Science.gov

Sample records for questionable impact origin

  1. A glass spherule of questionable impact origin from the Apollo 15 landing site: Unique target mare basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, G.; Delano, J.W.; Warren, P.H.; Kallemeyn, G.W.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    A 6 mm-diameter dark spherule, 15434,28, from the regolith on the Apennine Front at the Apollo 15 landing site has a homogeneous glass interior with a 200 ??m-thick rind of devitrified or crystallized melt. The rind contains abundant small fragments of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalt and rare volcanic Apollo 15 green glass. The glass interior of the spherule has the chemical composition, including a high FeO content and high CaO/Al2O3, of a mare basalt. Whereas the major element and Sc, Ni, and Co abundances are similar to those of low-Ti mare basalts, the incompatible elements and Sr abundances are similar to those of high-Ti mare basalts. The relative abundance patterns of the incompatible trace elements are distinct from any other lunar mare basalts or KREEP; among these distinctions are a much steeper slope of the heavy rare earth elements. The 15434,28 glass has abundances of the volatile element Zn consistent with both impact glasses and crystalline mare basalts, but much lower than in glasses of mare volcanic origin. The glass contains siderophile elements such as Ir in abundances only slightly higher than accepted lunar indigenous levels, and some, such as Au, are just below such upper limits. The age of the glass, determined by the 40Ar/39Ar laser incremental heating technique, is 1647 ?? 11 Ma (2 ??); it is expressed as an age spectrum of seventeen steps over 96% of the 39Ar released, unusual for an impact glass. Trapped argon is negligible. The undamaged nature of the sphere demonstrates that it must have spent most of its life buried in regolith; 38Ar cosmic ray exposure data suggest that it was buried at less than 2m but more than a few centimeters if a single depth is appropriate. That the spherule solidified to a glass is surprising; for such a mare composition, cooling at about 50??C s-1 is required to avoid crystallization, and barely attainable in such a large spherule. The low volatile abundances, slightly high siderophile abundances, and

  2. A glass spherule of questionable impact origin from the Apollo 15 landing site: Unique target mare basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Graham; Delano, John W.; Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Brent Dalrymple, G.

    1996-02-01

    A 6 mm-diameter dark spherule, 15434,28, from the regolith on the Apennine Front at the Apollo 15 landing site has a homogeneous glass interior with a 200 μm-thick rind of devitrified or crystallized melt. The rind contains abundant small fragments of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalt and rare volcanic Apollo 15 green glass. The glass interior of the spherule has the chemical composition, including a high FeO content and high CaO/Al 2O 3, of a mare basalt. Whereas the major element and Sc, Ni, and Co abundances are similar to those of low-Ti mare basalts, the incompatible elements and Sr abundances are similar to those of high-Ti mare basalts. The relative abundance patterns of the incompatible trace elements are distinct from any other lunar mare basalts or KREEP; among these distinctions are a much steeper slope of the heavy rare earth elements. The 15434,28 glass has abundances of the volatile element Zn consistent with both impact glasses and crystalline mare basalts, but much lower than in glasses of mare volcanic origin. The glass contains siderophile elements such as Ir in abundances only slightly higher than accepted lunar indigenous levels, and some, such as Au, are just below such upper limits. The age of the glass, determined by the 40Ar/ 39Ar laser incremental heating technique, is 1647 ±11 Ma (2 δ); it is expressed as an age spectrum of seventeen steps over 96% of the 39Ar released, unusual for an impact glass. Trapped argon is negligible. The undamaged nature of the sphere demonstrates that it must have spent most of its life buried in regolith; 38Ar cosmic ray exposure data suggest that it was buried at less than 2m but more than a few centimeters if a single depth is appropriate. That the spherule solidified to a glass is surprising; for such a mare composition, cooling at about 50 °C s -1 is required to avoid crystallization, and barely attainable in such a large spherule. The low volatile abundances, slightly high siderophile abundances

  3. A Glass Spherule of Questionable Impact Origin from the Apollo 15 Landing Site: Unique Target Mare Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Delano, John W.; Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1996-01-01

    A 6 mm-diameter dark spherule, 15434,28, from the regolith on the Apennine Front at the Apollo 15 landing site has a homogeneous glass interior with a 200 microns-thick rind of devitrified or crystallized melt. The rind contains abundant small fragments of Apollo 15 olivine-normative mare basalt and rare volcanic Apollo 15 green glass. The glass interior of the spherule has the chemical composition, including a high FeO content and high CaO/Al2O3, of a mare basalt. Whereas the major element and Sc, Ni, and Co abundances are similar to those of low-Ti mare basalts, the incompatible elements and Sr abundances are similar to those of high-Ti mare basaits. The relative abundance patterns of the incompatible trace elements are distinct from any other lunar mare basalts or KREEP; among these distinctions are a much steeper slope of the heavy rare earth elements. The 15434,28 glass has abundances of the volatile element Zn consistent with both impact glasses and crystalline mare basalts, but much lower than in glasses of mare volcanic origin. The glass contains siderophile elements such as Ir in abundances only slightly higher than accepted lunar indigenous levels, and some, such as Au, are just below such upper limits. The age of the glass, determined by the Ar-40/Ar-39 laser incremental heating technique, is 1647 +/- 11 Ma (2 sigma); it is expressed as an age spectrum of seventeen steps over 96% of the Ar-38 released, unusual for an impact glass. Trapped argon is negligible. The undamaged nature of the sphere demonstrates that it must have spent most of its life buried in regolith; Ar-38 cosmic ray exposure data suggest that it was buried at less than 2m but more than a few centimeters if a single depth is appropriate. That the spherule solidified to a glass is surprising; for such a mare composition, cooling at about 50 C/s is required to avoid crystallization, and barely attainable in such a large spherule. The low volatile abundances, slightly high siderophile

  4. Open questions on the origin of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    López-García, Purificación; Moreira, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the origin of the eukaryotic cell remains enigmatic. It is now known that the last eukaryotic common ancestor was complex and that endosymbiosis played a crucial role in eukaryogenesis at least via the acquisition of the alphaproteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria. However, the nature of the mitochondrial host is controversial, although the recent discovery of an archaeal lineage phylogenetically close to eukaryotes reinforces models proposing archaea-derived hosts. We argue that, in addition to improved phylogenomic analyses with more comprehensive taxon sampling to pinpoint the closest prokaryotic relatives of eukaryotes, determining plausible mechanisms and selective forces at the origin of key eukaryotic features, such as the nucleus or the bacterial-like eukaryotic membrane system, is essential to constrain existing models. PMID:26455774

  5. Open Questions on the Origin of Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    López-García, Purificación; Moreira, David

    2015-11-01

    Despite recent progress, the origin of the eukaryotic cell remains enigmatic. It is now known that the last eukaryotic common ancestor was complex and that endosymbiosis played a crucial role in eukaryogenesis at least via the acquisition of the alphaproteobacterial ancestor of mitochondria. However, the nature of the mitochondrial host is controversial, although the recent discovery of an archaeal lineage phylogenetically close to eukaryotes reinforces models proposing archaea-derived hosts. We argue that, in addition to improved phylogenomic analyses with more comprehensive taxon sampling to pinpoint the closest prokaryotic relatives of eukaryotes, determining plausible mechanisms and selective forces at the origin of key eukaryotic features, such as the nucleus or the bacterial-like eukaryotic membrane system, is essential to constrain existing models.

  6. Impact origin of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, W.L.

    1998-12-31

    A few years after the Apollo flights to the Moon, it became clear that all of the existing theories on the origin of the Moon would not satisfy the growing body of constraints which appeared with the data gathered by the Apollo flights. About the same time, researchers began to realize that the inner (terrestrial) planets were not born quietly -- all had evidences of impacts on their surfaces. This fact reinforced the idea that the planets had formed by the accumulation of planetesimals. Since the Earth`s moon is unique among the terrestrial planets, a few researchers realized that perhaps the Moon originated in a singular event; an event that was quite probable, but not so probable that one would expect all the terrestrial planets to have a large moon. And thus was born the idea that a giant impact formed the Moon. Impacts would be common in the early solar system; perhaps a really large impact of two almost fully formed planets of disparate sizes would lead to material orbiting the proto-earth, a proto-moon. This idea remained to be tested. Using a relatively new, but robust, method of doing the hydrodynamics of the collision (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics), the author and his colleagues (W. Benz, Univ. of Arizona, and A.G.W. Cameron, Harvard College Obs.) did a large number of collision simulations on a supercomputer. The author found two major scenarios which would result in the formation of the Moon. The first was direct formation; a moon-sized object is boosted into orbit by gravitational torques. The second is when the orbiting material forms a disk, which, with subsequent evolution can form the Moon. In either case the physical and chemical properties of the newly formed Moon would very neatly satisfy the physical and chemical constraints of the current Moon. Also, in both scenarios the surface of the Earth would be quite hot after the collision. This aspect remains to be explored.

  7. Hills in Arctic Canada with Impact Origin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-06-02

    While most hills and mountains on Earth originate from tectonic motions or volcanism, Earth also has some examples of hills that originated from impacts of large meteorites, the predominant origin for hills and mountains on the Moon.

  8. Question 1: origin of life and the living state.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Stuart

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss four topics: First, the origin of molecular reproduction. Second, the origin of agency - the capacity of a system to act on its own behalf. Agency is a stunning feature of human and some wider range of life. Third, to discuss a still poorly articulated feature of life noticed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant over 200 years ago: A self propagating organization of process. We have no theory for this aspect of life, yet it is central to life. Fourth, I will discuss constraints, as in Schroedinger's aperiodic crystal (Schroedinger E, What is life? The physical aspect of the living cell, 1944), as information, part of the total non-equilibrium union of matter, energy, work, work cycles, constraints, and information that appear to comprise the living state.

  9. Question 1: Origin of Life and the Living State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffman, Stuart

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss four topics: First, the origin of molecular reproduction. Second, the origin of agency the capacity of a system to act on its own behalf. Agency is a stunning feature of human and some wider range of life. Third, to discuss a still poorly articulated feature of life noticed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant over 200 years ago: A self propagating organization of process. We have no theory for this aspect of life, yet it is central to life. Fourth, I will discuss constraints, as in Schroedinger’s aperiodic crystal (Schroedinger E, What is life? The physical aspect of the living cell, 1944), as information, part of the total non-equilibrium union of matter, energy, work, work cycles, constraints, and information that appear to comprise the living state.

  10. Impacts and the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    1990-01-01

    As living creatures, all of us have some interest in the question of how life originated. To some, the question is more religious than scientific; nonetheless, a small but dedicated group of scientists spend their careers trying to answer it from a rational standpoint. Logically, the question can be broken down into the three standard divisions of any mystery: When did life originate? Where did it originate? And how did it originate? Of these three sub-questions the last is by far the most difficult and I will make no attempt to address it here. I will however take a personal look at the two easier parts of the problem. In particular, I will outline my current view of the physical environment of the early Earth, and I will try to show how observations of other solar system bodies, especially our own Moon, provide clues as to when and where life could have originated.

  11. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  12. Experimental U.S. Census Bureau Race and Hispanic Origin Survey Questions: Reactions from Spanish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Rodney L.; Fond, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    People of Hispanic origin, including monolingual Spanish speakers, have experienced difficulty identifying with a race category on U.S. demographic surveys. As part of a larger research effort by the U.S. Census Bureau to improve race and Hispanic origin questions for the 2020 Census, we tested experimental versions of race and Hispanic origin…

  13. Experimental U.S. Census Bureau Race and Hispanic Origin Survey Questions: Reactions from Spanish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Rodney L.; Fond, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    People of Hispanic origin, including monolingual Spanish speakers, have experienced difficulty identifying with a race category on U.S. demographic surveys. As part of a larger research effort by the U.S. Census Bureau to improve race and Hispanic origin questions for the 2020 Census, we tested experimental versions of race and Hispanic origin…

  14. Investigating the Grammatical and Pragmatic Origins of Wh-Questions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Jyotishi, Manya; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia

    2017-01-01

    Compared to typically developing children, children with autism (ASD) show delayed production of wh-questions. It is currently controversial the degree to which such deficits derive from social-pragmatic requirements and/or because these are complex grammatical structures. The current study employed the intermodal preferential looking (IPL) paradigm, which reduces social-pragmatic demands. The IPL paradigm can help distinguish these proposals, as successful comprehension promotes the "pragmatics-origins" argument whereas comprehension difficulties would implicate a "grammatical-origins" argument. Additionally, we tested both the linguistic and social explanations by assessing the contributions of children's early grammatical knowledge (i.e., SVO word order) and their social-pragmatic scores on the Vineland to their later wh-question comprehension. Fourteen children with ASD and 17 TD children, matched on language level, were visited in their homes at 4-month intervals. Comprehension of wh-questions and SVO word order were tested via IPL: the wh-question video showed a costumed horse and bird serving as agents or patients of familiar transitive actions. During the test trials, they were displayed side by side with directing audios (e.g., "What did the horse tickle?", "What hugged the bird?", "Where is the horse/bird?"). Children's eye movements were coded offline; the DV was their percent looking to the named item during test. To show comprehension, children should look longer at the named item during a where-question than during a subject-wh or object-wh question. Results indicated that TD children comprehended both subject and object wh-questions at 32 months of age. Comprehension of object-wh questions emerged chronologically later in children with ASD compared to their TD peers, but at similar levels of language. Moreover, performance on word order and social-pragmatic scores independently predicted both groups' later performance on wh-question comprehension

  15. Lunar origin from impact on the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    All theories of lunar origin involve events or processes which seemingly have low efficiencies or low probabilities or both. An impact-triggered fission lunar origin is presented. If the impact ejecta (a mixture of target and projectile) leave the impact site ballistically and are subsequently acted upon only by the gravity field of a spherical Earth, then the ejecta either reimpacts the Earth or escapes on a hyperbolic trajectory. Hence the need for a second burn. Three possible resolutions are considered: pressure gradient acceleration, non-central gravity, and viscous spreading.

  16. Moon origin - The impact-trigger hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    1986-01-01

    Arguments in favor of the impact-trigger model of lunar origin are presented. Lunar properties favoring this hypothesis include: (1) lunar iron and volatile deficiency; (2) angular momentum of the earth-moon system; and (3) similar O isotopes, bulk iron contents, and densities of earth's mantle and the moon. It is shown that the intense early bombardment averaged during earth's formation was several billion times the present meteoritic mass flux, consistent with a giant impact.

  17. Questioning complacency: climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in Norway.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Karen; Eriksen, Siri; Sygna, Linda; Naess, Lars Otto

    2006-03-01

    Most European assessments of climate change impacts have been carried out on sectors and ecosystems, providing a narrow understanding of what climate change really means for society. Furthermore, the main focus has been on technological adaptations, with less attention paid to the process of climate change adaptation. In this article, we present and analyze findings from recent studies on climate change impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation in Norway, with the aim of identifying the wider social impacts of climate change. Three main lessons can be drawn. First, the potential thresholds and indirect effects may be more important than the direct, sectoral effects. Second, highly sensitive sectors, regions, and communities combine with differential social vulnerability to create both winners and losers. Third, high national levels of adaptive capacity mask the barriers and constraints to adaptation, particularly among those who are most vulnerable to climate change. Based on these results, we question complacency in Norway and other European countries regarding climate change impacts and adaptation. We argue that greater attention needs to be placed on the social context of climate change impacts and on the processes shaping vulnerability and adaptation.

  18. Impact origin of the Sudbury structure: Evolution of a theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the origin, development, and present status of the widely accepted theory, proposed by Robert S. Dietz in 1962, that the Sudbury structure was formed by meteoritic or asteroidal impact. The impact theory for the origin of the Sudbury structure seems supported by a nearly conclusive body of evidence. However, even assuming an impact origin to be correct, at least three major questions require further study: (1) the original size and shape of the crater, before tectonic deformation and erosion; (2) the source of the melt now forming the Sudbury Igneous Complex; and (3) the degree, if any, to which the Ni-Cu-platinum group elements are meteoritic. The history of the impact theory illustrates several under-appreciated aspects of scientific research: (1) the importance of cross-fertilization between space research and terrestrial geology; (2) the role of the outsider in stimulating thinking by insiders; (3) the value of small science, at least in the initial stages of an investigation, Dietz's first field work having been at his own expense; and (4) the value of analogies (here, between the Sudbury Igneous Complex and the maria), which although incorrect in major aspects, may trigger research on totally new lines. Finally, the Sudbury story illustrates the totally unpredictable and, by implication, unplannable nature of basic research, in that insight to the origin of the world's then-greatest Ni deposit came from the study of tektites and the Moon.

  19. Impacts of Socratic questioning on moral reasoning of nursing students.

    PubMed

    Torabizadeh, Camellia; Homayuni, Leyla; Moattari, Marzieh

    2016-09-30

    Nurses are often faced with complex situations that made them to make ethical decisions; and to make such decisions, they need to possess the power of moral reasoning. Studies in Iran show that the majority of nursing students lack proper ethical development. Socratic teaching is a student-centered method which is strongly opposed to the lecturing method. This study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of Socratic questioning on the moral reasoning of the nursing students. In a quasi-experimental study, Crisham's Nursing Dilemma Test was used to evaluate the results of three groups before, immediately after, and 2 months after intervention. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software (v 15). Through random allocation, 103 nursing students were divided into three groups. In experiment group 1 (37 students), intervention consisted of Socratic questioning-based sessions on ethics and how to deal with moral dilemmas; experiment group 2 (33 students) attended a 4-h workshop; and the control group (33 students) was not subject to any interventions. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University. All the participants signed written informed consents. There were significant differences between experiment group 1 and experiment group 2's pre-test and post-test scores on moral reasoning (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.001), nursing principled thinking (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.001), and practical considerations (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.031). Both the teaching approaches improved the subjects' moral reasoning; however, Socratic questioning proved more effective than lecturing. Compared to other similar studies in Iran and other countries, the students had inadequate moral reasoning competence. This study confirms the need for the development of an efficient course on ethics in the nursing curriculum. Also, it appears that Socratic questioning is an effective method to teach nursing ethics and develop nursing students' competence of moral reasoning. © The

  20. Impact jetting as the origin of chondrules.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brandon C; Minton, David A; Melosh, H J; Zuber, Maria T

    2015-01-15

    Chondrules are the millimetre-scale, previously molten, spherules found in most meteorites. Before chondrules formed, large differentiating planetesimals had already accreted. Volatile-rich olivine reveals that chondrules formed in extremely solid-rich environments, more like impact plumes than the solar nebula. The unique chondrules in CB chondrites probably formed in a vapour-melt plume produced by a hypervelocity impact with an impact velocity greater than 10 kilometres per second. An acceptable formation model for the overwhelming majority of chondrules, however, has not been established. Here we report that impacts can produce enough chondrules during the first five million years of planetary accretion to explain their observed abundance. Building on a previous study of impact jetting, we simulate protoplanetary impacts, finding that material is melted and ejected at high speed when the impact velocity exceeds 2.5 kilometres per second. Using a Monte Carlo accretion code, we estimate the location, timing, sizes, and velocities of chondrule-forming impacts. Ejecta size estimates indicate that jetted melt will form millimetre-scale droplets. Our radiative transfer models show that these droplets experience the expected cooling rates of ten to a thousand kelvin per hour. An impact origin for chondrules implies that meteorites are a byproduct of planet formation rather than leftover building material.

  1. Impact Chemistry and the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melosh, H. J.; Pasek, M.

    2012-12-01

    Most discussions of global environmental effects of large impacts focus on changes deleterious to extant life. However, impacts may also produce changes that enhance or even create conditions beneficial to the origin of life. Many other authors have discussed impact delivery of organic molecules, and some have shown the shock synthesis of prebiotic molecules such as amino acids during impact. Our past work on the chemistry of impacts demonstrated that strong chemical reduction occurs in impact melt ejecta (spherules and melt droplets; tektites). Here we focus on the element phosphorus (P), whose role is crucial in biology as the backbone of DNA and RNA, and in metabolic biochemical energy transfer. Pasek previously showed that reduced P readily enters into interesting biological compounds with organic molecules in aqueous solution, and that these reduced P compounds may generate structures similar to sugar phosphates, which are critical to life as we know it. In this talk we argue that impact reduction of P transforms terrestrial and meteoritic phosphates bearing an oxidation state of +5 to the lower redox states of +3 (phosphites) and 0 as an alloy with metal (phosphides). We base this argument on studies of fulgurites—glasses formed by cloud-to-ground lightning—that bear phosphides and phosphites as major carriers of P. Fulgurite chemistry frequently parallels that of impact glasses. Additionally, thermodynamic calculations show that separation of an O-rich vapor from a melt readily results in the transformation of phosphate to phosphites and metal phosphides. These results are confirmed by the presence of metal phosphides within tektites. The impact reduction of phosphates followed by global dispersal of reduced P in the form of glassy droplets likely played a major role in the origin of life on Earth and perhaps on other young planets.

  2. An open question on the origin of life: the first forms of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-11-01

    The general framework of the origin of life on Earth is outlined, emphasizing that the so-called prebiotic 'RNA world' is as yet on shaky scientific ground, and that one should any way ask the question of the structure of the first protocellular compartments capable of the initial forms of metabolism. This question is the basis of the research project on the minimal cells, containing the minimal and sufficient complexity capable of leading to life. Such research is briefly summarized, highlighting experiments with liposome-based semisynthetic cells which are capable of ribosomal protein synthesis with a very minimal number of enzymes. The most recent finding in this area of research is the unexpected observation that the formation and closure of liposomes in situ acts as an attractor for the solute molecules in solution, bringing about a very high local concentration in some of the liposomes. It is argued that this spontaneous overcrowding, which permits reactions which are not possible in the original dilute solution, might be the origin of cellular metabolism for the origin of life on Earth.

  3. Impacts and the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, Verne R.; Fogleman, Guy

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the estimate of Maher and Stevenson (1988) of the time at which life could have developed on earth through chemical evolution within a time interval between impact events, assuming chemical or prebiotic evolution times of 100,000 to 10,000,000 yrs. An error in the equations used to determine the time periods between impact events in estimating this time is noted. A revised equation is presented and used to calculate the point in time at which impact events became infrequent enough for life to form. By using this equation, the finding of Maher and Stevenson that life could have first originated between 4,100 and 4,300 million years ago is changed to 3,700 to 4,000 million years ago.

  4. Crime laboratory proficiency testing results, 1978-1991, II: Resolving questions of common origin.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J L; Markham, P N

    1995-11-01

    A preceding article has examined the origins of crime laboratory proficiency testing and the performance of laboratories in the identification and classification of common types of physical evidence. Part II reviews laboratory proficiency in determining if two or more evidence samples shared a common source. Parts I and II together review the results of 175 separate tests issued to crime laboratories over the period 1978 to 1991. Laboratories perform best in determining the origin of finger and palm prints, metals, firearms (bullets and catridge cases), and footwear. Laboratories have moderate success in determining the source of bloodstains, questioned documents, toolmarks, and hair. A final category is of greater concern and includes those evidence categories where 10% or more of results disagree with manufacturers regarding the source of samples. This latter group includes paint, glass, fibers, and body fluid mixtures. The article concludes with a comparison of current findings with earlier LEAA study results, and a discussion of judicial and policy implications.

  5. Question 2: why an astrobiological study of titan will help us understand the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Raulin, Francois

    2007-10-01

    For understanding the origin(s) of life on Earth it is essential to search for and study extraterrestrial environments where some of the processes which participated in the emergence of Life on our planet are still occurring. This is one of the goals of astrobiology. In that frame, the study of extraterrestrial organic matter is essential and is certainly not of limited interest regarding prebiotic molecular evolution. Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn and the only planetary body with an atmosphere similar to that of the Earth is one of the places of prime interest for these astrobiological questions. It presents many analogies with the primitive Earth, and is a prebiotic-like laboratory at the planetary scale, where a complex organic chemistry in is currently going on.

  6. Impact frustration of the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Maher, K A; Stevenson, D J

    1988-02-18

    One possible definition for the origin of life on Earth is the time at which the interval between devastating environmental insults by impact exceeded the timescale for establishing self-replicating proto-organisms. A quantitative relationship for the Hadean (pre-3,800 Myr ago) and Early Archean (3,800 to 3,400 Myr) impact flux can be derived from the lunar and terrestrial impact records. Also, the effects of impact-related processes on the various environments proposed for abiogenesis (the development of life through chemical evolution from inorganic materials) can be estimated. Using a range of plausible values for the timescale for abiogenesis, the interval in time when life might first have bootstrapped itself into existence can be found for each environment. We find that if the deep marine hydrothermal setting provided a suitable site, abiogenesis could have happened as early as 4,000 to 4,200 Myr ago, whereas at the surface of the Earth abiogenesis could have occurred between 3,700 and 4,000 Myr.

  7. The ultimate question of origins: God and the beginning of the Universe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, W. L.

    Both cosmology and philosophy trace their roots to the wonder felt by the ancient Greeks as they contemplated the Universe. The ultimate question remains why the Universe exists rather than nothing. This question led Leibniz to postulate the existence of a metaphysically necessary being, which he identified as God. Leibniz's critics, however, disputed this identification, claiming that the space-time universe itself may be the metaphysically necessary being. The discovery during this century that the Universe began to exist, however, calls into question the Universe's status as metaphysically necessary, since any necessary being must be eternal in its existence. Although various cosmogonic models claiming to avert the beginning of the Universe predicted by the standard model have been and continue to be offered, no model involving an eternal universe has proved as plausible as the standard model. Unless we are to assert that the Universe simply sprang into being uncaused out of nothing, we are thus led to Leibniz's conclusion. Several objections to inferring a supernatural cause of the origin of the Universe are considered and found to be unsound.

  8. The Ultimate Question of Origins: God and the Beginning of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, William Lane

    1999-12-01

    Both cosmology and philosophy trace their roots to the wonder felt by the ancient Greeks as they contemplated the universe. The ultimate question remains why the universe exists rather than nothing. This question led Leibniz to postulate the existence of a metaphysically necessary being, which he identified as God. Leibniz's critics, however, disputed this identification, claiming that the space-time universe itself may be the metaphysically necessary being. The discovery during this century that the universe began to exist, however, calls into question the universe's status as metaphysically necessary, since any necessary being must be eternal in its existence. Although various cosmogonic models claiming to avert the beginning of the universe predicted by the standard model have been and continue to be offered, no model involving an eternal universe has proved as plausible as the standard model. Unless we are to assert that the universe simply sprang into being uncaused out of nothing, we are thus led to Leibniz's conclusion. Several objections to inferring a supernatural cause of the origin of the universe are considered and found to be unsound.

  9. 38 CFR 19.27 - Adequacy of Notice of Disagreement questioned within the agency of original jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 19.26, there remains within the agency of original jurisdiction a conflict of opinion or a question pertaining to a claim regarding whether a written communication expresses an intent to appeal or as to which...

  10. Ethnic Origins 3: An Experiment in the Use of a Direct Question about Ethnicity, for the Census. Occasional Paper 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillitoe, Ken

    This is a report on the third effort to formulate an effective question for determining the ethnicity of respondents to Great Britain's 1981 census. Discussed herein is the response to the ethnic origins questions, different versions of which were incorporated into the main census pre-test and administered to 4250 households (including large…

  11. Impact of Question Content on e-Consultation Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Christopher; Liddy, Clare; Pinto, Nicole; Keely, Erin

    2016-03-01

    By facilitating direct communication of primary care providers (PCPs) with specialists for advice, electronic consult (e-consult) services can reduce the need for patients to wait for and travel to face-to-face consultations with specialists. An association between avoiding face-to-face referrals using an e-consult service and specific content within each e-consult has not been rigorously explored. Cases submitted to the Champlain Building Access to Specialists through eConsultation service between April 2011 to May 2013 were evaluated. Factors analyzed include question type (e.g., diagnosis or management), formulation (if interventions or outcomes were specified), and the addressed specialty. An avoided referral was present if the PCP indicated so in a mandatory close-out survey. A discrepancy was present if the PCP made a referral when the specialist did not indicate one was necessary, or if the PCP did not request a referral despite the specialist recommending one. There were 426 (40%) avoided referrals among 1,055 cases analyzed. Questions associated with the highest avoided referral rates included ones pertaining to diagnosis (44%), nonspecific requests for direction (44%), questions without specified interventions or outcomes (47%), and dermatology cases (49.5%). Specialists agreed on the need for a referral in 82% of cases, with most discrepancies due to the PCP making a referral without the specialist recommending one. Referral outcomes are associated with the type of question being asked, the formulation of each question, and the specialty being addressed. Discrepancies among PCPs and specialists regarding which patients require face-to-face referrals may help identify knowledge gaps and guide professional development.

  12. Open Questions on the Origin of Life at Anoxic Geothermal Fields

    PubMed Central

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.; Bychkov, Andrew Yu.; Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently reconstructed the ‘hatcheries’ of the first cells by combining geochemical analysis with phylogenomic scrutiny of the inorganic ion requirements of universal components of modern cells (Mulkidjanian et al.: Origin of first cells at terrestrial, anoxic geothermal fields. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012, 109:E821–830). These ubiquitous, and by inference primordial, proteins and functional systems show affinity to and functional requirement for K+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and phosphate. Thus, protocells must have evolved in habitats with a high K+/Na+ ratio and relatively high concentrations of Zn, Mn and phosphorous compounds. Geochemical reconstruction shows that the ionic composition conducive to the origin of cells could not have existed in marine settings but is compatible with emissions of vapor-dominated zones of inland geothermal systems. Under anoxic, CO2-dominated atmosphere, the ionic composition of pools of cool, condensed vapor at anoxic geothermal fields would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. Such pools would be lined with porous silicate minerals mixed with metal sulfides and enriched in K+ ions and phosphorous compounds. Here we address some questions that have appeared in print after the publication of our anoxic geothermal field scenario. We argue that anoxic geothermal fields, which were identified as likely cradles of life by using a top-down approach and phylogenomics analysis as a tool, could provide geochemical conditions similar to those which were suggested as most conducive for the emergence of life by the chemists who pursuit the complementary bottom-up strategy. PMID:23132762

  13. Open Questions on the Origin of Life at Anoxic Geothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.; Bychkov, Andrew Yu.; Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2012-10-01

    We have recently reconstructed the `hatcheries' of the first cells by combining geochemical analysis with phylogenomic scrutiny of the inorganic ion requirements of universal components of modern cells (Mulkidjanian et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E821-830, 2012). These ubiquitous, and by inference primordial, proteins and functional systems show affinity to and functional requirement for K+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and phosphate. Thus, protocells must have evolved in habitats with a high K+/Na+ ratio and relatively high concentrations of Zn, Mn and phosphorous compounds. Geochemical reconstruction shows that the ionic composition conducive to the origin of cells could not have existed in marine settings but is compatible with emissions of vapor-dominated zones of inland geothermal systems. Under an anoxic, CO2-dominated atmosphere, the ionic composition of pools of cool, condensed vapor at anoxic geothermal fields would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. Such pools would be lined with porous silicate minerals mixed with metal sulfides and enriched in K+ ions and phosphorous compounds. Here we address some questions that have appeared in print after the publication of our anoxic geothermal field scenario. We argue that anoxic geothermal fields, which were identified as likely cradles of life by using a top-down approach and phylogenomics analysis, could provide geochemical conditions similar to those which were suggested as most conducive for the emergence of life by the chemists who pursuit the complementary bottom-up strategy.

  14. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

  15. Open questions on the origin of life at anoxic geothermal fields.

    PubMed

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Bychkov, Andrew Yu; Dibrova, Daria V; Galperin, Michael Y; Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-10-01

    We have recently reconstructed the 'hatcheries' of the first cells by combining geochemical analysis with phylogenomic scrutiny of the inorganic ion requirements of universal components of modern cells (Mulkidjanian et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E821-830, 2012). These ubiquitous, and by inference primordial, proteins and functional systems show affinity to and functional requirement for K⁺, Zn²⁺, Mn²⁺, and phosphate. Thus, protocells must have evolved in habitats with a high K⁺/Na⁺ ratio and relatively high concentrations of Zn, Mn and phosphorous compounds. Geochemical reconstruction shows that the ionic composition conducive to the origin of cells could not have existed in marine settings but is compatible with emissions of vapor-dominated zones of inland geothermal systems. Under an anoxic, CO₂-dominated atmosphere, the ionic composition of pools of cool, condensed vapor at anoxic geothermal fields would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. Such pools would be lined with porous silicate minerals mixed with metal sulfides and enriched in K⁺ ions and phosphorous compounds. Here we address some questions that have appeared in print after the publication of our anoxic geothermal field scenario. We argue that anoxic geothermal fields, which were identified as likely cradles of life by using a top-down approach and phylogenomics analysis, could provide geochemical conditions similar to those which were suggested as most conducive for the emergence of life by the chemists who pursuit the complementary bottom-up strategy.

  16. Investigating the Grammatical and Pragmatic Origins of Wh-Questions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jyotishi, Manya; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia

    2017-01-01

    Compared to typically developing children, children with autism (ASD) show delayed production of wh-questions. It is currently controversial the degree to which such deficits derive from social-pragmatic requirements and/or because these are complex grammatical structures. The current study employed the intermodal preferential looking (IPL) paradigm, which reduces social-pragmatic demands. The IPL paradigm can help distinguish these proposals, as successful comprehension promotes the “pragmatics-origins” argument whereas comprehension difficulties would implicate a “grammatical-origins” argument. Additionally, we tested both the linguistic and social explanations by assessing the contributions of children's early grammatical knowledge (i.e., SVO word order) and their social-pragmatic scores on the Vineland to their later wh-question comprehension. Fourteen children with ASD and 17 TD children, matched on language level, were visited in their homes at 4-month intervals. Comprehension of wh-questions and SVO word order were tested via IPL: the wh-question video showed a costumed horse and bird serving as agents or patients of familiar transitive actions. During the test trials, they were displayed side by side with directing audios (e.g., “What did the horse tickle?”, “What hugged the bird?”, “Where is the horse/bird?”). Children's eye movements were coded offline; the DV was their percent looking to the named item during test. To show comprehension, children should look longer at the named item during a where-question than during a subject-wh or object-wh question. Results indicated that TD children comprehended both subject and object wh-questions at 32 months of age. Comprehension of object-wh questions emerged chronologically later in children with ASD compared to their TD peers, but at similar levels of language. Moreover, performance on word order and social-pragmatic scores independently predicted both groups' later performance on wh-question

  17. Errors in medical literature: not a question of impact.

    PubMed

    Costantino, Giorgio; Casazza, Giovanni; Cernuschi, Giulia; Solbiati, Monica; Birocchi, Simone; Ceriani, Elisa; Duca, Piergiorgio; Montano, Nicola

    2013-03-01

    The editorial and peer-review processes should guarantee readers as to the reliability of published data. The first step of these processes is to check for errors. The aim of our study was to look for the presence of objective errors in consecutive articles published on three of the most authoritative clinical journals. Two reviewers evaluated the presence of any error in 200 consecutive original articles containing at least two tables, allowing a reanalysis of the data, published between October 2010 and April 2011. Error was considered any action different from what was planned. Errors were listed as: methodological, numerical and slips. They were considered as severe if numbers in the abstract were completely different from numbers reported in the full text. Among the 125 articles included in the study, 102 (82 %, 95 % CI 74-88 %) contained some kind of error, even multiple. Nine articles (7 %, 95 % CI 3-13 %) contained one slip, 92 articles (74 %, 95 % CI 65-81 %) contained at least one numerical error, and 22 articles (18 %, 95 % CI 11-25 %) contained one methodological error. Five articles (4 %, 95 % CI 1-9 %) contained one serious error. None of the errors retrieved (0 %, 95 % CI 0-2 %) would have changed the results of the studies. Most of the articles published in the most important medical journals present mistakes. Our results could be a clue to editorial and peer review systems system weaknesses. A debate within the scientific medical community about these systems, and possible alternative adjustments are needed.

  18. Growth Impacts on Public Service Expenditures: Some Questions for the Community. Coping with Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimbey, Neil R.

    Defining public services as the basic community/regional services which are provided to residents through tax receipts and service charges, this publication identifies variables for each service group and presents them in the form of questions that communities should find useful when analyzing impacts of growth. After listing questions dealing…

  19. Understanding origins and impacts of drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, Tatiana; Krankina, Olga; Kurbanov, Eldar

    2012-10-01

    Impacts of Extreme Weather on Natural, Socio-economic, and Land-Use Systems:Focus on the 2010 Summer Anomaly in the Volga Region;Yoshkar-Ola, Russia, 17-21 June 2012 In the summer of 2010 an extreme drought captured the attention of the media, the Russian government, and the international community. This drought resulted in widespread crop failure within one of the largest wheat-exporting regions of the world, leading to global grain price hikes. A joint NASA, Global Observations of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD), and Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) meeting at the Volga State University of Technology, held 2 years after the 2010 drought, provided for a wide-ranging and in-depth review of recent research on the drought and its impacts on ecosystems and society and drew participants from the United States, Europe, Russia, and Kazakhstan.

  20. The origin of the Fast Radio Bursts, still an open question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcote, B.; Giroletti, M.; Garrett, M.; Paragi, Z.; Yuang, J.; Hada, K.; Cheung, C. C.

    2017-03-01

    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are transient sources characterized by exhibiting a strong single pulse (with a duration of milliseconds or submilliseconds). They were firstly discovered by Lorimer et al. (2007), and nowadays tens of these events have been observed. Their origin remains unknown. Both, Galactic and extragalactic origins, have been proposed. The observed pulses resemble the ones from pulsars, and thus preferring a Galactic origin. However, the large dispersion measures observed in the FRBs point to an extragalactic origin. Many scenarios have been proposed up to now to explain the FRBs, most of them based on cataclysmic events. However, the discovery of the first repeating FRB (Spitler et al. 2016) indicates that could there be, at least, two different scenarios. Keane et al. (2016) reported for the first time the localization of an FRB. FRB 150418 was observed by the Parkes Telescope and a transient source associated with a galaxy was localized in the same field of view with the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). This association would confirm the extragalactic origin of the FRBs. However, this association has been widely discussed during the last months. Here we present a monitoring of the associated galaxy, WISE J071634.59190039.2, with the European VLBI Network (EVN). Our data show a compact radio emission persistent on day/week timescales one year after the observed FRB. This behavior perfectly fits to the expected emission of a regular active galactic nuclei (AGN), and thus not with the association of the FRB. The full study on this source can be found in Giroletti et al. (2016).

  1. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  2. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  3. Question 1: Peptide nucleic acids and the origin and homochirality of life.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2007-10-01

    The possibilities of pseudo peptide DNA mimics like PNA (peptide nucleic acid) having a role for the prebiotic origin of life prior to an RNA world is discussed. In particular a scenario is proposed in which protocells with an achiral genetic material through several generations stepwise is converted into a chiral genetic material, e.g., by incorporation of RNA units. Provided that a sufficiently large sequence space is occupied, a selection process based on catalytic function in which a single cell (first common ancestor) has a definite evolutionary advantage, selection of this cell would by contingency also lock it into homochirality.

  4. Open questions in origin of life: experimental studies on the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences by a chemical synthetic biology approach.

    PubMed

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Anella, Fabrizio; Wieczorek, Rafal; Stano, Pasquale; Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review we present some experimental approaches to the important issue in the origin of life, namely the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences. The formation of macromolecules on prebiotic Earth faces practical and conceptual difficulties. From the chemical viewpoint, macromolecules are formed by chemical pathways leading to the condensation of building blocks (amino acids, or nucleotides) in long-chain copolymers (proteins and nucleic acids, respectively). The second difficulty deals with a conceptual problem, namely with the emergence of specific sequences among a vast array of possible ones, the huge "sequence space", leading to the question "why these macromolecules, and not the others?" We have recently addressed these questions by using a chemical synthetic biology approach. In particular, we have tested the catalytic activity of small peptides, like Ser-His, with respect to peptide- and nucleotides-condensation, as a realistic model of primitive organocatalysis. We have also set up a strategy for exploring the sequence space of random proteins and RNAs (the so-called "never born biopolymer" project) with respect to the production of folded structures. Being still far from solved, the main aspects of these "open questions" are discussed here, by commenting on recent results obtained in our groups and by providing a unifying view on the problem and possible solutions. In particular, we propose a general scenario for macromolecule formation via fragment-condensation, as a scheme for the emergence of specific sequences based on molecular growth and selection.

  5. Recent discoveries of new hantaviruses widen their range and question their origins.

    PubMed

    Henttonen, Heikki; Buchy, Philippe; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herbreteau, Vincent; Laakkonen, Juha; Chaval, Yannick; Galan, Maxime; Dobigny, Gauthier; Charbonnel, Nathalie; Michaux, Johan; Cosson, Jean-François; Morand, Serge; Hugot, Jean-Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family. While usually hosted by wild mammals, they are potentially pathogenic for humans, and several serologically distinct groups associated with different syndromes have been identified. Yet, investigations have mostly been conducted where human infections by hantaviruses constitute a real and well-identified public health problem, i.e., the holarctic and neotropical areas. Some hantaviruses have also been described from a Suncus murinus in India and a Bandicota indica in Thailand. In addition, recent investigations in Cambodia revealed new Hantavirus types. More recently, two new Hantavirus species were described: Sangassou from a Hylomyscus simus, and Tanganya from a Crocidura theresae, both from Africa (Guinea), thus strongly questioning the current views about geographic range, evolution, and epidemiology of hantaviruses. In such a framework, we have conducted a survey of Hantavirus diversity in Southeast Asia which allows us to isolate the Thailand virus and address questions about the taxonomy of their rodent hosts. Here we present a molecular analysis of representatives of all currently known Hantavirus species, thus allowing the comparison between the newly described ones with a large range sample of rodent hantaviruses. Our results clearly point to the presence of a particular lineage of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia. It also strongly suggests that new viruses, additional mammalian hosts and different related syndromes in humans are likely to be discovered in the near future, particularly in Southeast Asia and in Africa, where Muridae rodents are highly diversified. Furthermore, additional work is also urgently needed to investigate the hantaviruses associated with Crociduridae and Soricidae.

  6. Compound-specific isotope analysis: Questioning the origins of a trichloroethene plume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, S.M.; Braun, C.; Jones, S.

    2008-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of trichloroethene (TCE), cis-1,2- dichloroethene, and trans-1,2-dichloroethene were determined by use of gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectroscopy to determine whether compound-specific stable carbon isotopes could be used to help understand the origin and history of a TCE groundwater plume in Fort Worth, TX. Calculated ??13C values for total chlorinated ethenes in groundwater samples, which can approximate the ??13C of a spilled solvent if all degradation products are accounted for, were useful for determining whether separate lobes of the plume resulted from different sources. Most notably, values for one lobe, where tetrachloroethene (PCE) has been detected periodically, were outside the range for manufactured TCE but within the range for manufactured PCE, whereas values for a separate lobe, which is downgradient of reported TCE spills, were within the range for manufactured TCE. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Mars 2001 Mission: Addressing Scientific Questions Regarding the Characteristics and Origin of Local Bedrock and Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Weitz, C. M.; Marshall, J.; Squyres, S. W.; Christensen, P. R.; Meloy, T.; Smith, P.

    1999-09-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Mission will carry instruments on the orbiter, lander and rover that will support synergistic observations and experiments to address important scientific questions regarding the local bedrock and soils. The martian surface is covered in varying degrees by fine materials less than a few mms in size. Viking and Pathfinder images of the surface indicate that soils at those sites are composed of fine particles. Wheel tracks from the Sojourner rover suggest that soil deposits are composed of particles <40 mm. Viking images show that dunes are common in many areas on Mars and new MOC images indicate that dunes occur nearly everywhere. Dunes on Mars are thought to be composed of 250-500 microns particles based upon Viking IRTM data and Mars wind tunnel experiments. If martian dunes are composed of sand particles > 100 microns and soils are dominated by <10 micron particles, then where are the intermediate grain sizes? Have they been wom away through prolonged transport over the eons? Were they never generated to begin with? Or are they simply less easy to identify because do they not form distinctive geomorphic features such as dunes or uniform mantles that tend to assume superposition in the soil structure?

  8. Mars 2001 Mission: Addressing Scientific Questions Regarding the Characteristics and Origin of Local Bedrock and Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Weitz, C. M.; Marshall, J.; Squyres, S. W.; Christensen, P. R.; Meloy, T.; Smith, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Mission will carry instruments on the orbiter, lander and rover that will support synergistic observations and experiments to address important scientific questions regarding the local bedrock and soils. The martian surface is covered in varying degrees by fine materials less than a few mms in size. Viking and Pathfinder images of the surface indicate that soils at those sites are composed of fine particles. Wheel tracks from the Sojourner rover suggest that soil deposits are composed of particles <40 mm. Viking images show that dunes are common in many areas on Mars and new MOC images indicate that dunes occur nearly everywhere. Dunes on Mars are thought to be composed of 250-500 microns particles based upon Viking IRTM data and Mars wind tunnel experiments. If martian dunes are composed of sand particles > 100 microns and soils are dominated by <10 micron particles, then where are the intermediate grain sizes? Have they been wom away through prolonged transport over the eons? Were they never generated to begin with? Or are they simply less easy to identify because do they not form distinctive geomorphic features such as dunes or uniform mantles that tend to assume superposition in the soil structure?

  9. Mars 2001 Mission: Addressing Scientific Questions Regarding the Characteristics and Origin of Local Bedrock and Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Weitz, C. M.; Marshall, J.; Squyres, S. W.; Christensen, P. R.; Meloy, T.; Smith, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Mission will carry instruments on the orbiter, lander and rover that will support synergistic observations and experiments to address important scientific questions regarding the local bedrock and soils. The martian surface is covered in varying degrees by fine materials less than a few mms in size. Viking and Pathfinder images of the surface indicate that soils at those sites are composed of fine particles. Wheel tracks from the Sojourner rover suggest that soil deposits are composed of particles <40 mm. Viking images show that dunes are common in many areas on Mars and new MOC images indicate that dunes occur nearly everywhere. Dunes on Mars are thought to be composed of 250-500 microns particles based upon Viking IRTM data and Mars wind tunnel experiments. If martian dunes are composed of sand particles > 100 microns and soils are dominated by <10 micron particles, then where are the intermediate grain sizes? Have they been wom away through prolonged transport over the eons? Were they never generated to begin with? Or are they simply less easy to identify because do they not form distinctive geomorphic features such as dunes or uniform mantles that tend to assume superposition in the soil structure?

  10. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  11. Origin of insoluble organic matter in type 1 and 2 chondrites: New clues, new questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirico, Eric; Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis; Beck, Pierre; Bonal, Lydie; Brunetto, Rosario; Dartois, Emmanuel; Pino, Thomas; Montagnac, Gilles; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël; Engrand, Cécile; Duprat, Jean

    2014-07-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) extracted from primitive chondrites is a polyaromatic solid with a structure and composition resembling that of terrestrial kerogens. A survey of its composition and structure has been carried out on a series of 27 CR, CM, CI and ungrouped C2 carbonaceous chondrites (Tagish Lake, Bells, Essebi, Acfer 094) using infrared and multi-wavelength Raman micro-spectroscopy (244, 514 and 785 nm laser excitations). The results show that chondritic IOM from PCA 91008 (CM2), WIS 91600 (CM2), QUE 93005 (CM2), Tagish Lake (C2 ungrouped) and possibly Cold Bokkeveld (CM2) has been subjected to the past action of short duration thermal metamorphism, presumably triggered by impacts. The IOM in most of the CM chondrites that experienced moderate to heavy aqueous alteration may have been slightly modified by collision-induced heating. However, even IOM from chondrites that escaped significant thermal metamorphism displays Raman characteristics consistent with a formation by thermal processing, either in the protosolar disk or in the parent body. An alternative energetic process to thermal heating is ion irradiation. After thoroughly analyzing both these scenarii, no conclusion can be drawn as to which is the most plausible mechanism nor whether the heating process took place prior or after accretion. The results show for the first time that the width of the G band in spectra collected with a 514 nm excitation correlates with the O/C atomic ratio, suggesting a major role of oxygen in the cross-linking of polyaromatic units.

  12. "Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain": Correction to Nelson (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain" by Jonathan D. Nelson (Psychological Review, 2005[Oct], Vol 112[4], 979-999). In Table 13, the data should indicate that 7% of females had short hair and 93% of females had long hair. The calculations and discussion in the article…

  13. "Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain": Correction to Nelson (2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain" by Jonathan D. Nelson (Psychological Review, 2005[Oct], Vol 112[4], 979-999). In Table 13, the data should indicate that 7% of females had short hair and 93% of females had long hair. The calculations and discussion in the article…

  14. Finding Useful Questions: On Bayesian Diagnosticity, Probability, Impact, and Information Gain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jonathan D.

    2005-01-01

    Several norms for how people should assess a question's usefulness have been proposed, notably Bayesian diagnosticity, information gain (mutual information), Kullback-Liebler distance, probability gain (error minimization), and impact (absolute change). Several probabilistic models of previous experiments on categorization, covariation assessment,…

  15. The Impact of Initial Teacher Education on Understandings of Physical Education: Asking the Right Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chroinin, Deirdre Ni; Coulter, Maura

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of professional socialisation can provide insight on the impact of Physical Education Teacher Education. A large-scale (n=326) single question "What is PE?" qualitative methodology was used to access pre-service primary teachers' understandings of the nature and purpose of physical education . Data analysis involved word…

  16. The Impact of Initial Teacher Education on Understandings of Physical Education: Asking the Right Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chroinin, Deirdre Ni; Coulter, Maura

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of professional socialisation can provide insight on the impact of Physical Education Teacher Education. A large-scale (n=326) single question "What is PE?" qualitative methodology was used to access pre-service primary teachers' understandings of the nature and purpose of physical education . Data analysis involved word…

  17. Open questions in origin of life: experimental studies on the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences by a chemical synthetic biology approach

    PubMed Central

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Anella, Fabrizio; Wieczorek, Rafal; Stano, Pasquale; Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In this mini-review we present some experimental approaches to the important issue in the origin of life, namely the origin of nucleic acids and proteins with specific and functional sequences. The formation of macromolecules on prebiotic Earth faces practical and conceptual difficulties. From the chemical viewpoint, macromolecules are formed by chemical pathways leading to the condensation of building blocks (amino acids, or nucleotides) in long-chain copolymers (proteins and nucleic acids, respectively). The second difficulty deals with a conceptual problem, namely with the emergence of specific sequences among a vast array of possible ones, the huge “sequence space”, leading to the question “why these macromolecules, and not the others?” We have recently addressed these questions by using a chemical synthetic biology approach. In particular, we have tested the catalytic activity of small peptides, like Ser-His, with respect to peptide- and nucleotides-condensation, as a realistic model of primitive organocatalysis. We have also set up a strategy for exploring the sequence space of random proteins and RNAs (the so-called “never born biopolymer” project) with respect to the production of folded structures. Being still far from solved, the main aspects of these “open questions” are discussed here, by commenting on recent results obtained in our groups and by providing a unifying view on the problem and possible solutions. In particular, we propose a general scenario for macromolecule formation via fragment-condensation, as a scheme for the emergence of specific sequences based on molecular growth and selection. PMID:24757502

  18. Genetic data suggest a natural prehuman origin of open habitats in northern Madagascar and question the deforestation narrative in this region.

    PubMed

    Quéméré, Erwan; Amelot, Xavier; Pierson, Julie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Chikhi, Lounès

    2012-08-07

    The impact of climate change and anthropogenic deforestation on biodiversity is of growing concern worldwide. Disentangling how past anthropogenic and natural factors contributed to current biome distribution is thus a crucial issue to understand their complex interactions on wider time scales and to improve predictions and conservation strategies. This is particularly important in biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar, dominated by large open habitats whose origins are increasingly debated. Although a dominant narrative argues that Madagascar was originally entirely covered by woodlands, which were destroyed by humans, a number of recent studies have suggested that past climatic fluctuations played a major role in shaping current biome distributions well before humans arrived. Here, we address the question of the origin of open habitats in the Daraina region in northern Madagascar, using a multiproxy approach combining population genetics modeling and remote-sensing analyses. We show that (i) contrary to most regions of Madagascar, the forest cover in Daraina remained remarkably stable over the past 60 y, and (ii) the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), a forest-dwelling lemur, underwent a strong population contraction before the arrival of the first humans, hence excluding an anthropogenic cause. Prehuman Holocene droughts may have led to a significant increase of grasslands and a reduction in the species' habitat. This contradicts the prevailing narrative that land cover changes are necessarily anthropogenic in Madagascar but does not preclude the later role played by humans in other regions in which recent lemur bottlenecks have been observed.

  19. Genetic data suggest a natural prehuman origin of open habitats in northern Madagascar and question the deforestation narrative in this region

    PubMed Central

    Quéméré, Erwan; Amelot, Xavier; Pierson, Julie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Chikhi, Lounès

    2012-01-01

    The impact of climate change and anthropogenic deforestation on biodiversity is of growing concern worldwide. Disentangling how past anthropogenic and natural factors contributed to current biome distribution is thus a crucial issue to understand their complex interactions on wider time scales and to improve predictions and conservation strategies. This is particularly important in biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar, dominated by large open habitats whose origins are increasingly debated. Although a dominant narrative argues that Madagascar was originally entirely covered by woodlands, which were destroyed by humans, a number of recent studies have suggested that past climatic fluctuations played a major role in shaping current biome distributions well before humans arrived. Here, we address the question of the origin of open habitats in the Daraina region in northern Madagascar, using a multiproxy approach combining population genetics modeling and remote-sensing analyses. We show that (i) contrary to most regions of Madagascar, the forest cover in Daraina remained remarkably stable over the past 60 y, and (ii) the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli), a forest-dwelling lemur, underwent a strong population contraction before the arrival of the first humans, hence excluding an anthropogenic cause. Prehuman Holocene droughts may have led to a significant increase of grasslands and a reduction in the species’ habitat. This contradicts the prevailing narrative that land cover changes are necessarily anthropogenic in Madagascar but does not preclude the later role played by humans in other regions in which recent lemur bottlenecks have been observed. PMID:22826244

  20. Inheritance of silicate differentiation during lunar origin by giant impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    It is pointed out that the implication of the popular giant impact model of lunar origin (e.g., Hartmann and Davis, 1975; Cameron and Ward, 1976; Stevenson, 1987) is that any depth-related silicate differentiation within the impactor (and/or the earth) at the time of the impact must be partly inherited by the preferentially peripheral matter that forms the moon. This paper presents calculations of the magnitude of the net differentiation of the protolunar matter for a variety of elements and scenarios, with different assumptions regarding the geometries of the 'sampled' peripheral zones, the relative proportions of the earth-derived to impactor-derived matter in the final moon, and the degree to which the impactor mantle had crystallized prior to the giant impact. It is shown that these differention effects constrain the overall plausibility of the giant impact hypothesis.

  1. Origin of the Vredefort structure, South Africa: Impact model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Therriault, A. M.; Reid, A. M.; Reimold, W. U.

    1993-01-01

    A model is presented for the evolution of the Vredefort structure, based on reasoned constraints on the original size of the Vredefort structure from observational data and comparison with other terrestrial impact craters. The models for complex craters (ring and multi-ring basins) of Croft, Grieve, and co-workers, and Schultz and co-workers, were used to reconstruct the Vredefort impact event, using a final crater diameter of 300 km, as estimated by Therriault. The sequence of events (stages 2-5) is illustrated diagramatically. The stages are: initial penetration, excavation and compression, dynamic rebound and uplift, maximum radial growth and collapse, and final crater form.

  2. The Origin and Impact History of Lunar Meteorite Yamato 86032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Takeda, H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Ebihara, M.; Karouji, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Yamato (Y) 86032 is a feldspathic lunar highland breccia having some characteristics of regolith breccia. The absence of KREEP components in the matrix in Y86032 indicates that these meteorites came from a long distance from Mare Imbrium, perhaps from the far-side of the moon. One ferroan anorthosite (FAN) clast in Y86032 has a very old Ar-Ar age of approximately 4.35-4.4 Ga. The negative Nd of this clast may suggest a direct link with the primordial magma ocean. The facts indicate that Y86032 contains components derived from a protolith of the original lunar crust. Detailed petrologic characterization of each component in this breccia is essential to understand the early impact history and origin of the lunar highland crust. We made a large slab (5.2 x 3.6 cm x 3-5 mm) of Y86032 to better understand the relationship of various lithologies and their petrologic origin.

  3. The origin and emergence of life under impact bombardment

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S

    2006-01-01

    Craters formed by asteroids and comets offer a number of possibilities as sites for prebiotic chemistry, and they invite a literal application of Darwin's ‘warm little pond’. Some of these attributes, such as prolonged circulation of heated water, are found in deep-ocean hydrothermal vent systems, previously proposed as sites for prebiotic chemistry. However, impact craters host important characteristics in a single location, which include the formation of diverse metal sulphides, clays and zeolites as secondary hydrothermal minerals (which can act as templates or catalysts for prebiotic syntheses), fracturing of rock during impact (creating a large surface area for reactions), the delivery of iron in the case of the impact of iron-containing meteorites (which might itself act as a substrate for prebiotic reactions), diverse impact energies resulting in different rates of hydrothermal cooling and thus organic syntheses, and the indiscriminate nature of impacts into every available lithology—generating large numbers of ‘experiments’ in the origin of life. Following the evolution of life, craters provide cryptoendolithic and chasmoendolithic habitats, particularly in non-sedimentary lithologies, where limited pore space would otherwise restrict colonization. In impact melt sheets, shattered, mixed rocks ultimately provided diverse geochemical gradients, which in present-day craters support the growth of microbial communities. PMID:17008223

  4. A multiple-impact origin for the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufu, Raluca; Aharonson, Oded; Perets, Hagai B.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis of lunar origin by a single giant impact can explain some aspects of the Earth-Moon system. However, it is difficult to reconcile giant-impact models with the compositional similarity of the Earth and Moon without violating angular momentum constraints. Furthermore, successful giant-impact scenarios require very specific conditions such that they have a low probability of occurring. Here we present numerical simulations suggesting that the Moon could instead be the product of a succession of a variety of smaller collisions. In this scenario, each collision forms a debris disk around the proto-Earth that then accretes to form a moonlet. The moonlets tidally advance outward, and may coalesce to form the Moon. We find that sub-lunar moonlets are a common result of impacts expected onto the proto-Earth in the early Solar System and find that the planetary rotation is limited by impact angular momentum drain. We conclude that, assuming efficient merger of moonlets, a multiple-impact scenario can account for the formation of the Earth-Moon system with its present properties.

  5. The origin and emergence of life under impact bombardment.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S

    2006-10-29

    Craters formed by asteroids and comets offer a number of possibilities as sites for prebiotic chemistry, and they invite a literal application of Darwin's 'warm little pond'. Some of these attributes, such as prolonged circulation of heated water, are found in deep-ocean hydrothermal vent systems, previously proposed as sites for prebiotic chemistry. However, impact craters host important characteristics in a single location, which include the formation of diverse metal sulphides, clays and zeolites as secondary hydrothermal minerals (which can act as templates or catalysts for prebiotic syntheses), fracturing of rock during impact (creating a large surface area for reactions), the delivery of iron in the case of the impact of iron-containing meteorites (which might itself act as a substrate for prebiotic reactions), diverse impact energies resulting in different rates of hydrothermal cooling and thus organic syntheses, and the indiscriminate nature of impacts into every available lithology-generating large numbers of 'experiments' in the origin of life. Following the evolution of life, craters provide cryptoendolithic and chasmoendolithic habitats, particularly in non-sedimentary lithologies, where limited pore space would otherwise restrict colonization. In impact melt sheets, shattered, mixed rocks ultimately provided diverse geochemical gradients, which in present-day craters support the growth of microbial communities.

  6. ON A GIANT IMPACT ORIGIN OF CHARON, NIX, AND HYDRA

    SciTech Connect

    Canup, Robin M.

    2011-02-15

    It is generally believed that Charon was formed as a result of a large, grazing collision with Pluto that supplied the Pluto-Charon system with its high angular momentum. It has also been proposed that Pluto's small outer moons, Nix and Hydra, formed from debris from the Charon-forming impact, although the viability of this scenario remains unclear. Here I use smooth particle hydrodynamics impact simulations to show that it is possible to simultaneously form an intact Charon and an accompanying debris disk from a single impact. The successful cases involve colliding objects that are partially differentiated prior to impact, having thin outer ice mantles overlying a uniform composition rock-ice core. The composition of the resulting debris disks varies from a mixture of rock and ice (similar to the bulk composition of Pluto and Charon) to a pure ice disk. If Nix and Hydra were formed from such an impact-generated disk, their densities should be less than or similar to that of Charon and Pluto, and the small moons could be composed entirely of ice. If they were instead formed from captured material, a mixed rock-ice composition and densities similar to that of Charon and Pluto would be expected. Improved constraints on the properties of Nix and Hydra through occultations and/or the New Horizons encounter may thus help to distinguish between these two modes of origin, particularly if the small moons are found to have ice-like densities.

  7. Cloud Creek structure, central Wyoming, USA: Impact origin confirmed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, D. S.; Therriault, A. M.

    2003-03-01

    The circular Cloud Creek structure in central Wyoming, USA is buried beneath ~1200 m of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and has a current diameter of ~7 km. The morphology/morphometry of the structure, as defined by borehole, seismic, and gravity data, is similar to that of other buried terrestrial complex impact structures in sedimentary target rocks, e.g., Red Wing Creek in North Dakota, USA. The structure has a fault-bordered central peak with minimum diameter of ~1.4 km, composed predominantly of Paleozoic carbonates thickened by thrust faulting and brecciation, and is elevated some 520 m above equivalent strata beyond the outer rim of the structure. There is a ~1.6 km wide annular trough sloping away from the central peak (maximum structural relief, 300 m) and terminated by a detached, fault-bounded, rim anticline. The youngest rocks within the structure are Late Triassic (Norian?) clastics and these are overlain unconformably by post-impact Middle Jurassic (Bathonian?) sandstones and shales. Thus, the formation of the Cloud Creek structure is dated chronostratigraphicly as ~190 ± 20 Ma. Reported here for the first time are measurements of planar deformation features (PDFs) in shocked quartz grains in thin sections made from drill cuttings recovered in a borehole drilled at the southern perimeter of the central peak. Other, less definitive microstructures consistent with impact occur in samples collected from boreholes drilled into the central peak and rim anticline. The shock- metamorphic evidence confirms an impact origin for the Cloud Creek structure.

  8. Origin of small pits in martian impact craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, Joseph M.; Wilson, Lionel; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a numerical model for the formation of the closely-spaced pits found in the thin, ejecta-related deposits superposed on the floors, interior terrace blocks, and near-rim ejecta blankets of well-preserved martian impact craters. Our model predicts the explosive degassing of water from this pitted material, which is assumed to originally be water-bearing, impact melt-rich breccia at the time of deposition. This process is analogous to what occurred in the fall-out suevite deposits at the Ries impact structure in Germany. At Ries, impact heating of water-bearing target material resulted in the rapid degassing of its water and other volatiles. The martian environment plays an important role in enhancing the effects of this degassing by increasing the flow-speed of the escaping gas. The high flow-rate of gas through particulate materials, such as suevite, tends to quickly form segregation channels or vent pipes, similar to those found in the Ries deposits. These pipes act as conduits for the efficient high-speed escape of the gas and small clasts that it entrains. Escaping gas and entrained clasts abraded and eroded the conduit walls, flaring them to form pits above a network of pipes.

  9. Towards answering the "so what" question in marine renewables environmental impact assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degraer, Steven; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Braeckman, Ulrike; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Dannheim, Jennifer; De Mesel, Ilse; Grégoire, Marilaure; Kerckhof, Francis; Lacroix, Geneviève; Lindeboom, Han; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Van Hoey, Gert

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) projects are increasingly occupying the European North-Atlantic coasts and this is clearly observed in the North Sea. Given the expected impacts on the marine environment, each individual project is accompanied by a legally mandatory, environmental monitoring programme. These programmes are focused on the resultant effects on ecosystem component structure (e.g. species composition, numbers and densities) of single industrial projects. To date, there is a tendency to further narrow down to only a selection of ecosystem components (e.g. marine mammals and birds). While a wide knowledge-based understanding of structural impacts on (a selection of) ecosystem components exists, this evidence is largely lacking when undertaking impact assessments at the ecosystem functioning level (e.g. trophic interactions, dispersal and nutrient cycling). This critical knowledge gap compromises a scientifically-underpinned answer to the "so what" question of environmental impacts, i.e. whether the observed impacts are considered to be good or bad, or acceptable or unacceptable. The importance of ecosystem functioning is further acknowledged in the descriptors 4 and 6 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU MSFD) and is at the heart of a sustainable use and management of our marine resources. There hence is a fundamental need to focus on ecosystem functioning at the spatial scales at which marine ecosystems function when assessing MRE impacts. Here, we make a plea for an increased investment in a large (spatial) scale impact assessment of MRE projects focused on ecosystem functioning. This presentation will cover a selection of examples from North Sea MRE monitoring programmes, where the current knowledge has limited conclusions on the "so what" question. We will demonstrate how an ecosystem functioning-focused approach at an appropriate spatial scale could advance our current understanding, whilst assessing these issues. These examples will cover

  10. Evaluating an impact origin for Mercury's high-magnesium region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Elizabeth A.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Abramov, Oleg; James, Peter B.; Klima, Rachel L.; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Nittler, Larry R.

    2017-03-01

    During its four years in orbit around Mercury, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft's X-ray Spectrometer revealed a large geochemical terrane in the northern hemisphere that hosts the highest Mg/Si, S/Si, Ca/Si, and Fe/Si and lowest Al/Si ratios on the planet. Correlations with low topography, thin crust, and a sharp northern topographic boundary led to the proposal that this high-Mg region is the remnant of an ancient, highly degraded impact basin. Here we use a numerical modeling approach to explore the feasibility of this hypothesis and evaluate the results against multiple mission-wide data sets and resulting maps from MESSENGER. We find that an 3000 km diameter impact basin easily exhumes Mg-rich mantle material but that the amount of subsequent modification required to hide basin structure is incompatible with the strength of the geochemical anomaly, which is also present in maps of Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer data. Consequently, the high-Mg region is more likely to be the product of high-temperature volcanism sourced from a chemically heterogeneous mantle than the remains of a large impact event.Plain Language SummaryDuring its four years in orbit around Mercury, chemical measurements from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft revealed a large region of unusual composition relative to the rest of the planet. Its elevated magnesium abundance, in particular, led to the name of the "high-magnesium region" (HMR). High magnesium abundance in rock can be an indicator of its <span class="hlt">origin</span>, such as high-temperature volcanism. Although the HMR covers approximately 15% of Mercury's surface, its <span class="hlt">origin</span> is not obvious. It does roughly correspond to a depression with thin crust, which previously led to the hypothesis that it is an ancient <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater that was large enough to excavate mantle material, which, in rocky planets</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160005882','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160005882"><span>Testing and Resilience of the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of the Moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Righter, K.; Canup, R. M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The leading hypothesis for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Moon is the giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> model, which grew out of the post-Apollo science community. The hypothesis was able to explain the high E-M system angular momentum, the small lunar core, and consistent with the idea that the early Moon melted substantially. The standard hypothesis requires that the Moon be made entirely from the impactor, strangely at odds with the nearly identical oxygen isotopic composition of the Earth and Moon, compositions that might be expected to be different if Moon came from a distinct impactor. Subsequent geochemical research has highlighted the similarity of both geochemical and isotopic composition of the Earth and Moon, and measured small but significant amounts of volatiles in lunar glassy materials, both of which are seemingly at odds with the standard giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> model. Here we focus on key geochemical measurements and spacecraft observations that have prompted a healthy re-evaluation of the giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> model, provide an overview of physical models that are either newly proposed or slightly revised from previous ideas, to explain the new datasets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/249779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/249779"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Newporte structure, Williston basin, North Dakota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Forsman, N.F.; Gerlach, T.R.; Anderson, N.L.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The Newporte field is located just south of the United States-Canada border in Renville County, North Dakota, in the north-central portion of the Williston basin. Integration of seismic, well-log, and core data supports the interpretation of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> for the Newporte structure. The structure involves both Precambrian basement and lower Paleozoic sedimentary units. Oil and gas production began in 1977 from brecciated basement rocks along the rim of the 3.2-km-diameter circular structure. Both well logs and seismic data were used to determine thickness changes of sedimentary units overlying the structure. Resulting isopach maps reveal a circular, bowl-shaped feature with a recognizable rim. Microscopic shock metamorphic features in quartz and feldspar are visible in basement clasts that form a mixed breccia with Cambrian Deadwood sandstone within the western rim of the structure. A Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician age is suggested for the structure because of the presence of flatlying Deadwood sandstone overlying mixed basement/sandstone breccia along portions of the rim. Identification of the Newporte structure as an <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater adds to the growing base of evidence revealing the relevance of <span class="hlt">impact</span> craters to petroleum exploration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22471085','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22471085"><span>Traits, not <span class="hlt">origin</span>, explain <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of plants on larval amphibians.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cohen, Jillian S; Maerz, John C; Blossey, Bernd</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Managing habitats for the benefit of native fauna is a priority for many government and private agencies. Often, these agencies view nonnative plants as a threat to wildlife habitat, and they seek to control or eradicate nonnative plant populations. However, little is known about how nonnative plant invasions <span class="hlt">impact</span> native fauna, and it is unclear whether managing these plants actually improves habitat quality for resident animals. Here, we compared the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of native and nonnative wetland plants on three species of native larval amphibians; we also examined whether plant traits explain the observed <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Specifically, we measured plant litter quality (carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus ratios, and percentages of lignin and soluble phenolics) and biomass, along with a suite of environmental conditions known to affect larval amphibians (hydroperiod, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH). Hydroperiod and plant traits, notably soluble phenolics, litter C:N ratio, and litter N:P ratio, <span class="hlt">impacted</span> the likelihood that animals metamorphosed, the number of animals that metamorphosed, and the length of larval period. As hydroperiod decreased, the likelihood that amphibians achieved metamorphosis and the percentage of tadpoles that successfully metamorphosed also decreased. Increases in soluble phenolics, litter N:P ratio, and litter C:N ratio decreased the likelihood that tadpoles achieved metamorphosis, decreased the percentage of tadpoles metamorphosing, decreased metamorph production (total metamorph biomass), and increased the length of larval period. Interestingly, we found no difference in metamorphosis rates and length of larval period between habitats dominated by native and nonnative plants. Our findings have important implications for habitat management. We suggest that to improve habitats for native fauna, managers should focus on assembling a plant community with desirable traits rather than focusing only on plant <span class="hlt">origin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24403923','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24403923"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of guided reciprocal peer <span class="hlt">questioning</span> on nursing students' self-esteem and learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lakdizaji, Sima; Abdollahzadeh, Farahnaz; Hassankhanih, Hadi; Kalantari, Manizhe</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Self-esteem is essential for clinical judgments. Nursing students in clinical environments should make a bridge between theoretical education and clinical function. This study was aimed to survey the effect of guided <span class="hlt">questioning</span> in peer groups on nursing students' self-esteem and clinical learning. In this quasi-experimental study, all nursing students in semester 4 (60) were selected. The autumn semester students (n = 28) were chosen as the control group, and the spring semester students (n = 32) as the experimental group. The experimental group underwent the course of cardiac medical surgical training by the Guided Reciprocal Peer <span class="hlt">Questioning</span>. The control group was trained by lecture. After confirmation of the validity and reliability of tools including Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the researcher-made questionnaire, data were collected and analyzed by SPSS version 17.0. There was no significant difference concerning demographic and educational characteristics between the two groups. Mean score differences of self-esteem and learning were not significant before teaching, while they were significantly promoted after teaching in the experimental (P < 0.001) and control (P < 0.05) groups. Promotion in the experimental group was more considerable than in the control group. As revealed by the results, inquiry method, due to its more positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on self-esteem and students' learning, can be applied alone or in combination with the other methods. Conducting this study for other students and for theoretical courses is suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4931712','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4931712"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Asking Intention or Self-Prediction <span class="hlt">Questions</span> on Subsequent Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Miles, Eleanor; Sandberg, Tracy; Taylor, Natalie; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The current meta-analysis estimated the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of asking intention and self-prediction <span class="hlt">questions</span> on rates of subsequent behavior, and examined mediators and moderators of this question–behavior effect (QBE). Random-effects meta-analysis on 116 published tests of the effect indicated that intention/prediction <span class="hlt">questions</span> have a small positive effect on behavior (d+ = 0.24). Little support was observed for attitude accessibility, cognitive dissonance, behavioral simulation, or processing fluency explanations of the QBE. Multivariate analyses indicated significant effects of social desirability of behavior/behavior domain (larger effects for more desirable and less risky behaviors), difficulty of behavior (larger effects for easy-to-perform behaviors), and sample type (larger effects among student samples). Although this review controls for co-occurrence of moderators in multivariate analyses, future primary research should systematically vary moderators in fully factorial designs. Further primary research is also needed to unravel the mechanisms underlying different variants of the QBE. PMID:26162771</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030063269&hterms=impact+surroundings&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dimpact%2Bsurroundings','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030063269&hterms=impact+surroundings&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dimpact%2Bsurroundings"><span>Early Archean Spherule Beds-Confirmation of <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shukolyukov, A.; Kyte, F. T.; Lugmair, G. W.; Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The oldest record of major <span class="hlt">impact</span> events on Earth may be a number of early Archean (3.5 to 3.2 Ga) spherule beds that have been identified in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Several field, petrographic, and geochemical criteria distinguish these beds from typical volcanic and clastic sediments. These criteria include the wide geographic distribution of two beds in a variety of depositional environments, the presence of relict quench textures, absence of juvenile volcaniclastic debris within the beds, and extreme enrichment of Ir and other platinum group elements (PGE) as compared to surrounding sediments. Some researchers, however, argued for a terrestrial <span class="hlt">origin</span> for spherule bed formation, possibly related to volcanism and gold mineralization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2847396','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2847396"><span>The <span class="hlt">origins</span> and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of primate segmental duplications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Girirajan, Santhosh; Eichler, Evan E.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Duplicated sequences are substrates for the emergence of new genes and are an important source of genetic instability associated with rare and common diseases. Analyses of primate genomes have shown an increase in the proportion of interspersed segmental duplications (SDs) within the genomes of humans and great apes. This contrasts with other mammalian genomes that seem to have their recently duplicated sequences organized in a tandem configuration. In this review, we focus on the mechanistic <span class="hlt">origin</span> and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of this difference with respect to evolution, genetic diversity and primate phenotype. Although many genomes will be sequenced in the future, resolution of this aspect of genomic architecture still requires high quality sequences and detailed analyses. PMID:19796838</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23272598','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23272598"><span>The Savannah hypotheses: <span class="hlt">origin</span>, reception and <span class="hlt">impact</span> on paleoanthropology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bender, Renato; Tobias, Phillip V; Bender, Nicole</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The reconstruction of the human past is a complex task characterized by a high level of interdisciplinarity. How do scientists from different fields reach consensus on crucial aspects of paleoanthropological research? The present paper explores this <span class="hlt">question</span> through an historical analysis of the <span class="hlt">origin</span>, development, and reception of the savannah hypotheses (SHs). We show that this model neglected to investigate crucial biological aspects which appeared to be irrelevant in scenarios depicting early hominins evolving in arid or semi-arid open plains. For instance, the exploitation of aquatic food resources and other aspects of hominin interaction with water were largely ignored in classical paleoanthropology. These topics became central to alternative ideas on human evolution known as aquatic hypotheses. Since the aquatic model is commonly regarded as highly controversial, its rejection led to a stigmatization of the whole spectrum of topics around water use in non-human hominoids and hominins. We argue that this bias represents a serious hindrance to a comprehensive reconstruction of the human past. Progress in this field depends on clear differentiation between hypotheses proposed to contextualize early hominin evolution in specific environmental settings and research topics which demand the investigation of all relevant facets of early hominins' interaction with complex landscapes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29Q.532S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29Q.532S"><span>Do the Ubangui diamonds <span class="hlt">originate</span> from a giant <span class="hlt">impact</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shelkov, D.; Milledge, H. J.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Hutchison, R.; Collinson, D. W.; Pillinger, C. T.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Carbonado wa first recognized as a form of polycrystalline diamond as long ago as the 1840s, when it was discovered and mined as a placer mineral in Brazil. It is now known from a number of other sources, where it is colloquially known as 'carbons.' Common to all these samples is the fact that they occur in alluvial deposits far from primary diamond-bearing rocks such as kimberlite and lamporite. Several authors have suggested that carbonado might have a crustal <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Recently, it has been proposed that a magnetic anomaly spread over 700,000 sq km of Central Africa might be interpreted as a crater formed by an <span class="hlt">impact</span> that occurred in sedimentary rocks during Precambrian times; if authenticated this would be the largest <span class="hlt">impact</span> feature recognized to date. Such a hypothesis makes the investigation of Ubangui diamonds and other carbonados worhtwhile. We considered isotopic systematics and other properties of a variety of intact Ubangui carbons. Because of their importance as grinding and polishing materials microcrystalline diamonds are usually crushed before marketing; the stones we obtained were not and showed a surface rind with a texture very reminiscent of a fusion crust. We have now made C isotopic measurements on five approximately centimeter-sized specimens. We have also begun to study N and its isotopes in carbonados. The results were comparable to data obtained for Brazilian carbonados. So far we have not detected any differences for N between the heavy C diamond and the rest of our samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26273938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26273938"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Multifaceted <span class="hlt">Questions</span> on Eyewitness Accuracy Following Forced Fabrication Interviews.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chrobak, Quin M; Rindal, Eric J; Zaragoza, Maria S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lawyers will frequently use complex-<span class="hlt">question</span> forms, such as multifaceted <span class="hlt">questions</span> (single <span class="hlt">questions</span> that contain both a true and a false proposition), when cross-examining witnesses, and prior research has shown that use of such <span class="hlt">questions</span> reduces testimonial accuracy. The present study extends this research by using a forced fabrication paradigm (Chrobak & Zaragoza, 2008) to assess how multifaceted <span class="hlt">questions</span> might affect eyewitness suggestibility after exposure to misleading post-event information. Consistent with prior studies, the use of multifaceted <span class="hlt">questions</span> led to lower accuracy than simple <span class="hlt">questions</span>. The novel finding was that multifaceted <span class="hlt">questions</span> caused larger impairments in performance among fabrication participants (who had earlier been suggestively interviewed), than in control participants (who had not). We also provide preliminary evidence that the impairment caused by multifaceted <span class="hlt">questions</span> is due to both (a) having to consider two propositions simultaneously, and (b) the shift in <span class="hlt">question</span> focus from the fabricated event to a true event.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8138B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.8138B"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span>, extend and health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of air pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, Susanne E.; Mezuman, Keren; Longo, Karla; da Silva, Arlindo</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Southern Africa produces about a third of the Earth's biomass burning aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles, their <span class="hlt">origin</span>, chemical composition and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. These research <span class="hlt">questions</span> motivated the NASA field campaign ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS). ORACLES is a five year investigation with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP) designed to study key processes that determine the climate <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of African biomass burning aerosols. The first IOP has been carried out in 2016. The main focus of the field campaign are aerosol-cloud interactions, however in our first study related to this area we will investigate the aerosol plume itself, its <span class="hlt">origin</span>, extend and its resulting health <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Here we will discuss results using the global mesoscale model NASA GEOS-5 in conjunction with the NASA GISS-E2 climate model to investigate climate and health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that are directly related to the anthropogenic fire activities in Sub-Saharan Africa. Focus will be on the SH winter seasons biomass burning events, its contribution to Sub-Saharan air pollution in relationship to other air-pollution sources and its resulting premature mortality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Indian+AND+traditions&pg=5&id=EJ904572','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Indian+AND+traditions&pg=5&id=EJ904572"><span>"The <span class="hlt">Question</span> Which Has Puzzled, and Still Puzzles": How American Indian Authors Challenged Dominant Discourse about Native American <span class="hlt">Origins</span> in the Nineteenth Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Howey, Meghan C. L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the ways American Indian authors, particularly three contemporary Anishinaabeg writers, engaged with the <span class="hlt">question</span> of Native American <span class="hlt">origins</span> during the racially polarized project of "imagining" the nation of the United States throughout the 19th century. In this article, the author argues that American Indian…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED254538.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED254538.pdf"><span>Treatment of Scores of <span class="hlt">Questionable</span> Validity: The <span class="hlt">Origins</span> and Development of the ETS Board of Review--ETS Archives Occasional Paper.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Saretzky, Gary D.</p> <p></p> <p>This report provides historical background on the <span class="hlt">origins</span>, development and procedures, of Educational Testing Service's (ETS's) Board of Review. Established in 1969, the Board of Review makes final decisions for all test scores of <span class="hlt">questionable</span> validity. ETS cancels or withholds scores believed to be invalid. Reasons for invalid scores range from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20160115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20160115"><span>The Murray Springs Clovis site, Pleistocene extinction, and the <span class="hlt">question</span> of extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haynes, C Vance; Boerner, J; Domanik, K; Lauretta, D; Ballenger, J; Goreva, J</p> <p>2010-03-02</p> <p>Some of the evidence for the recent hypothesis of an extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">impact</span> that caused late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions [Firestone et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:16016-16021] was based upon samples collected at Murray Springs, a Clovis archaeological site in southeastern Arizona. Here we describe sampling and analyses of magnetic separates from within, above, and below the lower Younger Dryas boundary (LYDB) black mat at Murray Springs, as well as radiation measurements from the LYDB at Murray Springs and two other well-stratified Clovis sites. The main magnetic fraction at Murray Springs is maghemite. Magnetic microspherules have terrestrial <span class="hlt">origins</span> but also occur as cosmic dust particles. We failed to find iridium or radiation anomalies. The evidence for massive biomass burning at Murray Springs is addressed and found to be lacking. We could not substantiate some of the claims by Firestone and others, but our findings do not preclude a terminal Pleistocene cosmic event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2840150','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2840150"><span>The Murray Springs Clovis site, Pleistocene extinction, and the <span class="hlt">question</span> of extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Haynes, C. Vance; Boerner, J.; Domanik, K.; Lauretta, D.; Ballenger, J.; Goreva, J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Some of the evidence for the recent hypothesis of an extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">impact</span> that caused late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions [Firestone et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:16016–16021] was based upon samples collected at Murray Springs, a Clovis archaeological site in southeastern Arizona. Here we describe sampling and analyses of magnetic separates from within, above, and below the lower Younger Dryas boundary (LYDB) black mat at Murray Springs, as well as radiation measurements from the LYDB at Murray Springs and two other well-stratified Clovis sites. The main magnetic fraction at Murray Springs is maghemite. Magnetic microspherules have terrestrial <span class="hlt">origins</span> but also occur as cosmic dust particles. We failed to find iridium or radiation anomalies. The evidence for massive biomass burning at Murray Springs is addressed and found to be lacking. We could not substantiate some of the claims by Firestone and others, but our findings do not preclude a terminal Pleistocene cosmic event. PMID:20160115</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522635','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522635"><span>A One-Day Dental Faculty Workshop in Writing Multiple-Choice <span class="hlt">Questions</span>: An <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Evaluation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>AlFaris, Eiad; Naeem, Naghma; Irfan, Farhana; Qureshi, Riaz; Saad, Hussain; Al Sadhan, Ra'ed; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Van der Vleuten, Cees</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Long training workshops on the writing of exam <span class="hlt">questions</span> have been shown to be effective; however, the effectiveness of short workshops needs to be demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of a one-day, seven-hour faculty development workshop at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, on the quality of multiple-choice <span class="hlt">questions</span> (MCQs). Kirkpatrick's four-level evaluation model was used. Participants' satisfaction (Kirkpatrick's Level 1) was evaluated with a post-workshop questionnaire. A quasi-experimental, randomized separate sample, pretest-posttest design was used to assess the learning effect (Kirkpatrick's Level 2). To evaluate transfer of learning to practice (Kirkpatrick's Level 3), MCQs created by ten faculty members as a result of the training were assessed. To assess Kirkpatrick's Level 4 regarding institutional change, interviews with three key leaders of the school were conducted, coded, and analyzed. A total of 72 course directors were invited to and attended some part of the workshop; all 52 who attended the entire workshop completed the satisfaction form; and 22 of the 36 participants in the experimental group completed the posttest. The results showed that all 52 participants were highly satisfied with the workshop, and significant positive changes were found in the faculty members' knowledge and the quality of their MCQs with effect sizes of 0.7 and 0.28, respectively. At the institutional level, the interviews demonstrated positive structural changes in the school's assessment system. Overall, this one-day item-writing faculty workshop resulted in positive changes at all four of Kirkpatrick's levels; these effects suggest that even a short training session can improve a dental school's assessment of its students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P23A1751Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.P23A1751Z"><span>An <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Origin</span> for Surface Minerals on Ceres</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zolotov, M. Y.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The dwarf planet Ceres is the largest body in the main asteroid belt with a hydrated dark rocky surface and an uncertain internal structure [1,2]. Spectra of Ceres in the near- and mid-infrared ranges show that surface materials may not contain abundant serpentine, saponite, sulfates, olivine, pyroxenes, and organic matter [2,3], which are common in carbonaceous chondrites. However, brucite, Mg carbonates, cronstedtite, and magnetite could be abundant and indicate aqueous processes [2,3]. The formation of abundant brucite, carbonates, and cronstedtite requires open-system low-temperature conditions characterized by elevated water/rock ratios and low fugacities of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The observed mineralogy is more consistent with a near-surface <span class="hlt">origin</span> than with a formation within Ceres or on planetesimals. The instability of aqueous solutions at the surface of Ceres implies mineral deposition during transient events of fluidal activity. But a warming of near-surface rocks by thermal processes in the interior requires dehydration of rocks, which is not consistent with the low density of Ceres. The lack of low-solubility sulfates in surface materials does not indicate percolation of interior fluids. Carbonate-bearing fluids may not percolate to the cold surface, especially if Ceres had undergone water-rock differentiation [1,4]. The lack of serpentine in surface materials does not indicate a formation of brucite through aqueous alteration of olivine-rich rocks. Though, the observed minerals could form in <span class="hlt">impact</span> collisions of ice-rich targets and/or impactors. OH-bearing phases may condense from water-rich <span class="hlt">impact</span> plumes [5]. Brucite and Mg carbonates could form through hydrolysis and carbonation of condensed MgO formed through evaporation of silicates. Apparently abundant carbonates may indicate an ample oxidation of organics. Ferric iron in magnetite and cronstedtite agrees with water-rich and oxidizing <span class="hlt">impact</span> settings [5]. Turbulent and disequilibrium</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11541098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11541098"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> of tektites: an alternative to terrestrial <span class="hlt">impact</span> theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Izokh, E P</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Theory (TIT) has won a complete victory over O'Keefe's lunar volcanic theory, but only because the Moon appears to be the wrong place for tektites. Indeed, the TIT ignores strong evidence of their volcanic <span class="hlt">origin</span>--far from the Moon. The Extraterrestrial Volcanic Comet Theory proposes an alternative to both of these theories. Major arguments for an extraterrestrial tektite source are paradoxical: a great time difference between tektite formation and their arrival on Earth, and also forms, plastic deformations, ice collision marks, vacuum voids, etc. indicating specific conditions of tektite formation such as low gravitational field, lack of atmosphere, interaction of hot plastic tektites with ice, etc. Major evidence of volcanic <span class="hlt">origin</span> includes: close analogy between shaped tektites and small volcanic bombs, and between layered tektites and lava or tuff-lava flows or huge bombs; analogy between flanged tektites and volcanic bombs ablated by gasjets: long-time, multistage formation of some tektites that corresponds to wide variations in their radiometric ages; well-ordered long compositional trends (series) typical of magmatic differentiation; different compositional tektite families (subseries) comparable to different stages (phases) of the volcanic process. Thus, different types of volcanic eruptions under extraterrestrial conditions could be reconstructed based on tektite properties. It is presumed that tektites were transported to the Earth by specific eruptive comets, i.e. in the form of ice-tektite agglomerates launched into space by volcanic explosion. Major arguments favouring comets include: ice collision marks and imprints as mentioned above; linear band-like sculpture of the Australasian strewn field as evidence of comet fragmentation and slope or skipping trajectory of separate fragments; compact coincidence of the Zhamanshin <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater with small tektite strewn field as evidence of steep trajectory of separate comet fragments</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=deep+AND+first+AND+search&id=EJ823156','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=deep+AND+first+AND+search&id=EJ823156"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Question</span>-Answering Tasks on Search Processes and Reading Comprehension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cerdan, Raquel; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martinez, Tomas; Gilabert, Ramiro; Gil, Laura</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the effect of (a) high- and low-level <span class="hlt">questions</span> and (b) reading the text before the <span class="hlt">questions</span> asked on performance, delayed text recall, and deep text comprehension, as well as on specific text-inspection patterns. Participants were 37 undergraduate students who answered either high- or low-level <span class="hlt">questions</span> using the software…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1017292.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1017292.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a <span class="hlt">Question</span>-Embedded Video-Based Learning Tool on E-Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vural, Omer Faruk</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this study, it is mainly focused on investigating the effect of <span class="hlt">question</span>-embedded online interactive video environment on student achievement. A quasi-experimental design was development to compare the effectiveness of a <span class="hlt">question</span>-embedded interactive video environment (QVE) and an interactive video environment without the <span class="hlt">question</span> component…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=advance+AND+search&pg=4&id=EJ823156','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=advance+AND+search&pg=4&id=EJ823156"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Question</span>-Answering Tasks on Search Processes and Reading Comprehension</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cerdan, Raquel; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martinez, Tomas; Gilabert, Ramiro; Gil, Laura</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the effect of (a) high- and low-level <span class="hlt">questions</span> and (b) reading the text before the <span class="hlt">questions</span> asked on performance, delayed text recall, and deep text comprehension, as well as on specific text-inspection patterns. Participants were 37 undergraduate students who answered either high- or low-level <span class="hlt">questions</span> using the software…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510253G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510253G"><span>Soil moisture-precipitation coupling: observations <span class="hlt">question</span> an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on precipitation occurrence in North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guillod, Benoit P.; Orlowsky, Boris; Miralles, Diego; Dolman, Han; Reichstein, Markus; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Van den Hurk, Bart; Buchmann, Nina; Seneviratne, Sonia I.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The coupling between soil moisture and convective precipitation through indirect mechanisms (e.g. boundary-layer growth and convection triggering) remains a key challenge out of numerous aspects on the interactions between the land surface and precipitation. In particular, how surface turbulent fluxes (sensible, latent heat fluxes and their partitioning) <span class="hlt">impact</span> the occurrence of rainfall is poorly understood, due to the number and diversity of the processes involved. Here we explore the relationship between Evaporative Fraction (EF) and precipitation occurrence on the daily time scale. We apply a recently developed method (Findell et al., 2011) to observational data in North America: EF derived from FLUXNET sites and from GLEAM (satellite-based estimates), and radar precipitation data from NEXRAD. We then compare the resulting estimate of land-precipitation coupling to the NARR reanalysis (North American Regional Reanalysis). While a strong relationship is found in NARR, observations do not confirm a strong <span class="hlt">impact</span> of EF on precipitation occurrence (i.e., no significant coupling is found). Further analyses show that, while precipitation data from NARR and NEXRAD agree well, EF data from the different sources differ widely and lead to different coupling. This <span class="hlt">questions</span> the existence of a positive coupling between EF and precipitation occurrence in North America and highlights the need for more reliable datasets of high spatial and temporal resolution to fully quantify the strength of such land-surface atmosphere coupling. References: Findell, K. L., P. Gentine, B. R. Lintner, and C. Kerr. 2011. Probability of afternoon precipitation in eastern United States and Mexico enhanced by high evaporation. Nature Geosci, 4, 434-439.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28806979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28806979"><span>Breath-giving cooperation: critical review of <span class="hlt">origin</span> of mitochondria hypotheses : Major unanswered <span class="hlt">questions</span> point to the importance of early ecology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zachar, István; Szathmáry, Eörs</p> <p>2017-08-14</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">origin</span> of mitochondria is a unique and hard evolutionary problem, embedded within the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of eukaryotes. The puzzle is challenging due to the egalitarian nature of the transition where lower-level units took over energy metabolism. Contending theories widely disagree on ancestral partners, initial conditions and unfolding of events. There are many open <span class="hlt">questions</span> but there is no comparative examination of hypotheses. We have specified twelve <span class="hlt">questions</span> about the observable facts and hidden processes leading to the establishment of the endosymbiont that a valid hypothesis must address. We have objectively compared contending hypotheses under these <span class="hlt">questions</span> to find the most plausible course of events and to draw insight on missing pieces of the puzzle. Since endosymbiosis borders evolution and ecology, and since a realistic theory has to comply with both domains' constraints, the conclusion is that the most important aspect to clarify is the initial ecological relationship of partners. Metabolic benefits are largely irrelevant at this initial phase, where ecological costs could be more disruptive. There is no single theory capable of answering all <span class="hlt">questions</span> indicating a severe lack of ecological considerations. A new theory, compliant with recent phylogenomic results, should adhere to these criteria. This article was reviewed by Michael W. Gray, William F. Martin and Purificación López-García.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ843854.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ843854.pdf"><span>On-Line Mathematics Assessment: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Mode on Performance and <span class="hlt">Question</span> Answering Strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Martin; Green, Sylvia</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The transition from paper-based to computer-based assessment raises a number of important issues about how mode might affect children's performance and <span class="hlt">question</span> answering strategies. In this project 104 eleven-year-olds were given two sets of matched mathematics <span class="hlt">questions</span>, one set on-line and the other on paper. Facility values were analyzed to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1143536.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1143536.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Teacher <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> on Creating Interaction in EFL: A Discourse Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Al-Zahrani, Mona Yousef; Al-Bargi, Abdullah</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This study examines the effect of <span class="hlt">questions</span> on fostering interaction in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. It also seeks to determine the characteristics of <span class="hlt">questions</span> that promote increased classroom interaction. Data were collected through video recordings of EFL classrooms which were analyzed using Discourse Analysis techniques.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Socrates&pg=3&id=EJ891894','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Socrates&pg=3&id=EJ891894"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> the <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Historical accounts of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic <span class="hlt">questions</span> to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=socrates&pg=3&id=EJ891894','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=socrates&pg=3&id=EJ891894"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> the <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Historical accounts of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic <span class="hlt">questions</span> to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=socrates&pg=7&id=EJ865408','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=socrates&pg=7&id=EJ865408"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> the <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Well-known historical accounts of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use <span class="hlt">questions</span> as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004E%26PSL.226..529O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004E%26PSL.226..529O"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> melt rocks from the Ries structure, Germany: an <span class="hlt">origin</span> as <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt flows?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Osinski, Gordon R.</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>The production of <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt rocks and glasses is a characteristic feature of hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> events on Earth and other planetary bodies. This investigation represents the first detailed study of an unusual series of coherent <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt rocks intermittently exposed around the periphery of the ~24-km diameter, ~14.5 Ma Ries <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure, Germany. Optical and analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveals that the groundmass comprises sanidine, plagioclase, quartz and ilmenite (decreasing order of abundance) with the interstices filled by either fresh or devitrified glassy mesostasis. Primary crystallites display skeletal, dendritic and/or spherulitic textures indicating rapid crystallization from a melt. The mesostasis is characterized by extreme chemical heterogeneity (e.g., FeO and Al 2O 3 contents from ~1 to ~62-80 wt.%). This is likely due to a combination of crystal-liquid fractionation during rapid cooling and crystallization of an <span class="hlt">originally</span> incompletely homogenized melt. Vapor phase crystallization of sanidine and cristobalite occurred in miarolitic cavities during late-stage cooling of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> melts. The most likely protolith for the <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt rocks are granitic rocks present in the crystalline basement target. The high volatile content of the mesostasis suggests that a large volatile component was retained from this protolith. Field observations together with analytical data and micro-textures indicate that the Ries <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt rocks were molten at the time of, and after, deposition. Field relations with other impactites also suggest that these rocks were emplaced subsequent to the excavation stage of crater formation and that they are not, therefore, ballistic ejecta. Thus, it is proposed that the Ries <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt rocks were emplaced as ground-hugging <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt flows that emanated from different regions of the evolving transient cavity during the modification stage of crater formation. This is consistent with, and in fact</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27723776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27723776"><span>Positive vs. Negative: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Question</span> Polarity in Voting Advice Applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holleman, Bregje; Kamoen, Naomi; Krouwel, André; Pol, Jasper van de; Vreese, Claes de</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Online Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are survey-like instruments that help citizens to shape their political preferences and compare them with those of political parties. Especially in multi-party democracies, their increasing popularity indicates that VAAs play an important role in opinion formation for citizens, as well as in the public debate prior to elections. Hence, the objectivity and transparency of VAAs are crucial. In the design of VAAs, many choices have to be made. Extant research in survey methodology shows that the seemingly arbitrary choice to word <span class="hlt">questions</span> positively (e.g., 'The city council should allow cars into the city centre') or negatively ('The city council should ban cars from the city centre') systematically affects the answers. This asymmetry in answers is in line with work on negativity bias in other areas of linguistics and psychology. Building on these findings, this study investigated whether <span class="hlt">question</span> polarity also affects the answers to VAA statements. In a field experiment (N = 31,112) during the Dutch municipal elections we analysed the effects of polarity for 16 out of 30 VAA statements with a large variety of linguistic contrasts. Analyses show a significant effect of <span class="hlt">question</span> wording for <span class="hlt">questions</span> containing a wide range of implicit negations (such as 'forbid' vs. 'allow'), as well as for <span class="hlt">questions</span> with explicit negations (e.g., 'not'). These effects of <span class="hlt">question</span> polarity are found especially for VAA users with lower levels of political sophistication. As these citizens are an important target group for Voting Advice Applications, this stresses the need for VAA builders to be sensitive to wording choices when designing VAAs. This study is the first to show such consistent wording effects not only for political attitude <span class="hlt">questions</span> with implicit negations in VAAs, but also for political <span class="hlt">questions</span> containing explicit negations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5056712','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5056712"><span>Positive vs. Negative: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Question</span> Polarity in Voting Advice Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krouwel, André; van de Pol, Jasper; de Vreese, Claes</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Online Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) are survey-like instruments that help citizens to shape their political preferences and compare them with those of political parties. Especially in multi-party democracies, their increasing popularity indicates that VAAs play an important role in opinion formation for citizens, as well as in the public debate prior to elections. Hence, the objectivity and transparency of VAAs are crucial. In the design of VAAs, many choices have to be made. Extant research in survey methodology shows that the seemingly arbitrary choice to word <span class="hlt">questions</span> positively (e.g., ‘The city council should allow cars into the city centre’) or negatively (‘The city council should ban cars from the city centre’) systematically affects the answers. This asymmetry in answers is in line with work on negativity bias in other areas of linguistics and psychology. Building on these findings, this study investigated whether <span class="hlt">question</span> polarity also affects the answers to VAA statements. In a field experiment (N = 31,112) during the Dutch municipal elections we analysed the effects of polarity for 16 out of 30 VAA statements with a large variety of linguistic contrasts. Analyses show a significant effect of <span class="hlt">question</span> wording for <span class="hlt">questions</span> containing a wide range of implicit negations (such as ‘forbid’ vs. ‘allow’), as well as for <span class="hlt">questions</span> with explicit negations (e.g., ‘not’). These effects of <span class="hlt">question</span> polarity are found especially for VAA users with lower levels of political sophistication. As these citizens are an important target group for Voting Advice Applications, this stresses the need for VAA builders to be sensitive to wording choices when designing VAAs. This study is the first to show such consistent wording effects not only for political attitude <span class="hlt">questions</span> with implicit negations in VAAs, but also for political <span class="hlt">questions</span> containing explicit negations. PMID:27723776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25938336','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25938336"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of definition and <span class="hlt">question</span> order on the prevalence of bullying victimization using student self-reports.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huang, Francis L; Cornell, Dewey G</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Accurate measurement is essential to determining the prevalence of bullying and evaluating the effectiveness of intervention efforts. The most common measurement approach is through anonymous self-report surveys, but previous studies have suggested that students do not adhere to standard definitions of bullying and may be influenced by the order of <span class="hlt">questions</span> about types of victimization. In the current study, we have presented findings from 2 randomized experiments designed to determine (a) the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of using or not using a definition of bullying and (b) asking about general versus specific types of bullying victimization and how the order of these <span class="hlt">questions</span> affects victimization-prevalence rates. The study was conducted using a sample of 17,301 students attending 119 high schools. Findings indicate that the use of a definition had no <span class="hlt">impact</span> on prevalence rates, but asking specific bullying-victimization <span class="hlt">questions</span> (e.g., "I have been verbally bullied at school") prior to general bullying-victimization <span class="hlt">questions</span> (e.g., "I have been bullied at school"), resulted in a 29-76% increase in victimization-prevalence rates. Results suggest that surveys that ask general-to-specific bullying-victimization <span class="hlt">questions</span>, such as those found in national and international surveys, may be underreporting bullying victimization. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28485987','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28485987"><span>Assessing self-reported use of new psychoactive substances: The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of gate <span class="hlt">questions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palamar, Joseph J; Acosta, Patricia; Calderón, Fermín Fernández; Sherman, Scott; Cleland, Charles M</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>New psychoactive substances (NPS) continue to emerge; however, few surveys of substance use ask about NPS use. Research is needed to determine how to most effectively query use of NPS and other uncommon drugs. To determine whether prevalence of self-reported lifetime and past-year use differs depending on whether or not queries about NPS use are preceded by "gate <span class="hlt">questions</span>." Gate <span class="hlt">questions</span> utilize skip-logic, such that only a "yes" response to the use of specific drug class is followed by more extensive queries of drug use in that drug class. We surveyed 1,048 nightclub and dance festival attendees (42.6% female) entering randomly selected venues in New York City in 2016. Participants were randomized to gate vs. no gate <span class="hlt">question</span> before each drug category. Analyses focus on eight categories classifying 145 compounds: NBOMe, 2C, DOx, "bath salts" (synthetic cathinones), other stimulants, tryptamines, dissociatives, and non-phenethylamine psychedelics. Participants, however, were asked about specific "bath salts" regardless of their response to the gate <span class="hlt">question</span> to test reliability. We examined whether prevalence of use of each category differed by gate condition and whether gate effects were moderated by participant demographics. Prevalence of use of DOx, other stimulants, and non-phenethylamine psychedelics was higher without a gate <span class="hlt">question</span>. Gate effects for other stimulants and non-phenethylamine psychedelics were larger among white participants and those attending parties less frequently. Almost one in ten (9.3%) participants reporting no "bath salt" use via the gate <span class="hlt">question</span> later reported use of a "bath salt" such as mephedrone, methedrone, or methylone. Omitting gate <span class="hlt">questions</span> may improve accuracy of data collected via self-report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28936527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28936527"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> of spray formation during <span class="hlt">impact</span> on heated surfaces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Limbeek, Michiel A J; Hoefnagels, Paul B J; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef</p> <p>2017-09-22</p> <p>In many applications, it is crucial to control the heat transfer rate of <span class="hlt">impacting</span> drops on a heated plate. When the solid exceeds the so-called Leidenfrost temperature, an <span class="hlt">impacting</span> drop is prevented from contacting the plate by its own evaporation. But the decrease in the resulting cooling efficiency of the <span class="hlt">impacting</span> drop is yet not quantitatively understood. Here, we experimentally study the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of such water drops on smooth heated surfaces of various substances. We demonstrate that, in contrast to previous results for other liquids, water exhibits spray in the vertical direction when <span class="hlt">impacting</span> sapphire and silicon. We show that this typical spray formation during <span class="hlt">impact</span> is a result of the local cooling of the plate. This is surprising since these two materials were considered to remain isothermal during the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of mm-sized droplets. We conclude and explain that the thermal time scale of the system is not solely determined by the thermal properties of the solid, but also by those of the liquid. We also introduce a dimensionless number comparing the thermal time scale and the dynamic time scale with which we can predict the spraying behaviour at <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1160324','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1160324"><span>Unreviewed Disposal <span class="hlt">Question</span> Evaluation: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of New Information since 2008 PA on Current Low-Level Solid Waste Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Flach, G.; Smith, F.; Hamm, L.; Butcher, T.</p> <p>2014-10-06</p> <p>Solid low-level waste disposal operations are controlled in part by an E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) that was completed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in 2008 (WSRC 2008). Since this baseline analysis, new information pertinent to disposal operations has been identified as a natural outcome of ongoing PA maintenance activities and continuous improvement in model simulation techniques (Flach 2013). An Unreviewed Disposal <span class="hlt">Question</span> (UDQ) Screening (Attachment 1) has been initiated regarding the continued ability of the ELLWF to meet Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 performance objectives in light of new PA items and data identified since completion of the <span class="hlt">original</span> UDQ Evaluation (UDQE). The present UDQE assesses the ability of Solid Waste (SW) to meet performance objectives by estimating the influence of new information items on a recent sum-of-fractions (SOF) snapshot for each currently active E-Area low-level waste disposal unit. A final SOF, as <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by this new information, is projected based on the assumptions that the current disposal limits, Waste Information Tracking System (WITS) administrative controls, and waste stream composition remain unchanged through disposal unit operational closure (Year 2025). Revision 1 of this UDQE addresses the following new PA items and data identified since completion of the <span class="hlt">original</span> UDQE report in 2013: New K<sub>d</sub> values for iodine, radium and uranium; Elimination of cellulose degradation product (CDP) factors; Updated radionuclide data; Changes in transport behavior of mobile radionuclides; Potential delay in interim closure beyond 2025; and Component-in-grout (CIG) plume interaction correction. Consideration of new information relative to the 2008 PA baseline generally indicates greater confidence that PA performance objectives will be met than indicated by current SOF metrics. For SLIT9, the previous prohibition of non-crushable containers in revision 0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23253665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23253665"><span>Values in translation: how asking the right <span class="hlt">questions</span> can move translational science toward greater health <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kelley, Maureen; Edwards, Kelly; Starks, Helene; Fullerton, Stephanie M; James, Rosalina; Goering, Sara; Holland, Suzanne; Disis, Mary L; Burke, Wylie</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The speed and effectiveness of current approaches to research translation are widely viewed as disappointing given small gains in real population health outcomes despite huge investments in basic and translational science. We identify critical value <span class="hlt">questions</span>-ethical, social, economic, and cultural-that arise at moments throughout the research pathway. By making these <span class="hlt">questions</span> visible, and promoting discussion of them with diverse stakeholders, we can facilitate handoffs along the translational pathway and increase uptake of effective interventions. Who is involved with those discussions will determine which research projects, populations, and methods get prioritized. We argue that some upfront investment in community and interdisciplinary engagement, shaped by familiar <span class="hlt">questions</span> in ethics, social justice, and cultural knowledge, can save time and resources in the long run because interventions and strategies will be aimed in the right direction, that is, toward health improvements for all.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26481458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26481458"><span>Satellite RNA pathogens of plants: <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and <span class="hlt">origins</span>-an RNA silencing perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Ming-Bo; Smith, Neil A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Viral satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are among the smallest RNA pathogens in plants. They have little or no protein-coding capacity but can have a major <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the host plants through trilateral interactions with helper viruses and host plants. Studies around the 1980s revealed much of what we know about satRNAs: they can affect helper virus accumulation, modulate helper virus-induced disease symptoms, and induce their own symptoms with the assistance of helper viruses which depend on specific nucleotide sequences of their genome and host species. The molecular basis of these satRNA-caused <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of satRNAs have yet to be fully understood and revealed, but recent understanding of the antiviral RNA silencing pathways and advancement in RNA and DNA sequencing technologies have provided new avenues and opportunities to examine these unanswered <span class="hlt">questions</span>. These RNA silencing-based studies have revealed the existence of cross silencing between some satRNAs and helper viruses, the downregulation of helper virus-encoded suppressor (VSR) of RNA silencing or inhibition/enhancement of VSR activity by satRNAs, the silencing of host-encoded genes by satRNA-derived small interfering RNA (siRNAs), and the presence of satRNA-like small RNAs in uninfected host plants. These findings have provided alternative RNA silencing-based models to explain the pathogenicity and <span class="hlt">origin</span> of satRNAs. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:5-16. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1311 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=oto&id=EJ884462','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=oto&id=EJ884462"><span>On the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Adaptive Test <span class="hlt">Question</span> Selection for Learning Efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barla, Michal; Bielikova, Maria; Ezzeddinne, Anna Bou; Kramar, Tomas; Simko, Marian; Vozar, Oto</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we present a method for adaptive selection of test <span class="hlt">questions</span> according to the individual needs of students within a web-based educational system. It functions as a combination of three particular methods. The first method is based on the course structure and focuses on the selection of the most appropriate topic for learning. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AP+AND+us+AND+history&pg=2&id=EJ648153','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=AP+AND+us+AND+history&pg=2&id=EJ648153"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Document-Based <span class="hlt">Question</span> on the Teaching of United States History.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rothschild, Eric</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Provides historical information on the Document-Based <span class="hlt">Question</span> (DBQ) that has been a part of the Advanced Placement (AP) U.S. history examination since 1973. Focuses on the effects that DBQ had on course content and teaching methods. Addresses the new changes made with the redesign of the DBQ in 1982. (CMK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=structure+AND+ice&pg=2&id=EJ899789','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=structure+AND+ice&pg=2&id=EJ899789"><span>Students' <span class="hlt">Questions</span> and Discursive Interaction: Their <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Argumentation during Collaborative Group Discussions in Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the potential of students' written and oral <span class="hlt">questions</span> both as an epistemic probe and heuristic for initiating collaborative argumentation in science. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years from two countries, were asked to discuss which of two graphs best represented the change in temperature as ice was heated to steam.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=adaptive+AND+filter&id=EJ884462','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=adaptive+AND+filter&id=EJ884462"><span>On the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Adaptive Test <span class="hlt">Question</span> Selection for Learning Efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barla, Michal; Bielikova, Maria; Ezzeddinne, Anna Bou; Kramar, Tomas; Simko, Marian; Vozar, Oto</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we present a method for adaptive selection of test <span class="hlt">questions</span> according to the individual needs of students within a web-based educational system. It functions as a combination of three particular methods. The first method is based on the course structure and focuses on the selection of the most appropriate topic for learning. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Metric+AND+measurements+AND+system&pg=7&id=EJ928601','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Metric+AND+measurements+AND+system&pg=7&id=EJ928601"><span>How to Improve Your <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Factor: <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> the Quantification of Academic Quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A broad-scale quantification of the measure of quality for scholarship is under way. This trend has fundamental implications for the future of academic publishing and employment. In this essay we want to raise <span class="hlt">questions</span> about these burgeoning practices, particularly how they affect philosophy of education and similar sub-disciplines. First,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=BIBLIOMETRICS&pg=7&id=EJ928601','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=BIBLIOMETRICS&pg=7&id=EJ928601"><span>How to Improve Your <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Factor: <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> the Quantification of Academic Quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>A broad-scale quantification of the measure of quality for scholarship is under way. This trend has fundamental implications for the future of academic publishing and employment. In this essay we want to raise <span class="hlt">questions</span> about these burgeoning practices, particularly how they affect philosophy of education and similar sub-disciplines. First,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature+AND+change&pg=6&id=EJ899789','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature+AND+change&pg=6&id=EJ899789"><span>Students' <span class="hlt">Questions</span> and Discursive Interaction: Their <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Argumentation during Collaborative Group Discussions in Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the potential of students' written and oral <span class="hlt">questions</span> both as an epistemic probe and heuristic for initiating collaborative argumentation in science. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years from two countries, were asked to discuss which of two graphs best represented the change in temperature as ice was heated to steam.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26477019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26477019"><span>A <span class="hlt">question</span> of <span class="hlt">origin</span>: dioxin-like PCBs and their relevance in stock management of European eels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Freese, Marko; Sühring, Roxana; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Wolschke, Hendrik; Magath, Victoria; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Hanel, Reinhold</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The stock of European Eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) has reached an all-time low in 2011. Spawner quality of mature eels in terms of health status and fitness is considered one of the key elements for successful migration and reproduction. Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are known persistent organic pollutants potentially affecting the reproductive capability and health status of eels throughout their entire lifetime. In this study, muscle tissue samples of 192 European eels of all continental life stages from 6 different water bodies and 13 sampling sites were analyzed for contamination with lipophilic dl-PCBs to investigate the potential relevance of the respective habitat in light of eel stock management. Results of this study reveal habitat-dependent and life history stage-related accumulation of targeted PCBs. Sum concentrations of targeted PCBs differed significantly between life stages and inter-habitat variability in dl-PCB levels and -profiles was observed. Among all investigated life stages, migrant silver eels were found to be the most suitable life history stage to represent their particular water system due to habitat dwell-time and their terminal contamination status. With reference to a possible negative <span class="hlt">impact</span> of dl-PCBs on health and the reproductive capability of eels, it was hypothesized that those growing up in less polluted habitats have a better chance to produce healthy offspring than those growing up in highly polluted habitats. We suggest that the contamination status of water systems is fundamental for the life cycle of eels and needs to be considered in stock management and restocking programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3561695','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3561695"><span>Values in Translation: How Asking the Right <span class="hlt">Questions</span> Can Move Translational Science Toward Greater Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kelley, Maureen; Edwards, Kelly; Starks, Helene; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; James, Rosalina; Goering, Sara; Holland, Suzanne; Disis, Mary L.; Burke, Wylie</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Abstract The speed and effectiveness of current approaches to research translation are widely viewed as disappointing given small gains in real population health outcomes despite huge investments in basic and translational science. We identify critical value questions—ethical, social, economic, and cultural—that arise at moments throughout the research pathway. By making these <span class="hlt">questions</span> visible, and promoting discussion of them with diverse stakeholders, we can facilitate handoffs along the translational pathway and increase uptake of effective interventions. Who is involved with those discussions will determine which research projects, populations, and methods get prioritized. We argue that some upfront investment in community and interdisciplinary engagement, shaped by familiar <span class="hlt">questions</span> in ethics, social justice, and cultural knowledge, can save time and resources in the long run because interventions and strategies will be aimed in the right direction, that is, toward health improvements for all. Clin Trans Sci 2012; Volume 5: 445–451 PMID:23253665</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940030956','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940030956"><span>Noachian and Hesperian modification of the <span class="hlt">original</span> Chryse <span class="hlt">impact</span> basin topography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stockman, Stephanie; Frey, Herbert</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We propose a new center (35.5 W, 32.5 N) and ring assignment for the <span class="hlt">original</span> Chryse <span class="hlt">impact</span> basin based on photogeologic mapping and re-examination of the published geology. Noachian features in the Chryse Planitia area are the best indicators of the <span class="hlt">original</span> ancient multiringed <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure. While other workers have centered the Chryse <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the topographic low associated with Hesperian volcanic and fluvial deposits, we suggest that the center of the <span class="hlt">original</span> Noachian-age excavation cavity was located 800 km farther NE, and the basin topography was significantly modified over time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16139906','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16139906"><span>Factor analysis of a Johne's disease risk assessment questionnaire with evaluation of factor scores and a subset of <span class="hlt">original</span> <span class="hlt">questions</span> as predictors of observed clinical paratuberculosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berghaus, Roy D; Lombard, Jason E; Gardner, Ian A; Farver, Thomas B</p> <p>2005-12-12</p> <p>Factor analysis was used to examine the interrelationships among 38 variables collected as part of a Johne's disease risk assessment questionnaire completed in 2002 on 815 U.S. dairy operations. Eleven factors were extracted, accounting for two-thirds of the variance encountered in the <span class="hlt">original</span> variables. Responses to many of the risk assessment <span class="hlt">questions</span> were closely related. Standardized scores on the 11 factors were calculated for operations providing complete information, and were evaluated as predictors in a model-based logistic regression analysis with the outcome being whether operations had observed one or more cows with clinical signs suggestive of paratuberculosis during the previous year. A logistic regression model was also used to evaluate the predictive ability of a reduced subset of approximately one-third of the <span class="hlt">original</span> variables that was selected to represent the derived factors. The performance of both sets of predictors was comparable with respect to goodness-of-fit and predictive ability. In conclusion, the length of the current risk assessment instrument could be reduced considerably without a substantial loss of information by removing or combining <span class="hlt">questions</span> that are strongly correlated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1852c0005L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1852c0005L"><span><span class="hlt">Origins</span> and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of high-density symmetry energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Bao-An</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>What is nuclear symmetry energy? Why is it important? What do we know about it? Why is it so uncertain especially at high densities? Can the total symmetry energy or its kinetic part be negative? What are the effects of three-body and/or tensor force on symmetry energy? How can we probe the density dependence of nuclear symmetry energy with terrestrial nuclear experiments? What observables of heavy-ion reactions are sensitive to the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy? How does the symmetry energy affect properties of neutron stars, gravitational waves and our understanding about the nature of strong-field gravity? In this lecture, we try to answer these <span class="hlt">questions</span> as best as we can based on some of our recent work and/or understanding of research done by others. This note summarizes the main points of the lecture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6213201','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6213201"><span>Apollo 15 yellow <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses: Chemistry, petrology, and exotic <span class="hlt">origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Delano, J.W.; Lindsley, D.H.; Ma, M.; Schmitt, R.A.</p> <p>1982-11-15</p> <p>The Apollo 15 yellow <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses are characterized by moderate TiO/sub 2/ (approx.4.8%) and high abundances of the large ion lithophile elements (e.g., K, P, Hf, Th, REE). Since the chemistry of these glasses cannot be duplicated by any combination of local components presently known to occur at the Apollo 15 landing site, these yellow glasses seem to be exotic to that area. Chemical and petrologic constraints suggest that these samples were produced by <span class="hlt">impact</span> melting of an immature mare regolith developed upon an unusual variety of mare basalt. We speculate that the target basalt were the youngest lava flows known to exist on the moon (i.e., Eratosphenian-age lavas in Oceanus Procellarum and Mare Imbrium). Specific tests are proposed for evaluating this provocative hypothesis.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11536797','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11536797"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> of asteroid rotation rates in catastrophic <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Love, S G; Ahrens, T J</p> <p>1997-03-13</p> <p>The rotation rates of asteroids, which are deduced from periodic fluctuations in their brightnesses, are controlled by mutual collisions. The link between asteroid spin and collision history is usually made with reference to <span class="hlt">impact</span> experiments on centimetre-scale targets, where material strength governs the <span class="hlt">impact</span> response. Recent work, however, indicates that for objects of the size of most observed asteroids (> or = 1 km in diameter), gravity rather than intrinsic strength controls the dynamic response to collisions. Here we explore this idea by modelling the effect of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on large gravitating bodies. We find that the fraction of a projectile's angular momentum that is retained by a target asteroid is both lower and more variable than expected from laboratory experiments, with spin evolution being dominated by 'catastrophic' collisions that eject approximately 50 per cent of the target's mass. The remnant of an initially non-rotating silicate asteroid that suffers such a collision rotates at a rate of approximately 2.9 per day, which is close to the observed mean asteroid rotation rate of approximately 2.5 d-1. Moreover, our calculations suggest that the observed trend in the mean spin frequency for different classes of asteroids (2.2 d-1 for C-type asteroids, 2.5 d-1 for S-type, and 4.0 d-1 for M-type) is due to increasing mean density, rather than increasing material strength.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=148645&keyword=fertilizer+AND+pollution&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=148645&keyword=fertilizer+AND+pollution&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>DETECTING AND MITIGATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF FECAL PATHOGENS <span class="hlt">ORIGINATING</span> FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS: REVIEW</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This report presents a review of literature regarding the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of fecal pathogens <span class="hlt">originating</span> from animal agriculture in the United States. Livestock production and dairy operations continue their trend toward larger and more concentrated facilities. These operations ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=148645&keyword=bacteria+AND+water+AND+streams&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78741352&CFTOKEN=74889674','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=148645&keyword=bacteria+AND+water+AND+streams&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78741352&CFTOKEN=74889674"><span>DETECTING AND MITIGATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL <span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> OF FECAL PATHOGENS <span class="hlt">ORIGINATING</span> FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS: REVIEW</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This report presents a review of literature regarding the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of fecal pathogens <span class="hlt">originating</span> from animal agriculture in the United States. Livestock production and dairy operations continue their trend toward larger and more concentrated facilities. These operations ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1988.6037N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017LPICo1988.6037N"><span>Lunar <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Basin Population and <span class="hlt">Origins</span> Revealed by LOLA and GRAIL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neumann, G. A.; Goossens, S.; Head, J. W.; Mazarico, E.; Melosh, H. J.; Smith, D. E.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Lola Science Team; Grail Science Team</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The inventory and sizes of large lunar <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins, some obscured by superposed cratering and volcanism, together with better understanding of the factors that control basin size, will help constrain models of the <span class="hlt">original</span> impactor population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17817144','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17817144"><span><span class="hlt">Origins</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weinberg, S</p> <p>1985-10-04</p> <p>The farthest of the galaxies that can be seen through the large ground-based telescopes of modern astronomy, such as those on La Palma in the Canary Islands, are so far away that they appear as they did close to the time of the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the universe, perhaps some 10 billion years ago. Much has been learned, and much has still to be learned, about the young universe from optical and radio telescopes, but these instruments cannot be used to look directly at the universe in its first few hundred thousand years. Instead, they are used to search the relatively recent past for relics of much earlier times. Together with experiments planned for the next generation of elementary particle accelerators, astronomical observations should continue to extend what is known about the universe backward in time to the Big Bang and may eventually help to reveal the <span class="hlt">origins</span> of the physical laws that govern the universe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15681378','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15681378"><span>A giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of Pluto-Charon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Canup, Robin M</p> <p>2005-01-28</p> <p>Pluto and its moon, Charon, are the most prominent members of the Kuiper belt, and their existence holds clues to outer solar system formation processes. Here, hydrodynamic simulations are used to demonstrate that the formation of Pluto-Charon by means of a large collision is quite plausible. I show that such an <span class="hlt">impact</span> probably produced an intact Charon, although it is possible that a disk of material orbited Pluto from which Charon later accumulated. These findings suggest that collisions between 1000-kilometer-class objects occurred in the early inner Kuiper belt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Research+AND+action&pg=4&id=EJ1074512','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Research+AND+action&pg=4&id=EJ1074512"><span>The Big Money <span class="hlt">Question</span>: Action Research Projects Give District a Clear Picture of Professional Learning's <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dill-Varga, Barbara</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>How do districts know if the resources they have allocated to support professional learning in their school district are actually improving the quality of teaching and <span class="hlt">impacting</span> student performance? In an increasingly challenging financial environment, this is important to know. In this article, a Chicago-area district facing a budget deficit…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=portfolio+AND+feedback&pg=6&id=EJ651383','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=portfolio+AND+feedback&pg=6&id=EJ651383"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Assessment of Practice Teaching on Beginning Teaching: Learning To Ask Different <span class="hlt">Questions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Orland-Barak, Lily</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of student teaching assessment on teaching and the synchrony between assessment and performance in passing from practice teaching to teaching, noting the perspectives of five outstanding student teachers. Data from portfolios, evaluation forms, feedback sessions, interviews, and written stories highlighted how students teachers…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Budget+AND+deficit&id=EJ1074512','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Budget+AND+deficit&id=EJ1074512"><span>The Big Money <span class="hlt">Question</span>: Action Research Projects Give District a Clear Picture of Professional Learning's <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dill-Varga, Barbara</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>How do districts know if the resources they have allocated to support professional learning in their school district are actually improving the quality of teaching and <span class="hlt">impacting</span> student performance? In an increasingly challenging financial environment, this is important to know. In this article, a Chicago-area district facing a budget deficit…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/53226','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/53226"><span>Managing bark beetle <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on ecosystems and society: Priority <span class="hlt">questions</span> to motivate future research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Jesse L. Morris; Stuart Cottrell; Chris Fettig; Winslow D. Hansen; Rosemary L. Sherriff; Vachel A. Carter; Jennifer L. Clear; Jessica Clement; R. Justin DeRose; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Philip E. Higuera; Katherine M. Mattor; Alistair W. R. Seddon; Heikki T. Sepp; John D. Stednick; Steven J. Seybold</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>1. Recent bark beetle outbreaks in North America and Europe have <span class="hlt">impacted</span> forested landscapes and the provisioning of critical ecosystem services. The scale and intensity of many recent outbreaks are widely believed to be unprecedented. 2. The effects of bark beetle outbreaks on ecosystems are often measured in terms of area affected, host tree mortality rates, and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003607','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003607"><span>Microanalysis of Hypervelocity <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Residues of Possible Interstellar <span class="hlt">Origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stroud, Rhonda M.; Achilles, Cheri; Allen, Carlton; Anasari, Asna; Bajt, Sasa; Bassim, Nabil; Bastien, Ron S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, Janet; Brenker, Frank E.; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Burchell, Mark; Burghammer, Manfred; Butterworth, Anna L.; Changela, Hitesh; Cloetens, Peter; Davis, Andrew M.; Doll, Ryan; Floss, Christine; Flynn, George; Fougeray, Patrick; Frank, David; Sandford, Scott A.; Zolensky, Michael E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Stardust spacecraft deployed two collector trays, one dedicated to the collection of dust from Comet Wild 2, and the other for the capture of interstellar dust (ISD). The samples were returned successfully to Earth in 2006, and now provide an unprecedented opportunity for laboratory-based microanalysis of materials from the outer solar system and beyond. Results from the cometary sample studies have demonstrated that Wild 2 contains much more refractory condensate material and much less pristine extra-solar material than expected, which further indicates that there was significant transport of inner solar system materials to the Kuiper Belt in the early solar system [1]. The analysis of the interstellar samples is still in the preliminary examination (PE) phase, due to the level of difficulty in the definitive identification of the ISD features, the overall low abundance, and its irreplaceable nature, which necessitates minimally invasive measurements [2]. We present here coordinated microanalysis of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> features on the Al foils, which have led to the identification of four <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that are possibly attributable to interstellar dust. Results from the study of four ISD candidates captured in aerogel are presented elsewhere [2].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16433107','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16433107"><span>Enfuvirtide for nurses: answering patient <span class="hlt">questions</span> on activity, safety, and lifestyle <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Glutzer, Eileen; Lalezari, Jacob P</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The introduction of enfuvirtide, the first self-administered parenteral antiretroviral, has reinforced the HIV nurse's role in patient education, support, and motivation. Detailed background knowledge of the drug will assist nurses to provide answers to common <span class="hlt">questions</span> and concerns raised during patient training. Three particular concerns often raised are curiosity about how enfuvirtide works, what side effects can be expected, and how these and the process of daily injection will affect the patient's daily routine. This brief review is designed to provide nurse-educators with clinical information on these three issues to help them better provide the answers patients will need to help them feel confident self-administering this new drug.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26961478"><span>Critical Review of Technical <span class="hlt">Questions</span> Facing Low <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Development and Green Infrastructure: A Perspective from the Great Plains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vogel, Jason R; Moore, Trisha L; Coffman, Reid R; Rodie, Steven N; Hutchinson, Stacy L; McDonough, Kelsey R; McLemore, Alex J; McMaine, John T</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Since its inception, Low <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Development (LID) has become part of urban stormwater management across the United States, marking progress in the gradual transition from centralized to distributed runoff management infrastructure. The ultimate goal of LID is full, cost-effective implementation to maximize watershed-scale ecosystem services and enhance resilience. To reach that goal in the Great Plains, the multi-disciplinary author team presents this critical review based on thirteen technical <span class="hlt">questions</span> within the context of regional climate and socioeconomics across increasing complexities in scale and function. Although some progress has been made, much remains to be done including continued basic and applied research, development of local LID design specifications, local demonstrations, and identifying funding mechanisms for these solutions. Within the Great Plains and beyond, by addressing these technical <span class="hlt">questions</span> within a local context, the goal of widespread acceptance of LID can be achieved, resulting in more effective and resilient stormwater management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED355421.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED355421.pdf"><span>A <span class="hlt">Question</span> of <span class="hlt">Questions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fenwick, John; McMillan, Rod</p> <p></p> <p>In a conventional teaching situation, a lecturer may use a wide range of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> techniques aimed at helping students to become active learners. In distance learning, students are often isolated and have limited opportunities for interaction in a social learning environment. Hence, learning strategies in distance learning need to be structured…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30R.528K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30R.528K"><span>Chesapeake Bay Crater, Virginia: Confirmation of <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koeberl, C.; Reimold, W. U.; Brandt, D.; Poag, C. W.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>Poag et al. [1] identified a late Eocene boulder bed in drill cores from southeast Virginia, and interpreted it as an <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated tsunami deposit. Seismic studies and other geophysical evidence indicated the existence of a possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure centered at Chesapeake Bay (37 degrees x 15' N and 76 degrees x 04' W), which may be 85-90 km in diameter [2]. Four drill cores have penetrated into the breccia, although none is available from the center of the structure, or reaches basement. A central peak-ring of crystalline rocks with about 25 km diameter is surrounded by a 30 km-wide annular trough and terrace terrane. The trough is filled with polymictic breccia composed mainly of autochthonous sedimentary clasts in a sandy matrix with some angular clasts of granitic and metasedimentary basement rocks [2]. The Chesapeake Bay crater is of special interest, because it is close to the region identified as the possible source region for the North American tektites, is of about the expected size, and has an age identical to that of the tektites [3]. While the source craters for the Central European and Ivory Coast tektite strewn fields are known, the source crater of the North American tektites has remained elusive. A variety of locations were suggested, including Popigai (Siberia), Wanapitei (Canada), Mistastin (Canada), and Bee Bluff (Texas), but all were later discounted. The distribution of the tektites and microtektites in the strewn field suggests that the North American tektite source crater is likely to be located at or near the eastern coast of the North American continent, maybe underwater [4,5]. The location of the Chesapeake Bay structure is in agreement with the area suggested before [4,5]. We have started a petrological and geochemical study of target rocks and breccias from the Chesapeake Bay structure. We analyzed the major and trace element composition of 17 mainly sedimentary samples, for comparison with North American tektite values. 14 of these</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26469211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26469211"><span><span class="hlt">Origins</span> of task-specific sensory-independent organization in the visual and auditory brain: neuroscience evidence, open <span class="hlt">questions</span> and clinical implications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heimler, Benedetta; Striem-Amit, Ella; Amedi, Amir</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Evidence of task-specific sensory-independent (TSSI) plasticity from blind and deaf populations has led to a better understanding of brain organization. However, the principles determining the <span class="hlt">origins</span> of this plasticity remain unclear. We review recent data suggesting that a combination of the connectivity bias and sensitivity to task-distinctive features might account for TSSI plasticity in the sensory cortices as a whole, from the higher-order occipital/temporal cortices to the primary sensory cortices. We discuss current theories and evidence, open <span class="hlt">questions</span> and related predictions. Finally, given the rapid progress in visual and auditory restoration techniques, we address the crucial need to develop effective rehabilitation approaches for sensory recovery. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010020499&hterms=Eco&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DEco','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010020499&hterms=Eco&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DEco"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Crater Hydrothermal Niches for Life on Mars: <span class="hlt">Question</span> of Scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pope, K. O.; Ames, D. E.; Kieffer, S. W.; Ocampo, A. C.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A major focus in the search for fossil life on Mars is on ancient hydrothermal deposits. Nevertheless, remote sensing efforts have not found mineral assemblages characteristic of hydrothermal activity. Future remote sensing work, including missions with higher spatial resolution, may detect localized hydrothermal deposits, but it is possible that dust mantles will prohibit detection from orbit and lander missions will be required. In anticipation of such missions, it is critical to develop a strategy for selecting potential hydrothermal sites on Mars. Such a strategy is being developed for volcanogenic hydrothermal systems, and a similar strategy is needed for <span class="hlt">impact</span> hydrothermal systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010020499&hterms=characteristics+life&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcharacteristics%2Blife','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010020499&hterms=characteristics+life&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcharacteristics%2Blife"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Crater Hydrothermal Niches for Life on Mars: <span class="hlt">Question</span> of Scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pope, K. O.; Ames, D. E.; Kieffer, S. W.; Ocampo, A. C.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A major focus in the search for fossil life on Mars is on ancient hydrothermal deposits. Nevertheless, remote sensing efforts have not found mineral assemblages characteristic of hydrothermal activity. Future remote sensing work, including missions with higher spatial resolution, may detect localized hydrothermal deposits, but it is possible that dust mantles will prohibit detection from orbit and lander missions will be required. In anticipation of such missions, it is critical to develop a strategy for selecting potential hydrothermal sites on Mars. Such a strategy is being developed for volcanogenic hydrothermal systems, and a similar strategy is needed for <span class="hlt">impact</span> hydrothermal systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19513910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19513910"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> gender norms with men to improve health outcomes: evidence of <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barker, G; Ricardo, C; Nascimento, M; Olukoya, A; Santos, C</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a review of 58 evaluation studies of programmes with men and boys in sexual and reproductive health (including HIV prevention, treatment, care and support); father involvement; gender-based violence; maternal, newborn and child health; and gender socialisation more broadly. While few of the programmes go beyond the pilot stage, or a relatively short-term timeframe, they offer compelling evidence that well-designed programmes with men and boys can lead to positive changes in their behaviours and attitudes related to sexual and reproductive health; maternal, newborn and child health; their interaction with their children; their use of violence against women; their <span class="hlt">questioning</span> of violence with other men; and their health-seeking behaviour. The evidence indicates that programmes that incorporate a gender-transformative approach and promote gender-equitable relationships between men and women are more effective in producing behaviour change than narrowly focused interventions, as are programmes which reach beyond the individual level to the social context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/535529','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/535529"><span>Physical <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of regional climate change in the West African Sahel and the <span class="hlt">question</span> of desertification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nicholson, S.E.; Ba, M.</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">question</span> of desertification is examined in the West African Sahel region by considering various physical indicators assumed to accompany this process. The study considers only the past 14 years, since the availability of comprehensive satellite data sets. The physical indicators examined include vegetation cover, surface albedo, soil moisture, wind-borne dust, river flow, lakes, and the ratio of available moisture to vegetation growth. Vegetation cover and albedo are assessed from satellite data. Soil moisture is assessed using a surface hydrologic model. Dust is estimated from visibility measurements. The most important results are that: (1) there is no progressive change in the vegetation cover, (2) an increase of albedo as the region dries up cannot be documented, and (3) there has been a tremendous increase in wind-borne dust over the Sahel. The vegetation cover responds almost directly to rainfall and the movement of the desert boundary corresponds roughly to rainfall fluctuations. The most important meteorological effect of the drought and/or desertification in the Sahel may be the enhanced dust generation, with the region becoming a major global source of atmospheric mineral dust. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A24B..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A24B..08S"><span>Radiative <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Elevated Aerosol Layers from Different <span class="hlt">Origins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sauer, D. N.; Weinzierl, B.; Gasteiger, J.; Heimerl, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Aerosol particles are omnipresent in the Earth's atmosphere and have important <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on weather and climate by their effects on the atmospheric radiative balance. With the advent of more and more sophisticated representations of atmospheric processes in earth system models, the lack of reliable input data on aerosols leads to significant uncertainties in the prediction of future climate scenarios. In recent years large discrepancies in radiative forcing estimates from aerosol layers in modeling studies have been revealed emphasizing the need for detailed and systematic observations of aerosols. Airborne in-situ measurements represent an important pillar for validating both model results and retrievals of aerosol distributions and properties from remote sensing methods on global scales. However, detailed observations are challenging and therefore are subject to substantial uncertainties themselves. Here we use data from airborne in-situ measurements of elevated aerosol layers from various field experiments in different regions of the world. The data set includes Saharan mineral dust layers over Africa, the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean from the SALTRACE and the SAMUM campaigns as well as long-range transported biomass burning aerosol layers from wild fires in the Sahel region and North America measured over the tropical Atlantic Ocean, Europe and the Arctic detected during SAMUM2, CONCERT2011, DC3 and ACCESS 2012. We aim to characterize the effects of the measured aerosol layers, in particular with respect to ageing, mixing state and vertical structure, on the overall atmospheric radiation budget as well as local heating and cooling rates. We use radiative transfer simulations of short and long-wave radiation and aerosol optical properties derived in a consistent way from the in-situ observations of microphysical properties using T-matrix calculations. The results of this characterization will help to improve the parameterization of the effects of elevated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23637092','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23637092"><span><span class="hlt">Questions</span> concerning the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> of glyphosate-based herbicides on amphibians.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wagner, Norman; Reichenbecher, Wolfram; Teichmann, Hanka; Tappeser, Beatrix; Lötters, Stefan</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Use of glyphosate-based herbicides is increasing worldwide. The authors review the available data related to potential <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of these herbicides on amphibians and conduct a qualitative meta-analysis. Because little is known about environmental concentrations of glyphosate in amphibian habitats and virtually nothing is known about environmental concentrations of the substances added to the herbicide formulations that mainly contribute to adverse effects, glyphosate levels can only be seen as approximations for contamination with glyphosate-based herbicides. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> on amphibians depends on the herbicide formulation, with different sensitivity of taxa and life stages. Effects on development of larvae apparently are the most sensitive endpoints to study. As with other contaminants, costressors mainly increase adverse effects. If and how glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides contribute to amphibian decline is not answerable yet due to missing data on how natural populations are affected. Amphibian risk assessment can only be conducted case-specifically, with consideration of the particular herbicide formulation. The authors recommend better monitoring of both amphibian populations and contamination of habitats with glyphosate-based herbicides, not just glyphosate, and suggest including amphibians in standardized test batteries to study at least dermal administration. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3315878','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3315878"><span>A Four-<span class="hlt">question</span> Approach to Determining the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Acne Treatment on Quality of Life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grekin, Steven K.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Facial acne vulgaris can have profound effects on health-related quality of life. In some studies, patients with acne vulgaris reported results similar to those noted with other chronic diseases, such as asthma, arthritis, or diabetes. Clinical objective assessments alone do not adequately capture the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of acne vulgaris severity from a patient’s perspective. Health-related quality-of-life assessment is important in order to fully characterize the overall burden of disease and effectiveness of treatment as the perspectives of the patient are also taken into account. Previous studies of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of acne vulgaris treatment on health-related quality of life have been limited in their scope of assessment. Drawbacks of prior studies have included small numbers of patients, health-related quality-of-life parameters that were not adequately evaluated, inclusion of only a limited range of mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris severity, or being unblinded or observational in study design. The Acne Quality of Life is an acne-specific questionnaire developed to assess treatment <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the health-related quality of life of patients with acne vulgaris. Its psychometric properties and degree of responsiveness are well-established. Improvement in Acne Quality of Life with the fixed combination clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% aqueous gel in the largest cohort of acne vulgaris patients where health-related quality of life was studied has been reported recently. Significant improvements in all four domains over 12 weeks were seen with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%/benzoyl peroxide 2.5% aqueous gel compared to patients treated with individual active ingredients or vehicle (p<0.001). Length and time required for completion of the 19-item Acne Quality of Life questionnaire is likely to preclude its use in clinical practice. A condensed, validated Acne Q-4 scale based on the four items most broadly representative of health-related quality of life combined with a high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26846908','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26846908"><span>Burning <span class="hlt">questions</span>: Exploring the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of natural disasters on community pharmacies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mak, Pey Wen; Singleton, Judith</p> <p></p> <p>The past decade has seen a rapid change in the climate system with an increased risk of extreme weather events. On and following the 3rd of January 2013, Tasmania experienced three catastrophic bushfires, which led to the evacuation of several communities, the loss of many properties, and a financial cost of approximately AUD$80 million. To explore the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the 2012/2013 Tasmanian bushfires on community pharmacies. Qualitative research methods were undertaken, employing semi-structured telephone interviews with a purposive sample of seven Tasmanian pharmacists. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, and two different methods were used to analyze the text. The first method utilized Leximancer(®) text analytics software to provide a birds-eye view of the conceptual structure of the text. The second method involved manual, open and axial coding, conducted independently by the two researchers for inter-rater reliability, to identify key themes in the discourse. Two main themes were identified - 'people' and 'supply' - from which six key concepts were derived. The six concepts were 'patients,' 'pharmacists,' 'local doctor,' 'pharmacy operations,' 'disaster management planning,' and 'emergency supply regulation.' This study identified challenges faced by community pharmacists during Tasmanian bushfires. Interviewees highlighted the need for both the Tasmanian State Government and the Australian Federal Government to recognize the important primary care role that community pharmacists play during natural disasters, and therefore involve pharmacists in disaster management planning. They called for greater support and guidance for community pharmacists from regulatory and other government bodies during these events. Their comments highlighted the need for a review of Tasmania's three-day emergency supply regulation that allows pharmacists to provide a three-day supply of a patient's medication without a doctor's prescription in an emergency situation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002764','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002764"><span>Constraining the <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Craters on Al Foils from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stroud, Rhonda M.; Achilles, Cheri; Allen, Carlton; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, Sasa; Bassim, Nabil; Bastien, Ron S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, Janet; Brenker, Frank E.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20120002764'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20120002764_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20120002764_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20120002764_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20120002764_hide"></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Preliminary examination (PE) of the aerogel tiles and Al foils from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector has revealed multiple <span class="hlt">impact</span> features. Some are most likely due to primary <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of interstellar dust (ISD) grains, and others are associated with secondary <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of spacecraft debris, and possibly primary <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) [1, 2]. The current focus of the PE effort is on constraining the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the individual <span class="hlt">impact</span> features so that definitive results from the first direct laboratory analysis of contemporary ISD can be reported. Because crater morphology depends on <span class="hlt">impacting</span> particle shape and composition, in addition to the angle and direction of <span class="hlt">impact</span>, unique particle trajectories are not easily determined. However, elemental analysis of the crater residues can distinguish real cosmic dust from the spacecraft debris, due to the low cosmic abundance of many of the elements in the spacecraft materials. We present here results from the elemental analysis of 24 craters and discuss the possible <span class="hlt">origins</span> of 4 that are identified as candidate ISD <span class="hlt">impacts</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fundraising+AND+Attorney&id=EJ380354','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fundraising+AND+Attorney&id=EJ380354"><span>National Association of Attorneys General Model Solicitation Act: Its <span class="hlt">Origin</span> and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Colleges and Universities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Suffern, Kevin A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The National Association of Attorneys' Model Solicitation Act, which covers college and university fund-raising and has been used for state legislation, is discussed. Its <span class="hlt">origins</span> and basic concepts, <span class="hlt">impact</span> on institutions, and reasons for eliminating college and university exemption are examined. (MSE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009085','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009085"><span>Everyone Wins: A Mars-<span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Origin</span> for Carbonaceous Phobos and Deimos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fries, M.; Welzenbach, L.; Steele, A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Discussions of Phobos' and Deimos' <span class="hlt">origin(s</span>) tend to feature an orthogonally opposed pair of observations: dynamical studies which favor coalescence of the moons from an orbital debris ring arising from a large <span class="hlt">impact</span> on Mars; and reflectance spectroscopy of the moons that indicate a carbonaceous composition that is not consistent with Martian surface materials. One way to reconcile this discrepancy is to consider the option of a Mars-<span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> for Phobos and Deimos, followed by surficial decoration of carbon-rich materials by interplanetary dust particles (IDP). The moons experience a high IDP flux because of their location in Mars' gravity well. Calculations show that accreted carbon is sufficient to produce a surface with reflectance spectra resembling carbonaceous chondrites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830049937&hterms=evolution+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Devolution%2Btheory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19830049937&hterms=evolution+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Devolution%2Btheory"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of solar system exploration on theories of chemical evolution and the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Devincenzi, D. L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of solar system exploration on theories regarding chemical evolution and the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life is examined in detail. Major findings from missions to Mercury, Venus, the moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan are reviewed and implications for prebiotic chemistry are discussed. Among the major conclusions are: prebiotic chemistry is widespread throughout the solar system and universe; chemical evolution and the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life are intimately associated with the <span class="hlt">origin</span> and evolution of the solar system; the rate, direction, and extent of prebiotic chemistry is highly dependent upon planetary characteristics; and continued exploration will increase understanding of how life <span class="hlt">originated</span> on earth and allow better estimates of the likelihood of similar processes occurring elsewhere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aste.book..573S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aste.book..573S"><span>Early <span class="hlt">Impact</span> History and Dynamical <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of Differentiated Meteorites and Asteroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scott, E. R. D.; Keil, K.; Goldstein, J. I.; Asphaug, E.; Bottke, W. F.; Moskovitz, N. A.</p> <p></p> <p>Differentiated asteroids and igneous meteorites present numerous challenges to our understanding of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> and dynamical evolution of asteroids and meteorite parent bodies. Igneous meteorites, including irons, achondrites, and stony-iron meteorites, testify to the prior existence of ~100 differentiated bodies. Destruction of these bodies by hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> over 4 G.y. would have required numerous giant <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, although this is inconsistent with the preservation of Vesta's basaltic crust and the lack of differentiated asteroid families. We review recent advances in elucidating the early chronology of meteorites, spectroscopic observations of likely differentiated asteroids, petrological studies of differentiated meteorites, <span class="hlt">impact</span> disruption of differentiated planetesimals during accretion, and dynamical scenarios for capturing material into the asteroid belt. Together, these advances suggest a new paradigm in which planetesimals accreted rapidly in the inner solar system and were melted by 26Al less than 2 m.y. after the formation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). While molten they were disrupted by grazing hit-and-run <span class="hlt">impacts</span> during the accretion of planetesimals. Later, when still hot, the survivors were disrupted by hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. <span class="hlt">Impact</span> debris from the differentiated bodies was transferred from the newly formed terrestrial planet region to stable orbits in the asteroid belt. This evolutionary history leaves many <span class="hlt">questions</span> unanswered but suggests new paths for future exploration of the asteroid belt and petrological and isotopic studies of meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930000933','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930000933"><span>Shocked zircons in the Onaping Formation: Further proof of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bohor, B. F.; Betterton, W. J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The Onaping Formation fills the structural basin at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. This formation is composed of three members: a basal, coarse, mainly quartzitic breccia (Basal Member); a light-colored, heavily included, polymict middle unit (Gray Member); and a similar but dark-colored upper unit (Black Member). Two different <span class="hlt">origins</span> were proposed for the Onaping: (1) volcanic ash-flow sheet; and (2) <span class="hlt">impact</span> fall-back ejecta. These <span class="hlt">origins</span> are critically discussed in a review paper coauthored by proponents of each view.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914127D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914127D"><span>What is the <span class="hlt">origin</span> and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of vortices initiated downwind of Hoggar Mountains ?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Duvel, Jean Philippe</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Using an <span class="hlt">original</span> approach to detect tropical depression vortices (TDVs) in the interim ECMWF Re-Analyses (ERA-Interim) reveals that TDVs are regularly initiated south of the Hoggar Mountains . The initiation of these TDVs is associated with a deepening of a depression downwind of the orography due to a reinforcement of the north-easterly low-level (Harmattan) wind. Some of these TDVs move south-westward to the Atlantic Ocean where they can intensify and reach tropical cyclone strength. The <span class="hlt">origin</span> of these TDVs — in particular their relation with the extratropics and with African easterly waves — and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the East Atlantic cyclogenesis will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28799435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28799435"><span>Sure, or unsure? Measuring students' confidence and the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> on patient safety in multiple-choice <span class="hlt">questions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rangel, Rafael Henrique; Möller, Leona; Sitter, Helmut; Stibane, Tina; Strzelczyk, Adam</p> <p>2017-08-11</p> <p>Multiple-choice <span class="hlt">questions</span> (MCQs) provide useful information about correct and incorrect answers, but they do not offer information about students' confidence. Ninety and another 81 medical students participated each in a curricular neurology multiple-choice exam and indicated their confidence for every single MCQ. Each MCQ had a defined level of potential clinical <span class="hlt">impact</span> on patient safety (uncritical, risky, harmful). Our first objective was to detect informed (IF), guessed (GU), misinformed (MI), and uninformed (UI) answers. Further, we evaluated whether there were significant differences for confidence at correct and incorrect answers. Then, we explored if clinical <span class="hlt">impact</span> had a significant influence on students' confidence. There were 1818 IF, 635 GU, 71 MI, and 176 UI answers in exam I and 1453 IF, 613 GU, 92 MI, and 191 UI answers in exam II. Students' confidence was significantly higher for correct than for incorrect answers at both exams (p < 0.001). For exam I, students' confidence was significantly higher for incorrect harmful than for incorrect risky classified MCQs (p = 0.01). At exam II, students' confidence was significantly higher for incorrect harmful than for incorrect benign (p < 0.01) and significantly higher for correct benign than for correct harmful categorized MCQs (p = 0.01). We were pleased to see that there were more informed than guessed, more uninformed than misinformed answers and higher students' confidence for correct than for incorrect answers. Our expectation that students state higher confidence in correct and harmful and lower confidence in incorrect and harmful MCQs could not be confirmed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770034712&hterms=endogenic+processes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dendogenic%2Bprocesses','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19770034712&hterms=endogenic+processes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dendogenic%2Bprocesses"><span>New evidence for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rhodes, R. C.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The importance of hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impacts</span> as a geologic process is demonstrated by the example of the Bushveld Complex and the (nearby) Vredefort Ring. Each is interpreted as the result of four simultaneous <span class="hlt">impacts</span> modified by large-scale endogenic processes triggered by the <span class="hlt">impact</span> event. The layered mafic sequence and the voluminous red granite associated with the complex are endogenic magmas, probably generated by pressure release accompanying crater excavation. Shock melting of older sedimentary rocks must have produced a layer of <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt (the Rooiberg Felsite), the upper part of which was extruded over its <span class="hlt">originally</span> chilled crust as a series of thick lava flows. Field evidence and radiometric age determinations indicate that the Bushveld Complex formed approximately 2000 billion years ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28352060','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28352060"><span>Evaluation of the prevalence and clinical <span class="hlt">impact</span> of toxocariasis in patients with eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Hong-Beum; Seo, Jun-Won; Lee, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Byung-Seok; Park, Sang-Gon</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Eosinophilia has numerous diverse causes, and in many patients, it is not possible to establish the cause of eosinophilia. Recently, toxocariasis was introduced as one cause of eosinophilia. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of toxocariasis and the clinical <span class="hlt">impact</span> of albendazole treatment for toxocariasis in patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span>. We performed a retrospective chart review. After evaluation of cause of eosinophilia, the patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span> performed immunoglobulin G antibody specific assay for the Toxocara canis larval antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. This study evaluated 113 patients, 69 patients (61%) were suspected of eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Among these 69 patients, the frequency of T. canis infection was very high (45 patients, 65.2%), and albendazole treatment for 45 eosinophilia with toxocariasis was highly effective for a cure of eosinophilia than no albendazole group regardless of steroid (82.3%, p = 0.007). Furthermore, among the nonsteroid treated small group (19 patients), albendazole treatment for eosinophilia were more effective than no albendazole group, too (83.3% vs. 28.6 %, p = 0.045). The prevalence of toxocariasis was high among patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span>; therefore, evaluation for T. canis infection is recommended for patients with eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Furthermore, for patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span> who have positive results for T. canis, albendazole treatment may be considered a valuable treatment option.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25442583','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25442583"><span>The combined <span class="hlt">impact</span> of vineyard <span class="hlt">origin</span> and processing winery on the elemental profile of red wines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Collins, Thomas S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Ebeler, Susan E</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The combined effects of vineyard <span class="hlt">origin</span> and winery processing have been studied in 65 red wines samples. Grapes <span class="hlt">originating</span> from five different vineyards within 40 miles of each other were processed in at least two different wineries. Sixty-three different elements were determined with inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and wines were classified according to vineyard <span class="hlt">origin</span>, processing winery, and the combination of both factors. Vineyard <span class="hlt">origin</span> as well as winery processing have an <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the elemental composition of wine, but each winery and each vineyard change the composition to a different degree. For some vineyards, wines showed a characteristic elemental pattern, independent of the processing winery, but the same was found for some wineries, with similar elemental pattern for all grapes processed in these wineries, independent of the vineyard <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Studying the combined effects of grapegrowing and winemaking provides insight into the determination of geographical <span class="hlt">origin</span> of red wines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5432784','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5432784"><span>Evaluation of the prevalence and clinical <span class="hlt">impact</span> of toxocariasis in patients with eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Hong-Beum; Seo, Jun-Won; Lee, Jun-Hyung; Choi, Byung-Seok; Park, Sang-Gon</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background/Aims Eosinophilia has numerous diverse causes, and in many patients, it is not possible to establish the cause of eosinophilia. Recently, toxocariasis was introduced as one cause of eosinophilia. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of toxocariasis and the clinical <span class="hlt">impact</span> of albendazole treatment for toxocariasis in patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review. After evaluation of cause of eosinophilia, the patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span> performed immunoglobulin G antibody specific assay for the Toxocara canis larval antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results This study evaluated 113 patients, 69 patients (61%) were suspected of eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Among these 69 patients, the frequency of T. canis infection was very high (45 patients, 65.2%), and albendazole treatment for 45 eosinophilia with toxocariasis was highly effective for a cure of eosinophilia than no albendazole group regardless of steroid (82.3%, p = 0.007). Furthermore, among the nonsteroid treated small group (19 patients), albendazole treatment for eosinophilia were more effective than no albendazole group, too (83.3% vs. 28.6 %, p = 0.045). Conclusions The prevalence of toxocariasis was high among patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span>; therefore, evaluation for T. canis infection is recommended for patients with eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Furthermore, for patients suspected of eosinophilia of unknown <span class="hlt">origin</span> who have positive results for T. canis, albendazole treatment may be considered a valuable treatment option. PMID:28352060</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47..660W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47..660W"><span>The <span class="hlt">origin</span> of crystalline residues in Stardust Al foils: Surviving cometary dust or crystallized <span class="hlt">impact</span> melts?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wozniakiewicz, Penelope J.; Kearsley, Anton T.; Ishii, Hope A.; Burchell, Mark J.; Bradley, John P.; Teslich, Nick; Cole, Mike J.; Price, Mark C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Samples returned by the Stardust mission from comet 81P/Wild 2 provide an unequaled opportunity to investigate cometary formation and evolution. Crystalline silicates have been identified in <span class="hlt">impact</span> craters in Stardust Al foil, yet their <span class="hlt">origin</span> is ambiguous. They may be <span class="hlt">original</span> cometary components, or they may have grown from melt generated by <span class="hlt">impact</span>. We have now studied experimental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of the calcium silicate mineral wollastonite, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy to document the relationship between <span class="hlt">impact</span> feature shape and crystal lattice orientation in <span class="hlt">impact</span> residue. Wollastonite can have a characteristic acicular habit, forming crater shapes that indicate crystal orientation upon <span class="hlt">impact</span>. From extracted <span class="hlt">impact</span> residue, we determined the lattice orientation of crystalline material for comparison with the whole particle orientation. We assume that crystallization from melt, without surviving seed nuclei, should result in randomly oriented crystallite growth, with no preferred direction for individual crystals. However, we find that the majority of crystalline material in the residue retains b-axis orientation parallel to the long axis of the crater form. This, together with <span class="hlt">impact</span> parameter calculations and lack of Al incorporation by the residue (suggesting melting did not occur), indicates that these crystals and, by analogy, the majority of Al-free crystalline silicates in Stardust foil, are surviving remnants of the impactor. Furthermore, amorphous wollastonite residue probably did not form via melting and subsequent quenching, but instead by high-pressure amorphization or degradation of unquenchable phases. Finally, one crystal studied appears to be a new high-pressure/temperature polymorph of CaSiO3, indicating that such polymorphs may be observed in Stardust residues in craters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.T21A..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSM.T21A..02P"><span>Distribution and <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of <span class="hlt">Impact</span>-Generated Debris: Western Annular Trough, Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Crater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Powars, D.; Gohn, G. S.; Bruce, T. S.; Johnson, G. H.; Cathings, R. D.; Frederiksen, N. O.; Edwards, L. E.; Self-Trail, J. M.; Pierce, H. A.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>The buried 35-million-old Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure is up to 160 km wide and possibly excavated 3.3 km deep. Within the CBIS is a 90-km-wide Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater has a 38-km-wide inner basin with a central uplift surrounded by a bowl-shaped zone of basement rocks faulted down to about 11 km depth. A 21- to 31-km-wide annular trough outside the inner basin and peak ring has a slumped terrace zone at its outer margin and is bounded by an outer rim consisting of 300- to 500-m-high gullied escarpment. An outer fracture zone up to 35 km in width surrounds the crater. The USGS and affiliated institutions recently drilled three deep coreholes in the western part of the structure's annular trough and completed high-resolution seismic reflection and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys across its southwestern margin. The coreholes are located 22.7, 19.7, and 8 km outside the inner basin. Both marine- and land-based seismic data reveal numerous faults that displace the top of basement and overlying Coastal Plain sediments in the annular trough and the outer fracture zone. Due to contrasting resistivity across the crater's margin the AMT data are useful locating the outer rim. The seismic profile from the NASA Langley Research Center, Va., and the deep Langley core (19.7 km outside the inner basin) indicate that <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated debris near the outer rim can be characterized by a three-part physical stratigraphy. (1) Above granitic basement rock, unit A consists of 183.8 m of parautochthonous Cretaceous sediments of the Potomac Formation, tensionally fractured in situ and disrupted during late-stage gravitational collapse of the crater. The deepest occurrence of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-induced sediment fluidization is probably in the upper beds of unit A. Seismic data indicate unit A is pervasively disrupted by short, subvertical to low-angle faults. (2) Middle unit B consists of a clast-supported diamicton (173 m thick) containing zones of moderately deformed Potomac megaclasts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23500047','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23500047"><span>Cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of human activities on urban garden soils: <span class="hlt">origin</span> and accumulation of metals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szolnoki, Zs; Farsang, A; Puskás, I</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The concentration of heavy metals and soil properties in fifty urban garden soils of Szeged (SE Hungary) were determined to evaluate the cumulative <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of urbanization and cultivation on these soils. Using two enrichment factors (EFs) (based on reference horizon; Ti as reference element) and multivariate statistical analysis (PCA), the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the studied elements was defined. According to statistical coincidence of EFs confirmed by t-test, anthropogenic enrichment of Cu (EF = 4), Zn (EF = 2.7) and Pb (EF = 2.5) was significant in topsoils. Moreover, PCA also revealed the geogenic <span class="hlt">origin</span> of Ni, Co, Cr and As and differentiated two groups of the anthropogenic metals [Pb, Zn] [Cu]. Spatial distribution of the metals visualized by GIS reflected the traffic <span class="hlt">origin</span> of Pb; while based on ANOVA, the anthropogenic source of Cu is relevant (mainly pesticides) and there is a statistically significant difference in its concentration depending on land use.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730034933&hterms=type+rocks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtype%2Brocks','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730034933&hterms=type+rocks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtype%2Brocks"><span>Apollo 14 glasses of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> and their parent rock types.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chao, E. C. T.; Best, J. B.; Minkin, J. A.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>Eight chemical groups can be recognized on the basis of studies of more than 200 Apollo 14 glass particles of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span>. It is found that the major rock type of a highland site is dominated by annealed noritic rocks rather than by anorthosites as previously suggested. Both mafic and salic rock types are associated with the noritic rocks. A number of tables are provided showing the chemical composition of the minerals investigated.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11507633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11507633"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> of the Moon in a giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> near the end of the Earth's formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Canup, R M; Asphaug, E</p> <p>2001-08-16</p> <p>The Moon is generally believed to have formed from debris ejected by a large off-centre collision with the early Earth. The <span class="hlt">impact</span> orientation and size are constrained by the angular momentum contained in both the Earth's spin and the Moon's orbit, a quantity that has been nearly conserved over the past 4.5 billion years. Simulations of potential moon-forming <span class="hlt">impacts</span> now achieve resolutions sufficient to study the production of bound debris. However, identifying <span class="hlt">impacts</span> capable of yielding the Earth-Moon system has proved difficult. Previous works found that forming the Moon with an appropriate <span class="hlt">impact</span> angular momentum required the <span class="hlt">impact</span> to occur when the Earth was only about half formed, a more restrictive and problematic model than that <span class="hlt">originally</span> envisaged. Here we report a class of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that yield an iron-poor Moon, as well as the current masses and angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system. This class of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> involves a smaller-and thus more likely-object than previously considered viable, and suggests that the Moon formed near the very end of Earth's accumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1078056.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1078056.pdf"><span>Critiquing <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zimmerman, Lynn W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Question</span> formation is a basic part of teaching and learning English. However, teachers often focus on the ability to form the <span class="hlt">question</span> properly and not as much on the quality of the information the <span class="hlt">question</span> is seeking. Whether teaching English language learners or students who want to be English teachers, teachers need to carefully consider the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040200929','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040200929"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Constraints on the Age and <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of the Crustal Dichotomy on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frey, H. V.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>MOLA data have revealed a large population of "Quasi-Circular Depressions" (QCDs) with little or no visible expression in image data. These likely buried <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, how that compares with <span class="hlt">original</span> highland crust, and when and how the crustal dichotomy may have formed. The buried lowlands are of Early Noachian age, likely slightly younger than the buried highlands but older than the exposed (visible) highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands andor the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins. The global field appears to have disappeared at about the time the lowlands formed. It seems likely the topographic crustal dichotomy was produced very early in martian history by processes which operated very quickly. This and the preservation of large relic <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins in the north- em hemisphere, which themselves can account for the lowland topography, suggest that large <span class="hlt">impacts</span> played the major role in the <span class="hlt">origin</span> Mars fundamental crustal feature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040170456&hterms=History+depression&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DHistory%2Bdepression','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040170456&hterms=History+depression&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DHistory%2Bdepression"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Constraints on the Age and <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of the Crustal Dichotomy on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frey, Herbert V.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>MOLA data have revealed a large population of 'Quasi-Circular Depressions' (QCDs) with little or no visible expression in image data. These likely buried <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, how that compares with <span class="hlt">original</span> highland crust, and when and how the crustal dichotomy may have formed. The buried lowlands are of Early Noachian age, likely slightly younger than the buried highlands but older than the exposed (visible) highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands and/or the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins. The global field appears to have disappeared at about the time the lowlands formed. It seems likely the topographic crustal dichotomy was produced very early in martian history by processes which operated very quickly. This and the preservation of large relic <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins in the northern hemisphere, which themselves can account for the lowland topography, suggest that large <span class="hlt">impacts</span> played the major role in the <span class="hlt">origin</span> Mars fundamental crustal feature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040170456&hterms=Major+depression&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMajor%2Bdepression','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040170456&hterms=Major+depression&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DMajor%2Bdepression"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> Constraints on the Age and <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of the Crustal Dichotomy on Mars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frey, Herbert V.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>MOLA data have revealed a large population of 'Quasi-Circular Depressions' (QCDs) with little or no visible expression in image data. These likely buried <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, how that compares with <span class="hlt">original</span> highland crust, and when and how the crustal dichotomy may have formed. The buried lowlands are of Early Noachian age, likely slightly younger than the buried highlands but older than the exposed (visible) highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands and/or the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins. The global field appears to have disappeared at about the time the lowlands formed. It seems likely the topographic crustal dichotomy was produced very early in martian history by processes which operated very quickly. This and the preservation of large relic <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins in the northern hemisphere, which themselves can account for the lowland topography, suggest that large <span class="hlt">impacts</span> played the major role in the <span class="hlt">origin</span> Mars fundamental crustal feature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010M%26PS...45..434F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010M%26PS...45..434F"><span>The Keurusselkä <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure, Finland-<span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> confirmed by characterization of planar deformation features in quartz grains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferrière, Ludovic; Raiskila, Selen; Osinski, Gordon R.; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Lehtinen, Martti</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Although the meteorite <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Keurusselkä <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure (central Finland) has been established on the basis of the occurrence of shatter cones, no detailed microscopic examination of the impactites from this structure has so far been made. Previous microscope investigations of in situ rocks did not yield any firm evidence of shock features (Raiskila et al. 2008; Kinnunen and Hietala 2009). We have carried out microscopic observations on petrographic thin sections from seven in situ shatter cone samples and report here the discovery of planar fractures (PFs) and planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz and feldspar grains. The detection and characterization of microscopic shock metamorphic features in the investigated samples substantiates a meteorite <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> for the Keurusselkä structure. The crystallographic orientations of 372 PDF sets in 276 quartz grains were measured, using a universal stage (U-stage) microscope, for five of the seven distinct shatter cone samples. Based on our U-stage results, we estimate that investigated shatter cone samples from the Keurusselkä structure have experienced peak shock pressures from approximately 2 GPa to slightly less than 20 GPa for the more heavily shocked samples. The decoration of most of the PDFs with fluid inclusions also indicates that these <span class="hlt">originally</span> amorphous shock features were altered by postimpact processes. Finally, our field observations indicate that the exposed surface corresponds to the crater floor; it is, however, difficult to estimate the exact diameter of the structure and the precise amount of material that has been eroded since its formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=57%c2%b0&pg=4&id=EJ1096605','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=57%c2%b0&pg=4&id=EJ1096605"><span>Shared Storybook Reading in Head Start: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Styles on the Vocabulary of Hispanic Dual Language Learners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walsh, Bridget A.; Sánchez, Claudia; Burnham, Melissa M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study examined various ways of asking <span class="hlt">questions</span> about target vocabulary words during shared storybook reading with young Hispanic dual language learners enrolled in Head Start. The study examined the demand level and placement of adults' <span class="hlt">questions</span> during shared storybook reading. The research design incorporated five conditions; namely,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Questions+AND+communication&pg=6&id=EJ697060','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Questions+AND+communication&pg=6&id=EJ697060"><span>Do You Remember? How Caregivers <span class="hlt">Question</span> Their Spouses Who Have Alzheimer's Disease and the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Small, Jeff A.; Perry, JoAnn</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the types of <span class="hlt">questions</span> caregivers use and their outcomes when conversing with their spouse with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Of particular interest was caregivers' use of yes-no and open-ended <span class="hlt">questions</span> and the demands they make on the memory of the person with AD. It was hypothesized that communication between caregivers and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Low+AND+Impact+AND+Development%ef%bc%88&pg=4&id=EJ1096605','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Low+AND+Impact+AND+Development%ef%bc%88&pg=4&id=EJ1096605"><span>Shared Storybook Reading in Head Start: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Styles on the Vocabulary of Hispanic Dual Language Learners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walsh, Bridget A.; Sánchez, Claudia; Burnham, Melissa M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study examined various ways of asking <span class="hlt">questions</span> about target vocabulary words during shared storybook reading with young Hispanic dual language learners enrolled in Head Start. The study examined the demand level and placement of adults' <span class="hlt">questions</span> during shared storybook reading. The research design incorporated five conditions; namely,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMPP42A..05H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMPP42A..05H"><span>Evidence for an Extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of the Carolina Bays on the Atlantic Coast of North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howard, G. A.; West, A.; Firestone, R. B.; Kennett, J. P.; Kimbel, D.; Newell, W.; Kobres, R.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The Carolina Bays, one of the most conspicuous geomorphic features on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States, are a group of about 500,000, oriented, crater-like, elliptical lakes, wetlands, and depressions, ranging from a few dozen meters to about 11 km in length. Although long proposed as <span class="hlt">impact</span> structures (Melton and Schriever, 1933; Prouty, 1934), this <span class="hlt">origin</span> for the Carolina Bays has remained controversial mainly because of an apparent absence of associated extraterrestrial materials. Analyses of Bay orientation showed that their long axes converge near the Great Lakes, suggesting that an <span class="hlt">impact</span> or airburst over that region may have formed the Bays (Eyton and Parkhurst, 1975). However, Bays dates have been reported over a wide range, calling into <span class="hlt">question</span> whether all Carolina Bays could have formed simultaneously, although this issue remains unresolved and controversial. Many Bay researchers, who subscribe to widely differing theories, agree that modern Carolina Bays have been subject to repeated modification and that they most likely evolved from some type of ancestral depressions. Now for the first time, we present conclusive geochemical and sedimentary evidence in support of an extraterrestrial connection for the Carolina Bays. Analyses of sediment from the rim sands and basins of fifteen Bays, widely distributed across North and South Carolina, reveal anomalously high abundances of microspherules, iridium, fullerenes with ET helium, carbon spherules, glass-like carbon, and other potential markers for extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">impact</span>. No such markers were found in paleosols beneath the rim sands or basal sediments of the Bays examined. The assemblage of geochemical and sediment signatures of extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">impact</span> found in Bay sediments are essentially the same as in the pan-North-American Younger Dryas <span class="hlt">impact</span> boundary layer (the YDB), dated at 12.9 ka. We hypothesize that at least some Bays were formed by the YD <span class="hlt">impact</span> during the last deglacial, and we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=yes+AND+any+AND+any&pg=7&id=ED248492','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=yes+AND+any+AND+any&pg=7&id=ED248492"><span>To <span class="hlt">Question</span> or Not to <span class="hlt">Question</span>: That Seems to Be the <span class="hlt">Question</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.</p> <p></p> <p>Research on the effects of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">questions</span>. Principles of good <span class="hlt">questioning</span> include the following: (1) well-stated <span class="hlt">questions</span> should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) <span class="hlt">questions</span> should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monte+AND+carlo+AND+3&pg=5&id=EJ973859','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monte+AND+carlo+AND+3&pg=5&id=EJ973859"><span>The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP): Evaluating Psychometric <span class="hlt">Questions</span> about Its Reliability, Validity, and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Its Fixed Score Distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blagov, Pavel S.; Bi, Wu; Shedler, Jonathan; Westen, Drew</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP) is a personality assessment instrument designed for use by expert clinical assessors. Critics have raised <span class="hlt">questions</span> about its psychometrics, most notably its validity across observers and situations, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of its fixed score distribution on research findings, and its test-retest reliability. We…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=personality+AND+traits+AND+across+AND+situation&id=EJ973859','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=personality+AND+traits+AND+across+AND+situation&id=EJ973859"><span>The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP): Evaluating Psychometric <span class="hlt">Questions</span> about Its Reliability, Validity, and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Its Fixed Score Distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blagov, Pavel S.; Bi, Wu; Shedler, Jonathan; Westen, Drew</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP) is a personality assessment instrument designed for use by expert clinical assessors. Critics have raised <span class="hlt">questions</span> about its psychometrics, most notably its validity across observers and situations, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of its fixed score distribution on research findings, and its test-retest reliability. We…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/861507','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/861507"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of iron contamination in multicrystalline silicon solarcells: <span class="hlt">origins</span>, chemical states, and device <span class="hlt">impacts</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Buonassisi, Tonio; Heuer, Matthias; Istratov, Andrei A.; Marcus,Matthew A.; Jonczyk, Ralf; Lai, Barry; Cai, Zhonghou; Schindler, Roland; Weber, Eicke R.</p> <p>2004-11-08</p> <p>Synchrotron-based microprobe techniques have been applied to study the distribution, size, chemical state, and recombination activity of Fe clusters in two types of mc-Si materials: block cast mc-Si, and AstroPower Silicon Film(TM) sheet material. In sheet material, high concentrations of metals were found at recombination-active, micron-sized intragranular clusters consisting of micron and sub-micron sized particles. In addition, Fe nanoparticles were located in densities of {approx}2'107 cm-2 along recombination-active grain boundaries. In cast mc-Si,two types of particles were identified at grain boundaries: (1) micron-sized oxidized Fe particles accompanied by other metals (Cr, Mn, Ca, Ti), and (2) a higher number of sub-micron FeSi2 precipitates that exhibited a preferred orientation along the crystal growth direction. In both materials, it is believed that the larger Fe clusters are inclusions of foreign particles, from which Fe dissolves in the melt to form the smaller FeSi2 nanoprecipitates, which by virtue of their more homogeneous distribution are deemed more dangerous to solar cell device performance. Based on this understanding, strategies proposed to reduce the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Fe on mc-Si electrical properties include gettering, passivation, and limiting the dissolution of foreign Fe-rich particles in the melt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18714115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18714115"><span>Developing great research <span class="hlt">questions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lipowski, Earlene E</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>The process for developing a good research <span class="hlt">question</span> is described. Three steps comprise the formulation of a great research <span class="hlt">question</span>: (1) ask interesting <span class="hlt">questions</span>, (2) select the best <span class="hlt">question</span> for research, and (3) transform the research <span class="hlt">question</span> into a testable hypothesis. Research is designed to generate information that cannot be gained from any other source. A research <span class="hlt">question</span> is a narrow, challenging <span class="hlt">question</span> addressing an issue, problem, or controversy that is answered with a conclusion based on the analysis and interpretation of evidence. A variety of strategies can be applied to stimulate creative thinking and generate new insights into old problems. A good research <span class="hlt">question</span> challenges researchers to see matters from a new perspective and to learn something new. Practice research <span class="hlt">questions</span> are evaluated by the probability of achieving their goal, along with the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> and feasibility of the project. The proposed research must meet important professional and societal goals, fit with the mission of the organization, garner administrative support, and be accomplished with available resources in a reasonable time frame. The research <span class="hlt">question</span> should be refined to generate one or more hypotheses that specify the nature of the relationships to be observed and measured. Properly formulated <span class="hlt">questions</span> yield findings to inform decisions that enhance practice, transfer to other settings, and make efficient use of resources. Developing a good research <span class="hlt">question</span> is the most important part of the research process. The <span class="hlt">question</span> should be narrow and address an important issue that fits within the mission of the organization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GeCoA..58.1229K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994GeCoA..58.1229K"><span>Kalkkop Crater, Cape Province, South Africa: Confirmation of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> using osmium isotope systematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Shirey, Steven B.; le Roux, F. G.</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>The Kalkkop structure, a circular depression with a diameter of 640 m, is situated in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. In 1992, a bore hole was drilled in the center of the crater to a depth of 151.8 m. To assess a possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of this structure, the abundances and isotopic ratios of osmium and rhenium were measured in breccias and in sandstones and shales derived from the basement. The basement rocks show rhenium and osmium abundances and isotopic compositions of osmium and neodymium ( 187Os /188Os = 0.61 to 0.92 and ɛNd = -6 to-7) that are typical for continental crust. One of the breccia samples shows a significantly elevated osmium content and a much lower ( 187Os /188Os ratio of about 0.215 (( 187Os /188Os ratio = 1.79 ). This ratio is much closer to meteoritic compositions than to crust, indicating the presence of about 0.05% of an extraterrestrial component in the breccia. This is the first time that osmium isotope systematics have been used to confirm the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of a crater structure, and demonstrates their sensitivity for <span class="hlt">impact</span> studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920018021&hterms=orbital+transfer+satellite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dorbital%2Btransfer%2Bsatellite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920018021&hterms=orbital+transfer+satellite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dorbital%2Btransfer%2Bsatellite"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> of orbital debris <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on Long Duration Exposure Facility's (LDEF) trailing surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kessler, Donald J.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Orbital debris tracked by the US Space Command is mostly in near circular orbit around the Earth. If small debris were in the same types of orbits, there would be very few orbital debris <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the Long Duration Exposure Facility's (LDEF's) trailing surfaces. However, at least 15 percent of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> found on the trailing A03 gold surface was found to be orbital debris <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. This measurement suggests that the orbital distribution of small debris is not the same as that of larger debris. Although this is not a total surprise, since modelling of satellite breakups has predicted different distributions, it does raise <span class="hlt">questions</span> as to what types of orbits could be responsible for these <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. A model was developed to explain these LDEF results. The model calculates the expected debris <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater distribution around LDEF, as a function of debris orbital parameters. The results show that only low inclination and highly elliptical orbits could be responsible for these <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. The most common object left in this type of orbit is an orbital transfer stage, used by the US and ESA to place objects into geosynchronous orbit, and inclinations near 28 and 7 degrees for the US and ESA, respectively. Even large fragments from satellites, which break up in these types of orbits, are difficult to observe from the ground; consequently, little is known about the number and characteristics of breakups in these orbits. The LDEF data suggest that these objects are breaking up. The LDEF data also suggest that the ratio of the contribution of small debris from this type of orbit to the contribution from circular orbits is about an order of magnitude larger than the same ratio for debris tracked by the US Space Command.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890066439&hterms=code+SPH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcode%2BSPH','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890066439&hterms=code+SPH&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcode%2BSPH"><span>The <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the moon and the single <span class="hlt">impact</span> hypothesis. III</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Benz, W.; Cameron, A. G. W.; Melosh, H. J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Calculations of the single-<span class="hlt">impact</span> hypothesis for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the moon were performed using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code developed by Benz et al. (1986). Results are presented from calculations of a relatively low-level collision with an impactor mass in the range 6-8 x 10 to the 26th g. Several runs of the calculations are conducted for this mass range with variations in the SPH code, the equation of state, and the initial planetary models. The effects of these variations are compared. It is found that the orbiting mass is injected by gravitational torques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=curiosity&pg=3&id=EJ896844','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=curiosity&pg=3&id=EJ896844"><span>Curiosity <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity <span class="hlt">questions</span>, which the authors also call What and How <span class="hlt">questions</span>, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Curiosity&pg=4&id=EJ896844','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Curiosity&pg=4&id=EJ896844"><span>Curiosity <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity <span class="hlt">questions</span>, which the authors also call What and How <span class="hlt">questions</span>, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ991956.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ991956.pdf"><span>Essential <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The secret to teaching may be as simple as asking students good <span class="hlt">questions</span>--and then giving them the opportunity to find the answers. The author shares how he uses essential <span class="hlt">questions</span> that set the class off on an inquiry. Rather than consuming information that he distributes and then repeating it on a test, students carry out their own…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=high+AND+expectations+AND+students&pg=5&id=EJ1002410','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=high+AND+expectations+AND+students&pg=5&id=EJ1002410"><span><span class="hlt">Question</span> Mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martin, Josh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through <span class="hlt">question</span> mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so <span class="hlt">question</span> mapping provides a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=josh&pg=6&id=EJ1002410','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=josh&pg=6&id=EJ1002410"><span><span class="hlt">Question</span> Mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martin, Josh</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through <span class="hlt">question</span> mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so <span class="hlt">question</span> mapping provides a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.U33A..04A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.U33A..04A"><span>Chicxulub <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and the Stratigraphy, Nature and <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of Near-K-T Breccia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Berner, Z.; Stüben, D.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>Breccias with altered <span class="hlt">impact</span> glass and located at or near the K-T boundary in Texas (USA), northern and southern Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Haiti and Brazil are investigated to determine their age, stratigraphy and <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Ages are variable. The oldest breccia deposit is within the uppermost Maastrichtian in the southern USA (Brazos, Texas), NE Mexico (e.g., Loma Cerca, El Penon) and in the Chicxulub <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater cores on Yucatan (e.g., cores Yaxcopoil-1, Y6, C1). In all these sections, the geochemistry of glass within the breccias is identical and consistent with Chicxulub <span class="hlt">impact</span> ejecta. The K-T boundary, Ir anomaly and mass extinction is located well above these <span class="hlt">impact</span> breccia layers. This strongly supports a pre-K-T age for the Chicxulub <span class="hlt">impact</span>, as also determined based on sedimentology, stratigraphy and paleontology. In NE Mexico and Texas the oldest Chicxulub <span class="hlt">impact</span> spherule ejecta layer is interbedded in normal marine sedimentation in the upper Maastrichtian (base of CF1 Zone), about 300'000 year prior to the K-T boundary. All stratigraphically younger spherule ejecta layers represent repeated episodes of reworking and transport of the <span class="hlt">original</span> layer during a sea-level regression and re- deposition in incised valleys in shallow environments (e.g., Brazos, Texas, La Popa Basin NE Mexico) and submarine canyons in deeper environments via mass flows and turbidites (e.g. Mimbral, Penon, Loma Cerca and many other section throughout NE Mexico). In southern Mexico, Belize and eastern Guatemala, the widespread thick microspherule and larger spheroid deposits are interbedded with breccia, microbreccias and conglomerates in the early Danian as a result of erosion in shallow carbonate platform sediments. The presence of early Danian planktic foraminifera in the matrix of the breccia, as well as within spherule clasts, indicate that redeposition occurred during the early Danian Parvularugoglobigerina eugubina (P1a) zone. In Haiti (Beloc sections), spherule deposits and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184247','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26184247"><span>Secondary Particulate Matter <span class="hlt">Originating</span> from an Industrial Source and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Population Health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mangia, Cristina; Cervino, Marco; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca</p> <p>2015-07-08</p> <p>Epidemiological studies have reported adverse associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) and several health outcomes. One issue in this field is exposure assessment and, in particular, the role of secondary PM2.5, often neglected in environmental and health risk assessment. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the long-term environmental and health <span class="hlt">impact</span> of primary and secondary PM2.5 concentrations <span class="hlt">originating</span> from a single industrial source. As a case study, we considered a coal power plant which is a large emitter of both primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors. PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using the Calpuff dispersion model. The health <span class="hlt">impact</span> was expressed in terms of number of non-accidental deaths potentially attributable to the power plant. Results showed that the estimated secondary PM2.5 extended over a larger area than that related to primary PM2.5 with maximum concentration values of the two components well separated in space. Exposure to secondary PM2.5 increased significantly the estimated number of annual attributable non-accidental deaths. Our study indicates that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of secondary PM2.5 may be relevant also at local scale and ought to be considered when estimating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of industrial emissions on population health.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4515683','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4515683"><span>Secondary Particulate Matter <span class="hlt">Originating</span> from an Industrial Source and Its <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Population Health</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mangia, Cristina; Cervino, Marco; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Epidemiological studies have reported adverse associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) and several health outcomes. One issue in this field is exposure assessment and, in particular, the role of secondary PM2.5, often neglected in environmental and health risk assessment. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the long-term environmental and health <span class="hlt">impact</span> of primary and secondary PM2.5 concentrations <span class="hlt">originating</span> from a single industrial source. As a case study, we considered a coal power plant which is a large emitter of both primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors. PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using the Calpuff dispersion model. The health <span class="hlt">impact</span> was expressed in terms of number of non-accidental deaths potentially attributable to the power plant. Results showed that the estimated secondary PM2.5 extended over a larger area than that related to primary PM2.5 with maximum concentration values of the two components well separated in space. Exposure to secondary PM2.5 increased significantly the estimated number of annual attributable non-accidental deaths. Our study indicates that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of secondary PM2.5 may be relevant also at local scale and ought to be considered when estimating the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of industrial emissions on population health. PMID:26184247</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRE..116.0F22M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRE..116.0F22M"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> of basaltic soils at Gusev crater, Mars, by aeolian modification of <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated sediment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGlynn, Ian O.; Fedo, Christopher M.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Textural properties of soils including grain size, sorting, modality, skewness, shape (quantified as sphericity and qualified as form), roundness, and grain size distribution, have been measured and calculated from Microscopic Imager (MI) high-resolution images from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit in Gusev crater. Soil targets were classified by grain size into five groups: fine to medium sand dark soil, medium sand to very fine pebble bed form armor, and very fine to medium pebble lithic fragments, a bimodal mixed soil, and an excavated soil trench. The abundance of submature, very poorly sorted, bimodal mixed soils indicates incomplete sorting by soil type. Probability distributions of excavated subsurface soil match crushed sediment analogs, indicating <span class="hlt">impact</span> comminution, while all other soils show no direct evidence of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span>. If soils were produced primarily by <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, then the evidence from probability distributions, angular shapes, and agglutinates have been reworked by postimpact surface activity. Soils in Gusev crater are continuously modified, reworked, and sandblasted. Textures of surface sediments are disconnected from subsurface textures and only reflect modern surficial aeolian processes. Models to reconstruct physical and chemical soil formation properties should not assume a static three-dimensional structure. A three-step model, initiated by the formation of basaltic crust and its alteration, followed by bolide <span class="hlt">impact</span>, and finally modification by aeolian reworking is envisioned for the formation of soils. Such a scenario accounts for the potential that surface sediments may be compositionally and texturally distinct from the subsurface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4852209P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4852209P"><span>Shared <span class="hlt">origin</span> for seven of Mars Trojans - <span class="hlt">impact</span> ejecta from Mars?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Polishook, David; Jacobson, Seth A.; Aharonson, Oded</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Seven out of nine Mars Trojans belong to an orbital grouping that started to spread about 109 years ago (Cuk et al. 2015). We spectrally observed two of them (311999 and 385250) using the IRTF telescope and found that both present an identical olivine-rich reflectance spectrum, that is similar to the reflectance spectrum of (5261) Eureka, the largest of these seven Trojans (Rivkin et al. 2007). These measurements confirm the shared <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the seven. Moreover, olivine-rich reflectance spectra is rare within asteroids, but is visible in numerous locations on Mars and is found within SNC meteorites that are argued to <span class="hlt">originate</span> from Mars (Chassigny, ALHA77005; McSween 1985). This spectral resemblance encourages us to suggest that the seven Trojans are <span class="hlt">impact</span> ejecta from Mars' plutonic rock. We will present dynamical calculations showing how the <span class="hlt">impact</span> ejecta could have been caught in L5 and that there are enough size-relevant craters on Mars surface to produce these seven Trojans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMDI53C..03M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMDI53C..03M"><span>Late <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> and the <span class="hlt">Origins</span> of the Atmospheres on the Terrestrial Planets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mukhopadhyay, S.; Stewart, S. T.; Lock, S. J.; Parai, R.; Tucker, J. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Models for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of terrestrial atmospheres typically require an intricate sequence of events, including hydrodynamic escape, outgassing of mantle volatiles and late delivery. Here we discuss the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the atmospheres on the terrestrial planets in light of new ideas about the formation of the Moon, giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> induced atmospheric loss and recent noble gas measurements. Our new measurements indicate that noble gases in the Earth's atmosphere cannot be derived from any combination of fractionation of a nebular-derived atmosphere followed by outgassing of deep or shallow mantle volatiles. While Ne in the mantle retains a nebular component, the present-day atmosphere has no memory of nebular gases. Rather, atmospheric noble gases have a close affinity to chondrites. On the other hand, Venus's atmosphere has 20 and 70 times higher abundance of 20Ne and 36Ar, respectively, and a 20Ne/22Ne ratio closer to the solar value than Earth's atmosphere. While the present atmosphere of Mars is significantly fractionated in the lighter noble gases due to long term atmospheric escape, the Kr isotopic ratios in Martian atmosphere are identical to solar. Thus, while Earth's atmosphere has no memory of accretion of nebular gases, atmospheres on both Venus and Mars preserve at least a component of nebular gases. To explain the above observations, we propose that a common set of processes operated on the terrestrial planets, and that their subsequent evolutionary divergence is simply explained by planetary size and the stochastic nature of giant <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. We present geochemical observations and simulations of giant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to show that most of Earth's mantle was degassed and the outgassed volatiles were largely lost during the final sequence of giant <span class="hlt">impacts</span> onto Earth. Earth's noble gases were therefore dominantly derived from late-accreting planetesimals. In contrast, Venus did not suffer substantial atmospheric loss by a late giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> and retains a higher abundance of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011987','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890011987"><span>The Calvin 28 cryptoexplosive disturbance, Cass County, Michigan: Evidence for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Milstein, Randall L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Calvin 28 cryptoexplosive disturbance is an isolated, nearly circular subsurface structure of Late Ordovician age in southwestern Michigan. The structure is defined by 107 wells, is about 7.24 km in diameter and consists of a central dome, an annular depression and an encircling anticlinal rim. Seismic and geophysical well log data confirm that an intricate system of faults and structural derangement exists within the structure. Deformation decreases with depth and distance from the structure. U.S.G.S. topographic maps and aerial imagery show the structure is reflected as a subtle surface topographic rise controlling local drainage. Igneous or diapiric intrusion and solution collapse are rejected as possible <span class="hlt">origins</span> for Calvin 28 on the basis of stratigraphic, structural and geophysical evidence. A volcanic <span class="hlt">origin</span> is inconsistent with calculated energy requirements and an absence of igneous material. Although shock-metamorphic features are unidentified, microbreccias occur in deep wells that penetrate the structure. Morphology and structural parameters support an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16501263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16501263"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of self-assessment <span class="hlt">questions</span> and learning styles in Web-based learning: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cook, David A; Thompson, Warren G; Thomas, Kris G; Thomas, Matthew R; Pankratz, V Shane</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>To determine the effect of self-assessment <span class="hlt">questions</span> on learners' knowledge and format preference in a Web-based course, and investigate associations between learning styles and outcomes. The authors conducted a randomized, controlled, crossover trial in the continuity clinics of the Mayo-Rochester internal medicine residency program during the 2003-04 academic year. Case-based self-assessment <span class="hlt">questions</span> were added to Web-based modules covering topics in ambulatory internal medicine. Participants completed two modules with <span class="hlt">questions</span> and two modules without <span class="hlt">questions</span>, with sequence randomly assigned. Outcomes included knowledge assessed after each module, format preference, and learning style assessed using the Index of Learning Styles. A total of 121 of 146 residents (83%) consented. Residents had higher test scores when using the <span class="hlt">question</span> format (mean +/- standard error, 78.9% +/- 1.0) than when using the standard format (76.2% +/- 1.0, p = .006). Residents preferring the <span class="hlt">question</span> format scored higher (79.7% +/- 1.1) than those preferring standard (69.5% +/- 2.3, p < .001). Learning styles did not affect scores except that visual-verbal "intermediate" learners (80.6% +/- 1.4) and visual learners (77.5% +/- 1.3) did better than verbal learners (70.9% +/- 3.0, p = .003 and p = .033, respectively). Sixty-five of 78 residents (83.3%, 95% CI 73.2-90.8%) preferred the <span class="hlt">question</span> format. Learning styles were not associated with preference (p > .384). Although the <span class="hlt">question</span> format took longer than the standard format (60.4 +/- 3.6 versus 44.3 +/- 3.3 minutes, p < .001), 55 of 77 residents (71.4%, 60.0-81.2%) reported that it was more efficient. Instructional methods that actively engage learners improve learning outcomes. These findings hold implications for both Web-based learning and "traditional" educational activities. Future research, in both Web-based learning and other teaching modalities, should focus on further defining the effectiveness of selected instructional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.P54A..02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.P54A..02M"><span>Where is the Geophysical Evidence for the Giant <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of the Pluto System?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McKinnon, W. B.; Singer, K. N.; Nimmo, F.; Spencer, J. R.; Young, L. A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Stern, S. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Prior to the New Horizons flyby of the Pluto system, it was anticipated that both Pluto and Charon might show geological or geophysical evidence of the giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> thought responsible for the formation of Charon and the smaller satellites. Although dynamical and compositional evidence still supports the giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> model (McKinnon et al., submitted to Icarus), the <span class="hlt">question</span> remains as to whether the geology of Pluto or Charon records evidence of this cataclysm. The collision speed and energy were most likely not large enough to melt all the ices in the precursor bodies, so surviving geological evidence is not out of the <span class="hlt">question</span>. Specifically, Pluto post-<span class="hlt">impact</span> should have been rapidly rotating (with a period as short as 5-6 hr) and highly distorted; Charon under most circumstances would have rapidly despun but have been a highly distorted triaxial body. The tidal evolution end state for both is close to spherical, but fossil figures were anticipated, which in addition to providing direct evidence for post-<span class="hlt">impact</span> tidal evolution, would provide important clues to thermal and structural evolution. For Pluto, McKinnon and Singer (DPS 2014, abs. 419.07) predicted a flattening >1% (radii differences >10 km) for a strengthless icy lithosphere and an unrelaxed rock core. For a fully relaxed core, they predicted a >2-3 km fossil bulge supported by icy lithospheric strength (corresponding to a minimum past lithosphere thickness of 50 km). New Horizons image analyses have limited any oblateness for Pluto to 0.6% (Nimmo et al., Icarus, in press), which corresponds to <7 km flattening. So Pluto may yet possess a geophysically meaningful oblateness, only one not yet directly detectable (moreover, in order to be consistent with the observations, Pluto's rock core either completed its formation post-spindown, or was too weak to support much non-hydrostatic topography). Such an equator-to-pole surface elevation difference, even a subtle one, could express itself through control</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marking+AND+policy&pg=2&id=EJ934593','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marking+AND+policy&pg=2&id=EJ934593"><span>The Interrelations of Features of <span class="hlt">Questions</span>, Mark Schemes and Examinee Responses and Their <span class="hlt">Impact</span> upon Marker Agreement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Black, Beth; Suto, Irenka; Bramley, Tom</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we develop an evidence-based framework for considering many of the factors affecting marker agreement in GCSEs and A levels. A logical analysis of the demands of the marking task suggests a core grouping comprising: (i) <span class="hlt">question</span> features; (ii) mark scheme features; and (iii) examinee response features. The framework synthesises…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teacher+AND+student+AND+sexual+AND+relationship&pg=7&id=EJ991183','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teacher+AND+student+AND+sexual+AND+relationship&pg=7&id=EJ991183"><span>School Avoidance and Substance Use among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Youths: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Peer Victimization and Adult Support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Darwich, Lina; Hymel, Shelley; Waterhouse, Terry</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study examined differences among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and <span class="hlt">questioning</span> youths in their perceptions of adult support. For socially stigmatized youths, adult support is of particular significance. However, there is very little understanding about how adult support protects youths from homophobic victimization as well as other risk factors. In…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Research+Policy%22&pg=4&id=EJ1124174','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Research+Policy%22&pg=4&id=EJ1124174"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Political Context on the <span class="hlt">Questions</span> Asked and Answered: The Evolution of Education Research on Racial Inequality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wells, Amy Stuart; Roda, Allison</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This chapter examines how the larger political context and policies enacted at different points in American history have affected the <span class="hlt">questions</span> education researchers asked and answered. The authors argue that while education researchers are often quick to consider how their research should shape policy, they are less likely to contemplate the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1107739.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1107739.pdf"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Guided Student-Generated <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> on Chemistry Achievement and Self-Efficacy of Elementary Preservice Teachers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moseley, Christine; Bonner, Emily; Ibey, Marilyn</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the use of Guided Student-Generated <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> (GSGQ) as a metacognitive instructional strategy to increase chemistry achievement and self-efficacy of elementary preservice teachers. The Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES), modified from the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES),was used to determine elementary preservice…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=research+AND+policy&pg=3&id=EJ1124174','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=research+AND+policy&pg=3&id=EJ1124174"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Political Context on the <span class="hlt">Questions</span> Asked and Answered: The Evolution of Education Research on Racial Inequality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wells, Amy Stuart; Roda, Allison</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This chapter examines how the larger political context and policies enacted at different points in American history have affected the <span class="hlt">questions</span> education researchers asked and answered. The authors argue that while education researchers are often quick to consider how their research should shape policy, they are less likely to contemplate the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23377600','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23377600"><span>Individual and environmental factors influencing <span class="hlt">questionable</span> development among low-income children: differential <span class="hlt">impact</span> during infancy versus early childhood.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; Yang, Soo</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>From the holistic environmental perspective, individual and environmental influences on low-income children's <span class="hlt">questionable</span> development were identified and examined as to differences in the influences according to the child's developmental stage of infancy (age 0-35 months) or early childhood (age 36-71 months). This study was a cross-sectional comparative design using negative binominal regression analysis to identify predictors of <span class="hlt">questionable</span> development separately for each developmental stage. The sample was comprised of 952 children (357 in infancy and 495 in early childhood) from low-income families in South Korea. Predictors included individual factors: child's age and gender; proximal environmental influences: family factors (family health conditions, primary caregiver, child-caregiver relationship, depression in primary caregiver) and institution factors (daycare enrollment, days per week in daycare); and distal environmental influences: income/resources factors (family income, personal resources and social resources); and community factors (perceived child-rearing environment). The outcome variable was <span class="hlt">questionable</span> development. Significant contributors to <span class="hlt">questionable</span> development in the infancy group were age, family health conditions, and personal resources; in the early childhood group, significant contributors were gender, family health conditions, grandparent as a primary caregiver, child-caregiver relationships, daycare enrollment, and personal resources. Factors influencing children's <span class="hlt">questionable</span> development may vary by developmental stage. It is important to consider differences in individual and environmental influences when developing targeted interventions to ensure that children attain their optimal developmental goals at each developmental stage. Understanding this may lead nursing professionals to design more effective preventive interventions for low-income children.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4273...11K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4273...11K"><span>Panspermia asks new <span class="hlt">questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klyce, Brig</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>There is a widespread sentiment that panspermia is uninteresting is because it does not answer fundamental <span class="hlt">questions</span> about the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life. The strongest version of panspermia asks entirely new <span class="hlt">questions</span>. While barriers to the acceptance of panspermia are falling and evidence supporting it is accumulating, the mere possibility of panspermia unhinges the Darwinian account of evolutionary progress. The new theory removes an issue dividing science and religion, but it requires an amendment to the big bang theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PEPI..192...21P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PEPI..192...21P"><span>Geophysical characterization of two circular structures at Bajada del Diablo (Patagonia, Argentina): Indication of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prezzi, Claudia B.; Orgeira, María Julia; Acevedo, Rogelio D.; Ponce, Juan Federico; Martinez, Oscar; Rabassa, Jorge O.; Corbella, Hugo; Vásquez, Carlos; González-Guillot, Mauricio; Subías, Ignacio</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> has been proposed for the circular structures found in Bajada del Diablo, Patagonia, Argentina. Taking into account its extension and the number of <span class="hlt">impact</span> structures, Bajada del Diablo would be the largest meteoritic <span class="hlt">impact</span> areas known on Earth, being an extremely interesting area for the research of <span class="hlt">impact</span> events and processes. Moreover, the global distribution of known <span class="hlt">impact</span> structures shows a surprising asymmetry. Particularly, South America has only seven described areas. It is evident that this situation is an artifact, highlighting the importance of intensifying the research in the least studied areas such as Argentina. Circular structures in Bajada del Diablo have been identified on two rock types: the Quiñelaf eruptive complex and Pampa Sastre Formation. In the first case, circular structures are placed in olivine basalts. On the other hand, Pampa Sastre Formation (late Pliocene/early Pleistocene) corresponds to conglomerate layers with basalt clasts boulder and block in size in a coarse sandy matrix. With the aim of further the investigation of the proposed <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> for these circular structures, we carried out detailed topographic, magnetic and electromagnetic ground surveys in two circular structures ("8" and "A") found in Pampa Sastre conglomerates. Both circular structures are simple, bowl-shaped with rim diameters of 300 m and maximum depths of 10 m. They have been partially filled in by debris flows from the rims and wind-blown sands. Two preliminary magnetic profiles have also been carried out in circular structure "G" found in Quiñelaf basalts. The magnetic anomalies show a circular pattern with a slightly negative and relatively flat signal in the circular structures' bases. Furthermore in the circular structures' rims, high-amplitude, conspicuous and localized (short wavelength) anomalies are observed. Such large amplitude and short wavelength anomalies are not detected outside the circular structures. For all used</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NatGe...3..533Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NatGe...3..533Y"><span>Possible mantle <span class="hlt">origin</span> of olivine around lunar <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins detected by SELENE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Satoru; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Morota, Tomokatsu; Hirata, Naru; Ohtake, Makiko; Hiroi, Takahiro; Yokota, Yasuhiro; Haruyama, Junichi</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The composition, structure and evolution of the Moon's mantle is poorly constrained. The mineral olivine, one of the main constituents of Earth's mantle, has been identified by Earth-based telescopic observations at two craters on the near side of the Moon, Aristarchus and Copernicus. Global reflectance spectra in five discrete spectral bands produced by the spacecraft Clementine suggested several possible olivine-bearing sites, but one of the candidate occurrences of olivine was later re-classified, on the basis of continuous reflectance spectra over the entire 1μm band, as a mixture of plagioclase and pyroxene. Here we present a global survey of the lunar surface using the Spectral Profiler onboard the lunar explorer SELENE/Kaguya. We found many exposures of olivine on the Moon, located in concentric regions around the South Pole-Aitken, Imbrium and Moscoviense <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins where the crust is relatively thin. We propose that these exposures of olivine can be attributed either to an excavation of the lunar mantle at the time of the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that formed the basins, or to magnesium-rich pluton in the Moon's lower crust. On the basis of radiative transfer modelling, we suggest that at least some of the olivine detected near <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins <span class="hlt">originates</span> from upper mantle of the Moon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24492708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24492708"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of history on our perception of evolutionary events: endosymbiosis and the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of eukaryotic complexity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keeling, Patrick J</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Evolutionary hypotheses are correctly interpreted as products of the data they set out to explain, but they are less often recognized as being heavily influenced by other factors. One of these is the history of preceding thought, and here I look back on historically important changes in our thinking about the role of endosymbiosis in the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of eukaryotic cells. Specifically, the modern emphasis on endosymbiotic explanations for numerous eukaryotic features, including the cell itself (the so-called chimeric hypotheses), can be seen not only as resulting from the advent of molecular and genomic data, but also from the intellectual acceptance of the endosymbiotic <span class="hlt">origin</span> of mitochondria and plastids. This transformative idea may have unduly affected how other aspects of the eukaryotic cell are explained, in effect priming us to accept endosymbiotic explanations for endogenous processes. Molecular and genomic data, which were <span class="hlt">originally</span> harnessed to answer <span class="hlt">questions</span> about cell evolution, now so dominate our thinking that they largely define the <span class="hlt">question</span>, and the <span class="hlt">original</span> <span class="hlt">questions</span> about how eukaryotic cellular architecture evolved have been neglected. This is unfortunate because, as Roger Stanier pointed out, these cellular changes represent life's "greatest single evolutionary discontinuity," and on this basis I advocate a return to emphasizing evolutionary cell biology when thinking about the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of eukaryotes, and suggest that endogenous explanations will prevail when we refocus on the evolution of the cell.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3941238','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3941238"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of History on Our Perception of Evolutionary Events: Endosymbiosis and the <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of Eukaryotic Complexity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Keeling, Patrick J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Evolutionary hypotheses are correctly interpreted as products of the data they set out to explain, but they are less often recognized as being heavily influenced by other factors. One of these is the history of preceding thought, and here I look back on historically important changes in our thinking about the role of endosymbiosis in the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of eukaryotic cells. Specifically, the modern emphasis on endosymbiotic explanations for numerous eukaryotic features, including the cell itself (the so-called chimeric hypotheses), can be seen not only as resulting from the advent of molecular and genomic data, but also from the intellectual acceptance of the endosymbiotic <span class="hlt">origin</span> of mitochondria and plastids. This transformative idea may have unduly affected how other aspects of the eukaryotic cell are explained, in effect priming us to accept endosymbiotic explanations for endogenous processes. Molecular and genomic data, which were <span class="hlt">originally</span> harnessed to answer <span class="hlt">questions</span> about cell evolution, now so dominate our thinking that they largely define the <span class="hlt">question</span>, and the <span class="hlt">original</span> <span class="hlt">questions</span> about how eukaryotic cellular architecture evolved have been neglected. This is unfortunate because, as Roger Stanier pointed out, these cellular changes represent life’s “greatest single evolutionary discontinuity,” and on this basis I advocate a return to emphasizing evolutionary cell biology when thinking about the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of eukaryotes, and suggest that endogenous explanations will prevail when we refocus on the evolution of the cell. PMID:24492708</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900035020&hterms=disruptive+model&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddisruptive%2Bmodel','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900035020&hterms=disruptive+model&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddisruptive%2Bmodel"><span>Geochemistry of polymict ureilite EET83309, and a partially-disruptive <span class="hlt">impact</span> model for ureilite <span class="hlt">origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Bulk-compositional data for the EET83309 polymict ureilite were obtained using INAA and radiochemistry procedures and electron probe analysis. It was found that the EET83309 has a bulk composition indistinguishable from ordinary ('monomict') ureilites for all elements except light-middle REEs (which are present in much higher concentrations), suggesting that polymict ureilites are mixtures of ordinary ureilites which were mixed on a very small number of parent bodies. Despite the light-REE enrichments, polymict ureilites are nearly devoid of basaltic (Al-rich) material. It is suggested that the missing basalt may have been blown off the parent body by a partially disruptive collision with a large C-rich projectile. This <span class="hlt">impact</span> model of ureilite <span class="hlt">origin</span> reconciles many paradoxical aspects of ureilite composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870013909','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870013909"><span>The cratering record at Uranus: Implications for satellite evolution and the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of <span class="hlt">impacting</span> objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Strom, Robert G.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The crater size/frequency distributions on the major Uranian satellites show two distinctly different crater populations of different ages. Any hypothesis on the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the objects responsible for the period of heavy bombardment must account for the occurrence of different crater populations (size/frequency distributions) in different parts of the solar system. A computerized simulation using short-period comet <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocities and a modified Holsapple-Schmidt crater scaling law was used to recover the size distribution of cometary nuclei from the observed cratering record. The most likely explanation for the cratering record is that the period of heavy bombardment was caused by different families of accretional remnants indigenous to the system in which the different crater populations occurred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900035020&hterms=model+missing+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmodel%2Bmissing%2Bdata','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900035020&hterms=model+missing+data&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmodel%2Bmissing%2Bdata"><span>Geochemistry of polymict ureilite EET83309, and a partially-disruptive <span class="hlt">impact</span> model for ureilite <span class="hlt">origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Warren, Paul H.; Kallemeyn, Gregory W.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Bulk-compositional data for the EET83309 polymict ureilite were obtained using INAA and radiochemistry procedures and electron probe analysis. It was found that the EET83309 has a bulk composition indistinguishable from ordinary ('monomict') ureilites for all elements except light-middle REEs (which are present in much higher concentrations), suggesting that polymict ureilites are mixtures of ordinary ureilites which were mixed on a very small number of parent bodies. Despite the light-REE enrichments, polymict ureilites are nearly devoid of basaltic (Al-rich) material. It is suggested that the missing basalt may have been blown off the parent body by a partially disruptive collision with a large C-rich projectile. This <span class="hlt">impact</span> model of ureilite <span class="hlt">origin</span> reconciles many paradoxical aspects of ureilite composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019255','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019255"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> and diagenesis of K/T <span class="hlt">impact</span> spherules - from Haiti to Wyoming and beyond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bohor, B.F.; Glass, B.P.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span> spherules in Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary clays and claystones consist of two types; each type is confined to its own separate layer of the boundary couplet in the Western Hemisphere. The form and composition of each of the spherule types result from its own unique mode of <span class="hlt">origin</span> during the K/T event. Type 1 splash-form spherules occur only in the melt-ejecta (basal) layer of the K/T couplet. This layer was deposited from a ballistic ejecta curtain composed of melt-glass droplets transported mostly within the atmosphere. In contrast, Type 2 spherules are accreted, partially crystalline, spheroidal bodies that formed by condensation of vaporized bolide and target-rock materials in an expanding fireball cloud, from which they settled out of buoyant suspension to form the fireball layer. Dendritic and skeletal Ni-rich spinel crystals are unique to these Type 2 spherules in the fireball layer. -from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27617635','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27617635"><span>Potassium isotopic evidence for a high-energy giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Moon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Kun; Jacobsen, Stein B</p> <p>2016-10-27</p> <p>The Earth-Moon system has unique chemical and isotopic signatures compared with other planetary bodies; any successful model for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of this system therefore has to satisfy these chemical and isotopic constraints. The Moon is substantially depleted in volatile elements such as potassium compared with the Earth and the bulk solar composition, and it has long been thought to be the result of a catastrophic Moon-forming giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> event. Volatile-element-depleted bodies such as the Moon were expected to be enriched in heavy potassium isotopes during the loss of volatiles; however such enrichment was never found. Here we report new high-precision potassium isotope data for the Earth, the Moon and chondritic meteorites. We found that the lunar rocks are significantly (>2σ) enriched in the heavy isotopes of potassium compared to the Earth and chondrites (by around 0.4 parts per thousand). The enrichment of the heavy isotope of potassium in lunar rocks compared with those of the Earth and chondrites can be best explained as the result of the incomplete condensation of a bulk silicate Earth vapour at an ambient pressure that is higher than 10 bar. We used these coupled constraints of the chemical loss and isotopic fractionation of K to compare two recent dynamic models that were used to explain the identical non-mass-dependent isotope composition of the Earth and the Moon. Our K isotope result is inconsistent with the low-energy disk equilibration model, but supports the high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> model for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Moon. High-precision potassium isotope data can also be used as a 'palaeo-barometer' to reveal the physical conditions during the Moon-forming event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Natur.538..487W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Natur.538..487W"><span>Potassium isotopic evidence for a high-energy giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Moon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Kun; Jacobsen, Stein B.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The Earth-Moon system has unique chemical and isotopic signatures compared with other planetary bodies; any successful model for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of this system therefore has to satisfy these chemical and isotopic constraints. The Moon is substantially depleted in volatile elements such as potassium compared with the Earth and the bulk solar composition, and it has long been thought to be the result of a catastrophic Moon-forming giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> event. Volatile-element-depleted bodies such as the Moon were expected to be enriched in heavy potassium isotopes during the loss of volatiles; however such enrichment was never found. Here we report new high-precision potassium isotope data for the Earth, the Moon and chondritic meteorites. We found that the lunar rocks are significantly (>2σ) enriched in the heavy isotopes of potassium compared to the Earth and chondrites (by around 0.4 parts per thousand). The enrichment of the heavy isotope of potassium in lunar rocks compared with those of the Earth and chondrites can be best explained as the result of the incomplete condensation of a bulk silicate Earth vapour at an ambient pressure that is higher than 10 bar. We used these coupled constraints of the chemical loss and isotopic fractionation of K to compare two recent dynamic models that were used to explain the identical non-mass-dependent isotope composition of the Earth and the Moon. Our K isotope result is inconsistent with the low-energy disk equilibration model, but supports the high-energy, high-angular-momentum giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> model for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Moon. High-precision potassium isotope data can also be used as a ‘palaeo-barometer’ to reveal the physical conditions during the Moon-forming event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3083295','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3083295"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span>, functional role, and clinical <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Fanconi anemia FANCA mutations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Castella, Maria; Pujol, Roser; Callén, Elsa; Trujillo, Juan P.; Casado, José A.; Gille, Hans; Lach, Francis P.; Auerbach, Arleen D.; Schindler, Detlev; Benítez, Javier; Porto, Beatriz; Ferro, Teresa; Muñoz, Arturo; Sevilla, Julián; Madero, Luis; Cela, Elena; Beléndez, Cristina; de Heredia, Cristina Díaz; Olivé, Teresa; de Toledo, José Sánchez; Badell, Isabel; Torrent, Montserrat; Estella, Jesús; Dasí, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Villa, Antonia; Gómez, Pedro; Barbot, José; Tapia, María; Molinés, Antonio; Figuera, Ángela; Bueren, Juan A.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Fanconi anemia is characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and cancer predisposition. To investigate the <span class="hlt">origin</span>, functional role, and clinical <span class="hlt">impact</span> of FANCA mutations, we determined a FANCA mutational spectrum with 130 pathogenic alleles. Some of these mutations were further characterized for their distribution in populations, mode of emergence, or functional consequences at cellular and clinical level. The world most frequent FANCA mutation is not the result of a mutational “hot-spot” but results from worldwide dissemination of an ancestral Indo-European mutation. We provide molecular evidence that total absence of FANCA in humans does not reduce embryonic viability, as the observed frequency of mutation carriers in the Gypsy population equals the expected by Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We also prove that long distance Alu-Alu recombination can cause Fanconi anemia by <span class="hlt">originating</span> large interstitial deletions involving FANCA and 2 adjacent genes. Finally, we show that all missense mutations studied lead to an altered FANCA protein that is unable to relocate to the nucleus and activate the FA/BRCA pathway. This may explain the observed lack of correlation between type of FANCA mutation and cellular phenotype or clinical severity in terms of age of onset of hematologic disease or number of malformations. PMID:21273304</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27568026','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27568026"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of drought on plant populations of native and invasive <span class="hlt">origins</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kleine, Sandra; Weissinger, Lisa; Müller, Caroline</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Invasive populations often shift phenotypically during introduction. Moreover, they are postulated to show an increased phenotypic plasticity compared with their native counterparts, which could be advantageous. However, less is known about trait selection across populations along the invasion gradient in response to environmental factors, such as increasing drought caused by climate change. In this study, we investigated the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of drought on growth, regrowth, and various leaf traits in plants of different <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Therefore, seeds of 18 populations of the perennial Tanacetum vulgare were collected along the invasion gradient (North America, invasive; West Europe, archaeophyte; East Europe, native) and grown in competition with the grass Poa pratensis under control or dry conditions in a common garden. Above-ground biomass was cut once and the regrowth was measured as an indicator for tolerance over a second growth period. Initially, drought had little effects on growth of T. vulgare, but after cutting, plants grew more vigorously. Against expectations, phenotypic plasticity was not higher in invasive populations, but even reduced in one trait, which may be attributable to ecological constraints imposed by multiple stress conditions. Trait responses reflected the range expansion and invasion gradient and were influenced by the latitudinal <span class="hlt">origin</span> of populations. Populations of invaded ranges may be subject to faster and more extensive genetic mixing or had less time to undergo and reflect selective processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27025496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27025496"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> and <span class="hlt">origin</span> of copy number variations in the Oryza species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bai, Zetao; Chen, Jinfeng; Liao, Yi; Wang, Meijiao; Liu, Rong; Ge, Song; Wing, Rod A; Chen, Mingsheng</p> <p>2016-03-29</p> <p>Copy number variation (CNV), a complex genomic rearrangement, has been extensively studied in humans and other organisms. In plants, CNVs of several genes were found to be responsible for various important traits; however, the cause and consequence of CNVs remains largely unknown. Recently released next-generation sequencing (NGS) data provide an opportunity for a genome-wide study of CNVs in rice. Here, by an NGS-based approach, we generated a CNV map comprising 9,196 deletions compared to the reference genome 'Nipponbare'. Using Oryza glaberrima as the outgroup, 80% of the CNV events turned out to be insertions in Nipponbare. There were 2,806 annotated genes affected by these CNV events. We experimentally validated 28 functional CNV genes including OsMADS56, BPH14, OsDCL2b and OsMADS30, implying that CNVs might have contributed to phenotypic variations in rice. Most CNV genes were found to be located in non-co-linear positions by comparison to O. glaberrima. One of the <span class="hlt">origins</span> of these non-co-linear genes was genomic duplications caused by transposon activity or double-strand break repair. Comprehensive analysis of mutation mechanisms suggested an abundance of CNVs formed by non-homologous end-joining and mobile element insertion. This study showed the <span class="hlt">impact</span> and <span class="hlt">origin</span> of copy number variations in rice on a genomic scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Article+AND+architecture&pg=3&id=EJ857494','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Article+AND+architecture&pg=3&id=EJ857494"><span>Questor's <span class="hlt">Question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad <span class="hlt">questions</span> are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=qt&pg=2&id=EJ775312','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=qt&pg=2&id=EJ775312"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Styles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martin, Nikki</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author discusses a project involving the observation of 12 teachers in different schools, teaching pupils at Key Stage 3 of differing ages and abilities, noting both <span class="hlt">questioning</span> techniques used and pupils' responses. The teachers involved were volunteers, chosen to give a range of experience, styles, and school, and included a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dock&pg=3&id=EJ857494','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dock&pg=3&id=EJ857494"><span>Questor's <span class="hlt">Question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad <span class="hlt">questions</span> are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Light+AND+Energy&pg=2&id=EJ997708','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Light+AND+Energy&pg=2&id=EJ997708"><span>Four <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four <span class="hlt">Questions</span> highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED438271.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED438271.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Questionable</span> Exercises.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common <span class="hlt">questionable</span> exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Pardee&pg=3&id=EJ304269','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Pardee&pg=3&id=EJ304269"><span>"The" <span class="hlt">Question</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lowe, Pardee, Jr.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Examines the suggestions found in Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," in the light of a possible U.S. Government's Interagency Language Roundtable receptive skills proficiency test which must supply the answer to the <span class="hlt">question</span> of how well an individual can understand a particular…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reader+AND+response+AND+critical+AND+literacy&pg=7&id=EJ559417','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reader+AND+response+AND+critical+AND+literacy&pg=7&id=EJ559417"><span>Critical <span class="hlt">Questions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Worthy, Jo; Hoffman, James V.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Offers responses from four readers of this journal, all reading and/or classroom teachers, to a <span class="hlt">question</span> posed by another teacher: whether children who have had limited literacy experiences should start reading in whole-language readers and/or trade books or whether they should start in controlled-vocabulary preprimers. (SR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+travel&pg=4&id=EJ997708','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+travel&pg=4&id=EJ997708"><span>Four <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four <span class="hlt">Questions</span> highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16495992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16495992"><span>A giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> for Pluto's small moons and satellite multiplicity in the Kuiper belt.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stern, S A; Weaver, H A; Steffl, A J; Mutchler, M J; Merline, W J; Buie, M W; Young, E F; Young, L A; Spencer, J R</p> <p>2006-02-23</p> <p>The two newly discovered satellites of Pluto (P1 and P2) have masses that are small compared to both Pluto and Charon-that is, between 5 x 10(-4) and 1 x 10(-5) of Pluto's mass, and between 5 x 10(-3) and 1 x 10(-4) of Charon's mass. This discovery, combined with the constraints on the absence of more distant satellites of Pluto, reveal that Pluto and its moons comprise an unusual, highly compact, quadruple system. These facts naturally raise the <span class="hlt">question</span> of how this puzzling satellite system came to be. Here we show that P1 and P2's proximity to Pluto and Charon, the fact that P1 and P2 are on near-circular orbits in the same plane as Pluto's large satellite Charon, along with their apparent locations in or near high-order mean-motion resonances, all probably result from their being constructed from collisional ejecta that <span class="hlt">originated</span> from the Pluto-Charon formation event. We also argue that dust-ice rings of variable optical depths form sporadically in the Pluto system, and that rich satellite systems may be found--perhaps frequently--around other large Kuiper belt objects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23064271','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23064271"><span>Development and evaluation of CAHPS <span class="hlt">questions</span> to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of health information technology on patient experiences with ambulatory care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McInnes, D Keith; Brown, Julie A; Hays, Ron D; Gallagher, Patricia; Ralston, James D; Hugh, Mildred; Kanter, Michael; Serrato, Carl A; Cosenza, Carol; Halamka, John; Ding, Lin; Cleary, Paul D</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Little is known about whether health information technology (HIT) affects patient experiences with health care. To develop HIT <span class="hlt">questions</span> that assess patients care experiences not evaluated by existing ambulatory Consumer Assessment of Health Plans and Systems (CAHPS) measures. We reviewed published articles and conducted focus groups and cognitive testing to develop survey <span class="hlt">questions</span>. We collected data, using mail and the internet, from patients of 69 physicians receiving care at an academic medical center and 2 regional integrated delivery systems in late 2009 and 2010. We evaluated <span class="hlt">questions</span> and scales about HIT using factor analysis, item-scale correlations, and reliability (internal consistency and physician-level) estimates. We found support for 3 HIT composites: doctor use of computer (2 items), e-mail (2 items), and helpfulness of provider's website (4 items). Corrected item-scale correlations were 0.37 for the 2 doctor use of computer items and 0.71 for the 2 e-mail items, and ranged from 0.50 to 0.60 for the provider's website items. Cronbach α was high for e-mail (0.83) and provider's website (0.75), but only 0.54 for doctor use of computer. As few as 50 responses per physician would yield reliability of 0.70 for e-mail and provider's website. Two HIT composites, doctor use of computer (P<0.001) and provider's website (P=0.02), were independent predictors of overall ratings of doctors. New CAHPS HIT items were identified that measure aspects of patient experiences not assessed by the CAHPS C&G 1.0 survey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3525454','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3525454"><span>Development and Evaluation of CAHPS® <span class="hlt">Questions</span> to Assess the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Health Information Technology on Patient Experiences with Ambulatory Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McInnes, D. Keith; Brown, Julie A.; Hays, Ron D.; Gallagher, Patricia; Ralston, James D.; Hugh, Mildred; Kanter, Michael; Serrato, Carl A.; Cosenza, Carol; Halamka, John; Ding, Lin; Cleary, Paul D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Little is known about whether health information technology (HIT) affects patient experiences with health care. Objective To develop HIT <span class="hlt">questions</span> that assess patients care experiences not evaluated by existing ambulatory CAHPS measures. Research Design We reviewed published articles and conducted focus groups and cognitive testing to develop survey <span class="hlt">questions</span>. We collected data, using mail and the internet, from patients of 69 physicians receiving care at an academic medical center and two regional integrated delivery systems in late 2009 and 2010. We evaluated <span class="hlt">questions</span> and scales about HIT using factor analysis, item-scale correlations, and reliability (internal consistency and physician-level) estimates. Results We found support for three HIT composites: doctor use of computer (2 items), e-mail (2 items), and helpfulness of provider’s website (4 items). Corrected item-scale correlations were 0.37 for the two doctor use of computer items and 0.71 for the two e-mail items, and ranged from 0.50 to 0.60 for the provider’s website items. Cronbach’s alpha was high for e-mail (0.83) and provider’s website (0.75), but only 0.54 for doctor use of computer. As few as 50 responses per physician would yield reliability of 0.70 for e-mail and provider’s website. Two HIT composites, doctor use of computer (p<0.001) and provider’s website (p=0.02), were independent predictors of overall ratings of doctors. Conclusions New CAHPS HIT items were identified that measure aspects of patient experiences not assessed by the CAHPS C&G 1.0 survey. PMID:23064271</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2575338','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2575338"><span>Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: <span class="hlt">Origins</span>, diffusion, and <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zeder, Melinda A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The past decade has witnessed a quantum leap in our understanding of the <span class="hlt">origins</span>, diffusion, and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin. In large measure these advances are attributable to new methods for documenting domestication in plants and animals. The initial steps toward plant and animal domestication in the Eastern Mediterranean can now be pushed back to the 12th millennium cal B.P. Evidence for herd management and crop cultivation appears at least 1,000 years earlier than the morphological changes traditionally used to document domestication. Different species seem to have been domesticated in different parts of the Fertile Crescent, with genetic analyses detecting multiple domestic lineages for each species. Recent evidence suggests that the expansion of domesticates and agricultural economies across the Mediterranean was accomplished by several waves of seafaring colonists who established coastal farming enclaves around the Mediterranean Basin. This process also involved the adoption of domesticates and domestic technologies by indigenous populations and the local domestication of some endemic species. Human environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are seen in the complete replacement of endemic island faunas by imported mainland fauna and in today's anthropogenic, but threatened, Mediterranean landscapes where sustainable agricultural practices have helped maintain high biodiversity since the Neolithic. PMID:18697943</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126878','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126878"><span>A symbiotic view of the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life at hydrothermal <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater-lakes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chatterjee, Sankar</p> <p>2016-07-27</p> <p>Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> and evolution of early life on Earth. The theory suffers from the 'concentration problem' of cosmic and terrestrial biomolecules because of the vastness of the Eoarchean global ocean. An attractive alternative site would be highly sequestered, small, hydrothermal crater-lakes that might have cradled life on early Earth. A new symbiotic model for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life at hydrothermal crater-lakes is proposed here. Meteoritic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the Eoarchean crust at the tail end of the Heavy Bombardment period might have played important roles in the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life. <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> and collisions that created hydrothermal crater lakes on the Eoarchean crust inadvertently became the perfect crucibles for prebiotic chemistry with building blocks of life, which ultimately led to the first organisms by prebiotic synthesis. In this scenario, life arose through four hierarchical stages of increasing molecular complexity in multiple niches of crater basins. In the cosmic stage (≥4.6 Ga), the building blocks of life had their beginnings in the interstellar space during the explosion of a nearby star. Both comets and carbonaceous chondrites delivered building blocks of life and ice to early Earth, which were accumulated in hydrothermal <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater-lakes. In the geologic stage (∼4 Ga), crater basins contained an assortment of cosmic and terrestrial organic compounds, powered by hydrothermal, solar, tidal, and chemical energies, which drove the prebiotic synthesis. At the water surface, self-assembled primitive lipid membranes floated as a thick oil slick. Archean Greenstone belts in Greenland, Australia, and South Africa possibly represent the relics of these Archean craters, where the oldest fossils of thermophilic life (∼3.5 Ga) have been detected. In the chemical stage, monomers such as nucleotides and amino acids were selected from random assemblies of the prebiotic soup; they were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30..182B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995Metic..30..182B"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> and diagenesis of K/T <span class="hlt">impact</span> spherules -- From Haiti to Wyoming and beyond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bohor, B. F.; Glass, B. P.</p> <p>1995-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span> spherules in Cretaceous/Tertiary (KIT) boundary clays and claystones consist of two types; each type is confined to its own separate layer of the boundary couplet in the Western Hemisphere. The form and composition of each of the spherule types result from its own unique mode of <span class="hlt">origin</span> during the KIT event. Type 1 splash-form spherules occur only in the melt-ejecta (basal) layer of the KIT couplet. This layer was deposited from a ballistic ejecta curtain composed of melt-glass droplets transported mostly within the atmosphere. h contrast, Type 2 spherules are accreted, partially crystalline, spheroidal bodies that formed by condensation of vaporized bolide and target-rock materials in an expanding fireball cloud, from which they settled out of buoyant suspension to form the fireball layer. Dendritic and skeletal Ni-rich spinel crystals are unique to these Type 2 spherules in the fireball layer. Compositions of relict glasses found in Type 1 KIT spherules from Haiti indicate that they were derived from intermediate silicic target rocks. These melt-glass droplets were deposited into an aqueous environment at both continental and marine sites. We propose that the surfaces of the hot melt droplets hydrated rapidly in water and that these hydrated glass rims then altered to palagonite. Subsequent alteration of the palagonite rims to smectite, glauconite, chlorite, kaolinite, or goyazite occurred later during various modes of progressive diagenesis, accompanied by dissolution of some of the glass cores in spherules from continental sections and from marine sections that were subsequently raised above sea level. In many of the nonmarine sections in the Western Interior, the glass cores altered to kaolinite instead of dissolving. Directly comparable spherule morphologies (splash forms), textural features of the altered shells, and scalloping and grooving of relict glass cores or secondary casts demonstrate that the Haitian and Wyoming spherules are equivalent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18690490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18690490"><span>A face-to-face interview of participants in HUNT 3: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the screening <span class="hlt">question</span> on headache prevalence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hagen, Knut; Zwart, John-Anker; Aamodt, Anne Hege; Nilsen, Kristian Berhard; Bråthen, Geir; Helde, Grethe; Stjern, Marit; Tronvik, Erling A; Stovner, Lars Jacob</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the screening <span class="hlt">question</span> phrasing on the 1-year prevalence figures of headache disorders, including migraine. Of a random sample of 563 invited participants in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey 2006-2008 in Norway, 297 (53%) met to a face-to-face interview. There were 74.1% that reported having had headache during the last year, whereas only 31.0% stated that they had suffered from headache in the same period. The 1-year prevalence of migraine was 17.2% and of tension-type headache (TTH) 51.9%. Migraine was ten times more likely (OR = 9.96, 95% CI 4.75-20.91) among those who stated that they were headache sufferers than among those who were not. Only headache sufferers had chronic TTH or medication-overuse headache. Thus "Have you suffered from headache?" can be a useful screening <span class="hlt">question</span> in population-based questionnaire studies if the goal is to identify most migraineurs and almost all individuals with chronic headache.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4718695','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4718695"><span>Does Plant <span class="hlt">Origin</span> Influence the Fitness <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Flower Damage? A Meta-Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>González-Browne, Catalina; Murúa, Maureen M.; Navarro, Luis; Medel, Rodrigo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Herbivory has been long considered an important component of plant-animal interactions that influences the success of invasive species in novel habitats. One of the most important hypotheses linking herbivory and invasion processes is the enemy-release hypothesis, in which exotic plants are hypothesized to suffer less herbivory and fitness-costs in their novel ranges as they leave behind their enemies in the <span class="hlt">original</span> range. Most evidence, however, comes from studies on leaf herbivory, and the importance of flower herbivory for the invasion process remains largely unknown. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of flower herbivory on plant reproductive success, using as moderators the type of damage caused by floral herbivores and the residence status of the plant species. We found 51 papers that fulfilled our criteria. We also included 60 records from unpublished data of the laboratory, gathering a total of 143 case studies. The effects of florivory and nectar robbing were both negative on plant fitness. The methodology employed in studies of flower herbivory influenced substantially the outcome of flower damage. Experiments using natural herbivory imposed a higher fitness cost than simulated herbivory, such as clipping and petal removal, indicating that studies using artificial herbivory as surrogates of natural herbivory underestimate the real fitness <span class="hlt">impact</span> of flower herbivory. Although the fitness cost of floral herbivory was high both in native and exotic plant species, floral herbivores had a three-fold stronger fitness <span class="hlt">impact</span> on exotic than native plants, contravening a critical element of the enemy-release hypothesis. Our results suggest a critical but largely unrecognized role of floral herbivores in preventing the spread of introduced species into newly colonized areas. PMID:26785039</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/nsr/psd-questions','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/nsr/psd-questions"><span>PSD <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the <span class="hlt">original</span>. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the <span class="hlt">original</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EJPh...36d5014G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EJPh...36d5014G"><span>An investigation into the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of <span class="hlt">question</span> structure on the performance of first year physics undergraduate students at the University of Cambridge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gibson, Valerie; Jardine-Wright, Lisa; Bateman, Elizabeth</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We describe a study of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of exam <span class="hlt">question</span> structure on the performance of first year Natural Sciences physics undergraduates from the University of Cambridge. The results show conclusively that a student’s performance improves when <span class="hlt">questions</span> are scaffolded compared with university style <span class="hlt">questions</span>. In a group of 77 female students we observe that the average exam mark increases by 13.4% for scaffolded <span class="hlt">questions</span>, which corresponds to a 4.9 standard deviation effect. The equivalent observation for 236 male students is 9% (5.5 standard deviations). We also observe a correlation between exam performance and A2-level marks for UK students, and that students who receive their school education overseas, in a mixed gender environment, or at an independent school are more likely to receive a first class mark in the exam. These results suggest a mis-match between the problem-solving skills and assessment procedures between school and first year university and will provide key input into the future teaching and assessment of first year undergraduate physics students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5346173','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5346173"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of 3-Option Responses to Multiple-Choice <span class="hlt">Questions</span> on Guessing Strategies and Cut Score Determinations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>ROYAL, KENNETH D.; STOCKDALE, MYRAH R.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: Research has asserted MCQ items using three response options (one correct answer with two distractors) is comparable to, and possibly preferable over, traditional MCQ item formats consisting of four response options (e.g., one correct answer with three distractors), or five response options (e.g., one correct answer with four distractors). Some medical educators have also adopted the practice of using 3-option responses on MCQ exams as a response to the difficulty experienced in generating additional plausible distractors. To date, however, little work has explored how 3-option responses might <span class="hlt">impact</span> validity threats stemming from random guessing strategies, and what <span class="hlt">impact</span> 3-option responses might have on cut-score determinations, particularly in the context of medical education classroom assessments. The purpose of this work is to further explore these critically important considerations that largely have gone ignored in the medical education literature to this point. Methods: A cumulative binomial distribution formula was used to calculate the probability that an examinee will answer at random a given number of items correctly on any exam (of any length). By way of a demonstration, a variety of scenarios were presented to illustrate how examination length and the number of response options <span class="hlt">impact</span> examinees’ chances of passing a given examination, and how subsequent cut-score decisions may be <span class="hlt">impacted</span> by these factors. Results: As a general rule, classroom assessments containing fewer items should utilize traditional 4-option or 5-option responses, whereas assessments of greater length are afforded greater flexibility in potentially utilizing 3-option responses. Conclusions: More research on items with 3-option responses is needed to better understand what value, if any, 3-option responses truly add to classroom assessments, and in what contexts potential benefits might be discernible. PMID:28367465</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23291262"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of gene gains, losses and duplication modes on the <span class="hlt">origin</span> and diversification of vertebrates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cañestro, Cristian; Albalat, Ricard; Irimia, Manuel; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The study of the evolutionary <span class="hlt">origin</span> of vertebrates has been linked to the study of genome duplications since Susumo Ohno suggested that the successful diversification of vertebrate innovations was facilitated by two rounds of whole-genome duplication (2R-WGD) in the stem vertebrate. Since then, studies on the functional evolution of many genes duplicated in the vertebrate lineage have provided the grounds to support experimentally this link. This article reviews cases of gene duplications derived either from the 2R-WGD or from local gene duplication events in vertebrates, analyzing their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the evolution of developmental innovations. We analyze how gene regulatory networks can be rewired by the activity of transposable elements after genome duplications, discuss how different mechanisms of duplication might affect the fate of duplicated genes, and how the loss of gene duplicates might influence the fate of surviving paralogs. We also discuss the evolutionary relationships between gene duplication and alternative splicing, in particular in the vertebrate lineage. Finally, we discuss the role that the 2R-WGD might have played in the evolution of vertebrate developmental gene networks, paying special attention to those related to vertebrate key features such as neural crest cells, placodes, and the complex tripartite brain. In this context, we argue that current evidences points that the 2R-WGD may not be linked to the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of vertebrate innovations, but to their subsequent diversification in a broad variety of complex structures and functions that facilitated the successful transition from peaceful filter-feeding non-vertebrate ancestors to voracious vertebrate predators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4703487','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4703487"><span>Assessing the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of de novo social ties within health intervention settings: New <span class="hlt">questions</span> for health behavior intervention research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally-occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical <span class="hlt">questions</span>: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention? PMID:26577514</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26577514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26577514"><span>Assessing the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of De Novo Social Ties within Health Intervention Settings: New <span class="hlt">Questions</span> for Health Behavior Intervention Research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Recent developments in the study of health and social networks have focused on linkages between health outcomes and naturally occurring social relations, such as friendship or kinship. Based on findings in this area, a new generation of health behavior intervention programs have been implemented that rely on the formation of new social relations among program participants. However, little is known about the qualities of these de novo social relations. We examined the social networks of 59 participants within a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain. We employed exponential random graph modeling techniques to analyze supportive relationships formed between participants in the intervention arm, to detect unique effects of program participation on the likelihood of forming ties. Program participation had a positive effect on the likelihood of forming supportive social relations, however, in this particular timeframe we did not detect any additional effect of such relations on the health behaviors or outcomes of interest. Our findings raise two critical <span class="hlt">questions</span>: do short-term group-level programs reliably lead to the formation of new social relations among participants; and do these relations have a unique effect on health outcomes relative to standard methods of health behavior intervention? © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7162867','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7162867"><span>Snow-avalanche <span class="hlt">impact</span> landforms in Breheimen, southern Norway: <span class="hlt">Origin</span>, age, and paleoclimatic implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Matthews, J.A.; McCarroll, D. )</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>Twelve snow-avalanche ramparts in Jostedalen and Sprongdalen (Breheimen, southern Norway) are investigated to elucidate processes of formation, the history of avalanche activity, and their potential for paleoclimatic reconstruction. Variation in the form of these riverbank boulder ramparts reflects local patterns of avalanche <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Differences in clast roundness between ramparts, avalanche tracks, and river beds indicate that, on average, 50 to 60% of the clasts in the ramparts <span class="hlt">originate</span> from river bedload as opposed to avalanche source areas or tracks. Rampart clasts increase in roundness downstream over a distance of 12 km, and the contribution from the river bed varies from 26 to 80% depending on local factors. Conventional lichenometric dating suggests ages for the initiation of rampart formation of 250 to 2000 yr, but they probably have a much longer history. Lichen-size frequency distributions, using the largest lichen from each of n boulders, reflect the age-frequency of surface boulders, providing a record of late Holocene avalanche activity. A simulation model suggests that maximum avalanche activity affected nine of the ramparts during the 19th century, after the peak of the Little Ice Age. The pattern of avalanche activity differs from the pattern of glacier variations but is in close agreement with that of debris-flow activity. The ramparts may yield a valuable proxy record of winter snowfall. 48 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213109I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213109I"><span>On the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of superparamagnetic minerals of tropical soils and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on landmine detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Igel, Jan; Preetz, Holger; Altfelder, Sven</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Magnetic susceptibility of soils is mainly determined by their content of ferrimagnetic minerals whereas titanomagnetite, magnetite and maghemite being the most important ones. Titanomagnetite and magnetite are of magmatic <span class="hlt">origin</span>, i.e. they crystallise during cooling of iron-rich magma and are part of many igneous rocks. Maghemite and sometimes magnetite are of pedogenic <span class="hlt">origin</span>. They develop by crystallisation of dissolved iron during soil forming processes. Ferrimagnetic minerals that are smaller than some tens of nanometres are superparamagnetic (SP) and show frequency dependent susceptibility. SP minerals crystallise if magma cools down rapidly (e.g. volcanic magmas, glasses and ashes) and are frequently formed during pedogenesis. In order to investigate the <span class="hlt">origin</span> and formation of SP minerals in tropical soils, we analyse magnetic properties of 594 samples from the entire tropics comprising the whole range of weathering states from unweathered rock to highly weathered soil. Tropical soils are subject to intense chemical weathering and are rich in ferrimagnetic and in particular SP minerals. The process leading to a high content of these minerals is either residual enrichment due to their weathering resistance or neo-formation. In this study we focus on the frequency dependent susceptibility (absolute and relative) of the samples and classify it according to the parent material and alteration. We observe that • within each parent-material group, rock material shows in general lower susceptibility and absolute frequency dependence than soil material • ultrabasic and basic/intermediate rocks and soils developed from these rocks show high absolute frequency dependent susceptibility and, in contrast, acid rocks and sediments show lower absolute frequency dependence • absolute frequency dependence increases from unweathered rock to weathered rock, and from subsoil to topsoil material within every group of parent material • relative frequency dependence rises</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25082540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25082540"><span>False alarms and missed events: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> and <span class="hlt">origins</span> of perceived inaccuracy in tornado warning systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up <span class="hlt">question</span>--Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are--in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn <span class="hlt">impact</span> the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24867441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24867441"><span>Assessing metacognition during a cognitive task: <span class="hlt">impact</span> of "on-line" metacognitive <span class="hlt">questions</span> on neuropsychological performances in a non-clinical sample.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quiles, C; Verdoux, H; Prouteau, A</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Whereas metacognition is of great interest for neuropsychological practice, little is known about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of metacognitive <span class="hlt">questions</span> during a neuropsychological assessment. This study explored the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of measuring "on-line" metacognitive processes on neuropsychological performances in a non-clinical population. Participants were randomly assigned to a "standard" or a "metacognitive" neuropsychological test procedure. The "standard" procedure assessed executive functions (Modified Card Sorting Test), episodic memory ("Rappel libre Rappel indicé" 16), working memory (digit span test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III) and social cognition (Faces Test). In the "metacognitive" procedure, two <span class="hlt">questions</span> were added after each item of these tests to evaluate "on-line" metacognitive monitoring and control. Working memory performances were better and episodic memory performances lower in the "metacognitive" versus the "standard" procedure. No significant difference was found concerning executive functioning or social cognition. The assessment of "on-line" metacognition might improve working memory performances by enhancing concentration, and might impair episodic memory performances by acting as a distractor. These findings may have implications for the development of cognitive remediation programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930000966','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930000966"><span>Tektite <span class="hlt">origin</span> by hypervelocity asteroidal or cometary <span class="hlt">impact</span>: The quest for the source craters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koeberl, Christian</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Tektites are natural glasses that are chemically homogeneous, often spherically symmetrical objects several centimeters in size, and occur in four known strewn fields on the surface of the Earth: the North American, moldavite (or Central European), Ivory Coast, and Australasian strewn fields. Tektites found within such strewn fields are related to each other with respect to their petrological, physical, and chemical properties as well as their age. A theory of tektite <span class="hlt">origin</span> needs to explain the similarity of tektites in respect to age and certain aspects of isotopic and chemical composition within one strewn field, as well as the variety of tektite materials present in each strewn field. In addition to tektites on land, microtektites (which are generally less than 1 mm in diameter) have been found in deep-sea cores. Tektites are classified into three groups: (1) normal or splash-form tektites, (2) aerodynamically shaped tektites, and (3) Muong Nong-type tektites (sometimes also called layered tektites). The aerodynamic ablation results from partial remelting of glass during atmospheric passage after it was ejected outside the terrestrial atmosphere and quenched from a hot liquid. Aerodynamically shaped tektites are known mainly from the Australasian strewn field where they occur as flanged-button australites. The shapes of splash-form tektites (spheres, droplets, teardrops, dumbbells, etc., or fragments thereof) are the result of the solidification of rotating liquids in the air or vacuum. Mainly due to chemical studies, it is now commonly accepted that tektites are the product of melting and quenching of terrestrial rocks during hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the Earth. The chemistry of tektites is in many respects identical to the composition of upper crustal material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15529132','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15529132"><span>Anatomical considerations for the spread of odontogenic infection <span class="hlt">originating</span> from the pericoronitis of <span class="hlt">impacted</span> mandibular third molar: computed tomographic analyses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ohshima, Aya; Ariji, Yoshiko; Goto, Masakazu; Izumi, Masahiro; Naitoh, Munetaka; Kurita, Kenichi; Shimozato, Kazuo; Ariji, Eiichiro</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>The aims of the present study were to clarify the anatomy of <span class="hlt">impacted</span> mandibular third molars in relation to surrounding structures and to investigate the pathway of infection <span class="hlt">originating</span> from pericoronitis of this tooth. Computed tomography (CT) images were evaluated in 87 patients with uninfected mandibular third molar <span class="hlt">impaction</span> and in 12 patients with infection <span class="hlt">originating</span> from an <span class="hlt">impacted</span> mandibular third molar. In uninfected patients, bony features around the <span class="hlt">impacted</span> crown were investigated together with the relationship between the crown and surrounding muscles. In infected patients, involvements of bony and soft tissue structures were evaluated according to the disappearance of cortices and lateral asymmetry of density and shape in the spaces and muscles. In uninfected patients, the disappearance of the lingual cortical plate was observed in 48 (35.3%) <span class="hlt">impacted</span> molars, while only in 11 (8.1%) teeth for buccal cortices. The cortical thickness was thinner on the lingual side than the buccal side. Sixty-five percent of the masseter muscle horizontally overlapped the crown, while almost all of the medial pterygoid muscle was posteriorly situated apart from the crown. The mylohyoid muscle horizontally overlapped the crown at below or intermediate vertical positions. In infected patients, the involvement of lingual structures was more frequently observed than that of buccal structures. The mylohyoid muscle was involved in 10 (83.3%) of 12 patients. Among them, 8 showed submandibular space involvement. CT findings supported the clinical observations of infection spread in patients with pericoronitis of the <span class="hlt">impacted</span> mandibular third molar. CT appeared to be an effective tool for investigating the pathway of infection <span class="hlt">originating</span> from the pericoronitis of <span class="hlt">impacted</span> mandibular third molars.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Morocco&pg=5&id=EJ872457','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Morocco&pg=5&id=EJ872457"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Origin</span> and Host Country Schooling on the Economic Performance of Immigrants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study examines the economic returns to schooling acquired in the country of <span class="hlt">origin</span> and the country of destination. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean immigrants in the Netherlands, which contain direct measures of pre- and post migration schooling. It is studied whether the returns to <span class="hlt">origin</span>-country…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Morocco&pg=5&id=EJ872457','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Morocco&pg=5&id=EJ872457"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of <span class="hlt">Origin</span> and Host Country Schooling on the Economic Performance of Immigrants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kanas, Agnieszka; van Tubergen, Frank</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study examines the economic returns to schooling acquired in the country of <span class="hlt">origin</span> and the country of destination. It uses large-scale survey data on Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese and Antillean immigrants in the Netherlands, which contain direct measures of pre- and post migration schooling. It is studied whether the returns to <span class="hlt">origin</span>-country…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...13.8233M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...13.8233M"><span>A decadal satellite analysis of the <span class="hlt">origins</span> and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of smoke in Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, M. Val; Heald, C. L.; Ford, B.; Prenni, A. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>We analyze the record of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite in combination with surface PM2.5 to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of fires on aerosol loading and air quality over Colorado from 2000 to 2012, and to evaluate the contribution of local versus transported smoke. Fire smoke contributed significantly to the AOD levels observed over Colorado. During the worst fire seasons of 2002 and 2012, average MODIS AOD over the Colorado Front Range corridor were 20-50% larger than the other 11 yr studied. Surface PM2.5 was also unusually elevated during fire events and concentrations were in many occasions above the daily National Ambient Air Quality Standard (35 μg m-3) and even reached locally unhealthy levels (> 100 μg m-3) over populated areas during the 2012 High Park fire and the 2002 Hayman fire. Over the 13 yr examined, long-range transport of smoke from northwestern US and even California (>1500 km distance) occurred often and affected AOD and surface PM2.5. During most of the transport events, MODIS AOD and surface PM2.5 were reasonable correlated (r2 = 0.2-0.9), indicating that smoke subsided into the Colorado boundary layer and reached surface levels. However, that is not always the case since at least one event of AOD enhancement was disconnected from the surface (r2<0.01 and low PM2.5 levels). Observed plume heights from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellite instrument and vertical aerosol profiles measured by the space-based Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) showed a complex vertical distribution of smoke emitted by the High Park fire in 2012. Smoke was detected from a range of 1.5 to 7.5 km altitude at the fire <span class="hlt">origin</span> and from ground levels to 12.3 km altitude far away from the source. The variability of smoke altitude as well as the local meteorology were key in determining the aerosol loading and air quality over the Colorado</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.7429M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACP....13.7429M"><span>A decadal satellite analysis of the <span class="hlt">origins</span> and <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of smoke in Colorado</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, M. Val; Heald, C. L.; Ford, B.; Prenni, A. J.; Wiedinmyer, C.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>We analyze the record of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite in combination with surface PM2.5 to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of fires on aerosol loading and air quality over Colorado from 2000 to 2012, and to evaluate the contribution of local versus transported smoke. Fire smoke contributed significantly to the AOD levels observed over Colorado. During the worst fire seasons of 2002 and 2012, average MODIS AOD over the Colorado Front Range corridor were 20-50% larger than the other 11 yr studied. Surface PM2.5 was also unusually elevated during fire events and concentrations were in many occasions above the daily National Ambient Air Quality Standard (35 μg m-3) and even reached locally unhealthy levels (> 100 μg m-3) over populated areas during the 2012 High Park fire and the 2002 Hayman fire. Over the 13 yr examined, long-range transport of smoke from northwestern US and even California (> 1500 km distance) occurred often and affected AOD and surface PM2.5. During most of the transport events, MODIS AOD and surface PM2.5 were reasonable correlated (r2 = 0.2-0.9), indicating that smoke subsided into the Colorado boundary layer and reached surface levels. However, that is not always the case since at least one event of AOD enhancement was disconnected from the surface (r2<0.01 and low PM2.5 levels). Observed plume heights from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellite instrument and vertical aerosol profiles measured by the space-based Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) showed a complex vertical distribution of smoke emitted by the High Park fire in 2012. Smoke was detected from a range of 1.5 to 7.5 km altitude at the fire <span class="hlt">origin</span> and from ground levels to 12.3 km altitude far away from the source. The variability of smoke altitude as well as the local meteorology were key in determining the aerosol loading and air quality over the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010959','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010959"><span>Mercurian volcanism <span class="hlt">questioned</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wilhelms, D.E.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>The Mariner 10 television team has argued that extensive plains on Mercury were formed by volcanism and compared them with the demonstrably lunar maria. I believe, however, that in stratigraphic relations, surface morphology, and albedo contrast, the Mercurian plains more closely resemble the lunar light plains. These lunar plains were interpreted as volcanic on the basis of data comparable to that available to the Mariner 10 investigators but have been shown by the Apollo missions to be of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span>. The plains on Mercury might also be formed of <span class="hlt">impact</span> materials, perhaps of <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt or other basin ejecta that behaved more like a fluid when emplaced that did lunar basin ejecta. ?? 1976.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26230075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26230075"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Roasting on Identification of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) <span class="hlt">Origin</span>: A Chemometric Approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Locatelli, Monica; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Travaglia, Fabiano; Bordiga, Matteo; Arlorio, Marco</p> <p>2015-08-19</p> <p>Hazelnuts belonging to different cultivars or cultivated in different geographic areas can be differentiated by their chemical profile; however, the roasting process may affect the composition of raw hazelnuts, thus compromising the possibility to identify their <span class="hlt">origin</span> in processed foods. In this work, we characterized raw and roasted hazelnuts (Tonda Gentile Trilobata, TGT, from Italy and from Chile, Tonda di Giffoni from Italy, and Tombul from Turkey), as well as hazelnuts isolated from commercial products, with the aim to discriminate their cultivar and <span class="hlt">origin</span>. The chemometric evaluation of selected chemical parameters (proximate composition, fatty acids, total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and protein fingerprint by SDS-PAGE) permitted us to identify hazelnuts belonging to different cultivars and, concerning TGT samples, their different geographic <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Also commercial samples containing Piedmontese TGT hazelnuts were correctly assigned to TGT cluster. In conclusion, even if the roasting process modifies the composition of roasted hazelnuts, this preliminary model study suggests that the identification of their <span class="hlt">origin</span> is still possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037420&hterms=Sagan+Carl&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSagan%252C%2BCarl','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037420&hterms=Sagan+Carl&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DSagan%252C%2BCarl"><span>Endogenous production, exogenous delivery and <span class="hlt">impact</span>-shock synthesis of organic molecules - An inventory for the <span class="hlt">origins</span> of life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The contribution of organic-rich comets, carbonaceous asteroids, and interplanetary dust particles and of <span class="hlt">impact</span> shock-synthesized organics in the atmosphere to the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life on earth is studied and quantitatively compared with the principal non-heavy-bombardment sources of prebiotic organics. The results suggest that heavy bombardment before 3.5 Gyr ago either produced or delivered quantities of organics comparable to those produced by other energy sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037420&hterms=origins+life&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dorigins%2Blife','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037420&hterms=origins+life&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dorigins%2Blife"><span>Endogenous production, exogenous delivery and <span class="hlt">impact</span>-shock synthesis of organic molecules - An inventory for the <span class="hlt">origins</span> of life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The contribution of organic-rich comets, carbonaceous asteroids, and interplanetary dust particles and of <span class="hlt">impact</span> shock-synthesized organics in the atmosphere to the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life on earth is studied and quantitatively compared with the principal non-heavy-bombardment sources of prebiotic organics. The results suggest that heavy bombardment before 3.5 Gyr ago either produced or delivered quantities of organics comparable to those produced by other energy sources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12124620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12124620"><span>Dynamic fracture by large extraterrestrial <span class="hlt">impacts</span> as the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of shatter cones.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sagy, Amir; Reches, Ze'ev; Fineberg, Jay</p> <p>2002-07-18</p> <p>A large <span class="hlt">impact</span> by a comet or meteorite releases an enormous amount of energy, which evaporates, melts and fractures the surrounding rocks. Distinctive features of such <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are 'shatter cones', deformed rocks characterized by hierarchical striated features. Although such features have been used for decades as unequivocal fingerprints of large-body <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, the process by which shatter cones form has remained enigmatic. Here we show that the distinctive shatter-cone striations naturally result from nonlinear waves (front waves) that propagate along a fracture front. This explains the observed systematic increase of striation angles with the distance from the <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Shatter-cone networks, typically spanning many scales, can be understood as hierarchical bifurcations of the fracture front, which is generated by the immense energy flux carried by the initial, <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated, shock waves. Our quantitative predictions based on this theory are supported by field measurements at the Kentland and Vredefort <span class="hlt">impact</span> sites. These measurements indicate that shatter cones near to the <span class="hlt">impact</span> site were formed by fractures propagating at nearly the Rayleigh wave speed of the host rocks, whereas the furthest shatter cones observed (about 40 km from the <span class="hlt">impact</span> site) were formed by fronts moving more slowly. These results provide insight into <span class="hlt">impact</span> dynamics as well as dissipative mechanisms in solids subjected to sudden, extremely intense fluxes of energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930000943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930000943"><span>Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Isotope systematics support the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deutsch, A.; Buhl, D.; Brockmeyer, P.; Lakomy, R.; Flucks, M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Within the framework of the Sudbury project a considerable number of Sr-Nd isotope analyses were carried out on petrographically well-defined samples of different breccia units. Together with isotope data from the literature these data are reviewed under the aspect of a self-consistent <span class="hlt">impact</span> model. The crucial point of this model is that the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) is interpreted as a differentiated <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt sheet without any need for an endogenic 'magmatic' component such as '<span class="hlt">impact</span>-triggered' magmatism or 'partial' <span class="hlt">impact</span> melting of the crust and mixing with a mantle-derived magma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850018243','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850018243"><span>Nd-isotopic evidence for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Sudbury complex by meteoritic <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Faggart, B. E.; Basu, A. R.; Tatsumoto, M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A Neodymium isotopic investigation was undertaken in order to determine the possibility that the Sudbury geological structure in Ontario, Canada was formed by meteoritic <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Conclusive evidence points to the melting of crustal rocks by way of meteoritic <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the forming of the Sudbury structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24241360','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24241360"><span>Deep neck space abscesses of dental <span class="hlt">origin</span>: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of Streptococcus group Milleri.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Terzic, Andrej; Scolozzi, Paolo</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>In recent years, there has been rising interest in Streptococcus group Milleri (SM) because high mortality rates have been related to it. In case of deep neck infections (DNI), whatever the <span class="hlt">origin</span>, mortality rates as high as 26% were reported. But there are no data available for DNI with SM of purely dental <span class="hlt">origin</span>. The aim of our article was to describe and analyse DNI of purely dental <span class="hlt">origin</span> involving on one hand SM and on the other hand infections without presence of SM. We compared these two groups and statistically investigated if there were differences in clinical presentation (age, mouth opening, length of hospital stay, laboratory parameters) or clinical behaviour (re-operation, re-hospitalisation, secondary osteomyelitis, stay at intensive care, length of antibiotic treatment, presence of resistances against antibiotics, incapacity to work). For this, we retrospectively searched medical records of our institution for all purulent DNI treated from 2004 till 2012. We found 81 patients meeting all inclusion criteria. Thirty-four patients had involvement of SM, 47 did not. The only statistically significant difference between the SM group and the non-SM group was the length of incapacity to work. All other parameters were non-significant. Furthermore, there were no fatalities. In conclusion, the clinical importance of this article is that patients with deep neck abscesses of purely dental <span class="hlt">origin</span> involving SM do not need more or different care when compared to all other DNI of dental <span class="hlt">origin</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25758413','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25758413"><span>Untangling the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of viruses and their <span class="hlt">impact</span> on cellular evolution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nasir, Arshan; Sun, Feng-Jie; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">origin</span> and evolution of viruses remain mysterious. Here, we focus on the distribution of viral replicons in host organisms, their morphological features, and the evolution of highly conserved protein and nucleic acid structures. The apparent inability of RNA viral replicons to infect contemporary akaryotic species suggests an early <span class="hlt">origin</span> of RNA viruses and their subsequent loss in akaryotes. A census of virion morphotypes reveals that advanced forms were unique to viruses infecting a specific supergroup, while simpler forms were observed in viruses infecting organisms in all forms of cellular life. Results hint toward an ancient <span class="hlt">origin</span> of viruses from an ancestral virus harboring either filamentous or spherical virions. Finally, phylogenetic trees built from protein domain and tRNA structures in thousands of genomes suggest that viruses evolved via reductive evolution from ancient cells. The analysis presents a complete account of the evolutionary history of cells and viruses and identifies viruses as crucial agents influencing cellular evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26852241','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26852241"><span>Coronary arteries anomalous aortic <span class="hlt">origin</span> on a computed tomography angiography population: prevalence, characteristics and clinical <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amado, José; Carvalho, Mónica; Ferreira, Wilson; Gago, Paula; Gama, Vasco; Bettencourt, Nuno</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Anomalous aortic <span class="hlt">origin</span> of coronary arteries (AAOCA) is one of the most frequent causes of cardiovascular sudden death among the young population. We aimed to determine the prevalence and anatomic characteristics of AAOCA in a population referred to computed tomography angiography (CTA) and to describe the clinical prognosis of these findings at middle term follow-up. From a total of 3539 CTA, 53 were found to have AAOCA. This population was compared to an age and gender matched control group (n = 106) from the same CTA list. A telephone follow-up to determine cardiac events was conducted, with a mean follow-up of 45.9 ± 28.2 months. Prevalence of AAOCA was 1.5 %. The most common AAOCA was an <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the right coronary artery (RCA) from the left coronary sinus, followed by an <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the left circumflex artery (LCX) arising from the right coronary sinus. All patients with an anomalous <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the RCA had an interarterial course. Four additional patients were found to have an interarterial course: 1 with an anomalous <span class="hlt">origin</span> of LCX and 3 with an anomalous <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). At follow-up there were 33 (21.2 %) cardiac events, 9 (17.6 %) on the AAOCA group and 24 (22.9 %) on the control group (p = 0.46). Cardiac events and cardiovascular deaths were not related to any particular AAOCA or to interarterial courses. Among an adult population referred to CTA, AAOCA were not related with worse middle term prognosis when compared to an age- and gender- matched population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018511','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018511"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Chesapeake Bay structure and the source of the North American tektites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Koeberl, C.; Poag, C.W.; Reimold, W.U.; Brandt, D.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Seismic profiles, drill core samples, and gravity data suggest that a complex <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater ???35.5 million years old and 90 kilometers in diameter is buried beneath the lower Chesapeake Bay. The breccia that fills the structure contains evidence of shock metamorphism, including <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt breccias and multiple sets of planar deformation features (shock lamellae) in quartz and feldspar. The age of the crater and the composition of some breccia clasts are consistent with the Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure being the source of the North American tektites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PSA..75.5176H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PSA..75.5176H"><span>Cleanskin Structure, Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia: Evidence for an <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haines, P. W.; Sweet, I. P.; Mitchell, K.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The Cleanskin structure, Australia, is a 15 km diameter circular feature with central uplift. Evidence for <span class="hlt">impact</span>-produced shock includes shatter cones, planar fractures with feather features and possible planar deformation features in quartz.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=development+AND+economic&pg=4&id=EJ920749','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=development+AND+economic&pg=4&id=EJ920749"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Generation and Country of <span class="hlt">Origin</span> on the Mental Health of Children of Immigrants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Montazer, Shirin; Wheaton, Blair</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The authors reexamine the study of generational differences in adjustment among the children of immigrants by arguing that the country of <span class="hlt">origin</span> defines and shapes the adaptation process across generations. Using a sample of children in Toronto, the authors demonstrate that generational differences in the mental health of children occur only in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Barriers+AND+creativity&pg=7&id=EJ1030357','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Barriers+AND+creativity&pg=7&id=EJ1030357"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Type of Examples on <span class="hlt">Originality</span>: Explaining Fixation and Stimulation Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Agogué, Marine; Kazakçi, Akin; Hatchuel, Armand; Le Masson, Pascal; Weil, Benoit; Poirel, Nicolas; Cassotti, Mathieu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>There are obstacles to creativity: one of them is called fixation effect, the fact that some knowledge about existing or obvious solutions is spontaneously activated and constrains the generation of new solutions. Converging evidence in cognitive psychology has indicated that the ability to generate <span class="hlt">original</span> ideas can be limited by recently…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=economics+AND+level&pg=5&id=EJ920749','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=economics+AND+level&pg=5&id=EJ920749"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Generation and Country of <span class="hlt">Origin</span> on the Mental Health of Children of Immigrants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Montazer, Shirin; Wheaton, Blair</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The authors reexamine the study of generational differences in adjustment among the children of immigrants by arguing that the country of <span class="hlt">origin</span> defines and shapes the adaptation process across generations. Using a sample of children in Toronto, the authors demonstrate that generational differences in the mental health of children occur only in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cognitive+AND+psychology&pg=7&id=EJ1030357','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cognitive+AND+psychology&pg=7&id=EJ1030357"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Type of Examples on <span class="hlt">Originality</span>: Explaining Fixation and Stimulation Effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Agogué, Marine; Kazakçi, Akin; Hatchuel, Armand; Le Masson, Pascal; Weil, Benoit; Poirel, Nicolas; Cassotti, Mathieu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>There are obstacles to creativity: one of them is called fixation effect, the fact that some knowledge about existing or obvious solutions is spontaneously activated and constrains the generation of new solutions. Converging evidence in cognitive psychology has indicated that the ability to generate <span class="hlt">original</span> ideas can be limited by recently…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A51A0043C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A51A0043C"><span>Atmosphere-Forest Exchange: Important <span class="hlt">Questions</span> Regarding the Atmosphere's Role in the Delivery of Nutrient Nitrogen and <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carroll, M.; Shepson, P. B.; Bertman, S. B.; Sparks, J. P.; Holland, E. A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Atmosphere-Forest Exchange: Important <span class="hlt">Questions</span> Regarding the Atmosphere's Role in the Delivery of Nutrient Nitrogen and <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling Atmospheric composition and chemistry directly affect ecosystem nitrogen cycling and indirectly affect ecosystem carbon cycling and storage. Current understanding of atmosphere-forest nitrogen exchange and subsequent <span class="hlt">impacts</span> is based almost exclusively on nitrogen deposition data obtained from networks using buckets placed in open areas, studies involving inorganic nitrogen, frequently with enhanced N deposition inputs applied only to soils, and that ignore multiple stresses (e.g., the combined effects of aerosols, ozone exposure, elevated CO2, and drought). Current models of nitrogen cycling treat deposited nitrogen (e.g., HNO3 and NO3-) as a permanent sink whereas data appear to indicate that photolytic and heterogeneous chemical processes occurring on surfaces and in dew can result in the re-evolution of gaseous species such as NO and HONO. Similarly, the direct uptake of gaseous nitrogen compounds by foliage has been neglected, compromising conclusions drawn from deposition experiments and ignoring a mechanism that may significantly affect nitrogen cycling and carbon storage, one that may become more significant with future atmospheric and climate change. We hypothesize that the atmosphere plays a significant role in the delivery of nutrient nitrogen to the N-limited mixed hardwood forest at the PROPHET research site at the University of Michigan Biological Station. We assert that a complete understanding of atmosphere- biosphere interactions and feedbacks is required to develop a predictive capability regarding forest response to increasing atmospheric CO2, reactive nitrogen, oxidants, and aerosols, increasing nitrogen and acidic deposition, and anticipated climate change. We further assert that conclusions drawn from studies that are limited to inorganic nitrogen, fertilization of soils, and/or that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvB..77g5309S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhRvB..77g5309S"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> of complex <span class="hlt">impact</span> craters on native oxide coated silicon surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samela, Juha; Nordlund, Kai; Popok, Vladimir N.; Campbell, Eleanor E. B.</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Crater structures induced by <span class="hlt">impact</span> of keV-energy Arn+ cluster ions on silicon surfaces are measured with atomic force microscopy. Complex crater structures consisting of a central hillock and outer rim are observed more often on targets covered with a native silicon oxide layer than on targets without the oxide layer. To explain the formation of these complex crater structures, classical molecular dynamics simulations of Ar cluster <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on oxide coated silicon surfaces, as well as on bulk amorphous silica, amorphous Si, and crystalline Si substrates, are carried out. The diameter of the simulated hillock structures in the silicon oxide layer is in agreement with the experimental results, but the simulations cannot directly explain the height of hillocks and the outer rim structures when the oxide coated silicon substrate is free of defects. However, in simulations of 5keV /atom Ar12 cluster <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, transient displacements of the amorphous silicon or silicon oxide substrate surfaces are induced in an approximately 50nm wide area surrounding the <span class="hlt">impact</span> point. In silicon oxide, the transient displacements induce small topographical changes on the surface in the vicinity of the central hillock. The comparison of cluster stopping mechanisms in the various silicon oxide and silicon structures shows that the largest lateral momentum is induced in the silicon oxide layer during the <span class="hlt">impact</span>; thus, the transient displacements on the surface are stronger than in the other substrates. This can be a reason for the higher frequency of occurrence of the complex craters on oxide coated silicon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000Geo....28..307G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000Geo....28..307G"><span>Chicxulub <span class="hlt">impact</span>: The <span class="hlt">origin</span> of reservoir and seal facies in the southeastern Mexico oil fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grajales-Nishimura, José M.; Cedillo-Pardo, Esteban; Rosales-Domínguez, Carmen; Morán-Zenteno, Dante J.; Alvarez, Walter; Claeys, Philippe; Ruíz-Morales, José; García-Hernández, Jesús; Padilla-Avila, Patricia; Sánchez-Ríos, Antonieta</p> <p>2000-04-01</p> <p>Stratigraphic and mineralogic studies of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections demonstrate that the offshore oil-producing breccias and seals from oil fields in the Campeche marine platform are of K-T boundary age and that their mode of formation is probably related to the K-T <span class="hlt">impact</span> event at Chicxulub. The oil-producing carbonate breccia and the overlying dolomitized ejecta layer (seal) found in several wells on the Campeche marine platform contain typical Chicxulub <span class="hlt">impact</span> products, such as shocked quartz and plagioclase, and altered glass. These offshore units are correlated with thick (˜50 300 m) onshore breccia and <span class="hlt">impact</span> ejecta layers found at the K-T boundary in the Guayal (Tabasco) and Bochil (Chiapas) sections. Regionally the characteristic sequence is composed of, from base to top, coarse-grained carbonate breccia covered by an ejecta bed and typical K-T boundary clay. The onshore and offshore breccia sequences are likely to have resulted from major slumping of the carbonate platform margin triggered by the Chicxulub <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Successive arrival times in this area, ˜350 600 km from the crater, of seismic shaking, ballistic ejecta, and tsunami waves fit the observed stratigraphic sequence. The K-T breccia reservoir and seal ejecta layer of the Cantarell oil field, with a current daily production of 1.3 million barrels of oil, are probably the most important known oil-producing units related to an <span class="hlt">impact</span> event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21362610','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21362610"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of generation and country of <span class="hlt">origin</span> on the mental health of children of immigrants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montazer, Shirin; Wheaton, Blair</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The authors reexamine the study of generational differences in adjustment among the children of immigrants by arguing that the country of <span class="hlt">origin</span> defines and shapes the adaptation process across generations. Using a sample of children in Toronto, the authors demonstrate that generational differences in the mental health of children occur only in families from countries of <span class="hlt">origin</span> at the lowest levels of economic development. Among those at the lowest levels of economic development, a mental health advantage in the first generation evolves to a disadvantage in the 2.5 generation relative to third or later generational children. Children from backgrounds characterized by higher economic development show no initial or eventual differences from the native born. Using data from the Toronto Study of Intact Families, the authors are able to explain differences among children from low economic development backgrounds specifically in terms of increasing family conflict and decreasing school involvement across generations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ESRv...67....1D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ESRv...67....1D"><span>Order or chaos? <span class="hlt">Origin</span> and mode of emplacement of breccias in floors of large <span class="hlt">impact</span> structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dressler, B. O.; Reimold, W. U.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>Breccias in the crater floor of large <span class="hlt">impact</span> structures are pseudotachylites (sensu largo), authigenic monomict and polymict clastic-matrix breccias, so-called footwall breccias, and <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt breccias. Pseudotachylite bodies in the center of large <span class="hlt">impact</span> structures (e.g., Vredefort Dome, South Africa) appear to have a random distribution and orientation, but most dip steeply or vertically. Large bodies of pseudotachylite in the more distal sectors of the >200-km-diameter Sudbury Structure have been interpreted as ring and terrace collapse features. In the Vredefort Dome, networks of randomly distributed pseudotachylite veins accompany large ("mother lode") pseudotachylite dikes. In general, pseudotachylites in the floors of central parts of <span class="hlt">impact</span> craters may form through explosive transfer of thermal shock energy, in a process that could be termed "flash replacement melting", whereas pseudotachylites at large distances from the centers of large <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure are believed to have formed through friction leading to partial or complete melting, similar to the formation of tectonic pseudotachylites. In smaller structures (e.g., Ries and Slate Islands), clastic-matrix breccias instead of pseudotachylites occur as the most common breccias in the crater floors. They have a chaotic distribution pattern. Their dips are commonly also steep to vertical. Melt breccia dikes in the target rocks of the crater floor are associated with melt sheets that fill the lower part of the excavation cavity. At Vredefort, erosion has removed the coherent melt sheet, but melt breccia dikes (Vredefort Granophyre) in the crater floor are preserved. They are characterized by a remarkably homogeneous chemical composition and are believed to represent the initial, undifferentiated <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt. Near the Vredefort collar, the Granophyre forms more or less concentric dikes. In the more central parts of the Dome, their orientation is more random, but, in places, may be controlled by the Archean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007E%26PSL.256..169O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007E%26PSL.256..169O"><span>Compactional deformation bands in Wingate Sandstone; additional evidence of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> for Upheaval Dome, Utah</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Okubo, Chris H.; Schultz, Richard A.</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Field and microstructural observations from Upheaval Dome, in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, show that inelastic strain of the Wingate Sandstone is localized along compactional deformation bands. These bands are tabular discontinuities (< 0.5 cm thick) that accommodate inelastic shear and compaction of inter-granular volume. Measurements of porosity and grain size from non-deformed samples are used to define a set of capped strength envelopes for the Wingate Sandstone. These strength envelopes reveal that compactional deformation bands require at least ca. 0.7 GPa (and potentially more than 2.3 GPa) of effective mean stress in order to nucleate within this sandstone. We find that the most plausible geologic process capable of generating these required magnitudes of mean stress is a meteoritic <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Therefore the compactional deformation bands observed within the Wingate Sandstone are additional evidence of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> event at Upheaval Dome and support a post-Wingate (post-Early Jurassic) age for this <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23238582','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23238582"><span>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of migration on pregnancy outcomes among Mexican-<span class="hlt">origin</span> women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hessol, Nancy A; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>To examine the association between individual-level and state-level migration status in the United States (US) and the risk of preterm and low birth weight infants among Mexican-<span class="hlt">origin</span> women. We performed secondary analysis of the 2003 US birth certificate data for 641,474 infants born to Mexican-<span class="hlt">origin</span> Latina women. The dependent variables were prematurity and low birth weight. The primary independent variables were individual- (maternal) and state-level migration status. Logistic regression analysis estimated the relationship between maternal and state-level migration status, maternal and infant factors, and the risk of prematurity and low birth weight. Women who were born in Mexico had less education and use of prenatal care than US-born, Mexican-<span class="hlt">origin</span> women but also fewer preterm or low birth weight infants. After adjusting for maternal and infant characteristics, women who were born and resided in Mexico at delivery were 37-64% less likely to deliver preterm or low birth weight infants, and women who were born in Mexico and resided in the US had a 20-21% lower risk as compared to women who were born and resided in the same US state. Women who delivered in states with a higher proportion of Mexican-<span class="hlt">origin</span> mothers were slightly more likely to deliver a preterm infant and slightly less likely to give birth to a low birth weight infant. These findings support the perinatal advantage of Mexican-born women and provide evidence that both individual- as well as state-level migration factors influence perinatal outcomes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27435664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27435664"><span>A Splendid Gift from the Earth: The <span class="hlt">Origins</span> and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Avermectins (Nobel Lecture).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ōmura, Satoshi</p> <p>2016-08-22</p> <p>Japanese soil was the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of one of the most important drugs of the world: ivermectin. No other drug has such importance for the health of millions of people, particularly in the poor regions of the world. The discovery of the parent compounds of the avermectines is described first hand by S. Ōmura. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820048161&hterms=vaporization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dvaporization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820048161&hterms=vaporization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dvaporization"><span>Glasses of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> from Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 16 - Evidence for fractional vaporization and mare/highland mixing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.; Rudowski, R.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Electron microprobe analyses have been performed on glasses of <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> in Apollo 11 breccias (10059, 10060, 10061), Apollo 12 soil (12070), and Apollo 15 breccias (15318, 15425, 15426, 15427). These glasses were produced by shock melting of regolith, rather than of rock. Simple concepts for better understanding and interpreting the chemical data from <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses have been developed. These concepts are a significant improvement on earlier strategies, which centered principally on cluster analysis. Using ratios of refractory lithophile elements, the compositional effects of fractional vaporization often associated with <span class="hlt">impact</span> melting to obtain chemical information about the mare and highland components in the regoliths parental to the glasses have been 'seen through'. This method is also applied to the mare-derived <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses from Apollo 16 in order to place constraints on the types of volcanic components occurring in Mare Nectaris. Since <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses can be used to derive chemical constraints on the indigenous lithologies comprising multi-component regoliths; the frequent occurrence of these glasses, as well as their low masses, should make them critically important for study when small quantities of grab-samples are returned by future unmanned spacecraft from planets, satellites, and asteroids where regoliths are present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Icar..242..316M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Icar..242..316M"><span>On the <span class="hlt">origin</span> and composition of Theia: Constraints from new models of the Giant <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meier, M. M. M.; Reufer, A.; Wieler, R.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Knowing the isotopic composition of Theia, the proto-planet which collided with the Earth in the Giant <span class="hlt">Impact</span> that formed the Moon, could provide interesting insights on the state of homogenization of the inner Solar System at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation. We use the known isotopic and modeled chemical compositions of the bulk silicate mantles of Earth and Moon and combine them with different Giant <span class="hlt">Impact</span> models, to calculate the possible ranges of isotopic composition of Theia in O, Si, Ti, Cr, Zr and W in each model. We compare these ranges to the isotopic composition of carbonaceous chondrites, Mars, and other Solar System materials. In the absence of post-<span class="hlt">impact</span> isotopic re-equilibration, the recently proposed high angular momentum models of the Giant <span class="hlt">Impact</span> ("<span class="hlt">impact</span>-fission", Cúk, M., Stewart, S.T. [2012]. Science 338, 1047; and "merger", Canup, R.M. [2012]. Science 338, 1052) allow - by a narrow margin - for a Theia similar to CI-chondrites, and Mars. The "hit-and-run" model (Reufer, A., Meier, M.M.M., Benz, W., Wieler, R. [2012]. Icarus 221, 296-299) allows for a Theia similar to enstatite-chondrites and other Earth-like materials. If the Earth and Moon inherited their different mantle FeO contents from the bulk mantles of the proto-Earth and Theia, the high angular momentum models cannot explain the observed difference. However, both the hit-and-run as well as the classical or "canonical" Giant <span class="hlt">Impact</span> model naturally explain this difference as the consequence of a simple mixture of two mantles with different FeO. Therefore, the simplest way to reconcile the isotopic similarity, and FeO dissimilarity, of Earth and Moon is a Theia with an Earth-like isotopic composition and a higher (∼20%) mantle FeO content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22002748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22002748"><span>Environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on soil and groundwater at airports: <span class="hlt">origin</span>, contaminants of concern and environmental risks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nunes, L M; Zhu, Y-G; Stigter, T Y; Monteiro, J P; Teixeira, M R</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of airports are similar to those of many industries, though their operations expand over a very large area. Most international <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment studies and environmental management programmes have been giving less focus on the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to soil and groundwater than desirable. This may be the result of the large attention given to air and noise pollution, relegating other environmental descriptors to a second role, even when the first are comparatively less relevant. One reason that contributes to such "biased" evaluation is the lack of systematic information about <span class="hlt">impacts</span> to soil and groundwater from airport activities, something the present study intends to help correct. Results presented here include the review of over seven hundred documents and online databases, with the objective of obtaining the following information to support environmental studies: (i) which operations are responsible for chemical releases?; (ii) where are these releases located?; (iii) which contaminants of concern are released?; (iv) what are the associated environmental risks? Results showed that the main <span class="hlt">impacts</span> occur as a result of fuel storage, stormwater runoff and drainage systems, fuel hydrant systems, fuel transport and refuelling, atmospheric deposition, rescue and fire fighting training areas, winter operations, electrical substations, storage of chemical products by airport owners or tenants, and maintenance of green areas. A new method for ranking environmental risks of organic substances, based on chemical properties, is proposed and applied. Results show that the contaminants with the highest risks are the perfluorochemicals, benzene, trichloroethylene and CCl(4). The obtained information provides a basis for establishing the planning and checking phases of environmental management systems, and may also help in the best design of pollution prevention measures in order to avoid or reduce significant environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> from airports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6333696','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6333696"><span>Cleopatra crater on Venus: Venera 15/16 data and <span class="hlt">impact</span>/volcanic <span class="hlt">origin</span> controversy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Basilevsky, A.T. ); Ivanov, B.A. )</p> <p>1990-02-01</p> <p>Cleopatra structure is a 100-km diameter feature having a morphology similar to that of double-ring basins of the Moon and Mercury and dissimilar to that of volcanic calderas on Mars, Earth, and Venus. The 2.4-km depth of Cleopatra is anomalously large compared to venusian and terrestrial <span class="hlt">impact</span> craters of equivalent diameters. An impartial summary of the situation is as follows: if Cleopatra is a volcanic caldera, it is a strange caldera, if Cleopatra is an <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater, it is a strange crater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.P53C1526L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.P53C1526L"><span>Possible <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Origin</span> for the Late Ordovician Bear Swamp Structure in the Finger Lakes Region of New York</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leiphart, D.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Impact</span> structures, or astroblemes, are one of rarest formations in the geologic record. Presently there are 176 confirmed <span class="hlt">impact</span> structures on the planet with roughly two-thirds of them evident at the surface. A potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure has been discovered in a 3D seismic survey in the Finger Lakes Region of upstate New York (Figure 1 - N42o43.187’; W76o16.637’). The Bear Swamp crater is uppermost Ordovician (~444 Ma) in age and is situated within the fluvial-deltaic to shallow marine Queenston Formation. This nearly circular structure measures 3.5 km (2.2 mi) in diameter and is completely buried in the subsurface at a depth of approximately 1,220 m (4,000 ft). Seismic data show a central uplift within the crater that rises about 160 m (525 ft) above the base. Around the central uplift is an annular basin that is more than 300 m (~1,000 ft) thick and is characterized by synformal seismic reflectors (Figure 1). This three-dimensional morphology resembles other complex craters of confirmed <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Two exploration wells were drilled into the crater and image logs were run. The first well tested the central rebound which consists of steeply dipping beds and heavily brecciated zones. The second well was drilled in the annular basin which contains alternating sequences of chaotic zones and shallow dipping beds. Based on analogous <span class="hlt">impact</span> structures, this crater fill is here interpreted as resurge breccias and turbidites which were the result of intense wave action in the moments after <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Above these <span class="hlt">impact</span>-related deposits lies a zone of very thin (~2cm) laminae which resemble varved sediments in lacustrine environments. A bioturbated zone overlies these thin laminae, which is in turn capped by the End Ordovician unconformity. Observations of both seismic and well data are consistent with a shallow marine to transition zone <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> for the Bear Swamp crater. Figure 1: Location map showing the area of the ~180 km2 (70 mi2) 3D seismic survey and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Depth+AND+perception&pg=3&id=EJ921572','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Depth+AND+perception&pg=3&id=EJ921572"><span>Students' Perceptions about Peer Assessment for Writing: Their <span class="hlt">Origin</span> and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Revision Work</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kaufman, Julia H.; Schunn, Christian D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We investigate students' negative perceptions about an online peer assessment system for undergraduate writing across the disciplines. Specifically, we consider the nature of students' resistance to peer assessment; what factors influence that resistance; and how students' perceptions <span class="hlt">impact</span> their revision work. We do this work by first examining…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Depth+AND+perception&pg=3&id=EJ921572','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Depth+AND+perception&pg=3&id=EJ921572"><span>Students' Perceptions about Peer Assessment for Writing: Their <span class="hlt">Origin</span> and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Revision Work</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kaufman, Julia H.; Schunn, Christian D.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We investigate students' negative perceptions about an online peer assessment system for undergraduate writing across the disciplines. Specifically, we consider the nature of students' resistance to peer assessment; what factors influence that resistance; and how students' perceptions <span class="hlt">impact</span> their revision work. We do this work by first examining…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035411','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035411"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> and emplacement of impactites in the Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure, Virginia, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Horton, J.W.; Gohn, G.S.; Powars, D.S.; Edwards, L.E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The late Eocene Chesapeake Bay <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure, located on the Atlantic margin of Virginia, may be Earth's best-preserved large <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure formed in a shallow marine, siliciclastic, continental-shelf environment. It has the form of an inverted sombrero in which a central crater ???40 km in diameter is surrounded by a shallower brim, the annular trough, that extends the diameter to ???85 km. The annular trough is interpreted to have formed largely by the collapse and mobilization of weak sediments. Crystalline-clast suevite, found only in the central crater, contains clasts and blocks of shocked gneiss that likely were derived from the fragmentation of the central-uplift basement. The suevite and entrained megablocks are interpreted to have formed from <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melt particles and crystalline-rock debris that never left the central crater, rather than as a fallback deposit. <span class="hlt">Impact</span>-modified sediments in the annular trough include megablocks of Cretaceous nonmarine sediment disrupted by faults, fluidized sands, fractured clays, and mixed-sediment intercalations. These <span class="hlt">impact</span>-modified sediments could have formed by a combination of processes, including ejection into and mixing of sediments in the water column, rarefaction-induced fragmentation and clastic injection, liquefaction and fluidization of sand in response to acoustic-wave vibrations, gravitational collapse, and inward lateral spreading. The Exmore beds, which blanket the entire crater and nearby areas, consist of a lower diamicton member overlain by an upper stratified member. They are interpreted as unstratified ocean-resurge deposits, having depositional cycles that may represent stages of inward resurge or outward anti-resurge flow, overlain by stratified fallout of suspended sediment from the water column. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...845..125H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...845..125H"><span>On the <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of Phobos and Deimos. I. Thermodynamic and Physical Aspects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hyodo, Ryuki; Genda, Hidenori; Charnoz, Sébastien; Rosenblatt, Pascal</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Phobos and Deimos are the two small moons of Mars. Recent works have shown that they can accrete within an <span class="hlt">impact</span>-generated disk. However, the detailed structure and initial thermodynamic properties of the disk are poorly understood. In this paper, we perform high-resolution SPH simulations of the Martian moon-forming giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> that can also form the Borealis basin. This giant <span class="hlt">impact</span> heats up the disk material (around ˜2000 K in temperature) with an entropy increase of ˜1500 J K-1 kg-1. Thus, the disk material should be mostly molten, though a tiny fraction of disk material (< 5 % ) would even experience vaporization. Typically, a piece of molten disk material is estimated to be meter sized owing to the fragmentation regulated by their shear velocity and surface tension during the <span class="hlt">impact</span> process. The disk materials initially have highly eccentric orbits (e ˜ 0.6-0.9), and successive collisions between meter-sized fragments at high <span class="hlt">impact</span> velocity (˜1-5 km s-1) can grind them down to ˜100 μm sized particles. On the other hand, a tiny amount of vaporized disk material condenses into ˜0.1 μm sized grains. Thus, the building blocks of the Martian moons are expected to be a mixture of these different sized particles from meter-sized down to ˜100 μm sized particles and ˜0.1 μm sized grains. Our simulations also suggest that the building blocks of Phobos and Deimos contain both impactor and Martian materials (at least 35%), most of which come from the Martian mantle (50-150 km in depth; at least 50%). Our results will give useful information for planning a future sample return mission to Martian moons, such as JAXA’s MMX (Martian Moons eXploration) mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4720006S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DPS....4720006S"><span>A Large <span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">Origin</span> for Sputnik Planum and Surrounding Terrains, Pluto?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schenk, Paul M.; McKinnon, William; Moore, Jeffrey; Nimmo, Francis; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Hal; Ennico, Kimberly; Olkin, Cathy; Young, Leslie</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>One of the most prominent features on Pluto discovered by New Horizons is the oval-shaped bright deposit within western Tombaugh Regio (all names used herein are informal). This smooth bright deposit, provisionally identified with frozen nitrogen and methane and informally referred to as Sputnik Planum, is bounded on the northeast by an arcuate scarp (Cousteau Rupes). The smooth bright material there embays what appears to be an eroded plateau 1-2 km high. The arcuate scarp leads to speculation that the deposits formed in an ancient <span class="hlt">impact</span> basin, but detailed mapping at 2 km pixel scales suggests that this large structure is more complex than any simple <span class="hlt">impact</span> basin. To the southwest are a series of high peaks and massifs (also embayed by bright material) but these broken massifs have a different morphology from Cousteau Rupes, being both higher and more disrupted. The southern section of this putative 800-km-wide circular structure is completely missing as smooth material extends well to the south of the nominal rim location. A possible analog occurs at the “other End of the Solar System” on Mercury, in Caloris Basin. This 1400-km-wide <span class="hlt">impact</span> basin is also irregular in shape, with large deviations form circularity, and occasional large massifs along some rim segments. Post-<span class="hlt">impact</span> smooth plains embay the rim scarp in some areas, though these are likely to be volcanic plains on Mercury. The relief of the rim scarps to the NE and SW and putative evidence for convection within Sputnik Planum suggests that the floor of the deposits lies 1-3 km below the mean surface (pending stereo mapping). This depth is consistent with the filling of an ancient <span class="hlt">impact</span> basin with ices, deposited either volcanically or atmospherically, although other explanations are also possible. This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7008905','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7008905"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Avak structure, Arctic Alaska, and genesis of the Barrow gas fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kirschner, C.E. ); Grantz, A.; Mullen, M.W. )</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>Geophysical and subsurface geologic data suggest that the Avak structure, which underlies the Arctic Coastal Plain 12 km southeast of Barrow, Alaska, is a hypervelocity meteorite or comet <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure. The structure is a roughly circular area of uplifted, chaotically deformed Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks 8 km in diameter that is bounded by a ring of anastomosing, inwardly dipping, listric normal faults 12 km in diameter. A zone of gently outward-dipping sedimentary country rocks forms a discontinuous ring of rim anticlines within the peripheral ring of normal faults. Beyond these anticlines, the sedimentary rocks are almost flat-lying. Data concerning the age of the Avak structure are not definitive. If submarine landslide deposits in the upper part of the Aptian and Albian Torok Formation, in the subsurface 200 km to the east, were triggered by the Avak event, then the Avak meteorite struck a submerged marine shelf about 100 [plus minus] 5 Ma. However, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> features found at Avak characterize the distal zones of meteorite <span class="hlt">impact</span> structures. Fused rocks, plastic deformation, and shock-metamorphic minerals found in more proximal zones of <span class="hlt">impact</span> structures are apparently missing. These observations, and the lack of Avak ejecta in cuttings and cores from the Torok Formation and Nanushuk Group in surrounding test wells, indicate that the <span class="hlt">impact</span> event postdated these beds. In this case, the Avak meteorite struck a Late Cretaceous or Tertiary marine shelf or coastal plain between the Cenomanian (ca. 95 Ma), and deposition of the basal beds of the overlying late Pliocene and Quaternary Gubik Formation (ca. 3 Ma).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH13A1746G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMNH13A1746G"><span>The Deflection <span class="hlt">Question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Greenberg, A. H.; Nesvold, E.; van Heerden, E.; Erasmus, N.; Marchis, F.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>On 15 February, 2013, a 15 m diameter asteroid entered the Earth's atmosphere over Russia. The resulting shockwave injured nearly 1500 people, and incurred 33 million (USD) in infrastructure damages. The Chelyabinsk meteor served as a forceful demonstration of the threat posed to Earth by the hundreds of potentially hazardous objects (PHOs) that pass near the Earth every year. Although no objects have yet been discovered on an <span class="hlt">impact</span> course for Earth, an <span class="hlt">impact</span> is virtually statistically guaranteed at some point in the future. While many impactor deflection technologies have been proposed, humanity has yet to demonstrate the ability to divert an impactor when one is found. Developing and testing any single proposed technology will require significant research time and funding. This leaves open an obvious <span class="hlt">question</span> - towards which technologies should funding and research be directed, in order to maximize our preparedness for when an impactor is eventually found? To help answer this <span class="hlt">question</span>, we have created a detailed framework for analyzing various deflection technologies and their effectiveness. Using an n-body integrator (REBOUND), we have simulated the attempted deflections of a population of Earth-<span class="hlt">impacting</span> objects with a variety of velocity perturbations (∂Vs), and measured the effects that these perturbations had on <span class="hlt">impact</span> probability. We then mapped the ∂Vs applied in the orbital simulations to the technologies capable of achieving those perturbations, and analyzed which set of technologies would be most effective at preventing a PHO from <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the earth. As a final step, we used the results of these simulations to train a machine learning algorithm. This algorithm, combined with a simulated PHO population, can predict which technologies are most likely to be needed. The algorithm can also reveal which impactor observables (mass, spin, orbit, etc.) have the greatest effect on the choice of deflection technology. These results can be used as a tool to</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5333286','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5333286"><span>Recognizing <span class="hlt">Question</span> Entailment for Medical <span class="hlt">Question</span> Answering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated <span class="hlt">question</span> answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical <span class="hlt">question</span> by retrieving similar <span class="hlt">questions</span> that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar <span class="hlt">questions</span> based on Recognizing <span class="hlt">Question</span> Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked <span class="hlt">Question</span> (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health <span class="hlt">question</span> exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health <span class="hlt">questions</span> received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic <span class="hlt">question</span> answering approaches. PMID:28269825</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28269825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28269825"><span>Recognizing <span class="hlt">Question</span> Entailment for Medical <span class="hlt">Question</span> Answering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated <span class="hlt">question</span> answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical <span class="hlt">question</span> by retrieving similar <span class="hlt">questions</span> that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar <span class="hlt">questions</span> based on Recognizing <span class="hlt">Question</span> Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked <span class="hlt">Question</span> (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health <span class="hlt">question</span> exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health <span class="hlt">questions</span> received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic <span class="hlt">question</span> answering approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21574464','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21574464"><span>[Assessment of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of GMO of plant <span class="hlt">origin</span> on rat progeny development in 3 generations].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tyshko, N V; Zhminchenko, V M; Pashorina, V A; Seliaskin, K E; Saprykin, V P; Utembaeva, N T; Tutel'ian, V A</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The publication presents the results of assessment of <span class="hlt">impact</span> of genetically modified (GM) maize Liberty Link on prenatal and postnatal development of progeny of 3 generations of Wistar rats. A total of 630 adult animals and 2837 pups were used in the experiment. The animals were divided into 5 groups which got the diets with inclusion of maize: the animals of the experimental group got the diet with the GM-maize, animals of the control group - with near isogenic conventional analogue of the GM-maize, animals of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd reference groups - conventional varieties of maize ROSS 144 MV, ROSS 197 MVW, Dokuchayevskaya 250 MV respectively. The maize was included in the diet at maximum possible level not violating the balance of basic nutrients. Analysis of the data obtained during the study did not reveal any <span class="hlt">impact</span> of GM-maize on rat progeny development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089679&hterms=ocean+life&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Docean%2Blife','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089679&hterms=ocean+life&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Docean%2Blife"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> melting of frozen oceans on the early Earth: implications for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bada, J. L.; Bigham, C.; Miller, S. L.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Without sufficient greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the early Earth would have become a permanently frozen planet because the young Sun was less luminous than it is today. Several resolutions to this faint young Sun-frozen Earth paradox have been proposed, with an atmosphere rich in CO2 being the one generally favored. However, these models assume that there were no mechanisms for melting a once frozen ocean. Here we show that bolide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> between about 3.6 and 4.0 billion years ago could have episodically melted an ice-covered early ocean. Thaw-freeze cycles associated with bolide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> could have been important for the initiation of abiotic reactions that gave rise to the first living organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11539550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11539550"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> melting of frozen oceans on the early Earth: implications for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bada, J L; Bigham, C; Miller, S L</p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>Without sufficient greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the early Earth would have become a permanently frozen planet because the young Sun was less luminous than it is today. Several resolutions to this faint young Sun-frozen Earth paradox have been proposed, with an atmosphere rich in CO2 being the one generally favored. However, these models assume that there were no mechanisms for melting a once frozen ocean. Here we show that bolide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> between about 3.6 and 4.0 billion years ago could have episodically melted an ice-covered early ocean. Thaw-freeze cycles associated with bolide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> could have been important for the initiation of abiotic reactions that gave rise to the first living organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=43134','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=43134"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> melting of frozen oceans on the early Earth: Implications for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bada, J. L.; Bigham, C.; Miller, S. L.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Without sufficient greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the early Earth would have become a permanently frozen planet because the young Sun was less luminous than it is today. Several resolutions to this faint young Sun-frozen Earth paradox have been proposed, with an atmosphere rich in CO2 being the one generally favored. However, these models assume that there were no mechanisms for melting a once frozen ocean. Here we show that bolide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> between about 3.6 and 4.0 billion years ago could have episodically melted an ice-covered early ocean. Thaw-freeze cycles associated with bolide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> could have been important for the initiation of abiotic reactions that gave rise to the first living organisms. PMID:11539550</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089679&hterms=life+beyond+earth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dlife%2Bbeyond%2Bearth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089679&hterms=life+beyond+earth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dlife%2Bbeyond%2Bearth"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> melting of frozen oceans on the early Earth: implications for the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bada, J. L.; Bigham, C.; Miller, S. L.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Without sufficient greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the early Earth would have become a permanently frozen planet because the young Sun was less luminous than it is today. Several resolutions to this faint young Sun-frozen Earth paradox have been proposed, with an atmosphere rich in CO2 being the one generally favored. However, these models assume that there were no mechanisms for melting a once frozen ocean. Here we show that bolide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> between about 3.6 and 4.0 billion years ago could have episodically melted an ice-covered early ocean. Thaw-freeze cycles associated with bolide <span class="hlt">impacts</span> could have been important for the initiation of abiotic reactions that gave rise to the first living organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990GeoRL..17..175B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990GeoRL..17..175B"><span>Cleopatra crater on Venus - Venera 15/16 data and <span class="hlt">impact</span>/volcanic <span class="hlt">origin</span> controversy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, B. A.</p> <p>1990-02-01</p> <p>The morphology and morphometry of the 100-km diameter, 2.4-km deep Cleopatra crater on Venus are examined using Venera 15/16 images. The Cleopatra crater is compared to circular structures on Venus, Mercury, Mars, the earth and the moon. Consideration is given to the possible causes for the genesis of the Cleopatra crater. It is concluded that Cleopatra has a clear <span class="hlt">impact</span> basin morphology with an anomalous crater depth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27909122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27909122"><span>Femoral <span class="hlt">impaction</span> bone grafting in revision hip arthroplasty: 705 cases from the <span class="hlt">originating</span> centre.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilson, M J; Hook, S; Whitehouse, S L; Timperley, A J; Gie, G A</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Femoral <span class="hlt">impaction</span> bone grafting was first developed in 1987 using morselised cancellous bone graft <span class="hlt">impacted</span> into the femoral canal in combination with a cemented, tapered, polished stem. We describe the evolution of this technique and instrumentation since that time. Between 1987 and 2005, 705 revision total hip arthroplasties (56 bilateral) were performed with femoral <span class="hlt">impaction</span> grafting using a cemented femoral stem. All surviving patients were prospectively followed for a mean of 14.7 years (9.8 to 28.3) with no loss to follow-up. By the time of the final review, 404 patients had died. There were 76 further revisions (10.8%) involving the stem; seven for aseptic loosening, 23 for periprosthetic fracture, 24 for infection, one for malposition, one for fracture of the stem and 19 cement-in-cement exchanges of the stem during acetabular revision. The 20-year survival rate for the entire series was 98.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 97.8 to 99.8) with aseptic loosening as the endpoint, and 87.7% (95% CI 82.8 to 92.6) for revision for any reason. Survival improved with the evolution of the technique, although this was not statistically significant due to the overall low rate of further revision. This is the largest series of revision total hip arthroplasties with femoral <span class="hlt">impaction</span> grafting, and the results support the continued use of this technique. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1611-19. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1338913','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1338913"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of remanent magnetic field on the heat load of <span class="hlt">original</span> CEBAF cryomodule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ciovati, Gianluigi; Cheng, Guangfeng; Drury, Michael; Fischer, John; Geng, Rongli</p> <p>2016-11-22</p> <p>The heat load of the <span class="hlt">original</span> cryomodules for the CEBAF accelerator is ~50% higher than the target value of 100 W at 2.07 K for refurbished cavities operating at an accelerating gradient of 12.5 MV/m. This issue is due to the quality factor of the cavities being ~50% lower in the cryomodule than when tested in a vertical cryostat, even at low RF field. Previous studies were not conclusive about the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the additional losses. We present the results of a systematic study of the additional losses in a five-cell cavity from a decommissioned cryomodule after attaching components, which are part of the cryomodule, such as the cold tuner, the He tank and the cold magnetic shield, prior to cryogenic testing in a vertical cryostat. Flux-gate magnetometers and temperature sensors are used as diagnostic elements. Different cool-down procedures and tests in different residual magnetic fields were investigated during the study. Here, three flux-gate magnetometers attached to one of the cavities installed in the refurbished cryomodule C50-12 confirmed the hypothesis of high residual magnetic field as a major cause for the increased RF losses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1338913-impact-remanent-magnetic-field-heat-load-original-cebaf-cryomodule','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1338913-impact-remanent-magnetic-field-heat-load-original-cebaf-cryomodule"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of remanent magnetic field on the heat load of <span class="hlt">original</span> CEBAF cryomodule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Ciovati, Gianluigi; Cheng, Guangfeng; Drury, Michael; ...</p> <p>2016-11-22</p> <p>The heat load of the <span class="hlt">original</span> cryomodules for the CEBAF accelerator is ~50% higher than the target value of 100 W at 2.07 K for refurbished cavities operating at an accelerating gradient of 12.5 MV/m. This issue is due to the quality factor of the cavities being ~50% lower in the cryomodule than when tested in a vertical cryostat, even at low RF field. Previous studies were not conclusive about the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the additional losses. We present the results of a systematic study of the additional losses in a five-cell cavity from a decommissioned cryomodule after attaching components, whichmore » are part of the cryomodule, such as the cold tuner, the He tank and the cold magnetic shield, prior to cryogenic testing in a vertical cryostat. Flux-gate magnetometers and temperature sensors are used as diagnostic elements. Different cool-down procedures and tests in different residual magnetic fields were investigated during the study. Here, three flux-gate magnetometers attached to one of the cavities installed in the refurbished cryomodule C50-12 confirmed the hypothesis of high residual magnetic field as a major cause for the increased RF losses.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.4938W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.4938W"><span>Comparative ionospheric <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and solar <span class="hlt">origins</span> of nine strong geomagnetic storms in 2010-2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, Brian E.; Lean, Judith L.; McDonald, Sarah E.; Wang, Yi-Ming</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>For nine of the strongest geomagnetic storms in solar cycle 24 we characterize, quantify, and compare the <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on ionospheric total electron content (TEC) and the U.S. Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) with the heliospheric morphology and kinematics of the responsible coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and their solar source regions. Regional TEC responses to the events are similar in many respects, especially in the initial positive phase. For the subsequent negative phase, Dst is a better indicator than ap of the magnitude of the TEC decrease. The five events that arrive between 13:00 UT and 21:00 UT (local daytime in the U.S.) produce large WAAS degradations, and the four events that arrive outside this time of day produce lesser or no WAAS degradation. Our sample of geoeffective events includes CMEs with only modestly fast speeds, ones that only provided glancing <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on Earth by their shock sheaths and ones not associated with any significant flare. While all of the CMEs traveled faster than the solar wind, they nevertheless have a wide range of velocities and produced a range of Bz values; neither speed nor Bz correlates significantly with ionospheric <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Comparison with the locations of surface activity leads to estimates of deflection for the CMEs, with the average deflection being 19°. At least a few events may have missed Earth entirely in the absence of coronal deflection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9503014G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9503014G"><span>BICEP2, Planck, spinorial space-time, pre-Big Bang.. On the possible <span class="hlt">origin</span> of primordial CMB B-modes and gravitational waves. Potentialities of alternative cosmologies and open <span class="hlt">questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The field of Cosmology is currently undergoing a positive and constructive crisis. Controversies concerning inflation are not really new. But after the 2013-2014 Planck and BICEP2 announcements, and the more recent joint analysis by Planck, BICEP2 and the Keck Array (PBKA), the basic issues can involve more direct links between the Mathematical Physics aspects of cosmological patterns and the interpretation of experimental results. Open <span class="hlt">questions</span> and new ideas on the foundations of Cosmology can emerge, while future experimental and observational programs look very promising. The BICEP2 result reporting an excess of B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation was initially presented as a signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. But polarized dust emission can be at the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of such a signal, and the evidence claimed by BICEP2 is no longer secure after the PBKA analysis. Furthermore, even assuming that significant CMB B-mode polarization has indeed been generated by the early Universe, its theoretical and cosmological interpretation would be far from obvious. Inflationary gravitational waves are not the only possible source of primordial CMB B-modes. Alternative cosmologies such as pre-Big Bang patterns and the spinorial space-time (SST) we introduced in 1996-97 can naturally produce this polarization. Furthermore, the SST automatically generates for each comoving observer a local privileged space direction (PSD) whose existence may have been confirmed by Planck data. If such a PSD exists, vector perturbations have most likely been strong in the early Universe and may have produced CMB B-modes. Pre-Big Bang cosmologies can also generate gravitational waves in the early Universe without inflation. After briefly describing detectors devoted to the study of the CMB polarization, we discuss the situation emerging from BICEP2 results, Planck results and the PBKA analysis. In particular, we further analyze</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030111578&hterms=hematite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dhematite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030111578&hterms=hematite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dhematite"><span>Evidence for an 800 km Diameter <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Structure in Meridiani Planum and Associated Channels and Basins: A Connection with the <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of the Hematite Deposits?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Newsom, H. E.; Barber, C. A.; Schelble, R. T.; Hare, T. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Sutherland, V.; Gordon, H.; Thorsos, I. E.; Livingston, A.; Lewis, K.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Topographic evidence for the existence of an early 800 km diameter multi-ringed <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure, and evidence for fluvial and lacustrine environments in Meridiani Planum suggests a connection with the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the hematite deposits present in the region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15200722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15200722"><span>Socrates' <span class="hlt">questions</span>: a focus for nursing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bunkers, Sandra S</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue <span class="hlt">originated</span> by Socrates. Six <span class="hlt">questions</span> that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six <span class="hlt">Questions</span> of Socrates. These <span class="hlt">questions</span> were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these <span class="hlt">questions</span> and the <span class="hlt">question</span> is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' <span class="hlt">questions</span>?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these <span class="hlt">questions</span> can occur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26304435','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26304435"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of fermentation on nitrogenous compounds of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) from various <span class="hlt">origins</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hue, C; Gunata, Z; Breysse, A; Davrieux, F; Boulanger, R; Sauvage, F X</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Tangential filtration technique was used to separate and quantify three different fractions of nitrogenous compounds depending on their molecular size, during cocoa fermentation. On every phenotype and <span class="hlt">origin</span> analyzed, protein profile of non-fermented samples was similar. During fermentation course, proteins get degraded with a concomitant increase in amino acids content. Peptides between 3 and 10 kDa were observed at low levels. A strong correlation between amino acids and ammonia nitrogen, a fermentation marker was found. Attention was drawn on each fraction, and enabled to point out other phenomenon occurring during fermentation. The migration of some nitrogenous compounds towards the bean shell during fermentation was demonstrated. Acetone treatment of cocoa powder prior to SDS-PAGE led to losses of nitrogenous compounds. This result gives clues on the tanning phenomenon carried out by polyphenols on nitrogenous compounds, phenomenon which increases during fermentation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4824791','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4824791"><span>Metabolites of Microbial <span class="hlt">Origin</span> with an <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on Health: Ochratoxin A and Biogenic Amines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio; Spano, Giuseppe; Corbo, Maria R.; Sinigaglia, Milena; Bevilacqua, Antonio</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Safety and quality are significant challenges for food; namely, safety represents a big threat all over the world and is one of the most important goal to be achieved in both Western Society and Developing Countries. Wine safety mainly relies upon some metabolites and many of them are of microbial <span class="hlt">origin</span>. The main goal of this review is a focus on two kinds of compounds (biogenic amines and mycotoxins, mainly Ochratoxin A) for their deleterious effects on health. For each class of compounds, we will focus on two different traits: (a) synthesis of the compounds in wine, with a brief description of the most important microorganisms and factors leading this phenomenon; (b) prevention and/or correction strategies and new trends. In addition, there is a focus on a recent predictive tool able to predict toxin contamination of grape, in order to perform some prevention approaches and achieve safe wine. PMID:27092133</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890056390&hterms=geologic+record&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgeologic%2Brecord','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890056390&hterms=geologic+record&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgeologic%2Brecord"><span>The cratering record on Mercury and the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of <span class="hlt">impacting</span> objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Strom, Robert G.; Neukum, Gerhard</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The cratering records of terrestrial planets are discussed with special consideration given to Mercury. The geologic units on Mercury most relevant to its cratering record are reviewed, and new observations are presented on the issues of equilibrium and saturation. The implications of the Mercurian cratering record for geologic processes are examined. Particular attention is given to the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of objects responsible for the period of late heavy bombardment on terrestrial planets; it is suggested that the impactors were accretional remnants left over from the formation of the terrestrial planets and confined to the inner solar system. The cratering record in the outer solar system may have been produced largely by objects in planetocentric orbits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012950','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012950"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> of the Sudbury Complex by meteoritic <span class="hlt">impact</span>: Neodymium isotopic evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Faggart, B.E.; Basu, A.R.; Tatsumoto, M.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Samarium-neodymium isotopic data on whole rocks and minerals of the Sudbury Complex in Canada gave an igneous crystallization age of 1840 ?? 21 ?? 106 years. The initial epsilon neodymium values for 15 whole rocks are similar to those for average upper continental crust, falling on the crustal trend of neodymium isotopic evolution as defined by shales. The rare earth element concentration patterns of Sudbury rocks are also similar to upper crustal averages. These data suggest that the Sudbury Complex formed from melts generated in the upper crust and are consistent with a meteoritic <span class="hlt">impact</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26260653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26260653"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus <span class="hlt">Origins</span> on Copy Number Variation in Traditional Chinese Cattle Breeds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Liangzhi; Jia, Shangang; Plath, Martin; Huang, Yongzhen; Li, Congjun; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong</p> <p>2015-08-10</p> <p>Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also in domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid <span class="hlt">origin</span>, but the evolution of CNV regions (CNVRs) has not yet been examined in this context. Here, we of CNVRs, mtDNA D-loop sequence variation, and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of maternal and paternal B. taurus and B. indicus <span class="hlt">origins</span> on the distribution of CNVRs in 24 Chinese domesticated bulls. We discovered 470 genome-wide CNVRs, only 72 of which were shared by all three Y-lineages (B. taurus: Y1, Y2; B. indicus: Y3), whereas 265 were shared by inferred taurine or indicine paternal lineages, and 228 when considering their maternal taurine or indicine <span class="hlt">origins</span>. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered eight taurine/indicine hybrids, and principal component analysis on CNVs corroborated genomic exchange during hybridization. The distribution patterns of CNVRs tended to be lineage-specific, and correlation analysis revealed significant positive or negative co-occurrences of CNVRs across lineages. Our study suggests that CNVs in Chinese cattle partly result from selective breeding during domestication, but also from hybridization and introgression. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4558867','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4558867"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus <span class="hlt">Origins</span> on Copy Number Variation in Traditional Chinese Cattle Breeds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Liangzhi; Jia, Shangang; Plath, Martin; Huang, Yongzhen; Li, Congjun; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also in domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid <span class="hlt">origin</span>, but the evolution of CNV regions (CNVRs) has not yet been examined in this context. Here, we of CNVRs, mtDNA D-loop sequence variation, and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of maternal and paternal B. taurus and B. indicus <span class="hlt">origins</span> on the distribution of CNVRs in 24 Chinese domesticated bulls. We discovered 470 genome-wide CNVRs, only 72 of which were shared by all three Y-lineages (B. taurus: Y1, Y2; B. indicus: Y3), whereas 265 were shared by inferred taurine or indicine paternal lineages, and 228 when considering their maternal taurine or indicine <span class="hlt">origins</span>. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered eight taurine/indicine hybrids, and principal component analysis on CNVs corroborated genomic exchange during hybridization. The distribution patterns of CNVRs tended to be lineage-specific, and correlation analysis revealed significant positive or negative co-occurrences of CNVRs across lineages. Our study suggests that CNVs in Chinese cattle partly result from selective breeding during domestication, but also from hybridization and introgression. PMID:26260653</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1560855','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1560855"><span><span class="hlt">Question</span> Analysis for Biomedical <span class="hlt">Question</span> Answering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sable, Carl; Lee, Minsuk; Zhu, Hai Ran; Yu, Hong</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>We are developing a biomedical <span class="hlt">question</span> answering system. This paper describes our system’s architecture and our <span class="hlt">question</span> analysis component. Specifically, we have explored the use of various supervised machine learning approaches to filter out unanswerable <span class="hlt">questions</span> based on physicians’ annotations. PMID:16779389</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED310102.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED310102.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Questions</span>, <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Techniques, and Effective Teaching.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilen, William W., Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This book focuses on <span class="hlt">questioning</span> techniques and strategies teachers may employ to make the difference between active and passive learning in the classroom. There are nine chapters: (1) Why <span class="hlt">Questions</span>? (Ambrose A. Clegg, Jr.); (2) Review of Research on <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Techniques (Meredith D. Gall and Tom Rhody); (3) The Multidisciplinary World of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4190H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4190H"><span>The Submarine 4-km diameter Corossol Crater, Eastern Canada: Evidence for an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Higgins, Michael D.; Lajeunesse, Patrick; St-Onge, Guillaume; Locat, Jacques; Sanfacon, Richard; Duchesne, Mathieu J.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The newly-discovered Corossol Crater lies in the northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence (Eastern Canada; 50°3'N, 66°23'W) and was found in 40-185 metres of water using high-resolution multibeam sonar. It is a 4 km in diameter complex circular structure with a central uplift and concentric rings. Glacial resurfacing indicates that it predates the last phase of glaciation in this area. Dredging on the central uplift recovered many angular clasts of hard grey limestone, which forms the bedrock in much of this area. One 4 cm clast of limestone breccia is somewhat different from the other blocks and has characteristics that suggest that it is an <span class="hlt">impact</span> breccia. The block comprises fragments of calcite limestone up to 2 mm long. In many parts of the block these fragments have thin black rims. At the edges of the block these rims are brown, presumably reflecting aqueous alteration. Mineral grains in the rims are too small to characterize, but the fact that the ensemble can be oxidized suggests that it contains sulfides. In places the block is cut by veins of fine-grained calcite with euhedral dolomite crystals. The most unusual component is rare droplets up to 2 mm long, commonly fragmented. The droplets comprise a glassy matrix with a composition very close to fluorapatite and opaque crystals that have a composition close to pyrite. A few droplets have up to 5% vesicles. Fluorapatite requires fusion temperatures of about 1600 C, which cannot be achieved at the surface of the Earth by endogenous processes. A single fragmented quartz crystal with planar features was found close to one droplet. Universal stage measurements of the orientation of the planar features give an angle of 42 degrees which is close to that of {10-13} planes. This is the most common set of deformation planes produced during shock metamorphism of quartz. Unfortunately no other grains were found with similar planes. The glassy droplets and shocked quartz together suggest that the clast was produced by an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7262254','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7262254"><span>Oxygen isotope constraints on the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of <span class="hlt">impact</span> glasses from the cretaceous-tertiary boundary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blum, J.D.; Chamberlain, C.P. )</p> <p>1992-08-21</p> <p>Laser-extraction oxygen isotope and major element analyses of individual glass spherules from Haitian Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments demonstrate that the glasses fall on a mixing line between an isotopically heavy ({delta}{sup 18}O = 14 per mil) high-calcium composition and an isotopically light ({delta}{sup 18}O = 6 per mil) high-silicon composition. This trend can be explained by melting of heterogeneous source rocks during the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of an asteroid (or comet) {approximately}65 million years ago. The data indicate that the glasses are a mixture of carbonate and silicate rocks and exclude derivation of the glasses either by volcanic processes or as mixtures of sulfate-high evaporate and silicate rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11542164','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11542164"><span>The <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the moon and the single-<span class="hlt">impact</span> hypothesis III.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Benz, W; Cameron, A G; Melosh, H J</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>In previous papers in this series the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method (SPH) has been used to explore the conditions in which a major planetary collision may have been responsible for the formation of the Moon. In Paper II (W. Benz, W.L. Slattery, and A.G.W. Cameron 1987, Icarus 71, 30-45) it was found that the optimum conditions were obtained when the mass ratio of the impactor to the protoearth was 0.136. In the present paper we investigate the importance of the equation of state by running this optimum case several times and varying the equation of state and other related parameters. The two equations of state compared are the Tillotson (used in the previous papers) and the CHART D/CSQ ANEOS. Because of differences in these equations of state, including the fact that different types of rocks were used in association with each, it was not possible to prepare initial planetary models that were comparable in every respect, so several different simulations were necessary in which different planetary parameters were matched between the equations of state. We also used a new version of the SPH code. The results reaffirmed the previous principal conclusions: the collisions produced a disk of rocky material in orbit, with most of the material derived from the <span class="hlt">impacting</span> object. These results indicate that the equation of state is not a critical factor in determining the amount of material thrown into orbit. This confirms the conclusions of Paper II that gravitational torques, and not pressure gradients, inject the orbiting mass. However, the way this mass is distributed in orbit is affected by the equation of state and the choice of rock material, the Tillotson equation for granite giving slightly larger mean orbital radius for the particles left in orbit than the ANEOS dunite for the same <span class="hlt">impact</span> parameter. We also find, compared to Paper II, that in all subsequent cases the new SPH code leads to a slightly less extended prelunar accretion disk. We think this is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4785872','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4785872"><span>The Long-Term <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Medicaid Exposure in Early Childhood: Evidence from the Program's <span class="hlt">Origin</span>*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Boudreaux, Michel H.; Golberstein, Ezra; McAlpine, Donna D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the long-term <span class="hlt">impact</span> of exposure to Medicaid in early childhood on adult health and economic status. The staggered timing of Medicaid's adoption across the states created meaningful variation in cumulative exposure to Medicaid for birth cohorts that are now in adulthood. Analyses of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics suggest exposure to Medicaid in early childhood (age 0-5) is associated with statistically significant and meaningful improvements in adult health (age 25-54), and this effect is only seen in subgroups targeted by the program. Results for economic outcomes are imprecise and we are unable to come to definitive conclusions. Using separate data we find evidence of two mechanisms that could plausibly link Medicaid's introduction to long-term outcomes: contemporaneous increases in health services utilization for children and reductions in family medical debt. PMID:26763123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017263','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017263"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Avak Structure, Arctic Alaska, and genesis of the Barrow gas fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kirschner, C.E.; Grantz, A.; Mullen, M.W.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Geophysical and subsurface geologic data suggest that the Avak structure, which underlies the Arctic Coastal Plain 12 km southeast of Barrow, Alaska, is a hypervelocity meteorite or comet <span class="hlt">impact</span> structure. The structure is a roughly circular area of uplifted, chaotically deformed Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks 8 km in diameter that is bounded by a ring of anastomosing, inwardly dipping, listric normal faults 12 km in diameter. Examination of cores from the Barrow gas fields and data concerning the age of the Avak structure suggest that the Avak meteorite struck a Late Cretaceous or Tertiary marine shelf or coastal plain between the Cenomanian (ca. 95 Ma), and deposition of the basal beds of the overlying late Pliocene and Quaternary Gubik Formation (ca. 3 Ma). -from Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25895429','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25895429"><span>Germ Cell <span class="hlt">Origins</span> of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Risk: The Transgenerational <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Parental Stress Experience.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodgers, Ali B; Bale, Tracy L</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Altered stress reactivity is a predominant feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may reflect disease vulnerability, increasing the probability that an individual will develop PTSD following trauma exposure. Environmental factors, particularly prior stress history, contribute to the developmental programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. Critically, the consequences of stress experiences are transgenerational, with parental stress exposure <span class="hlt">impacting</span> stress reactivity and PTSD risk in subsequent generations. Potential molecular mechanisms underlying this transmission have been explored in rodent models that specifically examine the paternal lineage, identifying epigenetic signatures in male germ cells as possible substrates of transgenerational programming. Here, we review the role of these germ cell epigenetic marks, including posttranslational histone modifications, DNA methylation, and populations of small noncoding RNAs, in the development of offspring stress axis sensitivity and disease risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6983867','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6983867"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Avak structure, Arctic Alaska, and genesis of the Barrow gas fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kirschner, C.E.; Grantz, A. )</p> <p>1990-05-01</p> <p>Geophysical and subsurface geologic data confirm that the Avak structure, which underlies the coastal plain 12 km southeast of Barrow, is an <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater. The structure is a roughly circular area of chaotically deformed Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous sedimentary rocks 8 km in diameter bounded by a ring of anastomozing, inwardly dipping, listric normal faults. Beyond the ring, these rocks are almost flat. Basement is strongly deformed Ordovician and Silurian argillite. Strong density and seismic velocity contrast between the argillite and the overlying strata produce gravity and seismic reflection signatures that define ring anticlines around the disturbed zone and a structural high at its center. The Mesozoic strata are about 760 m thick in the adjacent Barrow gas fields, where the Neocomian pebble shale unit and the gas-producing Lower Jurassic Barrow sandstone lie at average subsea depths of 438 m and 670 m, respectively. In the Avak well, drilled on the central high, the pebble shale unit and Barrow sandstone lie near the surface, documenting more than 500 m of uplift at the high. The cores in this well also show steep dips (30-90{degree}), abundant tectonic breccia with argillite clasts 90 m above basement, fractured quartz grains, and shatter cones resembling those found in well-documented meteorite craters. Stratigraphic data suggest that the Avak meteorite struck a late Early Cretaceous marine shelf, produced peripheral highs that trapped gas in the Barrow fields, and triggered massive landslides on the adjacent outer shelf. The age of the landslides dates the <span class="hlt">impact</span> at about 105 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26574104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26574104"><span><span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of produced water <span class="hlt">origin</span> on bacterial community structures of activated sludge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhenyu; Pan, Feng; Hesham, Abd El-Latif; Gao, Yingxin; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to reveal how activated sludge communities respond to influent quality and indigenous communities by treating two produced waters from different <span class="hlt">origins</span> in a batch reactor in succession. The community shift and compositions were investigated using Polymerase Chain Reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and further 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone library analysis. The abundance of targeted genes for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation, nahAc/phnAc and C12O/C23O, was tracked to define the metabolic ability of the in situ microbial community by Most Probable Number (MPN) PCR. The biosystem performed almost the same for treatment of both produced waters in terms of removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and PAHs. Sludge communities were closely associated with the respective influent bacterial communities (similarity>60%), while one sludge clone library was dominated by the Betaproteobacteria (38%) and Bacteriodetes (30%) and the other was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria (52%). This suggested that different influent and water quality have an effect on sludge community compositions. In addition, the existence of catabolic genes in sludge was consistent with the potential for degradation of PAHs in the treatment of both produced waters. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160005914','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160005914"><span>Nature, <span class="hlt">Origin</span>, Potential Composition, and Climate <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; Thomason, L. W.; Natarajan, M.; Bedka, K.; Wienhold, F.; Bian J.; Martinsson, B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Satellite observations from SAGE II and CALIPSO indicate that summertime aerosol extinction has more than doubled in the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL) since the late 1990s. Here we show remote and in-situ observations, together with results from a chemical transport model (CTM), to explore the likely composition, <span class="hlt">origin</span>, and radiative forcing of the ATAL. We show in-situ balloon measurements of aerosol backscatter, which support the high levels observed by CALIPSO since 2006. We also show in situ measurements from aircraft, which indicate a predominant carbonaceous contribution to the ATAL (Carbon/Sulfur ratios of 2- 10), which is supported by the CTM results. We show that the peak in ATAL aerosol lags by 1 month the peak in CO from MLS, associated with deep convection over Asia during the summer monsoon. This suggests that secondary formation and growth of aerosols in the upper troposphere on monthly timescales make a significant contribution to ATAL. Back trajectory calculations initialized from CALIPSO observations provide evidence that deep convection over India is a significant source for ATAL through the vertical transport of pollution to the upper troposphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450581','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450581"><span>Developmental <span class="hlt">origins</span> of cardiovascular disease: <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of early life stress in humans and rodents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Murphy, M O; Cohn, D M; Loria, A S</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The Developmental <span class="hlt">Origins</span> of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesizes that environmental insults during childhood programs the individual to develop chronic disease in adulthood. Emerging epidemiological data strongly supports that early life stress (ELS) given by the exposure to adverse childhood experiences is regarded as an independent risk factor capable of predicting future risk of cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal models utilizing chronic behavioral stress during postnatal life, specifically maternal separation (MatSep) provides a suitable tool to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. The purpose of this review is to highlight current epidemiological studies linking ELS to the development of cardiovascular disease and to discuss the potential molecular mechanisms identified from animal studies. Overall, this review reveals the need for future investigations to further clarify the molecular mechanisms of ELS in order to develop more personalized therapeutics to mitigate the long-term consequences of chronic behavioral stress including cardiovascular and heart disease in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22399572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22399572"><span>The <span class="hlt">origin</span>, global distribution, and functional <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the human 8p23 inversion polymorphism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salm, Maximilian P A; Horswell, Stuart D; Hutchison, Claire E; Speedy, Helen E; Yang, Xia; Liang, Liming; Schadt, Eric E; Cookson, William O; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Naoumova, Rossi P; Shoulders, Carol C</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Genomic inversions are an increasingly recognized source of genetic variation. However, a lack of reliable high-throughput genotyping assays for these structures has precluded a full understanding of an inversion's phylogenetic, phenotypic, and population genetic properties. We characterize these properties for one of the largest polymorphic inversions in man (the ∼4.5-Mb 8p23.1 inversion), a structure that encompasses numerous signals of natural selection and disease association. We developed and validated a flexible bioinformatics tool that utilizes SNP data to enable accurate, high-throughput genotyping of the 8p23.1 inversion. This tool was applied retrospectively to diverse genome-wide data sets, revealing significant population stratification that largely follows a clinal "serial founder effect" distribution model. Phylogenetic analyses establish the inversion's ancestral <span class="hlt">origin</span> within the Homo lineage, indicating that 8p23.1 inversion has occurred independently in the Pan lineage. The human inversion breakpoint was localized to an inverted pair of human endogenous retrovirus elements within the large, flanking low-copy repeats; experimental validation of this breakpoint confirmed these elements as the likely intermediary substrates that sponsored inversion formation. In five data sets, mRNA levels of disease-associated genes were robustly associated with inversion genotype. Moreover, a haplotype associated with systemic lupus erythematosus was restricted to the derived inversion state. We conclude that the 8p23.1 inversion is an evolutionarily dynamic structure that can now be accommodated into the understanding of human genetic and phenotypic diversity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093071','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26093071"><span>Framing choice: The <span class="hlt">origins</span> and <span class="hlt">impact</span> of consumer rhetoric in US health care debates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Nancy S</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This paper examines the <span class="hlt">origins</span> of consumerist discourse in health care from a communication perspective via a historical textual analysis of health writing in popular magazines from 1930 to 1949. The focus is on Consumers Union's Consumer Reports and the American Medical Association's lay health magazine, Hygeia. Findings from Consumer Reports show that the consumer movement of the 1930s-40s staunchly advocated for universal health insurance. Whereas consumer rights language nowadays tends towards individual choice and personal responsibility, consumerism in health care during that era articulated ideas about consumer citizenship, framing choice and responsibility in collectivist terms and health care as a social good. This paper also illuminates the limits and weaknesses of a central tenet in consumerism-freedom of choice-by analyzing stories in Hygeia about the doctor-patient relationship. A textual analysis finds that the AMA's justification in the 1930s-40s against socialized medicine, i.e., the freedom to choose a doctor, was in practice highly controlled by the medical profession. Findings show that long before the rhetoric of the "empowered consumer" became popular, some patients exercised some choice even in an era when physicians achieved total professional dominance. But these patients were few and tend to occupy the upper socioeconomic strata of US society. In reality choice was an illusion in a fee-for-service era when most American families could not afford the costs of medical care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26024054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26024054"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of oxidative stress during pregnancy on fetal epigenetic patterns and early <span class="hlt">origin</span> of vascular diseases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ávila, Jose Guillermo Ortega; Echeverri, Isabella; de Plata, Cecilia Aguilar; Castillo, Andrés</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Epidemiological studies have led scientists to postulate the developmental <span class="hlt">origins</span> of health and disease hypothesis for noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and obesity. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of these diseases are not well understood. In various animal models, it has been observed that oxidative stress during pregnancy is associated with the early development of endothelial dysfunction in offspring. This phenomenon suggests that endothelial dysfunction may initiate in the uterus and could lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Currently, it is known that many of the fetal adaptive responses to environmental factors are mediated by epigenetic changes in the genome, especially by the degree of methylation in cytosines in the promoter regions of genes. These findings suggest that the establishment of a particular epigenetic pattern in the genome may be generated by oxidative stress. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMED53A0530D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMED53A0530D"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Positive Role Models on the Success of Students Involved in <span class="hlt">Original</span> Scientific Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Danch, J. M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>To maximize student understanding of the methods of science via performance of authentic scientific research, a mentorship program for middle school students was developed for the 2010 - 2011 school year. A population of 8th grade science students will be selected from a district middle school and be paired with secondary student mentors already conducting individual research as part of a successful preexisting science research program. Students will interact with mentors in a school setting to develop and implement <span class="hlt">original</span> scientific research projects. Upon completion, students will present their findings at an interscholastic science symposium and/or an in-district science symposium. Students will also receive support from professional scientists at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey through interactive visitations and electronic communication. In an effort to provide diverse role models, mentors from a variety of racial, ethnic, and gender groups will participate. Student success will be evaluated through questionnaires, symposium participation and monitoring of future participation in authentic research programs as participants make the transition from middle to high school.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25833939','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25833939"><span>Evaluation d'<span class="hlt">impact</span> sur la santé et évaluation d'<span class="hlt">impact</span> sur l'équité en santé : éventail de pratiques et <span class="hlt">questions</span> de recherche.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Villeval, Mélanie; Bidault, Elsa; Lang, Thierry</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>L'Evaluation d'<span class="hlt">Impact</span> sur la Santé (EIS) se développe au niveau international et est encore au stade émergent en France. Elle vise à évaluer les effets positifs et négatifs potentiels d'un projet, d'un programme ou d'une politique sur la santé. L'objectif est de produire des recommandations en direction des décideurs, afin d'en maximiser les effets positifs et d'en diminuer les effets négatifs. L'EIS est un moyen particulièrement intéressant d'action sur les déterminants de la santé au-delà des comportements individuels et du système de santé. Les politiques de logement, de transport, de solidarité, économiques, etc. ont, en effet, des <span class="hlt">impacts</span> souvent non prévus sur la santé. Au-delà des effets sur la santé, l'EIS doit aussi permettre d'apprécier la distribution de ces effets dans la population.Si la préoccupation pour l'équité en santé est centrale dans l'EIS, elle reste cependant difficilement traduite en pratique. Face à cette difficulté, des démarches d'évaluation d'<span class="hlt">impact</span> ont été développées pour renforcer la prise en compte de l'équité à chaque étape de l'EIS ou « Equity Focused Health <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Assessment », ou prendre en compte les <span class="hlt">impacts</span> sur les inégalités de santé de façon spécifique. Ainsi, l'Evaluation de l'<span class="hlt">Impact</span> sur l'Equité en Santé (EIES) semble, par exemple, particulièrement intéressante pour évaluer l'<span class="hlt">impact</span> sur les inégalités de projets dans le champ sanitaire.L'EIS et l'EIES posent de nombreuses <span class="hlt">questions</span> de recherche, notamment autour de la réunion, dans une même démarche, du politique, du citoyen et de l'expert. La participation des populations vulnérables potentiellement affectées par la politique évaluée est une valeur centrale de l'EIS, mais pose des <span class="hlt">questions</span> d'acceptabilité sociale. La collaboration avec les décideurs politiques est également un enjeu majeur. Les difficultés méthodologiques, notamment de quantification des <span class="hlt">impacts</span>, peuvent constituer des freins à la promotion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21705381','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21705381"><span>On the <span class="hlt">origins</span> of Mendelian disease genes in man: the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of gene duplication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dickerson, Jonathan E; Robertson, David L</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Over 3,000 human diseases are known to be linked to heritable genetic variation, mapping to over 1,700 unique genes. Dating of the evolutionary age of these disease-associated genes has suggested that they have a tendency to be ancient, specifically coming into existence with early metazoa. The approach taken by past studies, however, assumes that the age of a disease is the same as the age of its common ancestor, ignoring the fundamental contribution of duplication events in the evolution of new genes and function. Here, we date both the common ancestor and the duplication history of known human disease-associated genes. We find that the majority of disease genes (80%) are genes that have been duplicated in their evolutionary history. Periods for which there are more disease-associated genes, for example, at the <span class="hlt">origins</span> of bony vertebrates, are explained by the emergence of more genes at that time, and the majority of these are duplicates inferred to have arisen by whole-genome duplication. These relationships are similar for different disease types and the disease-associated gene's cellular function. This indicates that the emergence of duplication-associated diseases has been ongoing and approximately constant (relative to the retention of duplicate genes) throughout the evolution of life. This continued until approximately 390 Ma from which time relatively fewer novel genes came into existence on the human lineage, let alone disease genes. For single-copy genes associated with disease, we find that the numbers of disease genes decreases with recency. For the majority of duplicates, the disease-associated mutation is associated with just one of the duplicate copies. A universal explanation for heritable disease is, thus, that it is merely a by-product of the evolutionary process; the evolution of new genes (de novo or by duplication) results in the potential for new diseases to emerge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3371712','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3371712"><span>The <span class="hlt">origin</span>, global distribution, and functional <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the human 8p23 inversion polymorphism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Salm, Maximilian P.A.; Horswell, Stuart D.; Hutchison, Claire E.; Speedy, Helen E.; Yang, Xia; Liang, Liming; Schadt, Eric E.; Cookson, William O.; Wierzbicki, Anthony S.; Naoumova, Rossi P.; Shoulders, Carol C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Genomic inversions are an increasingly recognized source of genetic variation. However, a lack of reliable high-throughput genotyping assays for these structures has precluded a full understanding of an inversion's phylogenetic, phenotypic, and population genetic properties. We characterize these properties for one of the largest polymorphic inversions in man (the ∼4.5-Mb 8p23.1 inversion), a structure that encompasses numerous signals of natural selection and disease association. We developed and validated a flexible bioinformatics tool that utilizes SNP data to enable accurate, high-throughput genotyping of the 8p23.1 inversion. This tool was applied retrospectively to diverse genome-wide data sets, revealing significant population stratification that largely follows a clinal “serial founder effect” distribution model. Phylogenetic analyses establish the inversion's ancestral <span class="hlt">origin</span> within the Homo lineage, indicating that 8p23.1 inversion has occurred independently in the Pan lineage. The human inversion breakpoint was localized to an inverted pair of human endogenous retrovirus elements within the large, flanking low-copy repeats; experimental validation of this breakpoint confirmed these elements as the likely intermediary substrates that sponsored inversion formation. In five data sets, mRNA levels of disease-associated genes were robustly associated with inversion genotype. Moreover, a haplotype associated with systemic lupus erythematosus was restricted to the derived inversion state. We conclude that the 8p23.1 inversion is an evolutionarily dynamic structure that can now be accommodated into the understanding of human genetic and phenotypic diversity. PMID:22399572</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3706897','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3706897"><span>Distribution, functional <span class="hlt">impact</span>, and <span class="hlt">origin</span> mechanisms of copy number variation in the barley genome</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background There is growing evidence for the prevalence of copy number variation (CNV) and its role in phenotypic variation in many eukaryotic species. Here we use array comparative genomic hybridization to explore the extent of this type of structural variation in domesticated barley cultivars and wild barleys. Results A collection of 14 barley genotypes including eight cultivars and six wild barleys were used for comparative genomic hybridization. CNV affects 14.9% of all the sequences that were assessed. Higher levels of CNV diversity are present in the wild accessions relative to cultivated barley. CNVs are enriched near the ends of all chromosomes except 4H, which exhibits the lowest frequency of CNVs. CNV affects 9.5% of the coding sequences represented on the array and the genes affected by CNV are enriched for sequences annotated as disease-resistance proteins and protein kinases. Sequence-based comparisons of CNV between cultivars Barke and Morex provided evidence that DNA repair mechanisms of double-strand breaks via single-stranded annealing and synthesis-dependent strand annealing play an important role in the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of CNV in barley. Conclusions We present the first catalog of CNVs in a diploid Triticeae species, which opens the door for future genome diversity research in a tribe that comprises the economically important cereal species wheat, barley, and rye. Our findings constitute a valuable resource for the identification of CNV affecting genes of agronomic importance. We also identify potential mechanisms that can generate variation in copy number in plant genomes. PMID:23758725</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16372001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16372001"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of sediments at the Opportunity landing site on Mars.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Knauth, L Paul; Burt, Donald M; Wohletz, Kenneth H</p> <p>2005-12-22</p> <p>Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity discovered sediments with layered structures thought to be unique to aqueous deposition and with minerals attributed to evaporation of an acidic salty sea. Remarkable iron-rich spherules were ascribed to later groundwater alteration, and the inferred abundance of water reinforced optimism that Mars was once habitable. The layered structures, however, are not unique to water deposition, and the scenario encounters difficulties in accounting for highly soluble salts admixed with less soluble salts, the lack of clay minerals from acid-rock reactions, high sphericity and near-uniform sizes of the spherules and the absence of a basin boundary. Here we present a simple alternative explanation involving deposition from a ground-hugging turbulent flow of rock fragments, salts, sulphides, brines and ice produced by meteorite <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Subsequent weathering by intergranular water films can account for all of the features observed without invoking shallow seas, lakes or near-surface aquifers. Layered sequences observed elsewhere on heavily cratered Mars and attributed to wind, water or volcanism may well have formed similarly. If so, the search for past life on Mars should be reassessed accordingly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23602978','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23602978"><span>Potential water quality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> <span class="hlt">originating</span> from land burial of cattle carcasses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yuan, Qi; Snow, Daniel D; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Among the conventional disposal methods for livestock mortalities, on-farm burial is a preferred method, but the potential water quality <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of animal carcass burial are not well understood. Typically, on-farm burial pits are constructed without liners and any leachate produced may infiltrate into soil and groundwater. To date, no information is available on temporal trends for contaminants in leachate produced from livestock mortality pits. In our study, we examined the concentrations of conventional contaminants including electrical conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, TP, and solids, as well as veterinary antimicrobials and steroid hormones in leachate over a period of 20 months. Most of the contaminants were detected in leachate after 50 days of decomposition, reaching a peak concentration at approximately 200 days and declined to baseline levels by 400 days. The estrogen 17β-estradiol and a veterinary antimicrobial, monensin, were observed at maximum concentrations of 20,069 ng/L and 11,980 ng/L, respectively. Estimated mass loading of total steroid hormone and veterinary pharmaceuticals were determined to be 1.84 and 1.01 μg/kg of buried cattle carcass materials, respectively. These data indicate that leachate from carcass burial sites represents a potential source of nutrients, organics, and residues of biologically active micro-contaminants to soil and groundwater.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900051944&hterms=Breccia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBreccia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900051944&hterms=Breccia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DBreccia"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> and history of chondrite regolith, fragmental and <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melt breccias from Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Casanova, I.; Keil, K.; Wieler, R.; San Miguel, A.; King, E. A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Six ordinary chondrite breccias from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (Spain), are described and classified as follows: the solar gas-rich regolith breccia Oviedo (H5); the premetamorphic fragmental breccias Cabezo de Mayo (type 6, L-LL), and Sevilla (LL4); the fragmental breccias Canellas (H4) and Gerona (H5); and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt breccia, Madrid (L6). It is confirmed that chondrites with typical light-dark structures and petrographic properties typical of regolith breccias may (Oviedo) or may not (Canellas) be solar gas-rich. Cabezo de Mayo and Sevilla show convincing evidence that they were assembled prior to peak metamorphism and were equilibrated during subsequent reheating. Compositions of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in host chondrite and breccia clasts in Cabezo de Mayo are transitional between groups L and LL. It is suggested, based on mineralogic and oxygen isotopic compositions of host and clasts, that the rock formed on the L parent body by mixing, prior to peak metamorphism. This was followed by partial equilibrium of two different materials: the indigenous L chondrite host and exotic LL melt rock clasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900051944&hterms=casanova&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcasanova','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900051944&hterms=casanova&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dcasanova"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> and history of chondrite regolith, fragmental and <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melt breccias from Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Casanova, I.; Keil, K.; Wieler, R.; San Miguel, A.; King, E. A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Six ordinary chondrite breccias from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (Spain), are described and classified as follows: the solar gas-rich regolith breccia Oviedo (H5); the premetamorphic fragmental breccias Cabezo de Mayo (type 6, L-LL), and Sevilla (LL4); the fragmental breccias Canellas (H4) and Gerona (H5); and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt breccia, Madrid (L6). It is confirmed that chondrites with typical light-dark structures and petrographic properties typical of regolith breccias may (Oviedo) or may not (Canellas) be solar gas-rich. Cabezo de Mayo and Sevilla show convincing evidence that they were assembled prior to peak metamorphism and were equilibrated during subsequent reheating. Compositions of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in host chondrite and breccia clasts in Cabezo de Mayo are transitional between groups L and LL. It is suggested, based on mineralogic and oxygen isotopic compositions of host and clasts, that the rock formed on the L parent body by mixing, prior to peak metamorphism. This was followed by partial equilibrium of two different materials: the indigenous L chondrite host and exotic LL melt rock clasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Metic..25..127C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Metic..25..127C"><span><span class="hlt">Origin</span> and history of chondrite regolith, fragmental and <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melt breccias from Spain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casanova, I.; Keil, K.; Wieler, R.; San Miguel, A.; King, E. A.</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>Six ordinary chondrite breccias from the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid (Spain), are described and classified as follows: the solar gas-rich regolith breccia Oviedo (H5); the premetamorphic fragmental breccias Cabezo de Mayo (type 6, L-LL), and Sevilla (LL4); the fragmental breccias Canellas (H4) and Gerona (H5); and the <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt breccia, Madrid (L6). It is confirmed that chondrites with typical light-dark structures and petrographic properties typical of regolith breccias may (Oviedo) or may not (Canellas) be solar gas-rich. Cabezo de Mayo and Sevilla show convincing evidence that they were assembled prior to peak metamorphism and were equilibrated during subsequent reheating. Compositions of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in host chondrite and breccia clasts in Cabezo de Mayo are transitional between groups L and LL. It is suggested, based on mineralogic and oxygen isotopic compositions of host and clasts, that the rock formed on the L parent body by mixing, prior to peak metamorphism. This was followed by partial equilibrium of two different materials: the indigenous L chondrite host and exotic LL melt rock clasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23178965','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23178965"><span>Timing does matter: examining imagery's <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the temporal <span class="hlt">origins</span> of false beliefs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bays, Rebecca B; Foley, Mary Ann; Zabrucky, Karen M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In the current study imagination inflation effects were revisited, giving special attention to decreases in confidence ratings following imagery. Reexamining false beliefs, 151 participants were instructed to rate their confidence that they experienced specific childhood events before and after imagery. No significant imagery effects emerged when examining differences in confidence ratings. However, imagery differentially enhanced (26.27%) and diminished (15.45%) belief ratings for specific events. Content analysis of participants' imagery descriptions revealed that only diminished false beliefs were distinguishable from genuine belief accounts, containing less affective and contextual detail as well as fewer words, but remaining comparable in the presence of cognitive operations. These findings suggest that deflation effects provide a route to studying the potentially positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> of imagery on false beliefs. Because diminished false beliefs cannot be mistaken as veridical memories reconstructed during imagery, they are less subject to criticisms of traditional false belief studies using self-report measures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3969878','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3969878"><span>The Zebrafish Models to Explore Genetic and Epigenetic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> on Evolutionary Developmental <span class="hlt">Origins</span> of Aging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kishi, Shuji</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p> hand, unexpected senescence-related genes might also be involved in the early developmental process and its regulation. The ease of manipulation using the zebrafish system allows us to conduct an exhaustive exploration of novel genes/genotypes and epigenotype that can be linked to the senescence phenotype, and thereby facilitates searching for the evolutionary and developmental <span class="hlt">origins</span> of aging in vertebrates. PMID:24239812</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001703','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001703"><span>Dust Infall Onto Phobos and Deimos Can Explain Their Carbonaceous Reflectance Signature, Perhaps Overlying a Mars-<span class="hlt">Impact-Origin</span> Core: A Hypothesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fries, M.; Cintala, M.; Steele, A.; Welzenbach, L. C.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Discussions of Phobos' and Deimos' (henceforth P&D) <span class="hlt">origin(s</span>) include an unresolved conflict: dynamical studies which favor coalescence of the moons from a large <span class="hlt">impact</span> on Mars [1,2], versus reflectance spectroscopy of the moons showing a carbonaceous composition that is not consistent with martian surface materials [3-5]. One way to reconcile this discrepancy is to consider the combined options of a Mars <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> for Phobos and Deimos, followed by deposition of carbon-rich materials by interplanetary dust particle (IDP) infall. This is significant because, unlike asteroidal bodies, P&D experience a high IDP flux due to their location in Mars' gravity well. We present some relatively simple, initial calculations which indicate that accreted carbon may be sufficient to produce a surface with sufficient added carbon to account for P&D's reflectance spectra. If this is true, then a major objection to an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> for P&D is resolved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040120037&hterms=impact+surroundings&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dimpact%2Bsurroundings','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040120037&hterms=impact+surroundings&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dimpact%2Bsurroundings"><span>Carbonates in fractures of Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001: petrologic evidence for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scott, E. R.; Krot, A. N.; Yamaguchi, A.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Carbonates in Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001 occur as grains on pyroxene grain boundaries, in crushed zones, and as disks, veins, and irregularly shaped grains in healed pyroxene fractures. Some carbonate disks have tapered Mg-rich edges and are accompanied by smaller, thinner and relatively homogeneous, magnesite microdisks. Except for the microdisks, all types of carbonate grains show the same unique chemical zoning pattern on MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3 plots. This chemical characteristic and the close spatial association of diverse carbonate types show that all carbonates formed by a similar process. The heterogeneous distribution of carbonates in fractures, tapered shapes of some disks, and the localized occurrence of Mg-rich microdisks appear to be incompatible with growth from an externally derived CO2-rich fluid that changed in composition over time. These features suggest instead that the fractures were closed as carbonates grew from an internally derived fluid and that the microdisks formed from a residual Mg-rich fluid that was squeezed along fractures. Carbonate in pyroxene fractures is most abundant near grains of plagioclase glass that are located on pyroxene grain boundaries and commonly contain major or minor amounts of carbonate. We infer that carbonates in fractures formed from grain boundary carbonates associated with plagiociase that were melted by <span class="hlt">impact</span> and dispersed into the surrounding fractured pyroxene. Carbonates in fractures, which include those studied by McKay et al. (1996), could not have formed at low temperatures and preserved mineralogical evidence for Martian organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040120037&hterms=Calcium+carbonate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCalcium%2Bcarbonate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040120037&hterms=Calcium+carbonate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DCalcium%2Bcarbonate"><span>Carbonates in fractures of Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001: petrologic evidence for <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scott, E. R.; Krot, A. N.; Yamaguchi, A.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Carbonates in Martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001 occur as grains on pyroxene grain boundaries, in crushed zones, and as disks, veins, and irregularly shaped grains in healed pyroxene fractures. Some carbonate disks have tapered Mg-rich edges and are accompanied by smaller, thinner and relatively homogeneous, magnesite microdisks. Except for the microdisks, all types of carbonate grains show the same unique chemical zoning pattern on MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3 plots. This chemical characteristic and the close spatial association of diverse carbonate types show that all carbonates formed by a similar process. The heterogeneous distribution of carbonates in fractures, tapered shapes of some disks, and the localized occurrence of Mg-rich microdisks appear to be incompatible with growth from an externally derived CO2-rich fluid that changed in composition over time. These features suggest instead that the fractures were closed as carbonates grew from an internally derived fluid and that the microdisks formed from a residual Mg-rich fluid that was squeezed along fractures. Carbonate in pyroxene fractures is most abundant near grains of plagioclase glass that are located on pyroxene grain boundaries and commonly contain major or minor amounts of carbonate. We infer that carbonates in fractures formed from grain boundary carbonates associated with plagiociase that were melted by <span class="hlt">impact</span> and dispersed into the surrounding fractured pyroxene. Carbonates in fractures, which include those studied by McKay et al. (1996), could not have formed at low temperatures and preserved mineralogical evidence for Martian organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4874543','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4874543"><span>Neighbour <span class="hlt">Origin</span> and Ploidy Level Drive <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and <span class="hlt">origin</span> of neighbouring community in explaining the high <span class="hlt">impact</span> during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessed at home to predict <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the introduced range. PMID:27203687</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27203687','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27203687"><span>Neighbour <span class="hlt">Origin</span> and Ploidy Level Drive <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and <span class="hlt">origin</span> of neighbouring community in explaining the high <span class="hlt">impact</span> during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessed at home to predict <span class="hlt">impact</span> in the introduced range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714157T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714157T"><span>An <span class="hlt">original</span> experiment to determine <span class="hlt">impact</span> of catch crop introduction in a crop rotation on N2O production fate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tallec, Tiphaine; Le Dantec, Valérie; Zawilski, Bartosz; Brut, Aurore; Boussac, Marion; Ferlicoq, Morgan; Ceschia, Eric</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The raise in N2O concentration from the preindustrial era (280 ppb) to nowadays (324 ppb) is estimated to account for approximately 6% of the predicted global warming (IPCC 2014). Worldwide, soils are considered to be the dominant source of N2O, releasing an estimated 9.5 Tg N2O-N y-1 (65% of global N2O emissions), of which 36.8% are estimated to <span class="hlt">originate</span> from agricultural soils (IPCC 2001). Most N2O <span class="hlt">originating</span> from agricultural soils is a by- or end-product of nitrification or denitrification. The fate of N2O produced by microbiological processes in the subsoil is controlled by biotic (crop species, occurring soil organic matter, human pressure via mineral and organic nitrogen fertilisation) and abiotic (environmental conditions such as temperature, soil moisture, pH, etc.) factors. In cropland, contrary to forest and grassland, long bare soil periods can occurred between winter and summer crops with a high level of mineral (fertilizer) and organic (residues) nitrogen remaining in the soil, causing important emissions of carbon and nitrogen induced by microbial activities. Introduction of catch crop has been identified as an important mitigation option to reduce environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> of crops mainly thanks to their ability to increase CO2 fixation, to decrease mineral nitrogen lixiviation and also reduce the potential fate of N2O production. Uncertainty also remains about the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of released mineral nitrogen coming from crushed catch crop on N2O production if summer crop seedling and mineral nitrogen release are not well synchronized. To verify those assumptions, a unique paired-plot experiment was carried in the south-west of France from September 2013 to august 2014 to test <span class="hlt">impact</span> of management change on N2O budget and production dynamic. A crop plot was divided into two subplots, one receiving a catch crop (mustard), the other one remaining conventionally managed (bare-soil during winter). This set-up allowed avoiding climate effect. Each subplot was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U21B..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.U21B..08S"><span>Moon and Terrestrial Planets: Unresolved <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmitt, H. H.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Human exploration during Apollo began the documentation of the evolution of the Moon and of its importance in understanding the <span class="hlt">origin</span> and evolution of the terrestrial planets. This revolution in planetary geology continues as a vigorous and vibrant arena for discovery and debate for new generations of geoscientists. Although much has been learned and, indeed, resolved in lunar science, we are left with major <span class="hlt">questions</span> unresolved. One fundamental <span class="hlt">question</span> is that of the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Moon. A large consensus has developed in the planetary science community that the Moon was created by the "giant <span class="hlt">impact</span>" of a Mars-sized asteroid on the Earth after the accretion of the Earth was largely complete and differentiation had begun. A minority, however, <span class="hlt">questions</span> this consensus hypothesis because of increasing indications that the lower mantle of the Moon may be largely undifferentiated. If the issue of the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system can be resolved through new modeling studies, then capture of a co-orbiting planetesimal may be an important alternative to a "giant <span class="hlt">impact</span>". Another important <span class="hlt">question</span>, particularly in consideration of the terrestrial and Martian surface environments during the first 0.8 billion years of Earth history, is the <span class="hlt">impact</span> record of that period as recorded on the Moon. Again, a large consensus has developed that the 50 or so large and very large <span class="hlt">impact</span> basins identified on the Moon were created over a very short "cataclysm" between about 3.9 and 3.8 billion years ago. Here also, a minority suggests that this period of large basin formation, although distinct in lunar history, took place over several hundred million years and that the apparent cataclysm is an artifact of sampling the effects of the last few basin-forming <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. Either way, a previously unavailable source of impactors appeared somewhere in the solar system and greatly affected terrestrial environments at the time the precursors to life were appearing on Earth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14015L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA....14015L"><span>MinUrals: Mineral resources of the Urals -- <span class="hlt">origin</span>, development, and environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leistel, J. M.; Minurals Team</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The MinUrals project (supported by the European Commission under the 5th F.P.- INCO2 - contract ICA2-CT-2000-10011) is focusing on the South Urals mining sector, in order to improve local socio-economic conditions, through: 1) The reinterpretation of the geodynamics of South Urals and of the different types of ore deposits and the development of tools for mineral exploration (new geophysical and geochemical technology). The convergence setting and the formation of arc, fore-arc and back-arc systems explain the volcano-sedimentary and structural features. This geodynamic setting largely controls the distribution and characteristics of the different types of mineralisation; 2) The evaluation of local mining-related risks to the environment, with a development of methodologies for assessing and reducing the environmental <span class="hlt">impact</span> and localizing areas of high metal potential/low environmental constraints. Three pilote sites were investigated: Sibay and Uchaly (with mining installations), and Karabash (with mining installations and smelter); 3) The implementation of a Geographical Information System taking into account the mineral potential and the environmental constraints that, through data ranking and combining the key parameters of the areas with high metal potential and environmental constraints, will enable the production of a Mineral Potential and Environmental Constraints Map of the South Urals; 4) The elaboration of recommendations for a suitable environmentally-aware mining-industry legislation, based on a comparison with the European legislation, to be adressed to the Commission on the demarcation of powers and subjects between the federal government, governments of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local authorities. More information can be found on the project web sites [http://minurals.brgm.fr] or [http://www.nhm.ac.uk/mineralogy/minurals/minurals.htm] or [http://www.anrb.ru/geol/MinUrals] or [http://minurals.ilmeny.ac.ru] MinUrals Team (*): Aug</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24778110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24778110"><span><span class="hlt">Origins</span> of a 350-kilobase genomic duplication in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on virulence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Domenech, Pilar; Rog, Anya; Moolji, Jalal-ud-din; Radomski, Nicolas; Fallow, Ashley; Leon-Solis, Lizbel; Bowes, Julia; Behr, Marcel A; Reed, Michael B</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>In the present study, we have investigated the evolution and <span class="hlt">impact</span> on virulence of a 350-kb genomic duplication present in the most recently evolved members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East Asian lineage. In a mouse model of infection, comparing HN878 subclones HN878-27 (no duplication) and HN878-45 (with the 350-kb duplication) revealed that the latter is impaired for in vivo growth during the initial 3 weeks of infection. Furthermore, the median survival time of mice infected with isolate HN878-45 is significantly longer (77 days) than that of mice infected with HN878-27. Whole-genome sequencing of both isolates failed to reveal any mutational events other than the duplication that could account for such a substantial difference in virulence. Although we and others had previously speculated that the 350-kb duplication arose in response to some form of host-applied selective pressure (P. Domenech, G. S. Kolly, L. Leon-Solis, A. Fallow, M. B. Reed, J. Bacteriol. 192: 4562-4570, 2010, and B. Weiner, J. Gomez, T. C. Victor, R. M. Warren, A. Sloutsky, B. B. Plikaytis, J. E. Posey, P. D. van Helden, N. C. Gey van Pittius, M. Koehrsen, P. Sisk, C. Stolte, J. White, S. Gagneux, B. Birren, D. Hung, M. Murray, J. Galagan, PLoS One 7: e26038, 2012), here we show that this large chromosomal amplification event is very rapidly selected within standard in vitro broth cultures in a range of isolates. Indeed, subclones harboring the duplication were detectable after just five rounds of in vitro passage. In contrast, the duplication appears to be highly unstable in vivo and is negatively selected during the later stages of infection in mice. We believe that the rapid in vitro evolution of M. tuberculosis is an underappreciated aspect of its biology that is often ignored, despite the fact that it has the potential to confound the data and conclusions arising from comparative studies of isolates at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198.1071D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.198.1071D"><span>Non-linearity of geocentre motion and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the terrestrial reference frame</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dong, Danan; Qu, Weijing; Fang, Peng; Peng, Dongju</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The terrestrial reference frame is a cornerstone for modern geodesy and its applications for a wide range of Earth sciences. The underlying assumption for establishing a terrestrial reference frame is that the motion of the solid Earth's figure centre relative to the mass centre of the Earth system on a multidecadal timescale is linear. However, past international terrestrial reference frames (ITRFs) showed unexpected accelerated motion in their translation parameters. Based on this underlying assumption, the inconsistency of relative <span class="hlt">origin</span> motions of the ITRFs has been attributed to data reduction imperfection. We investigated the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of surface mass loading from atmosphere, ocean, snow, soil moisture, ice sheet, glacier and sea level from 1983 to 2008 on the geocentre variations. The resultant geocentre time-series display notable trend acceleration from 1998 onward, in particular in the z-component. This effect is primarily driven by the hydrological mass redistribution in the continents (soil moisture, snow, ice sheet and glacier). The acceleration is statistically significant at the 99 per cent confidence level as determined using the Mann-Kendall test, and it is highly correlated with the satellite laser ranging determined translation series. Our study, based on independent geophysical and hydrological models, demonstrates that, in addition to systematic errors from analysis procedures, the observed non-linearity of the Earth-system behaviour at interannual timescales is physically driven and is able to explain 42 per cent of the disparity between the <span class="hlt">origins</span> of ITRF2000 and ITRF2005, as well as the high level of consistency between the ITRF2005 and ITRF2008 <span class="hlt">origins</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26197328','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26197328"><span>Evaluating the Long-Term Health and Economic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Central Residential Air Filtration for Reducing Premature Mortality Associated with Indoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) of Outdoor <span class="hlt">Origin</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Dan; Azimi, Parham; Stephens, Brent</p> <p>2015-07-21</p> <p>Much of human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of outdoor <span class="hlt">origin</span> occurs in residences. High-efficiency particle air filtration in central heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is increasingly being used to reduce concentrations of particulate matter inside homes. However, <span class="hlt">questions</span> remain about the effectiveness of filtration for reducing exposures to PM2.5 of outdoor <span class="hlt">origin</span> and adverse health outcomes. Here we integrate epidemiology functions and mass balance modeling to estimate the long-term health and economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of HVAC filtration for reducing premature mortality associated with indoor PM2.5 of outdoor <span class="hlt">origin</span> in residences. We evaluate 11 classifications of filters (MERV 5 through HEPA) using six case studies of single-family home vintages and ventilation system combinations located in 22 U.S. cities. We estimate that widespread use of higher efficiency filters would reduce premature mortality by 0.002-2.5% and increase life expectancy by 0.02-1.6 months, yielding annual monetary benefits ranging from $1 to $1348 per person in the homes and locations modeled herein. Large differences in the magnitude of health and economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are driven largely by differences in rated filter efficiency and building and ventilation system characteristics that govern particle infiltration and persistence, with smaller influences attributable to geographic location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4515730','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4515730"><span>Evaluating the Long-Term Health and Economic <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Central Residential Air Filtration for Reducing Premature Mortality Associated with Indoor Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) of Outdoor <span class="hlt">Origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhao, Dan; Azimi, Parham; Stephens, Brent</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Much of human exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of outdoor <span class="hlt">origin</span> occurs in residences. High-efficiency particle air filtration in central heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is increasingly being used to reduce concentrations of particulate matter inside homes. However, <span class="hlt">questions</span> remain about the effectiveness of filtration for reducing exposures to PM2.5 of outdoor <span class="hlt">origin</span> and adverse health outcomes. Here we integrate epidemiology functions and mass balance modeling to estimate the long-term health and economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of HVAC filtration for reducing premature mortality associated with indoor PM2.5 of outdoor <span class="hlt">origin</span> in residences. We evaluate 11 classifications of filters (MERV 5 through HEPA) using six case studies of single-family home vintages and ventilation system combinations located in 22 U.S. cities. We estimate that widespread use of higher efficiency filters would reduce premature mortality by 0.002–2.5% and increase life expectancy by 0.02–1.6 months, yielding annual monetary benefits ranging from $1 to $1348 per person in the homes and locations modeled herein. Large differences in the magnitude of health and economic <span class="hlt">impacts</span> are driven largely by differences in rated filter efficiency and building and ventilation system characteristics that govern particle infiltration and persistence, with smaller influences attributable to geographic location. PMID:26197328</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Einstein%2c+AND+Albert&pg=3&id=EJ608712','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Einstein%2c+AND+Albert&pg=3&id=EJ608712"><span>Posing Einstein's <span class="hlt">Question</span>: <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Einstein's Pose.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a <span class="hlt">question</span> mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the <span class="hlt">questions</span> he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Einstein%2c+AND+Albert&pg=3&id=EJ608712','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Einstein%2c+AND+Albert&pg=3&id=EJ608712"><span>Posing Einstein's <span class="hlt">Question</span>: <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Einstein's Pose.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a <span class="hlt">question</span> mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the <span class="hlt">questions</span> he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+exploration&pg=5&id=EJ1122979','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+exploration&pg=5&id=EJ1122979"><span>Ask <span class="hlt">Questions</span> to Encourage <span class="hlt">Questions</span> Asked</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>belcastro, sarah-marie</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We delineate some types of structured practice (modeling, requests, feedback, and space-making) that help students learn to pose appropriate <span class="hlt">questions</span> and to initiate exploration of those <span class="hlt">questions</span>. Developing skills requires practice, so we suggest ways to embed structured practice into existing class sessions. Including structured practice is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+exploration&pg=5&id=EJ1122979','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+exploration&pg=5&id=EJ1122979"><span>Ask <span class="hlt">Questions</span> to Encourage <span class="hlt">Questions</span> Asked</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>belcastro, sarah-marie</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We delineate some types of structured practice (modeling, requests, feedback, and space-making) that help students learn to pose appropriate <span class="hlt">questions</span> and to initiate exploration of those <span class="hlt">questions</span>. Developing skills requires practice, so we suggest ways to embed structured practice into existing class sessions. Including structured practice is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25300264','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25300264"><span>Assessing the public health <span class="hlt">impact</span> of developmental <span class="hlt">origins</span> of health and disease (DOHaD) nutrition interventions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garmendia, Maria Luisa; Corvalan, Camila; Uauy, Ricardo</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Investing in the maternal and early-infancy periods (the first 1,000 days, i.e. from -1 to +2 years) is presently acknowledged as a key priority to ensure good nutrition and prevent all forms of malnutrition. The concept is to invest during this period to maximize the human development potential, and the early-life agenda includes prevention of stunting and promotion of optimal brain development as well as ensuring the quality of life of those who survive. Thus, public health assessments of specific interventions need to go beyond the traditional indices of prevention of death and disease. We need to consider including a full range of outcomes such as disability-adjusted life years (DALY) and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and not only the number of deaths. The long-term outcomes of maternal and infant interventions to prevent obesity and related noncommunicable diseases remain uncertain in terms of their biological <span class="hlt">impact</span> even under ideal conditions (efficacy); we need interventions with proven effectiveness under real-world conditions (effectiveness). Conversely, interventions to prevent undernutrition have already been proven effective and are considered cost-effective based on rigorous economic analyses. Continuous evaluation of interventions implemented using the developmental <span class="hlt">origins</span> of health and disease (DOHaD) model needs to be undertaken, as this will allow progressive improvement and thus maximize the potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the health and well-being of populations. We need to consider the population-attributable risk of obesity and chronic disease and conduct an economic evaluation of the lifelong <span class="hlt">impact</span> of chronic diseases not only in terms of lives lost but also in relation to lost DALY and QALY. This should help to prioritize preventive actions in line with patterns of disease and disability considering the existing resources and demands. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=john+AND+monaghan&pg=3&id=EJ768819','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=john+AND+monaghan&pg=3&id=EJ768819"><span>Revisiting Routine <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>What is a routine <span class="hlt">question</span>? The focus of this paper is routine <span class="hlt">questions</span> and time (in years) since a hitherto routine <span class="hlt">question</span> was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus <span class="hlt">questions</span>. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pedrosa&pg=2&id=EJ675428','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pedrosa&pg=2&id=EJ675428"><span><span class="hlt">Questions</span> of Chemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pedrosa de Jesus, Helena; Teixeira-Dias, Jose J. C.; Watts, Mike</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Documents the use of student-generated <span class="hlt">questions</span> as diagnostic of their willingness to engage in classroom interactions. Explores four ways of gathering students' written <span class="hlt">questions</span> and their relative effectiveness. Examines students' capacity to design and present 'quality <span class="hlt">questions</span>' and the extent to which these <span class="hlt">questions</span> are indicative of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Read+AND+Naturally&pg=3&id=EJ746030','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Read+AND+Naturally&pg=3&id=EJ746030"><span>Who Asks the <span class="hlt">Questions</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hervey, Sheena</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>From a very young age, children actively strive to make sense of their world through constant <span class="hlt">questioning</span>. The ability to ask <span class="hlt">questions</span> comes naturally for young children, but such natural inclination does not continue because it teachers who ask most of the <span class="hlt">questions</span>. Sheena Hervey suggests that teaching students how to pose <span class="hlt">questions</span> is a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pedrosa&pg=2&id=EJ675428','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pedrosa&pg=2&id=EJ675428"><span><span class="hlt">Questions</span> of Chemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pedrosa de Jesus, Helena; Teixeira-Dias, Jose J. C.; Watts, Mike</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Documents the use of student-generated <span class="hlt">questions</span> as diagnostic of their willingness to engage in classroom interactions. Explores four ways of gathering students' written <span class="hlt">questions</span> and their relative effectiveness. Examines students' capacity to design and present 'quality <span class="hlt">questions</span>' and the extent to which these <span class="hlt">questions</span> are indicative of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.801a2077S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhCS.801a2077S"><span><span class="hlt">Question</span> analysis for Indonesian comparative <span class="hlt">question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative <span class="hlt">questions</span> for comparative <span class="hlt">question</span> answering system. Comparative <span class="hlt">question</span> is a <span class="hlt">question</span> that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative <span class="hlt">questions</span> into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no <span class="hlt">question</span>. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative <span class="hlt">questions</span>: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4571561','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4571561"><span>Eukaryotic <span class="hlt">origins</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lake, James A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the eukaryotes is a fundamental scientific <span class="hlt">question</span> that for over 30 years has generated a spirited debate between the competing Archaea (or three domains) tree and the eocyte tree. As eukaryotes ourselves, humans have a personal interest in our <span class="hlt">origins</span>. Eukaryotes contain their defining organelle, the nucleus, after which they are named. They have a complex evolutionary history, over time acquiring multiple organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula, and other organelles all of which may hint at their <span class="hlt">origins</span>. It is the evolutionary history of the nucleus and their other organelles that have intrigued molecular evolutionists, myself included, for the past 30 years and which continues to hold our interest as increasingly compelling evidence favours the eocyte tree. As with any orthodoxy, it takes time to embrace new concepts and techniques. PMID:26323753</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=syria&id=EJ1088822','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=syria&id=EJ1088822"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> the Role of Internationalization in the Nationalization of Higher Education: The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of the EU TEMPUS Programme on Higher Education in Syria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ayoubi, Rami M.; Massoud, Hiba K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Given the need for major reform of the higher education programmes in Syria, and answering the voices that <span class="hlt">question</span> the role of European Union (EU) in assisting the development of the higher education sector, this study presents an analysis of the contribution of (TEMPUS) Programme in modernising higher education in Syria. The study compares the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gay&pg=4&id=EJ1061334','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gay&pg=4&id=EJ1061334"><span>Gay-Straight Alliances: Understanding Their <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on the Academic and Social Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> High School Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCormick, Adam; Schmidt, Kathryn; Clifton, Emily</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Few studies have examined the effectiveness of gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on the social and academic experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and <span class="hlt">questioning</span> (LGBTQ) youths. The limited research on GSAs suggests that they are associated with positive youth development and increased safety; however, little qualitative information…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=oral&pg=7&id=EJ1138649','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=oral&pg=7&id=EJ1138649"><span>The Differential <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Video-Stimulated Recall and Concurrent <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Methods on Beginning Readers' Verbalization about Self-Monitoring during Oral Reading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pratt, Sharon M.; Martin, Anita M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This pilot study explored two methods of eliciting beginning readers' verbalizations of their thinking when self-monitoring oral reading: video-stimulated recall and concurrent <span class="hlt">questioning</span>. First and second graders (N = 11) were asked to explain their thinking about repetitions, attempts to self-correct, and successful self-corrects, in order to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=gay&pg=4&id=EJ1061334','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=gay&pg=4&id=EJ1061334"><span>Gay-Straight Alliances: Understanding Their <span class="hlt">Impact</span> on the Academic and Social Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> High School Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCormick, Adam; Schmidt, Kathryn; Clifton, Emily</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Few studies have examined the effectiveness of gay-straight alliances (GSAs) on the social and academic experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and <span class="hlt">questioning</span> (LGBTQ) youths. The limited research on GSAs suggests that they are associated with positive youth development and increased safety; however, little qualitative information…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890008971','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890008971"><span>Samples from Martian craters: <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of the Martian soil by hydrothermal alteration of <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt deposits and atmospheric interactions with ejecta during crater formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Newsom, Horton E.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Martian soil is an important <span class="hlt">question</span> for understanding weathering processes on the Martian surface, and also for understanding the global geochemistry of Mars. Chemical analyses of the soil will provide an opportunity to examine what may be a crustal average, as studies of loess on the Earth have demonstrated. In this regard the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Martian soil is also important for understanding the chemical fractionations that have affected the composition of the soil. Several processes that are likely to contribute to the Martian soil are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18309042','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18309042"><span>Measuring victimization inside prisons: <span class="hlt">questioning</span> the <span class="hlt">questions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wolff, Nancy; Jing Shi; Bachman, Ronet</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the <span class="hlt">questions</span> used in the prison victimization literature to elicit information on victimization from inmates, compared to <span class="hlt">questions</span> used in the general victimization literature. The <span class="hlt">questions</span> used in the National Violence Against Women and Men Surveys are used to estimate sexual and physical victimization rates for an entire prison system. Rates of victimization were found to vary significantly by specificity of the <span class="hlt">question</span>, definition of perpetrator, and clustering of behaviors. Facts about victimization inside prison will become more certain when the methodology becomes more standardized and consistent with definitions of victimization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11538392','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11538392"><span>Endogenous production, exogenous delivery and <span class="hlt">impact</span>-shock synthesis of organic molecules: an inventory for the <span class="hlt">origins</span> of life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chyba, C; Sagan, C</p> <p>1992-01-09</p> <p>Sources of organic molecules on the early Earth divide into three categories: delivery by extraterrestrial objects; organic synthesis driven by <span class="hlt">impact</span> shocks; and organic synthesis by other energy sources (such as ultraviolet light or electrical discharges). Estimates of these sources for plausible end-member oxidation states of the early terrestrial atmosphere suggest that the heavy bombardment before 3.5 Gyr ago either produced or delivered quantities of organics comparable to those produced by other energy sources. Which sources of prebiotic organics were quantitatively dominant depends strongly on the composition of the early terrestrial atmosphere. In the event of an early strongly reducing atmosphere, production by atmospheric shocks seems to have dominated that due to electrical discharges. Organic synthesis by ultraviolet light may, in turn, have dominated shock production, but only if a long-wavelength absorber such as H2S were supplied to the atmosphere at a rate sufficient for synthesis to have been limited by ultraviolet flux, rather than by reactant abundance. In the apparently more likely case of an early terrestrial atmosphere of intermediate oxidation state, atmospheric shocks were probably of little importance for direct organic production. For [H2]/[CO2] ratios of approximately 0.1, net organic production was some three orders of magnitude lower than for reducing atmospheres, with delivery of intact exogenous organics in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and ultraviolet production being the most important sources. At still lower [H2]/[CO2] ratios, IDPs may have been the dominant source of prebiotic organics on the early Earth. Endogenous, exogenous and <span class="hlt">impact</span>-shock sources of organics could each have made a significant contribution to the <span class="hlt">origins</span> of life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2644V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2644V"><span>Anomalous Enstatite Meteorites Queen Alexandra Range 94204 and Pairs: The Perplexing <span class="hlt">Question</span> of <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Melts or Partial Melt Residues, Either way, Unrelated to Yamato 793225</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Niekerk, D.; Keil, K.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>QUE 94204 and its seven pairs are anomalous enstatite meteorites that may either be <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt products, or partial melt residues. We explore the petrology of these meteorites and present new findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000972&hterms=sedimentology+stratigraphy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsedimentology%2Bstratigraphy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000972&hterms=sedimentology+stratigraphy&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsedimentology%2Bstratigraphy"><span>Does the sedimentology of the Chelmsford formation provide evidence for a meteorite <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Sudbury structure?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Long, D. G. F.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The post-'event' fill of the Paleoproterozoic Sudbury Basin consists of at least 600 m of deep-water mudrocks of the Onwatin Formation, overlain by 850 m of lithic-arkosic muddy sandstones in the Chelmsford Formation. While mudstones of the Onwatin reflect deposition in a deep-water, anoxic setting, there is no clear evidence of local breccias, conglomerates, or sand bodies to support the concept that the basin was protected by the steep walls of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater. Carbonates in the basal, Vermillion Member are of sedimentary exhalitive <span class="hlt">origin</span> and were not derived from a shallow marine shelf. Turbidites in the Chelmsford Formation show no evidence of centripetal fill as might be expected from a restricted, circular basin. They appear to have been emplaced by predominantly southwesterly flowing turbidity currents, which showed little to no deflection along the depositional axis of an elongate foreland basin that developed in front of the rising Penokean mountain chain. While the presence of minor sandstone-filled fractures in parts of the Chelmsford Formation suggests the presence of north- or south-directed paleoslopes, no evidence is seen to support the existence of subbasins or a central uplift within the Sudbury Basin. While tilt-corrected paleocurrent orientations are ambiguous, due to postdepositional shortening of strata during cleavage development, strain correction of the observations makes little difference to the net, south-southwest-directed paleoflow.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26347188','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26347188"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of heating on sensory properties of French Protected Designation of <span class="hlt">Origin</span> (PDO) blue cheeses. Relationships with physicochemical parameters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bord, Cécile; Guerinon, Delphine; Lebecque, Annick</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to measure the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of heating on the sensory properties of blue-veined cheeses in order to characterise their sensory properties and to identify their specific sensory typology associated with physicochemical parameters. Sensory profiles were performed on a selection of Protected Designation of <span class="hlt">Origin</span> (PDO) cheeses representing the four blue-veined cheese categories produced in the Massif Central (Fourme d'Ambert, Fourme de Montbrison, Bleu d'Auvergne and Bleu des Causses). At the same time, physicochemical parameters were measured in these cheeses. The relationship between these two sets of data was investigated. Four types of blue-veined cheeses displayed significantly different behaviour after heating and it is possible to discriminate these cheese categories through specific sensory attributes. Fourme d'Ambert and Bleu d'Auvergne exhibited useful culinary properties: they presented good meltability, stretchability and a weak oiling-off. However, basic tastes (salty, bitter and sour) are also sensory attributes which can distinguish heated blue cheeses. The relationship between the sensory and physicochemical data indicated a correlation suggesting that some of these sensory properties may be explained by certain physicochemical parameters of heated cheeses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000972&hterms=sedimentology&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsedimentology','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000972&hterms=sedimentology&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsedimentology"><span>Does the sedimentology of the Chelmsford formation provide evidence for a meteorite <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Sudbury structure?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Long, D. G. F.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The post-'event' fill of the Paleoproterozoic Sudbury Basin consists of at least 600 m of deep-water mudrocks of the Onwatin Formation, overlain by 850 m of lithic-arkosic muddy sandstones in the Chelmsford Formation. While mudstones of the Onwatin reflect deposition in a deep-water, anoxic setting, there is no clear evidence of local breccias, conglomerates, or sand bodies to support the concept that the basin was protected by the steep walls of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater. Carbonates in the basal, Vermillion Member are of sedimentary exhalitive <span class="hlt">origin</span> and were not derived from a shallow marine shelf. Turbidites in the Chelmsford Formation show no evidence of centripetal fill as might be expected from a restricted, circular basin. They appear to have been emplaced by predominantly southwesterly flowing turbidity currents, which showed little to no deflection along the depositional axis of an elongate foreland basin that developed in front of the rising Penokean mountain chain. While the presence of minor sandstone-filled fractures in parts of the Chelmsford Formation suggests the presence of north- or south-directed paleoslopes, no evidence is seen to support the existence of subbasins or a central uplift within the Sudbury Basin. While tilt-corrected paleocurrent orientations are ambiguous, due to postdepositional shortening of strata during cleavage development, strain correction of the observations makes little difference to the net, south-southwest-directed paleoflow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-labels/pesticide-labeling-questions-answers','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-labels/pesticide-labeling-questions-answers"><span>Pesticide Labeling <span class="hlt">Questions</span> & Answers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise <span class="hlt">questions</span> or issues about pesticide labels. The <span class="hlt">questions</span> on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=equilibrium+AND+constants&pg=6&id=EJ208485','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=equilibrium+AND+constants&pg=6&id=EJ208485"><span>Exam <span class="hlt">Question</span> Exchange.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alexander, John J.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Describes an exam <span class="hlt">question</span> which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The <span class="hlt">question</span> requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=calories&pg=3&id=EJ625492','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=calories&pg=3&id=EJ625492"><span>Burning <span class="hlt">Questions</span> about Calories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Uses <span class="hlt">questioning</span> techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining <span class="hlt">questions</span> about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/recycle/frequent-questions-recycling','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/recycle/frequent-questions-recycling"><span>Frequent <span class="hlt">Questions</span> on Recycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This is a list of frequent <span class="hlt">questions</span> on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common <span class="hlt">questions</span> that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Teeth&id=EJ1075043','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Teeth&id=EJ1075043"><span>Making <span class="hlt">Questions</span> Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Getting students to ask <span class="hlt">questions</span> can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with <span class="hlt">questions</span>? The authors, developers of the <span class="hlt">question</span> formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ283166','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ283166"><span>Exam <span class="hlt">Question</span> Exchange.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alexander, John J., Ed.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry <span class="hlt">questions</span>. The first <span class="hlt">question</span> is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second <span class="hlt">question</span> is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=GADAMER&pg=2&id=EJ904001','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=GADAMER&pg=2&id=EJ904001"><span>Listening and <span class="hlt">Questioning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Haroutunian-Gordon, Sophie</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>In the article that follows, I take up a debate that has arisen over the past three years concerning the following issue: Does every act of listening involve the listener in <span class="hlt">questioning</span>? I argue that the answer to the <span class="hlt">questions</span> is yes. I give background on the <span class="hlt">question</span> and then consider one instance of listening that may suggest no role for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED539086.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED539086.pdf"><span>Improving Student <span class="hlt">Question</span> Classification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their <span class="hlt">questions</span> and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student <span class="hlt">questions</span> to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 <span class="hlt">questions</span> from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ283166','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+theory&pg=6&id=EJ283166"><span>Exam <span class="hlt">Question</span> Exchange.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alexander, John J., Ed.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry <span class="hlt">questions</span>. The first <span class="hlt">question</span> is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second <span class="hlt">question</span> is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=luz&pg=3&id=EJ1075043','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=luz&pg=3&id=EJ1075043"><span>Making <span class="hlt">Questions</span> Flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Getting students to ask <span class="hlt">questions</span> can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with <span class="hlt">questions</span>? The authors, developers of the <span class="hlt">question</span> formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=free+AND+radicals&pg=5&id=EJ357296','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=free+AND+radicals&pg=5&id=EJ357296"><span>Exam <span class="hlt">Question</span> Exchange.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alexander, John J., Ed.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination <span class="hlt">questions</span>. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice <span class="hlt">questions</span> so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a <span class="hlt">question</span> and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=types+AND+online+AND+searches&pg=3&id=EJ573932','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=types+AND+online+AND+searches&pg=3&id=EJ573932"><span><span class="hlt">Questions</span> in Reference Interviews.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>White, Marilyn Domas</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Characterizes the <span class="hlt">questioning</span> behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to <span class="hlt">questioning</span> behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares <span class="hlt">questions</span> asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=media+AND+strategy&pg=7&id=EJ820269','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=media+AND+strategy&pg=7&id=EJ820269"><span>Reading for Meaning: <span class="hlt">Questioning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Trinkle, Catherine</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>An essential literacy skill is asking <span class="hlt">questions</span>. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask <span class="hlt">questions</span> throughout their research and that all <span class="hlt">questions</span> are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+taxonomy&pg=2&id=EJ744849','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+taxonomy&pg=2&id=EJ744849"><span>Improve Your Verbal <span class="hlt">Questioning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vogler, Kenneth E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Most teachers are well aware that verbal <span class="hlt">questioning</span> can aid student learning. Asking <span class="hlt">questions</span> can stimulate students to think about the content being studied; connect it to prior knowledge consider its meanings and implications; and explore its applications. A common problem with many teachers' use of verbal <span class="hlt">questioning</span> is a lack of knowledge…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4071995','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4071995"><span><span class="hlt">Questions</span> for Surveys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey <span class="hlt">questions</span> published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey <span class="hlt">questions</span> and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of <span class="hlt">question</span> design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey <span class="hlt">questions</span> and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of <span class="hlt">question</span> characteristics, including <span class="hlt">question</span> topic, <span class="hlt">question</span> type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, <span class="hlt">question</span> structure, <span class="hlt">question</span> form, response categories, <span class="hlt">question</span> implementation, and <span class="hlt">question</span> wording. Thinking about <span class="hlt">question</span> characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMMR12A..07X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMMR12A..07X"><span>New evidence for an <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of Taihu lake, China: Possible trigger of the extinction of LiangChu Culture 4500 years ago</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Z.; Wang, H.; Sharp, T.; Decarli, P.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Here we report new evidence of an <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater in south-east of China, Taihu Lake in Jiangsu Province. An <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> was <span class="hlt">originally</span> proposed on the basis of fractured quartz, wavy extinction quartz, and shatter cones in the sandstone of Devonian Wutong formation in the islands of Taihu lake (Wang, et al., 1992, 1993, 2000). In the absence of additional evidence, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> hypothesis has fallen into disfavour. Here we report studies of sedimentary samples, which could be ejecta from Taihu, found in a small lake in the vicinity of Taihu lake. The samples consist of irregularly-shaped quartz-rich concretions found in lake sediments. Preliminary studies indicate that these samples contain angular fragments of shocked quartz. The stratigraphic age of the lake sediments is similar to that of the 65 km diameter Taihu lake. If the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of Taihu lake can be conclusively established, it is of the correct age to explain the mysterious disappearance of the LiangChu culture about 4500 years ago.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8839190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8839190"><span>[Ethical <span class="hlt">questions</span> in neonatology].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Popow, C</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Rapid scientific progress in the fields of prenatal diagnostics, obstetrics and neonatology has enabled severe malformations and hereditary diseases to be detected at a very early fetal stage and has also led to the survival of very immature newborn infants in increasing numbers. Parents, doctors and nurses must all participate in the difficult decision making with regard to therapeutic alternatives and due respect must be paid to the intersects of the child, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> on the family, but also to the professional opinion of the attending doctors and carers. Problems of the ethical limits of prenatal diagnostics, as well as the severity of malformations or organ failure justifying termination of pregnancy or intensive care measures are discussed with reference to clinical cases. Likewise, the <span class="hlt">question</span> of precedence of the rights of the parents and siblings to quality of life versus the right of the infant to live is broached. From the neonatological point of view candid discussion with the parents, painstaking efforts to build up an atmosphere of confidence and the provision of supportive measures on the one hand, whilst avoiding the expression of dogmatic opinions and patronizing attitudes on the other hand, are essential prerequisites in dealing with the ethical dilemmas arising in the pre- and neonatal management of such cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=violence+AND+against+AND+child&pg=6&id=EJ809590','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=violence+AND+against+AND+child&pg=6&id=EJ809590"><span>Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> the <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the <span class="hlt">questions</span> used in the…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=narrative+AND+research&pg=7&id=EJ987395','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=narrative+AND+research&pg=7&id=EJ987395"><span><span class="hlt">Question</span>-Asking and <span class="hlt">Question</span>-Exploring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's <span class="hlt">questions</span> to enable…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=crimes+AND+against+AND+women&pg=5&id=EJ809590','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=crimes+AND+against+AND+women&pg=5&id=EJ809590"><span>Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> the <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the <span class="hlt">questions</span> used in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mythical&pg=3&id=EJ871991','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mythical&pg=3&id=EJ871991"><span>The "Trickster" and the <span class="hlt">Questionability</span> of <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stewart, Connie</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Tricksters represent creativity and ingenuity in ways that are also integral to arts education. Like the tricksters, strong arts programs teach that a <span class="hlt">question</span> can have many answers and there are multiple ways to interpret what is seen (Eisner, 2002). In this article, the author discusses how she applies lessons learned from the Trickster stories…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ASAJ..115.2397L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ASAJ..115.2397L"><span>Asking <span class="hlt">questions</span> with focus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>This study investigates how different interrogative meanings interact with focus in determining the overall F0 profile of a <span class="hlt">question</span>. We recorded eight native speakers of Mandarin producing statements, yes-no <span class="hlt">questions</span> with and without a <span class="hlt">question</span> particle, wh <span class="hlt">questions</span>, incredulous <span class="hlt">questions</span>, and confirmation <span class="hlt">questions</span>. In each sentence, either the initial, medial, final, or no word was focused. The tonal components of the sentences are all high, all rising, all low, or all falling. F0 contours were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period in the initial, medial, and final disyllabic words in each sentence. Preliminary results show that in both statements and <span class="hlt">questions</span>, the pitch range of the focused words is expanded and that of the postfocus words suppressed (compressed and lowered). However, postfocus pitch-range suppression seems less extensive in <span class="hlt">questions</span> than in statements, and in some <span class="hlt">question</span> types than in others. Finally, an extra F0 rise is often observed in the final syllable of a <span class="hlt">question</span> unless the syllable is the <span class="hlt">question</span> particle which has the neutral tone. This is indicative of a high or rising boundary tone associated with the interrogative meaning, which seems to be superimposed on the tone of the sentence-final syllable. [Work supported by NIDCD DC03902.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=early+AND+school+AND+start+AND+times&pg=2&id=ED521828','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=early+AND+school+AND+start+AND+times&pg=2&id=ED521828"><span>Research-Based Responses to Key <span class="hlt">Questions</span> about the 2010 Head Start <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Study. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Child Trends, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Since 1965, Head Start has provided comprehensive services to help prepare the nation's most disadvantaged three- to five-year-old children for school and to strengthen their families. In 1998 Congress instructed the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to conduct an evaluation of Head Start to determine its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on child development…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=study+AND+impact&pg=2&id=ED521828','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=study+AND+impact&pg=2&id=ED521828"><span>Research-Based Responses to Key <span class="hlt">Questions</span> about the 2010 Head Start <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Study. Early Childhood Highlights. Volume 2, Issue 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Child Trends, 2011</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Since 1965, Head Start has provided comprehensive services to help prepare the nation's most disadvantaged three- to five-year-old children for school and to strengthen their families. In 1998 Congress instructed the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) to conduct an evaluation of Head Start to determine its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on child development…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448817','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21448817"><span><span class="hlt">IMPACT</span> REGIMES AND POST-FORMATION SEQUESTRATION PROCESSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE <span class="hlt">ORIGIN</span> OF HEAVY NOBLE GASES IN TERRESTRIAL PLANETS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc; Picaud, Sylvain; Thomas, Caroline; Schmitt, Bernard</p> <p>2010-05-10</p> <p>The difference between the measured atmospheric abundances of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon for Venus, Earth, and Mars is striking. Because these abundances drop by at least 2 orders of magnitude as one moves outward from Venus to Mars, the study of the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of this discrepancy is a key issue that must be explained if we are to fully understand the different delivery mechanisms of the volatiles accreted by the terrestrial planets. In this work, we aim to investigate whether it is possible to quantitatively explain the variation of the heavy noble gas abundances measured on Venus, Earth, and Mars, assuming that cometary bombardment was the main delivery mechanism of these noble gases to the terrestrial planets. To do so, we use recent dynamical simulations that allow the study of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> fluxes of comets upon the terrestrial planets during the course of their formation and evolution. Assuming that the mass of noble gases delivered by comets is proportional to the rate at which they collide with the terrestrial planets, we show that the krypton and xenon abundances in Venus and Earth can be explained in a manner consistent with the hypothesis of cometary bombardment. In order to explain the krypton and xenon abundance differences between Earth and Mars, we need to invoke the presence of large amounts of CO{sub 2}-dominated clathrates in the Martian soil that would have efficiently sequestered these noble gases. Two different scenarios based on our model can also be used to explain the differences between the neon and argon abundances of the terrestrial planets. In the first scenario, cometary bombardment of these planets would have occurred at epochs contemporary with the existence of their primary atmospheres. Comets would have been the carriers of argon, krypton, and xenon, while neon would have been gravitationally captured by the terrestrial planets. In the second scenario, we consider <span class="hlt">impacting</span> comets that contained significantly smaller amounts of argon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4401708','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4401708"><span>MARVELD2 (DFNB49) Mutations in the Hearing Impaired Central European Roma Population - Prevalence, Clinical <span class="hlt">Impact</span> and the Common <span class="hlt">Origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mátyás, Petra; Ficek, Andrej; Hučková, Miloslava; Sůrová, Martina; Šafka-Brožková, Dana; Anwar, Saima; Bene, Judit; Straka, Slavomír; Janicsek, Ingrid; Ahmed, Zubair M.; Seeman, Pavel; Melegh, Béla; Profant, Milan; Klimeš, Iwar; Riazuddin, Saima; Kádasi, Ľudevít; Gašperíková, Daniela</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background In the present study we aimed: 1) To establish the prevalence and clinical <span class="hlt">impact</span> of DFNB49 mutations in deaf Roma from 2 Central European countries (Slovakia and Hungary), and 2) to analyze a possible common <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the c.1331+2T>C mutation among Roma and Pakistani mutation carriers identified in the present and previous studies. Methods We sequenced 6 exons of the MARVELD2 gene in a group of 143 unrelated hearing impaired Slovak Roma patients. Simultaneously, we used RFLP to detect the c.1331+2T>C mutation in 85 Hungarian deaf Roma patients, control groups of 702 normal hearing Romanies from both countries and 375 hearing impaired Slovak Caucasians. We analyzed the haplotype using 21 SNPs spanning a 5.34Mb around the mutation c.1331+2T>C. Results One pathogenic mutation (c.1331+2T>C) was identified in 12 homozygous hearing impaired Roma patients. Allele frequency of this mutation was higher in Hungarian (10%) than in Slovak (3.85%) Roma patients. The identified common haplotype in Roma patients was defined by 18 SNP markers (3.89 Mb). Fourteen common SNPs were also shared among Pakistani and Roma homozygotes. Biallelic mutation carriers suffered from prelingual bilateral moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss. Conclusions We demonstrate different frequencies of the c.1331+2T>C mutation in hearing impaired Romanies from 3 Central European countries. In addition, our results provide support for the hypothesis of a possible common ancestor of the Slovak, Hungarian and Czech Roma as well as Pakistani deaf patients. Testing for the c.1331+2T>C mutation may be recommended in GJB2 negative Roma cases with early-onset sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:25885414</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832204','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3832204"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of growth hormone replacement therapy on sleep in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency of pituitary <span class="hlt">origin</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Morselli, Lisa L.; Nedeltcheva, Arlet; Leproult, Rachel; Spiegel, Karine; Martino, Enio; Legros, Jean-Jacques; Weiss, Roy E.; Mockel, Jean; Van Cauter, Eve; Copinschi, Georges</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objectives We previously reported that adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD) due to a confirmed or likely pituitary defect, as compared to healthy controls individually matched for age, gender and BMI, have more slow-wave sleep (SWS) and higher delta activity (a marker of SWS intensity). Here we examined the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy, compared to placebo, on objective sleep quality in a subset of patients from the same cohort. Design Single-blind randomized cross-over design study. Methods Fourteen patients with untreated GHD of confirmed or likely pituitary <span class="hlt">origin</span>, aged 22–74 yr, participated in the study. Patients with associated hormonal deficiencies were on appropriate replacement therapy. Polygraphic sleep recordings, with bedtimes individually tailored to habitual sleep times, were performed after 4 months on rhGH or placebo. Results Valid data were obtained in 13 patients. At the end of rhGH treatment period, patients had a shorter sleep period time than at the end of the placebo period (479±11 vs 431±19 min respectively; p=0.005), primarily due to an earlier wake up time, and a decrease in the intensity of SWS (delta activity) (559±125 vs 794±219 μV2, respectively; p=0.048). Conclusions Four months of rhGH replacement therapy partly reversed sleep disturbances previously observed in untreated patients. The decrease in delta activity associated with rhGH treatment adds further evidence to the hypothesis that the excess of high intensity SWS observed in untreated pituitary GHD patients is likely to result from overactivity of the hypothalamic GHRH system due to the lack of negative feedback inhibition by GH. PMID:23447518</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020058','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020058"><span>Discovery of microscopic evidence for shock metamorphism at the Serpent Mound structure, south-central Ohio: Confirmation of an <span class="hlt">origin</span> by <span class="hlt">impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Carlton, R.W.; Koeberl, C.; Baranoski, M.T.; SchuMacHer, G.A.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Serpent Mound structure in south-central Ohio has been disputed for many years. Clearly, more evidence was needed to resolve the confusion concerning the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Serpent Mound feature either by endogenic processes or by hypervelocity <span class="hlt">impact</span>. A petrographic study of 21 samples taken from a core 903 m long drilled in the central uplift of the structure provides evidence of shock metamorphism in the form of multiple sets of planar deformation features in quartz grains, as well as the presence of clasts of altered <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melt rock. Crystallographic orientations of the planar deformation features show maxima at the shock-characteristic planes of {101??3} and {101??2} and additional maxima at {101??1}, {213??1}, and {516??1}. Geochemical analyses of <span class="hlt">impact</span> breccias show minor enrichments in the abundances of the siderophile elements Cr, Co, Ni, and Ir, indicating the presence of a minor meteoritic component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=vietnam&pg=4&id=EJ1012394','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=vietnam&pg=4&id=EJ1012394"><span>Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality <span class="hlt">Questions</span> and Their <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality <span class="hlt">questions</span> and their <span class="hlt">questioning</span> behaviours in terms of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vietnam&pg=4&id=EJ1012394','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vietnam&pg=4&id=EJ1012394"><span>Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality <span class="hlt">Questions</span> and Their <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality <span class="hlt">questions</span> and their <span class="hlt">questioning</span> behaviours in terms of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26545363','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26545363"><span>The Influence of Head <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Threshold for Reporting Data in Contact and Collision Sports: Systematic Review and <span class="hlt">Original</span> Data Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>King, D; Hume, P; Gissane, C; Brughelli, M; Clark, T</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Head <span class="hlt">impacts</span> and resulting head accelerations cause concussive injuries. There is no standard for reporting head <span class="hlt">impact</span> data in sports to enable comparison between studies. The aim was to outline methods for reporting head <span class="hlt">impact</span> acceleration data in sport and the effect of the acceleration thresholds on the number of <span class="hlt">impacts</span> reported. A systematic review of accelerometer systems utilised to report head <span class="hlt">impact</span> data in sport was conducted. The effect of using different thresholds on a set of <span class="hlt">impact</span> data from 38 amateur senior rugby players in New Zealand over a competition season was calculated. Of the 52 studies identified, 42% reported <span class="hlt">impacts</span> using a >10-g threshold, where g is the acceleration of gravity. Studies reported descriptive statistics as mean ± standard deviation, median, 25th to 75th interquartile range, and 95th percentile. Application of the varied <span class="hlt">impact</span> thresholds to the New Zealand data set resulted in 20,687 <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of >10 g, 11,459 (45% less) <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of >15 g, and 4024 (81% less) <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of >30 g. Linear and angular raw data were most frequently reported. Metrics combining raw data may be more useful; however, validity of the metrics has not been adequately addressed for sport. Differing data collection methods and descriptive statistics for reporting head <span class="hlt">impacts</span> in sports limit inter-study comparisons. Consensus on data analysis methods for sports <span class="hlt">impact</span> assessment is needed, including thresholds. Based on the available data, the 10-g threshold is the most commonly reported <span class="hlt">impact</span> threshold and should be reported as the median with 25th and 75th interquartile ranges as the data are non-normally distributed. Validation studies are required to determine the best threshold and metrics for <span class="hlt">impact</span> acceleration data collection in sport. Until in-field validation studies are completed, it is recommended that head <span class="hlt">impact</span> data should be reported as median and interquartile ranges using the 10-g <span class="hlt">impact</span> threshold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Die&pg=7&id=EJ1043771','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Die&pg=7&id=EJ1043771"><span>Unpark Those <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ness, Molly</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a <span class="hlt">question</span> that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the <span class="hlt">question</span> on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those <span class="hlt">questions</span>, but too often, he said, the parking lot…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mrs&pg=5&id=EJ1043771','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mrs&pg=5&id=EJ1043771"><span>Unpark Those <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ness, Molly</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a <span class="hlt">question</span> that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the <span class="hlt">question</span> on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those <span class="hlt">questions</span>, but too often, he said, the parking lot…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25251729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25251729"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of a paternal <span class="hlt">origin</span> of germline BRCA1/2 mutations on the age at breast and ovarian cancer diagnosis in a Southern Swedish cohort.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ellberg, Carolina; Jernström, Helena; Broberg, Per; Borg, Åke; Olsson, Håkan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Three studies have reported that BRCA1/2 mutations of paternal <span class="hlt">origin</span> confer an earlier age at breast cancer diagnosis compared with maternal <span class="hlt">origin</span>. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of parental <span class="hlt">origin</span> of BRCA1/2 mutations on age at breast and ovarian cancer diagnosis. This study included 577 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. All BRCA1/2 mutation carriers belonged to families registered between 1993 and 2011 at the Oncogenetic Clinic at Skånes University Hospital, Lund, Sweden. Cox proportional hazard ratios were used to analyze time to breast or ovarian cancer diagnosis. A novel finding was that carriers of BRCA1 mutations of paternal <span class="hlt">origin</span> were 4 years older at age of ovarian cancer (P = 0.009) compared with those carrying a BRCA1 mutation of maternal <span class="hlt">origin</span>. BRCA1 carriers with mutations of paternal <span class="hlt">origin</span> were 4 years younger at breast cancer diagnosis (P = 0.017) compared with those carrying a BRCA1 mutation of maternal <span class="hlt">origin</span>, which is in agreement with three previous studies. Both findings were adjusted for of year of inclusion, birth date, and oral contraceptive pill use. No associations between parental <span class="hlt">origin</span> of BRCA2 mutations and time to breast or ovarian cancer diagnosis were found. An attempt to handle a potential selection bias regarding use of oral contraceptives was made using multiple imputations by chained equations. The observed age difference may allow a greater understanding of mechanisms associated with the differences in cancer penetrance in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, some of which may depend on paternal <span class="hlt">origin</span>. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Risk+analysis%22&pg=3&id=EJ812188','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Risk+analysis%22&pg=3&id=EJ812188"><span>Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth <span class="hlt">Question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>France, Alan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth <span class="hlt">question</span>" is being addressed by public policy and what <span class="hlt">impact</span> this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth <span class="hlt">question</span> has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1012114','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1012114"><span>Problem of <span class="hlt">Questioning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-10-31</p> <p>Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en <span class="hlt">question</span> des hommes et la remise en <span class="hlt">question</span> scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1012114','SCIGOVIMAGE-SCICINEMA'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/biblio/1012114"><span>Problem of <span class="hlt">Questioning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/">ScienceCinema</a></p> <p>None</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en <span class="hlt">question</span> des hommes et la remise en <span class="hlt">question</span> scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=1&pg=4&id=EJ941135','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=1&pg=4&id=EJ941135"><span>1 Great <span class="hlt">Question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nethery, Carrie</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author presents an ideal <span class="hlt">question</span> that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great <span class="hlt">question</span> always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+exchange&pg=3&id=EJ371031','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=air+AND+exchange&pg=3&id=EJ371031"><span>Exam <span class="hlt">Question</span> Exchange.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alexander, John J., Ed.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Describes three examination <span class="hlt">questions</span> which could be used in college chemistry courses. Discusses each problem and gives acceptable solutions. Problems include: "A Multi-Topic Problem for General Chemistry"; "Consumption of Air by Biuret Reagent--a <span class="hlt">Question</span> Involving Experimental Design"; and "An Instructive Problem in Heterogeneous Equilibrium."…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=scientific+AND+skepticism&pg=4&id=EJ418487','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=scientific+AND+skepticism&pg=4&id=EJ418487"><span>Asking the Right <span class="hlt">Questions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Galvin, Ruth Mehrtens</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Like good researchers, writers about research need to be able to tell whether scientific findings are valid. Six <span class="hlt">questions</span>, to be asked of the researcher, can help the writer explain to others. A healthy skepticism is also important; there may be signals that more <span class="hlt">questions</span> should be asked. (MSE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=no+going+back+a+case&pg=4&id=EJ1075042','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=no+going+back+a+case&pg=4&id=EJ1075042"><span>Designing Great Hinge <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wiliam, Dylan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of <span class="hlt">questions</span>--what he calls hinge <span class="hlt">questions</span>--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=switch&pg=3&id=EJ1075050','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=switch&pg=3&id=EJ1075050"><span>Let's Switch <span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Around</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tovani, Cris</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be <span class="hlt">question</span> answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form <span class="hlt">questions</span> of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=get&id=EJ1075042','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=get&id=EJ1075042"><span>Designing Great Hinge <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wiliam, Dylan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of <span class="hlt">questions</span>--what he calls hinge <span class="hlt">questions</span>--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED033858.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED033858.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Questions</span> About the Oceans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.</p> <p></p> <p>This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to <span class="hlt">questions</span> via teletype. The book contains one hundred <span class="hlt">questions</span> typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+taxonomy&pg=3&id=EJ941135','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+taxonomy&pg=3&id=EJ941135"><span>1 Great <span class="hlt">Question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nethery, Carrie</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author presents an ideal <span class="hlt">question</span> that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great <span class="hlt">question</span> always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26259987','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26259987"><span>The <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Asking About Interest in Free Nicotine Patches on Smoker's Stated Intent to Change: Real Effect or Artefact of <span class="hlt">Question</span> Ordering?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cunningham, John A; Kushnir, Vladyslav; McCambridge, Jim</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Stage of change <span class="hlt">questions</span> are often included on general population surveys to assess the proportion of current smokers intending to quit. The current study reported on a methodological experiment to establish whether participant's self-reported stage of change can be influenced by asking about interest in free nicotine patches immediately prior to asking about intent to change. As part of an ongoing random digit dialing survey, a randomized half of participants were asked if they would be interested in receiving nicotine patches to help them quit smoking prior to being asked whether they intended to quit smoking in the next 6 months and 30 days. Participants who were first asked about interest in free nicotine patches were more likely to rate themselves as in preparation for change (asked first = 33%; not asked first = 19%), and less likely to rate themselves as in the precontemplation stage of change (asked first = 34%; not asked first = 47%), compared with participants who were not asked about their interest in free nicotine patches prior to being asked about their stage of change (P < .001). There are several possible explanations of the results. It is possible that offers of free nicotine patches increases smokers intentions to quit, at least temporarily. Alternatively, smokers being asked about interest in free nicotine patches may expect that the researchers would like to hear about people intending to quit, and respond accordingly. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22806163','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22806163"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of rhizobial inoculation on Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. growth in greenhouse and soil functioning in relation to seed provenance and soil <span class="hlt">origin</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bakhoum, Niokhor; Ndoye, Fatou; Kane, Aboubacry; Assigbetse, Komi; Fall, Dioumacor; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Noba, Kandioura; Diouf, Diégane</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Rhizobial inoculation has a positive <span class="hlt">impact</span> on plants growth; however, there is little information about its effect on soil microbial communities and their activity in the rhizosphere. It was therefore necessary to test the effect of inoculation of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. seedlings with selected rhizobia on plant growth, structure and diversity of soil bacterial communities and soil functioning in relation to plant provenance and soil <span class="hlt">origin</span>. In order to carry out this experiment, three A. senegal seeds provenance from Kenya, Niger, and Senegal were inoculated with selected rhizobial strains. They have been further grown during 4 months in greenhouse conditions in two non-disinfected soils, Dahra and Goudiry coming respectively from arid and semi-arid areas. The principal component analysis (ACP) showed an inoculation effect on plant growth, rhizospheric bacterial diversity and soil functioning. However, the performances of the rhizobial strains varied in relation to the seed provenance and the soil <span class="hlt">origin</span>. The selected rhizobial strains, the A. senegal provenance and the soil <span class="hlt">origin</span> have modified the structure and the diversity of soil bacterial communities as measured by principal component analysis/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses. It is interesting to note that bacterial communities of Dahra soil were highly structured according to A. senegal provenance, whereas they were structured in relation to rhizobial inoculation in Goudiry soil. Besides, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of inoculation on soil microbial activities measured by fluorescein diacetate analyses varied in relation to plant provenance and soil <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Nevertheless, total microbial activity was about two times higher in Goudiry, arid soil than in Dahra, semi-arid soil. Our results suggest that the rhizobial inoculation is a suitable tool for improving plants growth and soil fertility. Yet, the <span class="hlt">impact</span> is dependent on inoculants, plant provenance and soil <span class="hlt">origin</span>. It will, therefore, be crucial to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020070851','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020070851"><span>What is a <span class="hlt">Question</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A given <span class="hlt">question</span> can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among <span class="hlt">questions</span>. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a <span class="hlt">question</span> has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and <span class="hlt">questions</span> demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real <span class="hlt">questions</span> is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to <span class="hlt">questions</span>, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and <span class="hlt">questions</span> in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3515710','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3515710"><span>“A <span class="hlt">question</span> of balance”: addressing the public health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of multinational enterprises in the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Joshua S.; McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background The global community is beginning to address non-communicable diseases, but how to increase the accountability of multinational enterprises (MNEs) for the health <span class="hlt">impacts</span> of their products and practices remains unclear. We examine the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD) efforts to do so through voluntary MNE guidelines. Methods We developed a historical case study of how the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises were developed and revised from 1973–2000 through an analysis of publicly available archived OECD and tobacco industry documents. Results The first edition of the Guidelines was a purely economic instrument. Outside pressures and a desire to ward off more stringent regulatory efforts resulted in the addition over time of guidelines related to the environment, consumer interests, sustainable development, and human rights. Conclusion Despite their voluntary nature, the Guidelines can play a role in efforts to help balance the interests of MNEs and public health by providing a starting point for efforts to create binding provisions addressing MNEs’ contributions to disease burden or disease reduction. PMID:23046298</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA13A3894B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA13A3894B"><span>How Deep is the Critical Zone: A Scientific <span class="hlt">Question</span> with Potential <span class="hlt">Impact</span> For Decision-makers in Areas of Shale-Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brantley, S. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Citizens living in areas of shale-gas development such as the Marcellus gas play in Pennsylvania and surrounding states are cognizant of the possibility that drilling and production of natural gas -- including hydraulic fracturing -- may have environmental <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on their water. The Critical Zone is defined as the zone from vegetation canopy to the lower limits of groundwater. This definition is nebulous in terms of the lower limit, and yet, defining the bottom of the Critical Zone is important if citizens are to embrace shale-gas development. This is because, although no peer-reviewed study has been presented that documents a case where hydraulic fracturing or formation fluids have migrated upwards from fracturing depths to drinking water resources, a few cases of such leakage have been alleged. On the other hand, many cases of methane migration into aquifers have been documented to occur and some have been attributed to shale-gas development. The Critical Zone science community has a role to play in understanding such contamination problems, how they unfold, and how they should be ameliorated. For example, one big effort of the Critical Zone science community is to promote sharing of data describing the environment. This data effort has been extended to provide data for citizens to understand water quality by a team known as the Shale Network. As scientists learn to publish data online, these efforts must also be made accessible to non-scientists. As citizens access the data, the demand for data will grow and all branches of government will eventually respond by providing more accessible data that will help the public and policy-makers make decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=determination+AND+metal&pg=3&id=EJ235053','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=determination+AND+metal&pg=3&id=EJ235053"><span>Exam <span class="hlt">Question</span> Exchange.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alexander, John J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Provides exam <span class="hlt">questions</span> and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/grants/epa-subaward-frequent-questions','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/grants/epa-subaward-frequent-questions"><span>EPA Subaward Frequent <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>These answers to frequent <span class="hlt">questions</span> (FQ) are intended to provide information to recipients of EPA financial assistance to help them understand EPA’s interpretations of the Uniform Grant Guidance (UGG) and EPA’s Subaward Policy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=metal+AND+metal+AND+bonding&pg=2&id=EJ235053','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=metal+AND+metal+AND+bonding&pg=2&id=EJ235053"><span>Exam <span class="hlt">Question</span> Exchange.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alexander, John J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Provides exam <span class="hlt">questions</span> and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhTea..46..165D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhTea..46..165D"><span>Answering Essay <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeBuvitz, William</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Most of the homework I have assigned in physics courses has been of the problem-solving type, although I do assign a few essay <span class="hlt">questions</span> for most chapters. I have also taught qualitative science courses in which most of the homework and exams involved either multiple-choice or essay <span class="hlt">questions</span>. What I find surprising is that all physics textbooks go into detail on how to solve physics problems (determining what is asked, choosing the proper formula, showing the work clearly, and checking the results) but never say anything about answering essay <span class="hlt">questions</span>. Teachers and authors might answer my criticism by saying, "Isn't it obvious how to answer an essay <span class="hlt">question</span>?" Based on my experiences, I do not think it is obvious to a good number of students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/about/faqs.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis/about/faqs.html"><span>Pertussis Frequently Asked <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Treatment Prevention Adults Parents-to-be Babies & Children Preteens & Teens Travelers Healthcare Personnel Frequently Asked <span class="hlt">Questions</span> Photos ... Pregnant Women For Parents of Young Children For Preteens & Teens For Adults For Spanish Speakers Publications Related ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=World+AND+peace&pg=6&id=EJ753608','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=World+AND+peace&pg=6&id=EJ753608"><span>Redefining the Fundamental <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crain, Margaret Ann</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Every researcher must make some fundamental <span class="hlt">questions</span>. A researcher's <span class="hlt">questions</span> should include the following: (1) What is the nature of the reality that I wish to study? (2) How will I know it? (3) What must I do to know it? (4) Who am I? (5) Where is God in this? and (6) For religious educators--How does my research lead to a world of peace and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1151080.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1151080.pdf"><span>Investigating Teacher <span class="hlt">Questions</span> within the Framework of Knowledge Building Pedagogy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kiss, Tamas; Wang, Alex</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This study is designed to investigate the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of teacher experience and cognition on teacher <span class="hlt">questioning</span> in the framework of Knowledge Building (KB) pedagogy. We already know that teachers ask the most <span class="hlt">questions</span> in a classroom and that the majority of their <span class="hlt">questions</span> have little <span class="hlt">impact</span> on learning since they focus on classroom management…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pedrosa&id=EJ1027341','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=pedrosa&id=EJ1027341"><span>Managing Affect in Learners' <span class="hlt">Questions</span> in Undergraduate Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Watts, Mike</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article aims to position students' classroom <span class="hlt">questioning</span> within the literature surrounding affect and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on learning. The article consists of two main sections. First, the act of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> is discussed in order to highlight how affect shapes the process of <span class="hlt">questioning</span>, and a four-part genesis to <span class="hlt">question</span>-asking that we call…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=impact+AND+surroundings&id=EJ1027341','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=impact+AND+surroundings&id=EJ1027341"><span>Managing Affect in Learners' <span class="hlt">Questions</span> in Undergraduate Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Watts, Mike</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article aims to position students' classroom <span class="hlt">questioning</span> within the literature surrounding affect and its <span class="hlt">impact</span> on learning. The article consists of two main sections. First, the act of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> is discussed in order to highlight how affect shapes the process of <span class="hlt">questioning</span>, and a four-part genesis to <span class="hlt">question</span>-asking that we call…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26607233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26607233"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Scientific Versus Emotional Wording of Patient <span class="hlt">Questions</span> on Doctor-Patient Communication in an Internet Forum: A Randomized Controlled Experiment with Medical Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bientzle, Martina; Griewatz, Jan; Kimmerle, Joachim; Küppers, Julia; Cress, Ulrike; Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria</p> <p>2015-11-25</p> <p>Medical expert forums on the Internet play an increasing role in patient counseling. Therefore, it is important to understand how doctor-patient communication is influenced in such forums both by features of the patients or advice seekers, as expressed in their forum queries, and by characteristics of the medical experts involved. In this experimental study, we aimed to examine in what way (1) the particular wording of patient queries and (2) medical experts' therapeutic health concepts (for example, beliefs around adhering to a distinctly scientific understanding of diagnosis and treatment and a clear focus on evidence-based medicine) <span class="hlt">impact</span> communication behavior of the medical experts in an Internet forum. Advanced medical students (in their ninth semester of medical training) were recruited as participants. Participation in the online forum was part of a communication training embedded in a gynecology course. We first measured their biomedical therapeutic health concept (hereinafter called "biomedical concept"). Then they participated in an online forum where they answered fictitious patient queries about mammography screening that either included scientific or emotional wording in a between-group design. We analyzed participants' replies with regard to the following dimensions: their use of scientific or emotional wording, the amount of communicated information, and their attempt to build a positive doctor-patient relationship. This study was carried out with 117 medical students (73 women, 41 men, 3 did not indicate their sex). We found evidence that both the wording of patient queries and the participants' biomedical concept influenced participants' response behavior. They answered emotional patient queries in a more emotional way (mean 0.92, SD 1.02) than scientific patient queries (mean 0.26, SD 0.55; t74=3.48, P<.001, d=0.81). We also found a significant interaction effect between participants' use of scientific or emotional wording and type of patient</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4704952','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4704952"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Scientific Versus Emotional Wording of Patient <span class="hlt">Questions</span> on Doctor-Patient Communication in an Internet Forum: A Randomized Controlled Experiment with Medical Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bientzle, Martina; Griewatz, Jan; Küppers, Julia; Cress, Ulrike; Lammerding-Koeppel, Maria</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Medical expert forums on the Internet play an increasing role in patient counseling. Therefore, it is important to understand how doctor-patient communication is influenced in such forums both by features of the patients or advice seekers, as expressed in their forum queries, and by characteristics of the medical experts involved. Objective In this experimental study, we aimed to examine in what way (1) the particular wording of patient queries and (2) medical experts’ therapeutic health concepts (for example, beliefs around adhering to a distinctly scientific understanding of diagnosis and treatment and a clear focus on evidence-based medicine) <span class="hlt">impact</span> communication behavior of the medical experts in an Internet forum. Methods Advanced medical students (in their ninth semester of medical training) were recruited as participants. Participation in the online forum was part of a communication training embedded in a gynecology course. We first measured their biomedical therapeutic health concept (hereinafter called “biomedical concept”). Then they participated in an online forum where they answered fictitious patient queries about mammography screening that either included scientific or emotional wording in a between-group design. We analyzed participants’ replies with regard to the following dimensions: their use of scientific or emotional wording, the amount of communicated information, and their attempt to build a positive doctor-patient relationship. Results This study was carried out with 117 medical students (73 women, 41 men, 3 did not indicate their sex). We found evidence that both the wording of patient queries and the participants’ biomedical concept influenced participants’ response behavior. They answered emotional patient queries in a more emotional way (mean 0.92, SD 1.02) than scientific patient queries (mean 0.26, SD 0.55; t 74=3.48, P<.001, d=0.81). We also found a significant interaction effect between participants’ use of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=process+AND+educational+AND+University&pg=6&id=EJ1066658','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=process+AND+educational+AND+University&pg=6&id=EJ1066658"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Primary and Secondary Social <span class="hlt">Origin</span> Factors on the Transition to University in the Czech Republic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Simonová, Natalie; Soukup, Petr</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The main objective of this paper is to show to what extent and why students with the same academic aptitude but different social backgrounds have different odds of entering university. For our analysis, we separated primary and secondary factors of social <span class="hlt">origin</span> in the formation of educational inequalities. The results show that the primary and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=314029','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=314029"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus <span class="hlt">origins</span> on copy number variation in traditional Chinese cattle breeds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid <span class="hlt">origin</span>, but the evolution o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sociology+AND+origins&id=EJ1066658','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sociology+AND+origins&id=EJ1066658"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Primary and Secondary Social <span class="hlt">Origin</span> Factors on the Transition to University in the Czech Republic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Simonová, Natalie; Soukup, Petr</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The main objective of this paper is to show to what extent and why students with the same academic aptitude but different social backgrounds have different odds of entering university. For our analysis, we separated primary and secondary factors of social <span class="hlt">origin</span> in the formation of educational inequalities. The results show that the primary and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890049177&hterms=Granodiorite&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGranodiorite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890049177&hterms=Granodiorite&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DGranodiorite"><span>Sources of clasts in terrestrial <span class="hlt">impact</span> melts - Clues to the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of LKFM. [Low-K Fra Mauro</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mccormick, K. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Spudis, P. D.; Grieve, R. A. F.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) 'basalt', which is found exclusively as an <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt rock, cannot be modeled geochemically from its clast population or from any combination of known pristine lunar rock types. To clarify clast/melt relationships, a study was made of <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt rocks from Mistastin Lake crater, Labrador, where there are only three target rocks: anorthosite, quartz monzonite, and granodiorite. Feldspar compositions in these rocks define distinct fields on the An-Ab-Or ternary diagram, making it possible to identify the source of each feldspar clast. Clasts in the Mistastin <span class="hlt">impact</span> melts do not reflect the abundance of target rocks melted during the <span class="hlt">impact</span>. The abundance of anorthosite in the clast population varies from 34 to 100 percent compared to a relatively constant value of 65 percent calculated to be in the melt matrix. Therefore the clasts appear to be derived predominantly from material relatively far removed from the zone of <span class="hlt">impact</span> melting. Melt-matrix composition is dictated strictly by the composition of the target materials within a small radius around and below the point of <span class="hlt">impact</span>. This suggests that the LKFM composition was derived from a lower crustal source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=partin&pg=3&id=EJ199134','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=partin&pg=3&id=EJ199134"><span>How Effective Are Your <span class="hlt">Questions</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Partin, Ronald L.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Guidelines are given to the teacher on using <span class="hlt">questions</span> to improve classroom discussions. Included are: reasons for using <span class="hlt">questions</span>, ways to ask <span class="hlt">questions</span> and acknowledge students' responses, and types of <span class="hlt">questions</span> which should and should not be used. (SJL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6730H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6730H"><span>Lunar Geoscience: Key <span class="hlt">Questions</span> for Future Lunar Exploration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Head, James</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Lunar Geoscience: Key <span class="hlt">Questions</span> for Future Lunar Exploration James W. Head, Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 USA. (Invited paper/solicited talk for EGU 2014 PS2.3 Lunar session, Bernard H. Foing, Convener EGU PS2.3) The last several decades of intensive robotic exploration of the Moon has built on early Apollo and Luna exploration to provide fundamental knowledge of Earth's satellite and an excellent perspective on the most well-documented planetary body other than Earth. This new planetological perspective has raised substantial new <span class="hlt">questions</span> about the nature of the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Moon, its early differentiation and bombardment history, its internal thermal evolution, the production of its secondary crust as exemplified by the lunar maria, and tertiary crust as potentially seen in steep-sided domes and <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt differentiates, the abundance of interior volatiles and their role in volcanic eruptions, and the abundance of surface volatiles and their concentration in polar regions. On the basis of this new information, a series of specific outstanding geoscience <span class="hlt">questions</span> can be identified that can serve as guides for future human and robotic exploration. These include: 1) What is the nature and abundance of <span class="hlt">impact</span> melt seas and what rock types do they produce upon differentiation and solidification? 2) Where are lunar mantle samples located on the lunar surface and what processes are responsible for placing them there? 3) What processes are responsible for producing the silica-rich viscous domes, such as those seen at Gruithuisen? 4) What are the volatile species involved in the emplacement of lunar pyroclastic deposits and what clues do they provide about deep magmatic volatiles and shallow volatile formation processes? 5) How do we account for the differing characteristics of regional dark mantling pyroclastic deposits? 6) When did mare basalt volcanism begin (earliest cryptmaria) and how and where is it manifested? 7</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23992760','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23992760"><span>Contextual amplification or attenuation of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of pubertal timing on Mexican-<span class="hlt">origin</span> boys' mental health symptoms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>White, Rebecca M B; Deardorff, Julianna; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>To examine the role of neighborhood contextual variation in the putative association between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing symptoms among Mexican-<span class="hlt">origin</span> boys. In a sample of seventh-grade Mexican-<span class="hlt">origin</span> boys (N = 353; x¯age=12.8years) we assessed a range of secondary sexual characteristics, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms. Reports on all secondary sexual characteristics were collapsed and age-standardized to represent total pubertal timing. We also distinguished between the timing of physical changes driven by adrenal versus gonadal maturation. Boys' residential addresses were geocoded and American Community Survey data were used to describe neighborhoods along two dimensions: ethnic concentration and socioeconomic disadvantage. Three years later (in 10th grade) we re-assessed internalizing and externalizing symptoms. We examined the moderating influence of neighborhood ethnic concentration and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage on the prospective associations between puberty timing (total, gonadal, adrenal) and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Earlier total pubertal timing predicted increases in externalizing symptoms, but only when Mexican-<span class="hlt">origin</span> boys lived in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. Total timing results for externalizing symptoms were replicated for adrenal timing. Furthermore, early adrenal timing predicted increases in internalizing symptoms, but again, only when boys lived in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. No effects were observed for gonadal timing specifically. Early pubertal timing, especially advanced physical changes initiated and regulated by adrenal maturation, have important implications for Mexican-<span class="hlt">origin</span> boys' internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but these implications depend on neighborhood characteristics. Ethnically concentrated neighborhoods are protective for early-maturing Mexican-<span class="hlt">origin</span> boys. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27815011','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27815011"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Arthroscopic Lateral Acromioplasty on the Mechanical and Structural Integrity of the Lateral Deltoid <span class="hlt">Origin</span>: A Cadaveric Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marchetti, Daniel Cole; Katthagen, J Christoph; Mikula, Jacob D; Montgomery, Scott R; Tahal, Dimitri S; Dahl, Kimi D; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Millett, Peter J</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>To determine whether a 5-mm and/or 10-mm arthroscopic lateral acromioplasty (ALA) would weaken the structural and mechanical integrity of the lateral deltoid. The acromion and lateral deltoid <span class="hlt">origin</span> were harvested from 15 pairs (n = 30) of fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulder specimens. One side of each specimen pair (left or right) was randomly assigned to either a 5-mm (n = 7) or 10-mm (n = 8) ALA group, and the contralateral sides (n = 15) were used as matched controls. Acromion thickness and width were measured pre- and postoperatively. After ALA, specimens were inspected for damage to the lateral deltoid <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Each specimen was secured within a dynamic testing machine, and the deltoid muscle was pulled to failure. Statistical analysis was performed to determine whether ALA reduced the lateral deltoid's failure load. There was no significant difference in failure load between the 5-mm ALA group (661 ± 207 N) and its matched control group (744 ± 212 N; mean difference = 83 N; 95% confidence interval [CI], -91 to 258; P = .285) nor between the 10-mm ALA group (544 ± 210 N) and its matched control group (598 ± 157 N; mean difference = 54 N; 95% CI, -141 to 250; P = .532). There was no correlation found between the amount of bone resected (measured by percent thickness and width of the acromion after ALA) and the failure load of the deltoid. Visual evaluation of the acromion after ALA revealed the lateral deltoid <span class="hlt">origin</span> had no damage in any case. ALA did not weaken the structural or mechanical integrity of the lateral deltoid <span class="hlt">origin</span>. Neither a 5-mm nor a 10-mm ALA significantly reduced the deltoid's failure load. The lateral deltoid <span class="hlt">origin</span> was not macroscopically damaged in any case. ALA can be performed without the potential risk of macroscopically damaging the lateral deltoid <span class="hlt">origin</span> or reducing its failure load. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26289558','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26289558"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of migration <span class="hlt">origin</span> on individual protection strategies against sexual transmission of HIV in Paris metropolitan area, SIRS cohort study, France.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kesteman, Thomas; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Costagliola, Dominique; Massari, Véronique; Chauvin, Pierre</p> <p>2015-08-20</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">impact</span> of migration and country or region of <span class="hlt">origin</span> on sexual behaviours and prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV has been scarcely studied in France. The objective of this study was to evaluate if and how individual attitudes of prevention towards HIV infection are different according to country or region of <span class="hlt">origins</span> in Paris area, France. 3006 individuals were interviewed in the Paris metropolitan area in 2010. Outcome variables were (i) the intention of the individual to protect oneself against HIV, and (ii) the adoption of a condom-based approach for protection against HIV. To explore factors associated with these outcomes, we constructed multivariate logistic regression models, first taking into account only demographic variables -including country of <span class="hlt">origin</span>-, then successively adding socioeconomic variables and variables related to sexual behaviour and HIV perception and prevention behaviour. French and foreign people who have <span class="hlt">origins</span> in Sub-Saharan Africa declared more intentions to protect themselves than French people with French parents (in foreign men, aOR = 3.43 [1.66-7.13]; in foreign women, aOR = 2.94 [1.65-5.23]), but did not declare more recourse to a condom-based approach for protection against HIV (in foreign men, aOR = 1.38 [0.38-4.93]; in foreign women, aOR = 0.93 [0.40-2.18]). Conversely, foreign women and French women from foreign <span class="hlt">origin</span>, especially from Maghreb (Northern Africa), reported less intention of protection than French women with French parents. These results underline the importance of taking culture and <span class="hlt">origins</span> of target populations into consideration when designing information, education and communication about HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. These results also draw attention to fractions of the general population that could escape from prevention messages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=patriot+AND+act&id=EJ756776','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=patriot+AND+act&id=EJ756776"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Ohio's Loyalty Requirement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>O'Neil, Robert M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Beginning this past summer, all new employees at some Ohio public universities, including those accepting teaching positions, are being confronted with politically sensitive and intrusive <span class="hlt">questions</span>. In addition to the "Have you solicited any individual for membership in an organization on the U.S. Department of State Terrorist…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=squire&pg=5&id=ED144107','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=squire&pg=5&id=ED144107"><span><span class="hlt">Questions</span> English Teachers Ask.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shuman, R. Baird</p> <p></p> <p>This volume is based on the responses of 374 English teachers at the secondary and college levels to a letter asking them to describe the <span class="hlt">questions</span> that most perplex them professionally. Answers are provided by 88 leaders in English education, including James R. Squire, Walter H. MacGinitie, R. Baird Shuman, Sheila Schwartz, and Ken Macrorie. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Vibration&id=EJ1082758','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Vibration&id=EJ1082758"><span>My Favorite Exam <span class="hlt">Question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Styer, Dan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>My favorite exam <span class="hlt">question</span> comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3146923','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3146923"><span>A <span class="hlt">Question</span> of Choice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the <span class="hlt">question</span> of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=gorilla&id=EJ889750','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=gorilla&id=EJ889750"><span>A <span class="hlt">Question</span> of Character</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stuart, Reginald</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the <span class="hlt">question</span> of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=young+AND+ask&pg=2&id=EJ845264','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=young+AND+ask&pg=2&id=EJ845264"><span>Asking <span class="hlt">Questions</span> about Participation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We raise <span class="hlt">questions</span> about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=young+AND+ask&pg=5&id=EJ935505','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=young+AND+ask&pg=5&id=EJ935505"><span>Asking the Right <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lord, Rob</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable <span class="hlt">questions</span> in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mechanics&pg=5&id=EJ1082758','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=mechanics&pg=5&id=EJ1082758"><span>My Favorite Exam <span class="hlt">Question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Styer, Dan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>My favorite exam <span class="hlt">question</span> comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA442120','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA442120"><span>Informed <span class="hlt">Questions</span> on Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>National War College Course 5604 Informed <span class="hlt">Questions</span> on Malaysia BG Tay, Lim Heng, Army...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Security+AND+requirements&pg=7&id=EJ756776','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Security+AND+requirements&pg=7&id=EJ756776"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Ohio's Loyalty Requirement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>O'Neil, Robert M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Beginning this past summer, all new employees at some Ohio public universities, including those accepting teaching positions, are being confronted with politically sensitive and intrusive <span class="hlt">questions</span>. In addition to the "Have you solicited any individual for membership in an organization on the U.S. Department of State Terrorist…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=LOGIC&pg=3&id=EJ1037152','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=LOGIC&pg=3&id=EJ1037152"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> and Experimentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mutanen, Arto</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of <span class="hlt">questions</span> and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=voter+AND+turnout&pg=2&id=EJ812713','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=voter+AND+turnout&pg=2&id=EJ812713"><span><span class="hlt">Question</span>: Who Can Vote?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodeheaver, Misty D.; Haas, Mary E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This year's rollercoaster primary elections and the pending national election, with an anticipated record voter turnout, provide the perfect backdrop for an examination of the <span class="hlt">questions</span>: (1) Who can vote?; and (2) Who will vote? Historically, the American government refused voting rights to various groups based on race, gender, age, and even…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21696627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21696627"><span>A <span class="hlt">question</span> of choice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grabiner, Gene</p> <p>2011-06-22</p> <p>Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the <span class="hlt">question</span> of State control over women's bodies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=smalley&pg=4&id=EJ307966','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=smalley&pg=4&id=EJ307966"><span><span class="hlt">Questions</span> for the Profession.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smalley, Lee</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Examines the issues and lists available options for these <span class="hlt">questions</span>: why don't teachers (1) teach about the future, (2) use results of educational research, (3) focus on teacher-student interaction, (4) assign grades from a competency criterion, and (5) teach the structure of mechanical drafting. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gorilla&id=EJ889750','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gorilla&id=EJ889750"><span>A <span class="hlt">Question</span> of Character</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stuart, Reginald</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the <span class="hlt">question</span> of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=uranium&pg=3&id=EJ195249','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=uranium&pg=3&id=EJ195249"><span>Exam <span class="hlt">Question</span> Exchange.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alexander, John J., Ed.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Two exam <span class="hlt">questions</span> are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=compensation+AND+benefits&pg=6&id=EJ994595','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=compensation+AND+benefits&pg=6&id=EJ994595"><span>The Compensation <span class="hlt">Question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying <span class="hlt">question</span> is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cash+AND+budget&id=EJ994595','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cash+AND+budget&id=EJ994595"><span>The Compensation <span class="hlt">Question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying <span class="hlt">question</span> is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=World+AND+anything&pg=4&id=EJ665890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=World+AND+anything&pg=4&id=EJ665890"><span>That Is the <span class="hlt">Question</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Korsunsky, Syd</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Describes the author's evolution from a teacher set in his ways to one who adapted to students' voices. Contends that classrooms need to be environments where students are able to ask their own <span class="hlt">questions</span>. Explains that key elements of such an environment include the following: interviews; mini-lessons; multi-genre projects; literature circles;…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lateral+AND+thinking&pg=6&id=ED281381','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lateral+AND+thinking&pg=6&id=ED281381"><span>What Is the <span class="hlt">Question</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Woodruff, Melba D.</p> <p></p> <p>Second language educators need to examine in greater depth the learning processes of young children in order to provide them with the kind of teaching they need in order to really learn. This means searching other fields to learn as much as possible about: <span class="hlt">questioning</span> strategies and the development of critical thinking skills; hemispheric…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interrogative&pg=2&id=EJ1037152','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interrogative&pg=2&id=EJ1037152"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> and Experimentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mutanen, Arto</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of <span class="hlt">questions</span> and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED138551.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED138551.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> in the Classroom.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hyman, Ronald T.</p> <p></p> <p>This study investigates the pattern of teacher <span class="hlt">questioning</span> regarding three elements: sequence, student respondent, and cognitive process. The rationale for this type of teaching rests on the claims for teaching students the process of critical (reflective) thinking. In this type of teaching it is necessary to have data before the students. Only…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sociology+AND+origins&pg=5&id=ED454891','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sociology+AND+origins&pg=5&id=ED454891"><span>The Contradictory College: The Conflicting <span class="hlt">Origins</span>, <span class="hlt">Impacts</span>, and Futures of the Community College. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dougherty, Kevin J.</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this book is to resolve the debate between critics and defenders of the community college on three key issues: (1) the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the community college, not only on students but also on business and the elite universities; (2) why and how the community college developed; and (3) why the community college differentiated its…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=293147','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=293147"><span>Answering Consumer <span class="hlt">Questions</span>: Opportunity for <span class="hlt">Impact</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Food can be a touchy subject. It seems people either have very strong thoughts and opinions on food or they could care less as long as food is available to feed them and their families. With the current economic environment, many individuals are examining food choices more closely to ensure the g...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3620539','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3620539"><span>Do Contaminants <span class="hlt">Originating</span> from State-of-the-Art Treated Wastewater <span class="hlt">Impact</span> the Ecological Quality of Surface Waters?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Quednow, Kristin; Botzat, Alexandra; Oehlmann, Jörg</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key <span class="hlt">impact</span> factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0–100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide) as a major <span class="hlt">impact</span> variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant <span class="hlt">impact</span> of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively <span class="hlt">impacting</span> the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated <span class="hlt">impact</span> on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in urban areas this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...105.4317K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000JGR...105.4317K"><span>The great lunar hot spot and the composition and <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Apollo mafic (``LKFM'') <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melt breccias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korotev, Randy L.</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>Thorium-rich, mafic <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melt breccias from the Apollo 14-17 missions, that is, those breccias identified with the composition known as ``LKFM,'' are regarded largely as products of basin-forming <span class="hlt">impacts</span> that penetrated the feldspathic crust and sampled underlying mafic material and magma-ocean residuum carrying the compositional signature of KREEP (potassium, rare earth elements, phosphorous). Despite considerable compositional variation among such breccias, compositions of all of them correspond to mixtures of only four components: (1) a norite with composition generally similar to that of Apollo 15 basalt (mean abundance: 58% range: ~30-95%), (2) Fo~90 dunite (mean: 13%, range: 1-27%), (3) feldspathic upper crust (mean: 29%, range: 4-50%), and FeNi metal (0.1-1.7%). Petrographic evidence has shown that much of the feldspathic component, but none of the KREEP component, is clastic. This observation and the high proportion of KREEP norite component in the breccias suggest that the melt zone of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> or <span class="hlt">impacts</span> forming the breccias contained little feldspathic material but consisted predominantly of material with the average composition of KREEP norite. The dunite component probably derives ultimately from the upper mantle. These conclusions support the hypothesis that the breccias were not formed in typical feldspathic crust but instead by one or more <span class="hlt">impacts</span> into what is designated here ``the great lunar hot spot,'' that is, the anomalous Th-rich terrane in the Imbrium-Procellarum area identified by the Apollo and Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometers. The LKFM composition is a special product of the great lunar hot spot and is not the average composition of the lower crust in typical feldspathic highlands. Similarly, Mg-suite and alkali-suite plutonic rocks of the Apollo collection are likely all differentiation products of the hot spot, not of plutons that might occur in typical feldspathic crust.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20432715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20432715"><span>[<span class="hlt">Origin</span> of biosphere].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levchenko, V F; Starobogatov, Ia I</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Concepts of <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life on the planet are briefly considered. The problem of <span class="hlt">origin</span> of biosphere is discussed, with a suggestion that the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of living organisms and biosphere are two aspects of the same process. There is put forward a hypothesis of embryosphere--the primary medium, in which preorganisms could appear. The ecosystemic approach to <span class="hlt">origin</span> of life poses a <span class="hlt">question</span> about sources of the matter and energy used by the primary life as well as about causes of the biochemical unity that exists in all Earth organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996LPI....27..827M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996LPI....27..827M"><span>Evidence for Shock Metamorphic <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of Multiply-Striated Joint Surfaces (MSJS) in Sandstones of the Sinamwenda Meteorite <span class="hlt">Impact</span> Structure, Zimbabwe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Master, S.; Reimold, W. U.; Brandt, D.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>The Sinamwenda Structure (17 degrees 11'42" S, 27 degrees 47'30"E) is a 220m-diameter postulated <span class="hlt">impact</span> crater situated in western Zimbabwe. Although the surrounding rocks are flat-lying unjointed Middle Triassic (Karoo) sandstones, the rocks of the crater rim are characterised by steep or overturned bedding, abundant multiply-striated joint surfaces (MSJS), and strong microbrecciation. We show that the MSJS are the result of shock metamorphism of the coarse sandstones in the rim, because of the rare occurrence, on the striated surfaces only, of isolated grains of shocked quartz containing Planar Deformation Features (PDFs). The presence of shocked quartz with PDFs is regarded as proof of the <span class="hlt">impact</span> <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the Sinamwenda crater.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IAUS..260E..31S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IAUS..260E..31S"><span>Big <span class="hlt">questions</span> about the universe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stavinschi, Magda</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe <span class="hlt">originate</span>? All these <span class="hlt">questions</span> are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED480410.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED480410.pdf"><span>Benedict Arnold: A <span class="hlt">Question</span> of Honor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nicolosi, Annie; O'Connell, Libby Haight; Rust, Mead</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The spring 2003 The Idea Book for Educators highlights television programming from the Arts and Entertainment Network (A&E), the History Channel, and the Biography Channel, with a focus on an A&E <span class="hlt">original</span> movie premiere, "Benedict Arnold: A <span class="hlt">Question</span> of Honor." The booklet contains the following materials: "A&E Study…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030064019&hterms=chromium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dchromium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030064019&hterms=chromium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dchromium"><span>Early Archean Spherule Beds: Chromium Isotopes Confirm <span class="hlt">Origin</span> Through Multiple <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Projectiles of Carbonaceous Chondrite Type</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kyte, Frank T.; Shukolyukov, Alex; Lugmair, Guenter W.; Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Three Early Archean spherule beds from Barberton, South Africa, have anomalous Cr isotope compositions in addition to large Ir anomalies, confirming the presence of meteoritic material with a composition similar to that in carbonaceous chondrites. The extra-terrestrial components in beds S2, S3, and S4 are estimated to be approx. l%, 50% - 60%, and 15% - 30%, respectively. These beds are probably the distal, and possibly global, ejecta from major large-body <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. These <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were probably much larger than the Cretaceous-Tertiary event, and all occurred over an interval of approx. 20 m.y., implying an impactor flux at 3.2 Ga that was more than an order of magnitude greater than the present flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19698209','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19698209"><span>Risk factors for sanitary condemnation in broiler chickens and their relative <span class="hlt">impact</span>: application of an <span class="hlt">original</span> multiblock approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lupo, C; Bougeard, S; Balaine, L; Michel, V; Petetin, I; Colin, P; LeBouquin, S; Chauvin, C</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>An innovative and well-adapted statistical method, called multiblock redundancy analysis, is proposed for a complex health-event analysis to account for the thematic block organization of variables. The outcome block contained the condemnation rates of 404 broiler chicken flocks, distinguishing infectious and traumatic condemnation categories. Explanatory variables were organized in blocks related to the different production stages (farm structure and routine husbandry practices; on-farm flock history and characteristics; catching, transport and lairage conditions; slaughterhouse and inspection features). The aim was to determine risk factors for both condemnation categories, and the relative <span class="hlt">impact</span> of the different production stages on the whole condemnation rate. Results showed that significant factors were either specific to one condemnation category or related to both categories, and each of the explanatory blocks was involved in the explanation of infectious and traumatic condemnation rates. On-farm flock information explained 40% of the overall condemnation process whereas the other explanatory blocks had similar relative <span class="hlt">impacts</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030064019&hterms=Chromium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DChromium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030064019&hterms=Chromium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DChromium"><span>Early Archean Spherule Beds: Chromium Isotopes Confirm <span class="hlt">Origin</span> Through Multiple <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Projectiles of Carbonaceous Chondrite Type</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kyte, Frank T.; Shukolyukov, Alex; Lugmair, Guenter W.; Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Three Early Archean spherule beds from Barberton, South Africa, have anomalous Cr isotope compositions in addition to large Ir anomalies, confirming the presence of meteoritic material with a composition similar to that in carbonaceous chondrites. The extra-terrestrial components in beds S2, S3, and S4 are estimated to be approx. l%, 50% - 60%, and 15% - 30%, respectively. These beds are probably the distal, and possibly global, ejecta from major large-body <span class="hlt">impacts</span>. These <span class="hlt">impacts</span> were probably much larger than the Cretaceous-Tertiary event, and all occurred over an interval of approx. 20 m.y., implying an impactor flux at 3.2 Ga that was more than an order of magnitude greater than the present flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011M%26PS...46.1484V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011M%26PS...46.1484V"><span>Metal/sulfide-silicate intergrowth textures in EL3 meteorites: <span class="hlt">Origin</span> by <span class="hlt">impact</span> melting on the EL parent body</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Niekerk, Deon; Keil, Klaus</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>We document the petrographic setting and textures of Fe,Ni metal, the mineralogy of metallic assemblages, and the modal mineral abundances in the EL3 meteorites Asuka (A-) 881314, A-882067, Allan Hills 85119, Elephant Moraine (EET) 90299/EET 90992, LaPaz Icefield 03930, MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 02635, MAC 02837/MAC 02839, MAC 88136, Northwest Africa (NWA) 3132, Pecora Escarpment 91020, Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 93351/QUE 94321, QUE 94594, and higher petrologic type ELs Dar al Gani 1031 (EL4), Sayh al Uhaymir 188 (EL4), MAC 02747 (EL4), QUE 94368 (EL4), and NWA 1222 (EL5). Large metal assemblages (often containing schreibersite and graphite) only occur outside chondrules and are usually intergrown with silicate minerals (euhedral to subhedral enstatite, silica, and feldspar). Sulfides (troilite, daubréelite, and keilite) are also sometimes intergrown with silicates. Numerous authors have shown that metal in enstatite chondrites that are interpreted to have been <span class="hlt">impact</span> melted contains euhedral crystals of enstatite. We argue that the metal/sulfide-silicate intergrowths in the ELs we studied were also formed during <span class="hlt">impact</span> melting and that metal in EL3s thus does not retain primitive (i.e., nebular) textures. Likewise, the EL4s are also <span class="hlt">impact</span>-melt breccias. Modal abundances of metal in the EL3s and EL4s range from approximately 7 to 30 wt%. These abundances overlap or exceed those of EL6s, and this is consistent either with pre-existing heterogeneity in the parent body or with redistribution of metal during <span class="hlt">impact</span> processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993E%26PSL.119..441K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993E%26PSL.119..441K"><span>Geochemistry and mineralogy of Early Archean spherule beds, Baberton Mountain Land, South Africa: Evidence for <span class="hlt">origin</span> by <span class="hlt">impact</span> doubtful</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Boer, Rudolf H.</p> <p>1993-09-01</p> <p>Spherule layers in the approximately 3.4 Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, have been interpreted as being the result of large asteroid or comet <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on the early earth. This interpretation was based, among other arguments, on the enrichment of siderophile elements, especially the platinum group elements. We made a detailed mineralogical, petrological and geochemical study of spherule bed samples taken from drill cores and underground esposures at the Princeton, Mt. Morgan and Sheba gold mines, as well as surface localities. The macrostructure of each sample (from within different spherule layer units) shows evidence for multiple (more than five) events over about 30 cm. The mineralogy provides evidence for extensive hydrothermal and metasomatic alterations of the spherule beds. Geochemical analyses of alternating spherule, shale and chert layers show no correlation between the siderophile elements (e.g., Ir, Co, Ni and Au), contrary to that which would be expected if the siderophile elements had an extraterrestrial source. Furthermore, no significant variation in the content of the siderophile elements was detected between spherule layers and shale layers; however, siderophile element contents are high only in layers containing abundant sulphide minerals and having high As, Sb, Se and Cr contents. We suggest that complex mineralizations, similar to those that have formed the Barberton Archean gold deposits or the Bon Accord deposit, were responsible for the siderophile element enrichments in the spherule beds. Nowhere else in the world have such multiple (or even single) spherule beds been observed, and none of the numerous known <span class="hlt">impact</span> craters (or the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary) is associated with comparable spherule beds. Known <span class="hlt">impact</span> debris usually contains less than 1% meteoritic component, if any at all, while Barberton spherules are anomalous in being extremely enriched compared to any known <span class="hlt">impact</span> deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.430..209A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015E%26PSL.430..209A"><span>Asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> vs. Deccan eruptions: The <span class="hlt">origin</span> of low magnetic susceptibility beds below the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary revisited</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abrajevitch, Alexandra; Font, Eric; Florindo, Fabio; Roberts, Andrew P.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The respective roles of an asteroid <span class="hlt">impact</span> and Deccan Traps eruptions in biotic changes at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary are still debated. In many shallow marine sediments from around the world, the K-Pg boundary is marked by a distinct clay layer that is often underlain by a several decimeter-thick low susceptibility zone. A previous study of the Gubbio section, Italy (Lowrie et al., 1990), attributed low magnetization intensity in this interval to post-depositional dissolution of ferrimagnetic minerals. Dissolution was thought to be a consequence of downward infiltration of reducing waters that resulted from rapid accumulation of organic matter produced by mass extinctions after the K-Pg event. We compare the magnetic properties of sediments from the Gubbio section with those of the Bidart section in southern France. The two sections are similar in their carbonate lithology and the presence of a boundary clay and low susceptibility zone. When compared to background Cretaceous sediments, the low susceptibility zone in both sections is marked by an absence of biogenic magnetite, a decrease in total ferrimagnetic mineral content, and a preferential loss of magnetite with respect to hematite - features that are consistent with reductive dissolution. However, unlike the Gubbio section, where the low susceptibility zone starts immediately below the boundary clay, the low susceptibility zone and the clay layer at Bidart are separated by a ∼4-cm carbonate interval that contains abundant biogenic magnetite. Such separation casts doubt on a causal link between the <span class="hlt">impact</span> and sediment bleaching. More likely, the low susceptibility layer marks a different environmental event that preceded the <span class="hlt">impact</span>. An episode of increased atmospheric and oceanic acidity associated with Deccan Traps volcanism that occurred well before the K-Pg <span class="hlt">impact</span> is argued here to account for the distinct magnetic properties of the low susceptibility intervals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/nsr/psd-increment-consumption-question','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/nsr/psd-increment-consumption-question"><span>PSD Increment Consumption <span class="hlt">Question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the <span class="hlt">original</span>. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the <span class="hlt">original</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28778510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28778510"><span>Regenerative Endodontics: Burning <span class="hlt">Questions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Pulp regeneration and its clinical translation into regenerative endodontic procedures are receiving increasing research attention, leading to significant growth of the published scientific and clinical literature within these areas. Development of research strategies, which consider patient-, clinician-, and scientist-based outcomes, will allow greater focus on key research <span class="hlt">questions</span> driving more rapid clinical translation. Three key areas of focus for these research <span class="hlt">questions</span> should include cells, signaling, and infection/inflammation. A translational pathway is envisaged in which clinical approaches are increasingly refined to provide regenerative endodontic protocols that are based on a robust understanding of the physiological processes and events responsible for the normal secretion, structure, and biological behavior of pulpal tissue. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5420962','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5420962"><span>Knowledge based <span class="hlt">question</span> answering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for <span class="hlt">questions</span> with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering <span class="hlt">questions</span> which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23991065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23991065"><span>Structural phylogenomics retrodicts the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the genetic code and uncovers the evolutionary <span class="hlt">impact</span> of protein flexibility.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo; Wang, Minglei; Caetano-Anollés, Derek</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The genetic code shapes the genetic repository. Its <span class="hlt">origin</span> has puzzled molecular scientists for over half a century and remains a long-standing mystery. Here we show that the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the genetic code is tightly coupled to the history of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes and their interactions with tRNA. A timeline of evolutionary appearance of protein domain families derived from a structural census in hundreds of genomes reveals the early emergence of the 'operational' RNA code and the late implementation of the standard genetic code. The emergence of codon specificities and amino acid charging involved tight coevolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and tRNA structures as well as episodes of structural recruitment. Remarkably, amino acid and dipeptide compositions of single-domain proteins appearing before the standard code suggest archaic synthetases with structures homologous to catalytic domains of tyrosyl-tRNA and seryl-tRNA synthetases were capable of peptide bond formation and aminoacylation. Results reveal that genetics arose through coevolutionary interactions between polypeptides and nucleic acid cofactors as an exacting mechanism that favored flexibility and folding of the emergent proteins. These enhancements of phenotypic robustness were likely internalized into the emerging genetic system with the early rise of modern protein structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3749098','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3749098"><span>Structural Phylogenomics Retrodicts the <span class="hlt">Origin</span> of the Genetic Code and Uncovers the Evolutionary <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Protein Flexibility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo; Wang, Minglei; Caetano-Anollés, Derek</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The genetic code shapes the genetic repository. Its <span class="hlt">origin</span> has puzzled molecular scientists for over half a century and remains a long-standing mystery. Here we show that the <span class="hlt">origin</span> of the genetic code is tightly coupled to the history of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes and their interactions with tRNA. A timeline of evolutionary appearance of protein domain families derived from a structural census in hundreds of genomes reveals the early emergence of the ‘operational’ RNA code and the late implementation of the standard genetic code. The emergence of codon specificities and amino acid charging involved tight coevolution of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and tRNA structures as well as episodes of structural recruitment. Remarkably, amino acid and dipeptide compositions of single-domain proteins appearing before the standard code suggest archaic synthetases with structures homologous to catalytic domains of tyrosyl-tRNA and seryl-tRNA synthetases were capable of peptide bond formation and aminoacylation. Results reveal that genetics arose through coevolutionary interactions between polypeptides and nucleic acid cofactors as an exacting mechanism that favored flexibility and folding of the emergent proteins. These enhancements of phenotypic robustness were likely internalized into the emerging genetic system with the early rise of modern protein structure. PMID:23991065</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19342709','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19342709"><span><span class="hlt">Questions</span> of wisdom.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt Bunkers, Sandra</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>In this column <span class="hlt">questions</span> concerning wisdom are addressed, such as, what is wisdom? Can wisdom be taught in the academy? Several perspectives on wisdom from philosophy, education, business, and psychology are presented. Wisdom with creativity-creativity with wisdom is then explored through discussion of Parse's humanbecoming teaching-learning model and Laird Hamilton's life lessons learned from surfing, which he termed wisdom of the wave. The column concludes with consideration of the wise person.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95a2102H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvA..95a2102H"><span>Quantum theory from <span class="hlt">questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Höhn, Philipp Andres; Wever, Christopher S. P.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We reconstruct the explicit formalism of qubit quantum theory from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary <span class="hlt">questions</span> and define S 's state as O 's "catalog of knowledge" about S . From the rules we derive the state spaces for N elementary systems and show that (a) they coincide with the set of density matrices over an N -qubit Hilbert space C2N; (b) states evolve unitarily under the group PSU (2N) according to the von Neumann evolution equation; and (c) O 's binary <span class="hlt">questions</span> correspond to projective Pauli operator measurements with outcome probabilities given by the Born rule. As a by-product, this results in a propositional formulation of quantum theory. Aside from offering an informational explanation for the theory's architecture, the reconstruction also unravels previously unnoticed structural insights. We show that, in a derived quadratic information measure, (d) qubits satisfy inequalities which bound the information content in any set of mutually complementary <span class="hlt">questions</span> to 1 bit; and (e) maximal sets of mutually complementary <span class="hlt">questions</span> for one and two qubits must carry precisely 1 bit of information in pure states. The latter relations constitute conserved informational charges which define the unitary groups and, together with their conservation conditions, the sets of pure quantum states. These results highlight information as a "charge of quantum theory" and the benefits of this informational approach. This work emphasizes the sufficiency of restricting to an observer's information to reconstruct the theory and completes the quantum reconstruction initiated in a companion paper (P. Höhn, arXiv:1412.8323).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..290.1011M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..290.1011M"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> Many Mysteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, Sara F.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the <span class="hlt">question</span>, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to <span class="hlt">questions</span> that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely <span class="hlt">questions</span> we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7158201','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7158201"><span>Open <span class="hlt">questions</span> in classical gravity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mannheim, P.D. )</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open <span class="hlt">questions</span> regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard second-order Newton-Einstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was <span class="hlt">originally</span> established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to <span class="hlt">question</span>) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard second-order Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar second-order Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its second-order covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourth-order theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IREdu..39...63S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993IREdu..39...63S"><span>Les <span class="hlt">questions</span> de migrations internationales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samman, Mouna Liliane</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>International migrations have growing implications for both countries of <span class="hlt">origin</span> and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address <span class="hlt">questions</span> of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, <span class="hlt">questions</span> relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11151318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11151318"><span>The competency <span class="hlt">question</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruthemeyer, M</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>JCAHO mandates "processes that are designed to ensure that the competency of all staff members is assessed, maintained, demonstrated, and improved on an ongoing basis." However, it is difficult to collect aggregate data regarding staff competency patterns and trends. How many facilities have the time or energy to collect aggregate data, let alone statistically analyze it for patterns and trends? Not many in today's environment. I saw the need to create a test to evaluate staff competency at my facility, but soon realized I would have no way of knowing if the results were good or bad. The only way to judge the results would be to have a standardized test that was used by multiple facilities. As president of the Houston X-ray Quality Society, I brought the topic up at a meeting in 1995, and a committee was set up to work on the test. The result is two competency tests--one for staff radiographers and one for mammographers--which are currently used by 35 to 40 facilities, with approximately 1,000 technologists taking the test each year. The tests include practical <span class="hlt">questions</span> that reflect the knowledge required to perform daily exams. Each test has five sections that assess different areas of competency. The scoring system allows technologists to fail one or more individual sections but still pass the test overall. Twenty to 30 percent of the <span class="hlt">questions</span> are new each year. That gives us the ability to look for improvement on previous year's <span class="hlt">questions</span>, and at the same time, avoid producing a static and ineffective test. There are 60 <span class="hlt">questions</span> on the staff radiographer test and 65 <span class="hlt">questions</span> on the mammographer test, which also includes clinical images. Facilities must sign an agreement that states that they cannot use the test as a disciplinary tool in the employee's evaluation, or in any other way against the technologist. As a profession, radiology administration not only has regulatory requirements to evaluate competency, but also a moral duty to insure that patients</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Big+AND+bang+AND+theory&pg=3&id=EJ449119','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Big+AND+bang+AND+theory&pg=3&id=EJ449119"><span>A Universe of <span class="hlt">Questions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zeldovich, Yakov</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Reprinted from the <span class="hlt">original</span> Russian manuscript of Yakov Zeldovich, this article chronicles his studies of the universe and his attempts to construct a theory of its evolution. He provides the high school student with compelling cosmological discussions about uniformity, galactic clusters, radiation, evolution, the big bang, and gravitational…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cardiology&pg=2&id=EJ869010','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cardiology&pg=2&id=EJ869010"><span>A <span class="hlt">Question</span> of Evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Todd, Ross J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Broadly defined, evidence-based practice (EBP) is fundamentally about professional practice being informed and guided by best available evidence of what works. The EBP movement had its <span class="hlt">origins</span> in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom in medicine and health care services. Sackett et al. defined evidence-based medicine as the "conscientious,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cardiology&pg=2&id=EJ869010','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cardiology&pg=2&id=EJ869010"><span>A <span class="hlt">Question</span> of Evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Todd, Ross J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Broadly defined, evidence-based practice (EBP) is fundamentally about professional practice being informed and guided by best available evidence of what works. The EBP movement had its <span class="hlt">origins</span> in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom in medicine and health care services. Sackett et al. defined evidence-based medicine as the "conscientious,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Big+AND+bang+AND+theory&pg=3&id=EJ449119','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Big+AND+bang+AND+theory&pg=3&id=EJ449119"><span>A Universe of <span class="hlt">Questions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zeldovich, Yakov</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Reprinted from the <span class="hlt">original</span> Russian manuscript of Yakov Zeldovich, this article chronicles his studies of the universe and his attempts to construct a theory of its evolution. He provides the high school student with compelling cosmological discussions about uniformity, galactic clusters, radiation, evolution, the big bang, and gravitational…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=partnership+AND+definition&pg=7&id=EJ848621','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=partnership+AND+definition&pg=7&id=EJ848621"><span>Calling the <span class="hlt">Question</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Whitehead, Diane</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) has a long and proud history as an association of members dedicated to the cause of childhood education. The word "association" <span class="hlt">originates</span> from the word "associate," for which there exists several definitions, with the common distinction of joining together or uniting in partnership. When…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21163566','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21163566"><span><span class="hlt">Impact</span> of information on intentions to vaccinate in a potential epidemic: Swine-<span class="hlt">origin</span> Influenza A (H1N1).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chanel, Olivier; Luchini, Stéphane; Massoni, Sébastien; Vergnaud, Jean-Christophe</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Vaccination campaigns to prevent the spread of epidemics are successful only if the targeted populations subscribe to the recommendations of health authorities. However, because compulsory vaccination is hardly conceivable in modern democracies, governments need to convince their populations through efficient and persuasive information campaigns. In the context of the swine-<span class="hlt">origin</span> A (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, we use an interactive study among the general public in the South of France, with 175 participants, to explore what type of information can induce change in vaccination intentions at both aggregate and individual levels. We find that individual attitudes to vaccination are based on rational appraisal of the situation, and that it is information of a purely scientific nature that has the only significant positive effect on intention to vaccinate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070019370&hterms=chromium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dchromium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070019370&hterms=chromium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dchromium"><span>Early Archean Spherule Beds: Chromium Isotopes Confirm <span class="hlt">Origin</span> through Multiple <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Projectiles of Carbonaceous Chondrite Type: Comment and Reply</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kyte, Frank T.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This is a exchange in the form of a comment and a reply in regards to an earlier article. The authors of the <span class="hlt">original</span> article, consider it likely that virtually all of the projectile will condense with the silicate fraction, resulting in very little platinum group element fractionation in the final ejecta deposit. Further, we find no evidence in the commentator's, (i.e., Glikson), comment to support vapor fractionation. We note that the Pd/Ir ratios of published data on 2.56 Ga Hamersley Basin spherules are all greater than in chondrites, contrary to the assertion by Glikson. This is consistent with relatively high Pd concentrations (and Pd/Ir ratios) in crustal rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070019370&hterms=Chromium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DChromium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070019370&hterms=Chromium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DChromium"><span>Early Archean Spherule Beds: Chromium Isotopes Confirm <span class="hlt">Origin</span> through Multiple <span class="hlt">Impacts</span> of Projectiles of Carbonaceous Chondrite Type: Comment and Reply</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kyte, Frank T.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This is a exchange in the form of a comment and a reply in regards to an earlier article. The authors of the <span class="hlt">original</span> article, consider it likely that virtually all of the projectile will condense with the silicate fraction, resulting in very little platinum group element fractionation in the final ejecta deposit. Further, we find no evidence in the commentator's, (i.e., Glikson), comment to support vapor fractionation. We note that the Pd/Ir ratios of published data on 2.56 Ga Hamersley Basin spherules are all greater than in chondrites, contrary to the assertion by Glikson. This is consistent with relatively high Pd concentrations (and Pd/Ir ratios) in crustal rocks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4051743','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4051743"><span>The <span class="hlt">Origin</span> and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Ideals in eHealth Research: Experiences From the U-CARE Research Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>von Essen, Louise; Grönqvist, Helena</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The prevalence of information technology (IT) in society is a foundation for new modes of interaction between patients and health specialists. IT plays an important role in the renewal of care. Several countries have incorporated eHealth plans into their national health strategies. Part of the eHealth evolution concerns Internet psychological treatment and psychosocial care. These interventions are complex to design and evaluate due to legal, ethical, organizational, technical, and methodological challenges. Objective The objective of our study was to seek to make explicit contributions to the understanding of ideals in eHealth research, and illuminate their implications for establishing an effective research environment. Our analysis draws from three years of experience in establishing an eHealth research environment, and the literature. Methods We worked inductively to characterize challenging research ideals, and their <span class="hlt">origins</span>, in our environment. Thereafter, we made a selective search of the literature to scrutinize and illuminate each ideal and it’s implications. Results In this work, we propose a structured approach to address ideals in eHealth research. The scrutinized ideals are accountability, innovation, rigor, relevance, and sustainability. The approach supports researchers to systematically understand the ideals, their <span class="hlt">origin</span>, and to manage their implications within an eHealth research environment. Conclusions The complexity of eHealth research causes a need for sustainable, multi-disciplinary research environments. There is a need for a structured approach to organize eHealth research. The proposed approach helps to systematically scrutinize ideals, thus promoting high quality research. PMID:24860071</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.589...57G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.589...57G"><span>Geophysical anomalies and quartz microstructures, Eastern Warburton Basin, North-east South Australia: Tectonic or <span class="hlt">impact</span> shock metamorphic <span class="hlt">origin</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glikson, Andrew Y.; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Saygin, Erdinc</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The Eastern Warburton Basin, Northeast South Australia, features major geophysical anomalies, including a magnetic high of near-200 nT centred on a 25 km-wide magnetic low (< 100 nT), interpreted in terms of a magmatic body below 6 km depth. A distinct seismic tomographic low velocity anomaly may reflect its thick (9.5 km) sedimentary section, high temperatures and possible deep fracturing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of granites resolves microbreccia veins consisting of micron-scale particles injected into resorbed quartz grains. Planar and sub-planar elements in quartz grains (Qz/PE) occur in granites, volcanics and sediments of the > 30,000 km-large Eastern Warburton Basin. The Qz/PE include multiple intersecting planar to curved sub-planar elements with relic lamellae less than 2 μm wide with spacing of 4-5 μm. Qz/PE are commonly re-deformed, displaying bent and wavy patterns accompanied with fluid inclusions. U-stage measurements of a total of 243 planar sets in 157 quartz grains indicate dominance of ∏{10-12}, ω{10-13} and subsidiary §{11-22}, {22-41}, m{10-11} and x{51-61} planes. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis displays relic narrow ≤ 1 μm-wide lamellae and relic non-sub grain boundaries where crystal segments maintain optical continuity. Extensive sericite alteration of feldspar suggests hydrothermal alteration to a depth of 500 m below the unconformity which overlies the Qz/PE-bearing Warburton Basin terrain. The data are discussed in terms of (A) Tectonic-metamorphic deformation and (B) <span class="hlt">impact</span> shock metamorphism producing planar deformation features (Qz/PDF). Deformed Qz/PE are compared to re-deformed Qz/PDFs in the Sudbury, Vredefort, Manicouagan and Charlevoix <span class="hlt">impact</span> structures. A 4-5 km uplift of the Big Lake Granite Suite during 298-295 Ma is consistent with missing of upper Ordovician to Devonian strata and possible <span class="hlt">impact</span> rebound. The occurrence of circular seismic tomography anomalies below the east</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23439023','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23439023"><span>Open <span class="hlt">questions</span> about giant viruses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The recent discovery of giant viruses exhibiting double-stranded DNA genomes larger than a million base pairs, encoding more than a thousand proteins and packed in near micron-sized icosahedral particles, opened a new and unexpected chapter in virology. As of today, these giant viruses and their closest relatives of lesser dimensions infect unicellular eukaryotes found in aquatic environments, but belonging to a wide diversity of early branching phyla. This broad phylogenetic distribution of hosts is consistent with the hypothesis that giant viruses <span class="hlt">originated</span> prior to the radiation of the eukaryotic domain and/or might have been involved in the partition of nuclear versus cytoplasmic functions in ancestral cells. The distinctive features of the known giant viruses, in particular the recurrent presence of components of the translation apparatus in their proteome, raise a number of fundamental <span class="hlt">questions</span> about their <span class="hlt">origin</span>, their mode of evolution, and the relationship they may entertain with other dsDNA viruses, the genome size of which exhibits the widest distribution among all biological entities, from less than 5 kb to more than 1.25 Mb (a ratio of 1:250). At a more conceptual level, the convergence between the discovery of increasingly reduced parasitic cellular organisms and that of giant viruses exhibiting a widening array of cellular-like functions may ultimately abolish the historical discontinuity between the viral and the cellular world. 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=DeMuth&pg=4&id=EJ508436','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=DeMuth&pg=4&id=EJ508436"><span><span class="hlt">Questions</span>, Relatives, and Minimal Projection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Demuth, Katherine</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>This article examines the acquisition of wh-<span class="hlt">questions</span> and relative clauses in Sesotho, a language with no wh-movement in either <span class="hlt">questions</span> or relatives, and in which wh-<span class="hlt">questions</span> must be clefted. (10 references) (JL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bloom%27s+AND+taxonomy+AND+educational+AND+objectives&pg=5&id=EJ216143','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bloom%27s+AND+taxonomy+AND+educational+AND+objectives&pg=5&id=EJ216143"><span>The Art of Asking <span class="hlt">Questions</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sykes, Rosetta A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A rationale is given for the use of <span class="hlt">questioning</span> techniques and strategies in classroom instruction. B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is presented as one framework for <span class="hlt">questions</span>. Five pitfalls, including avoiding vague <span class="hlt">questions</span> and personal pronouns, are discussed. (CL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Sc%26Ed..23.1567M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Sc%26Ed..23.1567M"><span><span class="hlt">Questioning</span> and Experimentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mutanen, Arto</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of <span class="hlt">questions</span> and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25184573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25184573"><span>[Organization, availability and possibility of analysis of disaster data of climate related <span class="hlt">origin</span> and its <span class="hlt">impacts</span> on health].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Barcellos, Christovam; Barros, Heglaucio da Silva; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal de; Pedroso, Marcel de Moraes</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The occurrence of disasters is often related to unforeseeable able natural processes. However, the analysis of major databases may highlight seasonal and long-term trends, as well as some spatial patterns where risks are concentrated. In this paper the process of acquiring and organizing climate-related disaster data collected by civil protection institutions and made available by the Brazilian Climate and Health Observatory is described. Preliminary analyses show the concentration of disasters caused by heavy rainfall events along the Brazilian coastline especially during the summer. Droughts have longer duration and extent, affecting large areas of the south and northeast regions of the country. These data can be used to analyze and monitor the <span class="hlt">impact</span> of extreme climatic events on health, as well as identify the vulnerability and climate deteminants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMGC41B1050T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMGC41B1050T"><span>Generation, Propagation and <span class="hlt">Impact</span> of Giant Tsunamis of Tectonic <span class="hlt">Origin</span> in the Mediterranean Sea: Some Hints From Preliminary Scenario Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Tonini, R.; Zaniboni, F.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The recent catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami occurred on December 26, 2004 raised a number of urgent issues regarding tsunamis worldwide. The event pointed out that we have very little knowledge on mega- tsunamis and on their potential <span class="hlt">impact</span> on human habitat. The international community is starting to define a common strategy of how to deal with these mega-events, and several projects focussed on tsunamis, with emphasis on hazard and risk assessment, have recently started or are going to start soon worldwide both at national and international levels. Properly dealing with tsunami hazard and risk is of great importance also for the Mediterranean countries, that are known to have been attacked by numerous tsunamis in the past, several of which had catastrophic size and <span class="hlt">impact</span>. Scenarios represent a very useful technique for the definition and evaluation of tsunami hazard and risk for any given region, and a basic step in the frame of tsunami mitigation and preparedness and of sustainable coastal zone development. We present some simple scenarios of earthquake-generated tsunamis in the Mediterranean. Based on earthquake and tsunami catalogues as well as on basic seismotectonics, we identify four different seismogenic areas in the western, central and eastern sectors of the Mediterranean Sea. In each case, we choose a fault system capable of generating an earthquake with magnitude equal or larger than the highest magnitude registered in that region in historical times. We simulate the propagation of each scenario tsunami by means of a shallow-water finite-element numerical code, discuss the basic features of the wave propagation and roughly identify the Mediterranean coastal sectors expected to suffer the heaviest tsunami effects. One important outcome is that all the studied scenario tsunamis are able to produce relevant effects both locally and at trans-Mediterranean distances. Furthermore, the tsunami waves attack the nearest coasts within at most 15 minutes, which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=discovery+AND+cells&pg=4&id=EJ854159','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=discovery+AND+cells&pg=4&id=EJ854159"><span>Approaches to Cell Biology Teaching: <span class="hlt">Questions</span> about <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>There are many <span class="hlt">questions</span> to be asked about the pedagogical practice of <span class="hlt">questioning</span>. <span class="hlt">Questions</span> provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. <span class="hlt">Questions</span> reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Exploring+AND+Strategy+AND+Text+AND+Cases&id=EJ1132270','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Exploring+AND+Strategy+AND+Text+AND+Cases&id=EJ1132270"><span>Simple Texts, Complex <span class="hlt">Questions</span>: Helping Young Children Generate <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ness, Molly</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>As they are naturally curious about the world around them, young children ask lots and lots of <span class="hlt">questions</span>. In classrooms today, however, there seems to be little space for these student-generated <span class="hlt">questions</span> as teachers are more likely to pose the <span class="hlt">questions</span>. Research indicates that <span class="hlt">question</span> generation is an effective strategy to motivate young…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cells+AND+classification&pg=4&id=EJ854159','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cells+AND+classification&pg=4&id=EJ854159"><span>Approaches to Cell Biology Teaching: <span class="hlt">Questions</span> about <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>There are many <span class="hlt">questions</span> to be asked about the pedagogical practice of <span class="hlt">questioning</span>. <span class="hlt">Questions</span> provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. <span class="hlt">Questions</span> reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013P%26SS...75...69R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013P%26SS...75...69R"><span>The <span class="hlt">origin</span> of Phobos grooves from ejecta launched from <span class="hlt">impact</span> craters on Mars: Tests of the hypothesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramsley, Kenneth R.; Head, James W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The surface of the martian moon Phobos is characterized by parallel and intersecting grooves that bear resemblance to secondary crater chains observed on planetary surfaces. Murray (2011) has hypothesized that the main groove-forming process on Phobos is the intersection of Phobos with ejecta from primary <span class="hlt">impact</span> events on Mars to produce chains of secondary craters. The hypothesis infers a pattern of parallel jets of ejecta, either fluidized or solidified, that break into equally-spaced fragments and disperse uniformly along-trajectory during the flight from Mars to Phobos. At the moment of <span class="hlt">impact</span> with Phobos the dispersed fragments emplace secondary craters that are aligned along strike corresponding to the flight pattern of ejecta along trajectory. The aspects of the characteristics of grooves on Phobos cited by this hypothesis that might be explained by secondary ejecta include: their observed linearity, parallelism, planar alignment, pitted nature, change in character along strike, and a "zone of avoidance" where ejecta from Mars is predicted not to <span class="hlt">impact</span> (Murray, 2011). To test the hypothesis we plot precise Keplerian orbits for ejecta from Mars (elliptical and hyperbolic with periapsis located below the surface of Mars). From these trajectories we: (1) set the fragment dispersion limits of ejecta patterns required to emplace the more typically well-organized parallel grooves observed in returned images from Phobos; (2) plot ranges of the ejecta flight durations from Mars to Phobos and map regions of exposure; (3) utilize the same exposure map to observe trajectory-defined ejecta exposure shadows; (4) observe hemispheric exposure in response to shorter and longer durations of ejecta flight; (5) assess the viability of ejecta emplacing the large family of grooves covering most of the northern hemisphere of Phobos; and (6) plot the arrival of parallel lines of ejecta emplacing chains of craters at oblique incident angles. We also assess the bulk volume of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4420005','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4420005"><span>Automatically Classifying <span class="hlt">Question</span> Types for Consumer Health <span class="hlt">Questions</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health <span class="hlt">questions</span>. Our thirteen <span class="hlt">question</span> types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health <span class="hlt">questions</span>. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical <span class="hlt">question</span> classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important <span class="hlt">question</span> elements that improve <span class="hlt">question</span> classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health <span class="hlt">question</span> classification. PMID:25954411</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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