstructured image data associated with complex systems like the human brain. We propose a methodological framework for more objective E-R data modeling with unlimited query support by eliminating the structured content-dependent metadata associated with the unstructured data. The proposed method is applied to DTI data and a minimum system is implemented accordingly. Eventually supported with navigation, data fusion, and feature extraction modules, the proposed system provides a content-based support environment (C-BASE). Such an environment facilitates an unlimited query support with a reproducible and efficient database schema. Switching between different modalities of data, while confining the feature extractors within the object(s) of interest, we supply anatomically specific query results. The price of such a scheme is relatively large storage and in some cases high computational cost. The data modeling and its mathematical framework, behind the scene of query executions and the user interface of the system are presented in this paper.

  4. Materialized view selection based on query cost in data warehouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Chi; Liu, Daxin

    2004-04-01

    Selecting views to materialize impacts on the efficiency as well as the total cost of establishing and running a data warehouse. One of the most important decisions in designing a data warehouse is selection of right views to be materialized. This problem is to select a right set of views that minimizes total query response time and the cost of view maintenance under a storage space constraint. In this paper, according to our practical application, the factor that refrains us from materializing all views in the data warehouse is not the space constraint but query response time. For queries fast answers may be required. So we develop algorithms to select a set of views to materialize in data warehouse in order to minimize the total view maintenance time under the constraint of a given query response time. We call it query-cost view select problem. First, we design algorithms for query-cost view select problem, we give view node matrix in order to solve it. Second , we use experiments do demonstrate the power of our approach . The results show that our algorithm works better in practical cases. We implemented our algorithms and a performance study of the algorithms shows that the proposed algorithm delivers an optimal solution. Finally, we discuss the observed behavior of the algorithms. We also identify some important issues for future investigations.

  5. Querying Proofs (Work in Progress)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aspinall, David; Denney, Ewen; Lueth, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    We motivate and introduce the basis for a query language designed for inspecting electronic representations of proofs. We argue that there is much to learn from large proofs beyond their validity, and that a dedicated query language can provide a principled way of implementing a family of useful operations.

  6. A Topic Clustering Approach to Finding Similar Questions from Large Question and Answer Archives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

  7. A topic clustering approach to finding similar questions from large question and answer archives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

  8. Requirements for Query Evaluation in Weighted Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartschi, Martin

    1985-01-01

    Presents a general mathematical framework for information retrieval, in which query evaluation is seen as a mapping from the free term algebra built by query descriptors and weights to the semantic algebra of evaluation value. Competing mathematical models that try to describe how retrieval systems behave are reviewed. (Author/MBR)

  9. The Imposed Query: Implications for Library Service Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Melissa

    1998-01-01

    Explores the potential impact of imposed query, a new model of information-seeking behavior, on current approaches to library service and system evaluation. Discusses reference service evaluation, user studies, output measures, and relevance as an evaluation tool. Argues that imposed query broadens understanding of the user and of the role that…

  10. A novel methodology for querying web images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakara, Rashmi; Lee, Ching Cheng

    2004-12-01

    Ever since the advent of Internet, there has been an immense growth in the amount of image data that is available on the World Wide Web. With such a magnitude of image availability, an efficient and effective image retrieval system is required to make use of this information. This research presents an effective image matching and indexing technique that improvises on existing integrated image retrieval methods. The proposed technique follows a two-phase approach, integrating query by topic and query by example specification methods. The first phase consists of topic-based image retrieval using an improved text information retrieval (IR) technique that makes use of the structured format of HTML documents. It consists of a focused crawler that not only provides for the user to enter the keyword for the topic-based search but also, the scope in which the user wants to find the images. The second phase uses the query by example specification to perform a low-level content-based image match for the retrieval of smaller and relatively closer results of the example image. Information related to the image feature is automatically extracted from the query image by the image processing system. A technique that is not computationally intensive based on color feature is used to perform content-based matching of images. The main goal is to develop a functional image search and indexing system and to demonstrate that better retrieval results can be achieved with this proposed hybrid search technique.

  11. A novel methodology for querying web images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakara, Rashmi; Lee, Ching Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the advent of Internet, there has been an immense growth in the amount of image data that is available on the World Wide Web. With such a magnitude of image availability, an efficient and effective image retrieval system is required to make use of this information. This research presents an effective image matching and indexing technique that improvises on existing integrated image retrieval methods. The proposed technique follows a two-phase approach, integrating query by topic and query by example specification methods. The first phase consists of topic-based image retrieval using an improved text information retrieval (IR) technique that makes use of the structured format of HTML documents. It consists of a focused crawler that not only provides for the user to enter the keyword for the topic-based search but also, the scope in which the user wants to find the images. The second phase uses the query by example specification to perform a low-level content-based image match for the retrieval of smaller and relatively closer results of the example image. Information related to the image feature is automatically extracted from the query image by the image processing system. A technique that is not computationally intensive based on color feature is used to perform content-based matching of images. The main goal is to develop a functional image search and indexing system and to demonstrate that better retrieval results can be achieved with this proposed hybrid search technique.

  12. Why do they not answer and do they really learn? A case study in analysing student response flows in introductory physics using an audience response system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jääskeläinen, Markku; Lagerkvist, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we investigate teaching with a classroom response system in introductory physics with emphasis on two issues. First, we discuss retention between question rounds and the reasons why students avoid answering the question a second time. A question with declining response rate was followed by a question addressing the student reasons for not answering. We find that there appear to be several reasons for the observed decline, and that the students need to be reminded. We argue that small drops are unimportant as the process appears to work despite the drops. Second, we discuss the dynamics of learning in a concept-sequence in electromagnetism, where a majority of the students, despite poor statistics in a first round, manage to answer a followup question correctly. In addition, we analyse the response times for both situations to connect with research on student reasoning on situations with misconception-like answers. From the combination of the answer flows and response time behaviours we find it plausible that conceptual learning occurred during the discussion phase.

  13. Study of Query Expansion Techniques and Their Application in the Biomedical Information Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, A. R.; Iglesias, E. L.; Borrajo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Information Retrieval focuses on finding documents whose content matches with a user query from a large document collection. As formulating well-designed queries is difficult for most users, it is necessary to use query expansion to retrieve relevant information. Query expansion techniques are widely applied for improving the efficiency of the textual information retrieval systems. These techniques help to overcome vocabulary mismatch issues by expanding the original query with additional relevant terms and reweighting the terms in the expanded query. In this paper, different text preprocessing and query expansion approaches are combined to improve the documents initially retrieved by a query in a scientific documental database. A corpus belonging to MEDLINE, called Cystic Fibrosis, is used as a knowledge source. Experimental results show that the proposed combinations of techniques greatly enhance the efficiency obtained by traditional queries. PMID:24723793

  14. Study of query expansion techniques and their application in the biomedical information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Rivas, A R; Iglesias, E L; Borrajo, L

    2014-01-01

    Information Retrieval focuses on finding documents whose content matches with a user query from a large document collection. As formulating well-designed queries is difficult for most users, it is necessary to use query expansion to retrieve relevant information. Query expansion techniques are widely applied for improving the efficiency of the textual information retrieval systems. These techniques help to overcome vocabulary mismatch issues by expanding the original query with additional relevant terms and reweighting the terms in the expanded query. In this paper, different text preprocessing and query expansion approaches are combined to improve the documents initially retrieved by a query in a scientific documental database. A corpus belonging to MEDLINE, called Cystic Fibrosis, is used as a knowledge source. Experimental results show that the proposed combinations of techniques greatly enhance the efficiency obtained by traditional queries.

  15. Autonomic care platform for optimizing query performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As the amount of information in electronic health care systems increases, data operations get more complicated and time-consuming. Intensive Care platforms require a timely processing of data retrievals to guarantee the continuous display of recent data of patients. Physicians and nurses rely on this data for their decision making. Manual optimization of query executions has become difficult to handle due to the increased amount of queries across multiple sources. Hence, a more automated management is necessary to increase the performance of database queries. The autonomic computing paradigm promises an approach in which the system adapts itself and acts as self-managing entity, thereby limiting human interventions and taking actions. Despite the usage of autonomic control loops in network and software systems, this approach has not been applied so far for health information systems. Methods We extend the COSARA architecture, an infection surveillance and antibiotic management service platform for the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), with self-managed components to increase the performance of data retrievals. We used real-life ICU COSARA queries to analyse slow performance and measure the impact of optimizations. Each day more than 2 million COSARA queries are executed. Three control loops, which monitor the executions and take action, have been proposed: reactive, deliberative and reflective control loops. We focus on improvements of the execution time of microbiology queries directly related to the visual displays of patients’ data on the bedside screens. Results The results show that autonomic control loops are beneficial for the optimizations in the data executions in the ICU. The application of reactive control loop results in a reduction of 8.61% of the average execution time of microbiology results. The combined application of the reactive and deliberative control loop results in an average query time reduction of 10.92% and the combination of

  16. Generating and Executing Complex Natural Language Queries across Linked Data.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Thierry; Mougin, Fleur; Grabar, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    With the recent and intensive research in the biomedical area, the knowledge accumulated is disseminated through various knowledge bases. Links between these knowledge bases are needed in order to use them jointly. Linked Data, SPARQL language, and interfaces in Natural Language question-answering provide interesting solutions for querying such knowledge bases. We propose a method for translating natural language questions in SPARQL queries. We use Natural Language Processing tools, semantic resources, and the RDF triples description. The method is designed on 50 questions over 3 biomedical knowledge bases, and evaluated on 27 questions. It achieves 0.78 F-measure on the test set. The method for translating natural language questions into SPARQL queries is implemented as Perl module available at http://search.cpan.org/ thhamon/RDF-NLP-SPARQLQuery.

  17. Relativistic quantum private database queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou

    2015-04-01

    Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.

  18. Visualizing multidimensional query results using animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, Amit P.; Healey, Christopher G.

    2008-01-01

    Effective representation of large, complex collections of information (datasets) presents a difficult challenge. Visualization is a solution that uses a visual interface to support efficient analysis and discovery within the data. Our primary goal in this paper is a technique that allows viewers to compare multiple query results representing user-selected subsets of a multidimensional dataset. We present an algorithm that visualizes multidimensional information along a space-filling spiral. Graphical glyphs that vary their position, color, and texture appearance are used to represent attribute values for the data elements in each query result. Guidelines from human perception allow us to construct glyphs that are specifically designed to support exploration, facilitate the discovery of trends and relationships both within and between data elements, and highlight exceptions. A clustering algorithm applied to a user-chosen ranking attribute bundles together similar data elements. This encapsulation is used to show relationships across different queries via animations that morph between query results. We apply our techniques to the MovieLens recommender system, to demonstrate their applicability in a real-world environment, and then conclude with a simple validation experiment to identify the strengths and limitations of our design, compared to a traditional side-by-side visualization.

  19. Interactive Querying over Large Network Data: Scalability, Visualization, and Interaction Design.

    PubMed

    Pienta, Robert; Tamersoy, Acar; Tong, Hanghang; Endert, Alex; Chau, Duen Horng

    2015-01-01

    Given the explosive growth of modern graph data, new methods are needed that allow for the querying of complex graph structures without the need of a complicated querying languages; in short, interactive graph querying is desirable. We describe our work towards achieving our overall research goal of designing and developing an interactive querying system for large network data. We focus on three critical aspects: scalable data mining algorithms, graph visualization, and interaction design. We have already completed an approximate subgraph matching system called MAGE in our previous work that fulfills the algorithmic foundation allowing us to query a graph with hundreds of millions of edges. Our preliminary work on visual graph querying, Graphite, was the first step in the process to making an interactive graph querying system. We are in the process of designing the graph visualization and robust interaction needed to make truly interactive graph querying a reality.

  20. Query log analysis of an electronic health record search engine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zheng, Kai; Hanauer, David A

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed a longitudinal collection of query logs of a full-text search engine designed to facilitate information retrieval in electronic health records (EHR). The collection, 202,905 queries and 35,928 user sessions recorded over a course of 4 years, represents the information-seeking behavior of 533 medical professionals, including frontline practitioners, coding personnel, patient safety officers, and biomedical researchers for patient data stored in EHR systems. In this paper, we present descriptive statistics of the queries, a categorization of information needs manifested through the queries, as well as temporal patterns of the users' information-seeking behavior. The results suggest that information needs in medical domain are substantially more sophisticated than those that general-purpose web search engines need to accommodate. Therefore, we envision there exists a significant challenge, along with significant opportunities, to provide intelligent query recommendations to facilitate information retrieval in EHR.

  1. Query Log Analysis of an Electronic Health Record Search Engine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lei; Mei, Qiaozhu; Zheng, Kai; Hanauer, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed a longitudinal collection of query logs of a full-text search engine designed to facilitate information retrieval in electronic health records (EHR). The collection, 202,905 queries and 35,928 user sessions recorded over a course of 4 years, represents the information-seeking behavior of 533 medical professionals, including frontline practitioners, coding personnel, patient safety officers, and biomedical researchers for patient data stored in EHR systems. In this paper, we present descriptive statistics of the queries, a categorization of information needs manifested through the queries, as well as temporal patterns of the users’ information-seeking behavior. The results suggest that information needs in medical domain are substantially more sophisticated than those that general-purpose web search engines need to accommodate. Therefore, we envision there exists a significant challenge, along with significant opportunities, to provide intelligent query recommendations to facilitate information retrieval in EHR. PMID:22195150

  2. Expert Systems, Job Aids, and the Future of Instructional Technology; and Decision Tables, the Poor Person's Answer to "Expert Systems."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Paul; Pipe, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Describes design and presents examples of industrial use of small expert systems and guidelines for choosing problems which lend themselves to small tool solutions. Use of microcomputer facilitated decision tables to diagnose and categorize people, things, and issues is suggested, and development of three decision table formats is described. (MBR)

  3. QUERI and implementation research: emerging from adolescence into adulthood: QUERI Series.

    PubMed

    Atkins, David

    2009-03-06

    The Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) program and implementation research have both come of age in the 10 years since QUERI was established. Looking forward, if QUERI and the field of implementation science are to mature successfully, we will need to address a series of challenges. First, we need to more clearly demonstrate how applying principles of implementation science leads to more effective implementation and communicate those lessons to our partners and funders. Second, we will need to engage in the ongoing debate over methodological standards in quality improvement and implementation research. Third, a program like QUERI needs to become more relevant to the daily decisions of key stakeholders. Fourth, if we hope to sustain interest in implementation science, we will need to demonstrate the business case for more effective implementation. Fifth, we need to think creatively about how to nurture the next generations of implementation researchers and front-line "connectors," who are critical for accelerating implementation. Finally, we need to strengthen the connections between implementation research and the other operational and research activities that influence change in healthcare systems. The excitement of entering adulthood is tempered by the challenge of new responsibilities and expectations. What is essential is that we continue to learn and move forward. For implementation science and for QUERI, the next decade looks to be one filled with exciting possibilities, new partnerships, increasing relevance, and real accomplishment.

  4. WebEQ: a web-GIS System to collect, display and query data for the management of the earthquake emergency in Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Gianluca; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Pennica, Francesco; Moscatelli, Massimiliano; Stigliano, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    After the strong earthquakes that hit central Italy in recent months, the Center for Seismic Microzonation and its applications (CentroMS) was commissioned by the Italian Department of Civil Protection to conduct the study of seismic microzonation of the territories affected by the earthquake of August 24, 2016. As part of the activities of microzonation, IGAG CNR has created WebEQ, a management tool of the data that have been acquired by all participants (i.e., more than twenty research institutes and university departments). The data collection was organized and divided into sub-areas, assigned to working groups with multidisciplinary expertise in geology, geophysics and engineering. WebEQ is a web-GIS System that helps all the subjects involved in the data collection activities, through tools aimed at data uploading and validation, and with a simple GIS interface to display, query and download geographic data. WebEQ is contributing to the creation of a large database containing geographical data, both vector and raster, from various sources and types: - Regional Technical Map em Geological and geomorphological maps em Data location maps em Maps of microzones homogeneous in seismic perspective and seismic microzonation maps em National strong motion network location. Data loading is done through simple input masks that ensure consistency with the database structure, avoiding possible errors and helping users to interact with the map through user-friendly tools. All the data are thematized through standardized symbologies and colors (Gruppo di lavoro MS 2008), in order to allow the easy interpretation by all users. The data download tools allow data exchange between working groups and the scientific community to benefit from the activities. The seismic microzonation activities are still ongoing. WebEQ is enabling easy management of large amounts of data and will form a basis for the development of tools for the management of the upcoming seismic emergencies.

  5. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) Query - April 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site allows you to to easily query the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) and generate a list of the corresponding Hazardous Ranking System (HRS) factor values, benchmarks, and data elements that you need.

  6. Comparing patient characteristics, type of intervention, control, and outcome (PICO) queries with unguided searching: a randomized controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Hoogendam, Arjen; de Vries Robbé, Pieter F; Overbeke, A John P M

    2012-04-01

    Translating a question into a query using patient characteristics, type of intervention, control, and outcome (PICO) should help answer therapeutic questions in PubMed searches. The authors performed a randomized crossover trial to determine whether the PICO format was useful for quick searches of PubMed. Twenty-two residents and specialists working at the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre were trained in formulating PICO queries and then presented with a randomized set of questions derived from Cochrane reviews. They were asked to use the best query possible in a five-minute search, using standard and PICO queries. Recall and precision were calculated for both standard and PICO queries. Twenty-two physicians created 434 queries using both techniques. Average precision was 4.02% for standard queries and 3.44% for PICO queries (difference nonsignificant, t(21) = -0.56, P = 0.58). Average recall was 12.27% for standard queries and 13.62% for PICO queries (difference nonsignificant, t(21) = -0.76, P = 0.46). PICO queries do not result in better recall or precision in time-limited searches. Standard queries containing enough detail are sufficient for quick searches.

  7. Query-Time Optimization Techniques for Structured Queries in Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartright, Marc-Allen

    2013-01-01

    The use of information retrieval (IR) systems is evolving towards larger, more complicated queries. Both the IR industrial and research communities have generated significant evidence indicating that in order to continue improving retrieval effectiveness, increases in retrieval model complexity may be unavoidable. From an operational perspective,…

  8. Query-Time Optimization Techniques for Structured Queries in Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartright, Marc-Allen

    2013-01-01

    The use of information retrieval (IR) systems is evolving towards larger, more complicated queries. Both the IR industrial and research communities have generated significant evidence indicating that in order to continue improving retrieval effectiveness, increases in retrieval model complexity may be unavoidable. From an operational perspective,…

  9. Trustworthiness and relevance in web-based clinical question answering.

    PubMed

    Cruchet, Sarah; Boyer, Célia; van der Plas, Lonneke

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems try to give precise answers to a user's question posed in natural language. It is of utmost importance that the answers returned are relevant to the user's question. For clinical QA, the trustworthiness of answers is another important issue. Limiting the document collection to certified websites helps to improve the trustworthiness of answers. On the other hand, limited document collections are known to harm the relevancy of answers. We show, however, in a comparative evaluation, that promoting trustworthiness has no negative effect on the relevance of the retrieved answers in our clinical QA system. On the contrary, the answers found are in general more relevant.

  10. Mining Longitudinal Web Queries: Trends and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peiling; Berry, Michael W.; Yang, Yiheng

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed user queries submitted to an academic Web site during a four-year period, using a relational database, to examine users' query behavior, to identify problems they encounter, and to develop techniques for optimizing query analysis and mining. Linguistic analyses focus on query structures, lexicon, and word associations using statistical…

  11. Relational Algebra in Spatial Decision Support Systems Ontologies.

    PubMed

    Diomidous, Marianna; Chardalias, Kostis; Koutonias, Panagiotis; Magnita, Adrianna; Andrianopoulos, Charalampos; Zimeras, Stelios; Mechili, Enkeleint Aggelos

    2017-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSS) is a powerful tool, for facilitates researchers to choose the correct decision based on their final results. Especially in medical cases where doctors could use these systems, to overcome the problem with the clinical misunderstanding. Based on these systems, queries must be constructed based on the particular questions that doctors must answer. In this work, combination between questions and queries would be presented via relational algebra.

  12. Questions and Answers about COTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Vocational Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Garfield Wilson, director of Florida's Council on Teacher Education (COTE), answers questions about present efforts to change teacher certification requirements, including rationale for the change, how the COTE model's twenty-three competencies were arrived at, their reliability as a measure of student learning and the system's possible effects on…

  13. Query construction, entropy, and generalization in neural-network models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollich, Peter

    1994-05-01

    We study query construction algorithms, which aim at improving the generalization ability of systems that learn from examples by choosing optimal, nonredundant training sets. We set up a general probabilistic framework for deriving such algorithms from the requirement of optimizing a suitable objective function; specifically, we consider the objective functions entropy (or information gain) and generalization error. For two learning scenarios, the high-low game and the linear perceptron, we evaluate the generalization performance obtained by applying the corresponding query construction algorithms and compare it to training on random examples. We find qualitative differences between the two scenarios due to the different structure of the underlying rules (nonlinear and ``noninvertible'' versus linear); in particular, for the linear perceptron, random examples lead to the same generalization ability as a sequence of queries in the limit of an infinite number of examples. We also investigate learning algorithms which are ill matched to the learning environment and find that, in this case, minimum entropy queries can in fact yield a lower generalization ability than random examples. Finally, we study the efficiency of single queries and its dependence on the learning history, i.e., on whether the previous training examples were generated randomly or by querying, and the difference between globally and locally optimal query construction.

  14. The Database Query Support Processor (QSP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The number and diversity of databases available to users continues to increase dramatically. Currently, the trend is towards decentralized, client server architectures that (on the surface) are less expensive to acquire, operate, and maintain than information architectures based on centralized, monolithic mainframes. The database query support processor (QSP) effort evaluates the performance of a network level, heterogeneous database access capability. Air Force Material Command's Rome Laboratory has developed an approach, based on ANSI standard X3.138 - 1988, 'The Information Resource Dictionary System (IRDS)' to seamless access to heterogeneous databases based on extensions to data dictionary technology. To successfully query a decentralized information system, users must know what data are available from which source, or have the knowledge and system privileges necessary to find out this information. Privacy and security considerations prohibit free and open access to every information system in every network. Even in completely open systems, time required to locate relevant data (in systems of any appreciable size) would be better spent analyzing the data, assuming the original question was not forgotten. Extensions to data dictionary technology have the potential to more fully automate the search and retrieval for relevant data in a decentralized environment. Substantial amounts of time and money could be saved by not having to teach users what data resides in which systems and how to access each of those systems. Information describing data and how to get it could be removed from the application and placed in a dedicated repository where it belongs. The result simplified applications that are less brittle and less expensive to build and maintain. Software technology providing the required functionality is off the shelf. The key difficulty is in defining the metadata required to support the process. The database query support processor effort will provide

  15. Teen Diabetes Quiz Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Javascript on. Answer: B Diabetes causes your blood glucose to be too high. Glucose comes from the food you eat and is needed to fuel our bodies. Glucose is also stored in our liver and muscles. ...

  16. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  17. Image Querying by Image Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Corinne; Jorgensen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Reports the analysis of search logs from a commercial image provider over a one-month period and discusses results in relation to previous findings. Analyzes image searches, image queries composing the search, user search modification strategies, results returned, and user browsing of results. (Author/AEF)

  18. Query Processing in TREC-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Ashwin; Lu, Allan; Meier, Ed; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Pliske, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of query processing focuses on techniques developed by LEXIS-NEXIS for identifying key concepts, selecting synonyms and related terms, and detecting phrases that can be combined to increase recall and precision. Describes experiments in the ad hoc track of the sixth TREC (Text Retrieval Conference), including the use of ranking…

  19. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  20. Autojoin: A Simple Rule Based Query Service for Complex Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, N. I.; Gardner, L.; Brandt, M.

    Most databases used today are no longer flat. While the power of using these more complex data stores is well known, construction of queries can be quite a complex task. Currently this often requires detailed knowledge of the database structure and schema. As we move towards a VO paradigm, users cannot be expected to know the structure of databases, but will need to query them. Databases will need to provide query engines to complete queries automatically given only what the user wants to have returned and any qualifications they place on the query. For years StarView, a database query and data retrieval tool for the Space Telescope Science Institute, relied on a complex third party LISP-based program (QUICK) to construct valid SQL queries for the one database it could query. This limited our ability to support StarView as we could not easily add new rules to the system without completely rebuilding the query engine. Furthermore, QUICK did not have the ability to create SQL that would join tables in different databases (but hosted on the same server). Finally, the cost of upgrading to a new version of QUICK was prohibitively high. Our solution was to develop a rather simple database table driven Perl CGI program which is able to take as its input a skeleton SQL program. This may come from a program or other web page. In the query only the SELECT and user qualified WHERE clause are specified; no FROM or WHERE clause join information is included. The service then returns a fully qualified and syntactically correct query for the host database SQL program that can be used to get the information the user needs. Thus, an additional layer of abstraction for dealing with databases is created, freeing the user from having to know how tables are related in the database. In this paper we discuss the design and algorithm used to make Autojoin work as well as discuss how, when combined with a robust and searchable description of all the fields that can be publicly queried in

  1. A spatial query scheduler in a distributed environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chunhui; Zhu, Xinyan; Xia, Yu; Su, Kehua

    2008-10-01

    Geographic Information System (GIS) is moving towards distribution and sharing. Distributed Spatial Database Systems (DSDBS) has attracted the attention of many scholars. This paper introduces the prospects of Distributed GIS (DGIS), and describes the definition of DSDBS and the existing problems. The researches in related fields are analyzed, including the research results in the traditional distributed relational database fields, the distributed spatial database fields and the spatial query optimization aspect. Grid technologies are developing forward, and grid will be turned into the standard distributed computing platform, therefore the application of DSDBS will be much broader than ever. The present studies on distributed spatial query focus on spatial join optimization. Researches on query scheduling are rare. In the process of constructing our test system for distributed spatial query, we find there are some replication nodes after the step of data localization. These nodes cause redundant computing of query processing. This paper gives a method to solve it based on the Query Scheduling Tree Model (QSTM). It also gives a detailed scheduling algorithm, and analyzes the effectiveness of the model and the algorithm.

  2. Accelerating Network Traffic Analytics Using Query-DrivenVisualization

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Campbell, Scott; Dart, Eli; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu,Kesheng

    2006-07-29

    Realizing operational analytics solutions where large and complex data must be analyzed in a time-critical fashion entails integrating many different types of technology. This paper focuses on an interdisciplinary combination of scientific data management and visualization/analysis technologies targeted at reducing the time required for data filtering, querying, hypothesis testing and knowledge discovery in the domain of network connection data analysis. We show that use of compressed bitmap indexing can quickly answer queries in an interactive visual data analysis application, and compare its performance with two alternatives for serial and parallel filtering/querying on 2.5 billion records worth of network connection data collected over a period of 42 weeks. Our approach to visual network connection data exploration centers on two primary factors: interactive ad-hoc and multiresolution query formulation and execution over n dimensions and visual display of then-dimensional histogram results. This combination is applied in a case study to detect a distributed network scan and to then identify the set of remote hosts participating in the attack. Our approach is sufficiently general to be applied to a diverse set of data understanding problems as well as used in conjunction with a diverse set of analysis and visualization tools.

  3. Computation of 3D queries for ROCS based virtual screens.

    PubMed

    Tawa, Gregory J; Baber, J Christian; Humblet, Christine

    2009-12-01

    Rapid overlay of chemical structures (ROCS) is a method that aligns molecules based on shape and/or chemical similarity. It is often used in 3D ligand-based virtual screening. Given a query consisting of a single conformation of an active molecule ROCS can generate highly enriched hit lists. Typically the chosen query conformation is a minimum energy structure. Can better enrichment be obtained using conformations other than the minimum energy structure? To answer this question a methodology has been developed called CORAL (COnformational analysis, Rocs ALignment). For a given set of molecule conformations it computes optimized conformations for ROCS screening. It does so by clustering all conformations of a chosen molecule set using pairwise ROCS combo scores. The best representative conformation is that which has the highest average overlap with the rest of the conformations in the cluster. It is these best representative conformations that are then used for virtual screening. CORAL was tested by performing virtual screening experiments with the 40 DUD (Directory of Useful Decoys) data sets. Both CORAL and minimum energy queries were used. The recognition capability of each query was quantified as the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results show that the CORAL AUC values are on average larger than the minimum energy AUC values. This demonstrates that one can indeed obtain better ROCS enrichments with conformations other than the minimum energy structure. As a result, CORAL analysis can be a valuable first step in virtual screening workflows using ROCS.

  4. Computation of 3D queries for ROCS based virtual screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawa, Gregory J.; Baber, J. Christian; Humblet, Christine

    2009-12-01

    Rapid overlay of chemical structures (ROCS) is a method that aligns molecules based on shape and/or chemical similarity. It is often used in 3D ligand-based virtual screening. Given a query consisting of a single conformation of an active molecule ROCS can generate highly enriched hit lists. Typically the chosen query conformation is a minimum energy structure. Can better enrichment be obtained using conformations other than the minimum energy structure? To answer this question a methodology has been developed called CORAL (COnformational analysis, Rocs ALignment). For a given set of molecule conformations it computes optimized conformations for ROCS screening. It does so by clustering all conformations of a chosen molecule set using pairwise ROCS combo scores. The best representative conformation is that which has the highest average overlap with the rest of the conformations in the cluster. It is these best representative conformations that are then used for virtual screening. CORAL was tested by performing virtual screening experiments with the 40 DUD (Directory of Useful Decoys) data sets. Both CORAL and minimum energy queries were used. The recognition capability of each query was quantified as the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results show that the CORAL AUC values are on average larger than the minimum energy AUC values. This demonstrates that one can indeed obtain better ROCS enrichments with conformations other than the minimum energy structure. As a result, CORAL analysis can be a valuable first step in virtual screening workflows using ROCS.

  5. A distributed query execution engine of big attributed graphs.

    PubMed

    Batarfi, Omar; Elshawi, Radwa; Fayoumi, Ayman; Barnawi, Ahmed; Sakr, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    A graph is a popular data model that has become pervasively used for modeling structural relationships between objects. In practice, in many real-world graphs, the graph vertices and edges need to be associated with descriptive attributes. Such type of graphs are referred to as attributed graphs. G-SPARQL has been proposed as an expressive language, with a centralized execution engine, for querying attributed graphs. G-SPARQL supports various types of graph querying operations including reachability, pattern matching and shortest path where any G-SPARQL query may include value-based predicates on the descriptive information (attributes) of the graph edges/vertices in addition to the structural predicates. In general, a main limitation of centralized systems is that their vertical scalability is always restricted by the physical limits of computer systems. This article describes the design, implementation in addition to the performance evaluation of DG-SPARQL, a distributed, hybrid and adaptive parallel execution engine of G-SPARQL queries. In this engine, the topology of the graph is distributed over the main memory of the underlying nodes while the graph data are maintained in a relational store which is replicated on the disk of each of the underlying nodes. DG-SPARQL evaluates parts of the query plan via SQL queries which are pushed to the underlying relational stores while other parts of the query plan, as necessary, are evaluated via indexless memory-based graph traversal algorithms. Our experimental evaluation shows the efficiency and the scalability of DG-SPARQL on querying massive attributed graph datasets in addition to its ability to outperform the performance of Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing system, by orders of magnitudes.

  6. Using MPEG-7 audio descriptors for music querying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruhne, M.; Dittmar, C.

    2006-08-01

    Due to the growing amount of digital audio an increasing need to automatically categorize music and to create self-controlled and suitable playlists has been emerged. A few approaches to this task relying on low-level features have been published so far. Unfortunately the results utilizing those technologies are not sufficient yet. This paper gives an introduction how to enhance the results with regard to the perceptual similarity using different high-level descriptors and a powerful interaction between the algorithm and the user to consider his preferences. A successful interaction between server and client requires a powerful standardized query language. This paper describes the tools of the MPEG-7 Audio standard in detail and gives examples of already established query languages. Furthermore the requirements of a multimedia query language are identified and its application is exemplified by an automatic audio creation system using a query language.

  7. Cognitive issues in searching images with visual queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, ByungGu; Evens, Martha W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we propose our image indexing technique and visual query processing technique. Our mental images are different from the actual retinal images and many things, such as personal interests, personal experiences, perceptual context, the characteristics of spatial objects, and so on, affect our spatial perception. These private differences are propagated into our mental images and so our visual queries become different from the real images that we want to find. This is a hard problem and few people have tried to work on it. In this paper, we survey the human mental imagery system, the human spatial perception, and discuss several kinds of visual queries. Also, we propose our own approach to visual query interpretation and processing.

  8. Parasol: An Architecture for Cross-Cloud Federated Graph Querying

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, Michael; Choudhury, Sutanay; Hughes, Marisa; Patrone, Dennis; Hider, Sandy; Piatko, Christine; Chapman, Matthew; Marple, JP; Silberberg, David

    2014-06-22

    Large scale data fusion of multiple datasets can often provide in- sights that examining datasets individually cannot. However, when these datasets reside in different data centers and cannot be collocated due to technical, administrative, or policy barriers, a unique set of problems arise that hamper querying and data fusion. To ad- dress these problems, a system and architecture named Parasol is presented that enables federated queries over graph databases residing in multiple clouds. Parasol’s design is flexible and requires only minimal assumptions for participant clouds. Query optimization techniques are also described that are compatible with Parasol’s lightweight architecture. Experiments on a prototype implementation of Parasol indicate its suitability for cross-cloud federated graph queries.

  9. Answer Sets in a Fuzzy Equilibrium Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schockaert, Steven; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; de Cock, Martine

    Since its introduction, answer set programming has been generalized in many directions, to cater to the needs of real-world applications. As one of the most general “classical” approaches, answer sets of arbitrary propositional theories can be defined as models in the equilibrium logic of Pearce. Fuzzy answer set programming, on the other hand, extends answer set programming with the capability of modeling continuous systems. In this paper, we combine the expressiveness of both approaches, and define answer sets of arbitrary fuzzy propositional theories as models in a fuzzification of equilibrium logic. We show that the resulting notion of answer set is compatible with existing definitions, when the syntactic restrictions of the corresponding approaches are met. We furthermore locate the complexity of the main reasoning tasks at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Finally, as an illustration of its modeling power, we show how fuzzy equilibrium logic can be used to find strong Nash equilibria.

  10. A New Publicly Available Chemical Query Language, CSRML ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A new XML-based query language, CSRML, has been developed for representing chemical substructures, molecules, reaction rules, and reactions. CSRML queries are capable of integrating additional forms of information beyond the simple substructure (e.g., SMARTS) or reaction transformation (e.g., SMIRKS, reaction SMILES) queries currently in use. Chemotypes, a term used to represent advanced CSRML queries for repeated application can be encoded not only with connectivity and topology, but also with properties of atoms, bonds, electronic systems, or molecules. The CSRML language has been developed in parallel with a public set of chemotypes, i.e., the ToxPrint chemotypes, which are designed to provide excellent coverage of environmental, regulatory and commercial use chemical space, as well as to represent features and frameworks believed to be especially relevant to toxicity concerns. A software application, ChemoTyper, has also been developed and made publicly available to enable chemotype searching and fingerprinting against a target structure set. The public ChemoTyper houses the ToxPrint chemotype CSRML dictionary, as well as reference implementation so that the query specifications may be adopted by other chemical structure knowledge systems. The full specifications of the XML standard used in CSRML-based chemotypes are publicly available to facilitate and encourage the exchange of structural knowledge. Paper details specifications for a new XML-based query lan

  11. A model of clinical query management that supports integration of biomedical information over the World Wide Web.

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, W. M.; Shortliffe, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    A model of clinical query management is described that supports the integration of various types of biomedical information and the delivery of that information through a common interface. The model extends the architecture of the World Wide Web to include a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) mediator, which takes in user queries, performs syntactic and semantic processing to transform the input to a canonical form, selects the appropriate information sources to answer the query, translates the canonical query statement into a query of each information resource, queries the chosen information sources in parallel, and controls the analysis and display of results. We describe WebMedline, a CGI mediator that implements portions of this model, and discuss the benefits and limitations of this approach. PMID:8563422

  12. Answering Essay Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBuvitz, William

    2008-03-01

    Most of the homework I have assigned in physics courses has been of the problem-solving type, although I do assign a few essay questions for most chapters. I have also taught qualitative science courses in which most of the homework and exams involved either multiple-choice or essay questions. What I find surprising is that all physics textbooks go into detail on how to solve physics problems (determining what is asked, choosing the proper formula, showing the work clearly, and checking the results) but never say anything about answering essay questions. Teachers and authors might answer my criticism by saying, "Isn't it obvious how to answer an essay question?" Based on my experiences, I do not think it is obvious to a good number of students.

  13. AnswerPro: Designing to Motivate Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSugair, Balsam; Hopkins, Gail; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Brailsford, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and initial testing of AnswerPro, a mobile academic peer support system for school pupils aged 11-16 years. AnswerPro is a mobile optimised web application that enables pupils to seek support with school work from knowledgeable peers on various subjects. This paper presents research findings from the project, and in…

  14. AnswerPro: Designing to Motivate Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSugair, Balsam; Hopkins, Gail; FitzGerald, Elizabeth; Brailsford, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and initial testing of AnswerPro, a mobile academic peer support system for school pupils aged 11-16 years. AnswerPro is a mobile optimised web application that enables pupils to seek support with school work from knowledgeable peers on various subjects. This paper presents research findings from the project, and in…

  15. Quantum query complexity for qutrits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamir, Boaz

    2008-02-01

    We compute lower bounds for the exact quantum query complexity of a ternary function f . The lower bound is of order O(log3(n)) . In case f is symmetric on a sphere then the lower bound is of order O(n) . This work is a natural continuation of the work of Beals, Buhrman, Cleve, Mosca, and de Wolf on lower limits for binary functions.

  16. Improving query services of web map by web mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Maojun

    2007-11-01

    Web map is the hybrid of map and the World Wide Web (known as Web). It is usually created with WebGIS techniques. With the rapid social development, web maps oriented the public are facing pressure that dissatisfy the increased demanding. The geocoding database plays a key role in supporting query services effectively. The traditional geocoding method is laborious and time-consuming. And there is much online spatial information, which would be the supplementary information source for geocoding. Therefore, this paper discusses how to improve query services by web mining. The improvement can be described from three facets: first, improving location query by discovering and extracting address information from the Web to extend geocoding database. Second, enhancing the ability of optimum path query of public traffic and buffer query by spatial analyzing and reasoning on the extended geocoding database. Third, adjusting strategies of collecting data according to patterns discovered by web map query mining. Finally, this paper presents the designing of the application system and experimental results.

  17. Monitoring Moving Queries inside a Safe Region

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khalidi, Haidar; Taniar, David; Alamri, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    With mobile moving range queries, there is a need to recalculate the relevant surrounding objects of interest whenever the query moves. Therefore, monitoring the moving query is very costly. The safe region is one method that has been proposed to minimise the communication and computation cost of continuously monitoring a moving range query. Inside the safe region the set of objects of interest to the query do not change; thus there is no need to update the query while it is inside its safe region. However, when the query leaves its safe region the mobile device has to reevaluate the query, necessitating communication with the server. Knowing when and where the mobile device will leave a safe region is widely known as a difficult problem. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method to monitor the position of the query over time using a linear function based on the direction of the query obtained by periodic monitoring of its position. Periodic monitoring ensures that the query is aware of its location all the time. This method reduces the costs associated with communications in client-server architecture. Computational results show that our method is successful in handling moving query patterns. PMID:24696652

  18. Medical Question Answering for Clinical Decision Support.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Travis R; Harabagiu, Sanda M

    2016-10-01

    The goal of modern Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems is to provide physicians with information relevant to their management of patient care. When faced with a medical case, a physician asks questions about the diagnosis, the tests, or treatments that should be administered. Recently, the TREC-CDS track has addressed this challenge by evaluating results of retrieving relevant scientific articles where the answers of medical questions in support of CDS can be found. Although retrieving relevant medical articles instead of identifying the answers was believed to be an easier task, state-of-the-art results are not yet sufficiently promising. In this paper, we present a novel framework for answering medical questions in the spirit of TREC-CDS by first discovering the answer and then selecting and ranking scientific articles that contain the answer. Answer discovery is the result of probabilistic inference which operates on a probabilistic knowledge graph, automatically generated by processing the medical language of large collections of electronic medical records (EMRs). The probabilistic inference of answers combines knowledge from medical practice (EMRs) with knowledge from medical research (scientific articles). It also takes into account the medical knowledge automatically discerned from the medical case description. We show that this novel form of medical question answering (Q/A) produces very promising results in (a) identifying accurately the answers and (b) it improves medical article ranking by 40%.

  19. Medical Question Answering for Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Travis R.; Harabagiu, Sanda M.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of modern Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems is to provide physicians with information relevant to their management of patient care. When faced with a medical case, a physician asks questions about the diagnosis, the tests, or treatments that should be administered. Recently, the TREC-CDS track has addressed this challenge by evaluating results of retrieving relevant scientific articles where the answers of medical questions in support of CDS can be found. Although retrieving relevant medical articles instead of identifying the answers was believed to be an easier task, state-of-the-art results are not yet sufficiently promising. In this paper, we present a novel framework for answering medical questions in the spirit of TREC-CDS by first discovering the answer and then selecting and ranking scientific articles that contain the answer. Answer discovery is the result of probabilistic inference which operates on a probabilistic knowledge graph, automatically generated by processing the medical language of large collections of electronic medical records (EMRs). The probabilistic inference of answers combines knowledge from medical practice (EMRs) with knowledge from medical research (scientific articles). It also takes into account the medical knowledge automatically discerned from the medical case description. We show that this novel form of medical question answering (Q/A) produces very promising results in (a) identifying accurately the answers and (b) it improves medical article ranking by 40%. PMID:28758046

  20. An Examination of Performance-Based Teacher Evaluation Systems in Five States. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakman, Karen; Riordan, Julie; Sanchez, Maria Teresa; Cook, Kyle DeMeo; Fournier, Richard; Brett, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on performance-based teacher evaluation systems in five states that have implemented such systems. It investigates two primary research questions: (1) What are the key characteristics of state-level performance-based teacher evaluation systems in the study states?; and (2) How do state teacher evaluation measures, the teaching…

  1. An Examination of Performance-Based Teacher Evaluation Systems in Five States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakman, Karen; Riordan, Julie; Sanchez, Maria Teresa; Cook, Kyle DeMeo; Fournier, Richard; Brett, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on performance-based teacher evaluation systems in five states that have implemented such systems. It investigates two primary research questions: (1) What are the key characteristics of state-level performance-based teacher evaluation systems in the study states?; and (2) How do state teacher evaluation measures, the teaching…

  2. Mystery #5 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... the questions are provided. 1.   There are no endemic species of cactus on any of the islands. Answer: FALSE. Endemic ... on this island. 6.   Several plant species are endangered due to decimation by goats and competition with non-native ...

  3. Mystery #24 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... reduction in shipping. Answer: False. The Yellow River or Huang He, is the second longest river in China. The river is ... has won several awards in international wine contests. 5.   Rapid population development, as seen in the rim areas, has resulted in ...

  4. Mystery #9 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ...   A.   The island and adjacent waters were designated a nature reserve.   B.   A weather station was established on the island, ... species. Answer: E •   Bouvetøya became a Nature Reserve in 1971 •   An automated weather station was ...

  5. Mystery #15 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... where a cargo ship spilled tens of thousands of bathtub toys during rough seas in the early 1990s. Answer: B At its closest ... 4000 kilometers away, off of Greenland's western coast. The toys were spilled into the North Pacific Ocean near the International Date ...

  6. Mystery #10 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... of an anatomical characteristic otherwise typical of marine turtles. Answer: TRUE The pig-nosed turtle found in northern ... Papua, possesses flippers resembling those of marine turtles. 8.   Insect control has been tested as a means of combatting an ...

  7. Mystery #8 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... species of orchids grow. Answer: True The verdant green hues present in the lower right image corner are characteristic of ... 40-50 million years ago. The impact slowed the northward movement and led   to the formation of the Himalayas. 8.   In the ...

  8. No Right Answer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spetz, Steven N.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the emphasis in law courses on memorizing facts fails to teach the desired concepts of reasoning and problem-solving. Recommends the use of open-book tests. Suggests that because law is an imprecise subject, and there are no right or wrong answers, it should be taught in an open format. (LS)

  9. Mystery #14 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-16

    ... soils, and a lake infused by volcanic gases which raise the water's pH to about 10. Answer: FALSE The infusion of volcanic gases lowers the pH of a water body. Volcanic gases such as CO 2  and SO 2  react with water to ...

  10. Mystery #27 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... body of water? Answer: The body of water is the Dead Sea. 4.   At the bottom left of the image, small city developments ... D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA ...

  11. Towards spoken clinical-question answering: evaluating and adapting automatic speech-recognition systems for spoken clinical questions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Tur, Gokhan; Hakkani-Tür, Dilek

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate existing automatic speech-recognition (ASR) systems to measure their performance in interpreting spoken clinical questions and to adapt one ASR system to improve its performance on this task. Design and measurements The authors evaluated two well-known ASR systems on spoken clinical questions: Nuance Dragon (both generic and medical versions: Nuance Gen and Nuance Med) and the SRI Decipher (the generic version SRI Gen). The authors also explored language model adaptation using more than 4000 clinical questions to improve the SRI system's performance, and profile training to improve the performance of the Nuance Med system. The authors reported the results with the NIST standard word error rate (WER) and further analyzed error patterns at the semantic level. Results Nuance Gen and Med systems resulted in a WER of 68.1% and 67.4% respectively. The SRI Gen system performed better, attaining a WER of 41.5%. After domain adaptation with a language model, the performance of the SRI system improved 36% to a final WER of 26.7%. Conclusion Without modification, two well-known ASR systems do not perform well in interpreting spoken clinical questions. With a simple domain adaptation, one of the ASR systems improved significantly on the clinical question task, indicating the importance of developing domain/genre-specific ASR systems. PMID:21705457

  12. Astronomical Data Query Language: Simple Query Protocol for the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, N.; Mizumoto, Y.; Ohishi, M.; O'Mullane, W.; Budavári, T.; Haridas, V.; Li, N.; Malik, T.; Szalay, A. S.; Hill, M.; Linde, T.; Mann, B.; Page, C. G.

    2004-07-01

    The Astronomical Data Query Language (ADQL) is a proposed standard query language for the interoperability of the International Virtual Observatory. The data servers in the International Virtual Observatory could be searched using an ADQL query. The servers would return VOTables as a result of the query.

  13. Semantics and Quantification in Natural Language Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    not universally so (for example, when a function is applied to a quantified noun phrase - see Functional Nesting below). In situations where the...query languages, question-answering, semantic interpretation, semantic rules, syntax - semantics interaction. 20. ABSTRACT (Confinua on ravaraa...Language 17 4.1 Designators 18 4.2 Propositions 18 4.3 Commands 19 4.4 Quantification 19 4.5 Specification of the MRL Syntax 21 4.6 Procedural

  14. Systems Prototyping with Fourth Generation Tools: One Answer to the Productivity Puzzle? AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sholtys, Phyllis A.

    The development of information systems using an engineering approach employing both traditional programming techniques and nonprocedural languages is described. A fourth generation application tool is used to develop a prototype system that is revised and expanded as the user clarifies individual requirements. When fully defined, a combination of…

  15. Indexing and querying moving objects with uncertain speed and direction in spatiotemporal databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuan-Ko

    2014-04-01

    Efficient processing of spatiotemporal queries over moving objects with uncertainty has become imperative due to the increasing need for real-time information in highly dynamic environments. Most of the existing approaches focus on designing an index structure for managing moving objects with uncertainty and then utilize it to improve the query performance. All the proposed indexes, however, have their own limitations. In this paper, we devote to developing an efficient index, named the R lsd - tree, to index moving objects with uncertain speed and direction varying within respective known ranges. We design several pruning criteria combined with the R lsd -tree to answer the probabilistic range queries. Moreover, two models, the sampling-based probability model and the ER-based probability model, are proposed to quantify the possibility of each object being the query result. Finally, a thorough experimental evaluation is conducted to show the merits of the proposed techniques.

  16. A coding method for efficient subgraph querying on vertex- and edge-labeled graphs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Song, Qinbao; Guo, Yuchen; Du, Lei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Guangtao

    2014-01-01

    Labeled graphs are widely used to model complex data in many domains, so subgraph querying has been attracting more and more attention from researchers around the world. Unfortunately, subgraph querying is very time consuming since it involves subgraph isomorphism testing that is known to be an NP-complete problem. In this paper, we propose a novel coding method for subgraph querying that is based on Laplacian spectrum and the number of walks. Our method follows the filtering-and-verification framework and works well on graph databases with frequent updates. We also propose novel two-step filtering conditions that can filter out most false positives and prove that the two-step filtering conditions satisfy the no-false-negative requirement (no dismissal in answers). Extensive experiments on both real and synthetic graphs show that, compared with six existing counterpart methods, our method can effectively improve the efficiency of subgraph querying.

  17. Ad Hoc Query Support For Very Large Simulation Mesh Data: The Metadata Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B; Snapp, R; Musick, R; Critchlow, T

    2001-12-17

    We present our approach to enabling approximate ad hoc queries on terabyte-scale mesh data generated from large scientific simulations through the extension and integration of database, statistical, and data mining techniques. There are several significant barriers to overcome in achieving this objective. First, large-scale simulation data is already at the multi-terabyte scale and growing quickly, thus rendering traditional forms of interactive data exploration and query processing untenable. Second, a priori knowledge of user queries is not available, making it impossible to tune special-purpose solutions. Third, the data has spatial and temporal aspects, as well as arbitrarily high dimensionality, which exacerbates the task of finding compact, accurate, and easy-to-compute data models. Our approach is to preprocess the mesh data to generate highly compressed, lossy models that are used in lieu of the original data to answer users' queries. This approach leads to interesting challenges. The model (equivalently, the content-oriented metadata) being generated must be smaller than the original data by at least an order of magnitude. Second, the metadata representation must contain enough information to support a broad class of queries. Finally, the accuracy and speed of the queries must be within the tolerances required by users. In this paper we give an overview of ongoing development efforts with an emphasis on extracting metadata and using it in query processing.

  18. Visually defining and querying consistent multi-granular clinical temporal abstractions.

    PubMed

    Combi, Carlo; Oliboni, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    the component abstractions. Moreover, we propose a visual query language where different temporal abstractions can be composed to build complex queries: temporal abstractions are visually connected through the usual logical connectives AND, OR, and NOT. The proposed visual language allows one to simply define temporal abstractions by using intuitive metaphors, and to specify temporal intervals related to abstractions by using different temporal granularities. The physician can interact with the designed and implemented tool by point-and-click selections, and can visually compose queries involving several temporal abstractions. The evaluation of the proposed granularity-related metaphors consisted in two parts: (i) solving 30 interpretation exercises by choosing the correct interpretation of a given screenshot representing a possible scenario, and (ii) solving a complex exercise, by visually specifying through the interface a scenario described only in natural language. The exercises were done by 13 subjects. The percentage of correct answers to the interpretation exercises were slightly different with respect to the considered metaphors (54.4--striped wall, 73.3--plastered wall, 61--brick wall, and 61--no wall), but post hoc statistical analysis on means confirmed that differences were not statistically significant. The result of the user's satisfaction questionnaire related to the evaluation of the proposed granularity-related metaphors ratified that there are no preferences for one of them. The evaluation of the proposed logical notation consisted in two parts: (i) solving five interpretation exercises provided by a screenshot representing a possible scenario and by three different possible interpretations, of which only one was correct, and (ii) solving five exercises, by visually defining through the interface a scenario described only in natural language. Exercises had an increasing difficulty. The evaluation involved a total of 31 subjects. Results related to

  19. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... and Disease / Campylobacter Q and Answers Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  20. Spatial Query for Planetary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Powell, Mark W.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Fox, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    Science investigators need to quickly and effectively assess past observations of specific locations on a planetary surface. This innovation involves a location-based search technology that was adapted and applied to planetary science data to support a spatial query capability for mission operations software. High-performance location-based searching requires the use of spatial data structures for database organization. Spatial data structures are designed to organize datasets based on their coordinates in a way that is optimized for location-based retrieval. The particular spatial data structure that was adapted for planetary data search is the R+ tree.

  1. From Answer Garden to Answer Jungle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dron, Jon; Mitchell, Richard; Siviter, Phil

    1998-01-01

    The use of Usenet newsgroups in a computing and information systems classroom at the University of Brighton showed how Internet-based learning systems can encourage rapid evolution so that resources adapt to learners' needs. Although not always used as intended, and including off-topic distractions, newsgroups did accommodate learning styles and…

  2. EquiX-A Search and Query Language for XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sara; Kanza, Yaron; Kogan, Yakov; Sagiv, Yehoshua; Nutt, Werner; Serebrenik, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Describes EquiX, a search language for XML that combines querying with searching to query the data and the meta-data content of Web pages. Topics include search engines; a data model for XML documents; search query syntax; search query semantics; an algorithm for evaluating a query on a document; and indexing EquiX queries. (LRW)

  3. EquiX-A Search and Query Language for XML.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sara; Kanza, Yaron; Kogan, Yakov; Sagiv, Yehoshua; Nutt, Werner; Serebrenik, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    Describes EquiX, a search language for XML that combines querying with searching to query the data and the meta-data content of Web pages. Topics include search engines; a data model for XML documents; search query syntax; search query semantics; an algorithm for evaluating a query on a document; and indexing EquiX queries. (LRW)

  4. Parallel Index and Query for Large Scale Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Jerry; Wu, Kesheng; Ruebel, Oliver; Howison, Mark; Qiang, Ji; Prabhat,; Austin, Brian; Bethel, E. Wes; Ryne, Rob D.; Shoshani, Arie

    2011-07-18

    Modern scientific datasets present numerous data management and analysis challenges. State-of-the-art index and query technologies are critical for facilitating interactive exploration of large datasets, but numerous challenges remain in terms of designing a system for process- ing general scientific datasets. The system needs to be able to run on distributed multi-core platforms, efficiently utilize underlying I/O infrastructure, and scale to massive datasets. We present FastQuery, a novel software framework that address these challenges. FastQuery utilizes a state-of-the-art index and query technology (FastBit) and is designed to process mas- sive datasets on modern supercomputing platforms. We apply FastQuery to processing of a massive 50TB dataset generated by a large scale accelerator modeling code. We demonstrate the scalability of the tool to 11,520 cores. Motivated by the scientific need to search for inter- esting particles in this dataset, we use our framework to reduce search time from hours to tens of seconds.

  5. Restricted natural language based querying of clinical databases.

    PubMed

    Safari, Leila; Patrick, Jon D

    2014-12-01

    To elevate the level of care to the community it is essential to provide usable tools for healthcare professionals to extract knowledge from clinical data. In this paper a generic translation algorithm is proposed to translate a restricted natural language query (RNLQ) to a standard query language like SQL (Structured Query Language). A special purpose clinical data analytics language (CliniDAL) has been introduced which provides scheme of six classes of clinical questioning templates. A translation algorithm is proposed to translate the RNLQ of users to SQL queries based on a similarity-based Top-k algorithm which is used in the mapping process of CliniDAL. Also a two layer rule-based method is used to interpret the temporal expressions of the query, based on the proposed temporal model. The mapping and translation algorithms are generic and thus able to work with clinical databases in three data design models, including Entity-Relationship (ER), Entity-Attribute-Value (EAV) and XML, however it is only implemented for ER and EAV design models in the current work. It is easy to compose a RNLQ via CliniDAL's interface in which query terms are automatically mapped to the underlying data models of a Clinical Information System (CIS) with an accuracy of more than 84% and the temporal expressions of the query comprising absolute times, relative times or relative events can be automatically mapped to time entities of the underlying CIS and to normalized temporal comparative values. The proposed solution of CliniDAL using the generic mapping and translation algorithms which is enhanced by a temporal analyzer component provides a simple mechanism for composing RNLQ for extracting knowledge from CISs with different data design models for analytics purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The ESIS query environment pilot project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, Jens J.; Ciarlo, Alessandro; Benso, Stefano

    1993-01-01

    The European Space Information System (ESIS) was originally conceived to provide the European space science community with simple and efficient access to space data archives, facilities with which to examine and analyze the retrieved data, and general information services. To achieve that ESIS will provide the scientists with a discipline specific environment for querying in a uniform and transparent manner data stored in geographically dispersed archives. Furthermore it will provide discipline specific tools for displaying and analyzing the retrieved data. The central concept of ESIS is to achieve a more efficient and wider usage of space scientific data, while maintaining the physical archives at the institutions which created them, and has the best background for ensuring and maintaining the scientific validity and interest of the data. In addition to coping with the physical distribution of data, ESIS is to manage also the heterogenity of the individual archives' data models, formats and data base management systems. Thus the ESIS system shall appear to the user as a single database, while it does in fact consist of a collection of dispersed and locally managed databases and data archives. The work reported in this paper is one of the results of the ESIS Pilot Project which is to be completed in 1993. More specifically it presents the pilot ESIS Query Environment (ESIS QE) system which forms the data retrieval and data dissemination axis of the ESIS system. The others are formed by the ESIS Correlation Environment (ESIS CE) and the ESIS Information Services. The ESIS QE Pilot Project is carried out for the European Space Agency's Research and Information center, ESRIN, by a Consortium consisting of Computer Resources International, Denmark, CISET S.p.a, Italy, the University of Strasbourg, France and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratories in the U.K. Furthermore numerous scientists both within ESA and space science community in Europe have been involved in

  7. Periodic limb movements during sleep and their effect on the cardiovascular system: is there a final answer?

    PubMed

    Nannapaneni, Srikant; Ramar, Kannan

    2014-04-01

    Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) is a sleep-related movement disorder characterized by repetitive limb movements during sleep, seen predominantly in the legs but also occasionally involving the arms. These movements may be associated with arousals that can lead to increases in sympathetic tone, resulting in tachycardia and elevated systolic blood pressure. Chronic sustained tachycardia and elevated systolic blood pressure are known to be associated with the development of arrhythmias, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and congestive heart failure. However, the data are not entirely clear on whether untreated PLMS is associated with these cardiovascular risks. This review examines the current evidence on whether PLMS has any effect on the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Towards Hybrid Online On-Demand Querying of Realtime Data with Stateful Complex Event Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Qunzhi; Simmhan, Yogesh; Prasanna, Viktor K.

    2013-10-09

    Emerging Big Data applications in areas like e-commerce and energy industry require both online and on-demand queries to be performed over vast and fast data arriving as streams. These present novel challenges to Big Data management systems. Complex Event Processing (CEP) is recognized as a high performance online query scheme which in particular deals with the velocity aspect of the 3-V’s of Big Data. However, traditional CEP systems do not consider data variety and lack the capability to embed ad hoc queries over the volume of data streams. In this paper, we propose H2O, a stateful complex event processing framework, to support hybrid online and on-demand queries over realtime data. We propose a semantically enriched event and query model to address data variety. A formal query algebra is developed to precisely capture the stateful and containment semantics of online and on-demand queries. We describe techniques to achieve the interactive query processing over realtime data featured by efficient online querying, dynamic stream data persistence and on-demand access. The system architecture is presented and the current implementation status reported.

  9. Uncertain spatial data handling: Modeling, indexing and query

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Bhanu, Bir; Ravishankar, Chinya; Kurth, Michael; Ni, Jinfeng

    2007-01-01

    Managing and manipulating uncertainty in spatial databases are important problems for various practical applications of geographic information systems. Unlike the traditional fuzzy approaches in relational databases, in this paper a probability-based method to model and index uncertain spatial data is proposed. In this scheme, each object is represented by a probability density function (PDF) and a general measure is proposed for measuring similarity between the objects. To index objects, an optimized Gaussian mixture hierarchy (OGMH) is designed to support both certain/uncertain data and certain/uncertain queries. An uncertain R-tree is designed with two query filtering schemes, UR1 and UR2, for the special case when the query is certain. By performing a comprehensive comparison among OGMH, UR1, UR2 and a standard R-tree on US Census Bureau TIGER/Line ® Southern California landmark point dataset, it is found that UR1 is the best for certain queries. As an example of uncertain query support OGMH is applied to the Mojave Desert endangered species protection real dataset. It is found that OGMH provides more selective, efficient and flexible search than the results provided by the existing trial and error approach for endangered species habitat search. Details of the experiments are given and discussed.

  10. Secure Nearest Neighbor Query on Crowd-Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Liangmin; Zhong, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Nearest neighbor queries are fundamental in location-based services, and secure nearest neighbor queries mainly focus on how to securely and quickly retrieve the nearest neighbor in the outsourced cloud server. However, the previous big data system structure has changed because of the crowd-sensing data. On the one hand, sensing data terminals as the data owner are numerous and mistrustful, while, on the other hand, in most cases, the terminals find it difficult to finish many safety operation due to computation and storage capability constraints. In light of they Multi Owners and Multi Users (MOMU) situation in the crowd-sensing data cloud environment, this paper presents a secure nearest neighbor query scheme based on the proxy server architecture, which is constructed by protocols of secure two-party computation and secure Voronoi diagram algorithm. It not only preserves the data confidentiality and query privacy but also effectively resists the collusion between the cloud server and the data owners or users. Finally, extensive theoretical and experimental evaluations are presented to show that our proposed scheme achieves a superior balance between the security and query performance compared to other schemes. PMID:27669253

  11. Secure Nearest Neighbor Query on Crowd-Sensing Data.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Liangmin; Zhong, Hong

    2016-09-22

    Nearest neighbor queries are fundamental in location-based services, and secure nearest neighbor queries mainly focus on how to securely and quickly retrieve the nearest neighbor in the outsourced cloud server. However, the previous big data system structure has changed because of the crowd-sensing data. On the one hand, sensing data terminals as the data owner are numerous and mistrustful, while, on the other hand, in most cases, the terminals find it difficult to finish many safety operation due to computation and storage capability constraints. In light of they Multi Owners and Multi Users (MOMU) situation in the crowd-sensing data cloud environment, this paper presents a secure nearest neighbor query scheme based on the proxy server architecture, which is constructed by protocols of secure two-party computation and secure Voronoi diagram algorithm. It not only preserves the data confidentiality and query privacy but also effectively resists the collusion between the cloud server and the data owners or users. Finally, extensive theoretical and experimental evaluations are presented to show that our proposed scheme achieves a superior balance between the security and query performance compared to other schemes.

  12. Towards Optimal Multi-Dimensional Query Processing with BitmapIndices

    SciTech Connect

    Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2005-09-30

    Bitmap indices have been widely used in scientific applications and commercial systems for processing complex, multi-dimensional queries where traditional tree-based indices would not work efficiently. This paper studies strategies for minimizing the access costs for processing multi-dimensional queries using bitmap indices with binning. Innovative features of our algorithm include (a) optimally placing the bin boundaries and (b) dynamically reordering the evaluation of the query terms. In addition, we derive several analytical results concerning optimal bin allocation for a probabilistic query model. Our experimental evaluation with real life data shows an average I/O cost improvement of at least a factor of 10 for multi-dimensional queries on datasets from two different applications. Our experiments also indicate that the speedup increases with the number of query dimensions.

  13. Evaluation of Content-Matched Range Monitoring Queries over Moving Objects in Mobile Computing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jung, HaRim; Song, MoonBae; Youn, Hee Yong; Kim, Ung Mo

    2015-01-01

    A content-matched (CM) range monitoring query over moving objects continually retrieves the moving objects (i) whose non-spatial attribute values are matched to given non-spatial query values; and (ii) that are currently located within a given spatial query range. In this paper, we propose a new query indexing structure, called the group-aware query region tree (GQR-tree) for efficient evaluation of CM range monitoring queries. The primary role of the GQR-tree is to help the server leverage the computational capabilities of moving objects in order to improve the system performance in terms of the wireless communication cost and server workload. Through a series of comprehensive simulations, we verify the superiority of the GQR-tree method over the existing methods. PMID:26393613

  14. A Query Result Merging Scheme for Providing Energy Efficiency in Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunsung; Park, Soo-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks are emerging as a promising distributed data management system for various applications in underwater environments, despite their limited accessibility and restricted energy capacity. With the aid of recent developments in ubiquitous data computing, an increasing number of users are expected to overcome low accessibility by applying queries to underwater sensor networks. However, when multiple users send queries to an underwater sensor network in a disorganized manner, it may incur lethal energy waste and problematic network traffic. The current query management mechanisms cannot effectively deal with this matter due to their limited applicability and unrealistic assumptions. In this paper, a novel query management scheme involving query result merging is proposed for underwater sensor networks. The mechanism is based on a relational database model and is adjusted to the practical restrictions affecting underwater communication environments. Network simulations will prove that the scheme becomes more efficient with a greater number of queries and a smaller period range. PMID:22247695

  15. Evaluation of Content-Matched Range Monitoring Queries over Moving Objects in Mobile Computing Environments.

    PubMed

    Jung, HaRim; Song, MoonBae; Youn, Hee Yong; Kim, Ung Mo

    2015-09-18

    A content-matched (CM) rangemonitoring query overmoving objects continually retrieves the moving objects (i) whose non-spatial attribute values are matched to given non-spatial query values; and (ii) that are currently located within a given spatial query range. In this paper, we propose a new query indexing structure, called the group-aware query region tree (GQR-tree) for efficient evaluation of CMrange monitoring queries. The primary role of the GQR-tree is to help the server leverage the computational capabilities of moving objects in order to improve the system performance in terms of the wireless communication cost and server workload. Through a series of comprehensive simulations, we verify the superiority of the GQR-tree method over the existing methods.

  16. TEQUEL: The query language of SADDLE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, S. D.

    1984-01-01

    A relational database management system is presented that is tailored for engineering applications. A wide variety of engineering data types are supported and the data definition language (DDL) and data manipulation language (DML) are extended to handle matrices. The system can be used either in the standalone mode or through a FORTRAN or PASCAL application program. The query language is of the relational calculus type and allows the user to store, retrieve, update and delete tuples from relations. The relational operations including union, intersect and differ facilitate creation of temporary relations that can be used for manipulating information in a powerful manner. Sample applications are shown to illustrate the creation of data through a FORTRAN program and data manipulation using the TEQUEL DML.

  17. Adaptive visual querying of image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Eric Y.; Sklansky, Jack

    1996-03-01

    We describe techniques for adaptive nonverbal visual querying of large databases of images. The technique facilitates (a) visual mapping, a technique visualizing the relationships among the images, revealed by plotting each image as a point in a multidimensional `feature space,' and (b) interactive selection of features to maximize the correspondence between the clusters in feature space and the user's understanding of the relationships among the stored images. We refer to these techniques of querying as Adaptive visual querying. Adaptive visual querying will facilitate browsing and searching image databases from examples of images and from computer-aided sketches.

  18. Secure Skyline Queries on Cloud Platform.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfei; Yang, Juncheng; Xiong, Li; Pei, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Outsourcing data and computation to cloud server provides a cost-effective way to support large scale data storage and query processing. However, due to security and privacy concerns, sensitive data (e.g., medical records) need to be protected from the cloud server and other unauthorized users. One approach is to outsource encrypted data to the cloud server and have the cloud server perform query processing on the encrypted data only. It remains a challenging task to support various queries over encrypted data in a secure and efficient way such that the cloud server does not gain any knowledge about the data, query, and query result. In this paper, we study the problem of secure skyline queries over encrypted data. The skyline query is particularly important for multi-criteria decision making but also presents significant challenges due to its complex computations. We propose a fully secure skyline query protocol on data encrypted using semantically-secure encryption. As a key subroutine, we present a new secure dominance protocol, which can be also used as a building block for other queries. Finally, we provide both serial and parallelized implementations and empirically study the protocols in terms of efficiency and scalability under different parameter settings, verifying the feasibility of our proposed solutions.

  19. Secure Skyline Queries on Cloud Platform

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinfei; Yang, Juncheng; Xiong, Li; Pei, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Outsourcing data and computation to cloud server provides a cost-effective way to support large scale data storage and query processing. However, due to security and privacy concerns, sensitive data (e.g., medical records) need to be protected from the cloud server and other unauthorized users. One approach is to outsource encrypted data to the cloud server and have the cloud server perform query processing on the encrypted data only. It remains a challenging task to support various queries over encrypted data in a secure and efficient way such that the cloud server does not gain any knowledge about the data, query, and query result. In this paper, we study the problem of secure skyline queries over encrypted data. The skyline query is particularly important for multi-criteria decision making but also presents significant challenges due to its complex computations. We propose a fully secure skyline query protocol on data encrypted using semantically-secure encryption. As a key subroutine, we present a new secure dominance protocol, which can be also used as a building block for other queries. Finally, we provide both serial and parallelized implementations and empirically study the protocols in terms of efficiency and scalability under different parameter settings, verifying the feasibility of our proposed solutions.

  20. Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  1. Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Materials and methods Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. Results We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. Discussions This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Conclusions Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. PMID:24699371

  2. Evolutionary Multiobjective Query Workload Optimization of Cloud Data Warehouses

    PubMed Central

    Dokeroglu, Tansel; Sert, Seyyit Alper; Cinar, Muhammet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of Cloud databases, query optimizers need to find paretooptimal solutions in terms of response time and monetary cost. Our novel approach minimizes both objectives by deploying alternative virtual resources and query plans making use of the virtual resource elasticity of the Cloud. We propose an exact multiobjective branch-and-bound and a robust multiobjective genetic algorithm for the optimization of distributed data warehouse query workloads on the Cloud. In order to investigate the effectiveness of our approach, we incorporate the devised algorithms into a prototype system. Finally, through several experiments that we have conducted with different workloads and virtual resource configurations, we conclude remarkable findings of alternative deployments as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the multiobjective algorithms we propose. PMID:24892048

  3. Evolutionary multiobjective query workload optimization of Cloud data warehouses.

    PubMed

    Dokeroglu, Tansel; Sert, Seyyit Alper; Cinar, Muhammet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of Cloud databases, query optimizers need to find paretooptimal solutions in terms of response time and monetary cost. Our novel approach minimizes both objectives by deploying alternative virtual resources and query plans making use of the virtual resource elasticity of the Cloud. We propose an exact multiobjective branch-and-bound and a robust multiobjective genetic algorithm for the optimization of distributed data warehouse query workloads on the Cloud. In order to investigate the effectiveness of our approach, we incorporate the devised algorithms into a prototype system. Finally, through several experiments that we have conducted with different workloads and virtual resource configurations, we conclude remarkable findings of alternative deployments as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the multiobjective algorithms we propose.

  4. Browsing schematics: Query-filtered graphs with context nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciccarelli, Eugene C.; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1988-01-01

    The early results of a research project to create tools for building interfaces to intelligent systems on the NASA Space Station are reported. One such tool is the Schematic Browser which helps users engaged in engineering problem solving find and select schematics from among a large set. Users query for schematics with certain components, and the Schematic Browser presents a graph whose nodes represent the schematics with those components. The query greatly reduces the number of choices presented to the user, filtering the graph to a manageable size. Users can reformulate and refine the query serially until they locate the schematics of interest. To help users maintain orientation as they navigate a large body of data, the graph also includes nodes that are not matches but provide global and local context for the matching nodes. Context nodes include landmarks, ancestors, siblings, children and previous matches.

  5. Visual analytics for semantic queries of TerraSAR-X image content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Molina, Daniela; Alonso, Kevin; Datcu, Mihai

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous image product acquisition of satellite missions, the size of the image archives is considerably increasing every day as well as the variety and complexity of their content, surpassing the end-user capacity to analyse and exploit them. Advances in the image retrieval field have contributed to the development of tools for interactive exploration and extraction of the images from huge archives using different parameters like metadata, key-words, and basic image descriptors. Even though we count on more powerful tools for automated image retrieval and data analysis, we still face the problem of understanding and analyzing the results. Thus, a systematic computational analysis of these results is required in order to provide to the end-user a summary of the archive content in comprehensible terms. In this context, visual analytics combines automated analysis with interactive visualizations analysis techniques for an effective understanding, reasoning and decision making on the basis of very large and complex datasets. Moreover, currently several researches are focused on associating the content of the images with semantic definitions for describing the data in a format to be easily understood by the end-user. In this paper, we present our approach for computing visual analytics and semantically querying the TerraSAR-X archive. Our approach is mainly composed of four steps: 1) the generation of a data model that explains the information contained in a TerraSAR-X product. The model is formed by primitive descriptors and metadata entries, 2) the storage of this model in a database system, 3) the semantic definition of the image content based on machine learning algorithms and relevance feedback, and 4) querying the image archive using semantic descriptors as query parameters and computing the statistical analysis of the query results. The experimental results shows that with the help of visual analytics and semantic definitions we are able to explain

  6. Approximate ad-hoc query engine for simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulla, G; Baldwin, C; Critchlow, T; Kamimura, R; Lozares, I; Musick, R; Tang, N; Lee, B S; Snapp, R

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, we describe AQSim, an ongoing effort to design and implement a system to manage terabytes of scientific simulation data. The goal of this project is to reduce data storage requirements and access times while permitting ad-hoc queries using statistical and mathematical models of the data. In order to facilitate data exchange between models based on different representations, we are evaluating using the ASCI common data model which is comprised of several layers of increasing semantic complexity. To support queries over the spatial-temporal mesh structured data we are in the process of defining and implementing a grammar for MeshSQL.

  7. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-20

    Order Code RL33537 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Updated May 20, 2008 Richard A. Best Jr. Specialist in National Defense Foreign...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 20 MAY 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Summary The primary mission of the military health system, which

  8. Strategy trials: the answer?

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1999-02-19

    Although a significant amount of promotional information on drugs was presented at the 6th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, very little of it was related to practical treatment strategy. Doctors and patients have many options but little guidance on selecting which combination of drugs will be most beneficial in long-term use. There is a growing call for "strategy trials" designed to answer those questions. Pharmaceutical companies traditionally have not done strategy trials; their testing is designed to promote their own products. Managing patients in strategy trials is also difficult because they have to fail a treatment before another combination of drugs is used. In addition, collecting valid data from a stragety trial takes longer than collecting data from a starting regimen trial.

  9. Query driven visualization of astronomical catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddelmeijer, Hugo; Valentijn, Edwin A.

    2013-01-01

    Interactive visualization of astronomical catalogs requires novel techniques due to the huge volumes and complex structure of the data produced by existing and upcoming astronomical surveys. The creation as well as the disclosure of the catalogs can be handled by data pulling mechanisms (Buddelmeijer et al. 2011). These prevent unnecessary processing and facilitate data sharing by having users request the desired end products. In this work we present query driven visualization as a logical continuation of data pulling. Scientists can request catalogs in a declarative way and set process parameters directly from within the visualization. This results in profound interoperation between software with a high level of abstraction. New messages for the Simple Application Messaging Protocol are proposed to achieve this abstraction. Support for these messages are implemented in the Astro-WISE information system and in a set of demonstrational applications.

  10. Image query based on color harmony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Alexandru; Bender, Walter R.

    2001-06-01

    The combination of the increased size of digital image databases and the increased frequency with which non- specialist access these databases is raising the question of the efficacy of visual search and retrieval tools. We hypothesize that the use of color harmony has the potential for improving image-search efficiency. We describe an image- retrieval algorithm that relies on a color harmony model. This mode, built on Munsell hue, value, and chroma contrast, is used to divide the image database into clusters that can be individually searched. To test the efficacy of the algorithm, it is compared to existing algorithms developed by Niblack et al and Feldman et al. A second study that utilizes the image query system in a retail application is also described.

  11. An Analysis of Web Image Queries for Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Hsiao-Tieh

    2003-01-01

    Examines the differences between Web image and textual queries, and attempts to develop an analytic model to investigate their implications for Web image retrieval systems. Provides results that give insight into Web image searching behavior and suggests implications for improvement of current Web image search engines. (AEF)

  12. Project Lefty: More Bang for the Search Query

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varnum, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Project Lefty, a search system that, at a minimum, adds a layer on top of traditional federated search tools that will make the wait for results more worthwhile for researchers. At best, Project Lefty improves search queries and relevance rankings for web-scale discovery tools to make the results themselves more relevant…

  13. Boolean Queries and Term Dependencies in Probabilistic Retrieval Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, W. Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Proposes approach to integrating Boolean and statistical systems where Boolean queries are interpreted as a means of specifying term dependencies in relevant set of documents. Highlights include series of retrieval experiments designed to test retrieval strategy based on term dependence model and relation of results to other work. (18 references)…

  14. Access to data: comparing AccessMed with Query by Review.

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, G; Allen, B; Cimino, J J; Lee, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of tools for authoring patient database queries. DESIGN: Query by Review, a tool that exploits the training that users have undergone to master a result review system, was compared with AccessMed, a vocabulary browser that supports lexical matching and the traversal of hierarchical and semantic links. Seven subjects (Medical Logic Module authors) were asked to use both tools to gather the vocabulary terms necessary to perform each of eight laboratory queries. MEASUREMENTS: The proportion of queries that were correct; intersubject agreement. RESULTS: Query by Review had better performance than AccessMed (38% correct queries versus 18%, p = 0.002), but both figures were low. Poor intersubject agreement (28% for Query by Review and 21% for AccessMed) corroborated the relatively low performance. Subjects appeared to have trouble distinguishing laboratory tests from laboratory batteries, picking terms relevant to the particular data type required, and using classes in the vocabulary's hierarchy. CONCLUSION: Query by Review, with its more constrained user interface, performed somewhat better than AccessMed, a more general tool. Neither tool achieved adequate performance, however, which points to the difficulty of formulating a query for a clinical database and the need for further work. PMID:8816352

  15. Flexible Querying of Lifelong Learner Metadata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulovassilis, A.; Selmer, P.; Wood, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the provision of flexible querying facilities over heterogeneous data arising from lifelong learners' educational and work experiences. A key aim of such querying facilities is to allow learners to identify possible choices for their future learning and professional development by seeing what others have done. We motivate and…

  16. Flexible Phrase Based Query Handling Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, W. John; Kim, Won

    2001-01-01

    Flexibility in query handling can be important if one types a search engine query that is misspelled, contains terms not in the database, or requires knowledge of a controlled vocabulary. Presents results of experiments that suggest the optimal form of similarity functions that are applicable to the task of phrase based retrieval to find either…

  17. Query Reformulation for Clinical Decision Support Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Query Reformulation for Clinical Decision Support Search Luca Soldaini, Arman Cohan, Andrew Yates, Nazli Goharian, Ophir Frieder Information...work, we present a query reformulation approach that addresses the unique formulation of case reports, making them suitable to be used on a general... reformulation approach does not directly take into account the generic question type (diagnosis, test, treatment) provided with each approach. To ameliorate

  18. Flexible Phrase Based Query Handling Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, W. John; Kim, Won

    2001-01-01

    Flexibility in query handling can be important if one types a search engine query that is misspelled, contains terms not in the database, or requires knowledge of a controlled vocabulary. Presents results of experiments that suggest the optimal form of similarity functions that are applicable to the task of phrase based retrieval to find either…

  19. PrimeAnswers: A practical interface for answering primary care questions.

    PubMed

    Ketchell, Debra S; St Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. RESULTS of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem.

  20. Interactive ontology debugging: Two query strategies for efficient fault localization.

    PubMed

    Shchekotykhin, Kostyantyn; Friedrich, Gerhard; Fleiss, Philipp; Rodler, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Effective debugging of ontologies is an important prerequisite for their broad application, especially in areas that rely on everyday users to create and maintain knowledge bases, such as the Semantic Web. In such systems ontologies capture formalized vocabularies of terms shared by its users. However in many cases users have different local views of the domain, i.e. of the context in which a given term is used. Inappropriate usage of terms together with natural complications when formulating and understanding logical descriptions may result in faulty ontologies. Recent ontology debugging approaches use diagnosis methods to identify causes of the faults. In most debugging scenarios these methods return many alternative diagnoses, thus placing the burden of fault localization on the user. This paper demonstrates how the target diagnosis can be identified by performing a sequence of observations, that is, by querying an oracle about entailments of the target ontology. To identify the best query we propose two query selection strategies: a simple "split-in-half" strategy and an entropy-based strategy. The latter allows knowledge about typical user errors to be exploited to minimize the number of queries. Our evaluation showed that the entropy-based method significantly reduces the number of required queries compared to the "split-in-half" approach. We experimented with different probability distributions of user errors and different qualities of the a priori probabilities. Our measurements demonstrated the superiority of entropy-based query selection even in cases where all fault probabilities are equal, i.e. where no information about typical user errors is available.

  1. Interactive ontology debugging: Two query strategies for efficient fault localization☆

    PubMed Central

    Shchekotykhin, Kostyantyn; Friedrich, Gerhard; Fleiss, Philipp; Rodler, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Effective debugging of ontologies is an important prerequisite for their broad application, especially in areas that rely on everyday users to create and maintain knowledge bases, such as the Semantic Web. In such systems ontologies capture formalized vocabularies of terms shared by its users. However in many cases users have different local views of the domain, i.e. of the context in which a given term is used. Inappropriate usage of terms together with natural complications when formulating and understanding logical descriptions may result in faulty ontologies. Recent ontology debugging approaches use diagnosis methods to identify causes of the faults. In most debugging scenarios these methods return many alternative diagnoses, thus placing the burden of fault localization on the user. This paper demonstrates how the target diagnosis can be identified by performing a sequence of observations, that is, by querying an oracle about entailments of the target ontology. To identify the best query we propose two query selection strategies: a simple “split-in-half” strategy and an entropy-based strategy. The latter allows knowledge about typical user errors to be exploited to minimize the number of queries. Our evaluation showed that the entropy-based method significantly reduces the number of required queries compared to the “split-in-half” approach. We experimented with different probability distributions of user errors and different qualities of the a priori probabilities. Our measurements demonstrated the superiority of entropy-based query selection even in cases where all fault probabilities are equal, i.e. where no information about typical user errors is available. PMID:23543507

  2. OpenSkyQuery and OpenSkyNode - the VO Framework to Federate Astronomy Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mullane, W.; Budavári, T.; Li, N.; Malik, T.; Nieto-Santisteban, M. A.; Szalay, A. S.; Thakar, A. R.

    2005-12-01

    OpenSkyNode and ADQL are the major new steps in the Data Access layer of the Virtual Observatory. OpenSkyQuery (OSQ) allows cross matches between catalogs on registered nodes and supports the upload of lists of sources to be cross matched. This system utilizes the IVOA's nascent standard Astronomical Data Query Language (ADQL).

  3. The Comparison of SQL, QBE, and DFQL as Query Languages for Relational Databases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    illustrate the concepts of entity types and relationships between entity types in a graphical way in order to enhance undestanding of the structure... Relationship Model -- Toward a Unified of Data, ACM transactions on Database System, vol.1, March 1976. [Clar9l] Clark, G., and Wu, C. T., Dataftow Query...Graph Structure of DFQL Query ............................... 31 3. Entity- Relationship Model Interface ............................................. 31

  4. VIGOR: Interactive Visual Exploration of Graph Query Results.

    PubMed

    Pienta, Robert; Hohman, Fred; Endert, Alex; Tamersoy, Acar; Roundy, Kevin; Gates, Chris; Navathe, Shamkant; Chau, Duen Horng

    2017-08-29

    Finding patterns in graphs has become a vital challenge in many domains from biological systems, network security, to finance (e.g., finding money laundering rings of bankers and business owners). While there is significant interest in graph databases and querying techniques, less research has focused on helping analysts make sense of underlying patterns within a group of subgraph results. Visualizing graph query results is challenging, requiring effective summarization of a large number of subgraphs, each having potentially shared node-values, rich node features, and flexible structure across queries. We present VIGOR, a novel interactive visual analytics system, for exploring and making sense of query results. VIGOR uses multiple coordinated views, leveraging different data representations and organizations to streamline analysts sensemaking process. VIGOR contributes: (1) an exemplar-based interaction technique, where an analyst starts with a specific result and relaxes constraints to find other similar results or starts with only the structure (i.e., without node value constraints), and adds constraints to narrow in on specific results; and (2) a novel feature-aware subgraph result summarization. Through a collaboration with Symantec, we demonstrate how VIGOR helps tackle real-world problems through the discovery of security blindspots in a cybersecurity dataset with over 11,000 incidents. We also evaluate VIGOR with a within-subjects study, demonstrating VIGOR's ease of use over a leading graph database management system, and its ability to help analysts understand their results at higher speed and make fewer errors.

  5. Use of e-mail for Parkinson's disease consultations: Are answers just a clic away?

    PubMed

    Viedma-Guiard, E; Agüero, P; Crespo-Araico, L; Estévez-Fraga, C; Sánchez-Díez, G; López-Sendón, J L; Aviles-Olmos, I; García-Ribas, G; Palacios Romero, M L; Masjuan Vallejo, J; Martínez-Castrillo, J C; Alonso-Cánovas, A

    2016-07-26

    The clinical problems of patients with movement disorders (MD) are complex, and the duration and frequency of face-to-face consultations may be insufficient to meet their needs. We analysed the implementation of an e-mail-based query service for our MD unit's patients and their primary care physicians (PCPs). We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive emails sent and received over a period of 4 months, one year after implementation of the e-mail inquiry system. All patients received the during consultations, and PCPs, during scheduled informative meetings. We recorded and later analysed the profile of the questioner, patients' demographic and clinical data, number of queries, reason for consultation, and actions taken. From 1 January 2015 to 30 April 2015, the service received 137 emails from 63 patients (43% male, mean age 71±10.5) diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (76%), atypical parkinsonism (10%), and others (14%); 116 responses were sent. Twenty (32%) emails were written by patients, 38 (60%) by their caregivers, and 5 (8%) by their PCPs. The reasons for consultation were clinical in 50 cases (80%): 16 (32%) described clinical deterioration, 14 (28%) onset of new symptoms, and 20 (40%) side effects or concerns about medications. In 13 cases (20%), the query was bureaucratic: 11 were related to appointments (85%) and 2 were requests for clinical reports (15%). In response, new appointments were scheduled in 9 cases (14%), while the rest of the questions were answered by email. Patients were satisfied overall and the additional care burden on specialists was not excessive. Implementing an e-mail-based consultation system is feasible in MD units. It facilitates both communication between neurologists and patients and continued care in the primary care setting. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A Web-Based Data-Querying Tool Based on Ontology-Driven Methodology and Flowchart-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Xiao-Ou; Chung, Yufang; Liang, Ja-Der; Yang, Pei-Ming; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Lai, Feipei

    2013-01-01

    Background Because of the increased adoption rate of electronic medical record (EMR) systems, more health care records have been increasingly accumulating in clinical data repositories. Therefore, querying the data stored in these repositories is crucial for retrieving the knowledge from such large volumes of clinical data. Objective The aim of this study is to develop a Web-based approach for enriching the capabilities of the data-querying system along the three following considerations: (1) the interface design used for query formulation, (2) the representation of query results, and (3) the models used for formulating query criteria. Methods The Guideline Interchange Format version 3.5 (GLIF3.5), an ontology-driven clinical guideline representation language, was used for formulating the query tasks based on the GLIF3.5 flowchart in the Protégé environment. The flowchart-based data-querying model (FBDQM) query execution engine was developed and implemented for executing queries and presenting the results through a visual and graphical interface. To examine a broad variety of patient data, the clinical data generator was implemented to automatically generate the clinical data in the repository, and the generated data, thereby, were employed to evaluate the system. The accuracy and time performance of the system for three medical query tasks relevant to liver cancer were evaluated based on the clinical data generator in the experiments with varying numbers of patients. Results In this study, a prototype system was developed to test the feasibility of applying a methodology for building a query execution engine using FBDQMs by formulating query tasks using the existing GLIF. The FBDQM-based query execution engine was used to successfully retrieve the clinical data based on the query tasks formatted using the GLIF3.5 in the experiments with varying numbers of patients. The accuracy of the three queries (ie, “degree of liver damage,” “degree of liver damage

  7. [About easy answers].

    PubMed

    Hauck, M E

    2002-11-01

    In the last few months all aspects of stem cell research--biomedical, ethical, legal--have been given broad space in the print and electronic media. Biologists, physicians, lawyers and ethicists covered many of the facets and have thus laid a solid foundation of basic information for a very wide public. The political discussions in the context of the new Swiss Federal law governing the use and protection of supernumerary fertilized oocytes in IVF are about to completely and irreversibly change the character of these discussions. Information has been superseded by lobbying for particular interests. Before society has had time to find widely accepted answers to the many questions raised by stem cell research and to come to terms with it, economic pressure groups demand a legal framework in which therapeutic cloning is permitted. At the same time, patents on genes and stem cells are to be introduced to finance research. Together, the two claims shed a new light on stem cell research. Both claims tend to polarize public opinion. Well-known patterns will dominate the communication process and allow both sides to shirk the real issues: what are the broadly accepted ethical answers to the many questions raised by stem cell research? Again scientists will argue for the freedom of research in an economic context on behalf interest groups. Their closeness to interest groups will undermine their own credibility, the credibility of science and the public confidence. It is to be hoped that other scientists will continue to independently argue the case for their research, to talk about it and its problems and to discuss them in an interdisciplinary exchange with their colleagues from other branches of science with a view to a consensus acceptable to a majority of the public. This consensus, even if it has to be reviewed and redefined constantly in the light of new research, will give scientists the inner security needed for their work. Only the dialogue with society can create

  8. Federated ontology-based queries over cancer data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Personalised medicine provides patients with treatments that are specific to their genetic profiles. It requires efficient data sharing of disparate data types across a variety of scientific disciplines, such as molecular biology, pathology, radiology and clinical practice. Personalised medicine aims to offer the safest and most effective therapeutic strategy based on the gene variations of each subject. In particular, this is valid in oncology, where knowledge about genetic mutations has already led to new therapies. Current molecular biology techniques (microarrays, proteomics, epigenetic technology and improved DNA sequencing technology) enable better characterisation of cancer tumours. The vast amounts of data, however, coupled with the use of different terms - or semantic heterogeneity - in each discipline makes the retrieval and integration of information difficult. Results Existing software infrastructures for data-sharing in the cancer domain, such as caGrid, support access to distributed information. caGrid follows a service-oriented model-driven architecture. Each data source in caGrid is associated with metadata at increasing levels of abstraction, including syntactic, structural, reference and domain metadata. The domain metadata consists of ontology-based annotations associated with the structural information of each data source. However, caGrid's current querying functionality is given at the structural metadata level, without capitalising on the ontology-based annotations. This paper presents the design of and theoretical foundations for distributed ontology-based queries over cancer research data. Concept-based queries are reformulated to the target query language, where join conditions between multiple data sources are found by exploiting the semantic annotations. The system has been implemented, as a proof of concept, over the caGrid infrastructure. The approach is applicable to other model-driven architectures. A graphical user

  9. Fast Inbound Top-K Query for Random Walk with Restart

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yucheng; Sun, Yidan; Han, Jiawei

    2015-01-01

    Random walk with restart (RWR) is widely recognized as one of the most important node proximity measures for graphs, as it captures the holistic graph structure and is robust to noise in the graph. In this paper, we study a novel query based on the RWR measure, called the inbound top-k (Ink) query. Given a query node q and a number k, the Ink query aims at retrieving k nodes in the graph that have the largest weighted RWR scores to q. Ink queries can be highly useful for various applications such as traffic scheduling, disease treatment, and targeted advertising. Nevertheless, none of the existing RWR computation techniques can accurately and efficiently process the Ink query in large graphs. We propose two algorithms, namely Squeeze and Ripple, both of which can accurately answer the Ink query in a fast and incremental manner. To identify the top-k nodes, Squeeze iteratively performs matrix-vector multiplication and estimates the lower and upper bounds for all the nodes in the graph. Ripple employs a more aggressive strategy by only estimating the RWR scores for the nodes falling in the vicinity of q, the nodes outside the vicinity do not need to be evaluated because their RWR scores are propagated from the boundary of the vicinity and thus upper bounded. Ripple incrementally expands the vicinity until the top-k result set can be obtained. Our extensive experiments on real-life graph data sets show that Ink queries can retrieve interesting results, and the proposed algorithms are orders of magnitude faster than state-of-the-art method. PMID:26709392

  10. Dynamic Querying of Mass-Storage RDF Data with Rule-Based Entailment Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianni, Giovambattista; Krennwallner, Thomas; Martello, Alessandra; Polleres, Axel

    RDF Schema (RDFS) as a lightweight ontology language is gaining popularity and, consequently, tools for scalable RDFS inference and querying are needed. SPARQL has become recently a W3C standard for querying RDF data, but it mostly provides means for querying simple RDF graphs only, whereas querying with respect to RDFS or other entailment regimes is left outside the current specification. In this paper, we show that SPARQL faces certain unwanted ramifications when querying ontologies in conjunction with RDF datasets that comprise multiple named graphs, and we provide an extension for SPARQL that remedies these effects. Moreover, since RDFS inference has a close relationship with logic rules, we generalize our approach to select a custom ruleset for specifying inferences to be taken into account in a SPARQL query. We show that our extensions are technically feasible by providing benchmark results for RDFS querying in our prototype system GiaBATA, which uses Datalog coupled with a persistent Relational Database as a back-end for implementing SPARQL with dynamic rule-based inference. By employing different optimization techniques like magic set rewriting our system remains competitive with state-of-the-art RDFS querying systems.

  11. GeoIRIS: Geospatial Information Retrieval and Indexing System—Content Mining, Semantics Modeling, and Complex Queries

    PubMed Central

    Shyu, Chi-Ren; Klaric, Matt; Scott, Grant J.; Barb, Adrian S.; Davis, Curt H.; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2007-01-01

    Searching for relevant knowledge across heterogeneous geospatial databases requires an extensive knowledge of the semantic meaning of images, a keen eye for visual patterns, and efficient strategies for collecting and analyzing data with minimal human intervention. In this paper, we present our recently developed content-based multimodal Geospatial Information Retrieval and Indexing System (GeoIRIS) which includes automatic feature extraction, visual content mining from large-scale image databases, and high-dimensional database indexing for fast retrieval. Using these underpinnings, we have developed techniques for complex queries that merge information from heterogeneous geospatial databases, retrievals of objects based on shape and visual characteristics, analysis of multiobject relationships for the retrieval of objects in specific spatial configurations, and semantic models to link low-level image features with high-level visual descriptors. GeoIRIS brings this diverse set of technologies together into a coherent system with an aim of allowing image analysts to more rapidly identify relevant imagery. GeoIRIS is able to answer analysts’ questions in seconds, such as “given a query image, show me database satellite images that have similar objects and spatial relationship that are within a certain radius of a landmark.” PMID:18270555

  12. Data Extraction and Ad Hoc Query of an Entity— Attribute— Value Database

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Prakash M.; Brandt, Cynthia

    1998-01-01

    Entity—attribute—value (EAV) tables form the major component of several mainstream electronic patient record systems (EPRSs). Such systems have been optimized for real-time retrieval of individual patient data. Data warehousing, on the other hand, involves cross-patient data retrieval based on values of patient attributes, with a focus on ad hoc query. Attribute-centric query is inherently more difficult when data are stored in EAV form than when they are stored conventionally. The authors illustrate their approach to the attribute-centric query problem with ACT/DB, a database for managing clinical trials data. This approach is based on metadata supporting a query front end that essentially hides the EAV/non-EAV nature of individual attributes from the user. The authors' work does not close the query problem, and they identify several complex subproblems that are still to be solved. PMID:9824799

  13. Query-Driven Visualization of Time-Varying Adaptive Mesh Refinement Data

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, Luke J.; Anderson, John C.; Bethel, E. Wes; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2008-08-01

    The visualization and analysis of AMR-based simulations is integral to the process of obtaining new insight in scientific research. We present a new method for performing query-driven visualization and analysis on AMR data, with specific emphasis on time-varying AMR data. Our work introduces a new method that directly addresses the dynamic spatial and temporal properties of AMR grids which challenge many existing visualization techniques. Further, we present the first implementation of query-driven visualization on the GPU that uses a GPU-based indexing structure to both answer queries and efficiently utilize GPU memory. We apply our method to two different science domains to demonstrate its broad applicability.

  14. To compare PubMed Clinical Queries and UpToDate in teaching information mastery to clinical residents: a crossover randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sayyah Ensan, Ladan; Faghankhani, Masoomeh; Javanbakht, Anna; Ahmadi, Seyed-Foad; Baradaran, Hamid Reza

    2011-01-01

    To compare PubMed Clinical Queries and UpToDate regarding the amount and speed of information retrieval and users' satisfaction. A cross-over randomized trial was conducted in February 2009 in Tehran University of Medical Sciences that included 44 year-one or two residents who participated in an information mastery workshop. A one-hour lecture on the principles of information mastery was organized followed by self learning slide shows before using each database. Subsequently, participants were randomly assigned to answer 2 clinical scenarios using either UpToDate or PubMed Clinical Queries then crossed to use the other database to answer 2 different clinical scenarios. The proportion of relevantly answered clinical scenarios, time to answer retrieval, and users' satisfaction were measured in each database. Based on intention-to-treat analysis, participants retrieved the answer of 67 (76%) questions using UpToDate and 38 (43%) questions using PubMed Clinical Queries (P<0.001). The median time to answer retrieval was 17 min (95% CI: 16 to 18) using UpToDate compared to 29 min (95% CI: 26 to 32) using PubMed Clinical Queries (P<0.001). The satisfaction with the accuracy of retrieved answers, interaction with UpToDate and also overall satisfaction were higher among UpToDate users compared to PubMed Clinical Queries users (P<0.001). For first time users, using UpToDate compared to Pubmed Clinical Queries can lead to not only a higher proportion of relevant answer retrieval within a shorter time, but also a higher users' satisfaction. So, addition of tutoring pre-appraised sources such as UpToDate to the information mastery curricula seems to be highly efficient.

  15. Analysis of queries sent to PubMed at the point of care: observation of search behaviour in a medical teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Hoogendam, Arjen; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Robbé, Pieter F de Vries; Overbeke, A John P M

    2008-09-24

    The use of PubMed to answer daily medical care questions is limited because it is challenging to retrieve a small set of relevant articles and time is restricted. Knowing what aspects of queries are likely to retrieve relevant articles can increase the effectiveness of PubMed searches. The objectives of our study were to identify queries that are likely to retrieve relevant articles by relating PubMed search techniques and tools to the number of articles retrieved and the selection of articles for further reading. This was a prospective observational study of queries regarding patient-related problems sent to PubMed by residents and internists in internal medicine working in an Academic Medical Centre. We analyzed queries, search results, query tools (Mesh, Limits, wildcards, operators), selection of abstract and full-text for further reading, using a portal that mimics PubMed. PubMed was used to solve 1121 patient-related problems, resulting in 3205 distinct queries. Abstracts were viewed in 999 (31%) of these queries, and in 126 (39%) of 321 queries using query tools. The average term count per query was 2.5. Abstracts were selected in more than 40% of queries using four or five terms, increasing to 63% if the use of four or five terms yielded 2-161 articles. Queries sent to PubMed by physicians at our hospital during daily medical care contain fewer than three terms. Queries using four to five terms, retrieving less than 161 article titles, are most likely to result in abstract viewing. PubMed search tools are used infrequently by our population and are less effective than the use of four or five terms. Methods to facilitate the formulation of precise queries, using more relevant terms, should be the focus of education and research.

  16. Analysis of queries sent to PubMed at the point of care: Observation of search behaviour in a medical teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hoogendam, Arjen; Stalenhoef, Anton FH; Robbé, Pieter F de Vries; Overbeke, A John PM

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of PubMed to answer daily medical care questions is limited because it is challenging to retrieve a small set of relevant articles and time is restricted. Knowing what aspects of queries are likely to retrieve relevant articles can increase the effectiveness of PubMed searches. The objectives of our study were to identify queries that are likely to retrieve relevant articles by relating PubMed search techniques and tools to the number of articles retrieved and the selection of articles for further reading. Methods This was a prospective observational study of queries regarding patient-related problems sent to PubMed by residents and internists in internal medicine working in an Academic Medical Centre. We analyzed queries, search results, query tools (Mesh, Limits, wildcards, operators), selection of abstract and full-text for further reading, using a portal that mimics PubMed. Results PubMed was used to solve 1121 patient-related problems, resulting in 3205 distinct queries. Abstracts were viewed in 999 (31%) of these queries, and in 126 (39%) of 321 queries using query tools. The average term count per query was 2.5. Abstracts were selected in more than 40% of queries using four or five terms, increasing to 63% if the use of four or five terms yielded 2–161 articles. Conclusion Queries sent to PubMed by physicians at our hospital during daily medical care contain fewer than three terms. Queries using four to five terms, retrieving less than 161 article titles, are most likely to result in abstract viewing. PubMed search tools are used infrequently by our population and are less effective than the use of four or five terms. Methods to facilitate the formulation of precise queries, using more relevant terms, should be the focus of education and research. PMID:18816391

  17. Experimental quantum private queries with linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    De Martini, Francesco; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2009-07-15

    The quantum private query is a quantum cryptographic protocol to recover information from a database, preserving both user and data privacy: the user can test whether someone has retained information on which query was asked and the database provider can test the amount of information released. Here we discuss a variant of the quantum private query algorithm that admits a simple linear optical implementation: it employs the photon's momentum (or time slot) as address qubits and its polarization as bus qubit. A proof-of-principle experimental realization is implemented.

  18. Provenance Storage, Querying, and Visualization in PBase

    SciTech Connect

    Kianmajd, Parisa; Ludascher, Bertram; Missier, Paolo; Chirigati, Fernando; Wei, Yaxing; Koop, David; Dey, Saumen

    2015-01-01

    We present PBase, a repository for scientific workflows and their corresponding provenance information that facilitates the sharing of experiments among the scientific community. PBase is interoperable since it uses ProvONE, a standard provenance model for scientific workflows. Workflows and traces are stored in RDF, and with the support of SPARQL and the tree cover encoding, the repository provides a scalable infrastructure for querying the provenance data. Furthermore, through its user interface, it is possible to: visualize workflows and execution traces; visualize reachability relations within these traces; issue SPARQL queries; and visualize query results.

  19. An efficient query mechanism base on P2P networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Mu, Aiqin; Zhao, Defang

    2013-07-01

    How to implement the efficient query is the key problem deployed on P2P networks. This paper analyses the shortage of several query algorithm, and presents a new algorithm DDI, which means distributed searching with double indices. It discusses the popularity of documents and the linking status of the networks, and calculates the availability of the nodes in whole network, determines the route of the query process. It compares the items of time using, the quantity of requests and update information by the emulate experiments. Along with the rapid development of computer network technology, peer-to-peer (referred to as P2P) network research has gradually become mature, and it is widely used in different fields, some large P2P computing project has entered the implementation stage. At present, many more popular software systems such as Gnutella, Freenet, Napster are deployed based on P2P technology. How to achieve effective information query has become one of the key problems of P2P research.

  20. OntoQuery: easy-to-use web-based OWL querying.

    PubMed

    Tudose, Ilinca; Hastings, Janna; Muthukrishnan, Venkatesh; Owen, Gareth; Turner, Steve; Dekker, Adriano; Kale, Namrata; Ennis, Marcus; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-11-15

    The Web Ontology Language (OWL) provides a sophisticated language for building complex domain ontologies and is widely used in bio-ontologies such as the Gene Ontology. The Protégé-OWL ontology editing tool provides a query facility that allows composition and execution of queries with the human-readable Manchester OWL syntax, with syntax checking and entity label lookup. No equivalent query facility such as the Protégé Description Logics (DL) query yet exists in web form. However, many users interact with bio-ontologies such as chemical entities of biological interest and the Gene Ontology using their online Web sites, within which DL-based querying functionality is not available. To address this gap, we introduce the OntoQuery web-based query utility.  The source code for this implementation together with instructions for installation is available at http://github.com/IlincaTudose/OntoQuery. OntoQuery software is fully compatible with all OWL-based ontologies and is available for download (CC-0 license). The ChEBI installation, ChEBI OntoQuery, is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/tools/ontoquery. hastings@ebi.ac.uk.

  1. Minimizing I/O Costs of Multi-Dimensional Queries with BitmapIndices

    SciTech Connect

    Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2006-03-30

    Bitmap indices have been widely used in scientific applications and commercial systems for processing complex,multi-dimensional queries where traditional tree-based indices would not work efficiently. A common approach for reducing the size of a bitmap index for high cardinality attributes is to group ranges of values of an attribute into bins and then build a bitmap for each bin rather than a bitmap for each value of the attribute. Binning reduces storage costs,however, results of queries based on bins often require additional filtering for discarding it false positives, i.e., records in the result that do not satisfy the query constraints. This additional filtering,also known as ''candidate checking,'' requires access to the base data on disk and involves significant I/O costs. This paper studies strategies for minimizing the I/O costs for ''candidate checking'' for multi-dimensional queries. This is done by determining the number of bins allocated for each dimension and then placing bin boundaries in optimal locations. Our algorithms use knowledge of data distribution and query workload. We derive several analytical results concerning optimal bin allocation for a probabilistic query model. Our experimental evaluation with real life data shows an average I/O cost improvement of at least a factor of 10 for multi-dimensional queries on datasets from two different applications. Our experiments also indicate that the speedup increases with the number of query dimensions.

  2. Business information query expansion through semantic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zhiguo; Muyeba, Maybin; Guo, Jingzhi

    2010-02-01

    In this article, we propose a method for business information query expansions. In our approach, hypernym/hyponymy and synonym relations in WordNet are used as the basic expansion rules. Then we use WordNet Lexical Chains and WordNet semantic similarity to assign terms in the same query into different groups with respect to their semantic similarities. For each group, we expand the highest terms in the WordNet hierarchies with hypernym and synonym, the lowest terms with hyponym and synonym and all other terms with only synonym. In this way, the contradictory caused by full expansion can be well controlled. Furthermore, we use collection-related term semantic network to further improve the expansion performance. And our experiment reveals that our solution for query expansion can improve the query performance dramatically.

  3. Getting an Answer Right

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-07-01

    really is.) Or we could ask students to make careful observations as an experiment is being carried out and then decide whether the proposed interpretation was correct. (If the only effect of burning a candle in a beaker inverted in a water bath is to use up the oxygen, then the water should rise slowly and steadily into the beaker as long as the candle burns; it does not.) Getting the right answer is not nearly as important as getting an answer right- exploring and experimenting to eliminate alternative hypotheses and finding the best-supported explanation. Diffusion and the fraction of oxygen in air can be studied with simple, inexpensive equipment, and it is easy for students to experiment with them. If we use them appropriately, these two subjects have great potential for enhancing students' skills in critical thinking and experimental design. Many other phenomena reported in these pages provide similar opportunities. Let's apply our ingenuity and effort to making the most of them. Literature Cited 1. Parsons, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 898. 2. Birk, J. P.; Lawson, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 914. 3. Mason, E. A.; Kronstadt, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 740. Kirk, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 745. 4. Davis, L. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 824. 5. Westbrook, S.; Marek, E. A. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 1991, 28, 649-660 6. Birk, J. P.; McGrath, L.; Gunter, S. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 804.

  4. Distributed Queries of Large Numerical Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemes, Richard M.

    1998-01-01

    We have extended a previously developed high-level data model, which combines numerical quantities and meta-data into a unified hybrid model, to distributed data. An elegant query language based on SQL is extended further to allow queries against such a distributed hybrid data base. The extension is realized by allowing statements in a non-SQL programming language to be embedded in SQL view definitions.

  5. Investigations of Human Question Answering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.

    The development and testing of QUEST, a model of human question answering, are reported. QUEST accounts for answers adults produce for different categories of open-class questions, identifying the information sources associated with the content words in questions. Each information source is organized in a conceptual graph structure. The model…

  6. "Answers," Assemblages, and Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Barko, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Although educational researchers predominately study complex, multidimensional problems, research findings and proposed arguments can sometimes be characterized as definite, simplified, and prone to particular types of answers or expected outcomes. The authors seek to problematize these definite and simplified notions of answers by looking at some…

  7. IJA: an efficient algorithm for query processing in sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Chang; Lee, Young Jae; Lim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Dong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    One of main features in sensor networks is the function that processes real time state information after gathering needed data from many domains. The component technologies consisting of each node called a sensor node that are including physical sensors, processors, actuators and power have advanced significantly over the last decade. Thanks to the advanced technology, over time sensor networks have been adopted in an all-round industry sensing physical phenomenon. However, sensor nodes in sensor networks are considerably constrained because with their energy and memory resources they have a very limited ability to process any information compared to conventional computer systems. Thus query processing over the nodes should be constrained because of their limitations. Due to the problems, the join operations in sensor networks are typically processed in a distributed manner over a set of nodes and have been studied. By way of example while simple queries, such as select and aggregate queries, in sensor networks have been addressed in the literature, the processing of join queries in sensor networks remains to be investigated. Therefore, in this paper, we propose and describe an Incremental Join Algorithm (IJA) in Sensor Networks to reduce the overhead caused by moving a join pair to the final join node or to minimize the communication cost that is the main consumer of the battery when processing the distributed queries in sensor networks environments. At the same time, the simulation result shows that the proposed IJA algorithm significantly reduces the number of bytes to be moved to join nodes compared to the popular synopsis join algorithm.

  8. IJA: An Efficient Algorithm for Query Processing in Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Chang; Lee, Young Jae; Lim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Dong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    One of main features in sensor networks is the function that processes real time state information after gathering needed data from many domains. The component technologies consisting of each node called a sensor node that are including physical sensors, processors, actuators and power have advanced significantly over the last decade. Thanks to the advanced technology, over time sensor networks have been adopted in an all-round industry sensing physical phenomenon. However, sensor nodes in sensor networks are considerably constrained because with their energy and memory resources they have a very limited ability to process any information compared to conventional computer systems. Thus query processing over the nodes should be constrained because of their limitations. Due to the problems, the join operations in sensor networks are typically processed in a distributed manner over a set of nodes and have been studied. By way of example while simple queries, such as select and aggregate queries, in sensor networks have been addressed in the literature, the processing of join queries in sensor networks remains to be investigated. Therefore, in this paper, we propose and describe an Incremental Join Algorithm (IJA) in Sensor Networks to reduce the overhead caused by moving a join pair to the final join node or to minimize the communication cost that is the main consumer of the battery when processing the distributed queries in sensor networks environments. At the same time, the simulation result shows that the proposed IJA algorithm significantly reduces the number of bytes to be moved to join nodes compared to the popular synopsis join algorithm. PMID:22319375

  9. Boolean versus ranked querying for biomedical systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The process of constructing a systematic review, a document that compiles the published evidence pertaining to a specified medical topic, is intensely time-consuming, often taking a team of researchers over a year, with the identification of relevant published research comprising a substantial portion of the effort. The standard paradigm for this information-seeking task is to use Boolean search; however, this leaves the user(s) the requirement of examining every returned result. Further, our experience is that effective Boolean queries for this specific task are extremely difficult to formulate and typically require multiple iterations of refinement before being finalized. Methods We explore the effectiveness of using ranked retrieval as compared to Boolean querying for the purpose of constructing a systematic review. We conduct a series of experiments involving ranked retrieval, using queries defined methodologically, in an effort to understand the practicalities of incorporating ranked retrieval into the systematic search task. Results Our results show that ranked retrieval by itself is not viable for this search task requiring high recall. However, we describe a refinement of the standard Boolean search process and show that ranking within a Boolean result set can improve the overall search performance by providing early indication of the quality of the results, thereby speeding up the iterative query-refinement process. Conclusions Outcomes of experiments suggest that an interactive query-development process using a hybrid ranked and Boolean retrieval system has the potential for significant time-savings over the current search process in the systematic reviewing. PMID:20937152

  10. Query by image example: The CANDID approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.M.; Cannon, M.; Hush, D.R.

    1995-02-01

    CANDID (Comparison Algorithm for Navigating Digital Image Databases) was developed to enable content-based retrieval of digital imagery from large databases using a query-by-example methodology. A user provides an example image to the system, and images in the database that are similar to that example are retrieved. The development of CANDID was inspired by the N-gram approach to document fingerprinting, where a ``global signature`` is computed for every document in a database and these signatures are compared to one another to determine the similarity between any two documents. CANDID computes a global signature for every image in a database, where the signature is derived from various image features such as localized texture, shape, or color information. A distance between probability density functions of feature vectors is then used to compare signatures. In this paper, the authors present CANDID and highlight two results from their current research: subtracting a ``background`` signature from every signature in a database in an attempt to improve system performance when using inner-product similarity measures, and visualizing the contribution of individual pixels in the matching process. These ideas are applicable to any histogram-based comparison technique.

  11. Mystery #4 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... attribute them with detailed knowledge about a binary star system.   D.   Among their major crops are onions and millet. ... with incredibly detailed knowledge of the Sirius A/B binary star system. 3.   A small city with a rich cultural heritage is located ...

  12. Are Integrated Portfolio Systems the Answer? An Evaluation of a Web-Based Portfolio System to Improve Preservice Teachers' Reflective Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner, Diler; Adadan, Emine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an integrated web-based portfolio system, namely the BOUNCE System, which primarily focuses on improving preservice teachers' reflective thinking skills. BOUNCE©, the software component of the system, was designed and developed to support a teaching practice model including a cycle of activities to be…

  13. Are Integrated Portfolio Systems the Answer? An Evaluation of a Web-Based Portfolio System to Improve Preservice Teachers' Reflective Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner, Diler; Adadan, Emine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an integrated web-based portfolio system, namely the BOUNCE System, which primarily focuses on improving preservice teachers' reflective thinking skills. BOUNCE©, the software component of the system, was designed and developed to support a teaching practice model including a cycle of activities to be…

  14. Enhancing Collaborative Peer-to-Peer Systems Using Resource Aggregation and Caching: A Multi-Attribute Resource and Query Aware Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandara, H. M. N. Dilum

    2012-01-01

    Resource-rich computing devices, decreasing communication costs, and Web 2.0 technologies are fundamentally changing the way distributed applications communicate and collaborate. With these changes, we envision Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems that will allow for the integration and collaboration of peers with diverse capabilities to a virtual community…

  15. Enhancing Collaborative Peer-to-Peer Systems Using Resource Aggregation and Caching: A Multi-Attribute Resource and Query Aware Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandara, H. M. N. Dilum

    2012-01-01

    Resource-rich computing devices, decreasing communication costs, and Web 2.0 technologies are fundamentally changing the way distributed applications communicate and collaborate. With these changes, we envision Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems that will allow for the integration and collaboration of peers with diverse capabilities to a virtual community…

  16. Federated Space-Time Query for Earth Science Data Using OpenSearch Conventions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Beaumont, Bruce; Duerr, Ruth; Hua, Hook

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a Space-time query system that has been developed to assist the user in finding Earth science data that fulfills the researchers needs. It reviews the reasons why finding Earth science data can be so difficult, and explains the workings of the Space-Time Query with OpenSearch and how this system can assist researchers in finding the required data, It also reviews the developments with client server systems.

  17. A Query Cache Tool for Optimizing Repeatable and Parallel OLAP Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ricardo Jorge; Bernardino, Jorge

    On-line analytical processing against data warehouse databases is a common form of getting decision making information for almost every business field. Decision support information oftenly concerns periodic values based on regular attributes, such as sales amounts, percentages, most transactioned items, etc. This means that many similar OLAP instructions are periodically repeated, and simultaneously, between the several decision makers. Our Query Cache Tool takes advantage of previously executed queries, storing their results and the current state of the data which was accessed. Future queries only need to execute against the new data, inserted since the queries were last executed, and join these results with the previous ones. This makes query execution much faster, because we only need to process the most recent data. Our tool also minimizes the execution time and resource consumption for similar queries simultaneously executed by different users, putting the most recent ones on hold until the first finish and returns the results for all of them. The stored query results are held until they are considered outdated, then automatically erased. We present an experimental evaluation of our tool using a data warehouse based on a real-world business dataset and use a set of typical decision support queries to discuss the results, showing a very high gain in query execution time.

  18. 41 CFR 105-70.009 - Answer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer. 105-70.009 Section 105-70.009 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration...

  19. Global Perspectives: Some Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Global Perspectives, New York, NY.

    To enlighten the reader on the status, objectives, and needs of global education, this paper poses and answers questions related to global perspectives. A global perspective is interpreted to include heightened awareness and understanding of the global system as well as increased consciousness of the intimate relationship of self, humankind, and…

  20. Question Analysis for Biomedical Question Answering

    PubMed Central

    Sable, Carl; Lee, Minsuk; Zhu, Hai Ran; Yu, Hong

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a biomedical question answering system. This paper describes our system’s architecture and our question analysis component. Specifically, we have explored the use of various supervised machine learning approaches to filter out unanswerable questions based on physicians’ annotations. PMID:16779389

  1. Questions and Answers about CD ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Question and answer column about the CD ROM medium discusses: (1) optical storage devices available; (2) language teaching applications; (3) types of courseware available; (4) costs to hook up a CD ROM drive as a peripheral to an existing system; (5) how to go about developing and mastering a disk; and (6) mastering and replication costs.…

  2. Bilastine in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria: a practical approach to treatment decisions based on queries received by the medical information department.

    PubMed

    Leceta, Amalia; Sologuren, Ander; Valiente, Román; Campo, Cristina; Labeaga, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Bilastine is a safe and effective commonly prescribed non-sedating H1-antihistamine approved for symptomatic treatment in patients with allergic disorders such as rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. It was evaluated in many patients throughout the clinical development required for its approval, but clinical trials generally exclude many patients who will benefit in everyday clinical practice (especially those with coexisting diseases and/or being treated with concomitant drugs). Following its introduction into clinical practice, the Medical Information Specialists at Faes Farma have received many practical queries regarding the optimal use of bilastine in different circumstances. Queries received by the Medical Information Department and the responses provided to senders of these queries. The most frequent questions received by the Medical Information Department included the potential for drug-drug interactions with bilastine and commonly used agents such as anticoagulants (including the novel oral anticoagulants), antiretrovirals, antituberculosis regimens, corticosteroids, digoxin, oral contraceptives, and proton pump inhibitors. Most of these medicines are not usually allowed in clinical trials, and so advice needs to be based upon the pharmacological profiles of the drugs involved and expert opinion. The pharmacokinetic profile of bilastine appears favourable since it undergoes negligible metabolism and is almost exclusively eliminated via renal excretion, and it neither induces nor inhibits the activity of several isoenzymes from the CYP 450 system. Consequently, bilastine does not interact with cytochrome metabolic pathways. Other queries involved specific patient groups such as subjects with renal impairment, women who are breastfeeding or who are trying to become pregnant, and patients with other concomitant diseases. Interestingly, several questions related to topics that are well covered in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC), which suggests that

  3. An Evaluation of Multiple Query Representations for the Relevance Judgments used to Build a Biomedical Test Collection.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Borim; Choi, Jinwook

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate a method that uses multiple queries to create a set of relevance judgments used to indicate which documents are pertinent to each query when forming a biomedical test collection. The aspect query is the major concept of this research; it can represent every aspect of the original query with the same informational need. Manually generated aspect queries created by 15 recruited participants where run using the BM25 retrieval model in order to create aspect query based relevance sets (QRELS). In order to demonstrate the feasibility of these QRELSs, The results from a 2004 genomics track run supported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were used to compute the mean average precision (MAP) based on Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) QRELSs and aspect-QRELSs. The rank correlation was calculated using both Kendall's and Spearman's rank correlation methods. We experimentally verified the utility of the aspect query method by combining the top ranked documents retrieved by a number of multiple queries which ranked the order of the information. The retrieval system correlated highly with rankings based on human relevance judgments. Substantial results were shown with high correlations of up to 0.863 (p < 0.01) between the judgment-free gold standard based on the aspect queries and the human-judged gold standard supported by NIST. The results also demonstrate that the aspect query method can contribute in building test collections used for medical literature retrieval.

  4. Monitoring Pertussis Infections Using Internet Search Queries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuzhou; Milinovich, Gabriel; Xu, Zhiwei; Bambrick, Hilary; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-09-05

    This study aims to assess the utility of internet search query analysis in pertussis surveillance. This study uses an empirical time series model based on internet search metrics to detect the pertussis incidence in Australia. Our research demonstrates a clear seasonal pattern of both pertussis infections and Google Trends (GT) with specific search terms in time series seasonal decomposition analysis. The cross-correlation function showed significant correlations between GT and pertussis incidences in Australia and each state at the lag of 0 and 1 months, with the variation of correlations between 0.17 and 0.76 (p < 0.05). A multivariate seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model was developed to track pertussis epidemics pattern using GT data. Reflected values for this model were generally consistent with the observed values. The inclusion of GT metrics improved detective performance of the model (β = 0.058, p < 0.001). The validation analysis indicated that the overall agreement was 81% (sensitivity: 77% and specificity: 83%). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using internet search metrics for the detection of pertussis epidemics in real-time, which can be considered as a pre-requisite for constructing early warning systems for pertussis surveillance using internet search metrics.

  5. Mystery #21 Answer

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-22

    ... a major role in an early 20th century book released as a motion picture in 1939.   ( O ) Cloud systems of this type are often ... are false. Which one is true?   ( N ) The Coriolis force strongly influences the morphology of these cloud patterns.   ( E ) ...

  6. Looking Abroad for Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisch, Marian

    2009-01-01

    Interacting with school leaders from different countries on overseas study missions can yield practical payoffs. In this article, eight school system leaders describe one valuable practice they observed on their recent trips to sundry spots across the globe. As some educators discover, it helps them better appreciate their own public schools,…

  7. Answers at your fingertips: Access to the Internet influences willingness to answer questions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda M; McLean, David; Risko, Evan F

    2015-12-01

    Recent technological advances have given rise to an information-gathering tool unparalleled by any in human history-the Internet. Understanding how access to such a powerful informational tool influences how we think represents an important question for psychological science. In the present investigation we examined the impact of access to the Internet on the metacognitive processes that govern our decisions about what we "know" and "don't know." Results demonstrated that access to the Internet influenced individuals' willingness to volunteer answers, which led to fewer correct answers overall but greater accuracy when an answer was offered. Critically, access to the Internet also influenced feeling-of-knowing, and this accounted for some (but not all) of the effect on willingness to volunteer answers. These findings demonstrate that access to the Internet can influence metacognitive processes, and contribute novel insights into the operation of the transactive memory system formed by people and the Internet.

  8. Analyzing Medical Image Search Behavior: Semantics and Prediction of Query Results.

    PubMed

    De-Arteaga, Maria; Eggel, Ivan; Kahn, Charles E; Müller, Henning

    2015-10-01

    Log files of information retrieval systems that record user behavior have been used to improve the outcomes of retrieval systems, understand user behavior, and predict events. In this article, a log file of the ARRS GoldMiner search engine containing 222,005 consecutive queries is analyzed. Time stamps are available for each query, as well as masked IP addresses, which enables to identify queries from the same person. This article describes the ways in which physicians (or Internet searchers interested in medical images) search and proposes potential improvements by suggesting query modifications. For example, many queries contain only few terms and therefore are not specific; others contain spelling mistakes or non-medical terms that likely lead to poor or empty results. One of the goals of this report is to predict the number of results a query will have since such a model allows search engines to automatically propose query modifications in order to avoid result lists that are empty or too large. This prediction is made based on characteristics of the query terms themselves. Prediction of empty results has an accuracy above 88%, and thus can be used to automatically modify the query to avoid empty result sets for a user. The semantic analysis and data of reformulations done by users in the past can aid the development of better search systems, particularly to improve results for novice users. Therefore, this paper gives important ideas to better understand how people search and how to use this knowledge to improve the performance of specialized medical search engines.

  9. Applications of a natural-style database query language to statistical database operations

    SciTech Connect

    Laubenheimer, W.J.; Rosenberg, S.

    1981-09-01

    FRL (Frame Representation Language) is a knowledge representation system suitable for use in database management systems. One drawback of FRL for such uses is its lack of a convenient mechanism for expressing queries, particularly for the naive user. A language which alleviates this difficulty by allowing queries to be expressed in a natural-sounding (although not actually natural) form is presented, and its uses and advantages in a statistical database environment are explored.

  10. A Preliminary Mapping of Web Queries Using Existing Image Query Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bernard J.

    End user searching on the Web has become the primary method of locating images for many people. This study investigates the nature of Web image queries by attempting to map them to known image classification schemes. In this study, approximately 100,000 image queries from a major Web search engine were collected in 1997, 1999, and 2001. A…

  11. To Compare PubMed Clinical Queries and UpToDate in Teaching Information Mastery to Clinical Residents: A Crossover Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah Ensan, Ladan; Faghankhani, Masoomeh; Javanbakht, Anna; Ahmadi, Seyed-Foad; Baradaran, Hamid Reza

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare PubMed Clinical Queries and UpToDate regarding the amount and speed of information retrieval and users' satisfaction. Method A cross-over randomized trial was conducted in February 2009 in Tehran University of Medical Sciences that included 44 year-one or two residents who participated in an information mastery workshop. A one-hour lecture on the principles of information mastery was organized followed by self learning slide shows before using each database. Subsequently, participants were randomly assigned to answer 2 clinical scenarios using either UpToDate or PubMed Clinical Queries then crossed to use the other database to answer 2 different clinical scenarios. The proportion of relevantly answered clinical scenarios, time to answer retrieval, and users' satisfaction were measured in each database. Results Based on intention-to-treat analysis, participants retrieved the answer of 67 (76%) questions using UpToDate and 38 (43%) questions using PubMed Clinical Queries (P<0.001). The median time to answer retrieval was 17 min (95% CI: 16 to 18) using UpToDate compared to 29 min (95% CI: 26 to 32) using PubMed Clinical Queries (P<0.001). The satisfaction with the accuracy of retrieved answers, interaction with UpToDate and also overall satisfaction were higher among UpToDate users compared to PubMed Clinical Queries users (P<0.001). Conclusions For first time users, using UpToDate compared to Pubmed Clinical Querries can lead to not only a higher proportion of relevant answer retrieval within a shorter time, but also a higher users' satisfaction. So, addition of tutoring pre-appraised sources such as UpToDate to the information mastery curricula seems to be highly efficient. PMID:21858142

  12. Semantic analysis of WebGIS Chinese query sentences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Aiping; Bian, Fuling

    2006-10-01

    No matter how much complicated Chinese query sentences may be, they are always made up of query targets, query conditions and grouping segments. The query targets are often at the tail of a sentence or behind the interrogative word. As a result, to comprehend a query sentence, the first step is to get the query targets, and then extraction the query conditions and grouping segments from the rest information of the sentence. The Semantic-analyzing of the query target, query condition and grouping are researched and some corresponding algorithms are presented in this paper. Some groups of Chinese query sentences of different structure be tested, which show that these algorithms are feasible and effective. They are worth further researched.

  13. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  14. Questions and Answers about Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stroke: Hope Through Research Questions and Answers About Stroke What is a stroke? A stroke occurs when blood flow to the ... need to function. What are the types of strokes? A stroke can occur in two ways. In ...

  15. Path planning by querying persistent stores of trajectory segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, Robert L.; Mehta, S.; Qin, Xiao

    1993-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm for path planning (long duration) paths of dynamical systems, given a persistent object store containing suitable collections of short duration trajectory segments. We also describe experimental results from a proof-of-concept implementation of the algorithm. The basic idea is to interpret a path planning algorithm as a suitable query on a persistent object store consisting of short duration trajectory segments. The query returns a concatenation of short duration trajectory segments which is close to the desired path. The needed short duration segments are computed by using a divide and conquer algorithm to break up the original path into shorter paths; each shorter path is then matched to a nearby trajectory segment which is part of the persistent object store by using a suitable index function.

  16. Knowledge Acquisition of Generic Queries for Information Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Seol, Yoon-Ho; Johnson, Stephen B.; Cimino, James J.

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have identified clinical questions posed by health care professionals to understand the nature of information needs during clinical practice. To support access to digital information sources, it is necessary to integrate the information needs with a computer system. We have developed a conceptual guidance approach in information retrieval, based on a knowledge base that contains the patterns of information needs. The knowledge base uses a formal representation of clinical questions based on the UMLS knowledge sources, called the Generic Query model. To improve the coverage of the knowledge base, we investigated a method for extracting plausible clinical questions from the medical literature. This poster presents the Generic Query model, shows how it is used to represent the patterns of clinical questions, and describes the framework used to extract knowledge from the medical literature.

  17. An Energy-Efficient Skyline Query for Massively Multidimensional Sensing Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Deng, Qingxu; Liu, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2016-01-09

    Cyber physical systems (CPS) sense the environment based on wireless sensor networks. The sensing data of such systems present the characteristics of massiveness and multi-dimensionality. As one of the major monitoring methods used in in safe production monitoring and disaster early-warning applications, skyline query algorithms are extensively adopted for multiple-objective decision analysis of these sensing data. With the expansion of network sizes, the amount of sensing data increases sharply. Then, how to improve the query efficiency of skyline query algorithms and reduce the transmission energy consumption become pressing and difficult to accomplish issues. Therefore, this paper proposes a new energy-efficient skyline query method for massively multidimensional sensing data. First, the method uses a node cut strategy to dynamically generate filtering tuples with little computational overhead when collecting query results instead of issuing queries with filters. It can judge the domination relationship among different nodes, remove the detected data sets of dominated nodes that are irrelevant to the query, modify the query path dynamically, and reduce the data comparison and computational overhead. The efficient dynamic filter generated by this strategy uses little non-skyline data transmission in the network, and the transmission distance is very short. Second, our method also employs the tuple-cutting strategy inside the node and generates the local cutting tuples by the sub-tree with the node itself as the root node, which will be used to cut the detected data within the nodes of the sub-tree. Therefore, it can further control the non-skyline data uploading. A large number of experimental results show that our method can quickly return an overview of the monitored area and reduce the communication overhead. Additionally, it can shorten the response time and improve the efficiency of the query.

  18. An Energy-Efficient Skyline Query for Massively Multidimensional Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Deng, Qingxu; Liu, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2016-01-01

    Cyber physical systems (CPS) sense the environment based on wireless sensor networks. The sensing data of such systems present the characteristics of massiveness and multi-dimensionality. As one of the major monitoring methods used in in safe production monitoring and disaster early-warning applications, skyline query algorithms are extensively adopted for multiple-objective decision analysis of these sensing data. With the expansion of network sizes, the amount of sensing data increases sharply. Then, how to improve the query efficiency of skyline query algorithms and reduce the transmission energy consumption become pressing and difficult to accomplish issues. Therefore, this paper proposes a new energy-efficient skyline query method for massively multidimensional sensing data. First, the method uses a node cut strategy to dynamically generate filtering tuples with little computational overhead when collecting query results instead of issuing queries with filters. It can judge the domination relationship among different nodes, remove the detected data sets of dominated nodes that are irrelevant to the query, modify the query path dynamically, and reduce the data comparison and computational overhead. The efficient dynamic filter generated by this strategy uses little non-skyline data transmission in the network, and the transmission distance is very short. Second, our method also employs the tuple-cutting strategy inside the node and generates the local cutting tuples by the sub-tree with the node itself as the root node, which will be used to cut the detected data within the nodes of the sub-tree. Therefore, it can further control the non-skyline data uploading. A large number of experimental results show that our method can quickly return an overview of the monitored area and reduce the communication overhead. Additionally, it can shorten the response time and improve the efficiency of the query. PMID:26761010

  19. Automatic Building Information Model Query Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yufei; Yu, Nan; Ming, Jiang; Lee, Sanghoon; DeGraw, Jason; Yen, John; Messner, John I.; Wu, Dinghao

    2015-12-01

    Energy efficient building design and construction calls for extensive collaboration between different subfields of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) community. Performing building design and construction engineering raises challenges on data integration and software interoperability. Using Building Information Modeling (BIM) data hub to host and integrate building models is a promising solution to address those challenges, which can ease building design information management. However, the partial model query mechanism of current BIM data hub collaboration model has several limitations, which prevents designers and engineers to take advantage of BIM. To address this problem, we propose a general and effective approach to generate query code based on a Model View Definition (MVD). This approach is demonstrated through a software prototype called QueryGenerator. By demonstrating a case study using multi-zone air flow analysis, we show how our approach and tool can help domain experts to use BIM to drive building design with less labour and lower overhead cost.

  20. Automatic building information model query generation

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yufei; Yu, Nan; Ming, Jiang; Lee, Sanghoon; DeGraw, Jason; Yen, John; Messner, John I.; Wu, Dinghao

    2015-12-01

    Energy efficient building design and construction calls for extensive collaboration between different subfields of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) community. Performing building design and construction engineering raises challenges on data integration and software interoperability. Using Building Information Modeling (BIM) data hub to host and integrate building models is a promising solution to address those challenges, which can ease building design information management. However, the partial model query mechanism of current BIM data hub collaboration model has several limitations, which prevents designers and engineers to take advantage of BIM. To address this problem, we propose a general and effective approach to generate query code based on a Model View Definition (MVD). This approach is demonstrated through a software prototype called QueryGenerator. In conclusion, by demonstrating a case study using multi-zone air flow analysis, we show how our approach and tool can help domain experts to use BIM to drive building design with less labour and lower overhead cost.

  1. Device-independent quantum private query

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Arpita; Paul, Goutam; Roy, Sarbani

    2017-04-01

    In quantum private query (QPQ), a client obtains values corresponding to his or her query only, and nothing else from the server, and the server does not get any information about the queries. V. Giovannetti et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.230502 gave the first QPQ protocol and since then quite a few variants and extensions have been proposed. However, none of the existing protocols are device independent; i.e., all of them assume implicitly that the entangled states supplied to the client and the server are of a certain form. In this work, we exploit the idea of a local CHSH game and connect it with the scheme of Y. G. Yang et al. [Quantum Info. Process. 13, 805 (2014)], 10.1007/s11128-013-0692-8 to present the concept of a device-independent QPQ protocol.

  2. Federated querying architecture with clinical & translational health IT application.

    PubMed

    Livne, Oren E; Schultz, N Dustin; Narus, Scott P

    2011-10-01

    We present a software architecture that federates data from multiple heterogeneous health informatics data sources owned by multiple organizations. The architecture builds upon state-of-the-art open-source Java and XML frameworks in innovative ways. It consists of (a) federated query engine, which manages federated queries and result set aggregation via a patient identification service; and (b) data source facades, which translate the physical data models into a common model on-the-fly and handle large result set streaming. System modules are connected via reusable Apache Camel integration routes and deployed to an OSGi enterprise service bus. We present an application of our architecture that allows users to construct queries via the i2b2 web front-end, and federates patient data from the University of Utah Enterprise Data Warehouse and the Utah Population database. Our system can be easily adopted, extended and integrated with existing SOA Healthcare and HL7 frameworks such as i2b2 and caGrid.

  3. NEOview: Near Earth Object Data Discovery and Query

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibbetts, M.; Elvis, M.; Galache, J. L.; Harbo, P.; McDowell, J. C.; Rudenko, M.; Van Stone, D.; Zografou, P.

    2013-10-01

    Missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs) figure prominently in NASA's Flexible Path approach to human space exploration. NEOs offer insight into both the origins of the Solar System and of life, as well as a source of materials for future missions. With NEOview scientists can locate NEO datasets, explore metadata provided by the archives, and query or combine disparate NEO datasets in the search for NEO candidates for exploration. NEOview is a software system that illustrates how standards-based interfaces facilitate NEO data discovery and research. NEOview software follows a client-server architecture. The server is a configurable implementation of the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) Table Access Protocol (TAP), a general interface for tabular data access, that can be deployed as a front end to existing NEO datasets. The TAP client, seleste, is a graphical interface that provides intuitive means of discovering NEO providers, exploring dataset metadata to identify fields of interest, and constructing queries to retrieve or combine data. It features a powerful, graphical query builder capable of easing the user's introduction to table searches. Through science use cases, NEOview demonstrates how potential targets for NEO rendezvous could be identified by combining data from complementary sources. Through deployment and operations, it has been shown that the software components are data independent and configurable to many different data servers. As such, NEOview's TAP server and seleste TAP client can be used to create a seamless environment for data discovery and exploration for tabular data in any astronomical archive.

  4. Federated query services provided by the Seamless SAR Archive project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S.; Bryson, G.; Buechler, B.; Meertens, C. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Fielding, E. J.; Nicoll, J.; Youn, C.; Baru, C.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Advancing Collaborative Connections for Earth System Science (ACCESS) seamless synthetic aperture radar (SAR) archive (SSARA) project is a 2-year collaboration between UNAVCO, the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and OpenTopography at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) to design and implement a seamless distributed access system for SAR data and derived data products (i.e. interferograms). A major milestone for the first year of the SSARA project was a unified application programming interface (API) for SAR data search and results at ASF and UNAVCO (WInSAR and EarthScope data archives) through the use of simple web services. A federated query service was developed using the unified APIs, providing users a single search interface for both archives (http://www.unavco.org/ws/brokered/ssara/sar/search). A command line client that utilizes this new service is provided as an open source utility for the community on GitHub (https://github.com/bakerunavco/SSARA). Further API development and enhancements added more InSAR specific keywords and quality control parameters (Doppler centroid, faraday rotation, InSAR stack size, and perpendicular baselines). To facilitate InSAR processing, the federated query service incorporated URLs for DEM (from OpenTopography) and tropospheric corrections (from the JPL OSCAR service) in addition to the URLs for SAR data. This federated query service will provide relevant QC metadata for selecting pairs of SAR data for InSAR processing and all the URLs necessary for interferogram generation. Interest from the international community has prompted an effort to incorporate other SAR data archives (the ESA Virtual Archive 4 and the DLR TerraSAR-X_SSC Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories collections) into the federated query service which provide data for researchers outside the US and North America.

  5. Private queries on encrypted genomic data.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Gizem S; Chen, Hao; Laine, Kim; Lauter, Kristin; Rindal, Peter; Xia, Yuhou

    2017-07-26

    One of the tasks in the iDASH Secure Genome Analysis Competition in 2016 was to demonstrate the feasibility of privacy-preserving queries on homomorphically encrypted genomic data. More precisely, given a list of up to 100,000 mutations, the task was to encrypt the data using homomorphic encryption in a way that allows it to be stored securely in the cloud, and enables the data owner to query the dataset for the presence of specific mutations, without revealing any information about the dataset or the queries to the cloud. We devise a novel string matching protocol to enable privacy-preserving queries on homomorphically encrypted data. Our protocol combines state-of-the-art techniques from homomorphic encryption and private set intersection protocols to minimize the computational and communication cost. We implemented our protocol using the homomorphic encryption library SEAL v2.1, and applied it to obtain an efficient solution to the iDASH competition task. For example, using 8 threads, our protocol achieves a running time of only 4 s, and a communication cost of 2 MB, when querying for the presence of 5 mutations from an encrypted dataset of 100,000 mutations. We demonstrate that homomorphic encryption can be used to enable an efficient privacy-preserving mechanism for querying the presence of particular mutations in realistic size datasets. Beyond its applications to genomics, our protocol can just as well be applied to any kind of data, and is therefore of independent interest to the homomorphic encryption community.

  6. Toward automated consumer question answering: automatically separating consumer questions from professional questions in the healthcare domain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifan; Antieau, Lamont D; Yu, Hong

    2011-12-01

    Both healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers have information needs that can be met through the use of computers, specifically via medical question answering systems. However, the information needs of both groups are different in terms of literacy levels and technical expertise, and an effective question answering system must be able to account for these differences if it is to formulate the most relevant responses for users from each group. In this paper, we propose that a first step toward answering the queries of different users is automatically classifying questions according to whether they were asked by healthcare professionals or consumers. We obtained two sets of consumer questions (~10,000 questions in total) from Yahoo answers. The professional questions consist of two question collections: 4654 point-of-care questions (denoted as PointCare) obtained from interviews of a group of family doctors following patient visits and 5378 questions from physician practices through professional online services (denoted as OnlinePractice). With more than 20,000 questions combined, we developed supervised machine-learning models for automatic classification between consumer questions and professional questions. To evaluate the robustness of our models, we tested the model that was trained on the Consumer-PointCare dataset on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. We evaluated both linguistic features and statistical features and examined how the characteristics in two different types of professional questions (PointCare vs. OnlinePractice) may affect the classification performance. We explored information gain for feature reduction and the back-off linguistic category features. The 10-fold cross-validation results showed the best F1-measure of 0.936 and 0.946 on Consumer-PointCare and Consumer-OnlinePractice respectively, and the best F1-measure of 0.891 when testing the Consumer-PointCare model on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. Healthcare consumer

  7. Toward Automated Consumer Question Answering: Automatically Separating Consumer Questions from Professional Questions in the Healthcare Domain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Antieau, Lamont D.; Yu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Objective Both healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers have information needs that can be met through the use of computers, specifically via medical question answering systems. However, the information needs of both groups are different in terms of literacy levels and technical expertise, and an effective question answering system must be able to account for these differences if it is to formulate the most relevant responses for users from each group. In this paper, we propose that a first step toward answering the queries of different users is automatically classifying questions according to whether they were asked by healthcare professionals or consumers. Design We obtained two sets of consumer questions (~10,000 questions in total) from Yahoo answers. The professional questions consist of two question collections: 4654 point-of-care questions (denoted as PointCare) obtained from interviews of a group of family doctors following patient visits and 5378 questions from physician practices through professional online services (denoted as OnlinePractice). With more than 20,000 questions combined, we developed supervised machine-learning models for automatic classification between consumer questions and professional questions. To evaluate the robustness of our models, we tested the model that was trained on the Consumer-PointCare dataset on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. We evaluated both linguistic features and statistical features and examined how the characteristics in two different types of professional questions (PointCare vs. OnlinePractice) may affect the classification performance. We explored information gain for feature reduction and the back-off linguistic category features. Results 10-fold cross-validation results showed the best F1-measure of 0.936 and 0.946 on Consumer-PointCare and Consumer-OnlinePractice respectively, and the best F1-measure of 0.891 when testing the Consumer-PointCare model on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset

  8. Spatial Queries Entity Recognition and Disambiguation Using Rule-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzei, E.; Hakimpour, F.; Forati, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the digital world, search engines have been proposed as one of challenging research areas. One of the main issues in search engines studies is query processing, which its aim is to understand user's needs. If unsuitable spatial query processing approach is employed, the results will be associated with high degree of ambiguity. To evade such degree of ambiguity, in this paper we present a new algorithm which depends on rule-based systems to process queries. Our algorithm is implemented in the three basic steps including: deductively iterative splitting the query; finding candidates for the location names, the location types and spatial relationships; and finally checking the relationships logically and conceptually using a rule based system. As we finally present in the paper using our proposed method have two major advantages: the search engines can provide the capability of spatial analysis based on the specific process and secondly because of its disambiguation technique, user reaches the more desirable result.

  9. Query Optimization in Distributed Databases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    algebra operations into corresponding data manipulation statements of the underlying data model of the system in order to retrieve data. Chapter 7...translation of requests, formulated in a high-level language on one system of the network, into a sequence of relational algebra operations which retrieve...A3 14 I 1 I 9/81 I Al 15 I 4 I12/81 I A5 I 16 1 I12/81 2.2.3 Operator The operators we use are a subset of the relational algebra (CODD 721

  10. Private and Efficient Query Processing on Outsourced Genomic Databases.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Reza; Al Aziz, Md Momin; Mohammed, Noman; Dehkordi, Massoud Hadian; Jiang, Xiaoqian

    2017-09-01

    Applications of genomic studies are spreading rapidly in many domains of science and technology such as healthcare, biomedical research, direct-to-consumer services, and legal and forensic. However, there are a number of obstacles that make it hard to access and process a big genomic database for these applications. First, sequencing genomic sequence is a time consuming and expensive process. Second, it requires large-scale computation and storage systems to process genomic sequences. Third, genomic databases are often owned by different organizations, and thus, not available for public usage. Cloud computing paradigm can be leveraged to facilitate the creation and sharing of big genomic databases for these applications. Genomic data owners can outsource their databases in a centralized cloud server to ease the access of their databases. However, data owners are reluctant to adopt this model, as it requires outsourcing the data to an untrusted cloud service provider that may cause data breaches. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving model for outsourcing genomic data to a cloud. The proposed model enables query processing while providing privacy protection of genomic databases. Privacy of the individuals is guaranteed by permuting and adding fake genomic records in the database. These techniques allow cloud to evaluate count and top-k queries securely and efficiently. Experimental results demonstrate that a count and a top-k query over 40 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in a database of 20 000 records takes around 100 and 150 s, respectively.

  11. Web Search Queries Can Predict Stock Market Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Bordino, Ilaria; Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Cristelli, Matthieu; Ukkonen, Antti; Weber, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    We live in a computerized and networked society where many of our actions leave a digital trace and affect other people’s actions. This has lead to the emergence of a new data-driven research field: mathematical methods of computer science, statistical physics and sociometry provide insights on a wide range of disciplines ranging from social science to human mobility. A recent important discovery is that search engine traffic (i.e., the number of requests submitted by users to search engines on the www) can be used to track and, in some cases, to anticipate the dynamics of social phenomena. Successful examples include unemployment levels, car and home sales, and epidemics spreading. Few recent works applied this approach to stock prices and market sentiment. However, it remains unclear if trends in financial markets can be anticipated by the collective wisdom of on-line users on the web. Here we show that daily trading volumes of stocks traded in NASDAQ-100 are correlated with daily volumes of queries related to the same stocks. In particular, query volumes anticipate in many cases peaks of trading by one day or more. Our analysis is carried out on a unique dataset of queries, submitted to an important web search engine, which enable us to investigate also the user behavior. We show that the query volume dynamics emerges from the collective but seemingly uncoordinated activity of many users. These findings contribute to the debate on the identification of early warnings of financial systemic risk, based on the activity of users of the www. PMID:22829871

  12. Web search queries can predict stock market volumes.

    PubMed

    Bordino, Ilaria; Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Cristelli, Matthieu; Ukkonen, Antti; Weber, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    We live in a computerized and networked society where many of our actions leave a digital trace and affect other people's actions. This has lead to the emergence of a new data-driven research field: mathematical methods of computer science, statistical physics and sociometry provide insights on a wide range of disciplines ranging from social science to human mobility. A recent important discovery is that search engine traffic (i.e., the number of requests submitted by users to search engines on the www) can be used to track and, in some cases, to anticipate the dynamics of social phenomena. Successful examples include unemployment levels, car and home sales, and epidemics spreading. Few recent works applied this approach to stock prices and market sentiment. However, it remains unclear if trends in financial markets can be anticipated by the collective wisdom of on-line users on the web. Here we show that daily trading volumes of stocks traded in NASDAQ-100 are correlated with daily volumes of queries related to the same stocks. In particular, query volumes anticipate in many cases peaks of trading by one day or more. Our analysis is carried out on a unique dataset of queries, submitted to an important web search engine, which enable us to investigate also the user behavior. We show that the query volume dynamics emerges from the collective but seemingly uncoordinated activity of many users. These findings contribute to the debate on the identification of early warnings of financial systemic risk, based on the activity of users of the www.

  13. Million Query Track 2008 Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    We used several standard Lemur built in systems (tfidf bm25, tfidf log, kl abs, kl dir, inquery, cos, okapi) and combined their output (metasearch...the Lemur implementations: a vector-space cosine similarity run (000cos), a language modeling run (000klabs), an Okapi formula run (000okapi), a BM25

  14. Million Query Track 2007 Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Technology, China Used Lemur . IBM Haifa This year, the experiments of IBM Haifa were focused on the scoring function of Lucene, an Apache open-source...several standard Lemur built in systems (tfidf bm25, tfidf log, kl abs,kl dir,inquery,cos, okapi) and combined their output (metasearch) using the

  15. An Ensemble Approach for Expanding Queries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Rindflesch T, Nebeker J. Synonym, Topic Model and Predicate-Based Query Expansion for Retrieving Clinical Documents. AMIA 2012 Annual Symposium; Nov. 5...arterial branching predications asserted in cardiac catheterization reports. Proc AMIA Annual Symposium; 2000 2000. 7. Divita G, Zeng-Trietler Q

  16. Hybrid Filtering in Semantic Query Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hanjo

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents a hybrid filtering method and a case-based reasoning framework for enhancing the effectiveness of Web search. Web search may not reflect user needs, intent, context, and preferences, because today's keyword-based search is lacking semantic information to capture the user's context and intent in posing the search query.…

  17. MPEG-7 multimedia-based query format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wo

    2006-08-01

    Searching multimedia content for image, audio, and video is getting more attention especially for personal media content due to the affordability of consumer electronic devices such as MP3 recordable players, digital cameras, DV camcorders, and well-integrated smart phones. The precise search and retrieval of the content derived from these devices can be a very challenging task. Many leading edge search engine vendors have been applying sophisticated and advanced indexing and retrieval techniques on various text-based document formats, but when it comes to retrieving multimedia content, searching based on the media clip filename is the most common practice. As a result, there is an imprecise and ineffective user experience for searching multimedia content. This paper presents a new development underway from a joint effort between International Organization for Standardization (ISO)/International Electrotechnial Commission (IEC) Subcommittee (SC) 29 Working Group (WG) 11 MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) and WG1 JPEG (Joint Picture Experts Group) for a universal standard query format called MPEG-7 Query Format (MP7QF) as a means to enable a good user experience for consumers searching multimedia content. It also provides the industry with a unified way to accept and respond to user queries. This paper presents the core requirements for such a universal query format.

  18. Analysis of Performance Variation Using Query Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemayehu, Nega

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of information retrieval performance evaluation focuses on a case study using a statistical repeated measures analysis of variance for testing the significance of factors, such as retrieval method and topic in retrieval performance variation. Analyses of the effect of query expansion on document ranking confirm that expansion affects…

  19. Query-Structure Based Web Page Indexing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    california franchise tax board”. o The term-combination-index class, e.g., a query like "becoming a paralegal ". o The title-based index class, e.g., "old...becoming a paralegal ” or "furniture for small spaces", by breaking him into phrases and giving them equal weights since they have the same importance in the

  20. Enabling Incremental Query Re-Optimization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengmeng; Ives, Zachary G; Loo, Boon Thau

    2016-01-01

    As declarative query processing techniques expand to the Web, data streams, network routers, and cloud platforms, there is an increasing need to re-plan execution in the presence of unanticipated performance changes. New runtime information may affect which query plan we prefer to run. Adaptive techniques require innovation both in terms of the algorithms used to estimate costs, and in terms of the search algorithm that finds the best plan. We investigate how to build a cost-based optimizer that recomputes the optimal plan incrementally given new cost information, much as a stream engine constantly updates its outputs given new data. Our implementation especially shows benefits for stream processing workloads. It lays the foundations upon which a variety of novel adaptive optimization algorithms can be built. We start by leveraging the recently proposed approach of formulating query plan enumeration as a set of recursive datalog queries; we develop a variety of novel optimization approaches to ensure effective pruning in both static and incremental cases. We further show that the lessons learned in the declarative implementation can be equally applied to more traditional optimizer implementations.

  1. Analysis of Performance Variation Using Query Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemayehu, Nega

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of information retrieval performance evaluation focuses on a case study using a statistical repeated measures analysis of variance for testing the significance of factors, such as retrieval method and topic in retrieval performance variation. Analyses of the effect of query expansion on document ranking confirm that expansion affects…

  2. Enabling Incremental Query Re-Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengmeng; Ives, Zachary G.; Loo, Boon Thau

    2017-01-01

    As declarative query processing techniques expand to the Web, data streams, network routers, and cloud platforms, there is an increasing need to re-plan execution in the presence of unanticipated performance changes. New runtime information may affect which query plan we prefer to run. Adaptive techniques require innovation both in terms of the algorithms used to estimate costs, and in terms of the search algorithm that finds the best plan. We investigate how to build a cost-based optimizer that recomputes the optimal plan incrementally given new cost information, much as a stream engine constantly updates its outputs given new data. Our implementation especially shows benefits for stream processing workloads. It lays the foundations upon which a variety of novel adaptive optimization algorithms can be built. We start by leveraging the recently proposed approach of formulating query plan enumeration as a set of recursive datalog queries; we develop a variety of novel optimization approaches to ensure effective pruning in both static and incremental cases. We further show that the lessons learned in the declarative implementation can be equally applied to more traditional optimizer implementations. PMID:28659658

  3. Astroquery: querying astronomical web forms and databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipocz, Brigitta

    2016-03-01

    Astroquery is an Astropy affiliated package for a set of tools for querying astronomical web forms and databases. In this lightning talk I give an overview of the available services and the usage of the package including a live demo of a typical use case.

  4. IView: Introgression library visualization and query tool

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Near-isogenic lines (NIL) are powerful genetic resources to analyze phenotypic variation and are important to map-base clone genes underlying mutations and traits. With many thousands of distinct genotypes, querying introgression libraries for lines of interest is an issue. We have created a tool ...

  5. Hybrid Filtering in Semantic Query Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hanjo

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents a hybrid filtering method and a case-based reasoning framework for enhancing the effectiveness of Web search. Web search may not reflect user needs, intent, context, and preferences, because today's keyword-based search is lacking semantic information to capture the user's context and intent in posing the search query.…

  6. Data Sharing in P2P Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayek, Rabab; Raschia, Guillaume; Valduriez, Patrick; Mouaddib, Noureddine

    In this chapter, we survey P2P data sharing systems. All along, we focus on the evolution from simple file-sharing systems, with limited functionalities, to Peer Data Management Systems (PDMS) that support advanced applications with more sophisticated data management techniques. Advanced P2P applications are dealing with semantically rich data (e.g., XML documents, relational tables), using a high-level SQL-like query language. We start our survey with an overview over the existing P2P network architectures, and the associated routing protocols. Then, we discuss data indexing techniques based on their distribution degree and the semantics they can capture from the underlying data. We also discuss schema management techniques which allow integrating heterogeneous data. We conclude by discussing the techniques proposed for processing complex queries (e.g., range and join queries). Complex query facilities are necessary for advanced applications which require a high level of search expressiveness. This last part shows the lack of querying techniques that allow for an approximate query answering.

  7. BioFed: federated query processing over life sciences linked open data.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Ali; Mehmood, Qaiser; Sana E Zainab, Syeda; Saleem, Muhammad; Warren, Claude; Zehra, Durre; Decker, Stefan; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2017-03-15

    Biomedical data, e.g. from knowledge bases and ontologies, is increasingly made available following open linked data principles, at best as RDF triple data. This is a necessary step towards unified access to biological data sets, but this still requires solutions to query multiple endpoints for their heterogeneous data to eventually retrieve all the meaningful information. Suggested solutions are based on query federation approaches, which require the submission of SPARQL queries to endpoints. Due to the size and complexity of available data, these solutions have to be optimised for efficient retrieval times and for users in life sciences research. Last but not least, over time, the reliability of data resources in terms of access and quality have to be monitored. Our solution (BioFed) federates data over 130 SPARQL endpoints in life sciences and tailors query submission according to the provenance information. BioFed has been evaluated against the state of the art solution FedX and forms an important benchmark for the life science domain. The efficient cataloguing approach of the federated query processing system 'BioFed', the triple pattern wise source selection and the semantic source normalisation forms the core to our solution. It gathers and integrates data from newly identified public endpoints for federated access. Basic provenance information is linked to the retrieved data. Last but not least, BioFed makes use of the latest SPARQL standard (i.e., 1.1) to leverage the full benefits for query federation. The evaluation is based on 10 simple and 10 complex queries, which address data in 10 major and very popular data sources (e.g., Dugbank, Sider). BioFed is a solution for a single-point-of-access for a large number of SPARQL endpoints providing life science data. It facilitates efficient query generation for data access and provides basic provenance information in combination with the retrieved data. BioFed fully supports SPARQL 1.1 and gives access to the

  8. A Web 2.0 Application for Executing Queries and Services on Climatic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abad-Mota, S.; Ruckhaus, E.; Garboza, A.; Tepedino, G.

    2007-12-01

    aggregation, hourly, daily, monthly, so that they can be provided to the user at the desired level. This means that additional caution has to be exercised in query answering, in order to distinguish between primary and derived data. On the other hand, a Web 2.0 application is being designed to provide a front-end to the repository. This design focuses on two important aspects: the use of metadata structures, and the definition of collaborative Web 2.0 features that can be integrated to a project of this nature. Metadata descriptors include for a set of measurements, its quality, granularity and other dimension information. With these descriptors it is possible to establish relationships between different sets of measurements and provide scientists with efficient searching mechanisms that determine the related sets of measurements that contribute to a query answer. Unlike traditional applications for climatic data, our approach not only satisfies requirements of researchers specialized in this domain, but also those of anyone interested in this area; one of the objectives is to build an informal knowledge base that can be improved and consolidated with the usage of the system.

  9. Improving biomedical information retrieval by linear combinations of different query expansion techniques.

    PubMed

    Abdulla, Ahmed AbdoAziz Ahmed; Lin, Hongfei; Xu, Bo; Banbhrani, Santosh Kumar

    2016-07-25

    Biomedical literature retrieval is becoming increasingly complex, and there is a fundamental need for advanced information retrieval systems. Information Retrieval (IR) programs scour unstructured materials such as text documents in large reserves of data that are usually stored on computers. IR is related to the representation, storage, and organization of information items, as well as to access. In IR one of the main problems is to determine which documents are relevant and which are not to the user's needs. Under the current regime, users cannot precisely construct queries in an accurate way to retrieve particular pieces of data from large reserves of data. Basic information retrieval systems are producing low-quality search results. In our proposed system for this paper we present a new technique to refine Information Retrieval searches to better represent the user's information need in order to enhance the performance of information retrieval by using different query expansion techniques and apply a linear combinations between them, where the combinations was linearly between two expansion results at one time. Query expansions expand the search query, for example, by finding synonyms and reweighting original terms. They provide significantly more focused, particularized search results than do basic search queries. The retrieval performance is measured by some variants of MAP (Mean Average Precision) and according to our experimental results, the combination of best results of query expansion is enhanced the retrieved documents and outperforms our baseline by 21.06 %, even it outperforms a previous study by 7.12 %. We propose several query expansion techniques and their combinations (linearly) to make user queries more cognizable to search engines and to produce higher-quality search results.

  10. The I4 Online Query Tool for Earth Observations Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Vanderbloemen, Lisa A.; Lawrence, Samuel J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) delivers an average of 22 terabytes per day of data collected by orbital and airborne sensor systems to end users through an integrated online search environment (the Reverb/ECHO system). Earth observations data collected by sensors on the International Space Station (ISS) are not currently included in the EOSDIS system, and are only accessible through various individual online locations. This increases the effort required by end users to query multiple datasets, and limits the opportunity for data discovery and innovations in analysis. The Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center has collaborated with the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University (ASU) to develop the ISS Instrument Integration Implementation (I4) data query tool to provide end users a clean, simple online interface for querying both current and historical ISS Earth Observations data. The I4 interface is based on the Lunaserv and Lunaserv Global Explorer (LGE) open-source software packages developed at ASU for query of lunar datasets. In order to avoid mirroring existing databases - and the need to continually sync/update those mirrors - our design philosophy is for the I4 tool to be a pure query engine only. Once an end user identifies a specific scene or scenes of interest, I4 transparently takes the user to the appropriate online location to download the data. The tool consists of two public-facing web interfaces. The Map Tool provides a graphic geobrowser environment where the end user can navigate to an area of interest and select single or multiple datasets to query. The Map Tool displays active image footprints for the selected datasets (Figure 1). Selecting a footprint will open a pop-up window that includes a browse image and a link to available image metadata, along with a link to the online location to order or

  11. Privacy-Aware Location Database Service for Granular Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyomoto, Shinsaku; Martin, Keith M.; Fukushima, Kazuhide

    Future mobile markets are expected to increasingly embrace location-based services. This paper presents a new system architecture for location-based services, which consists of a location database and distributed location anonymizers. The service is privacy-aware in the sense that the location database always maintains a degree of anonymity. The location database service permits three different levels of query and can thus be used to implement a wide range of location-based services. Furthermore, the architecture is scalable and employs simple functions that are similar to those found in general database systems.

  12. LOGMIS Programmed Texts, Tests and Answers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    This publication contains the programmed text and related test and answer booklets produced to teach field users correct procedures for utilization of the Army’s Logistics Management Information System (LOGMIS). It was prepared by ARINC Research Corporation under Contract DAEA18-77-C-0184 for the Logistics Evaluation Branch, Plans and Programs Division of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Logistics, U.S. Army Communications Command. (Author)

  13. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-29

    COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides health care services through either Department of Defense (DOD...medical facilities, known as “military treatment facilities” or “MTFs” as space is available, or, through private health care providers. Known as “Tricare

  14. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-14

    providers, subject to regulations. Certain types of care , such as most dentistry and chiropractic services, are excluded. In addition to Tricare...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides health care services through either Department of Defense (DOD) medical

  15. Relevance Feedback Based Query Expansion Model Using Borda Count and Semantic Similarity Approach

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jagendra; Sharan, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    Pseudo-Relevance Feedback (PRF) is a well-known method of query expansion for improving the performance of information retrieval systems. All the terms of PRF documents are not important for expanding the user query. Therefore selection of proper expansion term is very important for improving system performance. Individual query expansion terms selection methods have been widely investigated for improving its performance. Every individual expansion term selection method has its own weaknesses and strengths. To overcome the weaknesses and to utilize the strengths of the individual method, we used multiple terms selection methods together. In this paper, first the possibility of improving the overall performance using individual query expansion terms selection methods has been explored. Second, Borda count rank aggregation approach is used for combining multiple query expansion terms selection methods. Third, the semantic similarity approach is used to select semantically similar terms with the query after applying Borda count ranks combining approach. Our experimental results demonstrated that our proposed approaches achieved a significant improvement over individual terms selection method and related state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26770189

  16. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV…

  17. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV…

  18. War Is Not the Answer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst J.

    1989-01-01

    Concludes that a war on drugs is not the answer to the problem of drug abuse in the United States. Stresses that the hostile atmosphere generated by the overemphasis upon interdiction and enforcement of penalties undermines the healing and restoring efforts needed in reducing the individual's demand for drugs. (KO)

  19. War Is Not the Answer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst J.

    1989-01-01

    Concludes that a war on drugs is not the answer to the problem of drug abuse in the United States. Stresses that the hostile atmosphere generated by the overemphasis upon interdiction and enforcement of penalties undermines the healing and restoring efforts needed in reducing the individual's demand for drugs. (KO)

  20. Timing Students' Answers in CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of limiting response time for students' answers focuses on a study of Israeli elementary students that investigated the effects on their performance of increasing the response time in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for arithmetic drill and practice. Effects on high- versus low-aptitude students, and younger versus older, are…