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Sample records for question general science

  1. Relationships of General Vocabulary, Science Vocabulary, and Student Questioning with Science Comprehension in Students with Varying Levels of English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taboada, Ana

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of general vocabulary knowledge, science vocabulary knowledge, and text based questioning on the science reading comprehension of three types of students who varied in their English language proficiency. Specifically, grade 5 English-Only speakers, English Language Learners in the United States, and students…

  2. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  3. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  4. Writing clinical scenarios for clinical science questions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Phil Em; Mucklow, John C

    2016-04-01

    Written knowledge assessments for physicians in training typically involve multiple-choice questions that use a clinical scenario in a single-best-answer format. The Royal College of Physicians Part 1 MRCP(UK) examination includes basic sciences themes that are challenging to assess through a clinical scenario. A realistic clinical setting based on everyday clinical practice and integral to the question is the clearest demonstration that the knowledge being assessed is clinically relevant. However, without special attention to detail, the scenario in a clinical science question can appear redundant or artificial. Reading unnecessary material frustrates candidates and threatens the reputation of the assessment. In this paper we discuss why a clinical scenario is important for basic science questions and offer advice on setting realistic and plausible clinical scenarios for such questions.

  5. Science in General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    General education must develop in students an appreciation of the power of science, how it works, why it is an effective knowledge generation tool, and what it can deliver. Knowing what science has discovered is desirable but less important.

  6. Differential Effects of Science Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential effects on low and high verbal students of verbatim study questions adjunct to a text describing science concepts. The sample consisted of 217 eighth grade students enrolled in twelve Calgary (Alberta, Canada) schools. Materials developed for the study included an introduction to the…

  7. Science Fiction and the Big Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, M.

    Advocates of space science promote investment in science education and the development of new technologies necessary for space travel. Success in these areas requires an increase of interest and support among the general public. What role can entertainment media play in inspiring the public ­ especially young people ­ to support the development of space science? Such inspiration is badly needed. Science education and funding in the United States are in a state of crisis. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. This paper draws on interviews with professionals in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields, as well as students interested in those fields. The interviewees were asked about their lifelong media-viewing habits. Analysis of these interviews, along with examples from popular culture, suggests that science fiction can be a valuable tool for space advocates. Specifically, the aspects of character, story, and special effects can provide viewers with inspiration and a sense of wonder regarding space science and the prospect of long-term human space exploration.

  8. Where can I get help with science questions?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    Please submit your science questions directly to the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center's (ASDC's) User Services. They will forward them to the volunteer scientists assigned to the ERBE data sets. Since the ERBE project has...

  9. Question Stems and Stories to Stimulate Science!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Fox Hill Primary School is part of a family of schools in Sheffield that is piloting the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust Primary Specialism for Science. In parallel to this work, Fox Hill participated in the Smarter Schools project from September 2008-2009. This project, funded by the AstraZeneca Science Teaching Trust, was set up by the…

  10. Using "What If.." Questions to Teach Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kok Siang

    2007-01-01

    With the widening knowledge base students will need to be more flexible in their learning habits. Traditionally, teaching school science often involves teacher-centred methods like lectures, experimental demonstration or guided inquiry. Plain knowledge dissemination will not adequately prepare students to cope with the changing world. Hence,…

  11. Student and Teacher Questioning during Conversations about Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily H.; Iwasyk, Marletta; Kurose, Akiko; Simpson, Dorothy; Wild, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes case studies developed by a group of collaborating educators. Investigates ways of speaking that encourage students to formulate insightful questions about science topics and express their own ideas during reflective discussions. (Contains 68 references.) (Author/YDS)

  12. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic and Genomic Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... used on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic and Genomic Science What are genetics and genomics? ... genetic and genomic technologies? Additional Resources What are genetics and genomics? Genetics is a term that refers ...

  13. Power Dynamics and Questioning in Elementary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinsvold, Lori A.; Cochran, Kathryn F.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the dynamic discourse interactions between a teacher and her students in a third-grade science classroom. We focused on how the teacher and students initiate, prompt, respond, and provide feedback; use questioning and power strategies; and how questions are associated with power dynamics. We relate the consequences of teacher use of…

  14. Enhancing Science Kits with the Driving Question Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordine, Jeff; Torres, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the driving question board (DQB), a visual organizer that supports inquiry-based instruction through the use of guiding questions. The DQB is a teaching aid designed to increase student engagement alongside science kits. Information is provided on its application to a lesson on buoyancy, highlighting how it improved…

  15. Supporting Argumentation through Students' Questions: Case Studies in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how student-generated questions can support argumentation in science. Students were asked to discuss which of two graphs showing the change in temperature with time when ice is heated to steam was correct. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years, from two countries, first wrote questions about the phenomenon. Then, working…

  16. Encouraging Citizenship in Science Education: Continuing Questions and Hopeful Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blades, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of the "Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics and Technology Education" invokes questions intended to further the discourse of citizenship in science and mathematics education, such as, How do we define "citizen" and "democracy"? Is our call for student action hypocritical? Does positioning…

  17. Power dynamics and questioning in elementary science lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinsvold, Lori Ann

    Discourse interactions between a teacher and students in an inquiry-based fourth-grade science classroom were analyzed to investigate how power dynamics and questioning strategies within elementary science lessons help support students in building their science understanding. Five inquiry-based classroom sessions were observed; verbal interactions were audio- and video-recorded. Research data consisted of observation transcripts, teacher interviews, student work, and instructional materials. Analyses were conducted on the frequencies of utterances, participation roles, power categories, and questioning categories. Results revealed that when students used more frequent power, (a) no significant differences were noted between frequencies of teacher and student talk, (b) the teacher posed more questions than did the students, and (c) students explained what they knew and asked questions to clarify their understanding. When the teacher used more frequent power, she asked questions to provide students opportunities to negotiate investigative processes and explain what they knew and how they knew it. Evidence of student understanding of the science concepts was found in how students used subject matter to discuss what they knew and how they knew it. Pre-service and in-service teachers should be encouraged to consider how their use of power and questioning strategies can engage students to reflect on how they build understanding of science concepts. Teachers can use Professional Learning Communities to reflect on how their practice engages students. Future research should be employed to observe classrooms across an entire school year to determine how power and questioning dynamics flow among students and teachers and change over time. Research can also be used to understand the influence of gender and culture on power and questioning dynamics in classroom settings.

  18. Student questions in urban middle school science communities of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groome, Meghan

    This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation. Their access to participation was blocked by participation frameworks that elevated some students as "gatekeepers" while suppressing the participation of others. The next two studies detail the introduction of written questioning opportunities, one into a public middle school classroom and the other into an informal classroom. In both studies, students responded to the interventions differently, most notable the adoption of the opportunity by female students who do not participate orally. Dissertation-wide findings indicate all students were able to ask questions, but varied in level of cognitive complexity, and the diagnostic interventions were able to identify students who were not known to be "target students", students who asked a high number of questions and were considered "interested in science". Some students' roles were as "gatekeepers" to participation of their peers. Two out of three teachers in the studies reported major shifts in their teaching practice due to the focus on questions and the methods used here have been found to be effective in producing educational research as well as supporting high-need classrooms in prior research. In conclusion, these studies indicate that social factors, including participation frameworks, gender dynamics, and the availability of alternative participation methods, play an important role in how students ask science-related questions. It is recommended that researchers continue to examine social factors that reduce student questions and modify their teaching strategies to facilitate

  19. Cosmic Questions: Engaging science museum audiences with current astronomical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussault, M.; Gould, R.; Sneider, C.; Cohen, S.

    2003-05-01

    "Cosmic Questions: Our Place in Space and Time" is a major new traveling exhibition and education project that will enable millions of Americans to learn how recent discoveries have shed light on-and raised new questions about-our place in the cosmos. Created by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory with funding from the National Science Foundation and from NASA's Office of Space Science, the highly interactive exhibition opened at Boston's Museum of Science this past fall. In February 2003 it began its 3-year national tour under the management of the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Staff from the Museum of Science, in partnership with the CfA, developed a comprehensive set of educational programs, activities and events for museum staff, for teachers and students, and for public audiences. Both the exhibition and accompanying programs involve audiences in learning about the tools, techniques, and research that have allowed us to find some amazing answers to such enduring questions as: What is our place in the universe? Was there a beginning to time? How do we fit in? Evaluation data- including extensive observations, exit interviews, and follow-up phone surveys- suggest that a large majority of visitors could describe new learning and articulate new questions they had as a result of experiencing Cosmic Questions exhibits and programs. Indeed, the evaluation report states that "those interviewed often volunteered an unusual amount of reflective comments compared to visitors at other exhibits." This presentation will highlight how the content, approach, design, development and implementation of this project were (and continue to be) shaped by the significant involvement and contributions of astronomers, observatories and space science education and public outreach programs.

  20. The Method of Knowing: Using Children's Questions in Elementary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    An elementary school teacher changed his teaching approach to one based on John Dewey's philosophy that science should be taught as a method of inquiry, not as a fixed body of knowledge. Students were encouraged to formulate scientific questions and work together in establishing experimental procedures. (LP)

  1. Social Science in Medicine: The Question of "Relevance."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begun, James W.; Rieker, Patricia P.

    1980-01-01

    Initial efforts at the University of North Carolina to develop a social science curriculum that is relevant to medical practice are reported. Descriptions of course content, format, teaching strategies, and course evaluation are included with a focus on the question of relevance. (Author/JMD)

  2. Answers to Teachers' Questions about the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workosky, Cindy; Willard, Ted

    2015-01-01

    K-12 teachers of science have been digging into the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (NGSS Lead States 2013) to begin creating plans and processes for translating them for classroom instruction. As teachers learn about the "NGSS," they have asked about the general structure of the standards document and how to read…

  3. Answers to Teachers' Questions about the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workosky, Cindy; Willard, Ted

    2015-01-01

    K-12 teachers of science have been digging into the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") (NGSS Lead States 2013) to begin creating plans and processes for translating them for classroom instruction. As teachers learn about the NGSS, they have asked about the general structure of the standards document and how to read…

  4. Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children.…

  5. Examining student-generated questions in an elementary science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Juan Francisco, Jr.

    This study was conducted to better understand how teachers use an argument-based inquiry technique known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach to address issues on teaching, learning, negotiation, argumentation, and elaboration in an elementary science classroom. Within the SWH framework, this study traced the progress of promoting argumentation and negotiation (which led to student-generated questions) during a discussion in an elementary science classroom. Speech patterns during various classroom scenarios were analyzed to understand how teacher--student interactions influence learning. This study uses a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative aspect of the study is an analysis of teacher--student interactions in the classroom using video recordings. The quantitative aspect uses descriptive statistics, tables, and plots to analyze the data. The subjects in this study were fifth grade students and teachers from an elementary school in the Midwest, during the academic years 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The three teachers selected for this study teach at the same Midwestern elementary school. These teachers were purposely selected because they were using the SWH approach during the two years of the study. The results of this study suggest that all three teachers moved from using teacher-generated questions to student-generated questions as they became more familiar with the SWH approach. In addition, all three promoted the use of the components of arguments in their dialogs and discussions and encouraged students to elaborate, challenge, and rebut each other's ideas in a non-threatening environment. This research suggests that even young students, when actively participating in class discussions, are capable of connecting their claims and evidence and generating questions of a higher-order cognitive level. These findings demand the implementation of more professional development programs and the improvement in teacher education to help

  6. Using questions sent to an Ask-A-Scientist site to identify children's interests in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Sethi, Ricky J.; Bry, Lynn; Yarden, Anat

    2006-11-01

    Interest is a powerful motivator; nonetheless, science educators often lack the necessary information to make use of the power of student-specific interests in the reform process of science curricula. This study suggests a novel methodology, which might be helpful in identifying such interests - using children's self-generated questions as an indication of their scientific interests. In this research, children's interests were measured by analyzing 1555 science-related questions submitted to an international Ask-A-Scientist Internet site. The analysis indicated that the popularity of certain topics varies with age and gender. Significant differences were found between children's spontaneous (intrinsically motivated) and school-related (extrinsically motivated) interests. Surprisingly, girls contributed most of the questions to the sample; however, the number of American girls dropped upon entering senior high school. We also found significant differences between girls' and boys' interests, with girls generally preferring biological topics. The two genders kept to their stereotypic fields of interest, in both their school-related and spontaneous questions. Children's science interests, as inferred from questions to Web sites, could ultimately inform classroom science teaching. This methodology extends the context in which children's interests can be investigated.

  7. The science and questions surrounding chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ban, Vin Shen; Madden, Christopher J; Bailes, Julian E; Hunt Batjer, H; Lonser, Russell R

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the pathobiology, causes, associated factors, incidence and prevalence, and natural history of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) have been debated. Data from retrospective case series and high-profile media reports have fueled public fear and affected the medical community's understanding of the role of sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the development of CTE. There are a number of limitations posed by the current evidence that can lead to confusion within the public and scientific community. In this paper, the authors address common questions surrounding the science of CTE and propose future research directions.

  8. Big questions, big science: meeting the challenges of global ecology.

    PubMed

    Schimel, David; Keller, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Ecologists are increasingly tackling questions that require significant infrastucture, large experiments, networks of observations, and complex data and computation. Key hypotheses in ecology increasingly require more investment, and larger data sets to be tested than can be collected by a single investigator's or s group of investigator's labs, sustained for longer than a typical grant. Large-scale projects are expensive, so their scientific return on the investment has to justify the opportunity cost-the science foregone because resources were expended on a large project rather than supporting a number of individual projects. In addition, their management must be accountable and efficient in the use of significant resources, requiring the use of formal systems engineering and project management to mitigate risk of failure. Mapping the scientific method into formal project management requires both scientists able to work in the context, and a project implementation team sensitive to the unique requirements of ecology. Sponsoring agencies, under pressure from external and internal forces, experience many pressures that push them towards counterproductive project management but a scientific community aware and experienced in large project science can mitigate these tendencies. For big ecology to result in great science, ecologists must become informed, aware and engaged in the advocacy and governance of large ecological projects.

  9. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  10. National Institute of General Medical Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Over Navigation Links National Institute of General Medical Sciences Site Map Staff Search My Order Search the ... NIGMS Website Research Funding Research Training News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS Feature Slides View All Slides ...

  11. Managing Affect in Learners' Questions in Undergraduate Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to position students' classroom questioning within the literature surrounding affect and its impact on learning. The article consists of two main sections. First, the act of questioning is discussed in order to highlight how affect shapes the process of questioning, and a four-part genesis to question-asking that we call…

  12. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  13. "Question Moments": A Rolling Programme of Question Opportunities in Classroom Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Leite, Sara; Watts, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This naturalistic study integrates specific "question moments" into lesson plans to increase pupils' classroom interactions. A range of tools explored students' ideas by providing students with opportunities to ask and write questions. Their oral and written outcomes provide data on individual and group misunderstandings. Changes to the…

  14. `Question Moments': A Rolling Programme of Question Opportunities in Classroom Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Leite, Sara; Watts, Mike

    2016-06-01

    This naturalistic study integrates specific `question moments' into lesson plans to increase pupils' classroom interactions. A range of tools explored students' ideas by providing students with opportunities to ask and write questions. Their oral and written outcomes provide data on individual and group misunderstandings. Changes to the schedule of lessons were introduced to explore these questions and address disparities. Flexible lesson planning over 14 lessons across a 4-week period of high school chemistry accommodated students' contributions and increased student participation, promoted inquiring and individualised teaching, with each teaching strategy feeding forward into the next.

  15. Answers to Science Questions from the "Stop Faking It!" Guy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular "Science 101" columns, from NSTA member journal "Science and Children," proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling "Stop Faking It!" series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to…

  16. Question: Do Standardized Tests Measure General Cognitive Skills? Answer: No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Costa, Arthur L.

    1988-01-01

    When the Stanford and CTBS achievement batteries were analyzed, two major findings emerged: (1) the test items included only nine of the 22 general cognitive operations; and (2) the required general cognitive operations had little to do with student achievement on these tests. Implications and alternative assessment techniques are discussed.…

  17. General Atomics Science Education Outreach Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Patricia S.

    1996-11-01

    Motivated by a desire to improve science literacy and to help the current generation of students to be more prepared for an increasingly technological future, General Atomics has been a leader in science education outreach to local K-12 schools. Through its nonprofit ``Sciences Education Foundation,'' and in cooperation with local science teachers, General Atomics has sponsored a variety of education activities and developed several science teaching units including Fusion --- Energy of the Stars; An Exploration of Materials Science, Recombinant DNA Technology; Environmental Radioactivity; and Energy from the Atom. Printed materials and laboratory kits for ``hands-on'' teaching units have been made available to over 600 teachers (from over 175 schools) who have attended General Atomics sponsored workshops, and presentations at education and professional meetings. Additional outreach activities include school partnerships, facility tours, and mentoring programs.

  18. A comparative study of six decades of general science textbooks: Evaluating the evolution of science content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Anna

    This study examined science textbooks over time to better understand the science content expectations that the U.S. educational system deems appropriate for 8th and 9th grade science students. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What specific science content has been presented via the textbook from 1952 to 2008? (2) Within which areas and in what way does the science content change? (3) Are new scientific findings reflected in 8th and 9th grade U.S. general science textbooks? Twenty-six themes were identified which reflect five areas in science: Chemistry, Physics, Earth Science, Biology, and Process of Science. Trends in science content in U.S. 8th and 9th grade general science textbooks, as revealed by this data sample, indicated no statistically significant change in depth of coverage in Physics and Process of Science over the past 60 years, no significant change in depth of coverage in Earth Science and Biology in the last 40 years, and no significant change in coverage in Chemistry over the last 30 years. Additionally, a total of sixteen new discoveries were found in the textbook sample. For classroom teachers this information may alert them to the necessity of going beyond the textbook in preparing students for life in a global society. In educational practice, this research supports and reinforces the need for inquiry learning and socioscientific curricula. It may also influence educators to challenge assumptions regarding the value and selection of the traditional classic science content.

  19. SOFIA general investigator science program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Erick T.; Andersson, B.-G.; Becklin, Eric E.; Reach, William T.; Sankrit, Ravi; Zinnecker, Hans; Krabbe, Alfred

    2014-07-01

    SOFIA is a joint project between NASA and DLR, the German Aerospace Center, to provide the worldwide astronomical community with an observatory that offers unique capabilities from visible to far-infrared wavelengths. SOFIA consists of a 2.7-m telescope mounted in a highly modified Boeing 747-SP aircraft, a suite of instruments, and the scientific and operational infrastructure to support the observing program. This paper describes the current status of the observatory and details the General Investigator program. The observatory has recently completed major development activities, and it has transitioned into full operational status. Under the General Investigator program, astronomers submit proposals that are peer reviewed for observation on the facility. We describe the results from the first two cycles of the General Investigator program. We also describe some of the new observational capabilities that will be available for Cycle 3, which will begin in 2015.

  20. Big Questions and Little Children: Science and Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Louise

    This resource pamphlet is intended to acquaint the Head Start teacher with the possibilities of teaching science in a preschool program for disadvantaged children. Introductory sections stress the importance of including science in a Head Start program, briefly indicate how to use the pamphlet, and suggest some things to seek and avoid. A section…

  1. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

    1993-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated space facilities we discuss the overall nature of some biological questions that can be addressed. We point out the need for broad participation by the biological community, the necessary facilities, and some unique requirements.

  2. Redesigning a General Education Science Course to Promote Critical Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Matthew P.; Gillespie, B. Marcus; Harris, Kevin R.; Koether, Steven D.; Shannon, Li-Jen Y.; Rose, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies question the effectiveness of a traditional university curriculum in helping students improve their critical thinking and scientific literacy. We developed an introductory, general education (gen ed) science course to overcome both deficiencies. The course, titled Foundations of Science, differs from most gen ed science offerings in that it is interdisciplinary; emphasizes the nature of science along with, rather than primarily, the findings of science; incorporates case studies, such as the vaccine-autism controversy; teaches the basics of argumentation and logical fallacies; contrasts science with pseudoscience; and addresses psychological factors that might otherwise lead students to reject scientific ideas they find uncomfortable. Using a pretest versus posttest design, we show that students who completed the experimental course significantly improved their critical-thinking skills and were more willing to engage scientific theories the general public finds controversial (e.g., evolution), while students who completed a traditional gen ed science course did not. Our results demonstrate that a gen ed science course emphasizing the process and application of science rather than just scientific facts can lead to improved critical thinking and scientific literacy. PMID:26231561

  3. Redesigning a General Education Science Course to Promote Critical Thinking.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Matthew P; Gillespie, B Marcus; Harris, Kevin R; Koether, Steven D; Shannon, Li-Jen Y; Rose, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies question the effectiveness of a traditional university curriculum in helping students improve their critical thinking and scientific literacy. We developed an introductory, general education (gen ed) science course to overcome both deficiencies. The course, titled Foundations of Science, differs from most gen ed science offerings in that it is interdisciplinary; emphasizes the nature of science along with, rather than primarily, the findings of science; incorporates case studies, such as the vaccine-autism controversy; teaches the basics of argumentation and logical fallacies; contrasts science with pseudoscience; and addresses psychological factors that might otherwise lead students to reject scientific ideas they find uncomfortable. Using a pretest versus posttest design, we show that students who completed the experimental course significantly improved their critical-thinking skills and were more willing to engage scientific theories the general public finds controversial (e.g., evolution), while students who completed a traditional gen ed science course did not. Our results demonstrate that a gen ed science course emphasizing the process and application of science rather than just scientific facts can lead to improved critical thinking and scientific literacy.

  4. Revisiting the Authoritative-Dialogic Tension in Inquiry-Based Elementary Science Teacher Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Booven, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Building on the "questioning-based discourse analytical" framework developed by Singapore-based science educator and discourse analyst, Christine Chin, this study investigated the extent to which fifth-grade science teachers' use of questions with either an authoritative or dialogic orientation differentially restricted or expanded the…

  5. Negotiating the question: using science-manager communication to develop management-relevant science products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beechie, T. J.; Snover, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Natural resource managers often ask scientists to answer questions that cannot be answered, and scientists commonly offer research that is not useful to managers. To produce management-relevant science, managers and scientists must communicate clearly to identify research that is scientifically doable and will produce results that managers find useful. Scientists might also consider that journals with high impact scores are rarely used by managers, while managers might consider that publishing in top tier journals is important to maintain scientific credentials. We offer examples from climate change and river restoration research, in which agency scientists and managers worked together to identify key management questions that scientists could answer and which could inform management. In our first example, we describe how climate scientists worked with agency staff to develop guidance for selecting appropriate climate change scenarios for use in ecological impacts assessments and Endangered Species Act decision making. Within NOAA Fisheries, agency researchers provide science to guide agency managers, and a key question has been how to adapt river restoration efforts for climate change. Based on discussions with restoration practitioners and agency staff, we developed adaptation guidance that summarizes current science to lead managers to develop climate-resilient restoration plans, as well as maps of population vulnerability for endangered steelhead. From these experiences we have learned that collaborative definition of relevant and producible knowledge requires (1) iterative discussions that go beyond simply asking managers what they need or scientists what they can produce, and (2) candid conversation about the intended applications and potential limitations of the knowledge.

  6. General Relativity and Cosmology: Unsolved Questions and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debono, Ivan; Smoot, George F.

    2016-09-01

    For the last 100 years, General Relativity (GR) has taken over the gravitational theory mantle held by Newtonian Gravity for the previous 200 years. This article reviews the status of GR in terms of its self-consistency, completeness, and the evidence provided by observations, which have allowed GR to remain the champion of gravitational theories against several other classes of competing theories. We pay particular attention to the role of GR and gravity in cosmology, one of the areas in which one gravity dominates and new phenomena and effects challenge the orthodoxy. We also review other areas where there are likely conflicts pointing to the need to replace or revise GR to represent correctly observations and consistent theoretical framework. Observations have long been key both to the theoretical liveliness and viability of GR.We conclude with a discussion of the likely developments over the next 100 years.

  7. Investigating Turkish Primary School Students' Interest in Science by Using Their Self-Generated Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakmakci, Gultekin; Sevindik, Hatice; Pektas, Meryem; Uysal, Asli; Kole, Fatma; Kavak, Gamze

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports on an attempt to investigate Turkish primary school students' interest in science by using their self-generated questions. We investigated students' interest in science by analyzing 1704 self-generated science-related questions. Among them, 826 questions were submitted to a popular science magazine called Science and Children. Such a self-selected sample may represent a group of students who have a higher level of motivation to seek sources of information outside their formal education and have more access to resources than the students of low social classes. To overcome this problem, 739 students were asked to write a question that they wanted to learn from a scientist and as a result 878 questions were gathered. Those students were selected from 13 different schools at 9 cities in Turkey. These schools were selected to represent a mixture of socioeconomic areas and also to cover different students' profile. Students' questions were classified into two main categories: the field of interest and the cognitive level of the question. The results point to the popularity of biology, astrophysics, nature of scientific inquiry, technology and physics over other science areas, as well as indicating a difference in interest according to gender, grade level and the setting in which the questions were asked. However, our study suggests that only considering questions submitted to informal learning environments, such as popular science magazines or Ask-A-Scientist Internet sites has limitations and deficiencies. Other methodologies of data collection also need to be considered in designing teaching and school science curriculum to meet students' needs and interest. The findings from our study tend to challenge existing thinking from other studies. Our results show that self-generated questions asked in an informal and a formal setting have different patterns. Some aspects of students' self-generated questions and their implications for policy, science

  8. Generating Testable Questions in the Science Classroom: The BDC Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, ChingMei; Chen, Shu-Bi Shu-Bi; Chang, Wen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Guiding students to generate testable scientific questions is essential in the inquiry classroom, but it is not easy. The purpose of the BDC ("Big Idea, Divergent Thinking, and Convergent Thinking") instructional model is to to scaffold students' inquiry learning. We illustrate the use of this model with an example lesson, designed…

  9. Using Art to Teach Students Science Outdoors: How Creative Science Instruction Influences Observation, Question Formation, and Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Christina Schull

    Elementary education has become increasingly divided into subjects and focused on the demand for high math and reading scores. Consequently, teachers spend less time devoted to science and art instruction. However, teaching art and science is crucial to developing creative and rational thinking, especially for observation and questioning skills. In this study, third grade students attending an urban school in Portland, Oregon received instruction of an art strategy using observational and quantifying drawing techniques. This study examines, "Will an art strategy observing the local environment help students make observations and ask questions?" and "In what ways are student learning and perspectives of science affected by the art strategy?" The independent variable is the art strategy developed for this study. There are three dependent variables: quality of student observations, quality of questions, and themes on student learning and perspectives of science. I predicted students would develop strong observation and questioning skills and that students would find the strategy useful or have an increased interest in science. The art scores were high for relevance and detail, but not for text. There were significant correlations between art scores and questions. Interviews revealed three themes: observations create questions, drawing is helpful and challenging, and students connected to science. By examining science through art, students were engaged and created strong observations and questions. Teachers need to balance unstructured drawing time with scaffolding for optimal results. This study provides an integrated science and art strategy that teachers can use outdoors or adapt for the classroom.

  10. Sciences and the global: on methods, questions, and theory.

    PubMed

    Sivasundaram, Sujit

    2010-03-01

    This essay explores the mechanics of researching and writing globally oriented histories of science. Thinking about how to approach sources is vital, especially given how often historians of science use the excuse of a lack of sources for constraining their projects to European topics. The first section suggests a method of cross-contextualization, where scarce and unorthodox sources are read within and alongside more plentiful and traditional ones. The next section considers historiography, critiquing the continuing hold of the terms "colonial" and "national" in current work that aspires to be more global. The final section considers practice and network theory, asking whether the way we utilize these tools in fact returns us, instinctively, to European and Eurocentric ways of conceiving how science works.

  11. Questions about STDP as a General Model of Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Lisman, John; Spruston, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    According to spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), the timing of the Na+ spike relative to the EPSP determines whether LTP or LTD will occur. Here, we review our reservations about STDP. Most investigations of this process have been done under conditions in which the spike is evoked by postsynaptic current injection. Under more realistic conditions, in which the spike is evoked by the EPSP, the results do not generally support STDP. For instance, low-frequency stimulation of a group of synapses can cause LTD, not the LTP predicted by the pre-before-post sequence in STDP; this is true regardless of whether or not the EPSP is large enough to produce a Na+ spike. With stronger or more frequent stimulation, LTP can be induced by the same pre-before-post timing, but in this case block of Na+ spikes does not necessarily prevent LTP induction. Thus, Na+ spikes may facilitate LTP and/or LTD under some conditions, but they are not necessary, a finding consistent with their small size relative to the EPSP in many parts of pyramidal cell dendrites. The nature of the dendritic depolarizing events that control bidirectional plasticity is of central importance to understanding neural function. There are several candidates, including backpropagating action potentials, but also dendritic Ca2+ spikes, the AMPA receptor-mediated EPSP, and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSPs or spikes. These often appear to be more important than the Na+ spike in providing the depolarization necessary for plasticity. We thus feel that it is premature to accept STDP-like processes as the major determinant of LTP/LTD. PMID:21423526

  12. Opportunities and questions for the fundamental biological sciences in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.; Vernikos, Joan

    1992-01-01

    The nature of biological issues which can be addressed during long-term space missions is briefly discussed. These issues include structure, from cell to organ to organism; function, the regulation of systems such as immunology, neural sciences, and behavior; and reproduction and development.

  13. A Question of Ethics: Themes in the Science Fiction Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNurlin, Kathleen Woitel

    1995-01-01

    Continues an article that began in the summer 1995 "Interdisciplinary Humanities." Examines ethical concerns about nuclear power, societal control, and prejudice articulated in science fiction literature. Authors studied include Ray Bradbury, Philip K. Dick, and Damon Knight. The earlier article covered literature concerned with ecology…

  14. Let the Questions Be Your Guide: MBE as Interdisciplinary Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, L. Todd; Daley, Samantha G.; Rose, David H.

    2011-01-01

    From its inception, the field of Mind, Brain, and Education (MBE) has been conceived as an interdisciplinary science, and with good reason: The phenomena the field aims to understand often arise from interactions among multiple factors, span levels of analysis, and are context dependent. In this article, we argue that to reach its potential as an…

  15. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about the Indian Environmental General Assistance Program (GAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Answers to frequently asked questions about the Indian Environmental General Assistance Program (GAP) Guidance on the Award and Management of General Assistance Agreements for Tribes and Intertribal Consortia (Guidance)

  17. Interactions between Classroom Discourse, Teacher Questioning, and Student Cognitive Engagement in Middle School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Julie B.; Marshall, Jeff C.

    2013-01-01

    Classroom discourse can affect various aspects of student learning in science. The present study examines interactions between classroom discourse, specifically teacher questioning, and related student cognitive engagement in middle school science. Observations were conducted throughout the school year in 10 middle school science classrooms using…

  18. Managing for biodiversity unresolved science and policy questions

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, W.E. )

    1990-01-01

    A discussion is presented of efficient strategies for species preservationin spite of continued human alteration of the environment. Current policy and unresolved questions are included in the discussion. Incentives to maintain seminatural areas as a conservation strategy are recommended: planting of hedgerows or windbreaks to provide corridors for migration of species during climate change; purchase of development rights of natural and seminatural land for conversion to park reserves when climate stabilizes; use of intercropping, traditional forest gardens and crop plantings in the tropics; and maintenance of seminatural habitats on public and private lands.

  19. Posing the questions that science has not asked

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, N.

    1995-12-31

    The author addresses the changing environment for research at American universities as they deal with a swiftly changing world. The next few years are viewed as a transition from traditional approaches to university research. Integration of research and teaching is examined since the approach widely varies among colleges and universities. The research infrastructure is viewed as crumbling or obsolete. The role of the National Science Foundation and its methodology for managing research grants is discussed in detail. The nation has real needs and problems in which our scientific laboratories can provide valuable assistance.

  20. Burning Questions in Gravity-Dependent Combustion Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David; Chiaramonte, Francis P.

    2012-01-01

    Building upon a long history of spaceflight and ground based research, NASA's Combustion Science program has accumulated a significant body of accomplishments on the ISS. Historically, NASAs low-gravity combustion research program has sought: to provide a more complete understanding of the fundamental controlling processes in combustion by identifying simpler one-dimensional systems to eliminate the complex interactions between the buoyant flow and the energy feedback to the reaction zone to provide realistic simulation of the fire risk in manned spacecraft and to enable practical simulation of the gravitational environment experienced by reacting systems in future spacecraft. Over the past two decades, low-gravity combustion research has focused primarily on increasing our understanding of fundamental combustion processes (e.g. droplet combustion, soot, flame spread, smoldering, and gas-jet flames). This research program was highly successful and was aided by synergistic programs in Europe and in Japan. Overall improvements were made in our ability to model droplet combustion in spray combustors (e.g. jet engines), predict flame spread, predict soot production, and detect and prevent spacecraft fires. These results provided a unique dataset that supports both an active research discipline and also spacecraft fire safety for current and future spacecraft. These experiments have been conducted using the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), the Microgravity Science Glovebox and the Express Rack. In this paper, we provide an overview of the earlier space shuttle experiments, the recent ISS combustion experiments in addition to the studies planned for the future. Experiments in combustion include topics such as droplet combustion, gaseous diffusion flames, solid fuels, premixed flame studies, fire safety, and super critical oxidation processes.

  1. What's in a Domain: Understanding How Students Approach Questioning in History and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Lindsay Blau; Rabinowitz, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    How students ask questions as they learn has implications for understanding, retention, and problem solving. The current research investigates the influence of domain, age, and previous experience with content on the ways students approach questioning across history and science texts. In 3 experiments, 3rd-, 8th-, and 10th-grade students in large…

  2. Question Types and Wait-Time during Science Related Activities in Turkish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günay Bilaloglu, Raziye; Aktas Arnas, Yasare; Yasar, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the types of questions that preschool teachers used during the science-related activities and preschool teachers' behaviors in terms of wait-time. Through this study, the types of questions (lower level and higher level), the time that teachers allocate to their students to respond, and the teachers'…

  3. Science Learning: A Path Analysis of Its Links with Reading Comprehension, Question-Asking in Class and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires…

  4. Managing ocean information in the digital era--events in Canada open questions about the role of marine science libraries.

    PubMed

    Wells, Peter G

    2014-06-15

    Information is the foundation of evidence-based policies for effective marine environmental protection and conservation. In Canada, the cutback of marine science libraries introduces key questions about the role of such institutions and the management of ocean information in the digital age. How vital are such libraries in the mission of studying and protecting the oceans? What is the fate and value of the massive grey literature holdings, including archival materials, much of which is not in digital form but which often contains vital data? How important is this literature generally in the marine environmental sciences? Are we likely to forget the history of the marine pollution field if our digital focus eclipses the need for and access to comprehensive collections and skilled information specialists? This paper explores these and other questions against the backdrop of unprecedented changes in the federal libraries, marine environmental science and legislation in Canada.

  5. Science Questions and Broad Outline of Technology Needs of the Decade 2013-2022

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SlIllon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present an overview of the top priority science questions outlined in the Planetary Exploration Decadal Survey, "Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022." The recommended mission portfolio, along with expected infrastructure challenges, should drive investments over the decade. The instrument and technology needs for the next decade will be presented, with a summary of progress since the Decadal.

  6. So much more than just a list: exploring the nature of critical questioning in undergraduate sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Moreira, Aurora; Lopes, Betina; Watts, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Background: Critical thinking is one of the very highest orders of cognitive abilities and a key competency in higher education. Asking questions is an important component of rich learning experiences, structurally embedded in the operations of critical thinking. Our clear sense is that critical thinking and, within that, critical questioning, is heavily context dependent, in the sense that is applied, used by critical learners in a contextualised way. Purpose: Our research deals with enhancing science undergraduates' critical questioning. We are interested in understanding and describing the nature and development of students' critical questioning. The purpose is to conceptualise critical questioning as a competency, into three domains - knowledge, skills and attitudes/dispositions. We have no interest in a taxonomic category of context-free question-types called 'critical questions'. In contrast, our view is that 'being a critical questioner' trades heavily on context. Sources of evidence: Four cases are considered as illuminative of the dimensions of science undergraduates' critical questioning. Data were collected in natural learning environments through non-participant observation, audio-taping teacher-students interactions and semi-structured interviews. Students' written material resulting from diverse learning tasks was also collected. Main argument: Our supposition is that one vehicle for achieving university students as critical thinkers is to enable them not just to ask critical questions, but to be critical questioners. We relate critical questioning to three domains: (1) context, (2) competency and (3) delivery, and propose a model based on illuminating examples of the in-classroom action. Conclusions: The dimensions of the competency-context-delivery model provide a framework for describing successful student critical questioning, showing that students' capacity to be critical can be developed. It is possible, in our view, to generate critical

  7. Revisiting the Authoritative-Dialogic Tension in Inquiry-Based Elementary Science Teacher Questioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Booven, Christopher D.

    2015-05-01

    Building on the 'questioning-based discourse analytical' framework developed by Singapore-based science educator and discourse analyst, Christine Chin, this study investigated the extent to which fifth-grade science teachers' use of questions with either an authoritative or dialogic orientation differentially restricted or expanded the quality and complexity of student responses in the USA. The author analyzed approximately 10 hours of classroom discourse from elementary science classrooms organized around inquiry-based science curricula and texts. Teacher questions and feedback were classified according to their dialogic orientation and contextually inferred structural purpose, while student understanding was operationalized as a dynamic interaction between cognitive process, syntacto-semantic complexity, and science knowledge type. The results of this study closely mirror Chin's and other scholars' findings that the fixed nature of authoritatively oriented questioning can dramatically limit students' opportunities to demonstrate higher order scientific understanding, while dialogically oriented questions, by contrast, often grant students the discursive space to demonstrate a greater breadth and depth of both canonical and self-generated knowledge. However, certain teacher questioning sequences occupying the 'middle ground' between maximal authoritativeness and dialogicity revealed patterns of meaningful, if isolated, instances of higher order thinking. Implications for classroom practice are discussed along with recommendations for future research.

  8. Selective attentional effects of textbook study questions on student learning in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, William G.

    A selective attentional model used to explain recent mathemagenic and related research findings also predicted that textbook study questions adjunct to a flow diagram focus students' attention more upon questioned information and less upon nonquestioned information. Furthermore, the chances of such dysfunctional selective attention are increased when students are provided with a mere sampling (partial set) of study questions covering only portions of the diagram and are decreased when students are provided with a population (complete set) of questions or a no-question treatment. As predicted, using the Newman-Keuls procedure (p <0.05), the population and no-question treatment groups outperformed the sampling-question group which, in turn, outperformed a placebo-control group. It was concluded that researchers and teachers should be aware that encouraging students to concentrate on selective portions of critical information can result in inadequate processing of such specialized science materials as flow diagrams.

  9. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie

    2017-02-01

    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.

  10. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie

    2015-12-01

    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.

  11. Data Analysis Questions for Science Subjects: A Resource Booklet. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This resource booklet is designed to supplement standard textbooks used in a science curriculum. The material serves as a syllabus for Year One and Year Two in the secondary science curriculum. Some of the topics presented in this general science syllabus include being a scientist, looking at living things, solvents and solutions, energy,…

  12. Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to add to the multifaceted discussion concerning neoliberalism and globalization out of two Cultural Studies of Science Education journal issues along with the recent Journal of Research in Science Teaching devoted to these topics. However, confronting the phenomena of globalization and neoliberalism will demand greater engagement with relevant sociopolitical thought in fields typically outside the purview of science education. Drawing from thinkers Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard, Judith Butler, and Louis Althusser this paper attempts to extend some key ideas coming from Ken Tobin, Larry Bencze, and Lyn Carter and advocates science educators taking up notions of ideology, discourse, and subjectivity to engage globalization and neoliberalism. Subjectivity (and its constitution in science education) is considered alongside two relevant textbook examples and also in terms of its importance in formulating political and culturally relevant questions in science education.

  13. Selective Attentional Effects of Adjunct Study Questions on Achievement in Nigerian Secondary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Nnamdi S.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the selective attentional effects of adjunct study questions inserted before or after the presentation of science flow diagrams. The basic design for the study was a post-test only control group design involving a total of 252 students randomly selected from six secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Oshun State Nigeria. These were…

  14. Patterns of Response Times and Response Choices to Science Questions: The Influence of Relative Processing Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckler, Andrew F.; Scaife, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    We report on five experiments investigating response choices and response times to simple science questions that evoke student "misconceptions," and we construct a simple model to explain the patterns of response choices. Physics students were asked to compare a physical quantity represented by the slope, such as speed, on simple physics…

  15. Students' Questions and Discursive Interaction: Their Impact on Argumentation during Collaborative Group Discussions in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of students' written and oral questions both as an epistemic probe and heuristic for initiating collaborative argumentation in science. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years from two countries, were asked to discuss which of two graphs best represented the change in temperature as ice was heated to steam.…

  16. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie

    2017-01-01

    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison…

  17. Science Learning: A path analysis of its links with reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Francisco; García, Ángela; Berbén, A. B. G.; Justicia, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to build and test a conceptual model of the complex interrelationships between students' learning in science (learning approaches and self-regulation), their reading comprehension, question-asking in class and science achievement. These variables were measured by means of a test and a series of questionnaires administered to 604 ninth-grade students, and the data collected were analysed using a correlational, cross-sectional design. Results of a path analysis indicated that (a) students' self-regulated and intentional knowledge-constructing activity (self-regulated strategy use, deep approach and knowledge-building) were what chiefly accounted for their question-asking in class; (b) question-asking (high and low levels) was related directly to reading comprehension and indirectly, through its contribution to the this, to academic achievement; (c) reading comprehension was directly and negatively associated with surface approach and indirectly and positively related to deep approach and knowledge-building; and (d) some of these variables, particularly reading comprehension, accounted for academic achievement in science. This model explained nearly 30% of the variance in academic achievement and provided a substantial and distinctive insight into the web of interrelationships among these variables. Implications for future research and science teaching and learning are discussed (e.g. the importance of supporting students' efforts to learn science in a meaningful, active and self-regulated way and of improving their reading comprehension).

  18. 76 FR 30370 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group; Biomedical Research and Research Training Review... General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN 18F, Bethesda,...

  19. Examining two Turkish teachers' questioning patterns in secondary school science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cikmaz, Ali

    This study examined low and high level teachers' questioning patterns and classroom implementations within an argument-based inquiry approach known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach, which addresses issues on negotiation, argumentation, learning, and teaching. The level of the teachers was determined by the students' writing scores. This study was conducted in Turkey with seven teacher for preliminary study. Because scoring writing samples examines the students' negotiation level with the different sources and students learn scientific process, as negotiation, which they may transfer into their writing, in classroom, two teachers were selected to represent low and high level teachers. Data collection involved classroom observation through video recordings. The comparative qualitative method was employed throughout the data analysis process with including quantitative results. The research questions that guided the present study were: (1) How are low and high level teachers, determined according to their students' writing scores, questioning patterns different from each other during classroom discourse? (2) Is there a relationship between students' writings and teachers' questioning styles in the classroom? Analysis of Qualitative data showed that teachers' classroom implementations reveal big differences based on argumentation patterns. The high level teacher, whose students had high scores in writing samples, asked more questions and the cognitive levels of questions were higher than the low level teacher. Questions promote an argumentative environment and improve critical thinking skills by discussing different ideas and claims. Asking more questions of teacher influences students to initiate (ask questions) more and to learn the scientific process with science concepts. Implicitly, this learning may improve students' comparison in their writing. Moreover, high level teacher had a more structured and organized classroom than low level teacher.

  20. How commercial and ``violent'' video games can promote culturally sensitive science learning: some questions and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-12-01

    In their paper, Muñoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Muñoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3® precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and violent representations of gender, race, class, nationality, science and technology. However, there are many questions that arise in bringing these commercial video games into science classrooms, including the questions of how students' capacities for critical reflection can be facilitated, whether traditional science teachers can take on the role of using such games in their classrooms, and which video games would be most appropriate to use. In this response, I raise these questions and consider some of the challenges in order to further the possibility of implementing Muñoz and El-Hani's creative proposal for generating culturally sensitive science classrooms.

  1. Some Direct and Generalized Effects of Replacing an Autistic Man's Echolalia with Correct Responses to Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorrow, Martin J.; Foxx, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of operant procedures was extended to decrease immediate echolalia and increase appropriate responding to questions of a 21-year-old autistic man. Multiple baseline designs demonstrated that echolalia was rapidly replaced with correct stimulus-specific responses. A variety of generalized improvements were observed in verbal responses to…

  2. Analysis of Classroom Response System Questions via Four Lenses in a General Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Aaron D.; Towns, Marcy H.

    2009-01-01

    General Chemistry lecture questions used in an electronic classroom response system (CRS) were analyzed using three theoretical frameworks and the pedagogical context in which they were presented. The analytical lenses included whether students were allowed to collaborate, Bloom's Taxonomy, a framework developed by Robinson and Nurrenbern, and an…

  3. Questioning the Fidelity of the "Next Generation Science Standards" for Astronomy and Space Sciences Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Although the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are not federally mandated national standards or performance expectations for K-12 schools in the United States, they stand poised to become a de facto national science and education policy, as state governments, publishers of curriculum materials, and assessment providers across the country…

  4. Integrated Science and Logistical Planning to Support Big Questions in Antarctic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, D. G.; Stockings, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Each year, British Antarctic Survey (BAS) supports an extensive programme of science at five Antarctic and sub-Antarctic stations, ranging from the tiny Bird Island Research Station at 54°S in the South Atlantic, to the massive, and fully re-locatable, Halley Research Station on Brunt Ice Shelf at 75°S. The BAS logistics hub, Rothera Research Station on the Antarctic Peninsula supports deployment of deep-field and airborne field campaigns through much of the Antarctic continent, and an innovative new UK polar research vessel is under design, and planned to enter service in the Southern Ocean in 2019. BAS's core science programme covering all aspects of physical, biological and geological science is delivered by our own science teams, but every year many other UK scientists and overseas collaborators also access BAS's Antarctic logistics to support their own programmes. As an integrated science and logistics provider, BAS is continuously reviewing its capabilities and operational procedures to ensure that the future long-term requirements of science are optimally supported. Current trends are towards providing the capacity for heavier remote operations and larger-scale field camps, increasing use of autonomous ocean and airborne platforms, and increasing opportunities to provide turnkey solutions for low-cost experimental deployments. This talk will review of expected trends in Antarctic science and the opportunities to conduct science in Antarctica. It will outline the anticipated logistic developments required to support future stakeholder-led and strategically-directed science programmes, and the long-term ambitions of our science communities indentified in several recent horizon-scanning activities.

  5. Evaluation of Questions in General Chemistry Textbooks According to the Form of the Questions and the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR): The Case of Intra-and Intermolecular Chemical Bonding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappa, Eleni T.; Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    One way of checking to what extent instructional textbooks achieve their aim is to evaluate the questions they contain. In this work, we analyze the questions that are included in the chapters on chemical bonding of ten general chemistry textbooks. We study separately the questions on intra- and on intermolecular bonding, with the former…

  6. A Comparative Study of Six Decades of General Science Textbooks: Evaluating the Evolution of Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This study examined science textbooks over time to better understand the "science content" expectations that the U.S. educational system deems appropriate for 8th and 9th grade science students. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What specific science content has been presented via the textbook from 1952 to 2008? (2) Within…

  7. Differential effects of verbal aptitude and study questions on comprehension of science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, William G.; Whittaker, Harold G.; Loose, Kenneth D.

    Selective attention models predict that verbatim study questions can divert students from meaningfully encoding attributes of science concepts. The aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI) hypothesis predicts that such questions can be particularly dysfunctional to low-ability students. These predictions assume the measurement of true comprehension of concepts as a criterion. Eighth-grade students (n = 217) were randomly assigned to a text-only, text-question or a placebo treatment. The text verbally described five fossil types. The questions consisted of 28 fill-in-the-blank queries about the text. The posttest required students to visually identify and discriminate 40 fossil specimens as to fossil type. Comprehension of the concepts clearly took place-a fact substantiated by the very low scores obtained by the placebo group. As predicted (p < 0.05), low-verbal students performed better when provided with a text-only rather than a text-question treatment. In contrast, high-verbal students were less effected by the verbatim study questions. Main effects among these groups were also detected. Apparently such questions can overprompt students, resulting in their copying of words from a text to an answer-blank without semantically encoding (i.e., comprehending) the copied words.

  8. Challenging accepted wisdom: looking at the gender and science education question through a different lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jane; Calvert, Sarah

    2003-07-01

    This article reports on a research project designed to explore a group of women scientists' understandings of themselves and science. The project uses an unconventional methodology: - a mixture of conventional qualitative research methods and techniques developed for use in psychotherapy. Its preliminary results appear to contradict some of the assumptions on which much of past work on girls and science education is based. For example, we found that, for the women involved in this project, factors such as the presence in their lives of strong female role models and/or the use of 'girl-friendly' curriculum materials were not important in their decision to continue the study of science to university level. Other factors - some of which were quite unexpected - had a much greater effect. The article outlines the methodology of this project and some of its findings, and explores the implications of these findings for future work on the gender and science education question.

  9. Ensuring the Enduring Viability of the Space Science Enterprise: New Questions, New Thinking, New Paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Conti, Alberto; Atkinson, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Pursuing ground breaking science in a highly cost and funding constrained environment presents new challenges to the development of future space astrophysics missions. Within the conventional cost models for large observatories, executing a flagship “mission after next” appears to be unstainable. To achieve our nation’s space astrophysics ambitions requires new paradigms in system design, development and manufacture. Implementation of this new paradigm requires that the space astrophysics community adopt new answers to a new set of questions. This paper will discuss the origins of these new questions and the steps to their answers.

  10. Some direct and generalized effects of replacing an autistic man's echolalia with correct responses to questions.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, M J; Foxx, R M

    1986-01-01

    We extended the use of operant procedures to decrease immediate echolalia and increase the appropriate responding to questions of a 21-year-old autistic man. Three experiments were conducted in which the overall plan was to encourage the subject to remain quiet before, during, and after the presentation of questions and teach him to use environmental cues (i.e., word cards or a model's responses) to increase the likelihood of responding correctly. Multiple baseline designs demonstrated that echolalia was rapidly replaced with correct stimulus-specific responses. In addition, there were a variety of generalized improvements in the subject's verbal responses to questions. The procedures and results are contrasted to previous research in an attempt to explain the encouraging findings.

  11. General Science [Sahuarita High School Career Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Larry; Lane, Robert

    This unit entitled "General Science" is one of a series of instructional guides prepared by teachers for the Sahuarita High School (Arizona) Career Curriculum Project. The package is subtitled "Physical Science in General Science" and consists of sections dealing with mechanics, electricity and light. A list of 41 behavioral objectives is stated…

  12. Values in translation: how asking the right questions can move translational science toward greater health impact.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Maureen; Edwards, Kelly; Starks, Helene; Fullerton, Stephanie M; James, Rosalina; Goering, Sara; Holland, Suzanne; Disis, Mary L; Burke, Wylie

    2012-12-01

    The speed and effectiveness of current approaches to research translation are widely viewed as disappointing given small gains in real population health outcomes despite huge investments in basic and translational science. We identify critical value questions-ethical, social, economic, and cultural-that arise at moments throughout the research pathway. By making these questions visible, and promoting discussion of them with diverse stakeholders, we can facilitate handoffs along the translational pathway and increase uptake of effective interventions. Who is involved with those discussions will determine which research projects, populations, and methods get prioritized. We argue that some upfront investment in community and interdisciplinary engagement, shaped by familiar questions in ethics, social justice, and cultural knowledge, can save time and resources in the long run because interventions and strategies will be aimed in the right direction, that is, toward health improvements for all.

  13. 76 FR 30373 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group; Minority Programs Review Subcommittee A. Date: June 28..., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical...

  14. JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL, GENERAL SCIENCE, COURSE OF STUDY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS NATURAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE COURSE IS TO INSTILL IN THE PUPILS AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PURPOSES AND METHODS OF SCIENCE RATHER THAN TO IMPART A CERTAIN BODY OF FACTS. EMPHASIS IS PLACED UPON CLASSROOM DEMONSTRATION AND EXPERIMENTATION SO THAT THE PUPIL WILL LEARN TO THINK CRITICALLY AND TO DEVELOP A QUESTIONING MIND. CONTINUITY…

  15. The questions of scientific literacy and the challenges for contemporary science teaching: An ecological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Mijung

    This study began with questions about how science education can bring forth humanity and ethics to reflect increasing concerns about controversial issues of science and technology in contemporary society. Discussing and highlighting binary epistemological assumptions in science education, the study suggests embodied science learning with human subjectivity and integrity between knowledge and practice. The study questions (a) students' understandings of the relationships between STSE and their everyday lifeworld and (b) the challenges of cultivating scientific literacy through STSE teaching. In seeking to understand something about the pedagogical enactment of embodied scientific literacy that emphasizes the harmony of children's knowledges and their lifeworlds, this study employs a mindful pedagogy of hermeneutics. The intro- and intra-dialogical modes of hermeneutic understanding investigate the pedagogical relationship of parts (research texts of students, curriculum, and social milieu) and the whole (STSE teaching in contemporary time and place). The research was conducted with 86 Korean 6 graders at a public school in Seoul, Korea in 2003. Mixed methods were utilized for data collection including a survey questionnaire, a drawing activity, interviews, children's reflective writing, and classroom teaching and observation. The research findings suggest the challenges and possibilities of STSE teaching as follows: (a) children's separated knowledge from everyday practice and living, (b) children's conflicting ideas between ecological/ethical aspects and modernist values, (c) possibilities of embodied knowing in children's practice, and (d) teachers' pedagogical dilemmas in STSE teaching based on the researcher's experiences and reflection throughout teaching practice. As further discussion, this study suggests an ecological paradigm for science curriculum and teaching as a potential framework to cultivate participatory scientific literacy for citizenship in

  16. Science anxiety and social cognitive factors predicting STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skells, Kristin Marie

    Extant data was used to consider the association between science anxiety, social cognitive factors and STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science classes. An adapted model based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to consider these relationships, with science anxiety functioning as a barrier in the model. The study assessed the following research questions: (1) Do social cognitive variables relate in the expected way to STEM career aspirations based on SCCT for ninth graders taking general science classes? (2) Is there an association between science anxiety and outcomes and processes identified in the SCCT model for ninth graders taking general science classes? (3) Does gender moderate these relationships? Results indicated that support was found for many of the central tenants of the SCCT model. Science anxiety was associated with prior achievement, self-efficacy, and science interest, although it did not relate directly to STEM career goals. Gender was found to moderate only the relationship between prior achievement and science self-efficacy.

  17. Grand Research Questions in the Solid-Earth Sciences Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, Anne M.

    2008-12-03

    Over the past three decades, Earth scientists have made great strides in understanding our planet’s workings and history. Yet this progress has served principally to lay bare more fundamental questions about the Earth. Expanding knowledge is generating new questions, while innovative technologies and new partnerships with other sciences provide new paths toward answers. A National Academies committee was established to frame some of the great intellectual challenges inherent in the study of the Earth and planets. The goal was to focus on science, not implementation issues, such as facilities or recommendations aimed at specific agencies. The committee canvassed the geological community and deliberated at length to arrive at 10 questions: 1. How did Earth and other planets form? 2. What happened during Earth’s “dark age” (the first 500 million years)? 3. How did life begin? 4. How does Earth’s interior work, and how does it affect the surface? 5. Why does Earth have plate tectonics and continents? 6. How are Earth processes controlled by material properties? 7. What causes climate to change—and how much can it change? 8. How has life shaped Earth—and how has Earth shaped life? 9. Can earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and their consequences be predicted? 10. How do fluid flow and transport affect the human environment? Written for graduate students, colleagues in sister disciplines, and program managers funding Earth and planetary science research, the report describes where the field stands, how it got there, and where it might be headed. Our hope is that the report will spark new interest in and support for the field by showing how Earth science can contribute to a wide range of issues—including some not always associated with the solid Earth—from the formation of the solar system to climate change to the origin of life. Its reach goes beyond the United States; the report is being translated into Chinese and distributed in China.

  18. General Physics, Physics 12 [Science Curriculum Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochester City School District, NY.

    The Physics 12 curriculum guide represents one in a series of science guides especially designed to provide for the pupil whose primary interests are in non-science fields. The program provides study in physics in which fundamental concepts and understandings are developed, mathematical concepts are limited, and students are encouraged to relate…

  19. "Let's Talk!": Increasing Novel Peer-Directed Questions by High School Students with Autism to Their General Education Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Caitlin; Hughes, Carolyn; Harvey, Michelle; Brigham, Nicolette; Cosgriff, Joseph; Kaplan, Lauren; Bernstein, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    We taught three high school students with high-functioning autism to increase their novel peer-directed questions when using a communication book to converse with general education partners at school. Novel question training was associated with participants asking peer-directed questions not displayed in communication books across a variety of…

  20. The Benchmarking Capacity of a General Outcome Measure of Academic Language in Science and Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Paul; Lastrapes, Renée E.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of research evaluating the technical merits of general outcome measures of science and social studies achievement is growing. This study targeted criterion validity for critical content monitoring. Questions addressed the concurrent criterion validity of alternate presentation formats of critical content monitoring and the measure's…

  1. A two-question method for assessing gender categories in the social and medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Tate, Charlotte Chuck; Ledbetter, Jay N; Youssef, Cris P

    2013-01-01

    Three studies (N = 990) assessed the statistical reliability of two methods of determining gender identity that can capture transgender spectrum identities (i.e., current gender identities different from birth-assigned gender categories). Study 1 evaluated a single question with four response options (female, male, transgender, other) on university students. The missing data rate was higher than the valid response rates for transgender and other options using this method. Study 2 evaluated a method of asking two separate questions (i.e., one for current identity and another for birth-assigned category), with response options specific to each. Results showed no missing data and two times the transgender spectrum response rate compared to Study 1. Study 3 showed that the two-question method also worked in community samples, producing near-zero missing data. The two-question method also identified cisgender identities (same birth-assigned and current gender identity), making it a dynamic and desirable measurement tool for the social and medical sciences.

  2. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.

  3. How Does One “Open” Science? Questions of Value in Biological Research

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Open Science policies encourage researchers to disclose a wide range of outputs from their work, thus codifying openness as a specific set of research practices and guidelines that can be interpreted and applied consistently across disciplines and geographical settings. In this paper, we argue that this “one-size-fits-all” view of openness sidesteps key questions about the forms, implications, and goals of openness for research practice. We propose instead to interpret openness as a dynamic and highly situated mode of valuing the research process and its outputs, which encompasses economic as well as scientific, cultural, political, ethical, and social considerations. This interpretation creates a critical space for moving beyond the economic definitions of value embedded in the contemporary biosciences landscape and Open Science policies, and examining the diversity of interests and commitments that affect research practices in the life sciences. To illustrate these claims, we use three case studies that highlight the challenges surrounding decisions about how––and how best––to make things open. These cases, drawn from ethnographic engagement with Open Science debates and semistructured interviews carried out with UK-based biologists and bioinformaticians between 2013 and 2014, show how the enactment of openness reveals judgments about what constitutes a legitimate intellectual contribution, for whom, and with what implications. PMID:28232768

  4. How Does One "Open" Science? Questions of Value in Biological Research.

    PubMed

    Levin, Nadine; Leonelli, Sabina

    2017-03-01

    Open Science policies encourage researchers to disclose a wide range of outputs from their work, thus codifying openness as a specific set of research practices and guidelines that can be interpreted and applied consistently across disciplines and geographical settings. In this paper, we argue that this "one-size-fits-all" view of openness sidesteps key questions about the forms, implications, and goals of openness for research practice. We propose instead to interpret openness as a dynamic and highly situated mode of valuing the research process and its outputs, which encompasses economic as well as scientific, cultural, political, ethical, and social considerations. This interpretation creates a critical space for moving beyond the economic definitions of value embedded in the contemporary biosciences landscape and Open Science policies, and examining the diversity of interests and commitments that affect research practices in the life sciences. To illustrate these claims, we use three case studies that highlight the challenges surrounding decisions about how--and how best--to make things open. These cases, drawn from ethnographic engagement with Open Science debates and semistructured interviews carried out with UK-based biologists and bioinformaticians between 2013 and 2014, show how the enactment of openness reveals judgments about what constitutes a legitimate intellectual contribution, for whom, and with what implications.

  5. Using Eight Key Questions as an Inquiry-Based Framework for Ethical Reasoning Issues in a General Education Earth Systems and Climate Change Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. A.; Ball, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    An important objective in general education geoscience courses is to help students evaluate social and ethical issues based upon scientific knowledge. It can be difficult for instructors trained in the physical sciences to design effective ways of including ethical issues in large lecture courses where whole-class discussions are not practical. The Quality Enhancement Plan for James Madison University, "The Madison Collaborative: Ethical Reasoning in Action," (http://www.jmu.edu/mc/index.shtml) has identified eight key questions to be used as a framework for developing ethical reasoning exercises and evaluating student learning. These eight questions are represented by the acronym FOR CLEAR and are represented by the concepts of Fairness, Outcomes, Responsibilities, Character, Liberty, Empathy, Authority, and Rights. In this study, we use the eight key questions as an inquiry-based framework for addressing ethical issues in a 100-student general education Earth systems and climate change course. Ethical reasoning exercises are presented throughout the course and range from questions of personal behavior to issues regarding potential future generations and global natural resources. In the first few exercises, key questions are identified for the students and calibrated responses are provided as examples. By the end of the semester, students are expected to identify key questions themselves and justify their own ethical and scientific reasoning. Evaluation rubrics are customized to this scaffolding approach to the exercises. Student feedback and course data will be presented to encourage discussion of this and other approaches to explicitly incorporating ethical reasoning in general education geoscience courses.

  6. The Concept of Ideology in Analysis of Fundamental Questions in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säther, Jostein

    The use of the concept of `ideology' in interpretation of science education curricula, textbooks and various practises is reviewed, and examples are given by referring to Norwegian curricula and textbooks. The term is proposed to be used in a broad sense about any kind of action-oriented theory based on a system of ideas, or any attempt to approach politics in the light of a system of ideas. Politics in this context is about shaping of education, and is related to forces (i.e., hypothetical impacts of idea systems) which may legitimise, change, or criticise social practices. The focus is (although not in every case) on the hidden, unconscious and critical aspects. The notion ideological aspects is proposed to be related to metaphysical-ontological, epistemological and axiological claims and connotations. Examples of educational issues concerning e.g., aims, compartmentalisation, integration, and fundamentally different ideas about truth, learning and man are mentioned. Searching for a single and unifying concept for the discussing of all of science education's fundamental questions seems however in vain. Therefore a wide range of concepts seems necessary to deepen our understanding of ``the fundamental questions''.

  7. Teaching General Chemistry: A Materials Science Companion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Arthur B.; And Others

    Many teachers and other educators have expressed a concern regarding the lack of student interest in many of the traditional science courses. To help rectify this problem a collaborative effort among educators and others concerned has led to the development of instructional materials that are more relevant to the lives of students. This document…

  8. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. While some of these technologies have been readily incorporated into the study of marine organisms as models for understanding basic biology, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology and biological oceanography has only recently begun to be appreciated. This report defines critical scientific questions in marine biology and biological oceanography, describes the molecular technologies that could be used to answer these questions, and discusses some of the implications and economic opportunities that might result from this research which could potentially improve the international competitive position of the United States in the rapidly growing area of marine biotechnology. The committee recommends that the federal government provide the infrastructure necessary to use the techniques of molecular biology in the marine sciences.

  9. Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

    This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

  10. Talking with women about personal health resources in general practice. Key questions about salutogenesis.

    PubMed

    Malterud, K; Hollnagel, H

    1998-06-01

    We want to share experiences from an approach for clinical communication and research, intended to identify and mobilize personal health resources in female patients, and promote strategies for resource oriented talk in general practice. We used an action research design with qualitative evaluation to summarize the process where we developed a key question about self-assessed health resources in women, based on The Health Resource/Risk Balance Model, including salutogenesis, patient-centredness and gender perspectives. From consultations with 49 female patients in our own practices, we have drawn a narrative description of the development process, a summary of issues that facilitated resource talk, and our final version of the key question. We suggest that resource talk is based on 1) an explicit shift of language from disease to health, but nevertheless recognizing the fact that illness occurs, 2) options for answers given by the female patient and not by the doctor, 3) signification of the woman's assessment of her own situation (in contrast to the doctor's assessment), and 4) taking for granted that women's personal health resources exist as numerous strategies which are utilized, and may be identified. We have learnt that communicative action can provide tools for shifting the attention of doctor and patients from risks and diseases to resources and strengths. This is an example of one way to change your practice through systematic reflection in dialogue with a colleague.

  11. Evaluating a science diversity program at UC Berkeley: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Matsui, John; Liu, Roger; Kane, Caroline M

    2003-01-01

    For the past three decades, much attention has been focused on developing diversity programs designed to improve the academic success of underrepresented minorities, primarily in mathematics, science, and engineering. However, ethnic minorities remain underrepresented in science majors and careers. Over the last 10 years, the Biology Scholars Program (BSP), a diversity program at the University of California (UC), Berkeley, has worked to increase the participation and success of students majoring in the biological sciences. A quantitative comparison of students in and out of the program indicates that students in BSP graduate with a degree in biology at significantly higher rates than students not in BSP regardless of race/ethnicity. Furthermore, students who are in BSP have statistically lower high school grade point averages (GPAs) and Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) scores than students not in BSP. African-American and Hispanic students who join BSP graduate with significantly higher UC Berkeley biology GPAs than non-BSP African-American and Hispanic students, respectively. Majority (Asian and White) students in BSP graduate with statistically similar UC GPAs despite having lower SAT scores than non-BSP majority students. Although BSP students are more successful in completing a biology degree than non-program members, the results raise a series of questions about why the program works and for whom.

  12. How can comprehension adjunct questions focus students' attention and enhance concept learning of a computer-animated science lesson?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, William G.; McGuire, Barry

    Two focusing hypotheses were evaluated. First, do adjunct questions, focusing on science concepts and inserted after computer-animated sequences, selectively alter students' attentional or practice processing and thus produce differential learning effects? Theoretically, such questions selectively focus students' attention and enhance concept learning of focused concepts. Second, do these questions still provide enough metacognitive scaffolding to produce differential learning effects when only the first 8 out of 12 sequences are followed by focusing questions? Eighth-grade students (n = 160) were randomly assigned to a control group (lesson alone) or one of four treatment groups (lesson plus 12 questions focusing either on heat or on temperature, or lesson plus the same first 8 questions on heat or temperature followed by 4 placebo questions). Two significant two-way interactions with widely varying F ratios supported the differential focusing hypotheses (12 questions - more robust interaction, 8 - less robust interaction).

  13. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  14. A Novel Multiple Choice Question Generation Strategy: Alternative Uses for Controlled Vocabulary Thesauri in Biomedical-Sciences Education

    PubMed Central

    Lopetegui, Marcelo A.; Lara, Barbara A.; Yen, Po-Yin; Çatalyürek, Ümit V.; Payne, Philip R.O.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple choice questions play an important role in training and evaluating biomedical science students. However, the resource intensive nature of question generation limits their open availability, reducing their contribution to evaluation purposes mainly. Although applied-knowledge questions require a complex formulation process, the creation of concrete-knowledge questions (i.e., definitions, associations) could be assisted by the use of informatics methods. We envisioned a novel and simple algorithm that exploits validated knowledge repositories and generates concrete-knowledge questions by leveraging concepts’ relationships. In this manuscript we present the development and validation of a prototype which successfully produced meaningful concrete-knowledge questions, opening new applications for existing knowledge repositories, potentially benefiting students of all biomedical sciences disciplines. PMID:26958222

  15. A Template for Open Inquiry: Using Questions to Encourage and Support Inquiry in Earth and Space Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Ronald S.; Miranda, Rommel J.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an instructional approach to helping students generate open-inquiry research questions, which the authors call the "open-inquiry question template." This template was created based on their experience teaching high school science and preservice university methods courses. To help teachers implement this template, they…

  16. Presenting the science of the Sun to the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    2016-07-01

    Although the science behind the Sun is so fascinating, there has not been sufficient worldwide effort in presenting this science to the general public. My recently published popular science book "Nature's Third Cycle: A Story of Sunspots" (Oxford University Press, 2015) is probably the first popular science book introducing the phenomenology of the solar cycle along with a non-technical account of dynamo theory. I shall discuss my perspective of the challenges involved in presenting the science of the Sun to the public. The Amazon link of my book is: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Natures-Third-Cycle-Story-Sunspots/dp/0199674752/

  17. On the Science of Embodied Cognition in the 2010s: Research Questions, Appropriate Reductionism, and Testable Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    "The Journal of the Learning Sciences" has devoted this special issue to the study of embodied cognition (as it applies to mathematics), a topic that for several decades has gained attention in the cognitive sciences and in mathematics education, in particular. In this commentary, the author aims to address crucial questions in embodied…

  18. Science Anxiety and Gender in Students Taking General Education Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udo, M. K.; Ramsey, G. P.; Mallow, J. V.

    2004-12-01

    Earlier studies [Mallow, J. V. (1994). Gender-related science anxiety: A first binational study. Journal of Science Education and Technology 3: 227-238; Udo, M. K., Ramsey, G. P., Reynolds-Alpert, S., and Mallow, J. V. (2001). Does physics teaching affect gender-based science anxiety? Journal of Science Education and Technology 10: 237-247] of science anxiety in various student cohorts suggested that nonscience majors were highly science anxious (SA), regardless of what science courses they were taking. In this study, we investigated science anxiety in a cohort consisting mostly of nonscience majors taking general education science courses. Regression analysis shows that the leading predictors of science anxiety are (i) nonscience anxiety and (ii) gender, as they were for different cohorts in the earlier studies. We confirm earlier findings that females are more SA than males. Chi-square analysis of acute science anxiety shows an amplification of these differences. We found statistically significant levels of science anxiety in humanities and social science students of both genders, and gender differences in science anxiety, despite the fact that the students were all enrolled in general education science courses specifically designed for nonscience majors. We found acute levels of anxiety in several groups, especially education, nursing, and business majors. We describe specific interventions to alleviate science anxiety.

  19. The Extend of Adaptation Bloom's Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain in English Questions Included in General Secondary Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alzu'bi, Mohammad Akram

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at analyzing English questions of the Jordanian Secondary Certificate Examinations via Blooms' cognitive levels. An analysis sheet was prepared by the researcher for the purpose of the study, which was ensured to be valid and reliable. The whole questions of the general secondary examinations for English course in both levels…

  20. Molecular biology in marine science: Scientific questions, technological approaches, and practical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    The ocean plays an important role in regulating the earth`s climate, sustains a large portion of the earth`s biodiversity, is a tremendous reservoir of commercially important substances, and is used for a variety of often conflicting purposes. In recent decades marine scientists have discovered much about the ocean and its organisms, yet many important fundamental questions remain unanswered. Human populations have increased, particularly in coastal regions. As a result, the marine environment in these areas is increasingly disrupted by human activities, including pollution and the depletion of some ecologically and commercially important species. There is a sense of urgency about reducing human impacts on the ocean and a need to understand how altered ecosystems and the loss of marine species and biodiversity could affect society. This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ground truthing at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously.

  1. Impact of SCALE-UP on science teaching self-efficacy of students in general education science courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassani, Mary Kay Kuhr

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two pedagogical models used in general education science on non-majors' science teaching self-efficacy. Science teaching self-efficacy can be influenced by inquiry and cooperative learning, through cognitive mechanisms described by Bandura (1997). The Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs (SCALE-UP) model of inquiry and cooperative learning incorporates cooperative learning and inquiry-guided learning in large enrollment combined lecture-laboratory classes (Oliver-Hoyo & Beichner, 2004). SCALE-UP was adopted by a small but rapidly growing public university in the southeastern United States in three undergraduate, general education science courses for non-science majors in the Fall 2006 and Spring 2007 semesters. Students in these courses were compared with students in three other general education science courses for non-science majors taught with the standard teaching model at the host university. The standard model combines lecture and laboratory in the same course, with smaller enrollments and utilizes cooperative learning. Science teaching self-efficacy was measured using the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument - B (STEBI-B; Bleicher, 2004). A science teaching self-efficacy score was computed from the Personal Science Teaching Efficacy (PTSE) factor of the instrument. Using non-parametric statistics, no significant difference was found between teaching models, between genders, within models, among instructors, or among courses. The number of previous science courses was significantly correlated with PTSE score. Student responses to open-ended questions indicated that students felt the larger enrollment in the SCALE-UP room reduced individual teacher attention but that the large round SCALE-UP tables promoted group interaction. Students responded positively to cooperative and hands-on activities, and would encourage inclusion of more such activities in all of the

  2. Scientific Grand Challenges: Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2009-10-01

    This report is an account of the deliberations and conclusions of the workshop on "Forefront Questions in Nuclear Science and the Role of High Performance Computing" held January 26-28, 2009, co-sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (ONP) and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing (ASCR). Representatives from the national and international nuclear physics communities, as well as from the high performance computing community, participated. The purpose of this workshop was to 1) identify forefront scientific challenges in nuclear physics and then determine which-if any-of these could be aided by high performance computing at the extreme scale; 2) establish how and why new high performance computing capabilities could address issues at the frontiers of nuclear science; 3) provide nuclear physicists the opportunity to influence the development of high performance computing; and 4) provide the nuclear physics community with plans for development of future high performance computing capability by DOE ASCR.

  3. Integrated Science General Education Program (ISGE): Bioastronomy Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troncale, Len

    2004-06-01

    A new, NSF-supported, General Education (GE) science curriculum, synthesizes and unifies the key theories and evidence of seven natural sciences using natural systems processes as Integrative Themes. The considerably reformulated subject matter is completely built on interdisciplinary concepts and methods fundamental to newly emerging cross-disciplinary fields like bioastronomy. The year of ISGE study incorporates 15 built-in computer based multimedia features and 10 special learning features to help non-science students learn more science, faster, and with better understanding. Results from seven test course offerings are reported. ISGE intends to be an initial example of the ``living, evolving'' knowledge bases needed for a space-faring species.

  4. Predictors of trust in the general science and climate science research of US federal agencies.

    PubMed

    Myers, Teresa A; Kotcher, John; Stenhouse, Neil; Anderson, Ashley A; Maibach, Edward; Beall, Lindsey; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2016-03-08

    In this article, we focus on a key strategic objective of scientific organizations: maintaining the trust of the public. Using data from a nationally representative survey of American adults (n = 1510), we assess the extent to which demographic factors and political ideology are associated with citizens' trust in general science and climate science research conducted by US federal agencies. Finally, we test whether priming individuals to first consider agencies' general science research influences trust in their climate science research, and vice versa. We found that federal agencies' general science research is more trusted than their climate science research-although a large minority of respondents did not have an opinion-and that political ideology has a strong influence on public trust in federal scientific research. We also found that priming participants to consider general scientific research does not increase trust in climate scientific research. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  5. Classifying End-of-Chapter Questions and Problems for Selected General Chemistry Textbooks Used in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Kariluz; Talanquer, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Science textbooks have a major influence on teaching and learning. Teachers and instructors at all educational levels use them regularly not only as a guide for course content and sequence but also in the design of homework assignments and assessment probes. From this perspective, textbook questions and problems can be expected to have a strong…

  6. The Relationship between Feelings-of-Knowing and Partial Knowledge for General Knowledge Questions

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Elisabeth; Blakstad, Oskar; Johnsen, Øivind; Martinsen, Stig K.; Price, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Feelings of knowing (FoK) are introspective self-report ratings of the felt likelihood that one will be able to recognize a currently unrecallable memory target. Previous studies have shown that FoKs are influenced by retrieved fragment knowledge related to the target, which is compatible with the accessibility hypothesis that FoK is partly based on currently activated partial knowledge about the memory target. However, previous results have been inconsistent as to whether or not FoKs are influenced by the accuracy of such information. In our study (N = 26), we used a recall-judge-recognize procedure where stimuli were general knowledge questions. The measure of partial knowledge was wider than those applied previously, and FoK was measured before rather than after partial knowledge. The accuracy of reported partial knowledge was positively related to subsequent recognition accuracy, and FoK only predicted recognition on trials where there was correct partial knowledge. Importantly, FoK was positively related to the amount of correct partial knowledge, but did not show a similar incremental relation with incorrect knowledge. PMID:27445950

  7. Supporting General Educators' Inclusive Practices in Mathematics and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs-Richardson, Rita; Al-Juraid, Sarah E.; Stuker, Jodi D.

    This paper describes a state-funded project at Southeastern Louisiana University that offered coursework and direct classroom assistance to general educators attempting to include students with disabilities for mathematics and science instruction. Thirty-five general educators in five parish school systems participated. A sequence of three credit…

  8. Discovery and New Frontiers: Science Missions Seeking New Answers to Timeless Questions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplund, S.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers missions EPOXI, Stardust-NExT, Dawn, MESSENGER, Juno, and GRAIL help comprise NASA’s Year of the Solar System. Each of these investigations is seeking answers to key science questions and each has a unique approach to sharing that quest with the public. To date, spacecraft have photographed only four comets up close. What new information will EPOXI uncover when it flies by comet Hartley 2? Will it be similar to the others or very different? How will comet Tempel 1 appear to Stardust-NExT? The Deep Impact mission sent an impactor into the path of Tempel 1 in 2005. What changes will be visible in this unprecedented return visit? Will we finally see the crater made by the impact? Dawn will arrive at asteroid Vesta in July for a year-long orbit. Then it will millions of miles more to go into orbit around dwarf planet Ceres. Using the same science instruments to study both will yield important new information. MESSENGER has already discovered new phenomena and collected considerable data in its three flybys of Mercury. Once the orbiting phase begins, this dynamic planet is guaranteed to put on a spectacular show. Juno is traveling to the massive gas giant Jupiter to extend our knowledge about this wondrous body. Does it have a solid core? How much water does the atmosphere contain? How does the planet’s enormous magnetic force field affect its atmosphere? GRAIL will send twin space probes flying in tandem around the Moon to take precise gravity field measurements to help determine the structure and composition of the lunar interior from crust to core. In early 2011, the Discovery and New Frontiers Programs are planning a teacher “workshop without walls” to help celebrate YSS! Teachers will gather at 4 or 5 sites across the country, including California, Texas, Minnesota, and Maryland, and tune in via NASA’s digital learning network to hear talks about the missions and their science objectives. The workshops will also include

  9. Negotiating the Inquiry Question: A Comparison of Whole Class and Small Group Strategies in Grade Five Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnetto, Andy R.; Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of two strategies for negotiating the question for exploration during science inquiry on student achievement and teachers' perceptions. The study is set in the context of the Science Writing Heuristic. The first strategy (small group) consisted of each group of four students negotiating a question for inquiry with the teacher while the second strategy (whole class) consisted of the entire class negotiating a single question for inquiry with the teacher. The study utilized a mixed-method approach. A quasi-experimental repeated measures design was used to determine the effect of strategy on student achievement and semi-structured teacher interviews were used to probe the question of teacher perceptions of the two strategies. Teacher observations were conducted using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP) to check for variation in implementation of the two strategies. Iowa Test of Basic Skills Science (ITBSS) (2005 and 2006) and teacher/researcher developed unit exams (pre and post) were used as student achievement measures. No statistically significant differences were found among students in the two treatment groups on the ITBSS or unit exams. RTOP observations suggest that teacher implementation was consistent across the two treatment strategies. Teachers disclosed personal preferences for the two strategies, indicating the whole class treatment was easier to manage (at least at the beginning of the school year) as students gained experience with science inquiry and the associated increased responsibility. Possible mechanisms linking the two strategies, negotiated questions, and student outcomes are discussed.

  10. 78 FR 28600 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group; Training and..., Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

  11. 78 FR 11658 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel..., National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 1 Democracy Plaza,...

  12. 76 FR 71351 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of MARC..., Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

  13. 78 FR 37557 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

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  14. 77 FR 15783 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

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  15. 78 FR 67374 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

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  16. 75 FR 35075 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

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  17. 75 FR 35077 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

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  18. 78 FR 13362 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

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  19. 76 FR 4927 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

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  20. 78 FR 35942 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-06-14

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  1. 76 FR 43334 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of.... Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of..., Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

  2. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

  3. The effects of preservice teacher's cognitive questioning level and redirecting on student science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Joseph P., II

    The objectives of this experimental study were to investigate the effects of 100% high cognitive questions, 50% high cognitive questions and 0% high cognitive questions on primary and intermediate students' achievement at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels. A second purpose was to examine the effects of redirecting questions on student achievement. Groups of 5 subjects were randomly selected from 16 intermediate and 16 primary classrooms and then randomly assigned to one of three treatment levels. Data were collected on 154 subjects. Within the three cognitive questioning treatment levels the subjects were also randomly assigned to one of two questioning strategies: (1) redirected and (2) directed. Redirection occurs when the teacher asks the same question to a number of students (in this case 2). Thirty preservice teachers conducted the treatments. The teachers were trained to follow a prescribed behavior pattern and were video taped during the treatment to insure fidelity to the scripted questions. At the end of the lesson a criterion test was administered with 3 subtests measuring at the knowledge, comprehension, and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. There was no significant difference among scores on the total criterion measure or the sub tests due to cognitive questioning level. There was a significant difference due to redirecting questions (p = 0.05). Students assigned to teachers using redirection scored significantly higher than those assigned to teachers not using this strategy. This difference was found on the knowledge subtest. Significant interactions occurred between questioning level and questioning strategy on the comprehension and total test.

  4. Towards a virtual teaching assistant to answer questions asked by students in introductory computer science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiner, Cecily

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural language of the questions to a vector space, and then utilizing cosine similarity to identify similar previous questions. I report classification accuracies between 23% and 56%, obtaining substantial improvements by exploiting domain knowledge (compiler error messages) and educational context (assignment name). My results are especially timely and relevant for online courses where students are completing the same set of assignments asynchronously and access to staff is limited.

  5. Using Question Answer Relationships in Science Instruction to Increase the Reading Achievement of Struggling Readers and Students with Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Baxter, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    The Question Answer Relationship (QAR) literacy strategy was integrated into science instruction in a fourth grade classroom. Ten students who struggled with reading, including some who were diagnosed with a reading disability, participated in this study. Significant gains were made in reading by the 10 student participants in comprehending…

  6. The Role of Students' Questions in Aligning Teaching, Learning and Assessment: A Case Study from Undergraduate Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jesus, Helena Pedrosa; Moreira, Aurora Coelho

    2009-01-01

    The quality of teaching and learning has been one of the major concerns of foundation chemistry disciplines for science and engineering undergraduates at the University of Aveiro, Portugal. Student-centred approaches are being continuously developed, exploring ways of stimulating active and meaningful student learning by encouraging questioning by…

  7. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    4. How is the succession of native floodplain vegetation shaped by present-day flow and sediment conditions? Answering these questions will produce baseline data on the current distributions of landforms and habitats (question 1), the extent of the functional floodplain (question 2), and the effects of modern flow and sediment regimes on future floodplain landforms, habitats, and vegetation succession (questions 3 and 4). Addressing questions 1 and 2 is a logical next step because they underlie questions 3 and 4. Addressing these four questions would better characterize the modern Willamette Basin and help in implementing and setting realistic targets for ongoing management strategies, demonstrating their effectiveness at the site and basin scales, and anticipating future trends and conditions.

  8. "Two Cultures" Topics for General Studies Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, James H.

    1982-01-01

    Theses proposed in C. P. Snow's book "The Two Cultures," including uncommunicative scientific and literary groups, gap between rich and poor, overpopulation, and nuclear war remain viable topics. Discusses the scientific and literary cultural gap and what can be done in general studies science courses to ameliorate the condition.…

  9. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  10. Modern Mathematics and the Teaching of Science: Some Questions and Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, John R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper, prepared for a British conference on Modern Mathematics and the Teaching of Science, explores the problem of the relationships between mathematics and science curricula. Four hypotheses concerning the cause of "worsening" of the problem are posed. (SD)

  11. A framework for integrating and synthesizing data to ask and answer science questions in the Critical Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristol, S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published a science strategy that resulted in an organizational pivot toward more focused attention on societal challenges and our ability to predict changes and study mitigation and resilience. The strategy described a number of global dynamics including climate and resource-related critical zone (CZ) impacts and emphasized the need for data integration as a significant underpinning for all of the science questions raised in the report. Organizational changes that came about as a result of the science strategy sparked a new entity called Core Science Systems, which has set as its mission the creation of a Modular Science Framework designed to seamlessly organize and integrate all data, information, and knowledge from the CZ. A part of this grand challenge is directly within the purview of the USGS mission and our science programs, while the data integration framework itself is part of a much larger global scientific cyberinfrastructure. This talk describes current research and development in pursuit of the USGS Modular Science Framework and how the work is being conducted in the context of the broader earth system sciences. Communities of practice under the banner of the Earth Science Information Partners are fostering working relationships vital to cohesion and interoperability between contributing institutions. The National Science Foundation's EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century initiatives are providing some of the necessary building blocks through foundational informatics and data science research. The U.S. Group on Earth Observations is providing leadership and coordination across agencies who operate earth observation systems. The White House Big Data Initiative is providing long term research and development vision to set the stage for sustainable, long term infrastructure across government data agencies. The end result will be a major building block of CZ science.

  12. General chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versprille, Ashley N.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate first-semester general chemistry students' understanding of the chemistry underlying climate change. The first part of this study involves the collection of qualitative data from twenty-four first-semester general chemistry students from a large Midwestern research institution. The semi-structured interview protocol was developed based on alternative conceptions identified in the research literature and the essential principles of climate change outlined in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) document which pertain to chemistry (CCSP, 2003). The analysis and findings from the interviews indicate conceptual difficulties for students, both with basic climate literacy and underlying chemistry concepts. Students seem to confuse the greenhouse effect, global warming, and the ozone layer, and in terms of chemistry concepts, they lack a particulate level understanding of greenhouse gases and their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, causing them to not fully conceptualize the greenhouse effect and climate change. Based on the findings from these interviews, a Chemistry of Climate Science Diagnostic Instrument (CCSI) was developed for use in courses that teach chemistry with a rich context such as climate science. The CCSI is designed for professors who want to teach general chemistry, while also addressing core climate literacy principles. It will help professors examine their students' prior knowledge and alternative conceptions of the chemistry concepts associated with climate science, which could then inform their teaching and instruction.

  13. So Much More than Just a List: Exploring the Nature of Critical Questioning in Undergraduate Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Moreira, Aurora; Lopes, Betina; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Critical thinking is one of the very highest orders of cognitive abilities and a key competency in higher education. Asking questions is an important component of rich learning experiences, structurally embedded in the operations of critical thinking. Our clear sense is that critical thinking and, within that, critical questioning, is…

  14. Contexts for Questioning: Two Zones of Teaching and Learning in Undergraduate Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; da Silva Lopes, Betina; Moreira, Aurora; Watts, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are currently undertaking a challenging process in moving from teacher-orientated to student-focused approaches. Students' ability to asking questions is fundamental to developing critical reasoning, and to the process of scientific enquiry itself. Our premise is that questioning competences should become a central…

  15. The knowledge most worth having: Otis W. Caldwell (1869 1947) and the rise of the general science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heffron, John M.

    1995-07-01

    In 1860 Herbert Spencer asked the famous rhetorical question ‘What Knowledge is of Most Worth?’ The unequivocal answer was science. Giving greater attention to science and scientific knowledge would not only produce additional scientists; more important, argued Spencer, it would make better parents, better church-goers, better citizens and workers, better artists and better consumers of art. It would lead to a ‘command of fundamental processes’, ‘worthy home membership’, ‘worthy use of leisure’, ‘ethical character’ — the goals of a general education spelled out by Spencerians within the National Educational Association in 1918. Here is our puzzle, then: how are we to interpret a definition of science, one widely accepted both in Spencer's time and in our own, that comes so close descriptively to a commonsensical view of what constitutes non-science? The answer to this question lies in part in the historical relationship between science and general education, a relationship established in the opening decades of this century, when the authority of science and scientific objectivity was in the minds of most educators unimpeachable. The high school general science course, developed in its early stages by the botanist and educator, Otis W. Caldwell, was a potent symbol of this new relationship. Organized around broad, topical issues and claiming to teach the mundane truths of life, general science was more than a loose collection of facts from the various earth, biological, and physical sciences. Its many advocates viewed the new unified science course as pedagogically independent of the specialties yet central to education in general. In 1949, two years after Caldwell's death, 72 percent of the total science enrollments in the United States were in general science and biology, its closest cognate. This paper examines the rise of the general science course and its implications for the reform of secondary school science education. It concludes that

  16. Unquestioned answers or unanswered questions: beliefs about science guide responses to uncertainty in climate change risk communication.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Anna; Morton, Thomas A

    2012-06-01

    In two experimental studies we investigated the effect of beliefs about the nature and purpose of science (classical vs. Kuhnian models of science) on responses to uncertainty in scientific messages about climate change risk. The results revealed a significant interaction between both measured (Study 1) and manipulated (Study 2) beliefs about science and the level of communicated uncertainty on willingness to act in line with the message. Specifically, messages that communicated high uncertainty were more persuasive for participants who shared an understanding of science as debate than for those who believed that science is a search for absolute truth. In addition, participants who had a concept of science as debate were more motivated by higher (rather than lower) uncertainty in climate change messages. The results suggest that achieving alignment between the general public's beliefs about science and the style of the scientific messages is crucial for successful risk communication in science. Accordingly, rather than uncertainty always undermining the effectiveness of science communication, uncertainty can enhance message effects when it fits the audience's understanding of what science is.

  17. Moving Science Classes to the Community: A Question of Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Many educators and policy makers argue that science literacy and numeracy are vital skills for successfully participating in the economy of this century. But how do educators increase the levels of scientific literacy, let alone make science a subject for all students, when the subject matter itself has been keeping students away? In this article,…

  18. "White Blankets May Make You Smarter" and Other Questionable Social Science Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blimling, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    The social sciences are awash with studies of varying quality. The process of getting published is supposed to sort the good from the bad and, through feedback and editing, make the good better. Ideally, that is how the system should and usually does work--but it does not always work that way. One problem with social science research is that the…

  19. Using Question-Answer Relationships to Build: Reading Comprehension in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinniburgh, Leah H.; Shaw, Edward L.

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (2001) placed pressure on elementary teachers to raise standardized test scores in reading and mathematics. Unfortunately, the focus on reading and math has led to reduced time for science instruction. Mandatory standardized testing in science began in elementary schools across the United States in 2007. Instructing…

  20. Neoliberal Ideology, Global Capitalism, and Science Education: Engaging the Question of Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to add to the multifaceted discussion concerning neoliberalism and globalization out of two Cultural Studies of Science Education journal issues along with the recent Journal of Research in Science Teaching devoted to these topics. However, confronting the phenomena of globalization and neoliberalism will demand greater…

  1. Science Matters Podcast: Questions and Answers with EPA's Dr. Peter Grevatt

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Listen to a podcast with Dr. Peter Grevatt, the director of EPA's Office of Children's Health Protection, as he answers questions about children's health, or read some of the highlights from the conversation here.

  2. Questions asked at the virtual and physical health sciences reference desk: how do they compare and what do they tell us?

    PubMed

    De Groote, Sandra L

    2005-01-01

    The questions asked at the traditional reference desk are decreasing while questions asked at the virtual reference desk are on the rise. Over a one-month period, the types of reference questions asked at an academic health sciences library were coded. This paper examines and compares the types of questions asked at the current day reference desk versus the virtual reference desk. This paper also reviews past literature examining the types of questions asked via virtual reference and the traditional reference.

  3. 75 FR 32489 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group, Minority Programs..., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical...

  4. Que es la Ciencia? What Is Science? A Question for All Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spurlin, Quincy; Blanco, George

    This teacher's guide offers classroom techniques for teaching science to bilingual elementary students. Recommendations are made for improving teaching by: lowering students' affective filters; providing comprehensible input; providing for language output; creating a supportive environment; adjusting classroom teaching style; teaching…

  5. Interdisciplinary Science Courses for College General Education Requirements: Perspectives of Faculty at a State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dass, Pradeep Maxwell

    Science educators have been advocating a broader role for science education--that of helping all students see the relevance of science to their own lives. Yet the only experience with post-secondary science that non-science majors get is through a couple of science courses which are part of the general education requirements (GERs) for a liberal…

  6. Lesson Imaging in Math and Science: Anticipating Student Ideas and Questions for Deeper STEM Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Michelle; Pugalee, David; Cline, Julie; Cline, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Help turn students into problem solvers. With lesson imaging, teachers anticipate how chosen activities will unfold in real time--what solutions, questions, and misconceptions students might have and how teachers can promote deeper reasoning. When lesson imaging occurs before instruction, students achieve lesson objectives more naturally and…

  7. Cooperative Learning in Third Graders' Jigsaw Groups for Mathematics and Science with and without Questioning Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souvignier, Elmar; Kronenberger, Julia

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is much support for using cooperative methods, since important instructional aspects, such as elaboration of new information, can easily be realized by methods like "jigsaw." However, the impact of providing students with additional help like a questioning training and potential limitations of the method concerning the (minimum)…

  8. Interactivity of Question Prompts and Feedback on Secondary Students' Science Knowledge Acquisition and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Kun; Chen, Ching-Huei; Wu, Wen-Shiuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how question prompts and feedback influenced knowledge acquisition and cognitive load when learning Newtonian mechanics within a web-based multimedia module. Participants were one hundred eighteen 9th grade students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, forming a 2 x 2 factorial design with the…

  9. Questionable, Objectionable or Criminal? Public Opinion on Data Fraud and Selective Reporting in Science.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Justin T; Roche, Sean Patrick

    2017-03-09

    Data fraud and selective reporting both present serious threats to the credibility of science. However, there remains considerable disagreement among scientists about how best to sanction data fraud, and about the ethicality of selective reporting. The public is arguably the largest stakeholder in the reproducibility of science; research is primarily paid for with public funds, and flawed science threatens the public's welfare. Members of the public are able to make meaningful judgments about the morality of different behaviors using moral intuitions. Legal scholars emphasize that to maintain legitimacy, social control policies must be developed with some consideration given to the public's moral intuitions. Although there is a large literature on popular attitudes toward science, there is no existing evidence about public opinion on data fraud or selective reporting. We conducted two studies-a survey experiment with a nationwide convenience sample (N = 821), and a follow-up survey with a representative sample of US adults (N = 964)-to explore community members' judgments about the morality of data fraud and selective reporting in science. The findings show that community members make a moral distinction between data fraud and selective reporting, but overwhelmingly judge both behaviors to be immoral and deserving of punishment. Community members believe that scientists who commit data fraud or selective reporting should be fired and banned from receiving funding. For data fraud, most Americans support criminal penalties. Results from an ordered logistic regression analysis reveal few demographic and no significant partisan differences in punitiveness toward data fraud.

  10. Introduction to the fifth Mars Polar Science special issue: key questions, needed observations, and recommended investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clifford, Stephen M.; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Byrne, Shane; Durham, William; Fisher, David; Forget, Francois; Hecht, Michael; Smith, Peter; Tamppari, Leslie; Titus, Timothy; Zurek, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The Fifth International Conference on Mars Polar Science and Exploration – which was held from September 12–16, 2011, at the Pike’s Waterfront Lodge in Fairbanks, Alaska – is the latest in a continuing series of meetings that are intended to promote the exchange of knowledge and ideas between planetary and terrestrial scientists interested in Mars polar and climate research (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/polar2011/polar20113rd.html). The conference was sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA’s Mars Program Office, University of Alaska Fairbanks, International Association of Cryospheric Sciences and the Centre for Research in Earth and Space Sciences at York University.

  11. Amundsen, Nansen, and the question of science: dramatizing historical research on the polar heroic.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Robert Marc

    2011-12-01

    Recent historical research reveals a much greater role than previously assumed for science in the polar activities of Fridtjof Nansen and Roald Amundsen. Science-based polar exploration was what first linked these two men; Amundsen's subsequent turn to sport and sensation dampened their relationship. These insights and other new perspectives about heroic period of polar exploration are being transformed by the author into a drama for stage that will have its world premier in Norway in December 2011. The play attempts to use imaginatively the art and craft of theatre to diffuse insight from historical scholarship.

  12. Ensuring the enduring viability of the space science enterprise: new questions, new thinking, new paradigms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Atkinson, Charles; Conti, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Pursuing ground breaking science in a highly cost-constrained environment presents new challenges to the development of future space astrophysics missions. Within the conventional cost models for large observatories, executing a flagship "mission after next" appears to be unsustainable. To achieve our nation's science ambitions requires not a paradigm shift but a completely new paradigm of system design, development and manufacture. This paper explores the nature of the current paradigm and proposes a series of steps to guide the entire community to a sustainable future.

  13. How Commercial and "Violent" Video Games Can Promote Culturally Sensitive Science Learning: Some Questions and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwah, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In their paper, Munoz and El-Hani propose to bring video games into science classrooms to promote culturally sensitive ethics and citizenship education. Instead of bringing "educational" games, Munoz and El-Hani take a more creative route and include games such as Fallout 3[R] precisely because they are popular and they reproduce ideological and…

  14. Teacher-Student Interaction in Contemporary Science Classrooms: Is Participation Still a Question of Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliasson, Nina; Sørensen, Helene; Karlsson, Karl Göran

    2016-01-01

    We show that boys still have a greater access to the space for interaction in science classrooms, which is unexpected since in Sweden today girls perform better in these subjects than boys. Results from video-recorded verbal communication, referred to here as "interaction," show that the distribution of teacher-student interaction in the…

  15. Cognitive Science Questions for Cognitive Development: The Concepts of Learning, Analogy, and Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.; McCredden, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The implications of three concepts from cognitive science for understanding of cognitive development are reviewed. These are (1) learning (and induction), (2) analogy, and (3) capacity. A model of analogical reasoning is discussed that specifies changes in representations over age that explain phenomena previously thought to be stage-related. (SLD)

  16. How to Implement Rigorous Computer Science Education in K-12 Schools? Some Answers and Many Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubwieser, Peter; Armoni, Michal; Giannakos, Michail N.

    2015-01-01

    Aiming to collect various concepts, approaches, and strategies for improving computer science education in K-12 schools, we edited this second special issue of the "ACM TOCE" journal. Our intention was to collect a set of case studies from different countries that would describe all relevant aspects of specific implementations of…

  17. Learning by Doing: Science in a Large General Education Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Moore, R. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2007-12-01

    Teaching science in a large (150+ students) class can be a challenge. This is especially true in a general education science class that is populated by non-science majors, athletes, and students with math phobias, as well as students with a variety of learning disabilities. To illustrate Newton's Laws, we used The Egg Fling: knocking a pie pan from under a raw egg which then falls straight down into a container of water. Newton's Laws are projected on an overhead in constant view of the students, and an ELMO is used to give a live, big-screen view to engage even those in the back of the large lecture room. Students make predictions, watch the demo, then refine or correct predictions as we discuss which laws are illustrated. The Laws are later related to students’ science fiction books and the GEMS Moons of Jupiter activity. Reading classic science fiction books allows students to see how our understanding of the universe and our technology have changed over the last 150 years, also adding a writing component to the class. Student preceptors are critical to the success of this approach, leading small group discussions that could not easily be done with the whole class. Preceptors receive training before they lead activities or discussions with groups of 10 to 15 peers. Students do live sky observations and informal measurements to track the motion and phases of the Moon against the background stars, but use technology (Heavens Above and Starry Night) to track and understand the rising and setting of the Sun and its relation to the reason for the seasons. Using a combination of live demonstrations with technology, short assessments, and student preceptors makes teaching a large group possible, effective, and fun.

  18. Setting the question for inquiry: The effects of whole class vs small group on student achievement in elementary science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnetto, Andy Roy

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of two different student-centered approaches to setting the question for inquiry. The first approach (whole class) consisted of students setting a single question for inquiry after which students worked in small groups during an investigation phase of the activity with all groups exploring the same question. The second approach (small group) consisted of each group of students setting a question resulting in numerous questions being explored per class. A mixed method quasi-experimental design was utilized. Two grade five teachers from a small rural school district in the Midwestern United States participated, each teaching two sections of science (approximately 25 students per section). Results indicate three major findings. Instructional approach (whole class vs. small group) did not effect student achievement in science or language arts. Observational data indicated the actions and skills teachers utilized to implement the approaches were similar. Specifically, the pedagogical skills of dialogical interaction (which was found to be influenced by teacher level of control of learning and teacher content knowledge) and effective rather than efficient use of time were identified as key factors in teachers' progression toward a student-centered, teacher-managed instructional approach. Unit exams along with qualitative and quantitative teacher observation data indicated that these factors do have an impact on student achievement. Specifically increased dialogical interaction in the forms of greater student voice, and increased cognitive demands placed on students by embedding and emphasizing science argument within the student inquiry corresponded to positive gains in student achievement. Additionally, teacher's perception of student abilities was also found to influence professional growth. Finally, allowing students to set the questions for inquiry and design the experiments impact the classroom environment as teacher

  19. I didn't know oxygen could boil! What preservice and inservice elementary teachers' answers to `simple' science questions reveals about their subject matter knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice*, Diana C.

    2005-09-01

    In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected from a total of 414 preservice and 67 inservice teachers during first-day discussions in elementary science methods courses. Both groups outperformed average citizens on the 10 survey questions. However, three other questions used to introduce discussion of why students may find learning science difficult revealed lack of conceptual understanding of basic physical and biological phenomena commonly found in most elementary science curricula. Results and implications are discussed in the context of increasing expectations for subject matter competence demanded of ‘highly qualified teachers’ under provisions of the 2001 US Elementary and Secondary Education Act (‘No Child Left Behind Act’).

  20. Teacher-student interaction in contemporary science classrooms: is participation still a question of gender?†

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasson, Nina; Sørensen, Helene; Göran Karlsson, Karl

    2016-07-01

    We show that boys still have a greater access to the space for interaction in science classrooms, which is unexpected since in Sweden today girls perform better in these subjects than boys. Results from video-recorded verbal communication, referred to here as interaction, show that the distribution of teacher-student interaction in the final year of lower secondary school follows the same patterns as in the 1980s. The interaction space for all kinds of talk continues to be distributed according to the two-thirds rule for communication in science classrooms as described by previous research. We also show that the overall interaction space in science classrooms has increased for both boys and girls when talk about science alone is considered. Another finding which follows old patterns is that male teachers still address boys more often than girls. This holds true both for general talk and for talk about science. If a more even distribution of teacher-student interaction is desirable, these results once again need to be considered. More research needs to be undertaken before the association between girls' attitudes and interest in science in terms of future career choice and the opportunity to participate in teacher-student interaction is more clearly understood. Research conducted at Mid Sweden University, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.

  1. Methodological troubles as problems and phenomena: ethnomethodology and the question of 'method' in the social sciences.

    PubMed

    Greiffenhagen, Christian; Mair, Michael; Sharrock, Wes

    2015-09-01

    Across the disciplinary frontiers of the social sciences, studies by social scientists treating their own investigative practices as sites of empirical inquiry have proliferated. Most of these studies have been retrospective, historical, after-the-fact reconstructions of social scientific studies mixing interview data with the (predominantly textual) traces that investigations leave behind. Observational studies of in situ work in social science research are, however, relatively scarce. Ethnomethodology was an early and prominent attempt to treat social science methodology as a topic for sociological investigations and, in this paper, we draw out what we see as its distinctive contribution: namely, a focus on troubles as features of the in situ, practical accomplishment of method, in particular, the way that research outcomes are shaped by the local practices of investigators in response to the troubles they encounter along the way. Based on two case studies, we distinguish methodological troubles as problems and methodological troubles as phenomena to be studied, and suggest the latter orientation provides an alternate starting point for addressing social scientists' investigative practices.

  2. Is victim identity in genocide a question of science or law? The scientific perspective, with special reference to Darfur.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra

    2008-09-01

    In genocide, victims must represent an ethnic, racial, religious or national group. But is victim identity a question of science or law? Must victims be a socially recognized group or can group identity exist solely in the mind of the perpetrator? This question is relevant to the on-going crisis in Darfur. The "Arab-on-African" violence depicted in the media encompasses identities not shared by Darfurians. This study details an evaluation of victim identity in Darfur, based on field research and literature review. Darfurians are defined by subsistence strategy and economic groups are not protected under genocide law. Whether Darfur is genocide depends on whether victims must conform to scientific group classifications or need only be defined by their relationship to the perpetrators.

  3. The ability of children to generalize selected science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Kemal Bin; Lowell, Walter E.

    The study investigated the ability of primary and elementary school subjects to generalize two science concepts, Insect and Animal with and without instruction in the form of a mental set. It also examined the effects of age, IQ, and sex on the ability of the children to generalize these concepts. Two instruments measuring the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal were developed. The results indicate that of the independent variables investigated, age and mental set significantly affected the ability to generalize the concepts Insect and Animal. It was found that the younger children's concepts were least developed and with age these concepts became more developed and more conceptual in nature. The ability to use information given in a mental set was found to be a function of age. The children in this study were more able to generalize the concept Insect than the concept Animal. The results suggest that children with age and instruction axe better able to master less general concepts than more geaeral ones. In addition, the study demonstrated that children are able to improve their learning of general concepts provided a great number and variety of instances and noninstances of the concept are used in the instruction.It was also found that the younger children were more perceptually bound than the older children. The younger children were unable to overcome the pull of perceptual attractiveness that the noninstances held for them despite instruction. The results suggest that teachers of such children should be aware of the conceptual level of the content being taught to such children to ensure appropriate and meaningful learning takes place.

  4. Five Decades of Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Decades of Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents It ... anniversary of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), known to many as NIH's "basic research ...

  5. 75 FR 8979 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of... General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN18C, Bethesda, MD...

  6. 77 FR 64812 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2012-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Peer Review of... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  7. 76 FR 37359 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-06-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, MBRS Score... Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3AN12F,...

  8. 78 FR 11658 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  9. 75 FR 7484 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-02-19

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  10. 78 FR 13364 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-02-27

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  11. 78 FR 15020 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-03-08

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  12. 78 FR 63231 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-10-23

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  13. 78 FR 28601 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-05-15

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  14. 75 FR 18218 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-04-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review of PO1... Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...

  15. 77 FR 11562 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

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  16. 75 FR 5601 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2010-02-03

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  17. 75 FR 71713 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; K99 Pathway to..., National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room...

  18. Shunning the Bird's Eye View: General Science in the Schools of Ontario and Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Michelle

    2013-04-01

    This paper considers the adoption of general science courses in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and Quebec, during the 1930s. In Ontario, a few science teachers had followed the early general science movements in the United States and Britain with interest. During the 1930s, several developments made the cross-disciplinary, applied thrust of general science particularly appealing to Ontario educationists. These developments included a new demand for vocational education, renewed reservations about pedagogical rationales based on transfer of training, and a growing professional divide between high school science teachers and university scientists. Around the same time, scientists in the Quebec's French-language universities were engaged in a concerted campaign to expand the place of science in the province's francophone secondary schools. The province's prestigious classical colleges, which were the scientists' principal target for reform, privileged an inductive view of science that had little in common with the applied, cross-disciplinary emphasis of the general science courses gaining support in English-speaking school systems. In 1934, however, a popular American general science textbook was adopted in a workers' cooperative devoted to adult education. Comparing the fate of general science within these two education systems draws attention to the fact that general science made inroads in francophone Quebec but had little influence in public and private schools. In light of the growing support general science enjoyed elsewhere, we are led to explore why general science met with little overt interest by Quebec scientists pushing for school science reform during the 1930s.

  19. Integrating K-W-L Prompts into Science Journal Writing: Can Simple Question Scaffolding Increase Student Content Knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Brandon Joel

    Writing-to-learn strategies have been administered in the past to enrich student learning. The purpose of this study was to see if K-W-L prompts in science journal writing could benefit student content knowledge within biology. Two high school biology classes were provided with learning journals. The journals given to the students during the treatment unit were provided with K-W-L question prompts to guide student learning while during the comparison unit students were given an open ended writing assignment. Pre and posttests were administered to determine student-learning gains. Student motivations and opinions of the treatment were collected through student interviews. The combined results were used to determine to what extent could K-W-L prompts in science journal writing influence comprehension of content knowledge. This study found there to be no difference in student learning gains when utilizing the K-W-L literacy strategy versus another free-writing activity. When scored, student K-W-Ls total scores did correlate to student success on unit tests. This opens up the potential for K-W-Ls to serve as an adequate tool for formative assessment. Here the K-W-L could be expanded to enrich student question asking, potentially aid students learning English, and potentially be used by students without teacher scaffolding.

  20. Transnational Nationalism and Idealistic Science: The Alcohol Question between the Wars.

    PubMed

    Edman, Johan

    2016-08-01

    This article studies the interwar international conferences on the alcohol problem. How did they view the alcohol problem and its causes; what were the consequences for the individual and the society as a whole; and which solutions merited discussion? The first post-war conferences enjoyed an optimistic and internationalistic atmosphere, added to by American prohibition, which had given the temperance movement plenty to be hopeful about. But when the 1920s turned to the 1930s, the conferences were transformed into arenas for national solutions and into outright propaganda pieces. The responses to the alcohol problem debated in the interwar conferences built on a combination of scientifically masked ideological conviction and ideologically inspired passion for science. The apparently neutral ethics of such thinking was manifested in various radical measures to combat alcohol abuse.

  1. Transnational Nationalism and Idealistic Science: The Alcohol Question between the Wars

    PubMed Central

    Edman, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the interwar international conferences on the alcohol problem. How did they view the alcohol problem and its causes; what were the consequences for the individual and the society as a whole; and which solutions merited discussion? The first post-war conferences enjoyed an optimistic and internationalistic atmosphere, added to by American prohibition, which had given the temperance movement plenty to be hopeful about. But when the 1920s turned to the 1930s, the conferences were transformed into arenas for national solutions and into outright propaganda pieces. The responses to the alcohol problem debated in the interwar conferences built on a combination of scientifically masked ideological conviction and ideologically inspired passion for science. The apparently neutral ethics of such thinking was manifested in various radical measures to combat alcohol abuse. PMID:27482147

  2. Health and Well-Being in Emerging Adults’ Same-Sex Relationships: Critical Questions and Directions for Research in Developmental Science

    PubMed Central

    Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Hammack, Phillip L.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have yet to account for the potentially unique experiences of emerging adults who are in or seeking to be in a relationship with a same-sex romantic partner. This paper articulates an agenda for research focused on better understanding and addressing the health and well-being of emerging adults in or pursuing same-sex romantic relationships. We provide a general summary of what is known about health and well-being in same-sex relationships, followed by an overview of the current and changing social climate surrounding same-sex relationships. We point out how recent historical changes present sexual minority emerging adults with unique relational benefits and challenges that have not been examined within the social and health sciences. We conclude by proposing a set of research questions to help develop knowledge needed to improve the health and well-being of emerging adults in or pursuing same-sex relationships. PMID:27588221

  3. Effects of Online Procedural Scaffolds and the Timing of Scaffolding Provision on Elementary Taiwanese Students' Question-Generation in a Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Fu-Yun; Tsai, Han-Chang; Wu, Hui-Ling

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of online procedural scaffolds (in the form of generic question-stems with context-specific examples) and the timing of scaffolding provision (immediate versus delayed) on supporting the online student question-generation learning process in a science class. A total of 78 fifth-grade Taiwanese students participated…

  4. Turning science to account: Chicago and the general science movement in secondary education, 1905-1920.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, John L

    2005-09-01

    In the second decade of the twentieth century a new subject appeared in American high schools, aimed at providing citizens with an understanding of the essential nature of scientific thinking. "General science," as it was called, was developed and promoted by an emerging class of professional educators who sought to offer a version of science that they believed would both excite public interest and prove useful in the everyday lives of the masses of students streaming into the rapidly expanding institution of secondary education. It was to be a course with real utility that would transcend the boundaries of the specialized, abstract disciplinary subjects like chemistry and physics-subjects with identities tied to the practices and standards of the colleges and universities, which had long exerted control over the content of secondary schooling. This essay recounts the origins of general science and, in particular, examines how the intellectual and material environment of the city of Chicago at the turn of the century influenced the course that was produced and widely adopted in school programs across the United States.

  5. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  6. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

  7. 75 FR 69092 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-11-10

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel MBRS Behavioral Science Panel. Date: December 2, 2010. Time: 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice...

  8. 75 FR 71712 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-11-24

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  9. 76 FR 71350 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-11-17

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  10. 76 FR 24499 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... Sciences Council. Date: May 19-20, 2011. Closed: May 19, 2011, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review...

  11. 78 FR 50427 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2013-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... Medical Sciences Council. Date: September 19-20, 2013. Closed: September 19, 2013, 8:30 a.m. to 5:00...

  12. Shunning the Bird's Eye View: General Science in the Schools of Ontario and Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the adoption of general science courses in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and Quebec, during the 1930s. In Ontario, a few science teachers had followed the early general science movements in the United States and Britain with interest. During the 1930s, several developments made the cross-disciplinary, applied thrust of…

  13. Assessing General Education Science Courses: A Portfolio Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerdahl, Erika; Impey, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Although the use of portfolios to assess student performance in K-12 science classrooms and to monitor the training of preservice science teachers is increasingly common, their implementation in undergraduate science courses is still limited. The work presented here represents one in-depth example of the integration of portfolio assessment into…

  14. 75 FR 22606 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  15. 78 FR 77472 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

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  16. 75 FR 49499 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

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  17. 75 FR 79386 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

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  18. 77 FR 47857 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2012-08-10

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  19. 77 FR 76059 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2012-12-26

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  20. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  1. Can Science Education Research Give an Answer to Questions posed by History of Science and Technology? The Case of Steam Engine's Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanderakis, Nikos E.

    2009-09-01

    According to the principle of virtual velocities, if on a simple machine in equilibrium we suppose a slight virtual movement, then the ratio of weights or forces equals the inverse ratio of velocities or displacements. The product of the weight raised or force applied multiplied by the height or displacement plays a central role there. British engineers used the same product in the eighteenth century in order to measure steam engines’ effectiveness. The question is whether this measure was obviously empirical or had its origin in theory of mechanics and particularly in the principle of virtual velocities. According to science education research, this measure is not likely to have arisen intuitively and most probably could not have been formulated without any acquaintance with theory of mechanics.

  2. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  3. Tips for a physician in getting the right job, part XII: general questions for the applicant to ask.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A

    2014-07-01

    The type and caliber of the questions asked by a job hunter is one of the ways an interviewer will evaluate the candidate. Questions that show poor preparation should not be asked, such as failure to read what the employer sent to the job seeker or not doing elementary research on the practice, the organization, or the community. Asking about insignificant details also is not helpful. Not having any good questions to ask is a negative in an interview. This article discusses many possible important questions for the applicant to ask during an interview.

  4. Effects of the Multiple Solutions and Question Prompts on Generalization and Justification for Non-Routine Mathematical Problem Solving in a Computer Game Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, Ming-Jang; Chang, Wen-Long

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of solution methods and question prompts on generalization and justification of non-routine problem solving for Grade 9 students. The learning activities are based on the context of the frog jumping game. In addition, related computer tools were used to support generalization and justification of…

  5. General experiences + race + racism = Work lives of Black faculty in postsecondary science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Eileen R. C.; Bulls, Domonique L.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Atwater, Mary M.

    2016-12-01

    Existent research indicates that postsecondary Black faculty members, who are sorely underrepresented in the academy especially in STEM fields, assume essential roles; chief among these roles is diversifying higher education. Their recruitment and retention become more challenging in light of research findings on work life for postsecondary faculty. Research has shown that postsecondary faculty members in general have become increasingly stressed and job satisfaction has declined with dissatisfaction with endeavors and work overload cited as major stressors. In addition to the stresses managed by higher education faculty at large, Black faculty must navigate diversity-related challenges. Illuminating and understanding their experiences can be instrumental in lessening stress and job dissatisfaction, outcomes that facilitate recruitment and retention. This study featured the experiences and perceptions of Black faculty in science education. This study, framed by critical race theory, examines two questions: What characterizes the work life of some Black faculty members who teach, research, and serve in science education? How are race and racism present in the experiences of these postsecondary Black faculty members? A phenomenological approach to the study situates the experiences of the Black participants as valid phenomena worthy of investigation, illuminates their experiences, and seeks to retain the authenticity of their voices.

  6. Communicating the science of the 11-year sunspot cycle to the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, A. R.

    2015-03-01

    Astrophysics is one branch of science which excites the imagination of the general public. Pioneer science popularizers like George Gamow and Fred Hoyle wrote on different aspects of astrophysics. However, of late, we see a trend which I find disturbing. While it has become extremely fashionable to write popular science books on cosmology, other areas of astrophysics are grossly neglected.

  7. Science Anxiety and Gender in Students Taking General Education Science Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, M. K.; Ramsey, G. P.; Mallow, J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Earlier studies [Mallow, J. V. (1994). Gender-related science anxiety: A first binational study. "Journal of Science Education and Technology" 3: 227-238; Udo, M. K., Ramsey, G. P., Reynolds-Alpert, S., and Mallow, J. V. (2001). Does physics teaching affect gender-based science anxiety? "Journal of Science Education and Technology" 10: 237-247] of…

  8. [General practitioners' commitment to treating excessive alcohol consumption: A question of role security in treating affected patients?].

    PubMed

    Fankhänel, Thomas; Rascher, Anja; Thiel, Carolin; Schulz, Katrin; Klement, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Only a few general practitioners (GPs) are committed to screen their patients for alcohol consumption and, in case of excessive alcohol consumption conduct by a brief intervention according to WHO recommendations. Apart from inadequate compensation and work load, another barrier identified by the GPs was their uncertainty about how to deal with affected patients. Most German universities presently spend no more than 90minutes lecture time on addiction medicine teaching. Our research aims to investigate the question whether medical studies and advanced medical education increases the role security of medical students and physicians and their commitment to implementing alcohol screening and brief intervention. Moreover, we will explore whether lack of therapeutic commitment can be related to lack of role security. Questionnaires were administered to pre-clinical and clinical medical students as well as senior house officers. Role security and therapeutic commitment of students and senior house officers were assessed using the Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Questionnaire (SAAPPQ) subscales "Role Security" and "Therapeutic Commitment". Analysis was based on 367 questionnaires. As expected, senior house officers reported more Role Security than clinical medical students who showed a higher level of Role Security than pre-clinical medical students. No differences could be found for Therapeutic Commitment. An association between Role Security and Therapeutic Commitment was only revealed for clinical medical students. Medical studies and advanced medical education can increase students' and senior house officers' Role Security to treat patients with excessive alcohol consumption, but not Therapeutic Commitment. Moreover, no association between Role Security and Therapeutic Commitment could be found for senior house officers. Hence, it may be assumed that educational activities aiming to increase Role Security do not promote the development of motivational aspects such as

  9. CURRICULUM GUIDES IN BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE, BIOLOGY--GENERAL, AND BIOLOGY--ADVANCED PLACEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WESNER, GORDON E.; AND OTHERS

    "BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE" IS GEARED TO STUDENTS OF AVERAGE ABILITY, "BIOLOGY--GENERAL" IS OFFERED FOR THOSE WHO HAVE COMPLETED "BIOLOGY--GENERAL" IN GRADES 10 OR 11 AND WHO WISH TO PURSUE COLLEGE LEVEL STUDY WHILE IN GRADE 12. THE NONTECHNICAL "BIOLOGY--LIFE SCIENCE" HAS OUTLINED UNITS IN ORGANIZING FOOD,…

  10. A Question of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, John; McMillan, Rod

    In a conventional teaching situation, a lecturer may use a wide range of questioning techniques aimed at helping students to become active learners. In distance learning, students are often isolated and have limited opportunities for interaction in a social learning environment. Hence, learning strategies in distance learning need to be structured…

  11. The effects of higher-order questioning strategies on nonscience majors' achievement in an introductory environmental science course and their attitudes toward the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eason, Grace Teresa

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the effect a higher-order questioning strategy (Bloom, 1956) had on undergraduate non-science majors' attitudes toward the environment and their achievement in an introductory environmental science course, EDS 1032, "Survey of Science 2: Life Science," which was offered during the Spring 2000 term. Students from both treatment and control groups (N = 63), which were determined using intact classes, participated in eight cooperative group activities based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Studies (BSCS) 5E model (Bybee, 1993). The treatment group received a higher-order questioning method combined with the BSCS 5E model. The control group received a lower-order questioning method, combined with the BSCS 5E model. Two instruments were used to measure students' attitude and achievement changes. The Ecology Issue Attitude (EIA) survey (Schindler, 1995) and a comprehensive environmental science final exam. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (KLSI, 1985) was used to measure students' learning style type. After a 15-week treatment period, results were analyzed using MANCOVA. The overall MANCOVA model used to test the statistical difference between the collective influences of the independent variables on the three dependent variables simultaneously was found to be not significant at alpha = .05. This differs from findings of previous studies in which higher-order questioning techniques had a significant effect on student achievement (King 1989 & 1992; Blosser, 1991; Redfield and Rousseau, 1981; Gall 1970). At the risk of inflated Type I and Type II error rates, separate univariate analyses were performed. However, none of the research factors, when examined collectively or separately, made any significant contribution to explaining the variability in EIA attitude, EIA achievement, and comprehensive environmental science final examination scores. Nevertheless, anecdotal evidence from student's self

  12. Children's Question Asking and Curiosity: A Training Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirout, Jamie; Klahr, David

    2011-01-01

    A primary instructional objective of most early science programs is to foster children's scientific curiosity and question-asking skills (Jirout & Klahr, 2011). However, little is known about the relationship between curiosity, question-asking behavior, and general inquiry skills. While curiosity and question asking are invariably mentioned in…

  13. Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, I. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students…

  14. Science as a general education: Conceptual science should constitute the compulsory core of multi-disciplinary undergraduate degrees.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2006-01-01

    It is plausible to assume that in the future science will form the compulsory core element both of school curricula and multi-disciplinary undergraduate degrees. But for this to happen entails a shift in the emphasis and methods of science teaching, away from the traditional concern with educating specialists and professionals. Traditional science teaching was essentially vocational, designed to provide precise and comprehensive scientific knowledge for practical application. By contrast, future science teaching will be a general education, hence primarily conceptual. Its aim should be to provide an education in flexible rationality. Vocational science teaching was focused on a single-discipline undergraduate degree, but a general education in abstract systematic thinking is best inculcated by studying several scientific disciplines. In this sense, 'science' is understood as mathematics and the natural sciences, but also the abstract and systematic aspects of disciplines such as economics, linguistics, music theory, history, sociology, political science and management science. Such a wide variety of science options in a multi-disciplinary degree will increase the possibility of student motivation and aptitude. Specialist vocational science education will progressively be shifted to post-graduate level, in Masters and Doctoral programs. A multi-disciplinary and conceptually-based science core curriculum should provide an appropriate preparation for dealing with the demands of modern societies; their complex and rapidly changing social systems; and the need for individual social and professional mobility. Training in rational conceptual thinking also has potential benefits to human health and happiness, since it allows people to over-ride inappropriate instincts, integrate conflicting desires and pursue long-term goals.

  15. Building a Dental Sciences Collection in a General Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowers, Eva; Galbraith, Gillian

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the web and print resources used in selecting material for a dental sciences collection in an academic library at a public university without a medical library. The process of creating a collection quickly and with limited resources is described, from the initial collection assessment to the decision-making processes…

  16. General Education Natural Science for a Changing Society: Quo Vadimus?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Winston

    Concern for the education of whole persons is not new in American higher education, but recent authors have expressed a new urgency for a return to a common core curriculum for general education. One model can be seen in the Miami-Dade General Education program, another in the human-value-orientation of Walter Lippincott, which is particularly…

  17. Conceptual Mobility and Entrenchment in Introductory Geoscience Courses: New Questions Regarding Physics' and Chemistry's Role in Learning Earth Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Steven W.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide pre- and posttesting of introductory courses with the Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI) shows little gain for many of its questions. Analysis of more than 3,500 tests shows that 22 of the 73 GCI questions had gains of <0.03, and nearly half of these focused on basic physics and chemistry. We also discovered through an assessment of…

  18. Design and Assessment of a General Science STEM Course with a Blended Learning Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtier, A. M.; Liu, J. C.; St John, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Blended learning, a combination of classroom- and computer-mediated teaching and learning, is becoming prominent in higher education, and structured assessment is necessary to determine pedagogical costs and benefits. Assessment of a blended general education science class at James Madison University used a mixed-method causal-comparative design: in Spring 2014, two classes with identical content and similar groups of non-science majors were taught by the same instructor in either blended or full face-to-face formats. The learning experience of 160 students in the two classes was compared based on course and exam grades, classroom observation, and student survey results. Student acquisition of content in both classes was measured with pre-post tests using published concept inventories, and surveys, quizzes, and grade reports in the Blackboard learning management system were additionally used for data collection. Exams were identical between the two sections, and exam questions were validated in advance by a faculty member who teaches other sections of the same course. A course experience questionnaire was administered to measure students' personal experiences in both classes, addressing dimensions of good teaching, clear goals and standards, generic skills, appropriate assessment and workload, and emphasis on independence. Using a STEM classroom observation checklist, two researchers conducted in-class observations for four 75-minute face-to-face meetings with similar content focus in both classes, which allowed assessment of student engagement and participation. We will present details of the course design and research plan, as well as assessment results from both quantitative and qualitative analysis. The preliminary findings include slightly higher average grade distribution and more ready responses to in-class activities in the blended class.

  19. An Analysis of Metaphors Used by Students to Describe Energy in an Interdisciplinary General Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancor, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    The meaning of the term energy varies widely in scientific and colloquial discourse. Teasing apart the different connotations of the term can be especially challenging for non-science majors. In this study, undergraduate students taking an interdisciplinary, general science course (n?=?49) were asked to explain the role of energy in five contexts:…

  20. The Necessity of Teaching for Aesthetic Learning Experiences in Undergraduate General Education Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscotte, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Students should have aesthetic experiences to be fully engaged in science learning at any level. A general education science instructor can foster opportunities for aesthetic educative learning experiences enabling student growth. Drawing on the work of John Dewey and expanding on others in the field, Uhrmacher identifies the characteristics of…

  1. 76 FR 70155 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Amended... Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, November 15, 2011, 12 p.m. to November 15, 2011, 5 p.m.,...

  2. A Guide for Teaching General Science 1-2 (8th).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Philip D.

    This guide was prepared as an aid to teachers of general science 1-2, grade 8. One of the major purposes of the guide is to assist the teachers in adopting a discovery-oriented approach in the classroom. The course is designed to prepare able students for the advanced science courses, grades 9-12. Teaching techniques, homework, laboratory…

  3. Bridging the Gap between the Science Curriculum and Students' Questions: Comparing Linear vs. Hypermedia Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swirski, Hani; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet

    2014-01-01

    While interest is central to learning, considerable disparities have been reported between students' science interests and the science curriculum. This study explores how 5th grade students' (n = 72) competence, relatedness and interest levels changed as a consequence of using two online learning environments, which bridged the students' anonymous…

  4. Why can't you scientists leave things alone? Science questioned in British films of the post-war period (1945-1970).

    PubMed

    Jones, R

    2001-10-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the representation of scientists as villains in horror and science fiction films, and to the part this has played in creating the public perception of scientists. But science and scientists have also been represented in films which do not fit readily with the conventions of these genres, and these "mainstream" films allow a more detailed investigation of the public perception of science at the time they were made. This paper examines a number of British mainstream films portraying scientists and science from the period 1945-1970 to see in what ways the conduct of science was being questioned. A concern with the political control of science and the resulting secrecy is evident in a number of the films. The criticism of scientists seems to come from two contradictory directions. Scientists were either seen as too detached and unconcerned about the consequences of their work, or they were too emotional and insufficiently objective. This is in part explained by newer, less deferential attitudes to science co-existing with the older, heroic view during the period under study.

  5. Teacher Roles of Questioning in Early Elementary Science Classrooms: A Framework Promoting Student Cognitive Complexities in Argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the various roles that early elementary teachers adopt when questioning, to scaffold dialogic interaction and students' cognitive responses for argumentative practices over time. Teacher questioning is a pivotal contributing factor that shapes the role teachers play in promoting dialogic interaction in argumentative practice and that different roles serve different functions for promoting students' conceptual understanding. The multiple-case study was designed as a follow-up study after a 4-year professional development program that emphasized an argument-based inquiry approach. Data sources included 30 lessons focusing on whole class discussion from three early elementary teachers' classes. Data were analyzed through two approaches: (1) constant comparative method and (2) enumerative approach. This study conceptualized four critical roles of teacher questioning—dispenser, moderator, coach, and participant—in light of the ownership of ideas and activities. The findings revealed two salient changes in teachers' use of questions and the relationships between teachers' question-asking and students' cognitive responses: (1) teachers increasingly used multiple roles in establishing argumentative discourse as they persistently implemented an argument-based inquiry approach, and (2) as teachers used multiple roles in establishing patterns of questioning and framing classroom interactions, higher levels of student cognitive responses were promoted. This study suggests that an essential component of teacher professional development should include the study of the various roles that teachers can play when questioning for establishing dialogic interaction in argumentation and that this development should consist of ongoing training with systematic support.

  6. Science, the public, and social elites: how the general public, scientists, top politicians and managers perceive science.

    PubMed

    Prpić, Katarina

    2011-11-01

    This paper finds that the Croatian public's and the social elites' perceptions of science are a mixture of scientific and technological optimism, of the tendency to absolve science of social responsibility, of skepticism about the social effects of science, and of cognitive optimism and skepticism. However, perceptions differ significantly according to the different social roles and the wider value system of the observed groups. The survey data show some key similarities, as well as certain specificities in the configuration of the types of views of the four groups--the public, scientists, politicians and managers. The results suggest that the well-known typology of the four cultures reveals some of the ideologies of the key actors of scientific and technological policy. The greatest social, primarily educational and socio-spatial, differentiation of the perceptions of science was found in the general public.

  7. Debates of science vs. religion in undergraduate general education cosmology courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Aleman, Ramon

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in theoretical physics such as the discovery of the Higgs boson or the BICEP2 data supporting inflation can be part of the general science curriculum of non-science majors in a cosmology course designed as part of the General Education component. Yet to be a truly interdisciplinary experience one must deal with the religious background and faith of most of our students. Religious faith seems to be important in their lives, but the philosophical outlook of sciences like cosmology or evolutionary biology is one in which God is an unnecessary component in explaining the nature and origin of the universe. We will review recent advances in cosmology and suggestions on how to establish a respectful and intelligent science vs. religion debate in a transdisciplinary general education setting.

  8. Chemistry as General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy of different science and chemistry courses for science-major and non-major students, and the question of chemistry's contribution to general education are evaluated. Chemistry and science curriculum are too profession- and consumer-oriented, and to overcome this problem, it is advised that all disciplines must incorporate the major…

  9. PROBABILITY ESTIMATES OF THE CAPACITIES OF INTERMEDIATE PUPILS TO UNDERSTAND SELECTED PHYSICAL SCIENCE GENERALIZATIONS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SMITH, GARY R.

    THE CAPACITY OF INTERMEDIATE PUPILS TO UNDERSTAND AND RETAIN GENERALIZATIONS RELATED TO SIMPLE MACHINES, ELECTRICAL ENERGY, AND HEAT ENERGY WAS INVESTIGATED. A STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLE OF APPROXIMATELY 1,200 FOURTH, FIFTH, AND SIXTH GRADE PUPILS WAS SELECTED FROM THE METROPOLITAN DETROIT AREA. GENERALIZATIONS FOR THE THREE PHYSICAL SCIENCE AREAS…

  10. Japanese representation in leading general medicine and basic science journals: a comparison of two decades.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Tsuguya; Takahashi, Osamu; Rahman, Mahbubur

    2013-01-01

    During 1991-2000, Japan contribution to the top general medicine journals was very small although the contribution to the top basic science journals was sizeable. However, it has not been examined whether the contribution to the top general medicine and basic science journals has changed during the last decade (2001-2010). The objective of this study was to compare Japan representation in high-impact general medicine and basic science journals between the years 1991-2000 and 2001-2010. We used PubMed database to examine the frequency of articles originated from Japan and published in 7 high-impact general medicine and 6 high-impact basic science journals. Several Boolean operators were used to connect name of the journal, year of publication and corresponding authors' affiliation in Japan. Compared to the 1991-2000 decade, Japan contribution to the top general medicine journals did not increase over the 2001-2010 period (0.66% vs. 0.74%, P = 0.255). However, compared to the same period, its contribution to the top basic science journals increased during 2001-2010 (2.51% vs. 3.60%, P < 0.001). Japan representation in basic science journals showed an upward trend over the 1991-2000 period (P < 0.001) but remained flat during 2001-2010 (P = 0.177). In contrast, the trend of Japan representation in general medicine journals remained flat both during 1991-2000 (P = 0.273) and 2001-2010 (P = 0.073). Overall, Japan contribution to the top general medicine journals has remained small and unchanged over the last two decades. However, top basic science journals had higher Japan representation during 2001-2010 compared to 1991-2000.

  11. Using science centers to expose the general public to the microworld

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, E. |

    1994-08-01

    Despite the remarkable progress in the past decades in understanding our Universe, we particle physicists have failed to communicate the wonder, excitement, and beauty of these discoveries to the general public. I am sure all agree there is a need, if our support from public funds is to continue at anywhere approximating the present level, for us collectively to educate and inform the general public of what we are doing and why. Informal science education and especially science and technology centers can play an important role in efforts to raise public awareness of particle physics in particular and of basic research in general. Science Centers are a natural avenue for particle physicists to use to communicate with and gain support from the general public.

  12. Learning to Question: The Roles of Multiple Hypotheses, Successive Approximations, Balloons and Toilet Paper in University Science Programs of Southwestern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I. Foster

    2008-06-01

    Learning to question is essential for determining pathways of conservation and development in southwestern Amazonia during a time of rapid global environmental change. Teaching such an approach in graduate science programs in regional universities can be done using play-acting and simulation exercises. Multiple working hypotheses help students learn to question their own research results and expert witnesses. The method of successive approximations enables students to question the results of complex calculations, such as estimates of forest biomass. Balloons and rolls of toilet paper provide means of questioning two-dimensional representations of a three-dimensional Earth and the value of pi. Generation of systematic errors can illustrate the pitfalls of blind acceptance of data. While learning to question is essential, it is insufficient by itself; students must also learn how to be solutionologists in order to satisfy societal demands for solutions to environmental problems. A little irreverence can be an excellent didactic tool for helping students develop the skills necessary to lead conservation and development efforts in the region.

  13. A Study of the Questioning Behavior of Teachers in the Science Curriculum Improvement Study Teaching the Unit on Material Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo, Allan Kiichi

    The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has identified two main types of lessons: invention lessons, where the teachers introduce concepts, and discovery lessons in which children apply the concepts to new situations. The transcripts of tape recordings of the same sequence of four lessons, two invention and two discovery, of four teachers in the…

  14. Gender Disparities in Sciences: The Question of Parental Influence on Children's Self-Concept and Utility-Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makwinya, Noel M.; Hofman, Roelande H.

    2015-01-01

    Self-concept and utility-values are thought to influence differences in choices, participation and performance in schools-careers between students of different genders and ages. This study was investigating existence of gender differences in such constructs regarding science. Further, the study investigated whether development of such constructs…

  15. The questionable value of some science-based 'welfare' assessments in intensive animal farming: sow stalls as an illustrative example.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, M P; Cambridge, H

    2008-11-01

    A recent review of the code of practice for pigs brought attention to the question of how to assess the impact of housing conditions on pig welfare. The stance adopted by the law-makers, which mirrors that of industry, is that the status quo should be maintained until there is irrefutable scientific evidence in favour of change. Sows in intensive pig farms are often confined in cages (sow stalls) that are little bigger than their body. Many people find this repellent and the question of whether keeping sows in stalls is detrimental to their welfare has become a major focus of debate. All animal welfare groups in Australia, including the RSPCA, oppose the use of sow stalls. This brief essay critically examines the rationale for refusing to sanction change unless supported by scientific evidence. We conclude that the criteria for assessing welfare should not be restricted to consideration of scientific evidence alone, but should be widened to encompass moral and ethical considerations.

  16. Key science questions from the second conference on early Mars: geologic, hydrologic, and climatic evolution and the implications for life.

    PubMed

    Beaty, David W; Clifford, Stephen M; Borg, Lars E; Catling, David C; Craddock, Robert A; Des Marais, David J; Farmer, Jack D; Frey, Herbert V; Haberle, Robert M; McKay, Christopher P; Newsom, Horton E; Parker, Timothy J; Segura, Teresa; Tanaka, Kenneth L

    2005-12-01

    In October 2004, more than 130 terrestrial and planetary scientists met in Jackson Hole, WY, to discuss early Mars. The first billion years of martian geologic history is of particular interest because it is a period during which the planet was most active, after which a less dynamic period ensued that extends to the present day. The early activity left a fascinating geological record, which we are only beginning to unravel through direct observation and modeling. In considering this time period, questions outnumber answers, and one of the purposes of the meeting was to gather some of the best experts in the field to consider the current state of knowledge, ascertain which questions remain to be addressed, and identify the most promising approaches to addressing those questions. The purpose of this report is to document that discussion. Throughout the planet's first billion years, planetary-scale processes-including differentiation, hydrodynamic escape, volcanism, large impacts, erosion, and sedimentation-rapidly modified the atmosphere and crust. How did these processes operate, and what were their rates and interdependencies? The early environment was also characterized by both abundant liquid water and plentiful sources of energy, two of the most important conditions considered necessary for the origin of life. Where and when did the most habitable environments occur? Did life actually occupy them, and if so, has life persisted on Mars to the present? Our understanding of early Mars is critical to understanding how the planet we see today came to be.

  17. The medical science fiction of James White: Inside and Outside Sector General.

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard

    2016-12-01

    James White was a Northern Irish science fiction author working in the subgenre of medical science fiction from the mid-1950s to the end of the twentieth century. The aim of this article is to introduce White to scholars working in the medical humanities, pointing to features of interest and critiquing the more excessive utopian impulses of the author. The article covers White's Sector General series, set on a vast intergalactic hospital, as well as the author's standalone fictions.

  18. An Experimental Comparison of Case Histories with Conventional Materials in Teaching a College General Education Course in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ronald G.

    Experimentally evaluated were the merits of a case history and a current reading materials approach to a college general education science course with regard to facts and generalizations, methods of science, and scientific attitudes examination scores. In the experimental treatment, the nature of science and scientific research and other course…

  19. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Engaging K-12 Educators, Students, and the General Public in Space Science Exploration" included the following reports:Training Informal Educators Provides Leverage for Space Science Education and Public Outreach; Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education: K-12 Teacher Retention, Renewal, and Involvement in Professional Science; Telling the Tale of Two Deserts: Teacher Training and Utilization of a New Standards-based, Bilingual E/PO Product; Lindstrom M. M. Tobola K. W. Stocco K. Henry M. Allen J. S. McReynolds J. Porter T. T. Veile J. Space Rocks Tell Their Secrets: Space Science Applications of Physics and Chemistry for High School and College Classes -- Update; Utilizing Mars Data in Education: Delivering Standards-based Content by Exposing Educators and Students to Authentic Scientific Opportunities and Curriculum; K. E. Little Elementary School and the Young Astronaut Robotics Program; Integrated Solar System Exploration Education and Public Outreach: Theme, Products and Activities; and Online Access to the NEAR Image Collection: A Resource for Educators and Scientists.

  20. Questions About the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.

    This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…

  1. New and Emerging Strategies in Platelet-Rich Plasma Application in Musculoskeletal Regenerative Procedures: General Overview on Still Open Questions and Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Veronesi, Francesca; Maglio, Melania; Sartori, Maria; Fini, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Despite its pervasive use, the clinical efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy and the different mechanisms of action have yet to be established. This overview of the literature is focused on the role of PRP in bone, tendon, cartilage, and ligament tissue regeneration considering basic science literature deriving from in vitro and in vivo studies. Although this work provides evidence that numerous preclinical studies published within the last 10 years showed promising results concerning the application of PRP, many key questions remain unanswered and controversial results have arisen. Additional preclinical studies are needed to define the dosing, timing, and frequency of PRP injections, different techniques for delivery and location of delivery, optimal physiologic conditions for injections, and the concomitant use of recombinant proteins, cytokines, additional growth factors, biological scaffolds, and stems cells to develop optimal treatment protocols that can effectively treat various musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:26075269

  2. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Evolutionary Self-Questioning Games with Local Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Kui; Li, Zhi; Chen, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Long

    2009-08-01

    We investigate the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game on small-world networks in a realistic social context where individuals consider their local contributions to their group and update their strategies by self-questioning. An individual with introspection can determine whether its current strategy is superior by playing a virtual round of the game and its local contribution is defined as the sum of all the payoffs its neighbors collect against it. In our model, the performance of an individual is determined by both its payoff and local contribution through a linear combination. We demonstrate that the present mechanism can produce very robust cooperative behavior in both games. Furthermore, we provide theoretical analysis based on mean-field approximation, and find that the analytical predictions are qualitatively consistent with the simulation results.

  3. Effects of Active Learning on Enhancing Student Critical Thinking in an Undergraduate General Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kyoungna; Sharma, Priya; Land, Susan M.; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    To enhance students' critical thinking in an undergraduate general science course, we designed and implemented active learning modules by incorporating group-based learning with authentic tasks, scaffolding, and individual reports. This study examined the levels of critical thinking students exhibited in individual reports and the students'…

  4. 75 FR 11895 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... such as patentable material, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the grant... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Modeling the... applications. Place: National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, 45 Center Drive, Room 3AN.34,...

  5. General Education in Health Science-Focused Institutions: An Explanatory Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the structure of general education curricula at baccalaureate colleges of health science in relationship to Bergquist's Career-Based Model of curriculum. Using an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach, the model was tested by examining whether the curricula were both prescriptive and specific.…

  6. A Comparative Study of Two Laboratory Approaches in a General Education College Physical Science Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, John Patrick

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of two laboratory approaches in a general education physical science course: (1) the experimental method called the contemporary topics, and (2) the control method called the standard topics. The criterion instruments were an investigator-constructed subject content test, the…

  7. Student Expectations, University Goals: Looking for Alignment in General Education Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericson, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    This action research dissertation explores the alignment of university goals, faculty practice, and student expectations for general education natural science courses as a first step to understanding how best to restructure the program to ensure that students are learning in alignment with university stated goals for this aspect of their…

  8. 75 FR 12242 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of...-Biology Centers for Membrane Proteins. Date: April 9-10, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To...

  9. 76 FR 62080 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... Applications for High- Throughput-Enabled Structural Biology Partnerships (U01). Date: October 24, 2011....

  10. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  11. 76 FR 10038 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, PSI Biology... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and... and Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access to Research Careers; 93.96,...

  12. 76 FR 11801 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Systems Biology... Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and Biophysics... Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access to Research Careers; 93.96, Special Minority...

  13. Conceptions of the Nature of Science--Are They General or Context Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urhahne, Detlef; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between general and context-specific conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The categorization scheme by Osborne et al. (J Res Sci Teach 40:692-720, "2003") served as the theoretical framework of the study. In the category "nature of scientific knowledge", the certainty, development, simplicity,…

  14. Primary School Science: Implementation of Domain-General Strategies into Teaching Didactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; Van de Keere, Kristof; Tallir, Isabel; Vervaet, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we present a didactic method to help children aged 11 and 12 learn science in such a way as to enable a dynamic interaction between domain general strategies and the development of conceptual knowledge, whilst each type of scientific process has been considered (forming of hypotheses, experimenting and evaluating). We have…

  15. Integrating the Liberal Arts and Chemistry: A Series of General Chemistry Assignments to Develop Science Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…

  16. General Science, Ninth Grade: Theme III and Theme IV. Student Laboratory Manual. Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This document is the student laboratory manual that was designed to accompany some of the experimental activities found in the teacher's guide to this general science course for ninth graders. It contains laboratory worksheets for lessons on such topics as: (1) soil; (2) hazardous waste; (3) wildlife refuges; (4) the water cycle; (5) water…

  17. 76 FR 64954 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group Biomedical Research and Research Training Review Subcommittee B Date: November 16-17, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications, Doubletree Hotel Bethesda (Formerly Holiday Inn...

  18. 76 FR 64957 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Training Grant Applications. Date: November 14, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate..., Bethesda, MD 20892 (Telephone Conference Call.) Contact Person: C. Craig Hyde, PhD, Scientific...

  19. 75 FR 65363 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review of.... Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hyatt Regency-Bethesda, 7400 Wisconsin Avenue, One Bethesda Metro Center, Bethesda, MD 20814. Contact Person: John J. Laffan, PhD, Scientific...

  20. 76 FR 29773 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group, Biomedical Research and Research Training Review Subcommittee B. Date: June 17, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Hilton Washington DC-Silver Spring, 8727...

  1. 76 FR 64957 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of T32 Grant Applications. Date: November 18, 2011. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate.... Contact Person: John J. Laffan, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review,...

  2. The undergraduate curriculum of Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak in terms of Harden's 10 questions.

    PubMed

    Malik, Alam Sher; Malik, Rukhsana Hussain

    2002-11-01

    The curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS) is designed particularly to cater for the health needs of the State of Sarawak, Malaysia. The framework of the curriculum is built on four strands: biological knowledge, clinical skills, behavioural and population aspects. The training is community based and a graduate of FMHS is expected to possess the ability to deal with many ethnic groups with different cultures and beliefs; expertise in tropical infectious diseases; skills to deal with emergencies such as snakebite and near drowning; qualities of an administrator, problem-solver and community leader; and proficiency in information and communication technology. The content of the curriculum strives for commitment to lifelong learning and professional values. The FMHS has adopted a 'mixed economy' of education strategies and a 'mixed menu approach' to test a wide range of curriculum outcomes. The FMHS fosters intellectual and academic pursuits, encourages friendliness and a sense of social responsibility and businesslike efficiency.

  3. Using the science writing heuristic approach as a tool for assessing and promoting students' conceptual understanding and perceptions in the general chemistry laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Elham Ghazi

    This thesis reports on a study that examined the impact of implementing SWH (inquiry-based approach) in a general chemistry lab on non-science-major students' understanding of chemistry concepts and students' perceptions toward writing in science and implementing SWH. This study was conducted in a large university in the Midwest of the United States in a college freshman chemistry laboratory for non-science-major students. The research framework is presented including the following: the qualitative research design with the observation as data collection method for this design and the criteria for teacher level of implementation and the ranking mechanism; and the quantitative research design with data collection and analysis methods including pre- and post-conceptual exams, lecture question, open-ended surveys. This research was based on a quasi-experimental mixed-method design a focus on student performance on higher order conceptual questions, and open-ended survey at the end of semester about their perception toward writing to learn ad implementing SWH. Results from the qualitative and quantitative component indicated that implementing SWH approach has notably enhanced both male and female conceptual understanding and perception toward chemistry and implementing SWH. It is known that there is gender gap in science, where female have lower perception and self confident toward science. Interestingly, my findings have showed that implementing SWH helped closing the gap between male and female who started the semester with a statistically significant lower level of conceptual understanding of chemistry concepts among females than males.

  4. Frequent Questions about General Conformity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These regulations ensure that federal activities or actions don't cause new violations to the NAAQS and ensure that NAAQS attainment is not delayed. This page has information about other agency representatives or stakeholders

  5. Scientific session of the General meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (7 December 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-05-01

    A scientific session of the General meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 7 December 2015. The papers collected in this issue were written based on talks given at the session (the program of the session is available on the RAS Physical Sciences Division website http://www.gpad.ac.ru). (1) Loshchenov V B (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Pharmacodynamics of a nanophotosensitizer under irradiation by an electromagnetic field: from THz to Cherenkov radiation"; (2) Zhuikov B L (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Successes and problems in the development of medical radioisotope production in Russia"; (3) Tikhonov Yu A (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk) "Applying nuclear physics methods in healthcare"; (4) Turchin I V (Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, Nizhny Novgorod) "Methods of biomedical optical imaging: from subcellular structures to tissues and organs"; (5) Breus T K, Petrukovich A A (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow), Binhi V N (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow; Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "Magnetic factor in solar-terrestrial relations and its impact on the human body: physical problems and prospects for research"; (6) Makarov D I (Special Astrophysical Observatory, RAS, Nizhnii Arkhyz, Zelenchukskii region, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic) "Studying the Local University". Papers based on oral reports 2, 4, and 5 are presented below. • Successes and problems in the development of medical radioisotope production in Russia, B L Zhuikov Physics-Uspekhi, 2016, Volume 59, Number 5, Pages 481-486 • Methods of biomedical optical imaging: from subcellular structures to tissues and organs, I V Turchin Physics-Uspekhi, 2016, Volume 59, Number 5, Pages 487-501 • Magnetic factor in solar-terrestrial relations and its impact on the human body: physical problems and

  6. General Education Engagement in Earth and Planetary Science through an Earth-Mars Analog Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. A.; Kahmann-Robinson, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The successes of NASA rovers on Mars and new remote sensing imagery at unprecedented resolution can awaken students to the valuable application of Earth analogs to understand Mars processes and the possibilities of extraterrestrial life. Mars For Earthlings (MFE) modules and curriculum are designed as general science content introducing a pedagogical approach of integrating Earth science principles and Mars imagery. The content can be easily imported into existing or new general education courses. MFE learning modules introduce students to Google Mars and JMARS software packages and encourage Mars imagery analysis to predict habitable environments on Mars drawing on our knowledge of extreme environments on Earth. "Mars Mission" projects help students develop teamwork and presentation skills. Topic-oriented module examples include: Remote Sensing Mars, Olympus Mons and Igneous Rocks, Surface Sculpting Forces, and Extremophiles. The learning modules package imagery, video, lab, and in-class activities for each topic and are available online for faculty to adapt or adopt in courses either individually or collectively. A piloted MFE course attracted a wide range of non-majors to non-degree seeking senior citizens. Measurable outcomes of the piloted MFE curriculum were: heightened enthusiasm for science, awareness of NASA programs, application of Earth science principles, and increased science literacy to help students develop opinions of current issues (e.g., astrobiology or related government-funded research). Earth and Mars analog examples can attract and engage future STEM students as the next generation of earth, planetary, and astrobiology scientists.

  7. Podcasting as an Effective Medium for Direct Science Communication and Outreach to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, R. J.; Padilla, A. J.; Wheatley, P.; Barnhart, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    A podcast is an audio program distributed online typically freely available through an RSS feed (essentially an on-demand internet radio show). This medium has grown steadily in listenership and popularity since its inception in the early 2000s, especially thanks to popular distribution platforms such as iTunes, and web-enabled listening devices (i.e. smart phones). In terms of science reporting, many high impact journals now produce podcasts to supplement their publications (e.g. Nature, Science, etc.). However, smaller and/or more specialized journals often can't afford to promote their content via podcasts, thus limiting their authors to rely on traditional media and press releases supplied by their colleges and universities. This is where independent or unaffiliated podcasts can fill an open niche: providing a platform for scientists to discuss their research in their own words aimed at a general audience. Traditional press releases often follow a similar pattern, and many science news outlets essentially report the press releases verbatim with little additional content or reporting from primary sources. Podcasts suffer from no such restrictions, and they can be as long and in-depth as the subject matter necessitates. Furthermore, many news outlets no longer employ dedicated science reporters. Science is covered, if at all, by reporters without specialized scientific knowledge or training. This deficit leads to a much higher potential for science news stories to be incorrectly reported, or misinterpreted by the general public. A podcast allows a lab group or department the opportunity to edit the content for brevity and clarity, affording scientists a better chance of getting their research presented to the public in an accurate and representative way. Finally, podcasts allow the public to hear the voice of the scientist, humanizing the hard work they do, and potentially positively influencing the way the public reacts to science as a discipline.

  8. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  9. Curiosity Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  10. An Analysis of Metaphors Used by Students to Describe Energy in an Interdisciplinary General Science Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancor, Rachael

    2015-04-01

    The meaning of the term energy varies widely in scientific and colloquial discourse. Teasing apart the different connotations of the term can be especially challenging for non-science majors. In this study, undergraduate students taking an interdisciplinary, general science course (n = 49) were asked to explain the role of energy in five contexts: radiation, transportation, generating electricity, earthquakes, and the big bang theory. The responses were qualitatively analyzed under the framework of conceptual metaphor theory. This study presents evidence that non-science major students spontaneously use metaphorical language that is consistent with the conceptual metaphors of energy previously identified in the discourse of students in introductory physics, biology, and chemistry courses. Furthermore, most students used multiple coherent metaphors to explain the role of energy in these complex topics. This demonstrates that these conceptual metaphors for energy have broader applicability than just traditional scientific contexts. Implications for this work as a formative assessment tool in instruction will also be discussed.

  11. Panspermia asks new questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyce, Brig

    2001-08-01

    There is a widespread sentiment that panspermia is uninteresting is because it does not answer fundamental questions about the origin of life. The strongest version of panspermia asks entirely new questions. While barriers to the acceptance of panspermia are falling and evidence supporting it is accumulating, the mere possibility of panspermia unhinges the Darwinian account of evolutionary progress. The new theory removes an issue dividing science and religion, but it requires an amendment to the big bang theory.

  12. An approach to teaching general chemistry II that highlights the interdisciplinary nature of science.

    PubMed

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to teaching second semester general chemistry that demonstrates the interdisciplinary nature of biology and chemistry. Our innovative method provides a model in which disciplinary barriers are diminished early in the undergraduate science curriculum. The course is divided into three principle educational modules: 1) Fundamentals of General Chemistry, 2) Medical Approaches to Inflammation, and 3) Neuroscience as a connector of chemistry, biology, and psychology. We accurately anticipated that this modified approach to teaching general chemistry would enhance student interest in chemistry and bridge the perceived gaps between biology and chemistry. The course serves as a template for context-based, interdisciplinary teaching that lays the foundation needed to train 21st century scientists.

  13. Value Added: History of Physics in a ``Science, Technology, and Society'' General Education Undergraduate Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuenschwander, Dwight

    2016-03-01

    In thirty years of teaching a capstone ``Science, Technology, and Society'' course to undergraduate students of all majors, I have found that, upon entering STS, to most of them the Manhattan Project seems about as remote as the Civil War; few can describe the difference between nuclear and large non-nuclear weapons. With similar lack of awareness, many students seem to think the Big Bang was dreamed up by science sorcerers. One might suppose that a basic mental picture of weapons that held entire populations hostage should be part of informed citizenship. One might also suppose that questions about origins, as they are put to nature through evidence-based reasoning, should be integral to a culture's identity. Over the years I have found the history of physics to be an effective tool for bringing such subjects to life for STS students. Upon hearing some of the history behind (for example) nuclear weapons and big bang cosmology, these students can better imagine themselves called upon to help in a Manhattan Project, or see themselves sleuthing about in a forensic science like cosmology. In this talk I share sample student responses to our class discussions on nuclear weapons, and on cosmology. The history of physics is too engaging to be appreciated only by physicists.

  14. "Everybody knows psychology is not a real science": Public perceptions of psychology and how we can improve our relationship with policymakers, the scientific community, and the general public.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    In a recent seminal article, Lilienfeld (2012) argued that psychological science is experiencing a public perception problem that has been caused by both public misconceptions about psychology, as well as the psychological science community's failure to distinguish itself from pop psychology and questionable therapeutic practices. Lilienfeld's analysis is an important and cogent synopsis of external problems that have limited psychological science's penetration into public knowledge. The current article expands upon this by examining internal problems, or problems within psychological science that have potentially limited its impact with policymakers, other scientists, and the public. These problems range from the replication crisis and defensive reactions to it, overuse of politicized policy statements by professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA), and continued overreliance on mechanistic models of human behavior. It is concluded that considerable problems arise from psychological science's tendency to overcommunicate mechanistic concepts based on weak and often unreplicated (or unreplicable) data that do not resonate with the everyday experiences of the general public or the rigor of other scholarly fields. It is argued that a way forward can be seen by, on one hand, improving the rigor and transparency of psychological science, and making theoretical innovations that better acknowledge the complexities of the human experience. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Bringing climate sciences to the general public with the Climanosco initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourqui, Michel; Bolduc, Cassandra; Charbonneau, Paul; Charrière, Marie; Hill, Daniel; Lòpez Gladko, Angélica; Loubet, Enrique; Roy, Philippe; Winter, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the first months of operation of the scientists-initiated Climanosco.org platform. The goal of this initiative is to bridge climate sciences with the general public by building a network of climate scientists and citizens around the world, by stimulating the writing of quality climate science articles in non-scientific language, and by publishing these articles in an open-access, multilingual format. For the climate scientist, this platform will offer a simple and reliable channel to disseminate research results to the general public. High standards are enforced by: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. Direct participation of non-scientists is allowed through co-authoring, peer-reviewing, language translation. Furthermore, public engagement is stimulated by allowing non-scientists to invite manuscripts to be written by scientists on topics of their concern. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local politicians, economists, members of the agriculture sector, and any other citizens from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The initiative is now several months into operations. In this paper, I will discuss what we have achieved so far and what we plan for the next future.

  16. Critical Questions in Wetland Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands are transitional between terrestrial and aquatic environments. As such, they perform important ecological functions (e.g., nutrient cycling, flood abatement) providing a variety of ecosystem services on which humans rely. Wetlands are also one of the world’s most e...

  17. Asking the Right Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Rob

    2011-01-01

    As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…

  18. Making Connections to Students' Lives and Careers Throughout a General Education Science Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaDue, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    The University of Oklahoma's general education lecture course Severe & Unusual Weather, taught in two sections each fall and spring, covers about nine topics. The sections are taught by different instructors, each of whom has flexibility to employ a variety of instructional strategies and choose specific topics to cover while meeting the requirement that general education courses in the natural sciences help students understand the importance of the science for appreciating the world around them. Students enrolled have been approximately 6-10% returning adult students, some of whom were veterans or active duty military, and about 10% members of racial or ethnic groups. Their majors are mostly in the humanities (theater, photography) and social sciences (education, English, journalism, sociology), with some natural science majors (psychology, aviation). For the past two years, Section 001 has been designed with adult and active learning concepts in mind, using deliberate connections between course content and students' lives and careers to motivate meaningful learning. Students were grouped in teams according to similar majors and assigned group presentations connecting course content to topics that should interest them, such as economic impacts of weather, societal and personal impacts of severe weather, risks to aviation, media coverage of weather, and psychological and sociological responses to weather risks. Students learn about the peer review process for scientific papers while also exploring a connection of course content to their future career or life interests through papers that are run through a mock peer review process. Public policy is discussed in several sections of the course, such as hurricane building codes, wind-resistant construction in tornado alley, and the disproportionate impacts of weather and climate on certain socioeconomic groups. Most students deeply appreciate the opportunity to explore how course content intersects with their lives

  19. Questor's Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…

  20. "The" Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the suggestions found in Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," in the light of a possible U.S. Government's Interagency Language Roundtable receptive skills proficiency test which must supply the answer to the question of how well an individual can understand a particular…

  1. Critical Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jo; Hoffman, James V.

    1998-01-01

    Offers responses from four readers of this journal, all reading and/or classroom teachers, to a question posed by another teacher: whether children who have had limited literacy experiences should start reading in whole-language readers and/or trade books or whether they should start in controlled-vocabulary preprimers. (SR)

  2. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  3. Investigating the effectiveness of implementing the Science Writing Heuristic on student performance in general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poock, Jason Ray

    This research investigated the effectiveness at how the Science Writing Heuristic in the freshman chemistry laboratory for science and engineering majors at Iowa State University during the fall and spring semesters of the 2002--2003 academic year, was implemented. The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) consists of two components, writing to learn strategies and conducting the laboratory session in a student-centered, guided-inquiry fashion. The writing component replaced the standard laboratory report with a series of questions that guided the students' critical thinking along the lines of scientific investigation. The writing process helped students construct knowledge. Also critical to the successful implementation of the SWH was conducting the laboratory experiments in a student-centered, guided-inquiry fashion. Through the SWH the students became engaged in meaningful scientific dialogue that promoted knowledge construction. For the SWH to be properly implemented, a classroom dynamic between the teacher and the students should be established. The teacher provides the framework within which the laboratory experiment is conducted and the students respond to that guidance by becoming engaged in the learning process. Results of the study showed that student scores improved when the teacher properly implemented the SWH, when the students responded positively to the implementation of the SWH, and when there was a proper classroom dynamic created between the teacher and the students. This study revealed that successful implementation of the SWH was beneficial to females and low ability students. This research also demonstrated a connection between the implementation of a learning strategy in the laboratory component of a course and the subsequent benefit in student performance in the lecture component of the course.

  4. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  5. Teaching and learning the geological knowledge as a part of the science education general field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Pérez, Constancio

    2010-05-01

    Since the early 50s of last century the Teaching of Science has undergone a process of continuous development, (Gutiérrez, 1987; Aliberas, Gutierrez and Izquierdo, 1989) to become a scientific discipline largely accepted as such by many different universities worldwide. Besides, the proliferation of publications, magazines, conferences, symposia, meetings, and so on, proves this assertion. In these publications and meetings the Teaching of Science (or Science Education in more general terms) is addressed as a new field of research, teaching and educational innovation focused on the processes of teaching and learning of the experimental sciences (all of them: Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology). The study of this discipline is undertaken from different pedagogical, epistemological, psychological and sociological approaches. From this general perspective we can say that over the last two decades each of the sciences has developed specific characteristics so that, today, we could speak about specific didactics for each one of them. In the case of Geology (or Geoscience) Teaching there have been significant contributions from the following fields of research: the students' prior ideas (constructivist approach), the history of geology (as a subject-specific field) and from epistemology (Pedrinaci, E. 2000). The body of geoscience knowledge has an internal logic (as happens with the other science subjects) that allows us to organize the contents to teach, selecting, arranging and establishing proper relations between them. Still geology has a central, transverse, inter-and transdisciplinary character for its relationship with the other sciences. This character makes it appear as one of the disciplines with a huge potential to combine different methodologies of teaching and learning and different learning models already tested in the research field of Physics, Chemistry or Biology Education. Moreover, the most recent term coined for it "geosciences or earth and

  6. AAAS News: Questions of Science Literacy Addressed by Rutherford/AAAS; 1982 Exhibit; Energy and Health to Be Discussed in Berkeley; Short Courses at Pacific Division, Annual Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents the views of F. James Rutherford concerning the status of science education and his role as advisor on science education to the Board of Directors of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. (SK)

  7. Recommendations for describing statistical studies and results in general readership science and engineering journals.

    PubMed

    Gardenier, John S

    2012-12-01

    This paper recommends how authors of statistical studies can communicate to general audiences fully, clearly, and comfortably. The studies may use statistical methods to explore issues in science, engineering, and society or they may address issues in statistics specifically. In either case, readers without explicit statistical training should have no problem understanding the issues, the methods, or the results at a non-technical level. The arguments for those results should be clear, logical, and persuasive. This paper also provides advice for editors of general journals on selecting high quality statistical articles without the need for exceptional work or expense. Finally, readers are also advised to watch out for some common errors or misuses of statistics that can be detected without a technical statistical background.

  8. A general framework for analysing diversity in science, technology and society.

    PubMed

    Stirling, Andy

    2007-08-22

    This paper addresses the scope for more integrated general analysis of diversity in science, technology and society. It proposes a framework recognizing three necessary but individually insufficient properties of diversity. Based on 10 quality criteria, it suggests a general quantitative non-parametric diversity heuristic. This allows the systematic exploration of diversity under different perspectives, including divergent conceptions of relevant attributes and contrasting weightings on different diversity properties. It is shown how this heuristic may be used to explore different possible trade-offs between diversity and other aspects of interest, including portfolio interactions. The resulting approach offers a way to be more systematic and transparent in the treatment of scientific and technological diversity in a range of fields, including conservation management, research governance, energy policy and sustainable innovation.

  9. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Special Libraries. Biological and Medical Science Libraries Section. Social Science Libraries Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six of the nine papers in this collection focus on biological and medical science libraries; the remaining three are concerned with social science libraries. The papers on biological and medical science libraries appear first in this list: (1) "Standards for Medical and Health Care Libraries: Canada" (Jan Greenwood, Canada); (2) "Standards for…

  10. Science & Safety: Making the Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Science Supervisors, VA.

    This document provides information on the most commonly asked science safety questions by science teachers primarily at the secondary school level. Topics include the legal responsibilities of a science teacher, a general safety checklist, proper labeling and storing of chemicals, purchasing of new chemicals and disposing of old chemicals, a…

  11. The Science of Pizza: The Molecular Origins of Cheese, Bread, and Digestion Using Interactive Activities for the General Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowat, Amy C.; Rosenberg, Daniel; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a presentation on the science of pizza, which is designed for the general public including children ages 6 and older. The presentation focuses on the science of making and digesting cheese and bread. We highlight 4 major scientific themes: (1) how macromolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins are composed of atoms and small…

  12. A Thematic Review of Interactive Whiteboard Use in Science Education: Rationales, Purposes, Methods and General Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormanci, Ummuhan; Cepni, Salih; Deveci, Isa; Aydin, Ozhan

    2015-10-01

    In Turkey and many other countries, the importance of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) is increasing, and as a result, projects and studies are being conducted regarding the use of the IWB in classrooms. Accordingly, in these countries, many issues are being researched, such as the IWB's contribution to the education process, its use in classroom settings and problems that occur when using the IWB. In this context, the research and analysis of studies regarding the use of the IWB have important implications for educators, researchers and teachers. This study aims to review and analyze studies conducted regarding the use of the IWB in the field of science. Accordingly, as a thematic review of the research was deemed appropriate, extant articles available in the literature were analyzed using a matrix that consisted of general features (type of journal, year and demographic properties) and content features (rationales, aims, research methods, samples, data collections, results and suggestions). According to the findings, it was concluded that the studies regarding the use of IWBs were conducted due to deficiencies in the current literature. However, there are rare studies in which the reasons for the research were associated with the nature of science education. There were also studies that focused on the effects of the IWB on student academic success and learning outcomes. Within this context, it is evident that there is a need for further research concerning the use of IWBs in science education and for studies regarding the effect of IWBs on students' skills.

  13. The Art of Astronomy: A New General Education Course for Non-Science Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; van Zee, Liese

    2017-01-01

    The Art of Astronomy is a new general education course developed at Indiana University. The topic appeals to a broad range of undergraduates and the course gives students the tools to understand and appreciate astronomical images in a new way. The course explores the science of imaging the universe and the technology that makes the images possible. Topics include the night sky, telescopes and cameras, light and color, and the science behind the images. Coloring the Universe: An Insider's Look at Making Spectacular Images of Space" by T. A. Rector, K. Arcand, and M. Watzke serves as the basic text for the course, supplemented by readings from the web. Through the course, students participate in exploration activities designed to help them first to understand astronomy images, and then to create them. Learning goals include an understanding of scientific inquiry, an understanding of the basics of imaging science as applied in astronomy, a knowledge of the electromagnetic spectrum and how observations at different wavelengths inform us about different environments in the universe, and an ability to interpret astronomical images to learn about the universe and to model and understand the physical world.

  14. Neural Networks In Mining Sciences - General Overview And Some Representative Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    programs, easily available, which allow their user to quickly and effortlessly create artificial neural networks, run them, train and use in practice. The key issue is the question how to use these networks in mining sciences. The fact that this is possible and desirable is shown by convincing examples included in the second part of this study. From the very rich literature on the various applications of neural networks, we have selected several works that show how and what neural networks are used in the mining industry, and what has been achieved thanks to their use. The review of applications will continue in the next article, filed already for publication in the journal "Archives of Mining Sciences". Only studying these two articles will provide sufficient knowledge for initial guidance in the area of issues under consideration here.

  15. What is a Question?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  16. A Citizen Empowered Online Platform for Communicating Climate Science to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourqui, Michel

    2014-05-01

    This presentation introduces a project, currently in development, of a new online platform for the interaction between climate scientists and citizen. It consists of an open-access, multi-lingual, and peer-reviewed journal publishing climate articles in non-scientific language. It follows three main long-term objectives. The first objective is to establish an ever-growing, multi-lingual library of climate articles providing a knowledge base on climate sciences accessible for free to everyone. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local actors (e.g. in politics, economy, agriculture), and any other citizen from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. The second goal is to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is enforced through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The third objective is to engage citizen into the climate science. To this aim, the journal proposes three channels. Firstly, citizens are invited to contribute to the dissemination of climate knowledge to the general public by co-authoring, peer-reviewing or translating articles. Secondly, they are offered the capacity to stimulate scientific enquiry by posting invitations for manuscripts to be written on a citizen-inspired topic. Thirdly, a match-up tool is being developed for scientists to gather non-scientists teams for conducting citizen-involving research projects. This platform is scientist-initiated and is meant to be ruled and managed by the participating individuals themselves (scientists and non-scientists) as an international association. It will be financed through country-varying flat memberships. The project is now starting. The basic ideas are drawn; a prototype internet platform has been developed and is

  17. Twenty Questions about Student Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph Isaac

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the value of studying errors made by students in the process of learning science. Addresses 20 research questions dealing with student learning errors. Attempts to characterize errors made by students and clarify some terms used in error research. (TW)

  18. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  19. Methods and successes of New York University workshops for science graduate students and post-docs in science writing for general audiences (readers and radio listeners)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and science administrators often stress the importance of communication to the general public, but rarely develop educational infrastructures to achieve this goal. Since 2009, the Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute at New York University has offered a series of basic and advanced writing workshops for graduate students and post-docs in NYU's eight scientific divisions (neuroscience, psychology, physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, anthropology, and computer science). The basic methodology of the NYU approach will be described, along with successful examples of both written and radio work by students that have been either published or broadcast by general interest journalism outlets.

  20. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  1. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  2. The Effects of Two Strategic and Meta-Cognitive Questioning Approaches on Children's Explanatory Behaviour, Problem-Solving, and Learning during Cooperative, Inquiry-Based Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Haynes, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Teaching students to ask and answer questions is critically important if they are to engage in reasoned argumentation, problem-solving, and learning. This study involved 35 groups of grade 6 children from 18 classrooms in three conditions (cognitive questioning condition, community of inquiry condition, and the comparison condition) who were…

  3. A Reconstruction of Structure of the Atom and Its Implications for General Physics Textbooks: A History and Philosophy of Science Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2004-01-01

    Recent research in science education has recognized the importance of history and philosophy of science. The objective of this study is to evaluate the presentation of the Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr models of the atom in general physics textbooks based on criteria derived from history and philosophy of science. Forty-one general physics…

  4. Provocative Questions in Cancer: NCI Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.

  5. A Study to Validate a Sample Set of Questions and the General Approach to Their Development for an Army Systems Acquisition Review Council (ASARC) 3 System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    him in this role. An ad hoc working group (AHWG) is formed 10 to 12 months prior to an ASARC to review the status of the system undergoing review and...ACQUISITION STATUS AHWG ESTABLISHED DAPR PRE ASARC ASARC III DSARC III * ASARC H MANNING - ESTIMATE: OFFICER WARRANT OFFICER ENLISTED...identify with confidence the MPT questions which need to be addressed to provide a clear understanding of the MPT status regarding PLRS. ; ! I f

  6. Does science education need the history of science?

    PubMed

    Gooday, Graeme; Lynch, John M; Wilson, Kenneth G; Barsky, Constance K

    2008-06-01

    This essay argues that science education can gain from close engagement with the history of science both in the training of prospective vocational scientists and in educating the broader public about the nature of science. First it shows how historicizing science in the classroom can improve the pedagogical experience of science students and might even help them turn into more effective professional practitioners of science. Then it examines how historians of science can support the scientific education of the general public at a time when debates over "intelligent design" are raising major questions over the kind of science that ought to be available to children in their school curricula. It concludes by considering further work that might be undertaken to show how history of science could be of more general educational interest and utility, well beyond the closed academic domains in which historians of science typically operate.

  7. The Earth Science Education Unit's Professional Development Workshop on "The Carbon Question--Cycling, Releasing, Capturing" for Teachers of Key Stages 3 and 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The revised National Curriculum for Science for key stages 3 and 4 (ages 11-16) in England provides the opportunity to develop a new coherent approach to teaching about the carbon cycle, the use of carbon as a fuel and the resulting issues. The Earth Science Education Unit (ESEU) intends to develop a new workshop to support the teaching of this…

  8. Apollo-Soyuz pamphlet no. 9: General science. [experimental design in Astronomy, Biology, Geophysics, Aeronomy and Materials science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, L. W.; From, T. P.

    1977-01-01

    The objectives and planning activities for the Apollo-Soyuz mission are summarized. Aspects of the space flight considered include the docking module and launch configurations, spacecraft orbits, and weightlessness. The 28 NASA experiments conducted onboard the spacecraft are summarized. The contributions of the mission to the fields of astronomy, geoscience, biology, and materials sciences resulting from the experiments are explored.

  9. Testing General Relativity with the Radio Science Experiment of the BepiColombo mission to Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schettino, Giulia; Tommei, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    The relativity experiment is part of the Mercury Orbiter Radio science Experiment (MORE) on-board the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission to Mercury. Thanks to very precise radio tracking from the Earth and accelerometer, it will be possible to perform an accurate test of General Relativity, by constraining a number of post-Newtonian and related parameters with an unprecedented level of accuracy. The Celestial Mechanics Group of the University of Pisa developed a new dedicated software, ORBIT14, to perform the simulations and to determine simultaneously all the parameters of interest within a global least squares fit. After highlighting some critical issues, we report on the results of a full set of simulations, carried out in the most up-to-date mission scenario. For each parameter we discuss the achievable accuracy, in terms of a formal analysis through the covariance matrix and, furthermore, by the introduction of an alternative, more representative, estimation of the errors. We show that, for example, an accuracy of some parts in 10^-6 for the Eddington parameter β and of 10^-5 for the Nordtvedt parameter η can be attained, while accuracies at the level of 5×10^-7 and 1×10^-7 can be achieved for the preferred frames parameters α1 and α2, respectively.

  10. Students' Perceptions and Emotions Toward Learning in a Flipped General Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jin Su; González-Gómez, David; Cañada-Cañada, Florentina

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the inverted instruction methodologies are gaining attentions in higher educations by claiming that flipping the classroom engages more effectively students with the learning process. Besides, students' perceptions and emotions involved in their learning process must be assessed in order to gauge the usability of this relatively new instruction methodology, since it is vital in the educational formation. For this reason, this study intends to evaluate the students' perceptions and emotions when a flipped classroom setting is used as instruction methodology. This research was conducted in a general science course, sophomore of the Primary Education bachelor degree in the Training Teaching School of the University of Extremadura (Spain). The results show that the students have the overall positive perceptions to a flipped classroom setting. Particularly, over 80 % of them considered that the course was a valuable learning experience. They also found this course more interactive and were willing to have more courses following a flipped model. According to the students' emotions toward a flipped classroom course, the highest scores were given to the positive emotions, being fun and enthusiasm along with keyword frequency test. Then, the lowest scores were corresponded to negative emotions, being boredom and fear. Therefore, the students attending to a flipped course demonstrated to have more positive and less negative emotions. The results obtained in this study allow drawing a promising tendency about the students' perceptions and emotions toward the flipped classroom methodology and will contribute to fully frame this relatively new instruction methodology.

  11. The Development, Validation and Administration of a Criterion-Referenced Science Battery for General Education Students in Costa Rica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esquivel, Juan M.; Quesada, Lilliana

    The purpose of this study was to (1) develop and validate criterion-referenced tests to measure science knowledge of students who finished the fifth grade, as well as those who finished the three cycles of the General Education and (2) to assess the performance on these tests of a national, random sample of fourth-, sixth-, seventh-, and…

  12. Application of the Test of Scientific Literacy Skills in the Assessment of a General Education Natural Science Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldo, Jennifer Turner

    2014-01-01

    The peer-reviewed and psychometrically validated Test of Scientific Literacy Skills developed by Gormally et al. was used to assess the strengths and weaknesses of a general education natural science program. By comparing the scores of students who had already taken at least one course in this area with the scores of those who had not, and by…

  13. A Twenty-Year Survey of Science Literacy among College Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impey, Chris; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie; Johnson, Elizabeth; King, Courtney

    2011-01-01

    First results from a 20-year survey of science knowledge and attitudes toward science among undergraduates are presented. Nearly 10,000 students taking astronomy as part of a general education requirement answered a set of questions that overlap a science literacy instrument administered to the general public by the National Science Foundation.…

  14. A general science-based framework for dynamical spatio-temporal models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wikle, C.K.; Hooten, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Spatio-temporal statistical models are increasingly being used across a wide variety of scientific disciplines to describe and predict spatially-explicit processes that evolve over time. Correspondingly, in recent years there has been a significant amount of research on new statistical methodology for such models. Although descriptive models that approach the problem from the second-order (covariance) perspective are important, and innovative work is being done in this regard, many real-world processes are dynamic, and it can be more efficient in some cases to characterize the associated spatio-temporal dependence by the use of dynamical models. The chief challenge with the specification of such dynamical models has been related to the curse of dimensionality. Even in fairly simple linear, first-order Markovian, Gaussian error settings, statistical models are often over parameterized. Hierarchical models have proven invaluable in their ability to deal to some extent with this issue by allowing dependency among groups of parameters. In addition, this framework has allowed for the specification of science based parameterizations (and associated prior distributions) in which classes of deterministic dynamical models (e. g., partial differential equations (PDEs), integro-difference equations (IDEs), matrix models, and agent-based models) are used to guide specific parameterizations. Most of the focus for the application of such models in statistics has been in the linear case. The problems mentioned above with linear dynamic models are compounded in the case of nonlinear models. In this sense, the need for coherent and sensible model parameterizations is not only helpful, it is essential. Here, we present an overview of a framework for incorporating scientific information to motivate dynamical spatio-temporal models. First, we illustrate the methodology with the linear case. We then develop a general nonlinear spatio-temporal framework that we call general quadratic

  15. An Approach to Teaching General Chemistry II that Highlights the Interdisciplinary Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumter, Takita Felder; Owens, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    The need for a revised curriculum within the life sciences has been well-established. One strategy to improve student preparation in the life sciences is to redesign introductory courses like biology, chemistry, and physics so that they better reflect their disciplinary interdependence. We describe a medically relevant, context-based approach to…

  16. Using the Activity Model of Inquiry to Enhance General Chemistry Students' Understanding of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchlewicz, Sara C.; Wink, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Nature of science refers to the processes of scientific activity and the social and cultural premises involved in the creation of scientific knowledge. Having an informed view of nature of science is important in the development of scientifically literate citizens. However, students often come to the classroom with misconceptions about nature of…

  17. Using the Science Writing Heuristic to Improve Students' Understanding of General Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, James A., II; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Hand, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the performance of students using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach and students using a standard or traditional laboratory curriculum on lecture exams and a laboratory practical exam on a specific topic, chemical equilibrium. The SWH helps students do inquiry science laboratory work by structuring the laboratory…

  18. The Conservation of Energy Concept in Ninth Grade General Science, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shockley, William; And Others

    Discussed is an instructional approach, "concept-distillation," which involves experiences, games, and puzzles that have the "distilled essence" of the basic concepts of the physical sciences. This approach is designed to impart a vivid and dramatic meaning and structure of the sciences for transfer in scientific thinking. The…

  19. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and…

  20. Analysis of environmental and general science efficacy among instructors with contrasting class ethnicity distributions: A four-dimensional assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Bryan Keith

    Scope and method of study. The context and nature of self-efficacy beliefs provides a vector upon which to explore science instructors' perceptions of their own competence, self beliefs, and beliefs concerning their students as a function of ethnicity (Pajares, 1996). Currently, available cross-sectional data that concomitantly compares efficacy for environmental and general science curricula among instructors with contrasting class ethnicity distributions (CED) (minority vs. non-minority) is diminutive. Here, a modified research instrument that incorporates the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument (Sia, 1992), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and factors 2 & 3 from the Ohio State Teacher Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2001) is employed to create a bi-disciplinary four dimensional assessment that measures personal teacher efficacy (PTE), outcome expectancy (OE), classroom management (CM), and student engagement (SE). Instructors' willingness to, and utilization of, practical instruction to reinforce science learning is also assessed. Findings and conclusions. Overall, efficacy levels for environmental and general science curriculum among instructors with high minority CED (n=22) were consistently lower than that of instructors with high non-minority CED (n = 18); consistently diminished efficacy levels were evidenced upon analysis of CED and all independent variables analyzed. While all four dimensions of efficacy were consistently low for instructors with high minority CED, markedly low mean CM and SE responses were evidenced. A link exists between teacher self-efficacy and the conditions present that impinge on the successful completion of work goals (Metz, 1978). Many studies have examined the lowered-level of minority involvement in environmental careers, issues, and concerns (Taylor, 1989). While all science instructors were willing to utilize outdoor classrooms, markedly lower outdoor classroom

  1. Zur Frage der Textauswahl in einem Lesekurs fuer die Sozialwissenschaften (On the Question of the Choice of Textbooks in a Course in the Social Sciences)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apelt, Hans-Peter

    1974-01-01

    Passages from three selected samples of textbooks are used to show what requirements are made of textbooks in the social sciences. Some hints are given to the teacher for converting reading suggestions into instructional material. Short texts from Karl Marx are also suggested. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  2. Frequent Questions about TSCA CBI

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    General Questions and Answers Concerning Confidential Business Information (CBI) Provisions of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), as amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act

  3. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Controls NCBDDD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Folic Acid Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Folic Acid Homepage Facts Quiz Frequently Asked Questions General Information ...

  4. Recognizing Question Entailment for Medical Question Answering

    PubMed Central

    Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches. PMID:28269825

  5. Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Edmund S.

    2006-01-01

    In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

  6. Questions, Questioning Techniques, and Effective Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilen, William W., Ed.

    This book focuses on questioning techniques and strategies teachers may employ to make the difference between active and passive learning in the classroom. There are nine chapters: (1) Why Questions? (Ambrose A. Clegg, Jr.); (2) Review of Research on Questioning Techniques (Meredith D. Gall and Tom Rhody); (3) The Multidisciplinary World of…

  7. Children's Questions and Science Teaching: An Alternative Approach. [and] Floating and Sinking: Some Teaching Suggestions. Learning in Science Project (Primary). Working Paper No. 117 [February 1984 and November 1983 Versions].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddulph, Fred; Osborne, Roger

    Two booklets were developed by the Learning in Science Project (Primary)--LISP(P)--to help teachers adopt an approach to primary science teaching which would enhance children's understanding of floating and sinking. Both booklets were designed to enable teachers to reconceptualize their teaching task from activity-driven, didactic teaching to…

  8. Effectiveness of a Highly Rated Science Curriculum Unit for Students with Disabilities in General Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Sharon; Taymans, Juliana; Watson, William A.; Ochsendorf, Robert J.; Pyke, Curtis; Szesze, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    This research is part of a study on scaling-up middle school science curriculum units in a large, diverse public school system. Chemistry That Applies (CTA), a guided inquiry unit based on conceptual change theory and highly rated according to the Project 2061 Curriculum Analysis, was implemented in five middle schools matched demographically with…

  9. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Biological and Medical Science Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on biological and medical science libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "The International Programs of the National Library of Medicine" (Lois Ann Colaianni, United States); (2) "Information Needs for International Health. A CDC (Centers for Disease…

  10. General Science, Ninth Grade: Theme I and Theme II. Student Laboratory Manual. Experimental.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This ninth grade student manual was developed to be used in conjunction with some of the experimental science activities described in the teacher's guide. It contains laboratory worksheets for: (1) measurement; (2) basic energy concepts; (3) heat energy; (4) light; (5) sound; (6) electricity; and (7) present and future energy resources. Additional…

  11. Exploring Sex Differences in Science Enrolment Intentions: An Application of the General Model of Academic Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Geoffrey; McInerney, Dennis M.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2005-01-01

    In many countries there remain substantial sex differences in enrolments in elective science courses, despite concerted efforts in recent years to alleviate them. This paper explores the reasons for these differences by comparing models of male and female enrolment intentions in elective courses in biology, chemistry and physics. The models are…

  12. Major Challenges for the Modern Chemistry in Particular and Science in General

    PubMed Central

    Uskokovíc, Vuk

    2013-01-01

    In the past few hundred years, science has exerted an enormous influence on the way the world appears to human observers. Despite phenomenal accomplishments of science, science nowadays faces numerous challenges that threaten its continued success. As scientific inventions become embedded within human societies, the challenges are further multiplied. In this critical review, some of the critical challenges for the field of modern chemistry are discussed, including: (a) interlinking theoretical knowledge and experimental approaches; (b) implementing the principles of sustainability at the roots of the chemical design; (c) defining science from a philosophical perspective that acknowledges both pragmatic and realistic aspects thereof; (d) instigating interdisciplinary research; (e) learning to recognize and appreciate the aesthetic aspects of scientific knowledge and methodology, and promote truly inspiring education in chemistry. In the conclusion, I recapitulate that the evolution of human knowledge inherently depends upon our ability to adopt creative problem-solving attitudes, and that challenges will always be present within the scope of scientific interests. PMID:24465151

  13. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Science and Technology Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on science and technology libraries which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "UAP (Universal Availability of Publications) and User Training for Categories of Grey Literature" (Dieter Schmidmaier, Mining Academy Freiberg, East Germany); (2) "Resource…

  14. The Development and Affective Evaluation of a Minicourse Structure for General Education Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jack Ronald; Kubicek, Leonard

    The purposes of this study were: to determine the degree to which student attitudes were changed by the use of minicourses and to produce a model which could be used by other academic departments interested in the use of minicourses. The study included 240 students in four sections of Earth Science at the University of Northern Colorado. Each…

  15. Will the Real Author Come Forward? Questions of Ethics, Plagiarism, Theft and Collusion in Academic Research Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper raises some questions about academic authorial honesty under the headings of Plagiarism (including self-plagiarism), Theft, and Collusion. Compared with the medical sciences, the social sciences in general and education specifically, lag behind in terms of critical attention being paid to the problem of plagiarism, the peer review…

  16. 78 FR 70311 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... limitations imposed by the review and funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical..., Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological...

  17. Actionable Data Projects: Social Science and Service-Learning in General Education Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloyed, Christie L.

    2016-01-01

    The use of service-learning pedagogies in general education courses is often limited to increasing volunteerism or civic literacy with problem-based or research-based projects reserved for upper level courses. This article examines the implementation of an "actionable data" service-learning project in an introductory, general studies…

  18. Communicating polar science to the general public: sharing the social media experience of @OceanSeaIceNPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösel, Anja; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Meyer, Amelie; Hudson, Stephen R.; King, Jennifer; Itkin, Polona; Cohen, Lana; Dodd, Paul; de Steur, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The findings of climate science need to be communicated to the general public. Researchers are encouraged to do so by journalists, policy-makers and funding agencies and many of us want to become better science communicators. But how can we do this at the lab or small research group level without specifically allocated resources in terms of funds and communication officers? And how do we sustain communication on a regular basis and not just during the limited lifetime of a specific project? One of the solutions is to use the emerging platform of social media, which has become a powerful and inexpensive tool for communicating science to different target audiences. Many research institutions and individual researchers are already advanced users of social media, but small research groups and labs remain underrepresented. The group of oceanographers, sea ice and atmospheric scientists at the Norwegian Polar Institute (@OceanSeaIceNPI( will share our experiences developing and maintaining researcher-driven outreach for over a year through Instagram, Twitter and Facebook. We will present our solutions to some of the practical considerations such as identifying key target groups, defining the framework for sharing responsibilities and interactions within the research group, and choosing an up-to-date and appropriate social medium. By sharing this information, we aim to inspire and assist other research groups and labs in conducting their own effective science communication.

  19. General Education Earth, Astronomy and Space Science College Courses Serve as a Vehicle for Improving Science Literacy in the United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, E.

    2011-10-01

    Every year approximately 500,000 undergraduate college students take a general education Earth, Astronomy and Space Science (EASS) course in the Unites States. For the majority of these students this will be their last physical science course in life. This population of students is incredibly important to the science literacy of the United States citizenry and to the success of the STEM career pipeline. These students represent future scientists, technologists, business leaders, politicians, journalists, historians, artists, and most importantly, policy makers, parents, voters, and teachers. A significant portion of these students are taught at minority serving institutions and community colleges and often are from underserved and underrepresented groups, such as women and minorities. Members of the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) at the University of Arizona have been developing and conducting research on the effectiveness of instructional strategies and materials that are explicitly designed to challenge students' naïve ideas and intellectually engage their thinking at a deep level in the traditional lecture classroom. The results of this work show that dramatic improvement in student understanding can be made from increased use of interactive learning strategies. These improvements are shown to be independent of institution type or class size, but appear to be strongly influenced by the quality of the instructor's implementation. In addition, we find that the positive effects of interactive learning strategies apply equally to men and women, across ethnicities, for students with all levels of prior mathematical preparation and physical science course experience, independent of GPA, and regardless of primary language. These results powerfully illustrate that all students can benefit from the effective implementation of interactive learning strategies.

  20. Lost in the Translation: Writing about Science for the General Public

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.C.

    2002-03-27

    Writing, like science, is primarily a matter of noticing what goes on in the world and communicating these insights to others. Both require a certain amount of translation, and in the process, distortion. Writing about science is thus doubly cursed, and makes some surprising demands on the writer. Among the (only partly tongue-in-cheek) requirements to be discussed are: Lie; cheat; steal; dare to be stupid; don't trust your sources (or your editors); waste people's time; quote out of context; make arbitrary calls; don't expect anyone to understand you; don't expect anyone to believe you; prepare to make mistakes; avoid 'hardening of the categories'; debase yourself, but never your readers; eschew objectivity; emote.

  1. Lost in the Translation: Writing About Science for the General Public

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.C.

    2009-03-27

    Writing, like science, is primarily a matter of noticing what goes on in the world and communicating these insights to others. Both require a certain amount of translation, and in the process, distortion. Writing about science is thus doubly cursed, and makes some surprising demands on the writer. Among the (only partly tongue-in-cheek) requirements to be discussed are: Lie; cheat; steal; dare to be stupid; don’t trust your sources (or your editors); waste people’s time; quote out of context; make arbitrary calls; don’t expect anyone to understand you; don’t expect anyone to believe you; prepare to make mistakes; avoid “hardening of the categories”; debase yourself, but never your readers; eschew objectivity; emote.

  2. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  3. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and…

  4. [Clinical trials. Some general ethical questions].

    PubMed

    Melo, J A

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main problems that ethics committees deal with when analysing clinical trials. Some characteristics of the different phases are discussed as well as some particular problems of the Portuguese law.

  5. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  6. Ask Questions to Encourage Questions Asked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    belcastro, sarah-marie

    2017-01-01

    We delineate some types of structured practice (modeling, requests, feedback, and space-making) that help students learn to pose appropriate questions and to initiate exploration of those questions. Developing skills requires practice, so we suggest ways to embed structured practice into existing class sessions. Including structured practice is…

  7. Secondary science teachers' attitudes toward and beliefs about science reading and science textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yore, Larry D.

    Science textbooks are dominant influences behind most secondary science instruction but little is known about teachers' approach to science reading. The purpose of this naturalistic study was to develop and validate a Science and Reading Questionnaire to assess secondary science teachers' attitudes toward science reading and their beliefs or informed opinions about science reading. A survey of 428 British Columbia secondary science teachers was conducted and 215 science teachers responded. Results on a 12-item Likert attitude scale indicated that teachers place high value on reading as an important strategy to promote learning in science and that they generally accept responsibility for teaching content reading skills to science students. Results on a 13-item Likert belief scale indicated that science teachers generally reject the text-driven model of reading, but they usually do not have well-formulated alternative models to guide their teaching practices. Teachers have intuitive beliefs about science reading that partially agree with many research findings, but their beliefs are fragmented and particularly sketchy in regard to the cognitive and metacognitive skills required by readers to learn from science texts. The findings for attitude, belief, and total scales were substantiated by further questions in the Science and Reading Questionnaire regarding classroom practice and by individual interviews and classroom observations of a 15-teacher subsample of the questionnaire respondents.

  8. From the history of physics (Scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 17 December 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-05-01

    A scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS on 17 December 2012.The following reports were put on the session's agenda posted on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division: (1) Dianov E M (Fiber Optics Research Center, RAS, Moscow) "On the threshold of a peta era"; (2) Zabrodskii A G (Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg) "Scientists' contribution to the great victory in WWII using the example of the Leningrad (now A F Ioffe) Physical Technical Institute"; (3) Ilkaev R I (Russian Federal Nuclear Center --- All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Sarov) "Major stages of the Soviet Atomic Project"; (4) Cherepashchuk A M (Sternberg State Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "History of the Astronomy history ". Papers written on the basis of the reports are published below. • On the Threshold of Peta-era, E M Dianov Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 486-492 • Scientists' contribution to the Great Victory in WWII on the example of the Leningrad (now A F Ioffe) Physical Technical Institute, A G Zabrodskii Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 493-502 • Major stages of the Atomic Project, R I Ilkaev Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 502-509 • History of the Universe History, A M Cherepashchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2013, Volume 56, Number 5, Pages 509-530

  9. Distributing Learning Over Time: The Spacing Effect in Children’s Acquisition and Generalization of Science Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Vlach, Haley A.; Sandhofer, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The spacing effect describes the robust finding that long-term learning is promoted when learning events are spaced out in time, rather than presented in immediate succession. Studies of the spacing effect have focused on memory processes rather than for other types of learning, such as the acquisition and generalization of new concepts. In this study, early elementary school children (5–7 year-olds; N = 36) were presented with science lessons on one of three schedules: massed, clumped, and spaced. The results revealed that spacing lessons out in time resulted in higher generalization performance for both simple and complex concepts. Spaced learning schedules promote several types of learning, strengthening the implications of the spacing effect for educational practices and curriculum. PMID:22616822

  10. 77 FR 71430 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... limitations imposed by the review and funding cycle. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical... review and funding cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology,...

  11. The Utility of Interaction Analysis for Generalizing Characteristics of Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Sangueza, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Validating and generalizing from holistic observation protocols of classroom practice have proven difficult. These tools miss crucial classroom characteristics, like the type of instruction, the organization of learners, and the level of cognitive engagement that occur differentially in the time span of a lesson. As a result, this study examined…

  12. Amino Acid Complementarity: A Biochemical Exemplar of Stoichiometry for General and Health Sciences Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The standard introduction to stoichiometry and simple exemplars can motivate students to learn the stoichiometric studies and the condensation reaction that occurs between amino acids to form the peptide bond. This topic can be integrated into general chemistry courses as an alternative to inclusion of a separate biochemistry course that could be…

  13. Separation of Substances: A Teacher's Manual for General Level Program Development, Grade 9. Science and Society Teaching Units. Informal Series/26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Douglas A.; And Others

    Recognizing the problems and challenges associated with teaching general level or non-academic science courses in junior high school, a series of manuals was written to assist teachers in developing programs which focus on issues related to science and society. In the first in the series, how to make water fit to drink is investigated. Eight…

  14. HgCdTe Detectors for Space and Science Imaging: General Issues and Latest Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravrand, O.; Rothman, J.; Cervera, C.; Baier, N.; Lobre, C.; Zanatta, J. P.; Boulade, O.; Moreau, V.; Fieque, B.

    2016-09-01

    HgCdTe (MCT) is a very versatile material system for infrared (IR) detection, suitable for high performance detection in a wide range of applications and spectral ranges. Indeed, the ability to tailor the cutoff frequency as close as possible to the needs makes it a perfect candidate for high performance detection. Moreover, the high quality material available today, grown either by molecular beam epitaxy or liquid phase epitaxy, allows for very low dark currents at low temperatures, suitable for low flux detection applications such as science imaging. MCT has also demonstrated robustness to the aggressive environment of space and faces, therefore, a large demand for space applications. A satellite may stare at the earth, in which case detection usually involves a lot of photons, called a high flux scenario. Alternatively, a satellite may stare at outer space for science purposes, in which case the detected photon number is very low, leading to low flux scenarios. This latter case induces very strong constraints onto the detector: low dark current, low noise, (very) large focal plane arrays. The classical structure used to fulfill those requirements are usually p/ n MCT photodiodes. This type of structure has been deeply investigated in our laboratory for different spectral bands, in collaboration with the CEA Astrophysics lab. However, another alternative may also be investigated with low excess noise: MCT n/ p avalanche photodiodes (APD). This paper reviews the latest achievements obtained on this matter at DEFIR (LETI and Sofradir common laboratory) from the short wave infrared (SWIR) band detection for classical astronomical needs, to long wave infrared (LWIR) band for exoplanet transit spectroscopy, up to very long wave infrared (VLWIR) bands. The different available diode architectures ( n/ p VHg or p/ n, or even APDs) are reviewed, including different available ROIC architectures for low flux detection.

  15. A generalized approach for producing, quantifying, and validating citizen science data from wildlife images.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Alexandra; Kosmala, Margaret; Lintott, Chris; Packer, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science has the potential to expand the scope and scale of research in ecology and conservation, but many professional researchers remain skeptical of data produced by nonexperts. We devised an approach for producing accurate, reliable data from untrained, nonexpert volunteers. On the citizen science website www.snapshotserengeti.org, more than 28,000 volunteers classified 1.51 million images taken in a large-scale camera-trap survey in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Each image was circulated to, on average, 27 volunteers, and their classifications were aggregated using a simple plurality algorithm. We validated the aggregated answers against a data set of 3829 images verified by experts and calculated 3 certainty metrics-level of agreement among classifications (evenness), fraction of classifications supporting the aggregated answer (fraction support), and fraction of classifiers who reported "nothing here" for an image that was ultimately classified as containing an animal (fraction blank)-to measure confidence that an aggregated answer was correct. Overall, aggregated volunteer answers agreed with the expert-verified data on 98% of images, but accuracy differed by species commonness such that rare species had higher rates of false positives and false negatives. Easily calculated analysis of variance and post-hoc Tukey tests indicated that the certainty metrics were significant indicators of whether each image was correctly classified or classifiable. Thus, the certainty metrics can be used to identify images for expert review. Bootstrapping analyses further indicated that 90% of images were correctly classified with just 5 volunteers per image. Species classifications based on the plurality vote of multiple citizen scientists can provide a reliable foundation for large-scale monitoring of African wildlife.

  16. A generalized approach for producing, quantifying, and validating citizen science data from wildlife images

    PubMed Central

    Kosmala, Margaret; Lintott, Chris; Packer, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Citizen science has the potential to expand the scope and scale of research in ecology and conservation, but many professional researchers remain skeptical of data produced by nonexperts. We devised an approach for producing accurate, reliable data from untrained, nonexpert volunteers. On the citizen science website www.snapshotserengeti.org, more than 28,000 volunteers classified 1.51 million images taken in a large‐scale camera‐trap survey in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Each image was circulated to, on average, 27 volunteers, and their classifications were aggregated using a simple plurality algorithm. We validated the aggregated answers against a data set of 3829 images verified by experts and calculated 3 certainty metrics—level of agreement among classifications (evenness), fraction of classifications supporting the aggregated answer (fraction support), and fraction of classifiers who reported “nothing here” for an image that was ultimately classified as containing an animal (fraction blank)—to measure confidence that an aggregated answer was correct. Overall, aggregated volunteer answers agreed with the expert‐verified data on 98% of images, but accuracy differed by species commonness such that rare species had higher rates of false positives and false negatives. Easily calculated analysis of variance and post‐hoc Tukey tests indicated that the certainty metrics were significant indicators of whether each image was correctly classified or classifiable. Thus, the certainty metrics can be used to identify images for expert review. Bootstrapping analyses further indicated that 90% of images were correctly classified with just 5 volunteers per image. Species classifications based on the plurality vote of multiple citizen scientists can provide a reliable foundation for large‐scale monitoring of African wildlife. PMID:27111678

  17. Who Asks the Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervey, Sheena

    2006-01-01

    From a very young age, children actively strive to make sense of their world through constant questioning. The ability to ask questions comes naturally for young children, but such natural inclination does not continue because it teachers who ask most of the questions. Sheena Hervey suggests that teaching students how to pose questions is a…

  18. Revisiting Routine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…

  19. Questions of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa de Jesus, Helena; Teixeira-Dias, Jose J. C.; Watts, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Documents the use of student-generated questions as diagnostic of their willingness to engage in classroom interactions. Explores four ways of gathering students' written questions and their relative effectiveness. Examines students' capacity to design and present 'quality questions' and the extent to which these questions are indicative of…

  20. Computational Science and Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, David Jarvis

    2011-01-01

    Simulations - utilizing computers to solve complicated science and engineering problems - are a key ingredient of modern science. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is a world leader in the development of high-performance computing (HPC), the development of applied math and algorithms that utilize the full potential of HPC platforms, and the application of computing to science and engineering problems. An interesting general question is whether the DOE can strategically utilize its capability in simulations to advance innovation more broadly. In this article, I will argue that this is certainly possible.

  1. A bottom-up, scientist-based initiative for the communication of climate sciences with the general public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourqui, Michel; Bolduc, Cassandra; Paul, Charbonneau; Marie, Charrière; Daniel, Hill; Angelica, Lopez; Enrique, Loubet; Philippe, Roy; Barbara, Winter

    2015-04-01

    This talk introduces a scientists-initiated, new online platform whose aim is to contribute to making climate sciences become public knowledge. It takes a unique bottom-up approach, strictly founded on individual-based participation, high scientific standards and independence The main purpose is to build an open-access, multilingual and peer-reviewed journal publishing short climate articles in non-scientific language. The targeted public includes journalists, teachers, students, local politicians, economists, members of the agriculture sector, and any other citizens from around the world with an interest in climate sciences. This journal is meant to offer a simple and direct channel for scientists wishing to disseminate their research to the general public. A high standard of climate articles is ensured through: a) requiring that the main author is an active climate scientist, and b) an innovative peer-review process involving scientific and non-scientific referees with distinct roles. The platform fosters the direct participation of non-scientists through co-authoring, peer-reviewing, language translation. It furthermore engages the general public in the scientific inquiry by allowing non-scientists to invite manuscripts to be written on topics of their concern. The platform is currently being developed by a community of scientists and non-scientists. In this talk, I will present the basic ideas behind this new online platform, its current state and the plans for the next future. The beta version of the platform is available at: http://www.climateonline.bourquiconsulting.ch

  2. Question analysis for Indonesian comparative question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).

  3. Planning a Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Jim

    1976-01-01

    Presented are views, on planning science fairs and science fair projects, of a fair coordinator, a science teacher, and students. Also included are 25 questions which might result in science fair projects. (SL)

  4. Chemistry as General Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tro, Nivaldo J.

    2004-01-01

    Science courses are common in most general education requirements. This paper addresses the role of chemistry classes in meeting these requirements. Chemistry professors have for many years questioned the appropriateness of the standard introductory chemistry course as general education, resulting in the growing popularity of specialized non-majors courses. I suggest that current non-major chemistry courses cover too much consumer chemistry and ignore some of the big contributions of chemistry to human knowledge. Majors chemistry courses, while they prepare students for majoring in science, do not address these issues either. Consequently, chemistry courses are often an ineffective and unpopular way to meet general education science requirements. Part of the reason for this dilemma is the lack of chemists who address the contributions of chemistry to human knowledge in general. I propose that faculty at liberal arts colleges engage in this important task and that non-majors chemistry textbooks incorporate questions and issues that relate chemistry to a broader view of human knowledge. If these things happen, perhaps chemistry courses will become more effective as general education.

  5. Answers to Your Questions About American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Many of the frequent questions which arise concerning the relationship between Indians and the Federal Government are answered in this document. These questions and answers, in general, relate to Indians with whom the Federal government still retains a special relationship. Questions and answers pertain to the following areas: (1) the Indian…

  6. Memory, Knowledge, and the Answering of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Donald A.

    An examination of the nature of memory reveals that the representation of knowledge cannot be separated from the uses of knowledge. The answering of questions is not a simple retrieval and response of stored information; rather the process is embedded in a general structural framework containing knowledge of the questioner, the question, and the…

  7. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS Examination System § 13.215 Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of...

  8. Processing the Curriculum through Quality Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregerson, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…

  9. Resource Classification for Medical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task. PMID:28269901

  10. Resource Classification for Medical Questions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task.

  11. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  12. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  13. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  14. National Reports on the State of Social Science Information and Documentation in 16 European Countries. Reports Presented to the ECSSID General Conference (European Cooperation in Social Science Information and Documentation, 4th, Athens, Greece, October 21-23, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saelen, Kirsti Thesen, Ed.

    Papers presented at the fourth European Cooperation in Social Science Information and Documentation (ECSSID) General Conference provide information on developments in the field in 16 European countries. According to the general outlines provided for these reports, the presentations focus on developments after 1977, thus supplementing information…

  15. Assessment of general education teachers' Tier 1 classroom practices: contemporary science, practice, and policy.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Fabiano, Gregory A; Jimerson, Shane R

    2013-12-01

    Progress monitoring is a type of formative assessment. Most work on progress monitoring in elementary school settings has been focused on students. However, teachers also can benefit from frequent evaluations. Research addressing teacher progress monitoring is critically important given the recent national focus on teacher evaluation and effectiveness. This special topic section of School Psychology Quarterly is the first to showcase the current research on measuring Tier 1 instructional and behavioral management practices used by prekindergarten and elementary school teachers in general education settings. The three studies included in the special section describe the development and validation efforts of several teacher observational and self-report measures of instruction and/or behavioral management. These studies provide evidence for the utility of such assessments for documenting the use of classroom practices, and these assessment results may be leveraged in innovative coaching models to promote best practice. These articles also offer insight and ideas for the next generation of teacher practice assessment for the field. Finally, the special topic is capped by a commentary synthesizing the current work and offers "big ideas" for future measurement development, policy, and professional development initiatives.

  16. Windows to the Universe: an Internet Resource Bringing the Earth and Space Sciences to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. M.; Alexander, C. J.; Burek, M.; Kozyra, J.; Lenhart, E.; Linker, J.; Mastie, D.; Ceritelli, M.; Thoenes, H.; Orselli, P.; Weymouth, T.

    1997-07-01

    Windows to the Universe is a World Wide Web site that presents information about the Earth and Space sciences as well as related historical and cultural topics to the general public in an attractive and user-friendly way. The site makes extensive use of graphically annotated button panels to allow intuitive navigation through the site. The site is graphics intensive, providing access to a rich archive of images, movies, animations and data collected by satellites, spacecraft, and ground-based instruments. Intended primarily as an innovative information resource for museums, libraries, and classrooms, content within Windows to the Universe is developed to complement K-12 science education needs. Content is available at three levels of sophistication, approximating the elementary, middle, and high school levels, and resources are available on-line for teachers including standards-based keyword search capabilities and classroom activities. Supplementary CD-ROMs are available for Mac and Windows-95 platforms that allow rapid access to images on the site, rather than requiring the user to download images over the Internet. This award-winning site is funded by the NASA Public Use of Remote Sensing Data Bases Program.

  17. Elementary General Education Teachers' Knowledge of and Experience Teaching Students with Disabilities in Science and Social Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Diane

    In Grades 3 to 5 at a suburban southeastern elementary school, the percentage of students with disabilities (SWDs) who do not meet state standards in science and social studies is greater than that of their nondisabled peers. To address this disparity, district administrators required that proficiency ratings increase for SWDs without providing general education (GE) teachers with training. A qualitative bounded case study was used to understand how GE teachers constructed their knowledge of and met SWDs instructional needs and to understand GE teachers' needs as they worked toward meeting the district goals. Piaget's constructivist learning theory served as the conceptual framework for this study. A purposeful sample of 6 GE teachers, 2 each from Grades 3-5 whose classrooms included SWDs, volunteered to participate in open-ended interviews. Qualitative data were analyzed using provisional coding and pattern coding. A primary finding was that the participants identified teacher collaboration and professional development necessary to accommodate SWDs in the GE setting. This finding led to a recommendation that school leaders provide ongoing professional development for GE teachers as well as ongoing opportunities for collaboration between GE and special education teachers. These endeavors may contribute to positive social change by providing GE teachers instructional strategies and accommodations for meeting the learning needs of SWDs to increase the number and percentage of SWDs who meet the state standards and district goals in science and social studies.

  18. Questions in Reference Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1998-01-01

    Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…

  19. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)

  20. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  1. Listening and Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroutunian-Gordon, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    In the article that follows, I take up a debate that has arisen over the past three years concerning the following issue: Does every act of listening involve the listener in questioning? I argue that the answer to the questions is yes. I give background on the question and then consider one instance of listening that may suggest no role for…

  2. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  3. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  4. Assessing students' learning outcomes, self-efficacy and attitudes toward the integration of virtual science laboratory in general physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatty, Sundara L.

    Over the past decade, there has been a dramatic rise in online delivery of higher education in the United States. Recent developments in web technology and access to the internet have led to a vast increase in online courses. For people who work during the day and whose complicated lives prevent them from taking courses on campus, online courses are the only alternatives by which they may achieve their goals in education. The laboratory courses are the major requirements for college and university students who want to pursue degree and certification programs in science. It is noted that there is a lack of laboratory courses in online physics courses. The present study addressed the effectiveness of a virtual science laboratory in physics instruction in terms of learning outcomes, attitudes, and self-efficacy of students in a Historically Black University College. The study included fifty-eight students (36 male and 22 female) of different science majors who were enrolled in a general physics laboratory course. They were divided into virtual and traditional groups. Three experiments were selected from the syllabus. The traditional group performed one experiment in a traditional laboratory, while the virtual group performed the same experiment in a virtual laboratory. For the second experiment, the use of laboratories by both groups was exchanged. Learner's Assessment Test (LAT), Attitudes Toward Physics Laboratories (ATPL), and Self-Efficacy Survey (SES) instruments were used. Additionally, quantitative methods such as an independent t-test, a paired t-test, and correlation statistics were used to analyze the data. The results of the first experiment indicated the learning outcomes were higher in the Virtual Laboratory than in the traditional laboratory, whereas there was no significant difference in learning outcomes with either type of lab instruction. However, significant self-efficacy gains were observed. Students expressed positive attitudes in terms of liking

  5. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  6. Question-Asking and Question-Exploring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

  7. Asking questions with focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates how different interrogative meanings interact with focus in determining the overall F0 profile of a question. We recorded eight native speakers of Mandarin producing statements, yes-no questions with and without a question particle, wh questions, incredulous questions, and confirmation questions. In each sentence, either the initial, medial, final, or no word was focused. The tonal components of the sentences are all high, all rising, all low, or all falling. F0 contours were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period in the initial, medial, and final disyllabic words in each sentence. Preliminary results show that in both statements and questions, the pitch range of the focused words is expanded and that of the postfocus words suppressed (compressed and lowered). However, postfocus pitch-range suppression seems less extensive in questions than in statements, and in some question types than in others. Finally, an extra F0 rise is often observed in the final syllable of a question unless the syllable is the question particle which has the neutral tone. This is indicative of a high or rising boundary tone associated with the interrogative meaning, which seems to be superimposed on the tone of the sentence-final syllable. [Work supported by NIDCD DC03902.

  8. I Know the Answer, But What's the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lazer

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of questioning as a means of achieving independent intelligence, critical thinking, and learning to learn. Advocates a science program that encourages investigation, discovery, and questioning. (MA)

  9. Training chemistry students to ask research questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartford, Fred; Good, Ron

    In previous studies, science students have been trained to ask more and better questions through intensive instruction apart from the ongoing academic program. Cognitive strategies (such as questioning) are developed best, however, within the framework of an academic subject. In the current study, questioning skills were taught to high school chemistry students in the context of their laboratory experiments. Since both intellectual development and questioning skills are causally related to problem solving, the effect of intellectual development on the learning of questioning skills also was investigated. The Piagetian model of intellectual development was chosen for its demonstrated effects on many important aspects of science instruction. The number and quality of student research questions was measured by the Science Inquiry Assessment Instrument. The student's level of intellectual development was measured by the Classroom Test of Formal Operations. The twelve-week experimental treatment involved printed lessons which taught students to ask research questions in response to unanticipated observations in their regularly scheduled laboratory experiments. The pretest exaggerated the effect of this treatment. This effect, however, was significant among unpretested students, accounting for 14% of the post-test score variance. The level of intellectual development has no effect on these post-test scores. These important questioning skills can be acquired within the framework of the regularly scheduled classroom activities by high school chemistry students, irrespective of their level of Piagetian intellectual development.

  10. Evaluation of Effective Factors on the Clinical Performance of General Surgeons in Tehran University of Medical Science, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Mohamadi, Efat; najafpour, Zhila; Yousefinezhadi, Taraneh; Forootan, Sara; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Existence of doctors with high performance is one of the necessary conditions to provide high quality services. There are different motivations, which could affect their performance. Recognizing Factors which effect the performance of doctors as an effective force in health care centers is necessary. The aim of this article was evaluate the effective factors which influence on clinical performance of general surgery of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Methods: This is a cross-sectional qualitative-quantitative study. This research conducted in 3 phases-phases I: (use of library studies and databases to collect data), phase II: localization of detected factors in first phase by using the Delphi technique and phase III: prioritizing the affecting factors on performance of doctors by using qualitative interviews. Results: 12 articles were analyzed from 300 abstracts during the evaluation process. The output of assessment identified 23 factors was sent to surgeons and their assistants for obtaining their opinions. Quantitative analysis of the findings showed that “work qualification” (86.1%) and “managers and supervisors style” (50%) have respectively the most and the least impact on the performance of doctors. Finally 18 effective factors were identified and prioritized in the performance of general surgeons. Conclusion: The results showed that motivation and performance is not a single operating parameter and it depends on several factors according to cultural background. Therefore it is necessary to design, implementation and monitoring based on key determinants of effective interventions due to cultural background. PMID:27157161

  11. Why cognitive science needs philosophy and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Thagard, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Contrary to common views that philosophy is extraneous to cognitive science, this paper argues that philosophy has a crucial role to play in cognitive science with respect to generality and normativity. General questions include the nature of theories and explanations, the role of computer simulation in cognitive theorizing, and the relations among the different fields of cognitive science. Normative questions include whether human thinking should be Bayesian, whether decision making should maximize expected utility, and how norms should be established. These kinds of general and normative questions make philosophical reflection an important part of progress in cognitive science. Philosophy operates best, however, not with a priori reasoning or conceptual analysis, but rather with empirically informed reflection on a wide range of findings in cognitive science.

  12. Sound Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

  13. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  14. Rules of the Game: Effects of a Game-based Metaphor on Instructional Activity Design and the Use of Student Mentors on Learning Outcomes in a Middle School General Science Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, Angie

    This study investigated the effects of a game-like environment on instructional activity design and the use of student mentors on learning outcomes in a middle school general science class. The participants for this study were 165 students, ages 13-14 years old, who were enrolled in 8th grade at a mid-Atlantic middle school. Two research questions were used to conduct the research: 1. Can science content be designed and successfully delivered instructionally using a game-like learning environment? 2. Does the use of student mentors/assistants help direct and maintain the flow of the class away from the technological issues toward the necessary learning outcomes while also increasing the science content understanding acquired by the mentors while also increasing class and student engagement? For this study an introductory biology unit was designed using a game-like curricular structure. Student mentors were utilized in order to aid focus on the content and not the technology. The results indicated that the instructional design of the unit using a game-like environment was successful and students exhibited learning. The mentor students were instrumental in steering their fellow students away from the “Siren’s Call” of the instrument (in this case StarLogo) and enabled increased focus on the content. Keywords: Trivial games, Serious Games, Epistemic Games, Student Mentors, StarLogo, Elaboration Theory.

  15. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  16. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  17. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  18. Problem of Questioning

    SciTech Connect

    2005-10-31

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  19. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  20. Any Questions? Want to Stimulate Student Curiosity? Let Them Ask Questions!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Tarin Harrar

    2013-01-01

    Of the eight scientific practices highlighted in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas," the first is for students to develop abilities to ask questions and define problems (NRC 2012). Constructing a range of questions about an object or phenomenon validates not only what students have…

  1. Mix One-Part Astronomy Education Research with One-Part General Education Astronomy Course and You Get a Very Potent Science Literacy Transformation Cocktail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, Edward E.

    2012-05-01

    Are you doing the job that our society needs you to do? Are you successful at it? How do you know? Over the past decade we have worked closely with hundreds of college instructors, postdocs, graduate students, and undergrads in collaborative research projects designed to help us understand fundamental issues of teaching and learning in college-level general education astronomy and space science courses. The results from these multi-institutional research collaborations have been used to transform classrooms all over the country. We are creating learning environments that significantly improve the science literacies and engagements in STEM of the hundreds of thousands of students taking these courses each year. By moving students along the continuum from non-science majors, to peer instructors, to researchers and curriculum developers, to STEM and STEM education degree seeking students, we are creating the next generation’s “Ambassadors of Science.”

  2. A Reconstruction of Development of the Periodic Table Based on History and Philosophy of Science and Its Implications for General Chemistry Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Angmary; Rodriguez, Maria A.; Niaz, Mansoor

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (a) elaboration of a history and philosophy of science (HPS) framework based on a reconstruction of the development of the periodic table; (b) formulation of seven criteria based on the framework; and (c) evaluation of 57 freshman college-level general chemistry textbooks with respect to the presentation of the…

  3. A Preliminary Study on the Use of Mind Mapping as a Visual-Learning Strategy in General Education Science Classes for Arabic Speakers in the United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kenesha; Copeland-Solas, Eddia; Guthrie-Dixon, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Mind mapping was introduced as a culturally relevant pedagogy aimed at enhancing the teaching and learning experience in a general education, Environmental Science class for mostly Emirati English Language Learners (ELL). Anecdotal evidence suggests that the students are very artistic and visual and enjoy group-based activities. It was decided to…

  4. Effects of classwide peer tutoring on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words for seventh grade students with learning disabilities and/or low achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobel, Michele Mcmahon

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of science vocabulary words and definitions. Participants were 14 seventh grade students at-risk for failure in a general education science course; 3 students had learning disabilities and 2 had a communication disorder. CWPT was conducted daily for 20 minutes during the last period of the school day. Procedures for CWPT were consistent with the Ohio State University CWPT model. Students were engaged in dyadic, reciprocal tutoring. Tutors presented word cards to tutees to identify the word and definition. Tutors praised correct responses and used a correction procedure for incorrect responses. After practicing their vocabulary words, students completed a daily testing procedure and recorded and plotted data. Many of the study's findings are consistent with previous studies using CWPT to teach word identification. Results of this study indicate a functional relationship between CWPT and acquisition of science vocabulary. All students were able to acquire words and definitions. Results for maintenance and generalization varied. When acquisition criterion was changed, maintenance and generalization scores increased for some students, while other students remained consistently high. All students reported that they enjoyed CWPT, and all but student stated it helped them learn science vocabulary.

  5. Shared Academic Values: Testing a Model of the Association between Hong Kong Parents' and Adolescents' Perception of the General Value of Science and Scientific Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Sandra; Hsu, Hsien-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated parent general value of science operationalized in the 2006 questionnaire of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), as a determinant of adolescents' scientific literacy performance. The transmission of academic values literature is small. To the best of our knowledge, no previous studies to date have…

  6. Teaching Dystopias: The Value of Religious Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabury, Marcia Bundy

    1995-01-01

    Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…

  7. EPA Subaward Frequent Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These answers to frequent questions (FQ) are intended to provide information to recipients of EPA financial assistance to help them understand EPA’s interpretations of the Uniform Grant Guidance (UGG) and EPA’s Subaward Policy.

  8. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1980-01-01

    Provides exam questions and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)

  9. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

  10. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA's Interim Health Advisory for Perchlorate in Public Water Systems On January 8, 2009, the Environmental Protection ... thyroid hormone. Questions and Answers about EPA’s Drinking Water Findings If perchlorate is present in my drinking ...

  11. Teaching science through literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Daniel

    2007-12-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that a multidisciplinary, activity rich science curriculum based around science fiction literature, rather than a conventional text book would increase student engagement with the curriculum and improve student performance on standards-based test instruments. Science fiction literature was chosen upon the basis of previous educational research which indicated that science fiction literature was able to stimulate and maintain interest in science. The study was conducted on a middle school campus during the regular summer school session. Students were self-selected from the school's 6 th, 7th, and 8th grade populations. The students used the science fiction novel Maurice on the Moon as their only text. Lessons and activities closely followed the adventures of the characters in the book. The student's initial level of knowledge in Earth and space science was assessed by a pre test. After the four week program was concluded, the students took a post test made up of an identical set of questions. The test included 40 standards-based questions that were based upon concepts covered in the text of the novel and in the classroom lessons and activities. The test also included 10 general knowledge questions that were based upon Earth and space science standards that were not covered in the novel or the classroom lessons or activities. Student performance on the standards-based question set increased an average of 35% for all students in the study group. Every subgroup disaggregated by gender and ethnicity improved from 28-47%. There was no statistically significant change in the performance on the general knowledge question set for any subgroup. Student engagement with the material was assessed by three independent methods, including student self-reports, percentage of classroom work completed, and academic evaluation of student work by the instructor. These assessments of student engagement were correlated with changes in student performance

  12. General English Ability, Specific Purpose English Ability, and Computer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prapphal, Kanchana

    2003-01-01

    Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)

  13. A Study of the Ability of Primary School Children to Generalize Behavioral Competencies Acquired in Science to Other Content Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Heather Lilian

    Students in grades 1-4 who had used the "Science--A Process Approach" were tested by individually administering the tasks of the "Science Process Instrument." Tasks to assess the level of the same skills in social studies, fine arts, and language arts were then administered. Data analysis showed that there was a similar…

  14. Analysis of Environmental and General Science Teaching Efficacy among Instructors with Contrasting Class Ethnicity Distributions: A Four-Dimensional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine; Taylor, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The context and nature of teacher efficacy beliefs provide a method upon which to explore science teachers' perceptions of their teaching effectiveness and student achievement as a function of ethnicity. Promotion of a more in-depth knowledge of science teaching efficacy requires cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations. In this study, a…

  15. General Relativity Is Only A Fallacy Wrong Concept That Is Not Based On Any Reality And Is Not A Real Correct Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotas, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    The concept of General Relativity is not compatible with Quantum Mechanics. General Relativity is not real science, only a fallacy concept with no definitive proofs. It is not based on reality. Light and other radiation are not bent by General Relativity, only by Newtonian Refractions in the Sun's very hot Corona. The planet Mercury orbital perihelion is not a proof of General Relativity; it is fully and logically explained by Newtonian Mechanics. The dynamic 2/3rds ratio of Mercury's day-to-year ratio is profound and a Nuclear Quantum Gravitational function, not General Relativity. The Red Shift is a Nuclear Quantum Gravitational effect, not General Relativity. The so-called gravitational lens is also where refraction of gaseous matter, dust or real objects are not considered. No ``gravity waves'' have ever been detected by any LIGO site in the world. No material ``frame dragging'' has been detected by the Gravity B probe. The reason is that there is no space fabric to cause these effects. It should be perfectly clear that General Relativity has no definitive proofs and is not a real or correct description of Science. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation is a clear explanation of Gravity/Gravitation with 31 proofs and indications, and is compatible with Quantum and Newtonian Mechanics.

  16. Role of Discrepant Questioning Leading to Model Element Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea-Ramirez, Mary Anne; Nunez-Oviedo, Maria Cecilia; Clement, John

    2009-01-01

    Discrepant questioning is a teaching technique that can help students "unlearn" misconceptions and process science ideas for deep understanding. Discrepant questioning is a technique in which teachers question students in a way that requires them to examine their ideas or models, without giving information prematurely to the student or passing…

  17. How Effective Are Your Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are given to the teacher on using questions to improve classroom discussions. Included are: reasons for using questions, ways to ask questions and acknowledge students' responses, and types of questions which should and should not be used. (SJL)

  18. The Presidential Address 2013: Promoting Enthusiasm, Imparting Knowledge! Science for the General Population and Science for Future Researchers Must All Start in the School Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a transcript of the Presidential Address delivered by Martin Rees, Lord Rees of Ludlow, to the Association for Science Education (ASE) Annual Conference at the University of Reading, January 2013. The address is divided into five sections under the following headings: (1) Three Reasons Why the ASE's Mission Is So Important;…

  19. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  20. A Statistical Analysis of Student Questions in a Cell Biology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Elena L.; Polacek, Kelly M.; Ingram, Ella L.

    2009-01-01

    Asking questions is an essential component of the practice of science, but question-asking skills are often underemphasized in science education. In this study, we examined questions written by students as they prepared for laboratory exercises in a senior-level cell biology class. Our goals were to discover 1) what types of questions students…

  1. Questioning Ohio's Loyalty Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Beginning this past summer, all new employees at some Ohio public universities, including those accepting teaching positions, are being confronted with politically sensitive and intrusive questions. In addition to the "Have you solicited any individual for membership in an organization on the U.S. Department of State Terrorist…

  2. A question of choice.

    PubMed

    Grabiner, Gene

    2011-06-22

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies.

  3. A Question of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a…

  4. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  5. A Question of Choice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  6. Asking Questions about Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the…

  7. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  8. What Is the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Melba D.

    Second language educators need to examine in greater depth the learning processes of young children in order to provide them with the kind of teaching they need in order to really learn. This means searching other fields to learn as much as possible about: questioning strategies and the development of critical thinking skills; hemispheric…

  9. That Is the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsunsky, Syd

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's evolution from a teacher set in his ways to one who adapted to students' voices. Contends that classrooms need to be environments where students are able to ask their own questions. Explains that key elements of such an environment include the following: interviews; mini-lessons; multi-genre projects; literature circles;…

  10. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  11. Questioning in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ronald T.

    This study investigates the pattern of teacher questioning regarding three elements: sequence, student respondent, and cognitive process. The rationale for this type of teaching rests on the claims for teaching students the process of critical (reflective) thinking. In this type of teaching it is necessary to have data before the students. Only…

  12. Big questions about the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  13. Deconstructing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity," exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and…

  14. Inspiring future experimental scientists through questions related to colour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairchild, Mark D.; Melgosa, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    In general, it can be stated that unfortunately in most countries the number of students interested in traditional scientific disciplines (e.g. physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, etc.) for his/her future professional careers has considerably decreased during the past years. It is likely that among the reasons of this trend we can find that many students feel that these disciplines are particularly difficult, complex, abstract, and even boring, while they consider applied sciences (e.g. engineering) as much more attractive options to them. Here we aim to attract people of very different ages to traditional scientific disciplines, and promote scientific knowledge, using a set of colour questions related to everyday experiences. From our answers to these questions we hope that people can understand and learn science in a rigorous, relaxed and amusing way, and hopefully they will be inspired to continue exploring on their own. Examples of such colour questions can be found at the free website http://whyiscolor.org from Mark D. Fairchild. For a wider dissemination, most contents of this website have been recently translated into Spanish language by the authors, and published in the book entitled "La tienda de las curiosidades sobre el color" (Editorial University of Granada, Spain, ISBN: 9788433853820). Colour is certainly multidisciplinary, and while it can be said that it is mainly a perception, optics is a key discipline to understand colour stimuli and phenomena. The classical first approach in colour science as the result of the interaction of light, objects, and the human visual system will be also reviewed.

  15. The role of ethics in science and engineering.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Deborah G

    2010-12-01

    It is generally thought that science and engineering should never cross certain ethical lines. The idea connects ethics to science and engineering, but it frames the relationship in a misleading way. Moral notions and practices inevitably influence and are influenced by science and engineering. The important question is how such interactions should take place. Anticipatory ethics is a new approach that integrates ethics into technological development.

  16. [Applications and approved projectsof general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developedregion of national natural science funds in discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2012].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Qing; Han, Li-Wei; Wu, Xiu-Hong; Bi, Ming-Gang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Liu, Yun-Fang; He, Wei-Ming; Li, Dan-Dan; Dong, Yan; Wang, Chang-En

    2013-01-01

    The applications accepted and approved by general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in the discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2012 have been introduced. The research contents of the funded projects in the popular research areas have been summarized and the problems in the applications have been analyzed to give a reference to the scientists in the field of Chinese materia medica.

  17. The influence of the tropics upon the prediction of the Southern Hemisphere circulation within the GLAS GCM. [Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences General Circulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, W. E.; Paegle, J.

    1983-01-01

    An examination is undertaken of the sensitivity of short term Southern Hemisphere circulation prediction to tropical wind data and tropical latent heat release. The data assimilation experiments employ the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences' fourth-order general circulation model. Two of the experiments are identical, but for the fact that one uses tropical wind data while the other does not. A third experiment contains the identical initial conditions of forecasts with tropical winds, while suppressing tropical latent heat release.

  18. Deconstructing science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-12-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity, exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and epistemology. I argue that science needs to acknowledge the subjectivity at its core to make space for non-absolute agents and new fields of study.

  19. Reading Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Reading the average science textbook, one is struck with a question: Why would people devote their lives to the study of a subject as dry as the Sahara Desert? Students in science classes only need to be let in on the great secret of science. It is fun and full of the stuff in page-turner novels--intrigue, mystery, romance, and sometimes just dumb…

  20. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  1. Social Work and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Interest has grown in the past few years about the place of social work in science. Questions remain, such as whether social work should be considered a science, and if so, where it fits into the constellation of sciences. This article attempts to shed light on these questions. After briefly considering past and present constructions of science…

  2. Questions of wisdom.

    PubMed

    Schmidt Bunkers, Sandra

    2009-04-01

    In this column questions concerning wisdom are addressed, such as, what is wisdom? Can wisdom be taught in the academy? Several perspectives on wisdom from philosophy, education, business, and psychology are presented. Wisdom with creativity-creativity with wisdom is then explored through discussion of Parse's humanbecoming teaching-learning model and Laird Hamilton's life lessons learned from surfing, which he termed wisdom of the wave. The column concludes with consideration of the wise person.

  3. Quantum theory from questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, Philipp Andres; Wever, Christopher S. P.

    2017-01-01

    We reconstruct the explicit formalism of qubit quantum theory from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S 's state as O 's "catalog of knowledge" about S . From the rules we derive the state spaces for N elementary systems and show that (a) they coincide with the set of density matrices over an N -qubit Hilbert space C2N; (b) states evolve unitarily under the group PSU (2N) according to the von Neumann evolution equation; and (c) O 's binary questions correspond to projective Pauli operator measurements with outcome probabilities given by the Born rule. As a by-product, this results in a propositional formulation of quantum theory. Aside from offering an informational explanation for the theory's architecture, the reconstruction also unravels previously unnoticed structural insights. We show that, in a derived quadratic information measure, (d) qubits satisfy inequalities which bound the information content in any set of mutually complementary questions to 1 bit; and (e) maximal sets of mutually complementary questions for one and two qubits must carry precisely 1 bit of information in pure states. The latter relations constitute conserved informational charges which define the unitary groups and, together with their conservation conditions, the sets of pure quantum states. These results highlight information as a "charge of quantum theory" and the benefits of this informational approach. This work emphasizes the sufficiency of restricting to an observer's information to reconstruct the theory and completes the quantum reconstruction initiated in a companion paper (P. Höhn, arXiv:1412.8323).

  4. Questioning Many Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  5. Cognitive and emotional reactions to questions in the Comparison Question Test.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, A Luke; Bradley, M T; Cullen, M C; Arsenault, Andrea M

    2014-04-01

    The effect of situational factors on perceptions of items on the polygraph Comparison Question Test (CQT) was assessed. In an initial experiment, 86 students (30 men, 56 women; M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 4.0) imagined one of eight scenarios that varied by guilt or innocence, the commission of a real crime or mock crime, and interrogation by a police officer or a professor. They then rated generic CQT questions for importance and emotional concern. All participants rated crime-relevant questions as being more important than past-crime comparison questions. "Guilty" participants also rated these questions as being more emotionally concerning, but "innocent" participants showed no differences in their ratings of concern for the two question types. Interrogator or crime type did not affect the general pattern of responding. A second experiment involving 80 students (21 men, 58 women, 1 non-specified; M age = 22.5 yr., SD = 7.3) replaced the generic CQT questions with content-specific questions developed by the participant. Those imagining guilt showed no differencesin their ratings of relevant and comparison questions, whereas those imagining innocence rated comparison questions as more concerning. Again, interrogator type and crime type had little effect on results. Overall these findings indicated distinctions in cognitive and emotional appraisal for CQT questions, with the nature of emotional concern dependent on guilt/innocence status and the personal relevance of comparison questions. Evidence suggests that the CQT is robust to other situational factors, such as crime type and interrogator type.

  6. Improving Student Perceptions of Science through the Use of State-of-the-Art Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aurentz, David J.; Kerns, Stefanie L.; Shibley, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    Access to state-of-the-art instrumentation, namely nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, early in the college curriculum was provided to undergraduate students in an effort to improve student perceptions of science. Proton NMR spectroscopy was introduced as part of an aspirin synthesis in a guided-inquiry approach to spectral…

  7. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Special Libraries. Section on Social Science Libraries and Geography and Map Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers presented on social science and map and geography libraries at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Information for the Developing World: NTIS's (National Technical Information Service) Role in Information Transfer to Developing Countries" (Joseph F. Caponio, United States); (2)…

  8. Impact of Biology Laboratory Courses on Students' Science Performance and Views about Laboratory Courses in General: Innovative Measurements and Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Lai, Yung-Chih; Yu, Hon-Tsen Alex; Lin, Yu-Teh Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that some educational researchers believe that laboratory courses promote outcomes in cognitive and affective domains in science learning, others have argued that laboratory courses are costly in relation to their value. Moreover, effective measurement of student learning in the laboratory is an area requiring further…

  9. Elementary General Education Teachers' Knowledge of and Experience Teaching Students with Disabilities in Science and Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diane

    2016-01-01

    In Grades 3 to 5 at a suburban southeastern elementary school, the percentage of students with disabilities (SWDs) who do not meet state standards in science and social studies is greater than that of their nondisabled peers. To address this disparity, district administrators required that proficiency ratings increase for SWDs without providing…

  10. Questions, Relatives, and Minimal Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the acquisition of wh-questions and relative clauses in Sesotho, a language with no wh-movement in either questions or relatives, and in which wh-questions must be clefted. (10 references) (JL)

  11. The Art of Asking Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Rosetta A.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is given for the use of questioning techniques and strategies in classroom instruction. B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is presented as one framework for questions. Five pitfalls, including avoiding vague questions and personal pronouns, are discussed. (CL)

  12. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Science & Technology Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    society as a whole. K. Sudakov: In his day Ivan Petrovich Pavlov wrote a very interesting article which was entitled as follows: "On the Mind in General...institute," Doctor of Sciences Vladimir Pavlov , a member of the board of the Union of Scientists, seconds his colleague. "The colloquium of the...34 Competitors From the Council of the Labor Collective "But the Union of Scientists has its own points of view on this question," Vladimir Pavlov stated

  13. To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

    Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…

  14. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  15. Faculty Approaches to Assessing Critical Thinking in the Humanities and the Natural and Social Sciences: Implications for General Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Mark C.; Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of interviews, focus-group discussions, assessment instruments, and assignment prompts revealed that within general education, faculty assessed critical thinking as faceted using methods and criteria that varied epistemically across disciplines. Faculty approaches were misaligned with discipline-general institutional approaches.…

  16. Task Force on the Role of General Education in Associate Science Degree Programs. Final Report and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Lori; Langerman, Philip

    In 1989-90, the General Education Task Force of the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) was convened to determine the role of the general education curriculum in the attainment of skills that enhance the likelihood of success among technical college graduates in their careers, homes and communities. The Task Force consisted of at least one…

  17. Approaches to Cell Biology Teaching: Questions about Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    There are many questions to be asked about the pedagogical practice of questioning. Questions provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. Questions reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…

  18. Evaluation of a model science teacher education program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajcik, Joseph S.; Penick, John E.

    This study assessed the effectiveness of one science teacher education program designed to be a model program. The study provided evidence that preservice science teacher education can have a very positive effect on the development of preservice science teachers into effective practicing teachers. Thirty program graduates completed a pilot version of the 1985 National Survey of Science and Mathematics Education providing information on course objectives, teaching strategies, equipment use, time allocation, and textbook use. The responses of program graduates were compared to the responses of a select national sample of teachers. All teachers in the comparison group were from programs in the Search for Excellence in Science Education, Presidential Award winners, recognized as outstanding state science teachers, employed as department chairs, or actively involved in the development of science curriculum. Analysis of the responses indicated that both program graduates and comparison group teachers had similar course objectives and teaching strategies, used materials and equipment a similar amount of time, and allocated class time in similar ways. In another component of the study, students of 37 program graduates completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitudes toward science teachers, science classes, and the study of science. Analysis of attitudinal data from their 2871 students indicated that students of program graduates generally had positive attitudes. For instance, 89% of the students perceived their science teacher as asking questions and 80% perceived their science teacher as letting them ask questions. In general, the data are in stark contrast to the images obtained from National Assessment efforts.

  19. Heidegger's relevance for engineering: questioning technology.

    PubMed

    Dias, W P

    2003-07-01

    Heidegger affirmed traditional technology, but was opposed to science-based modern technology, in which everything (including man) is considered to be a mere "resource". This opposition was expressed in the form of deep questioning and a suspicion of superficial evaluation, because the true nature of things was often concealed, though disclosed at times. Ways in which engineers should question technology are proposed, highlighting some of the hazards and injustices associated with technology and also its subtle sociological and psychological influences. The demands of engineering ethics and the use of metaphor in design are other ways in which a narrowly rationalistic technological outlook can be confronted.

  20. Automatically Classifying Question Types for Consumer Health Questions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification. PMID:25954411

  1. The Gentle Art of Questioning: Writing Great Clicker Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteen, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.

  2. Using a creativity-focused science program to foster general creativity in young children: A teacher action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Joan Julieanne Mariani

    The importance of thinking and problem-solving skills, and the ability to integrate and analyze information has been recognized and yet may be lacking in schools. Creativity is inherently linked to problem finding, problem solving, and divergent thinking (Arieti, 1976; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Milgram, 1990). The importance of early childhood education and its role in the formation of young minds has been recognized (Caine & Caine, 1991; Montessori, 1967a, 1967b; Piaget, 1970). Early childhood education also impacts creativity (Gardner, 1999). The features of brain-based learning (Caine & Caine, 1991; Jensen, 1998; Sousa, 2001; Wolfe, 2001) have a clear connection to nurturing the creative potential in students. Intrinsic motivation and emotions affect student learning and creativity as well (Hennessey & Amabile, 1987). The purpose of this study was to discern if a creativity-focused science curriculum for the kindergarteners at a Montessori early learning center could increase creativity in students. This action research study included observations of the students in two classrooms, one using the creativity-focused science curriculum, and the other using the existing curriculum. The data collected for this interpretive study included interviews with the students, surveys and interviews with their parents and teachers, teacher observations, and the administration of Torrance's (1981) Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM) test. The interpretation of the data indicated that the enhanced science curriculum played a role in enhancing the creativity of the children in the creativity-focused group. The results of the TCAM (Torrance, 1981) showed a significant increase in scores for the children in the creativity-focused group. The qualitative data revealed a heightened interest in science and the observation of creative traits, processes, and products in the creativity-focused group children. The implications of this study included the need for meaningful

  3. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Generalized Synchronization of Time-Delayed Discrete Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Jian-Yi; Min, Le-Quan

    2009-06-01

    This paper establishes two theorems for two time-delayed (chaotic) discrete systems to achieve time-delayed generalized synchronization (TDGS). These two theorems uncover the general forms of two TDGS systems via a prescribed transformation. As examples, we convert the Lorenz three-dimensional chaotic map to an equal time-delayed system as the driving system, and construct the TDGS driven systems according to the Theorems 1 and 2. Numerical simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed theorems.

  4. Engaging Students through Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Mary-Anne

    2011-01-01

    In what ways might questioning techniques improve student learning? What kinds of questions enable educators to tap into different parts of the cognitive domain? How can questions engage students when their attention begins to wander? Many questions at the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy--particularly knowledge and comprehension--are closed-ended…

  5. Improving Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

    2011-01-01

    A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

  6. Open questions in classical gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mannheim, P.D. )

    1994-04-01

    In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open questions regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard second-order Newton-Einstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was originally established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to question) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard second-order Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar second-order Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its second-order covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourth-order theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  8. Cardiopulmonary discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Life sciences research in the cardiopulmonary discipline must identify possible consequences of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers inflight and upon return to a gravitational environment. The long-range goal of the NASA Cardiopulmonary Discipline Research Program is to foster research to better understand the acute and long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptation to space and to develop physiological countermeasures to ensure crew health in space and on return to Earth. The purpose of this Discipline Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of cardiopulmonary sciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of both cardiovascular and pulmonary function. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational (intramural and extramural) research and development activities in this area.

  9. Keeping Pace: Science Trade Books in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    1985-01-01

    Describes elementary school science trade books written in Spanish. Topics considered in these books include: animal life; astronomy; biology; earth sciences; mathematics; general science; and general technology. (DH)

  10. Big Science and the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2012-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the particle accelerator operating at CERN, is probably the most complex and ambitious scientific project ever accomplished by humanity. The sheer size of the enterprise, in terms of financial and human resources, naturally raises the question whether society should support such costly basic-research programs. I address this question by first reviewing the process that led to the emergence of Big Science and the role of large projects in the development of science and technology. I then compare the methodologies of Small and Big Science, emphasizing their mutual linkage. Finally, after examining the cost of Big Science projects, I highlight several general aspects of their beneficial implications for society.

  11. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  12. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-08-27

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  13. Science Literacy of Undergraduates in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impey, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Science literacy is a matter of broad concern among scientists, educators, and many policy-makers. National Science Foundation surveys of the general public for biannual Science Indicators series show that respondents on average score less than 2/3 correct on a series of science knowledge questions, and less than half display an understanding of the process of scientific inquiry. Both measures are essentially unchanged over two decades. At the University of Arizona, we have gathered over 11,000 undergraduate student responses to a survey of knowledge and beliefs that is tethered in the NSF survey. This non-science major population demographically represents ten million students nationwide. There is a less than 10% gain in performance in the science knowledge score between the incoming freshmen and seniors who graduate having completed their requirement of three science classes. Belief levels in pseudoscience and supernatural phenomena are disconcertingly high, mostly resistant to college science instruction, and weakly correlated with performance on the science knowledge questions. The Internet is rapidly becoming the primary information source for anyone interested in science so students may not get most of their information from the classroom. Educators and policy makers need to decide what aspects of science knowledge and process are important for adults to know. College science educators have major challenges in better in preparing graduates for participation in a civic society largely driven by science and technology.

  14. Demographics of undergraduates studying games in the United States: a comparison of computer science students and the general population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, Monica M.; Settle, Amber; Decker, Adrienne

    2013-06-01

    Our study gathered data to serve as a benchmark of demographics of undergraduate students in game degree programs. Due to the high number of programs that are cross-disciplinary with computer science programs or that are housed in computer science departments, the data is presented in comparison to data from computing students (where available) and the US population. Participants included students studying games at four nationally recognized postsecondary institutions. The results of the study indicate that there is no significant difference between the ratio of men to women studying in computing programs or in game degree programs, with women being severely underrepresented in both. Women, blacks, Hispanics/Latinos, and heterosexuals are underrepresented compared to the US population. Those with moderate and conservative political views and with religious affiliations are underrepresented in the game student population. Participants agree that workforce diversity is important and that their programs are adequately diverse, but only one-half of the participants indicated that diversity has been discussed in any of their courses.

  15. Capturing Parents' Individual and Institutional Interest toward Involvement in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Sibel; Lundeen, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Parents are generally less involved in their children's science education (as compared to reading and mathematics) due to low self-efficacy and a lack of home-school communication. This study examined parental interest and attitudes in science as well as the nature of parent-to-child questioning during an interactive home, school, and community…

  16. [Ethical questions in neonatology].

    PubMed

    Popow, C

    1996-01-01

    Rapid scientific progress in the fields of prenatal diagnostics, obstetrics and neonatology has enabled severe malformations and hereditary diseases to be detected at a very early fetal stage and has also led to the survival of very immature newborn infants in increasing numbers. Parents, doctors and nurses must all participate in the difficult decision making with regard to therapeutic alternatives and due respect must be paid to the intersects of the child, the impact on the family, but also to the professional opinion of the attending doctors and carers. Problems of the ethical limits of prenatal diagnostics, as well as the severity of malformations or organ failure justifying termination of pregnancy or intensive care measures are discussed with reference to clinical cases. Likewise, the question of precedence of the rights of the parents and siblings to quality of life versus the right of the infant to live is broached. From the neonatological point of view candid discussion with the parents, painstaking efforts to build up an atmosphere of confidence and the provision of supportive measures on the one hand, whilst avoiding the expression of dogmatic opinions and patronizing attitudes on the other hand, are essential prerequisites in dealing with the ethical dilemmas arising in the pre- and neonatal management of such cases.

  17. Questioning cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)

  18. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle.

  19. Examining Gender with General Creativity and Preferences for Creative Persons in College Students within the Sciences and the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charyton, Christine; Basham, Kimberly M.; Elliott, John O.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to investigate gender similarities and differences in general creativity constructs with their preferences for creative persons. Data were collected from 247 participants (87 engineering, 24 psychology students with a psychology major, 51 psychology students with a major other than psychology, 30 English, and 55…

  20. Access to Knowledge and Critical Thinking in General Chemistry via Social Constructivism: Pedagogical and Curricular Opportunities for Minority Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pushkin, David B.; Colon-Gonzalez, Maria H.

    This research study examines the nature of socio-cognitive influences on general chemistry students' learning and success. In this study, "learning" means gaining critical thinking skills and "success" means good academic grades. From a social constructivist and postmodern perspective, learning and success are considered functions of enculturation…