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Sample records for questions students answer

  1. Beware Answers with Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Answers to mathematical problems come in all forms and most come with a variety of questions. Students often forget to ask questions once they have found an answer. This paper suggests that students would always benefit by questioning answers.

  2. Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

  3. The Varieties of Student Experience--An Open Research Question and Some Ways to Answer It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainley, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Based on meetings of the Society for Research into Higher Education's Student Experience Network over the past three years, the genuinely open research question is posed whether there is one or more undergraduate student experience within English higher education. Answering this question depends on whether what is taught or what is learnt is…

  4. Student Testing and Assessment: Answering the Legal Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckman, Dana T.; Coleman, Arthur L.; Farmelo, David A.; Gittins, Naomi E.; Mehfoud, Kathleen S.; Thomas, Lori S.; Wood, R. Craig

    This guide examines the legal issues to consider in setting policy on the appropriate uses, and consequences, of student testing, and explores the controversies that have arisen in places where new polices were implemented. Chapter 1, "An Overview of Student Testing and Assessment," provides a brief overview of some of the state and federal legal…

  5. Answering Student Questions During Examinations: A Descriptive Study of Faculty Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, Susan B; Krautscheid, Lorretta C

    2016-01-01

    Examinations are used to evaluate individual student learning. Therefore, fair and consistent administration practices are essential. One issue associated with testing administration practices includes whether or not students should be allowed to ask questions during exams and how faculty should respond. Findings from this descriptive study indicate that faculty believe answering questions disrupts the testing environment, inhibits effective monitoring of the testing environment, and could provide unfair hints to students who ask questions. Yet, faculty permit students to ask questions to clarify unclear wording, to provide definitions, and to appear receptive to student needs. Recommendations for nursing education and research are provided. PMID:27405200

  6. Cognitive Congruence between Teachers' Questions and Students' Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Lily; Mahler, Sophia

    1989-01-01

    A study assessed the impact of a teacher-training workshop at Israel's Ben Gurion University's medical school which focused on classroom interaction. Results of the workshop indicated verbal teacher-student interactions significantly outnumbered individual statements; interactions increased, especially in larger classes; cognitive correspondence…

  7. Question answering for biology.

    PubMed

    Neves, Mariana; Leser, Ulf

    2015-03-01

    Biologists often pose queries to search engines and biological databases to obtain answers related to ongoing experiments. This is known to be a time consuming, and sometimes frustrating, task in which more than one query is posed and many databases are consulted to come to possible answers for a single fact. Question answering comes as an alternative to this process by allowing queries to be posed as questions, by integrating various resources of different nature and by returning an exact answer to the user. We have surveyed the current solutions on question answering for Biology, present an overview on the methods which are usually employed and give insights on how to boost performance of systems in this domain.

  8. The Effectiveness of Direct Instruction in Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder to Answer "Wh-" Questions.

    PubMed

    Cadette, Jessica N; Wilson, Cynthia L; Brady, Michael P; Dukes, Charles; Bennett, Kyle D

    2016-09-01

    Research on the effects of Direct Instruction (DI) among students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has only recently emerged. A benefit of DI is that it can be implemented with groups of students, which makes it potentially a cost effective method of instruction for some skills. In this study, we examined the effects of DI on teaching secondary students with ASD to answer three "wh-" questions. Using a multiple probe design across behaviors, results indicated the participants mastered two of the three "wh-" question types and made progress with the remaining question type. These results are discussed along with implications for educators instructing students with ASD. PMID:27312714

  9. Questions and Answers about Psychosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment options? Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project What is RAISE? Why is RAISE important? What ... more information Questions & Answers about the NIMH RAISE Project Q: What is RAISE? A: In 2008, the ...

  10. Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the Farm Get Smart About Antibiotics Week Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... Many ear infections Top of Page Questions about Antibiotic Resistance Examples of How Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Click for ...

  11. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

  12. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  13. Use of Feedback-Oriented Online Exercises to Help Physiology Students Construct Well-Organized Answers to Short-Answer Questions.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education often requires students to use higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as analysis, evaluation, and creation as they assess situations and apply what they have learned during lecture to the formulation of solutions. Summative assessment of these abilities is often accomplished using short-answer questions (SAQs). Quandary was used to create feedback-oriented interactive online exercises to help students strengthen certain HOCS as they actively constructed answers to questions concerning the regulation of 1) metabolic rate, 2) blood sugar, 3) erythropoiesis, and 4) stroke volume. Each exercise began with a SAQ presenting an endocrine dysfunction or a physiological challenge; students were prompted to answer between six and eight multiple-choice questions while building their answer to the SAQ. Student outcomes on the SAQ sections of summative exams were compared before and after the introduction of the online tool and also between subgroups of students within the posttool-introduction population who demonstrated different levels of participation in the online exercises. While overall SAQ outcomes were not different before and after the introduction of the online exercises, once the SAQ tool had become available, those students who chose to use it had improved SAQ outcomes compared with those who did not.

  14. Towards a Virtual Teaching Assistant to Answer Questions Asked by Students in Introductory Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This dissertation analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the…

  15. Use of Feedback-Oriented Online Exercises to Help Physiology Students Construct Well-Organized Answers to Short-Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Postsecondary education often requires students to use higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS) such as analysis, evaluation, and creation as they assess situations and apply what they have learned during lecture to the formulation of solutions. Summative assessment of these abilities is often accomplished using short-answer questions (SAQs). Quandary…

  16. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  17. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student…

  18. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus; the…

  19. Memorial Consequences of Answering SAT II Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Agarwal, Pooja K.; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2009-01-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting…

  20. Cloning: questions answered and unsolved.

    PubMed

    Latham, Keith E

    2004-02-01

    Cloning by the transfer of adult somatic cell nuclei to oocytes has produced viable offspring in a variety of mammalian species. The technology is still in its initial stages of development. Studies to date have answered several basic questions related to such issues as genome potency, life expectancy of clones, mitochondrial fates, and feasibility of inter-species nuclear transfer. They have also raised new questions related to the control of nuclear reprogramming and function. These questions are reviewed here.

  1. Answering the Question that Matters Most: Has Student Achievement Increased since No Child Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor; Kober, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Since 2002, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has spurred far-reaching changes in elementary and secondary education, all aimed at accomplishing the same fundamental goal--to improve students' academic achievement. As the Congress prepares to reauthorize the Act, two related questions matter most: (1) Has student achievement in reading and…

  2. Memorial consequences of answering SAT II questions.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Elizabeth J; Agarwal, Pooja K; Roediger, Henry L

    2009-03-01

    Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting incorrect alternatives on multiple-choice tests and then believing they were correct (Roediger & Marsh, 2005). In the current experiments, undergraduates and high school students answered multiple-choice questions retired from SAT II tests (that are no longer in the testing pool) on biology, chemistry, U.S. history, and world history, and later answered cued-recall questions about these subjects. In 3 experiments, we observed positive testing effects: More final cued-recall questions were answered correctly if the items had appeared on the initial multiple-choice test. We also sometimes observed negative testing effects: intrusions of multiple-choice distractors as answers on the final cued-recall test. Students who scored well on the initial test benefited from taking the test, but lower achieving students showed either less benefit (undergraduates) or costs from the testing (high school students). PMID:19309212

  3. From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Gene

    2006-01-01

    "From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

  4. Descriptive Question Answering with Answer Type Independent Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeo-Chan; Lee, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Jang, Myung-Gil; Ryu, Pum Mo; Park, So-Young

    In this paper, we present a supervised learning method to seek out answers to the most frequently asked descriptive questions: reason, method, and definition questions. Most of the previous systems for question answering focus on factoids, lists or definitional questions. However, descriptive questions such as reason questions and method questions are also frequently asked by users. We propose a system for these types of questions. The system conducts an answer search as follows. First, we analyze the user's question and extract search keywords and the expected answer type. Second, information retrieval results are obtained from an existing search engine such as Yahoo or Google. Finally, we rank the results to find snippets containing answers to the questions based on a ranking SVM algorithm. We also propose features to identify snippets containing answers for descriptive questions. The features are adaptable and thus are not dependent on answer type. Experimental results show that the proposed method and features are clearly effective for the task.

  5. American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet attempts to answer briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, people who believe they have Indian ancestors, individuals who want to visit or volunteer to work on a reservation, or those who want to know the current Indian policy. Separate sections outline President Reagan's American Indian policy;…

  6. Analysis of Student Responses to Peer-Instruction Conceptual Questions Answered Using an Electronic Response System: Trends by Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steer, David; McConnell, David; Gray, Kyle; Kortz, Karen; Liang, Xin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study investigated students' answers to geoscience conceptual questions answered using electronic personal response systems. Answer patterns were examined to evaluate the peer-instruction pedagogical approach in a large general education classroom setting. (Contains 3 figures and 2 tables.)

  7. Minister Peng answers correspondents' questions.

    PubMed

    1991-02-01

    Following a press conference where she presented the results of the 1990 census and the accomplishments of China's family planning program, Peng Peiyun, minister of the State Family Planning Commission, and other officials answered the questions of Chinese and foreign correspondents. Asked about the implementation of family planning in rural areas, Peng explained that while the 1-child policy has been followed, farmers with only 1 daughter have been allowed a second child. Nonetheless, the total fertility rate (TFR) of rural women has fallen bellow 4. On the issue of abortion, an official explained that for the past few years, there have been 10 million abortions annually. Abortion, however, is used only when contraception fails. Despite China's impressive achievements in curbing population growth, Peng noted that the country still faces serious problems. As the country enters its 8th 5-year plan, China will undergo a baby boom. An average of 17 million births each year is expected throughout the plan's duration. Peng acknowledged that the previous target of controlling China's population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 will not be achieved. Under the new plan, which hopes to reduce the TFR from 2.35 in 1989 to 2.0 by the turn of the century, calls for the population to stabilize somewhere between 1.5 and 1.6 billion. Peng also answered questions concerning abuses by family planning workers. She stressed that China's family planning program is voluntary, although economic disincentives are used. Furthermore, Peng addressed issues concerning religion and family planning, infanticide, the safety of contraceptives, and concerns over the ageing of the population. PMID:12284670

  8. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  9. When The Right Answer is a Question. Students as Explainers at the Exploratorium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klages, Ellen; And Others

    Students who work at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California learn about science by explaining to the visitors from all over the world how the museum's exhibits work. The students are teen-agers who also come from all over the world to be "Explainers" for the Exploratorium. They go through a training period to learn the basics of how the…

  10. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we

  11. Eight Questions in Search of an Answer: Awakening Students to the Experience of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laidlaw, Toni Ann; Dubinsky, Lon

    1980-01-01

    The rationale, description, and evaluation of a course about adolescence taught to university students. This interdisciplinary approach includes materials from literature, philosophy, history, and the arts. Primary source material is extensively used. (Author/MLF)

  12. Is Student Evaluation of Teaching Worthwhile? An Analytical Framework for Answering the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pounder, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To present a framework to facilitate comprehension of research on the effectiveness of the teaching evaluation process. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive review of the literature that identifies common categories and factors that can be used to construct an analytical framework. Findings: Identifies student related, course…

  13. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  14. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  15. Relationship of Teacher Questioning and Student Answering Behaviors in High School Biology and Chemistry Classes across the School Year. Classroom Interaction Research Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Robert E.; And Others

    This research assessed whether, within the context of a classroom session, the pattern of questioning and discussion used by teachers is related to the pattern of student responses. Clear and comprehensible linkages between questioning and answering behaviors were found in this study. These results indicate that researchers can help resolve the…

  16. Postsecondary Education Issues: Visible Questions. Invisible Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

    With some justification, the inability to answer most of the important questions in higher education is due to the lack of necessary information. But careful examination of our many faceted questions suggests that more information may not be the only answer. The National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) has found other…

  17. Keys to Success: School Facilities Primer, Questions & Answers 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Jim

    This publication provides answers to basic questions to help school board members more fully address the complexities of the planning, design, and construction process in order to maximize the goal of student success. The 101 questions and answers are in the areas of: facility planning; learning environment; information technology; safe schools;…

  18. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  19. Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

    Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

  20. Striving for Optimal Relevance when Answering Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.; Bryant, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    When people are asked "Do you have the time?" they can answer in a variety of ways, such as "It is almost 3," "Yeah, it is quarter past two," or more precisely as in "It is now 1:43." We present the results of four experiments that examined people's real-life answers to questions about the time. Our hypothesis, following previous research…

  1. Moral questions, legal answers, and biotechnological advances.

    PubMed

    Godlovitch, G

    1998-03-01

    Moral failing is usually construed as a personal flaw, but there is another construction: where morals fail people, where our moral precepts are silent. The author of this article argues that this happens nowadays where technological advances, such as genetic engineering in medicine, raise moral questions but get legal answers. By responding to the legal issues involved, the moral questions are pre-empted. This results in answers drawn from legal categories, often with commercial perspectives, but misses the larger moral dilemma.

  2. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    PubMed

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. PMID:26384372

  3. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    PubMed

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/.

  4. Questions & Answers about Aeronautics and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…

  5. The Influence of Question Type, Text Availability, Answer Confidence and Language Background on Student Comprehension of an Expository Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Miller, Julia; Habel, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Reading is an essential activity for learning at university, but lecturers are not always experienced in setting appropriate questions to test understanding of texts. In other words, their assessments may not be "constructively aligned" with the learning outcomes they hope their students to exhibit. In examination conditions, questions…

  6. Science for the Primary Grades: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Irvin T.

    This article, which provides answers to commonly asked questions about teaching science in the primary grades, is part of a series included in the Primary Packet of Materials compiled by the Division of Early Childhood Education of the Pennsylvania Department of Public Instruction. Questions considered are: What is science? What should students be…

  7. [Patients' questions and caregivers' answers regarding pain].

    PubMed

    Raffy, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Today, although the relief from pain is well managed, it is still a major source of anxiety for patients. Caregivers must be attentive to these concerns and communicate with patients in order to determine their specific questions and fears and to provide some answers. PMID:26145420

  8. Global Perspectives: Some Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Global Perspectives, New York, NY.

    To enlighten the reader on the status, objectives, and needs of global education, this paper poses and answers questions related to global perspectives. A global perspective is interpreted to include heightened awareness and understanding of the global system as well as increased consciousness of the intimate relationship of self, humankind, and…

  9. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  10. Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

  11. Questions and Answers on Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Fernando

    1975-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of bilingual education are presented in a question and answer format. The discussion briefly concerns program definition, its relationship with bicultural education, and aspects regarding the development of the children involved, funding, community involvement, staffing, and teaching methods. (LH)

  12. The answer is questions: accelerated-nursing students report practice questions are fundamental to first-time NCLEX-RN success.

    PubMed

    Blozen, Barbara B

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of anecdotal reports on demographic characteristics and academic success of accelerated-nursing students; yet few empirical studies have examined accelerated-nursing students NCLEX-RN success. Applying Knowles' adult learning theory as a guiding framework, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, from the accelerated-nursing students' perspective, the factors reported as contributing to their success on the NCLEX-RN. The research questions aimed to elicit participants' descriptions of their experiences and factors contributing to their success via individual interviews. The most significant finding the participants identified as the factor that contributed to their success was the practicing of NCLEX-RN questions. The findings of this study have several implications for educational policy and practice for universities and schools of nursing as the information gained from this study applies to recruitment and retention as well as curriculum and educational strategies in an accelerated-nursing program. PMID:26021133

  13. The answer is questions: accelerated-nursing students report practice questions are fundamental to first-time NCLEX-RN success.

    PubMed

    Blozen, Barbara B

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of anecdotal reports on demographic characteristics and academic success of accelerated-nursing students; yet few empirical studies have examined accelerated-nursing students NCLEX-RN success. Applying Knowles' adult learning theory as a guiding framework, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore, from the accelerated-nursing students' perspective, the factors reported as contributing to their success on the NCLEX-RN. The research questions aimed to elicit participants' descriptions of their experiences and factors contributing to their success via individual interviews. The most significant finding the participants identified as the factor that contributed to their success was the practicing of NCLEX-RN questions. The findings of this study have several implications for educational policy and practice for universities and schools of nursing as the information gained from this study applies to recruitment and retention as well as curriculum and educational strategies in an accelerated-nursing program.

  14. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

  15. Answering geological questions from slimhole coring exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, R.E.; Syrstad, S.O.; Stockden, I.; Taylor, M. )

    1993-02-01

    Slimhole exploration wells have been proposed as a cost-efficient method of exploring inaccessible and remote areas. Such areas often have limited geological control, and the use of wire-line-retrieved, continuous coring methods adapted from the solid minerals industry can greatly improve the geological knowledge of a prospect or basin. However, there are geological concerns which may hinder the spread of slimhole exploration. The availability of core from long continuous sections of the well required a rethink of geological knowledge acquisition at the wellsite. Market analysis among explorationists confirmed the critical answers required from the core before it leaves the wellsite. These include the presence or absence of hydrocarbons, reservoirs, seals, source rock and maturity, lithologies and depositional environments. To provide answers, a conceptual core screening operation was developed around key variables which answer these geological questions. Throughput analyses, followed by time and motion studies, were performed to ensure wellsite suitability. A series of analysis systems have been built and assembled into a fit-for-purpose, heli-transportable wellsite core logging facility which has successfully completed a four well field trial in Africa. The purpose of this facility is to digitally preserve these key variables from the core through the use of a fully integrated data set encompassing mud, core and wireline logs, together with high-resolution digital images of the core. Data transmission from the wellsite to the project explorationists will ensure rapid answers from a cost-effective novel exploration method.

  16. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2016-07-12

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  17. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2012-01-01

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  18. A Question-and-Answer Approach to Drug Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Susan E.; Brey, Rebecca A.; Wantz, Molly S.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a question-and-answer teaching technique for approaching K-12 drug education. Students can work individually or cooperatively to define and identify concepts related to drug use. Teachers supply factual information, dispel myths, and provide appropriate resources to correct errors. The article offers information on lesson objectives,…

  19. Use of Credibility Heuristics in a Social Question-Answering Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study looked at the effect of community peripheral cues (specifically voting score and answerer's reputation) on the user's credibility rating of answers. Method: Students in technology and philosophy were asked to assess the credibility of answers to questions posted on a social question-answering platform. Through the use of a…

  20. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  1. Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

    This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12…

  2. Your School Records: Questions & Answers about a Set of Rights for Parents & Students. (Revised and Updated Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    The ways in which parents and students can exercise their rights under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act are discussed in this booklet. The Act, also known as the Buckley Amendment, gives all parents and guardians of students under 18 years of age and all students who are over 18 or who attend postsecondary schools the right to see,…

  3. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  4. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

  5. Does Anyone Know the Answer to that Question? Individual Differences in Judging Answerability

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Bodil S. A.; Allwood, Carl Martin; Buratti, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Occasionally people may attempt to judge whether a question can be answered today, or if not, if it can be answered in the future. For example, a person may consider whether enough is known about the dangers of living close to a nuclear plant, or to a major electricity cable, for them to be willing to do so, and state-authorities may consider whether questions about the dangers of new technologies have been answered, or in a reasonable future can be, for them to be willing to invest money in research aiming develop such technologies. A total of 476 participants, for each of 22 knowledge questions, either judged whether it was answerable today (current answerability), or judged when it could be answered (future answerability). The knowledge questions varied with respect to the expected consensus concerning their answerability: consensus questions (high expected consensus), non-consensus questions (lower expected consensus), and illusion questions (formulated to appear answerable, but with crucial information absent). The questions’ judged answerability level on the two scales was highly correlated. For both scales, consensus questions were rated more answerable than the non-consensus questions, with illusion questions falling in-between. The result for the illusion questions indicates that a feeling of answerability can be created even when it is unlikely that somebody can come up with an answer. The results also showed that individual difference variables influenced the answerability judgments. Higher levels of belief in certainty of knowledge, mankind’s knowledge, and mankind’s efficacy were related to judging the non-consensus questions as more answerable. Participants rating the illusion questions as answerable rated the other answerability questions as more, or equally, answerable compared to the other participants and showed tendencies to prefer a combination of more epistemic default processing and less intellectual processing. PMID:26793164

  6. "I Never Thought of It as Freezing": How Students Answer Questions on Large-Scale Science Tests and What They Know about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Tracy; Suarez, Catherine; Rosebery, Ann; O'Connor, Mary Catherine; Warren, Beth; Hudicourt-Barnes, Josiane

    2012-01-01

    Education policy in the U.S. in the last two decades has emphasized large-scale assessment of students, with growing consequences for schools, teachers, and students. Given the high stakes of such tests, it is important to understand the relationships between students' answers to test items and their knowledge and skills in the tested content…

  7. Answering Physicians' Clinical Questions: Obstacles and Potential Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John W.; Osheroff, Jerome A.; Chambliss, M. Lee; Ebell, Mark H.; Rosenbaum, Marcy E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify the most frequent obstacles preventing physicians from answering their patient-care questions and the most requested improvements to clinical information resources. Design: Qualitative analysis of questions asked by 48 randomly selected generalist physicians during ambulatory care. Measurements: Frequency of reported obstacles to answering patient-care questions and recommendations from physicians for improving clinical information resources. Results: The physicians asked 1,062 questions but pursued answers to only 585 (55%). The most commonly reported obstacle to the pursuit of an answer was the physician's doubt that an answer existed (52 questions, 11%). Among pursued questions, the most common obstacle was the failure of the selected resource to provide an answer (153 questions, 26%). During audiotaped interviews, physicians made 80 recommendations for improving clinical information resources. For example, they requested comprehensive resources that answer questions likely to occur in practice with emphasis on treatment and bottom-line advice. They asked for help in locating information quickly by using lists, tables, bolded subheadings, and algorithms and by avoiding lengthy, uninterrupted prose. Conclusion: Physicians do not seek answers to many of their questions, often suspecting a lack of usable information. When they do seek answers, they often cannot find the information they need. Clinical resource developers could use the recommendations made by practicing physicians to provide resources that are more useful for answering clinical questions. PMID:15561792

  8. The Basic Epistemological Questions--Are There Also Valid Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oderman, Dale B.

    Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that seeks answers to two main questions: How do we know? and How do we know we know? This paper is concerned with how four major schools of thought have addressed these questions and the implications that their answers to these questions have for education. The paper begins by discussing how four major…

  9. How Online Crowds Influence the Way Individual Consumers Answer Health Questions

    PubMed Central

    Lau, A.Y.S.; Kwok, T.M.Y.; Coiera, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether strength of social feedback, i.e. other people who concur (or do not concur) with one’s own answer to a question, influences the way one answers health questions. Methods Online prospective study. Two hundred and twenty-seven undergraduate students were recruited to use an online search engine to answer six health questions. Subjects recorded their pre- and post-search answers to each question and their level of confidence in these answers. After answering each question post-search, subjects were presented with a summary of post-search answers provided by previous subjects and were asked to answer the question again. Results There was a statistically significant relationship between the absolute number of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion volume) and the likelihood of an individual changing an answer (P<0.001). For most questions, no subjects changed their answer until the first 10–35 subjects completed the study. Subjects’ likelihood of changing answer increased as the percentage of others with a different answer (the crowd’s opinion density) increased (P=0.047). Overall, 98.3% of subjects did not change their answer when it concurred with the majority (i.e. >50%) of subjects, and that 25.7% of subjects changed their answer to the majority response when it did not concur with the majority. When subjects had a post-search answer that did not concur with the majority, they were 24% more likely to change answer than those with answers that concurred (P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides empirical evidence that crowd influence, in the form of online social feedback, affects the way consumers answer health questions. PMID:23616869

  10. Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

  11. Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

  12. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  13. Questions and answers about energy recovery from waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    Questions and answers about the developing waste-to-energy industry are presented. They are intended as a ready reference for the general public and others interested in exploring the option of utilizing municipal waste as a renewable energy resource. Questions were researched and answered in six broad categories: general information; state-of-the-art; economics/financial; environmental; institutional; and project implementation.

  14. 99 Facts about the FBI: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Bureau of Investigation, Quantico, VA.

    This booklet on the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) attempts to provide an overview of the FBI's functions. Presented in a question and answer format, the 99 questions and answers discuss the federal government agency's history, administrative matters, jurisdiction, criminal investigations, security matters, foreign counter-intelligence, and…

  15. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Native Americans (DHEW/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    The question and answer booklet highlights the provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 which was designed to protect the best interests of Indian children and to promote the stability and security of Indian tribes and families. The booklet attempts to answer 28 important questions concerning title I of the Act. Examples of questions…

  16. Relation of Questions and Answers in Kennedy's Press Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostman, Ronald E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the questions posed by reporters and the answers given by President John F. Kennedy in his formal press conferences. Concludes that questions that followed the rules for interviewing set forth by experts produced better answers than those that did not follow rules. (FL)

  17. When the Answer Is the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battreal, Vanessa M.; Brewster, Vanessa; Dixon, Juli K.

    2016-01-01

    After teaching the concept of division with remainders for many years, Vanessa Battreal, Vanessa Brewster, and Juli Dixon noticed that interpreting remainders in contextualized problems is particularly challenging for elementary school students. To effectively interpret remainders, students must attend to problem context and consider carefully…

  18. Proof as Answer to the Question Why.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Tommy; Hadas, Nurit

    1996-01-01

    Shows how an empirical approach to geometry using computer-based dynamic geometry software can create didactic situations in which students require proofs. Reports classroom experiences that show where students felt the need for proof in order to explain phenomena or to convince themselves of counterintuitive results. (Author/MKR)

  19. Answering Young Children's Questions about Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Gladys

    Intended for use by parents and teachers of preschool age children, this short booklet provides some guidelines to follow when introducing sex education to young children. It discusses issues such as where to begin, how to encourage the child to ask questions about sex, how to handle sex-related problems, child molestation, nudity and the family,…

  20. Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... different parts of the world. Although every family's values are different, privacy is an important concept for all kids to learn. Parents should ... understand sexuality within the context of your family's values. Body ... issues are an important part of human development. If you have questions ...

  1. Biology of cancer: some questions to answer.

    PubMed

    Chapekar, T

    2001-10-01

    Though great advances in cancer biology have taken place through these years, some fundamental questions are still to be explained. Some observations in this regard are discussed in the present paper. In the course of experimental studies on hormonal stimulation of target cells, it was observed that goat granulosa cells showed differential proliferative response to sustained stimulation by oLH and hCG in culture. oLH caused cells to proliferate whereas hCG failed to stimulate the cells though both the gonadotropins have common receptors on the target cell. Further studies might throw some light on the mechanism of signal transduction in cell biology and neoplasia. A question is also posed as to how to interpret thermodynamically the sustained growth of cancer vis-a-vis the host.

  2. Better questions, better answers: reporting vs. analytics.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Uhiren

    2015-07-01

    Tracking performance through reporting is a basic obligation for responsible lab management. But creative, visionary leadership requires that lab leaders ask better questions, reach better conclusions, and transform those conclusions into action to achieve better results. The clinical lab has always had the breadth of data to contribute to that process. With analytics, lab leaders now have the depth and control to effect positive change as well.

  3. Better questions, better answers: reporting vs. analytics.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Uhiren

    2015-07-01

    Tracking performance through reporting is a basic obligation for responsible lab management. But creative, visionary leadership requires that lab leaders ask better questions, reach better conclusions, and transform those conclusions into action to achieve better results. The clinical lab has always had the breadth of data to contribute to that process. With analytics, lab leaders now have the depth and control to effect positive change as well. PMID:26299148

  4. Genetic algorithms for data-driven web question answering.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Alejandro G; Neumann, Günter

    2008-01-01

    We present an evolutionary approach for the computation of exact answers to natural languages (NL) questions. Answers are extracted directly from the N-best snippets, which have been identified by a standard Web search engine using NL questions. The core idea of our evolutionary approach to Web question answering is to search for those substrings in the snippets whose contexts are most similar to contexts of already known answers. This context model together with the words mentioned in the NL question are used to evaluate the fitness of answer candidates, which are actually randomly selected substrings from randomly selected sentences of the snippets. New answer candidates are then created by applying specialized operators for crossover and mutation, which either stretch and shrink the substring of an answer candidate or transpose the span to new sentences. Since we have no predefined notion of patterns, our context alignment methods are very dynamic and strictly data-driven. We assessed our system with seven different datasets of question/answer pairs. The results show that this approach is promising, especially when it deals with specific questions.

  5. Response to Intervention: Questions and Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monetti, David M.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; McAuley, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of the basic mechanisms of the Problem-solving/Response to Intervention (PS/RtI) framework will help educators address students' diverse learning and behavioral needs. It will also help educators who may view PS/RtI as a compliance matter rather than an informative educational process that helps children reach their…

  6. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  7. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  8. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way.

  9. Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1994-05-01

    NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC`s standards for protection against radiation.

  10. Cervical Caps or Diaphragms: Answering Your Patients' Questions

    PubMed Central

    Donlevy, Mary J.

    1987-01-01

    Cervical caps and diaphragms offer a plausible contraceptive alternative for some women. Selection of patients, advantages, disadvantages, and fitting techniques are discussed in order to help answer those difficult patient questions. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21263962

  11. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain

    2013-02-14

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  12. Berkeley Lab Answers Your Home Energy Efficiency Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Walker, Iain

    2016-07-12

    In this follow-up "Ask Berkeley Lab" video, energy efficiency expert Iain Walker answers some of your questions about home energy efficiency. How do you monitor which appliances use the most energy? Should you replace your old windows? Are photovoltaic systems worth the cost? What to do about a leaky house? And what's the single biggest energy user in your home? Watch the video to get the answers to these and more questions.

  13. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  14. A Topic Clustering Approach to Finding Similar Questions from Large Question and Answer Archives

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Nan; Liu, Ting; Yang, Yang; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of Web 2.0, Community Question Answering (CQA) services such as Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com), WikiAnswer (http://wiki.answers.com), and Baidu Zhidao (http://zhidao.baidu.com), etc., have emerged as alternatives for knowledge and information acquisition. Over time, a large number of question and answer (Q&A) pairs with high quality devoted by human intelligence have been accumulated as a comprehensive knowledge base. Unlike the search engines, which return long lists of results, searching in the CQA services can obtain the correct answers to the question queries by automatically finding similar questions that have already been answered by other users. Hence, it greatly improves the efficiency of the online information retrieval. However, given a question query, finding the similar and well-answered questions is a non-trivial task. The main challenge is the word mismatch between question query (query) and candidate question for retrieval (question). To investigate this problem, in this study, we capture the word semantic similarity between query and question by introducing the topic modeling approach. We then propose an unsupervised machine-learning approach to finding similar questions on CQA Q&A archives. The experimental results show that our proposed approach significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24595052

  15. Selecting Information to Answer Questions: Strategic Individual Differences when Searching Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdan, Raquel; Gilabert, Ramiro; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' selection of information strategies in a task-oriented reading situation. 72 secondary school students read two texts and answered six questions per text, three of which were manipulated to induce a misleading matching between the wording of the question and distracting pieces of information in the…

  16. Questioning as an Instructional Strategy in Multimedia Environments: Does Having to Answer Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-Rodicio, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Interactive multimedia learning environments incorporate interactive features, such as questioning, through which questions are posed to students and feedback is delivered on their answers. An experiment was conducted comparing two forms of questioning. The participants learned about geology with a multimedia environment that included questioning…

  17. Impact of Question-Answering Tasks on Search Processes and Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerdan, Raquel; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo; Martinez, Tomas; Gilabert, Ramiro; Gil, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of (a) high- and low-level questions and (b) reading the text before the questions asked on performance, delayed text recall, and deep text comprehension, as well as on specific text-inspection patterns. Participants were 37 undergraduate students who answered either high- or low-level questions using the software…

  18. A Combination of Hand-Held Models and Computer Imaging Programs Helps Students Answer Oral Questions about Molecular Structure and Function: A Controlled Investigation of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michelle A.; Peck, Ronald F.; Colton, Shannon; Morris, Jennifer; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Kallio, Julie

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a controlled investigation to examine whether a combination of computer imagery and tactile tools helps introductory cell biology laboratory undergraduate students better learn about protein structure/function relationships as compared with computer imagery alone. In all five laboratory sections, students used the molecular imaging…

  19. The insanity defense: asking and answering the ultimate question.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, J R; Clements, C

    1987-01-01

    The authors address the main questions in the insanity defense debate: Should it be abolished? Should psychiatrists participate as expert witnesses? Is the profession damaged by such testimony? Is there a logical leap between providing psychiatric findings and providing an opinion to the ultimate question? Because the free will/determinism model underlying the current insanity defense positions can be used to argue either side of the debate, it does not supply any rational answers. The authors reframe the discussion, using a systems approach, and suggest answers to these questions that are in line with the clinical realities and on a firmer philosophic ground.

  20. The "Individualised Accounting Questions" Technique: Using Excel to Generate Quantitative Exercises for Large Classes with Unique Individual Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nnadi, Matthias; Rosser, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The "individualised accounting questions" (IAQ) technique set out in this paper encourages independent active learning. It enables tutors to set individualised accounting questions and construct an answer grid that can be used for any number of students, with numerical values for each student's answers based on their student enrolment…

  1. The Effects of Self-Explanation and Reading Questions and Answers on Learning Computer Programming Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on students' test performance in the computer programming language JavaScript. Students' perceptions toward the two strategies as to their effectiveness in learning JavaScript was also explored by examining students'…

  2. Some questions and answers about the Satellite Power System (SPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Office of Energy Research, US DOE is evaluating the concept of obtaining significant amounts of electrical energy from space through the Satellite Power System Project Office (SPS PO) formed for that purpose. The SPS PO prepared and is implementing a Concept Development and Evaluation Program plan. The CDEP runs roughly three years (from July 1977 through July 1980) and consists of four primary elements: (1) Systems Definition, (2) Environmental Assessment, (3) Societal Assessment, and (4) Comparative Assessment. One facet of the Societal Assessment is an investigation of public concerns. To further this investigation, a public outreach experiment was initiated to determine the initial response of three selected interest groups to the SPS, both qualitatively and quantititavely, and to gain some experience for use in future public participation activities. Three groups were contacted and agreed to participate in the experiment. They were: the Citizens Energy Project (CEP), the Forum for the Advancement of Students in Science and Technology (FASST), and the L-5 Society (L-5). They each agreed to condense twenty final SPS reports into approximately four pages each, have them typeset, printed and distributed to 3,000 of their constituents for their review, together with a request that they respond to the parent organization regarding the information presented. All responses were summarized and provided to Planning Research Corporation who then solicited the answers from the SPS PO investigator most directly concerned.The questions and answers are presented and will be distributed by the three groups to the individual respondents. Each of the three groups is also preparing a report to the Project Office detailing their work and results. These, together with other responses and studies will be used to more effectively involve the public in the SPS Participatory Technology Process.

  3. Answers to the 50 Most Important Questions about Private Mental Health Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Bruce D.; Silverman, Wade H.

    Designed for anyone contemplating or presently established in private mental health practice, this book provides the answers to 50 pertinent questions concerning private practice. Questions were culled from a survey of graduate students in psychology, as well as experienced psychotherapists, psychiatrists, social workers, mental health counselors,…

  4. Records--The Achilles' Heel of School Nursing: Answers to Bothersome Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Nadine C.; Pohlman, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation. Because the issues have been posed by practicing school nurses, the article is in Question and Answer (Q&A) format. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: ownership and storage location of student health records when the…

  5. Two Preferences in Question-Answer Sequences in Language Classroom Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosoda, Yuri; Aline, David

    2013-01-01

    Discussing two preferences associated with question-answer sequences, this study examines student responses to teacher questions in primary school English-as-a-foreign-language classes. The paper starts out with a reconsideration of institutional context, with a focus on classroom context from a conversation analysis perspective. We then introduce…

  6. 34 CFR Appendix A to Part 361 - Questions and Answers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions and Answers A Appendix A to Part 361 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES...

  7. Fillers as Signals: Evidence from a Question-Answering Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Esther J.; Risko, Evan F.; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of a human or computer "partner" on the production of fillers ("um" and "uh") during a question and answer task. Experiment 1 investigated whether or not responding to a human partner as opposed to a computer partner results in a higher rate of filler production. Participants…

  8. Teacher Deployment of "Oh" in Known-Answer Question Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosoda, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    This conversation analytic study describes some specific interactional contexts in which native English-speaking teachers produce "oh" in known-answer question sequences in English language classes. The data for this study come from 10 video-recorded Japanese primary school English language class sessions. The analysis identified three…

  9. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

  10. Questions and Answers on Unfair Labor Practices. A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Midwest Center for Public Sector Labor Relations.

    An unfair labor practice is the violation of any right granted employees, unions, or employers by a collective bargaining law. This guide answers common questions about unfair labor practices in public sector labor relations. The booklet is divided into two sections, unfair employer labor practices and unfair union labor practices. The section…

  11. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  12. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  13. Questions and Answers about RTI: A Guide to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Heather; Petruzzelli, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    As Response-to-Intervention (RTI) models continue to attract a great deal of attention, school and district leaders need to understand the structures needed, the personnel required, the challenges faced, and rewards realized from RTI. "Questions and Answers About RTI: A Guide to Success" is designed to guide a school or district through the…

  14. "Legal Problem Question Answer Genre" across Jurisdictions and Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessuto, Girolamo

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyse discourse patterns of legal opinions in two languages and cultures--namely, Legal Problem Question Answers (LPQs) in the UK academic writing context and Pareri (Ps) in the Italian professional writing context. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of discourse in this paper, based on the tenets of genre analysis,…

  15. Answering Questions after Initial Study Guides Attention during Restudy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, Kim J.; Thoma, Gun-Brit; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul. A.

    2015-01-01

    Though the testing-effect can be boosted by including a restudy phase after answering test questions, we do not know precisely why it does so. One possible explanation is being tested here. The present study measured attention allocation during initial reading and rereading with a remote eye tracker to gain information on the cognitive processes…

  16. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  17. CERCLA Site Assessment questions and answers (Qs&As)

    SciTech Connect

    Traceski, T.T.

    1993-11-09

    This documents contains commonly asked questions and corresponding answers (Qs&As) on the CERCLA Site Assessment process. These questions were derived from DOE element responses to a solicitation calling for the identification of (unresolved) issues associated with the conduct of CERCLA site assessments, and from inquiries received during a series of Site Assessment Workshops provided by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231). Answers to these questions were prepared by EH-231 in cooperation with the EPA Federal Facilities Team in Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Site Assessment Branch, and in coordination with the Office of Environmental Compliance, Facilities Compliance Division (EH-222).

  18. Survey design research: a tool for answering nursing research questions.

    PubMed

    Siedlecki, Sandra L; Butler, Robert S; Burchill, Christian N

    2015-01-01

    The clinical nurse specialist is in a unique position to identify and study clinical problems in need of answers, but lack of time and resources may discourage nurses from conducting research. However, some research methods can be used by the clinical nurse specialist that are not time-intensive or cost prohibitive. The purpose of this article is to explain the utility of survey methodology for answering a number of nursing research questions. The article covers survey content, reliability and validity issues, sample size considerations, and methods of survey delivery.

  19. Answers at your fingertips: Access to the Internet influences willingness to answer questions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda M; McLean, David; Risko, Evan F

    2015-12-01

    Recent technological advances have given rise to an information-gathering tool unparalleled by any in human history-the Internet. Understanding how access to such a powerful informational tool influences how we think represents an important question for psychological science. In the present investigation we examined the impact of access to the Internet on the metacognitive processes that govern our decisions about what we "know" and "don't know." Results demonstrated that access to the Internet influenced individuals' willingness to volunteer answers, which led to fewer correct answers overall but greater accuracy when an answer was offered. Critically, access to the Internet also influenced feeling-of-knowing, and this accounted for some (but not all) of the effect on willingness to volunteer answers. These findings demonstrate that access to the Internet can influence metacognitive processes, and contribute novel insights into the operation of the transactive memory system formed by people and the Internet. PMID:26340105

  20. Answers at your fingertips: Access to the Internet influences willingness to answer questions.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda M; McLean, David; Risko, Evan F

    2015-12-01

    Recent technological advances have given rise to an information-gathering tool unparalleled by any in human history-the Internet. Understanding how access to such a powerful informational tool influences how we think represents an important question for psychological science. In the present investigation we examined the impact of access to the Internet on the metacognitive processes that govern our decisions about what we "know" and "don't know." Results demonstrated that access to the Internet influenced individuals' willingness to volunteer answers, which led to fewer correct answers overall but greater accuracy when an answer was offered. Critically, access to the Internet also influenced feeling-of-knowing, and this accounted for some (but not all) of the effect on willingness to volunteer answers. These findings demonstrate that access to the Internet can influence metacognitive processes, and contribute novel insights into the operation of the transactive memory system formed by people and the Internet.

  1. Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

    2010-01-01

    System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

  2. Connecting Students to Content: Student-Generated Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Students learn best by being actively engaged in the learning process. This essay describes a teaching technique where students generate their own questions about a course topic. This occurs at the beginning of each new section of a course. The instructor works with the class to answer the students' own questions throughout that section of…

  3. More questions than answers: the commodification of health care.

    PubMed

    Wildes, K W

    1999-06-01

    The changing world of health care finance has led to a paradigm shift in health care with health care being viewed more and more as a commodity. Many have argued that such a paradigm shift is incompatible with the very nature of medicine and health care. But such arguments raise more questions than they answer. There are important assumptions about basic concepts of health care and markets that frame such arguments. PMID:10472817

  4. The Communication Skills Used by Deaf Children and Their Hearing Peers in a Question-and-Answer Game Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toe, Dianne M.; Paatsch, Louise E.

    2010-01-01

    Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in…

  5. Drug discovery FAQs: workflows for answering multidomain drug discovery questions.

    PubMed

    Chichester, Christine; Digles, Daniela; Siebes, Ronald; Loizou, Antonis; Groth, Paul; Harland, Lee

    2015-04-01

    Modern data-driven drug discovery requires integrated resources to support decision-making and enable new discoveries. The Open PHACTS Discovery Platform (http://dev.openphacts.org) was built to address this requirement by focusing on drug discovery questions that are of high priority to the pharmaceutical industry. Although complex, most of these frequently asked questions (FAQs) revolve around the combination of data concerning compounds, targets, pathways and diseases. Computational drug discovery using workflow tools and the integrated resources of Open PHACTS can deliver answers to most of these questions. Here, we report on a selection of workflows used for solving these use cases and discuss some of the research challenges. The workflows are accessible online from myExperiment (http://www.myexperiment.org) and are available for reuse by the scientific community.

  6. Analysis of short-answer question styles versus gender in pre-clinical veterinary education.

    PubMed

    Foster, Neil

    2011-01-01

    One large study in medical education has reported that the choice of question format (or question content) could introduce a gender bias, with men outperforming women on questions with a true-false component or that required knowledge of anatomy or physiology. The purpose of our study was to ascertain whether this finding is also true in veterinary medical education. Two veterinary student cohorts were analyzed across four different modules over a three-year period (804 questions in total). The results of the study show that the women's and men's performance did not differ in any of the question types analyzed across any module or year. When students' (both women and men) overall average performance on different question types was compared with their performance on standard multiple-choice questions (MCQs), performance levels increased when students were asked to answer MCQs that contained an image-based prop (IMCQ) such as a photograph, X-ray image, or diagram. In contrast, students' performance was consistently lower when answering assertion-reason questions (ARQs), and this performance could not be explained by the demographic makeup of the two cohorts analyzed. When comparing standard MCQs with MCQs that contained a true-false question stem, no specific trend in the data could be determined. In conclusion, this study suggests that the short-answer question style does not bias against one gender in veterinary medical education, but that overall students do perform differently according to question type and, in particular, less well when ARQs are used in examinations.

  7. Hope for Tomorrow: A Booklet of Questions and Answers. The United Nations for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY.

    Suitable for junior and senior high school students and presented in a synthesized, easy-to-read format, this booklet includes more than 80 questions and answers relating to the United Nations. With the U.N. proclamation of 1985 as International Youth Year serving as an underlying theme, the booklet begins by outlining U.N. activities during…

  8. Home Education Reason and Research: Common Questions and Research-Based Answers about Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian D.

    2009-01-01

    This is a brief review of research on a variety of topics related to home education and answers the most common questions asked regarding Homeschooling. Examples of the topics addressed are: the teaching parent's education level, academic achievement of students, population growth, philosophy, government (state) regulation and homeschool…

  9. "The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifman, Eli

    This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

  10. Frequently Asked Questions about ADHD and the Answers from the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loechler, Kathy

    1999-01-01

    Identifies useful Internet sites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the results of searching these sites to answer common questions concerning incidence of ADHD, basic information about Ritalin drug therapy, educational placement of students with ADHD, sources of information about special needs, and what parents can do at…

  11. College in Your Future. 140 Questions and Answers about Getting In--Staying In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Henry

    This book uses a question and answer format to provide students with practical advice on getting into college and succeeding there. Chapter 1 addresses planning for college and covers test scores, grades, test taking pointers, financial aid, and test preparation centers. Chapter 2 offers suggestions for finding the right kind of college and…

  12. AskHERMES: An online question answering system for complex clinical questions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, YongGang; Liu, Feifan; Simpson, Pippa; Antieau, Lamont; Bennett, Andrew; Cimino, James J.; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Clinical questions are often long and complex and take many forms. We have built a clinical question answering system named AskHERMES to perform robust semantic analysis on complex clinical questions and output question-focused extractive summaries as answers. Design This paper describes the system architecture and a preliminary evaluation of AskHERMES, which implements innovative approaches in question analysis, summarization, and answer presentation. Five types of resources were indexed in this system: MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, eMedicine documents, clinical guidelines and Wikipedia articles. Measurement We compared the AskHERMES system with Google (Google and Google Scholar) and UpToDate and asked physicians to score the three systems by ease of use, quality of answer, time spent, and overall performance. Results AskHERMES allows physicians to enter a question in a natural way with minimal query formulation and allows physicians to efficiently navigate among all the answer sentences to quickly meet their information needs. In contrast, physicians need to formulate queries to search for information in Google and UpToDate. The development of the AskHERMES system is still at an early stage, and the knowledge resource is limited compared with Google or UpToDate. Nevertheless, the evaluation results show that AskHERMES’ performance is comparable to the other systems. In particular, when answering complex clinical questions, it demonstrates the potential to outperform both Google and UpToDate systems. Conclusions AskHERMES, available at http://www.AskHERMES.org, has the potential to help physicians practice evidence-based medicine and improve the quality of patient care. PMID:21256977

  13. How to answer the most common zinger questions.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2005-01-01

    Patients are very likely to hit you with zingers--extremely tough questions that require all of your diplomacy and tact. How well you respond to the inevitable zingers depends in large part upon your preparation. This article describes what you must do to prepare yourself for your patients' zingers. It offers simple guidelines for responding to zinger questions, as well as how-to instruction that will enable you to hone your critical listening skills. This article also offers an effective strategy for preparing a list of potential zinger questions customized to your medical practice. It suggests ways to use zinger preparation as a staff training tool, relying in large part upon brainstorming, group work, and role-playing scenarios. Finally, this article presents the wrong way to answer zingers. Then, through sample dialogues, it offers much better and more effective responses that you might give your patients when you need to answer eight of the most common and difficult medical practice zingers.

  14. RECONS Answers Fundamental Questions in the Solar Neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Dieterich, S.; Ianna, P. A.; Jao, W.; Koerner, D. W.; Riedel, A. R.; Slatten, K. J.; Subasavage, J. P.; Winters, J. G.; RECONS

    2013-06-01

    Comprehensive surveys are often the best way to answer fundamental questions about the Universe, but it is typically difficult to get reliable results unless great care is taken to develop and understand the sample. By observing a complete sample of red and brown dwarfs (spectral types mid-M to mid-L) in the southern sky within 15 pc --- defined by trigonometric parallax --- the RECONS (www.recons.org, REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars) team is searching for answers to three basic questions: (1) where are the breaks in the luminosity and mass functions at the stellar/substellar border? (2) what are the populations of stellar, brown dwarf, and Jovian planets orbiting the red dwarfs that account for 75% of all stars? and (3) do the smallest stars exhibit long-term activity cycles like our Sun? We identify a sample of more than 300 of the nearest red and brown dwarfs using a combination of astrometry (parallaxes, proper motions, orbits), and photometry (plate BRI from SuperCOSMOS, VRI from our CCD observations, JHK from 2MASS, and new WISE data). Our observing program, now in its 14th year, is carried out at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m telescope. This is the largest long-term study of members of the solar neighborhood in the southern hemisphere, so it provides unparalleled astrometric and photometric time coverage for the nearest red and brown dwarfs. By focusing on a carefully vetted sample of the Sun's neighbors, we can hope to reveal the real answers to the three questions posed above. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  15. PrimeAnswers: A practical interface for answering primary care questions.

    PubMed

    Ketchell, Debra S; St Anna, Leilani; Kauff, David; Gaster, Barak; Timberlake, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an institutional approach taken to build a primary care reference portal. The objective for the site is to make access to and use of clinical reference faster and easier and to facilitate the use of evidence-based answers in daily practice. Reference objects were selected and metadata applied to a core set of sources. Metadata were used to search, sort, and filter results and to define deep-linked queries and structure the interface. User feedback resulted in an expansion in the scope of reference objects to meet the broad spectrum of information needs, including patient handouts and interactive risk management tools. RESULTS of a user satisfaction survey suggest that a simple interface to customized content makes it faster and easier for primary care clinicians to find information during the clinic day and to improve care to their patients. The PrimeAnswers portal is a first step in creating a fast search of a customized set of reference objects to match a clinician's patient care questions in the clinic. The next step is developing methods to solve the problem of matching a clinician's question to a specific answer through precise retrieval from reference sources; however, lack of internal structure and Web service standards in most clinical reference sources is an unresolved problem. PMID:15905488

  16. Answering evolutionary questions: A guide for mechanistic biologists.

    PubMed

    Masel, Joanna; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2016-07-01

    The questions and methods of molecular biology and evolutionary biology are clearly distinct, yet a unified approach can lead to deep insights. Unfortunately, attempts to unify these approaches are fraught with pitfalls. In this informal series of questions and answers, we offer the mechanistically oriented biologist a set of steps to come up with evolutionarily reasonable and meaningful hypotheses. We emphasize the critical power and importance of carefully constructed null hypotheses, and we illustrate our ideas with examples representing a range of topics, from the biology of aging, to protein structure, to speciation, and more. We also stress the importance of mathematics as the lingua franca for biologists of all stripes, and encourage mechanistic biologists to seek out quantitative collaborators to build explicit mathematical models, making their assumptions explicit, and their logic clear and testable. Biologists in all realms of inquiry stand to gain from strong bridges between our disciplines. PMID:27151396

  17. Answering geological questions from slim-hole coring exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, R.E.; Stockden, I. ); Syrstad, S.O. ); Taylor, M.R. ); Saunders, M.R. , Windsor )

    1993-09-01

    Slim-hole exploration wells have been proposed as a cost-effective method of exploring inaccessible and remote areas. These areas often have limited geological control, and the use of wireline-retrieved, continuous coring methods adapted from the mining industry can greatly improve the geological knowledge of a prospect or basin. The availability of core from long continuous sections of the well requires a rethink of geological knowledge acquisition performed at the well site. Market analysis among today's explorationists highlighted the critical answers required from the core before it leave the location. These include the presence or absence of hydrocarbons, reservoirs, seals, source rock and maturity, lithologies, and depositional environments. To provide these answers, a conceptual core screening operation was developed around key variables that answer the geological questions. Throughout, analyses, followed by time and motion studies, were performed to ensure well-site suitability. A series of analysis systems have been built and assembled into a fit-for-purpose, heli-transportable well-site core logging facility, which successfully completed a four-well field trial in Africa during 1992. The purpose of the facility is to digitally preserve the key variables from the core. Core measurements made include natural gamma ray, density/porosity, caliper, permeability, total organic carbon, and Rock-Eval pyrolysis, together with high-resolution white light and U.V. digital images. A geological workstation allows for speed, geologically-correct descriptions, preserving all geological data in digital form. Through the use of a fully integrated data set, encompassing mud, geological, core, and wireline logs, the key variable are combined and plotted to provide near-real-time composite logs for the geologist and petrophysicist. Data transmission from the well site to the project explorationists ensure rapid answers from a cost-effective, novel exploration method.

  18. The placebo response in clinical trials: more questions than answers

    PubMed Central

    Enck, Paul; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Weimer, Katja; Horing, Björn; Zipfel, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analyses and re-analyses of trial data have not been able to answer some of the essential questions that would allow prediction of placebo responses in clinical trials. We will confront these questions with current empirical evidence. The most important question asks whether the placebo response rates in the drug arm and in the placebo arm are equal. This ‘additive model’ is a general assumption in almost all placebo-controlled drug trials but has rarely been tested. Secondly, we would like to address whether the placebo response is a function of the likelihood of receiving drug/placebo. Evidence suggests that the number of study arms in a trial may determine the size of the placebo and the drug response. Thirdly, we ask what the size of the placebo response is in ‘comparator’ studies with a direct comparison of a (novel) drug against another drug. Meta-analytic and experimental evidence suggests that comparator studies may produce higher placebo response rates when compared with placebo-controlled trials. Finally, we address the placebo response rate outside the laboratory and outside of trials in clinical routine. This question poses a serious challenge whether the drug response in trials can be taken as evidence of drug effects in clinical routine. PMID:21576146

  19. Graduate Information Booklet, Spring 1986 [and] Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Graduation and Transition from School for Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meissner, Margit; Patton, Ellen

    The "Graduate Information Booklet" provides directory-type information on Montgomery County (Maryland) services for disabled students who are graduating from high school. The first section on practical information explains armed services registration, acquisition of school records, personal identification cards, social security cards, reduced-fare…

  20. Cross-domain question classification in community question answering via kernel mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Lei; Hu, Zuoliang; Yang, Bin; Li, Yiyang; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    An increasingly popular method for retrieving information is via the community question answering (CQA) systems such as Yahoo! Answers and Baidu Knows. In CQA, question classification plays an important role to find the answers. However, the labeled training examples for statistical question classifier are fairly expensive to obtain, as they require the experienced human efforts. Meanwhile, unlabeled data are readily available. This paper employs the method of domain adaptation via kernel mapping to solve this problem. In detail, the kernel approach is utilized to map the target-domain data and the source-domain data into a common space, where the question classifiers are trained under the closer conditional probabilities. The kernel mapping function is constructed by domain knowledge. Therefore, domain knowledge could be transferred from the labeled examples in the source domain to the unlabeled ones in the targeted domain. The statistical training model can be improved by using a large number of unlabeled data. Meanwhile, the Hadoop Platform is used to construct the mapping mechanism to reduce the time complexity. Map/Reduce enable kernel mapping for domain adaptation in parallel in the Hadoop Platform. Experimental results show that the accuracy of question classification could be improved by the method of kernel mapping. Furthermore, the parallel method in the Hadoop Platform could effective schedule the computing resources to reduce the running time.

  1. If bone is the answer, then what is the question?

    PubMed Central

    HUISKES, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the 19th century, several scientists attempted to relate bone trabecular morphology to its mechanical, load-bearing function. It was suggested that bone architecture was an answer to requirements of optimal stress transfer, pairing maximal strength to minimal weight, according to particular mathematical design rules. Using contemporary methods of analysis, stress transfer in bones was studied and compared with anatomical specimens, from which it was hypothesised that trabecular architecture is associated with stress trajectories. Others focused on the biological processes by which trabecular architectures are formed and on the question of how bone could maintain the relationship between external load and architecture in a variable functional environment. Wilhelm Roux introduced the principle of functional adaptation as a self-organising process based in the tissues. Julius Wolff, anatomist and orthopaedic surgeon, entwined these 3 issues in his book The Law of Bone Remodeling (translation), which set the stage for biomechanical research goals in our day. ‘Wolff's Law’ is a question rather than a law, asking for the requirements of structural optimisation. In this article, based on finite element analysis (FEA) results of stress transfer in bones, it is argued that it was the wrong question, putting us on the wrong foot. The maximal strength/minimal weight principle does not provide a rationale for architectural formation or adaptation; the similarity between trabecular orientation and stress trajectories is circumstantial, not causal. Based on computer simulations of bone remodelling as a regulatory process, governed by mechanical usage and orchestrated by osteocyte mechanosensitivity, it is shown that Roux's paradigm, conversely, is a realistic proposition. Put in a quantitative regulatory context, it can predict both trabecular formation and adaptation. Hence, trabecular architecture is not an answer to Wolff's question, in the sense of this article

  2. Smartphone use to answer clinical questions: a descriptive study of APNs.

    PubMed

    Grabowsky, Adelia

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the use of smartphones by Alabama Advanced Practice Nurses to find information to address clinical questions and seeks to describe the types of questions answered using smartphones; barriers to information seeking; apps and online resources perceived as most helpful; and training/resource needs. Information collected in this study can be used by libraries that serve nursing students to develop training and resources to assist both nursing students and practicing nurses to become more efficient and effective information seekers. PMID:25927507

  3. Using Group Questions to stimulate Student Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmude, R. W., Jr.

    2005-08-01

    During the past year I have modified all of my science classes to include time for group work. Essentially, I break up a typical class into two parts: part 1 includes about a 20 minute lecture and then students are broken into groups of 3 and are give two to three questions that they must answer. Students are also required to write in complte sentences. I circulate around the room during the group session to insure that students stay focused on the questions. I also spend time looking at preliminary answers and encourage students to think further in the hopes that they will discover the answers for themselves. After about 12 minutes, I have students hand in their responses and then I go over the group questions. Typical Group questions in my introductory astronomy class include: 1) How is it that temperatures are hotter in the summer than in the winter? 2) How is it that Planets have a round shape whereas smaller objects such as asteroids have an irregular shape? Sample group questions will be available at my presentation.

  4. Engaging Students through Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Mary-Anne

    2011-01-01

    In what ways might questioning techniques improve student learning? What kinds of questions enable educators to tap into different parts of the cognitive domain? How can questions engage students when their attention begins to wander? Many questions at the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy--particularly knowledge and comprehension--are closed-ended…

  5. Answering Scientific Questions Using an Artistic Framework: A Personal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. F. B.

    2014-12-01

    Being multidisciplinary, while admired, is not viewed as a goal of education. Instead, extreme specialization is emphasized. One seeks to attain mastery of a given subject, but at what cost? Even those fields viewed as "interdisciplinary" are often quite narrow in scope, only permitting the most closely related subjects to coalesce. The arts however, are by nature both inter- and multi-disciplinary. They attempt to research, analyze, and reflect upon broader questions, often employing techniques garnered from far-flung fields in order to do so. It is an unfortunate dilemma then that the artist should seem so separate from the scientist, as it seems that both are engaged in a sort of hypothesis testing. Perhaps this division is a remnant of the antiquated left- and right-brained dichotomy, which clearly separated the two groups: Science and Art, Left and Right. In this way, the artist was branded as Science's "other," despite the inherent sameness of their processes. This "otherness" has been carried forward to the present, where artists are often viewed as simply craftspeople -object makers- and the concept of the "artistic problem" is rarely considered. As someone possessing degrees in both Fine Art and Hydrology, the author attempts to explain the connection between the two subjects, and the manner in which they compliment and enlighten each other in her own research. She hypothesizes that in addition to this "otherness," it is the multi-dimensional mode of thinking and dealing with problems that sets the artist apart. But this is a dynamic trait, and as such, it should be considered that by approaching scientific endeavors as artistic problems, the researcher could be permitted a broader framework in which to answer a given scientific question.

  6. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior.

    PubMed

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called "easy problems" of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as "subjective experience," and of there being "hard problems," and "explanatory gaps" to be addressed in order to understand consciousness.

  7. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior.

    PubMed

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called "easy problems" of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as "subjective experience," and of there being "hard problems," and "explanatory gaps" to be addressed in order to understand consciousness. PMID:26136704

  8. Answering questions about consciousness by modeling perception as covert behavior

    PubMed Central

    Markkula, Gustav

    2015-01-01

    Two main open questions in current consciousness research concern (i) the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and (ii) the relationship between neural activity and first-person, subjective experience. Here, possible answers are sketched for both of these, by means of a model-based analysis of what is required for one to admit having a conscious experience. To this end, a model is proposed that allows reasoning, albeit necessarily in a simplistic manner, about all of the so called “easy problems” of consciousness, from discrimination of stimuli to control of behavior and language. First, it is argued that current neuroscientific knowledge supports the view of perception and action selection as two examples of the same basic phenomenon, such that one can meaningfully refer to neuronal activations involved in perception as covert behavior. Building on existing neuroscientific and psychological models, a narrative behavior model is proposed, outlining how the brain selects covert (and sometimes overt) behaviors to construct a complex, multi-level narrative about what it is like to be the individual in question. It is hypothesized that we tend to admit a conscious experience of X if, at the time of judging consciousness, we find ourselves acceptably capable of performing narrative behavior describing X. It is argued that the proposed account reconciles seemingly conflicting empirical results, previously presented as evidence for competing theories of consciousness, and suggests that well-defined, experiment-independent NCCs are unlikely to exist. Finally, an analysis is made of what the modeled narrative behavior machinery is and is not capable of. It is discussed how an organism endowed with such a machinery could, from its first-person perspective, come to adopt notions such as “subjective experience,” and of there being “hard problems,” and “explanatory gaps” to be addressed in order to understand consciousness. PMID:26136704

  9. TrustQ: a category reputation based question and answer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuhua; Shen, Haiying

    2014-06-01

    Question and Answering (Q/A) systems aggregate the collected intelligence of all users to provide satisfying answers for questions. A well-developed Q/A system should provide high question response rate, low response delay and good answer quality. Previous works use reputation systems to achieve the goals. However, these reputation systems evaluate a user with an overall rating for all questions the user has answered regardless of the question categories, thus the reputation score cannot accurately reflect the user's ability to answer a question in a specific category. In this paper, we propose TtustQ, a category reputation based Q/A System. TtustQ evaluates users' willingness and capability to answer questions in different categories. Considering a user has different willingness to answer questions from different users, TtustQ lets each node evaluate the reputation of other nodes answering its own questions. User a calculates user b's final reputation by considering both user a's direct rating and the indirect ratings on user b from other nodes. The reputation values facilitate forwarding a question to potential answerers, which improves the question response rate, response delay and answer quality. Our trace-driven simulation on PeerSim demonstrates the effectiveness of TtustQ in providing good user experience in terms of response rate and latency, and the answer quality.

  10. The Answer Is the Question: The Effect of Verb Causality on Locus of Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semin, Gun R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated how verb causality in question formulation affects the locus of causal origin for answers. Hypothesized questions formulated with action verbs cue the logical subject of the question sentence as the causal origin for answers. Reverse tendency was expected for state verbs. Verb type in question formulation was found to affect…

  11. Why Students Answer TIMSS Science Test Items the Way They Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Ann; Jones, Alister

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Year 8 students answered Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) questions and whether the test questions represented the scientific understanding of these students. One hundred and seventy-seven students were tested using written test questions taken from the science test used in the…

  12. Design of a Low-Cost Adaptive Question Answering System for Closed Domain Factoid Queries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Huey Ling

    2010-01-01

    Closed domain question answering (QA) systems achieve precision and recall at the cost of complex language processing techniques to parse the answer corpus. We propose a "query-based" model for indexing answers in a closed domain factoid QA system. Further, we use a phrase term inference method for improving the ranking order of related questions.…

  13. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  14. Analyzing Student Confidence in Classroom Voting with Multiple Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ann; Storm, Christopher; VonEpps, Lahna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present results of a recent study in which students voted on multiple choice questions in mathematics courses of varying levels. Students used clickers to select the best answer among the choices given; in addition, they were also asked whether they were confident in their answer. In this paper we analyze data…

  15. Questions and Answers about Bilingual Education = Preguntas y Respuestas Acerca de la Educacion Bilingue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Alicia Salinas

    This resource booklet, in both English and Spanish, was developed to answer commonly asked questions about bilingual education. The booklet is intended to clarify the benefits to be derived from quality bilingual education. Questions and answers are divided under the following headers: (1) program questions (e.g., what is bilingual education and…

  16. Accessing heterogeneous sources of evidence to answer clinical questions.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, E A; Cimino, J J; Johnson, S B; Seol, Y H

    2001-04-01

    The large and rapidly growing number of information sources relevant to health care, and the increasing amounts of new evidence produced by researchers, are improving the access of professionals and students to valuable information. However, seeking and filtering useful, valid information can be still very difficult. An online information system that conducts searches based on individual patient data can have a beneficial influence on the particular patient's outcome and educate the healthcare worker. In this paper, we describe the underlying model for a system that aims to facilitate the search for evidence based on clinicians' needs. This paper reviews studies of information needs of clinicians, describes principles of information retrieval, and examines the role that standardized terminologies can play in the integration between a clinical system and literature resources, as well as in the information retrieval process. The paper also describes a model for a digital library system that supports the integration of clinical systems with online information sources, making use of information available in the electronic medical record to enhance searches and information retrieval. The model builds on several different, previously developed techniques to identify information themes that are relevant to specific clinical data. Using a framework of evidence-based practice, the system generates well-structured questions with the intent of enhancing information retrieval. We believe that by helping clinicians to pose well-structured clinical queries and including in them relevant information from individual patients' medical records, we can enhance information retrieval and thus can improve patient-care.

  17. The Answer Is 20 Cookies: What Is the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; Cates, Janie M.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a task that engages students in the process of creating word problems. Difficulties in having students write problems are described, along with strategies for overcoming these difficulties. Student work and teacher reactions are included.

  18. Reducing Our Ignorance: Finding Answers to Certain Epistemic Questions for Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael; Johnson, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    In previous papers, we asserted that software system safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. We also enumerated a set of 21 foundational epistemic questions, discussed some of the difficulties that exist in answering these questions adequately today, and speculated briefly on possible research that may provide improved confidence in the sufficiency of answers in the future. This paper focuses on three of the foundational questions. For each of these questions, current answers are discussed and potential research is proposed to help increase the justifiable level of confidence.

  19. Answers to Essential Questions about Standards, Assessments, Grading, & Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2013-01-01

    How do assessments for learning differ from assessments of learning? What is the purpose of grading? After nearly two decades of immersion in standards-based curriculua and instruction, our nation's educators are often still confounded by the (admittedly complex) landscape of standards, assessment, and reporting. In "Answers to Essential…

  20. 150 Student Questions on Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.

  1. Getting Ready for the "School of the Future": Key Questions and Tentative Answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Michela; Pozzi, Francesca

    This paper explores some key aspects of "today's school", as opposed to those that have characterized "yesterday's school", with the final aim of shedding light on "tomorrow's school". In this direction, the paper puts forward tentative answers to some key questions related to the new characteristics and roles of teachers and students (main actors of the learning process) and the new features/ potentialities of contemporary educational tools which, in turn, require the enactment of innovative pedagogical approaches and educational methods. The emerging picture of the present learning landscape helps in figuring out a future situation where learning possibilities are substantially increased.

  2. Comparing two modes of teaching a question-answering strategy for enhancing reading comprehension: didactic and self-instructional training.

    PubMed

    Graham, L; Wong, B Y

    1993-04-01

    This study investigated the comparative efficacy of two instructional approaches--didactic teaching and self-instructional training--in teaching average and poor readers a comprehension question-answering strategy. Forty-five average students and 45 poor readers from Grades 5 and 6 participated. These 38 girls and 52 boys were equally and randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions: didactic teaching of the strategy, self-instruction, or control (no training). Students in the first two treatment conditions learned a mnemonic strategy ("Here," "Hidden," and "in my Head") to indicate question-answer relationships that are text explicit, text implicit, or script implicit, respectively. Essentially, the 3H mnemonic cued students to use appropriate text and/or knowledge-base information in answering comprehension test questions. In addition, students in the self-instruction group learned three self-questions to guide their use of the 3H strategy. Specifically, the self-questions focused students' attention on the task, provided a basis for decision making concerning the categorization of comprehension test questions, and reminded students to check their answers. The results indicated that both didactic teaching and self-instructional training of the strategy effected significant improvements in students' reading comprehension performance. However, self-instructional training was more effective in enhancing and maintaining students' reading comprehension performance than didactic teaching. Moreover, results from the oral questionnaire indicated that the 3H strategy training increased students' general meta-cognitive knowledge. Lastly, of the 60 trained students, 52 wrote that they would encourage other children to learn the 3H strategy. Thus, the response to strategy learning was clearly positive.

  3. Attempting to answer a meaningful question enhances subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed.

    PubMed

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., whale-???) that has no intrinsic answer. Experiment 1 replicated prior word pair studies, but in Experiment 2, when participants learned meaningful trivia questions, testing enhanced learning even when subsequent study was delayed. Even in Experiment 3, when subsequent study was delayed by up to 24 hr, tests enhanced learning on a final test another 24 hr later. These findings may give comfort to educators who worry that asking a question or giving a test, on which students inevitably make mistakes, impairs learning if feedback is not immediate. They also suggest that there is a consensus in the literature thus far: Questions with rich semantic content enhance subsequent learning even when feedback is delayed, but less meaningful questions without an intrinsic answer enhance learning only when feedback is immediate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Agree or Disagree? Cognitive Processes in Answering Contrastive Survey Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje; Mak, Pim; Sanders, Ted; Van Den Bergh, Huub

    2011-01-01

    Survey designers have long assumed that respondents who disagree with a negative question ("This policy is bad.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale) will agree with an equivalent positive question ("This policy is good.": "Yes" or "No"; 2-point scale). However, experimental evidence has proven otherwise: Respondents are more likely to disagree with…

  5. 41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20 Section 300-2.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format §...

  6. Violations of Information Structure: An Electrophysiological Study of Answers to Wh-Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, H. W.; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question-answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position…

  7. Can workers answer their questions about occupational safety and health: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Rhebergen, Martijn; Van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their questions. This paper explores the challenges workers may face when seeking answers to their OSH questions. Findings suggest that many workers may lack the skills, experience or motivation to formulate an answerable question, seek and find information, appraise information, compose correct answers and apply information in OSH practice. Simultaneously, OSH knowledge infrastructures often insufficiently support workers in answering their OSH questions. This paper discusses several potentially attractive strategies for developing and improving OSH knowledge infrastructures: 1) providing courses that teach workers to ask answerable questions and to train them to find, appraise and apply information, 2) developing information and communication technology tools or facilities that support workers as they complete one or more stages in the process from question to answer and 3) tailoring information and implementation strategies to the workers' needs and context to ensure that the information can be applied to OSH practice more easily. PMID:22453212

  8. Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

    This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

  9. Can workers answer their questions about occupational safety and health: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Rhebergen, Martijn; Van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their questions. This paper explores the challenges workers may face when seeking answers to their OSH questions. Findings suggest that many workers may lack the skills, experience or motivation to formulate an answerable question, seek and find information, appraise information, compose correct answers and apply information in OSH practice. Simultaneously, OSH knowledge infrastructures often insufficiently support workers in answering their OSH questions. This paper discusses several potentially attractive strategies for developing and improving OSH knowledge infrastructures: 1) providing courses that teach workers to ask answerable questions and to train them to find, appraise and apply information, 2) developing information and communication technology tools or facilities that support workers as they complete one or more stages in the process from question to answer and 3) tailoring information and implementation strategies to the workers' needs and context to ensure that the information can be applied to OSH practice more easily.

  10. The Answering Process for Multiple-Choice Questions in Collaborative Learning: A Mathematical Learning Model Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…

  11. Theorizing the Entrepreneurial University: Open Questions and Possible Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to address theoretical questions regarding the transition towards an entrepreneurial university and the changes associated with this process, namely the increased commodification, the competitive quest for private funding and the introduction of business management practices. The important theoretical advances made in the…

  12. Answering Hard Questions: "Wh"-Movement across Dialects and Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Jill; Roeper, Thomas; Bland-Stewart, Linda; Pearson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale study of complex "wh"-questions with 1,000 subjects aged 4-9 years is reported. The subjects' dialects were Mainstream American English or African American English, and approximately one-third were language impaired. The study examined when children permit long distance "wh"-movement, and when they respect a variety of syntactic…

  13. An Introduction to Internet Resources for K-12 Educators. Part II: Question Answering, Listservs, Discussion Groups, Update 1996. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Nancy A.

    As K-12 schools connect to the Internet, a new means of communication opens up to educators and students. This updated digest describes some sample services and resources available to the K-12 community via electronic mail. Information sources covered include: question answering services, including AskERIC and the Online Writing Lab; listservs or…

  14. An Introduction to Internet Resources for K-12 Educators. Part II: Question Answering, Listservs, Discussion Groups, Update 1998. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Nancy A.; Batovsky, Steven

    As K-12 schools connect to the Internet, a new method of communication opens up to educators and their students. This ERIC Digest describes some sample services and resources that are available to the K-12 community by electronic mail over the Internet. Question Answering services, listservs, and Usenet newsgroups are listed. (Author/AEF)

  15. Fixing past mistakes. Answers to questions about reviews, refunds, disclosures.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, T Jeffrey

    2003-10-01

    A medical group must address practical and legal issues when it discovers improper payments, billing mistakes or alleged misconduct. Its response has a significant impact on how the charges are resolved. A group and its providers can come under fraud and abuse investigations, whistle-blower allegations and Medicare payment reviews. Many questions arise in response to billing errors or allegations of misconduct. PMID:14571591

  16. Students Generating Questions for Their Own Written Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papinczak, Tracey; Babri, Awais Saleem; Peterson, Ray; Kippers, Vaughan; Wilkinson, David

    2011-01-01

    Assessment partnerships between staff and students are considered a vital component of the student-centred educational process. To enhance the development of this partnership in a problem-based learning curriculum, all first-year students were involved in generating a bank of formative assessment questions with answers, some of which were included…

  17. Paradigm shifts: new techniques to answer new questions.

    PubMed

    Olzak, L A; Wickens, T D

    1999-01-01

    The advent of a multiple-channels approach to spatial vision 20 years ago raised important questions that were difficult to approach empirically, given the technology and analytic tools of the time. These questions concerned the interaction or combination of different components of a stimulus--questions that have recently resurfaced in more complex form. Classical psychophysical methods for assessing whether two stimulus aspects are coded independently (e.g., masking, adaptation, and cue-summation) provide only limited information about the nature of whatever interactions are discovered. In both older work in detection and recent work in complex pattern discrimination, we have used a double-judgment paradigm in which the observer rates two aspects of a stimulus simultaneously. The paradigm provides a rich source of information about the codes underlying each psychophysical decision and which are unique in permitting us to psychophysically investigate effects resulting from neural noise in the system. Our analyses draw on theories of dimensional interaction in signal detection theory and in information theory, and on methods from several branches of statistics, including categorical data analysis and structural equation modeling. We review the theoretical, technological, methodological, and personal influences that led us to develop this approach.

  18. Is Direct Instruction an Answer to the Right Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Deanna

    2007-01-01

    Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006) make a general case for the effectiveness of a teaching method--direct instruction--without reference to any context of what it is that is being taught by whom and to whom. In so doing, they bypass what is arguably the most pressing concern facing educators--not how to teach students but what to teach them. An…

  19. Magna Carta at 800: Ten Key Questions Answered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Howard

    2014-01-01

    2015 marks the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta. For Americans, this iconic document is a formative element of our own legal and political heritage. This "Lessons on the Law" column offers an overview of the "Great Charter," why it is significant, and what students and teachers should know about it. The article also highlights…

  20. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia: Questions and Answers for School Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallick, M. Joan

    1984-01-01

    School personnel can have a vital role in the early detection and treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia by understanding certain signs and symptoms. This article provides specific information about early detection, approaches to use when confronting the student, and methods to facilitate treatment. (Author/DF)

  1. Racial Differences in Adolescents' Answering Questions About Suicide.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura M; Lowry, Lynda S; Wuensch, Karl L

    2015-01-01

    The present purpose was to examine racial differences in response rate and serious behavioral suicide risk based on the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Data from 15,245 adolescents (YRBS, 2011) were included. Survey items pertaining to making suicidal plans and attempting suicide were included. Significant differences in responding and content emerged, especially with regard to suicide attempts. Racial minority adolescents are at elevated risk for serious suicidal behaviors and are more likely to omit items pertaining to suicide attempts. African American adolescents rarely reported having attempted suicide, but they also frequently failed to respond to that question. PMID:26083790

  2. Felid Lungworms and Heartworms in Italy: More Questions than Answers?

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    Nematodes infecting the cardiorespiratory system of cats have recently stimulated high scientific interest. Over the past few years, different aspects of these parasites have been clarified and various issues elucidated. This increased knowledge has improved awareness on this topic but, at the same time, some dilemmas have not been solved and new questions have been raised. In this review, we underline and discuss current knowledge of, and new doubts relating to, feline lungworms and heartworms, with the aim of stimulating new studies to fill gaps of basic (i.e., epidemiology and biology) and applied (i.e., clinical aspects) knowledge of the old and new parasites affecting the cardiorespiratory system of cats.

  3. Answers to Health Questions: Internet Search Results Versus Online Health Community Responses

    PubMed Central

    Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina

    2016-01-01

    Background About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet—ranging from government-initiated webpages to personal blog pages. Yet we do not fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of information available on the Internet. Objective The objective of this research was to investigate the strengths and challenges of various types of health information available online and to suggest what information sources best fit various question types. Methods We collected questions posted to and the responses they received from an online diabetes community and classified them according to Rothwell’s classification of question types (fact, policy, or value questions). We selected 60 questions (20 each of fact, policy, and value) and the replies the questions received from the community. We then searched for responses to the same questions using a search engine and recorded the Results Community responses answered more questions than did search results overall. Search results were most effective in answering value questions and least effective in answering policy questions. Community responses answered questions across question types at an equivalent rate, but most answered policy questions and the least answered fact questions. Value questions were most answered by community responses, but some of these answers provided by the community were incorrect. Fact question search results were the most clinically valid. Conclusions The Internet is a prevalent source of health information for people. The information quality people encounter online can have a large impact

  4. Obstacles to answering doctors' questions about patient care with evidence: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ely, John W; Osheroff, Jerome A; Ebell, Mark H; Chambliss, M Lee; Vinson, Daniel C; Stevermer, James J; Pifer, Eric A

    2002-01-01

    Objective To describe the obstacles encountered when attempting to answer doctors' questions with evidence. Design Qualitative study. Setting General practices in Iowa. Participants 9 academic generalist doctors, 14 family doctors, and 2 medical librarians. Main outcome measure A taxonomy of obstacles encountered while searching for evidence based answers to doctors' questions. Results 59 obstacles were encountered and organised according to the five steps in asking and answering questions: recognise a gap in knowledge, formulate a question, search for relevant information, formulate an answer, and use the answer to direct patient care. Six obstacles were considered particularly salient by the investigators and practising doctors: the excessive time required to find information; difficulty modifying the original question, which was often vague and open to interpretation; difficulty selecting an optimal strategy to search for information; failure of a seemingly appropriate resource to cover the topic; uncertainty about how to know when all the relevant evidence has been found so that the search can stop; and inadequate synthesis of multiple bits of evidence into a clinically useful statement. Conclusions Many obstacles are encountered when asking and answering questions about how to care for patients. Addressing these obstacles could lead to better patient care by improving clinically oriented information resources. What is already known on this topicDoctors are encouraged to search for evidence based answers to their questions about patient care but most go unansweredStudies have not defined the obstacles to answering questions in a systematic mannerA comprehensive description of such obstacles has not been presentedWhat this study addsFifty nine obstacles were found while attempting to answer clinical questions with evidence; six were particularly salientThe obstacles were comprehensively described and organised PMID:11909789

  5. Heterologous embryo transfer: Magisterial answers and metaphysical questions

    PubMed Central

    Accad, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The debate regarding the morality of heterologous embryo transfer (HET) as a solution for the fate of cryopreserved embryos remains active. This paper endeavors to show that the magisterial instructions on bioethical issues can only lead to the conclusion that HET is always morally illicit. I begin by showing that the text of Dignitas personae recognizes HET as a procedure accomplishing a procreative function, and I indicate that it is through gestation that this procreative function occurs. I further show that the previous Instruction, Donum vitae, implicitly points to an ontological or spiritual consideration at play during gestation. This consideration is likely related to the procreative function identified in Dignitas personae. Finally, I place these two textual arguments in the context of the debate concerning HET and conclude that metaphysical questions must be clarified in order for the immorality of HET to be understood from a suitable anthropological perspective and gain more widespread acceptance. PMID:24899737

  6. Answerers' Motivations and Strategies for Providing Information and Social Support in Social Q&A an Investigation of Health Question Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Sanghee

    2010-01-01

    Social Q&A allows people to ask and answer questions for each other and to solve problems in everyday life collaboratively. The purpose of the current study is to understand the motivations and strategies of answerers in social Q&A. Thus, three research questions were investigated: (1) Why do answerers participate and contribute in social Q&A? (2)…

  7. Understanding the Factors Influencing User Experience of Social Question and Answer Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Shengli; Fang, Yuling; Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The popularity of social question and answer sites has made it an important and convenient source for obtaining knowledge. This study quantifies how three different system characteristics (interface design, interaction and answer quality) affect users' perceptions (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment),…

  8. Legal Challenges and Pitfalls for Start-up Companies - 48 Common Questions and Answers.

    PubMed

    Staehelin, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    Transforming a business idea into reality requires a legal implementation plan. The following 48 questions and answers address key issues that typically arise in start-up situations. Early planning can help avoid costly mistakes. PMID:26508601

  9. 77 FR 8885 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Biosimilars: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Biosimilars: Questions and Answers Regarding Implementation of the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  10. Colorectal cancer in the young, many questions, few answers

    PubMed Central

    Deen, Kemal I; Silva, Hiroshi; Deen, Raeed; Chandrasinghe, Pramodh C

    2016-01-01

    in young persons. At present, aside from those with an established familial tendency, there is no consensus on screening young persons who may be at risk. However, increasing awareness of this cancer in the young and the established benefit of prevention in older persons, must be a message that should be communicated with medical students, primary health care personnel and first contact doctors. The latter constitutes a formidable challenge. PMID:27326317

  11. Colorectal cancer in the young, many questions, few answers.

    PubMed

    Deen, Kemal I; Silva, Hiroshi; Deen, Raeed; Chandrasinghe, Pramodh C

    2016-06-15

    in young persons. At present, aside from those with an established familial tendency, there is no consensus on screening young persons who may be at risk. However, increasing awareness of this cancer in the young and the established benefit of prevention in older persons, must be a message that should be communicated with medical students, primary health care personnel and first contact doctors. The latter constitutes a formidable challenge. PMID:27326317

  12. Promoting Student Learning Through Questioning: A Study of Classroom Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Sandra; Bowman, Mary Ann

    1996-01-01

    A study in a graduate-level occupational therapy class found that questions asked by teachers and the instructional format in which they were asked influenced the frequency and level of student questioning. Subjects were 5 undergraduate and 15 graduate students. It was concluded that improved classroom questioning strategies may contribute to…

  13. Students' Comparison of Their Trigonometric Answers with the Answers of a Computer Algebra System in Terms of Equivalence and Correctness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonisson, Eno; Lepp, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The answers offered by computer algebra systems (CAS) can sometimes differ from those expected by the students or teachers. The comparison of the students' answers and CAS answers could provide ground for discussion about equivalence and correctness. Investigating the students' comparison of the answers gives the possibility to study different…

  14. A (1)-(2)-(3) Jumpstart Approach to Answer an Open-Ended Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Anthony V.

    2012-01-01

    I propose three guided questions for reflection as a jumpstart organizational formula for students with poor writing application skills to follow when responding to an open-ended question. The recipe prescribes that the student (1) understand the question design, (2) identify the intent or objective of the question, and (3) proceed to identify the…

  15. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  16. Acquisition of intraverbal behavior: teaching children with autism to mand for answers to questions.

    PubMed

    Ingvarsson, Einar T; Hollobaugh, Tatia

    2010-03-01

    Four boys with autism were taught via echoic prompting and constant prompt delay to mand for answers to questions by saying "I don't know please tell me" (IDKPTM). This intervention resulted in acquisition of the IDKPTM response for all 4 participants and in acquisition of correct answers to most of the previously unknown questions for 2 participants. For 1 participant, tangible reinforcement resulted in increased frequency of correct answers, and direct prompting of correct answers was eventually conducted for the final participant. The IDKPTM response generalized to untargeted unknown questions with 3 participants. Results of person and setting generalization probes varied, but some generalization eventually occurred for all participants following additional training or interspersal of probe trials with training trials. PMID:20808492

  17. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  18. A cognitive evaluation of four online search engines for answering definitional questions posed by physicians.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Kaufman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on physicians' medical decision making. One recent survey of 277 physicians showed that 72% of physicians regularly used the Internet to research medical information and 51% admitted that information from web sites influenced their clinical decisions. This paper describes the first cognitive evaluation of four state-of-the-art Internet search engines: Google (i.e., Google and Scholar.Google), MedQA, Onelook, and PubMed for answering definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?") posed by physicians. Onelook is a portal for online definitions, and MedQA is a question answering system that automatically generates short texts to answer specific biomedical questions. Our evaluation criteria include quality of answer, ease of use, time spent, and number of actions taken. Our results show that MedQA outperforms Onelook and PubMed in most of the criteria, and that MedQA surpasses Google in time spent and number of actions, two important efficiency criteria. Our results show that Google is the best system for quality of answer and ease of use. We conclude that Google is an effective search engine for medical definitions, and that MedQA exceeds the other search engines in that it provides users direct answers to their questions; while the users of the other search engines have to visit several sites before finding all of the pertinent information.

  19. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 33030), we issued a final rule requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to... ``Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 16 and 118 Guidance for Industry: Questions...

  20. Questions and Answers about IDEA. 2nd Edition. NICHCY News Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.; Gutierrez, Mary Kate, Ed.

    This document provides answers to questions frequently asked by parents and practitioners about the mandates and requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA). The 29 questions are organized into six sections: (1) background information on the IDEA (history of IDEA, and obtaining copies of IDEA and…

  1. Wrong Answer to the Wrong Question: Why We Need Critical Teacher Education, Not Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeloni, Barbara; Gorlewski, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The authors contend that teacher education (like K-12) is under attack by those seeking to exploit the public good and privatize education. Teacher educators find themselves on the defensive, compelled to answer questions about efficacy and accountability that do not reflect their understandings of their work, questions that do not address the…

  2. The Most-Asked Questions about Gifted Children: Answers for Parents and Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehrle, Carl C.; And Others

    Intended for both parents and educators, the booklet offers answers to the questions parents ask about their gifted children. The 64 questions are divided into 6 major categories--definitions of giftedness, ways to help parents identify gifted children, schooling for the gifted child, understanding gifted children, help for the gifted child, and…

  3. Using Separate Answer Sheets with Grade 3 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Thomas; O'Malley, Kimberly; Ragland, Shelley; Young, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Rob

    2014-01-01

    The authors compared the performance of third-grade students testing on answer sheets with those testing on machine-scored test booklets. The 1,832 students in the nationally representative sample were assigned at the campus level to complete the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition in 1 of 4 conditions: (a) Form A answer sheet, (b)…

  4. Chinese Automatic Question Answering System of Specific-domain Based on Vector Space Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Haiqing; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    In order to meet the demand to acquire necessary information efficiently from large electronic text, the Question and Answering (QA) technology to show a clear reply automatically to a question asked in the user's natural language has widely attracted attention in recent years. Although the research of QA system in China is later than that in western countries and Japan, it has attracted more and more attention recently. In this paper, we propose a Question-Answering construction, which synthesizes the answer retrieval to the questions asked most frequently based on common knowledge, and the document retrieval concerning sightseeing information. In order to improve reply accuracy, one must consider the synthetic model based on statistic VSM and the shallow semantic analysis, and the domain is limited to sightseeing information. A Chinese QA system about sightseeing based on the proposed method has been built. The result is obtained by evaluation experiments, where high accuracy can be achieved when the results of retrieval were regarded as correct, if the correct answer appeared among those of the top three resemblance degree. The experiments proved the efficiency of our method and it is feasible to develop Question-Answering technology based on this method.

  5. Have the Answers to Common Legal Questions Concerning Nutrition Support Changed Over the Past Decade? 10 Questions for 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Barrocas, Albert; Cohen, Michael L

    2016-06-01

    Clinical nutrition specialists (CNSs) are often confronted with technological, ethical, and legal questions, that is, what can be done technologically, what should be done ethically, and what must be done legally, which conflict at times. The conflict represents a "troubling trichotomy" as discussed in the lead article of this issue of Nutrition in Clinical Practice (NCP). During Clinical Nutrition Week in 2006, a symposium covering these 3 topics was presented, and later that year, an article covering the same topic was published in NCP In this article, we revisit several legal questions/issues that were raised 10 years ago and discuss current answers and approaches. Some of the answers remain unchanged. Other answers have been modified by additional legislation, court decisions, or regulations. In addition, new questions/issues have arisen. Some of the most common questions regarding nutrition support involve the following: liability, informed consent, medical decisional incapacity vs legal competence, advance directive specificity, surrogate decision making, physician orders for life-sustaining treatment and electronic medical orders for life-sustaining treatment, legal definition of death, patient vs family decision making, the noncompliant patient, and elder abuse obligations. In the current healthcare environment, these questions and issues are best addressed via a transdisciplinary team that focuses on function rather than form. The CNS can play a pivotal role in dealing with these challenges by applying the acronym ACT: being Accountable and Communicating with all stakeholders while actively participating as an integral part of the transdisciplinary Team.

  6. Analysis of the question-answer service of the Emma Children's Hospital information centre.

    PubMed

    Kruisinga, Frea H; Heinen, Richard C; Heymans, Hugo S A

    2010-07-01

    The information centre of the Emma Children's Hospital AMC (EKZ AMC) is a specialised information centre where paediatric patients and persons involved with the patient can ask questions about all aspects of disease and its social implications. The aim of the study was to evaluate the question-answer service of this information centre in order to determine the role of a specialised information centre in an academic children's hospital, identify the appropriate resources for the service and potential positive effects. For this purpose, a case management system was developed in MS ACCESS. The characteristics of the requester and the question, the time it took to answer questions, the information sources used and the extent to which we were able to answer the questions were registered. The costs of the service were determined. We analysed all questions that were asked in the year 2007. Fourteen hundred thirty-four questions were asked. Most questions were asked by parents (23.3%), healthcare workers (other than nurses; 16.5%) and nurses (15.3%). The scope of the most frequently asked questions include disease (20.2%) and treatment (13.0%). Information on paper was the main information source used. Most questions could be solved within 15 min. Twelve percent to 28% of total working hours are used for the question-answer service. Total costs including staff salary are rather large. In conclusions, taking over the task of providing additional medical information and by providing readily available, good quality information that healthcare professionals can use to inform their patients will lead to less time investment of these more expensive staff members. A specialised information service can anticipate on the information need of parents and persons involved with the paediatric patient. It improves information by providing with relatively simple resources that has the potential to improve patient and parent satisfaction, coping and medical results. A specialised

  7. The communication skills used by deaf children and their hearing peers in a question-and-answer game context.

    PubMed

    Toe, Dianne M; Paatsch, Louise E

    2010-01-01

    Communication is frequently characterized by a sequence of questions and answers. Little is known about how well students who are deaf or hard of hearing (deaf/HH) understand their hearing classmates in the context of an inclusive setting. This study explored the communication skills used by deaf/HH children when asking and answering questions in a "trivia" game with their hearing peers. Thirty-four children with normal hearing and 34 children with a hearing loss ranging from mild to profound (>90 dB HL) participated in this study. Each of the 34 dyads included 1 child with normal hearing and 1 child with hearing loss, matched by gender and grade level at school. Dyads were videotaped and analyzed. Pairs were compared in terms of their capacity to repeat the question, strategies used to seek information, and accuracy of responses. Results showed that the group of hearing children was able to repeat more questions verbatim compared to the deaf/HH children. The deaf/HH group required a significantly greater number of repetitions, sought a greater number of general clarifications, and correctly answered more questions compared with the group of hearing children. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of peer communication and pragmatic skill development.

  8. What Can We Learn from Students' Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commeyras, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    Creating opportunities and encouraging student-centered questioning requires a special teacher-student dynamic. Students need to be empowered to ask questions. The article explores what teachers can learn from questions students ask, focusing on learning outcomes for teachers, and using a second-grade lesson on Harriet Tubman as an example. (SM)

  9. Surgical video displays and booms. We answer your questions about selection and installation.

    PubMed

    2011-05-01

    If you're renovating your operating rooms or constructing new ones, you probably have a lot of basic questions about device requirements and the purchasing process. Do devices need to meet electrical safety standards? Is equipment described as "medical grade" better? Is it important to buy your displays from your surgical boom vendor or your integration provider? Here are answers to those and other questions we're often asked.

  10. "Laying Bare of Questions Which Have Been Hidden by Answers": The English Language Arts Standards of the Common Core, K-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jane M.; Reilly, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The authors question the answer the national Common Core State Standards (CCSS, 2010) claims. The questions center on the validity of the new standardized tests based on the CCSS and teachers' evaluations being tied to student test scores on flawed tests. The proposed tests on the CCSS will position children as deficient, and will not recognize…

  11. 78 FR 69671 - Community Reinvestment Act; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Community Reinvestment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) in 1996 (61 FR 54647) and were last revised by the Agencies on March 11, 2010 (2010 Questions and Answers) (75 FR 11642). On March 18, 2013... ] redesignate one Q&A without substantive change. \\1\\ See 78 FR 16765 (Mar. 18, 2013). Together, the...

  12. 75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as Established by the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007... information to the industry in complying with the Reportable Food Registry requirements prescribed by the...

  13. The Doctor Is In: Practical Answers to Perplexing Questions about Classroom Reading Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutknecht, Bruce

    To address the gap perceived by classroom reading teachers between research findings and reading process theories and the realities of classroom reading instruction, this paper poses six questions/problems often asked by reading teachers, and answers them with information drawn from current research and theory. Topics covered in the questions…

  14. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    .... Background In the Federal Register of July 9, 2009 (74 FR 33030), FDA issued a final rule requiring shell egg... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 16 and 118 Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

  15. 78 FR 44483 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    .... Background In the Federal Register of July 9, 2009 (74 FR 33030), FDA issued a final rule requiring shell egg... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 118 Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During...

  16. Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hively, Wells

    1984-01-01

    Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.…

  17. Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more…

  18. Let's Talk About Food. Answers to your Questions About Foods and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Philip L., Ed.; Selvey, Nancy, Ed.

    This book on the subject of nutrition is written in the form of often-asked questions and detailed, informative answers. In ten chapters the following range of nutrition topics is covered: (1) meaning of RDA, nutrition labeling, calorie tables, nutrient density; (2) adequate diet, pregnancy, physical fitness, vitamins, diet for athletes, baby…

  19. Technical Approaches for Answering the Question: What is the condition of the Nation's Waters?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys were designed to answer the question of the status and trends in the condition of each of our aquatic resources: coastal waters, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams and wetlands. At the higher levels, the EPA is consistently asked a see...

  20. PARAMEDICAL AND HEALTH RELATED PROGRAMS IN THE JUNIOR COLLEGE--SOME QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SKAGGS, K.G.

    AT THE ALABAMA STATE CONFERENCE ON PARAMEDICAL EDUCATION IN JUNE 1966, PARTICIPANTS IDENTIFIED 37 PROBLEMS FOR DISCUSSION. THIS REPORT STATES THE QUESTIONS AND THE ANSWERS OFFERED BY CONSULTANTS AT THE CONFERENCE. TOPICS ARE (1) ASSOCIATE DEGREE NURSING PROGRAMS, WITH EMPHASIS ON ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION, THE ROLE OF ADMINISTRATORS, PERSONNEL…

  1. Young Children's Sensitivity to New and Given Information when Answering Predicate-Focus Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In two studies we investigated 2-year-old children's answers to predicate-focus questions depending on the preceding context. Children were presented with a successive series of short video clips showing transitive actions (e.g., frog washing duck) in which either the action (action-new) or the patient (patient-new) was the changing, and therefore…

  2. Long-Term Follow-Up of Echolalia and Question Answering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxx, R. M.; Faw, Gerald D.

    1990-01-01

    A long-term followup (from 26 to 57 months) of echolalia and correct question-answering was conducted with six mentally retarded adult subjects identified from three previously published studies. Echolalia was lower than in baseline in 80.6 percent of the followups. Issues related to the study of maintenance are discussed. (Author/DB)

  3. Automatic Classification of Question & Answer Discourse Segments from Teacher's Speech in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Nathaniel; D'Mello, Sidney; Olney, Andrew M.; Nystrand, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Question-answer (Q&A) is fundamental for dialogic instruction, an important pedagogical technique based on the free exchange of ideas and open-ended discussion. Automatically detecting Q&A is key to providing teachers with feedback on appropriate use of dialogic instructional strategies. In line with this, this paper studies the…

  4. 76 FR 64175 - Loans in Areas Having Special Flood Hazards; Interagency Questions and Answers Regarding Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Insurance'' (Interagency Questions and Answers), which were published on July 21, 2009 (74 FR 35914). Based...) could consider permissible methods, such as the RCV used in a hazard insurance policy (recognizing that... properties,\\6\\ insurance policies should be written to, and the insurance loss payout would be the...

  5. Olympian Parents Answer the Question of How Parents Contribute towards Their Child's Academic Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James Reed

    2011-01-01

    How do parents contribute toward their child's academic productivity? This article analyzes studies conducted over the last 30 years on this topic. During these three decades a number of theories and theoretical frameworks have been developed to answer this fundamental question. There have been nine national studies published and six reviews of…

  6. Question-Answer Activities in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms in Terms of Interest and Usefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydemir, Melike; Kursun, Engin; Karaman, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Instructors generally convey their face to face habits to synchronous virtual classrooms, but these face to face strategies do not work in these environments. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of question type and answer format used in synchronous class implementations on perceived interest and usefulness. To…

  7. The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) - Some questions and answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ficke, John F.; Hawkinson, Richard O.

    1975-01-01

    One of the major new efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey is the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN). This circular is intended to answer some of the frequently asked questions concerning concepts used in establishing NASQAN, its purposes, design, value, and future plans.

  8. A Questioning-Answering Program for Simple Kernel Sentences (QUE2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Bill

    QUE2 is a recently devised, natural language, questioning-answering program written in LISP1-5. It deals in simple, kernel sentences and employs the theory that the semantic content of a sentence is the set of relationships between conceptual objects (represented by the words in it), which the sentence and its structure imply. The data base of the…

  9. Tax Information for Refugees and Their Sponsors: Questions and Answers. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internal Revenue Service (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This guide provides Federal income tax information for refugees and their sponsors. Issues covered in a question and answer format include: (1) the tax status of refugees; (2) the criteria for declaring a refugee a dependent; (3) deductions for contributions to refugees or organizations that support them; (4) the distinction between resident and…

  10. Performance Improvement in Automatic Question Answering System Based on Dependency Term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianxing; Yuan, Xiaojie; Yu, Shitao; Ning, Hua; Wang, Chenying

    Automatic Question Answering (QA) system has become quite popular in recent years, especially since the QA tracks appeared at Text REtrieval Conference (TREC). However, using only lexical information, the keyword-based information retrieval cannot fully describe the characteristics of natural language, thus the system performance cannot make people satisfied. It is proposed in this paper a definition of dependency term, based on the dependency grammar, employing the natural language dependency structure, as the improvement of the term, to support the typical information retrieval models. It is in fact a solution for a special application in XML information retrieval (XML IR) field. Experiments show that: dependency-term-based information retrieval model effectively describes the characteristics of natural language questions, and improves the performance of automatic question answering system.

  11. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  12. Vector measure for the intelligence of a Question-Answering (Q-A) system

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, A.; Rajaraman, V.

    1995-05-01

    The problem of quantification of intelligence of humans, and of intelligent systems, has been a challenging and controversial topic. IQ tests have been traditionally used to quantify human intelligence based on results of test designed by psychologists. It is in general very difficult to quantify intelligence. In this paper we consider a simple Question-Answering (Q-A) system and use this to quantify intelligence. We quantify intelligence as a vector with three components. The components consist of a measure of knowledge in asking questions, effectiveness of questions asked, and correctness of deduction. We formalize these parameters and have conducted experiments on humans to measure these parameters. 20 refs.

  13. Partially Correct Constructs Illuminate Students' Inconsistent Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ron, Gila; Dreyfus, Tommy; Hershkowitz, Rina

    2010-01-01

    We present a view of knowledge construction processes, focusing on partially correct constructs. Motivated by unexpected and seemingly inconsistent quantitative data based on the written reports of students working on an elementary probability task, we analyze in detail the knowledge construction processes of a representative student. We show how…

  14. Recruiting Students into Nursing: Prior Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipps, Opal S.

    1983-01-01

    Raises fundamental questions regarding student recruitment: (1) why recruit students into nursing? (2) what are the issues that determine whether a school should have a nursing program? and (3) what are students being recruited into? (JOW)

  15. 26 CFR 1.706-2T - Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. 1.706-2T Section 1.706-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...-2T Temporary regulations; question and answer under the Tax Reform Act of 1984. Question 1:...

  16. Student Performance: Is More Money the Answer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2005-01-01

    As the amount of money available for various publicly supported enterprises decreases, the relationship of money to purchases made intensifies as a concern. This question of input to output always has been an economist's focus of concern. However, the production function analyses carried out have been inconclusive, as the output for educational…

  17. Improving the Questions Students Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue-Smith, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    Teachers often tell their classes that "there is no such thing as a stupid question." But this is not completely honest. Questions aren't asked in a vacuum; their intelligence or stupidity depends on a variety of contextual variables. The ideal question is the right one, posed to the right source in the right way at the right time for the right…

  18. Guiding Students to Answers: Query Recommendation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmazel, Ozgur

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a guided navigation system built on the textbook search engine developed at Anadolu University to support distance education students. The search engine uses Turkish Language specific language processing modules to enable searches over course material presented in Open Education Faculty textbooks. We implemented a guided…

  19. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  20. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  1. EVIDENCE AND CLINICAL DECISIONS: Asking the Right Questions to Obtain Clinically Useful Answers

    PubMed Central

    Proffit, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Orthodontists need to know the effectiveness, efficiency and predictability of treatment approaches and methods, which can be learned only by carefully studying and evaluating treatment outcomes. The best data for outcomes come from randomized clinical trials (RCTs), but retrospective data can provide satisfactory evidence if the subjects were a well-defined patient group, all the patients were accounted for, and the percentages of patients with various possible outcomes are presented along with measures of the central tendency and variation. Meta-analysis of multiple RCTs done in a similar way and systematic reviews of the literature can strengthen clinically-useful evidence, but reviews that are too broadly based are more likely to blur than clarify the information clinicians need. Reviews that are tightly focused on seeking the answer to specific clinical questions and evaluating the quality of the evidence available to answer the question are much more likely to provide clinically useful data. PMID:24198455

  2. Changes in How Prospective Teachers Anticipate Secondary Students' Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llinares, Salvador; Fernández, Ceneida; Sánchez-Matamoros, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on how prospective teachers learn about students' mathematical thinking when (1) anticipating secondary students' answers reflecting different characteristics of understanding, and (2) propose new activities in relation to the classification of quadrilaterals. The data were collected from forty-eight prospective secondary school…

  3. Apparel Marketing. [Student Manual] and Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Melissa Lynn

    This document on apparel marketing contains both a student's manual and an answer book/teacher's guide. The student's manual contains the following 16 assignments: (1) introduction to fashion and fashion merchandising; (2) current fashion; (3) careers in fashion; (4) buying; (5) retailing; (6) merchandise basics; (7) merchandise--promotion and…

  4. AGU Climate Scientists Offer Question-and-Answer Service for Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Stacy

    2010-03-01

    In fall 2009, AGU launched a member-driven pilot project to improve the accuracy of climate science coverage in the media and to improve public understanding of climate science. The project's goal was to increase the accessibility of climate science experts to journalists across the full spectrum of media outlets. As a supplement to the traditional one-to-one journalist-expert relationship model, the project tested the novel approach of providing a question-and-answer (Q&A) service with a pool of expert scientists and a Web-based interface with journalists. Questions were explicitly limited to climate science to maintain a nonadvocacy, nonpartisan perspective.

  5. Effects of Regulatory Self-Questioning on Secondary-Level Students' Problem-Solving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Michael L.; Miller, Greg

    2011-01-01

    A randomized posttest-only control group experimental design was used to determine the effects of regulatory self-questioning on secondary-level career and technical education students' electrical circuit theory test scores. Students who participated in the self-questioning group were asked to answer a list of regulatory questions as they solved…

  6. Answering the Questions of Whether and When Learning Occurs: Using Discrete-Time Survival Analysis to Investigate the Ways in Which College Chemistry Students' Ideas about Structure-Property Relationships Evolve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Sonia M.; Reyes-Gastelum, David; Cooper, Melanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies can provide significant insights into how students develop competence in a topic or subject area over time. However, there are many barriers, such as retention of students in the study and the complexity of data analysis, that make these studies rare. Here, we present how a statistical framework, discrete-time survival…

  7. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  8. Social Question and Answer Services versus Library Virtual Reference: Evaluation and Comparison from the Users' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yin; Deng, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, the introduction of social question and answer services and other Internet tools have expanded the ways in which people have their questions answered. There has been speculation and debate over whether such services and other Internet tools are replacing library virtual reference services. Method: Most previous…

  9. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  10. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  11. Can zoo records help answer behavioral research questions? The case of the left-handed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Hosey, Geoff; Hill, Sonya P; Lherbier, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    Most zoos keep comprehensive records, which potentially form a database for use in answering some research questions, such as in veterinary and population management research. They have not, however, been widely used to answer questions about animal behavior and welfare. Here we try to assess the usefulness to behavioral research of two sorts of zoo records (ARKS, the Animal Records Keeping System, and student dissertations held on file) to test the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs with a left limb preference experience more negative social lives. We found that, as predicted, lemurs with a left limb preference (LH) received more aggression and were involved in less grooming than nonleft-preferent lemurs (NLH), though the differences were not statistically significant. Contrary to prediction, LH lemurs had fewer reported woundings than NLH lemurs, but again the difference was not statistically significant. We found that the ARKS reports did not contain sufficient quantified and systematic behavioral data for our purposes, although otherwise they provided an excellent context for interpreting results. The student dissertations were also of limited use, primarily because of the small time frame in which they were carried out. Because of these shortcomings we were unable to distinguish whether our inability to find significant effects was due to biological (perhaps hand preference had no consequences for the lemurs) or data reasons. We suggest that closer liaison between zoo research staff, zoo record keepers and academic supervisors could help to improve the usefulness of zoo records for behavioral research. PMID:21674604

  12. Can zoo records help answer behavioral research questions? The case of the left-handed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Hosey, Geoff; Hill, Sonya P; Lherbier, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    Most zoos keep comprehensive records, which potentially form a database for use in answering some research questions, such as in veterinary and population management research. They have not, however, been widely used to answer questions about animal behavior and welfare. Here we try to assess the usefulness to behavioral research of two sorts of zoo records (ARKS, the Animal Records Keeping System, and student dissertations held on file) to test the hypothesis that ring-tailed lemurs with a left limb preference experience more negative social lives. We found that, as predicted, lemurs with a left limb preference (LH) received more aggression and were involved in less grooming than nonleft-preferent lemurs (NLH), though the differences were not statistically significant. Contrary to prediction, LH lemurs had fewer reported woundings than NLH lemurs, but again the difference was not statistically significant. We found that the ARKS reports did not contain sufficient quantified and systematic behavioral data for our purposes, although otherwise they provided an excellent context for interpreting results. The student dissertations were also of limited use, primarily because of the small time frame in which they were carried out. Because of these shortcomings we were unable to distinguish whether our inability to find significant effects was due to biological (perhaps hand preference had no consequences for the lemurs) or data reasons. We suggest that closer liaison between zoo research staff, zoo record keepers and academic supervisors could help to improve the usefulness of zoo records for behavioral research.

  13. A Semi-Supervised Learning Approach to Enhance Health Care Community–Based Question Answering: A Case Study in Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Klabjan, Diego; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-based question answering (CQA) sites play an important role in addressing health information needs. However, a significant number of posted questions remain unanswered. Automatically answering the posted questions can provide a useful source of information for Web-based health communities. Objective In this study, we developed an algorithm to automatically answer health-related questions based on past questions and answers (QA). We also aimed to understand information embedded within Web-based health content that are good features in identifying valid answers. Methods Our proposed algorithm uses information retrieval techniques to identify candidate answers from resolved QA. To rank these candidates, we implemented a semi-supervised leaning algorithm that extracts the best answer to a question. We assessed this approach on a curated corpus from Yahoo! Answers and compared against a rule-based string similarity baseline. Results On our dataset, the semi-supervised learning algorithm has an accuracy of 86.2%. Unified medical language system–based (health related) features used in the model enhance the algorithm’s performance by proximately 8%. A reasonably high rate of accuracy is obtained given that the data are considerably noisy. Important features distinguishing a valid answer from an invalid answer include text length, number of stop words contained in a test question, a distance between the test question and other questions in the corpus, and a number of overlapping health-related terms between questions. Conclusions Overall, our automated QA system based on historical QA pairs is shown to be effective according to the dataset in this case study. It is developed for general use in the health care domain, which can also be applied to other CQA sites. PMID:27485666

  14. Using Questioning To Guide Student Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily; Minstrell, Jim

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes ways in which an experienced physics teacher uses questioning to guide student thinking during a benchmark discussion on measurement. Proposes that teachers may shift toward more reflective discourse by asking questions that help students clarify their meanings, consider various points of view, and monitor their own thinking. (Author/DKM)

  15. An Introduction to Internet Resources for K-12 Educators. Part II: Question Answering, Electronic Discussion Groups, Newsgroups, Update 1999. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Nancy A.

    As K-12 schools connect to the Internet, a new method of communication opens up to educators and their students. This ERIC Digest describes some sample services and resources that are available to the K-12 community by electronic mail over the Internet (resources and addresses are subject to change). Question answering services, electronic…

  16. The potential for automated question answering in the context of genomic medicine: an assessment of existing resources and properties of answers.

    PubMed

    Overby, Casey Lynnette; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge gained in studies of genetic disorders is reported in a growing body of biomedical literature containing reports of genetic variation in individuals that map to medical conditions and/or response to therapy. These scientific discoveries need to be translated into practical applications to optimize patient care. Translating research into practice can be facilitated by supplying clinicians with research evidence. We assessed the role of existing tools in extracting answers to translational research questions in the area of genomic medicine. We: evaluate the coverage of translational research terms in the Unified Medical Language Systems (UMLS) Metathesaurus; determine where answers are most often found in full-text articles; and determine common answer patterns. Findings suggest that we will be able to leverage the UMLS in development of natural language processing algorithms for automated extraction of answers to translational research questions from biomedical text in the area of genomic medicine. PMID:19761578

  17. The potential for automated question answering in the context of genomic medicine: An assessment of existing resources and properties of answers.

    PubMed

    Overby, Casey Lynnette; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge gained in studies of genetic disorders is reported in a growing body of biomedical literature containing reports of genetic variation in individuals that map to medical conditions and/or response to therapy. These scientific discoveries need to be translated into practical applications to optimize patient care. Translating research into practice can be facilitated by supplying clinicians with research evidence. We assessed the role of existing tools in extracting answers to translational research questions in the area of genomic medicine. We: evaluate the coverage of translational research terms in the Unified Medical Language Systems (UMLS) Metathesaurus; determine where answers are most often found in full-text articles; and determine common answer patterns. Findings suggest that we will be able to leverage the UMLS in development of natural language processing algorithms for automated extraction of answers to translational research questions from biomedical text in the area of genomic medicine. PMID:21347155

  18. Evaluating the Use of In-situ and Remote Sensing Data to Answer Critical Hydrological Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Water demands of the 21st Century pose challenges for effective decision-making and viable management of hydrological resources. As competition for water becomes more complex, the use of technology to maximize finite water resources becomes increasingly critical. Therefore, accurate methods of gauging relevant data streams must be developed and improved at every level, from basic and applied research to water management to policy oversight. How can the relative value for answering critical hydrologic questions of prospective data streams be gauged? Advancements in technology are producing multiple new sources of hydrological data from in-situ platforms and the developing resource of remote sensing platforms. The in-situ and remote sensing data available from these new sources can be used complementarily to provide answers to critical water resource management questions. Analyses that identify which combination of data resources will offer the most effective methodology for quantifying hydrological variables will establish new best practices for water management. We are going to use new techniques of data assimilation to establish a process for identifying and evaluating the method that provides the most quantitative means for answering key hydrological questions. This research will outline a method for evaluating specific in-situ and remote sensing data sets for complementary use in managing flood hazards, assessing water flows, and improving irrigation practices, to name a few. This will result in improved understanding of multisensory data and its analysis which, in turn, will lead to better informed decision-making, improved policy development and future governance regarding hydrological systems in any given watershed scenario. *** Image: Preliminary Research Road Map / Poster will highlight Quantitative Research (step 1)

  19. Management of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease: frequently asked questions and answers (if any).

    PubMed

    Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Vitti, P

    2016-10-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-replete areas. Although progress has been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, no treatment targeting pathogenic mechanisms of the disease is presently available. Therapies for Graves' hyperthyroidism are largely imperfect because they are bound to either a high rate of relapsing hyperthyroidism (antithyroid drugs) or lifelong hypothyroidism (radioiodine treatment or thyroidectomy). Aim of the present article is to offer a practical guidance to the reader by providing evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions in clinical practice. PMID:27319009

  20. [Veno-venous extracorporeal oxygenation and veno-arterial extracorporeal oxygenation. Questions, answers].

    PubMed

    Isetta, C; Lebreton, G; Janot, N; Prommenschenkel, M; Rilos, Z; Roques, F; Longrois, D

    2014-04-01

    A round table, organized by the French Society of Perfusion (Sofraperf) at the French national congress on extracorporeal circulations (Perfusion 2013), was attended by perfusionists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists and surgeons around the theme of respiratory veno-venous support and veno-arterial circulatory support with extracorporeal oxygenation in intensive care units. The debate was conducted in a participatory manner by bi-directional questions-answers session between moderators and assistance. The authors report management of this type of therapy that is not perfectly homogeneous, supported on literature data. Cannulae, cannulation, circuit, oxygenator, anticoagulation, control, surveillance, weaning are subject to paragraphs with defined entry whose contents are mutually enriching.

  1. Management of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease: frequently asked questions and answers (if any).

    PubMed

    Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Vitti, P

    2016-10-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-replete areas. Although progress has been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, no treatment targeting pathogenic mechanisms of the disease is presently available. Therapies for Graves' hyperthyroidism are largely imperfect because they are bound to either a high rate of relapsing hyperthyroidism (antithyroid drugs) or lifelong hypothyroidism (radioiodine treatment or thyroidectomy). Aim of the present article is to offer a practical guidance to the reader by providing evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions in clinical practice.

  2. [Veno-venous extracorporeal oxygenation and veno-arterial extracorporeal oxygenation. Questions, answers].

    PubMed

    Isetta, C; Lebreton, G; Janot, N; Prommenschenkel, M; Rilos, Z; Roques, F; Longrois, D

    2014-04-01

    A round table, organized by the French Society of Perfusion (Sofraperf) at the French national congress on extracorporeal circulations (Perfusion 2013), was attended by perfusionists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists and surgeons around the theme of respiratory veno-venous support and veno-arterial circulatory support with extracorporeal oxygenation in intensive care units. The debate was conducted in a participatory manner by bi-directional questions-answers session between moderators and assistance. The authors report management of this type of therapy that is not perfectly homogeneous, supported on literature data. Cannulae, cannulation, circuit, oxygenator, anticoagulation, control, surveillance, weaning are subject to paragraphs with defined entry whose contents are mutually enriching. PMID:24630169

  3. Practical question-and-answer guide on VDTS (video display terminals) for BEES (base bioenvironmental engineer). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    The USAF OEHL conducted an extensive literature review of Video Display Terminals (VDTs) and the health problems commonly associated with them. The report is presented in a question-and-answer format in an attempt to paraphrase the most commonly asked questions about VDTs that are forwarded to USAF OEHL/RZN. The questions and answers have been divided into several topic areas: Ionizing Radiation; Nonionizing Radiation; Optical Radiation; Ultrasound; Static Electricity; Health Complaints/Ergonomics; Pregnancy.

  4. How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

  5. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  6. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  7. Violations of information structure: An electrophysiological study of answers to wh-questions

    PubMed Central

    Cowles, H. Wind; Kluender, Robert; Kutas, Marta; Polinsky, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates brain responses to violations of information structure in wh-question-answer pairs, with particular emphasis on violations of focus assignment in it-clefts (It was the queen that silenced the banker). Two types of ERP responses in answers to wh-questions were found. First, all words in the focus-marking (cleft) position elicited a large positivity (P3b) characteristic of sentence-final constituents, as did the final words of these sentences, which suggests that focused elements may trigger integration effects like those seen at sentence end. Second, the focusing of an inappropriate referent elicited a smaller, N400-like effect. The results show that comprehenders actively use structural focus cues and discourse-level restrictions during online sentence processing. These results, based on visual stimuli, were different from the brain response to auditory focus violations indicated by pitch-accent (Hruska et al. 2000), but similar to brain responses to newly introduced discourse referents (Bornkessel et al. 2003). PMID:17517429

  8. Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

  9. Randomized trial for answers to clinical questions: Evaluating a pre-appraised versus a MEDLINE search protocol

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manesh R.; Schardt, Connie M.; Sanders, Linda L.; Keitz, Sheri A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The paper compares the speed, validity, and applicability of two different protocols for searching the primary medical literature. Design: A randomized trial involving medicine residents was performed. Setting: An inpatient general medicine rotation was used. Participants: Thirty-two internal medicine residents were block randomized into four groups of eight. Main Outcome Measures: Success rate of each search protocol was measured by perceived search time, number of questions answered, and proportion of articles that were applicable and valid. Results: Residents randomized to the MEDLINE-first (protocol A) group searched 120 questions, and residents randomized to the MEDLINE-last (protocol B) searched 133 questions. In protocol A, 104 answers (86.7%) and, in protocol B, 117 answers (88%) were found to clinical questions. In protocol A, residents reported that 26 (25.2%) of the answers were obtained quickly or rated as “fast” (<5 minutes) as opposed to 55 (51.9%) in protocol B, (P = 0.0004). A subset of questions and articles (n = 79) were reviewed by faculty who found that both protocols identified similar numbers of answer articles that addressed the questions and were felt to be valid using critical appraisal criteria. Conclusion: For resident-generated clinical questions, both protocols produced a similarly high percentage of applicable and valid articles. The MEDLINE-last search protocol was perceived to be faster. However, in the MEDLINE-last protocol, a significant portion of questions (23%) still required searching MEDLINE to find an answer. PMID:17082828

  10. Re-Appropriating a Question/Answer System to Support Dialectical Constructivist Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John M.; Wu, Yu; Shih, Patrick C.; Zheng, Saijing

    2016-01-01

    Learning can be engaged by dialectic, that is, by identifying pros and cons that inhere in propositions, and more generally, by raising questions about the validity of claims. We report here on a classroom case study of dialectical constructivist pedagogy: Students created dialectical analyses of two lectures and four books as core activities in a…

  11. The Effectiveness of a Question-Exploration Routine for Enhancing the Content Learning of Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgren, Janis A.; Marquis, Janet G.; Lenz, B. Keith; Deshler, Donald D.; Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a question-exploration routine and an associated graphic organizer on students' ability to think about and answer complex questions. Participants were 116 students of diverse abilities in seven 7th grade classes. The effects of the routine were compared with the effects of a traditional…

  12. The Answering System to Yes-No Truth-Functional Questions in Korean-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in "Br J Psychol" 52:133-142,…

  13. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX EQUITY AND FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY ACT OF 1982 § 35.3405-1 Questions and answers relating to... Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by section 334 of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Tax...

  14. 75 FR 52427 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Effect of Section 4205 of the Patient...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... requirements for nutrition labeling of standard menu items for chain retail food establishments and chain... menu items (``chain retail food establishments'') to disclose specific nutrition information about... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding...

  15. A Cost-Consequences Analysis of a Primary Care Librarian Question and Answering Service

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Zhong, Jianwei; Zhao, Xue

    2012-01-01

    Background Cost consequences analysis was completed from randomized controlled trial (RCT) data for the Just-in-time (JIT) librarian consultation service in primary care that ran from October 2005 to April 2006. The service was aimed at providing answers to clinical questions arising during the clinical encounter while the patient waits. Cost saving and cost avoidance were also analyzed. The data comes from eighty-eight primary care providers in the Ottawa area working in Family Health Networks (FHNs) and Family Health Groups (FHGs). Methods We conducted a cost consequences analysis based on data from the JIT project [1]. We also estimated the potential economic benefit of JIT librarian consultation service to the health care system. Results The results show that the cost per question for the JIT service was $38.20. The cost could be as low as $5.70 per question for a regular service. Nationally, if this service was implemented and if family physicians saw additional patients when the JIT service saved them time, up to 61,100 extra patients could be seen annually. A conservative estimate of the cost savings and cost avoidance per question for JIT was $11.55. Conclusions The cost per question, if the librarian service was used at full capacity, is quite low. Financial savings to the health care system might exceed the cost of the service. Saving physician's time during their day could potentially lead to better access to family physicians by patients. Implementing a librarian consultation service can happen quickly as the time required to train professional librarians to do this service is short. PMID:22442727

  16. Answers to Common Questions About the Use and Safety of CT Scans.

    PubMed

    McCollough, Cynthia H; Bushberg, Jerrold T; Fletcher, Joel G; Eckel, Laurence J

    2015-10-01

    Articles in the scientific literature and lay press over the past several years have implied that computed tomography (CT) may cause cancer and that physicians and patients must exercise caution in its use. Although there is broad agreement on the latter point--unnecessary medical tests of any type should always be avoided--there is considerable controversy surrounding the question of whether, or to what extent, CT scans can lead to future cancers. Although the doses used in CT are higher than those used in conventional radiographic examinations, they are still 10 to 100 times lower than the dose levels that have been reported to increase the risk of cancer. Despite the fact that at the low doses associated with a CT scan the risk either is too low to be convincingly demonstrated or does not exist, the magnitude of the concern among patients and some medical professionals that CT scans increase cancer risk remains unreasonably high. In this article, common questions about CT scanning and radiation are answered to provide physicians with accurate information on which to base their medical decisions and respond to patient questions. PMID:26434964

  17. STS-80 CREW ANSWERS PRESS QUESTIONS AT PAD 39B DURING TERMINAL COUNTDOWN DEMONSTRATION TEST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-80 crew members participating in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch, talk to press representatives (off camera) and answer their questions at Launch Pad 39B. From left, are Mission Specialists Thomas D. Jones and Tamara E. Jernigan, Commander Kenneth D. Cockrell (with microphone), Pilot Kent V. Rominger and Mission Specialist Story Musgrave. The STS-80 mission, the seventh and final Shuttle flight of 1996, will feature two spacewalks and the deployment, operation and retrieval of two scientific satellites, the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer- Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (ORFEUS-SPAS-2) and the Wake Shield Facility-3 (WSF-3). The mission will be conducted aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Columbia.

  18. A research note about military-civilian humanitarianism: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, T G

    1997-06-01

    'Military-civilian humanitarianism'--or the coming together of military forces and civilian aid agencies to deal with the human suffering from complex emergencies--has numerous forms, but disenchantment has resulted from the Somalia and Bosnia syndromes. There is little political will at present, but evidence from the immediate post-Cold War era suggests how multilateral military operations could expand or contract in future to the benefit or peril of war victims. Partly a literature review but more importantly a framework for interpreting recent publications, this essay seeks to move beyond exchanging assertions. There is a contextualisation of recent literature; a definition of military-civilian humanitarianism; a discussion of possible military contributions to humanitarian action; a framework to assess the effectiveness of military-civilian humanitarianism; and a preliminary analysis of experience from northern Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia, Rwanda and Haiti. Caveat lector: At this point in time, there are still 'more questions than answers'. PMID:9235222

  19. Did you know? A question and answer dialogue for the orofacial myologist.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert M; Role, Ellen B

    2009-11-01

    This article addresses selected concepts and procedures related to orofacial myology in a question and answer format. Topics include tongue-tip placement for swallowing; a masseter-contraction swallow; temporary anchorage devices utilized in orthodontic treatment; relapse following orthodontic treatment; some advantages and disadvantages of fixed and removable orthodontic appliances; the extraction of teeth in orthodontic treatment; posterior and anterior crossbite considerations; and the importance of recasting the emphasis and focus of myofunctional therapy to orofacial rest posture therapy. In addition, this article promotes projects that orofacial myologists and orthodontists can mutually undertake to assist in advancing the data base regarding orofacial myofunctional disorders, thereby serving to enhance the reputation and value of orofacial myofunctional therapy within the dental profession. PMID:20572434

  20. Disaster care: questions and answers on pandemic influenza. Striking a balance between risk and preparedness.

    PubMed

    Davey, Victoria J

    2007-07-01

    Disaster planning based on events such as floods or hurricanes, which are local or regional in scale, may be inadequate for responding to a lethal influenza pandemic that has the potential to overwhelm existing public health infrastructures. However, if a mild strain of the virus achieves pandemic proportions, the current public health system may be able to manage the outbreak relatively easily. Therefore, the challenge in pandemic influenza planning is to find a balance between risk and preparedness. Planners and policy makers must make realistic estimates of the consequences of a pandemic and allocate limited resources wisely, so that everyday health care and social needs aren't shortchanged. This article examines what we've learned from past influenza pandemics and answers some frequently asked questions about pandemics and how to prepare for them.

  1. Questionnaires for eliciting evaluation data from users of interactive question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Diane; Kantor, Paul B.; Morse, Emile; Scholtz, Jean; Sun, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating interactive question answering (QA) systems with real users can be challenging because traditional evaluation measures based on the relevance of items returned are difficult to employ since relevance judgments can be unstable in multi-user evaluations. The work reported in this paper evaluates, in distinguishing among a set of interactive QA systems, the effectiveness of three questionnaires: a Cognitive Workload Questionnaire (NASA TLX), and Task and System Questionnaires customized to a specific interactive QA application. These Questionnaires were evaluated with four systems, seven analysts, and eight scenarios during a 2-week workshop. Overall, results demonstrate that all three Questionnaires are effective at distinguishing among systems, with the Task Questionnaire being the most sensitive. Results also provide initial support for the validity and reliability of the Questionnaires.

  2. Dense Plasma Focus: A question in search of answers, a technology in search of applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auluck, S. K. H.

    2014-08-01

    Diagnostic information accumulated over four decades of research suggests a directionality of toroidal motion for energetic ions responsible for fusion neutron production in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) and existence of an axial component of magnetic field even under conditions of azimuthal symmetry. This is at variance with the traditional view of Dense Plasma Focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow. The difficulty in understanding the experimental situation from a theoretical standpoint arises from polarity of the observed solenoidal state: three independent experiments confirm existence of a fixed polarity of the axial magnetic field or related azimuthal current. Since the equations governing plasma dynamics do not have a built-in direction, the fixed polarity must be related with initial conditions: the plasma dynamics must interact with an external physical vector in order to generate a solenoidal state of fixed polarity. Only four such external physical vectors can be identified: the earth's magnetic field, earth's angular momentum, direction of current flow and the direction of the plasma accelerator. How interaction of plasma dynamics with these fields can generate observed solenoidal state is a question still in search of answers; this paper outlines one possible answer. The importance of this question goes beyond scientific curiosity into technological uses of the energetic ions and the high-power-density plasma environment. However, commercial utilization of such technologies faces reliability concerns, which can be met only by first-principles integrated design of globally-optimized industrial-quality DPF hardware. Issues involved in the emergence of the Dense Plasma Focus as a technology platform for commercial applications in the not-too-distant future are discussed.

  3. Does the Man in the Moon Ever Sleep? An Analysis of Student Answers about Simple Astronomical Events: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the answers provided by (n=98) 12-year-old students to questions on an end-of-the-year science examination. Points out that although students are able to explain day and night, they have difficulties explaining why the moon always presents the same face to Earth. Addresses implications for teaching and learning. (Contains 17 references.)…

  4. Questions and answers in chronic urticaria: where do we stand and where do we go?

    PubMed

    Maurer, M; Church, M K; Marsland, A M; Sussman, G; Siebenhaar, F; Vestergaard, C; Broom, B

    2016-07-01

    This supplement reports proceedings of the second international Global Urticaria Forum, which was held in Berlin, Germany in November 2015. In 2011, a report of the GA(2) LEN task force on urticaria outlined important and unanswered questions in chronic urticaria (CU). These included, but were not limited to, questions on the epidemiology and course of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) [also called chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU)], the resources allocated for the diagnosis and treatment of CSU, whether patients with angioedema as an isolated symptom can be regarded as a subgroup of CSU, and the efficacy and long-term safety of therapies. Many of these questions have been addressed by recent studies. Some of the answers obtained raise new questions. Here, we summarize some of the key insights on CU obtained over recent years, and we discuss old and new unmet needs and how to address them with future studies. We need to analyze the influence of recent advances in understanding of the burden of CU on patients and society, disease management and the CU patient journey. Our increased understanding of urticarial pathophysiology and consideration of the patient as a whole will need to be translated to better treatment algorithms and protocols. Actions to address these challenges include the 5th International Consensus Meeting on Urticaria, which will take place later this year. The formation of a global network of Urticaria Centers of Reference and Excellence over the next few years has also been proposed, with the aim of providing consistent excellence in urticaria management and a clear referral route, furthering knowledge of urticaria through additional research and educating/promoting awareness of urticaria.

  5. Net Improvement of Correct Answers to Therapy Questions After PubMed Searches: Pre/Post Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Keepanasseril, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinicians search PubMed for answers to clinical questions although it is time consuming and not always successful. Objective To determine if PubMed used with its Clinical Queries feature to filter results based on study quality would improve search success (more correct answers to clinical questions related to therapy). Methods We invited 528 primary care physicians to participate, 143 (27.1%) consented, and 111 (21.0% of the total and 77.6% of those who consented) completed the study. Participants answered 14 yes/no therapy questions and were given 4 of these (2 originally answered correctly and 2 originally answered incorrectly) to search using either the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries narrow therapy filter via a purpose-built system with identical search screens. Participants also picked 3 of the first 20 retrieved citations that best addressed each question. They were then asked to re-answer the original 14 questions. Results We found no statistically significant differences in the rates of correct or incorrect answers using the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries. The rate of correct answers increased from 50.0% to 61.4% (95% CI 55.0%-67.8%) for the PubMed main screen searches and from 50.0% to 59.1% (95% CI 52.6%-65.6%) for Clinical Queries searches. These net absolute increases of 11.4% and 9.1%, respectively, included previously correct answers changing to incorrect at a rate of 9.5% (95% CI 5.6%-13.4%) for PubMed main screen searches and 9.1% (95% CI 5.3%-12.9%) for Clinical Queries searches, combined with increases in the rate of being correct of 20.5% (95% CI 15.2%-25.8%) for PubMed main screen searches and 17.7% (95% CI 12.7%-22.7%) for Clinical Queries searches. Conclusions PubMed can assist clinicians answering clinical questions with an approximately 10% absolute rate of improvement in correct answers. This small increase includes more correct answers partially offset by a decrease in previously correct answers

  6. Get Answers: Using Student Response Systems to See Students' Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David; McLeod, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Imagine if teachers could view their students' thinking, like peeking inside a pot of cooking stew to see if it is done. Wouldn't it be nice if they could know what their students were learning, while they were teaching them? Most teachers use a variety of classroom techniques to understand what their students know and can do. Tests, quizzes,…

  7. Explaining topic prevalence in answers to open-ended survey questions about climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvinnereim, Endre; Fløttum, Kjersti

    2015-08-01

    Citizens’ opinions are crucial for action on climate change, but are, owing to the complexity of the issue, diverse and potentially unformed. We contribute to the understanding of public views on climate change and to knowledge needed by decision-makers by using a new approach to analyse answers to the open survey question `what comes to mind when you hear the words `climate change’?’. We apply automated text analysis, specifically structural topic modelling, which induces distinct topics based on the relative frequencies of the words used in 2,115 responses. From these data, originating from the new, nationally representative Norwegian Citizen Panel, four distinct topics emerge: Weather/Ice, Future/Impact, Money/Consumption and Attribution. We find that Norwegians emphasize societal aspects of climate change more than do respondents in previous US and UK studies. Furthermore, variables that explain variation in closed questions, such as gender and education, yield different and surprising results when employed to explain variation in what respondents emphasize. Finally, the sharp distinction between scepticism and acceptance of conventional climate science, often seen in previous studies, blurs in many textual responses as scepticism frequently turns into ambivalence.

  8. Pulmonary Cryptococcosis in the Immunocompetent Patient—Many Questions, Some Answers

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, John F.; Valencia-Rey, Paula A.; Davis, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are no prospective data regarding the management of pulmonary cryptococcosis in the immunocompetent patient. Clinical guidelines recommend oral fluconazole for patients with mild to moderate symptoms and amphotericin B plus flucytosine followed by fluconazole for severe disease. It is unclear whether patients who have histological evidence of Cryptococcus neoformans but negative cultures will even respond to drug treatment. We evaluated and managed a patient whose presentation and course raised important questions regarding the significance of negative cultures, antifungal choices, duration of therapy, and resolution of clinical, serologic, and radiographic findings. Methods. In addition to our experience, to answer these questions we reviewed available case reports and case series regarding immunocompetent patients with pulmonary cryptococcosis for the last 55 years using the following definitions: Definite - Clinical and/or radiographic findings of pulmonary infection and respiratory tract isolation of C. neoformans without other suspected etiologies; Probable - Clinical and radiographic findings of pulmonary infection, histopathologic evidence of C. neoformans, and negative fungal cultures with or without a positive cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen. Results. Pulmonary cryptococcosis resolves in most patients with or without specific antifungal therapy. Clinical, radiographic, and serologic resolution is slow and may take years. Conclusions. Persistently positive antigen titers are most common in untreated patients and may remain strongly positive despite complete or partial resolution of disease. Respiratory fungal cultures are often negative and may indicate nonviable organisms. PMID:27704021

  9. Exploring pre-service science teachers' pedagogical capacity for formative assessment through analyses of student answers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Dogan, Alev

    2016-05-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on empowering pre-service and in-service science teachers to attend student reasoning and use formative assessments to guide student learning in recent years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore pre-service science teachers' pedagogical capacity for formative assessment. Sample: This study took place in Turkey. The participants include 53 pre-service science teachers in their final year of schooling. All but two of the participants are female. Design and methods: We used a mixed-methods methodology in pursing this inquiry. Participants analyzed 28 responses to seven two-tiered questions given by four students of different ability levels. We explored their ability to identify the strengths and weaknesses in students' answers. We paid particular attention to the things that the pre-service science teachers noticed in students' explanations, the types of inferences they made about students' conceptual understanding, and the affordances of pedagogical decisions they made. Results: The results show that the majority of participants made an evaluative judgment (i.e. the answer is correct or incorrect) in their analyses of students' answers. Similarly, the majority of the participants recognized the type of mistake that the students made. However, they failed to successfully elaborate on fallacies, limitations, or strengths in student reasoning. We also asked the participants to make pedagogical decisions related to what needs to be done next in order to help the students to achieve academic objectives. Results show that 8% of the recommended instructional strategies were of no affordance, 64% of low-affordance, and 28% were of high affordance in terms of helping students achieve the academic objectives. Conclusion: If our goal is to improve pre-service science teachers' noticing skills, and the affordance of feedback that they provide, engaging them in activities that asks them to attend to students' ideas

  10. 41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21 Section 300-2.21 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question &...

  11. Dietary polyphenols as antioxidants and anticancer agents: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao-Lin

    2011-01-01

    High intake of fruit and vegetables is believed to be beneficial to human health. Fruit, vegetables and some beverages, such as tea and coffee, are particularly rich in dietary polyphenols. Various studies have suggested (but not proven) that dietary polyphenols may protect against cardiovasucalar diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and some forms of cancer. Dietary polyphenols may exert their anticancer effects through several possible mechanisms, such as removal of carcinogenic agents, modulation of cancer cell signaling and antioxidant enzymatic activities, and induction of apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. Some of these effects may be related, at least partly, to their antioxidant activities. In recent years, a new concept of the antioxidant effects of dietary polyphenols has emerged, i.e., direct scavenging activity toward reactive species and indirect antioxidant activity; the latter activity is thought to arise primarily via the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 which stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase, catalase, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and/or phase II enzymes. The direct antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols in vivo is probably limited because of their low concentrations in vivo, except in the gastrointestinal tract where they are present in high concentrations. Paradoxically, the pro-oxidant effect of dietary polyphenols may contribute to the activation of antioxidant enzymes and protective proteins in cultured cells and animal models because of the adaptation of cells and tissues to mild/moderate oxidative stress. Despite a plethora of in vitro studies on dietary polyphenols, many questions remain to be answered, such as: (1) How relevant are the direct and indirect antioxidant activities of dietary polyphenols in vivo? (2) How important are these activities in the anticancer effects of dietary polyphenols? (3) Do the pro

  12. Using Student-Generated Questions for Student-Centred Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papinczak, Tracey; Peterson, Raymond; Babri, Awais Saleem; Ward, Kym; Kippers, Vaughan; Wilkinson, David

    2012-01-01

    In small groups, medical students were involved in generating questions to contribute to an online item bank. This study sought to support collaborative question-writing and enhance students' metacognitive abilities, in particular, their ability to self-regulate learning and moderate understanding of subject material. The study focused on…

  13. Measuring University students' understanding of the greenhouse effect - a comparison of multiple-choice, short answer and concept sketch assessment tools with respect to students' mental models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, A. U.; Harris, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    The greenhouse effect comes up in most discussions about climate and is a key concept related to climate change. Existing studies have shown that students and adults alike lack a detailed understanding of this important concept or might hold misconceptions. We studied the effectiveness of different interventions on University-level students' understanding of the greenhouse effect. Introductory level science students were tested for their pre-knowledge of the greenhouse effect using validated multiple-choice questions, short answers and concept sketches. All students participated in a common lesson about the greenhouse effect and were then randomly assigned to one of two lab groups. One group explored an existing simulation about the greenhouse effect (PhET-lesson) and the other group worked with absorption spectra of different greenhouse gases (Data-lesson) to deepen the understanding of the greenhouse effect. All students completed the same assessment including multiple choice, short answers and concept sketches after participation in their lab lesson. 164 students completed all the assessments, 76 completed the PhET lesson and 77 completed the data lesson. 11 students missed the contrasting lesson. In this presentation we show the comparison between the multiple-choice questions, short answer questions and the concept sketches of students. We explore how well each of these assessment types represents student's knowledge. We also identify items that are indicators of the level of understanding of the greenhouse effect as measured in correspondence of student answers to an expert mental model and expert responses. Preliminary data analysis shows that student who produce concept sketch drawings that come close to expert drawings also choose correct multiple-choice answers. However, correct multiple-choice answers are not necessarily an indicator that a student produces an expert-like correlating concept sketch items. Multiple-choice questions that require detailed

  14. Ten common questions (and their answers) about off-label drug use.

    PubMed

    Wittich, Christopher M; Burkle, Christopher M; Lanier, William L

    2012-10-01

    The term off-label drug use (OLDU) is used extensively in the medical literature, continuing medical education exercises, and the media. Yet, we propose that many health care professionals have an underappreciation of its definition, prevalence, and implications. This article introduces and answers 10 questions regarding OLDU in an effort to clarify the practice's meaning, breadth of application, acceptance, and liabilities. Off-label drug use involves prescribing medications for indications, or using a dosage or dosage form, that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Since the Food and Drug Administration does not regulate the practice of medicine, OLDU has become common. It occurs in every specialty of medicine, but it may be more common in areas of medicine in which the patient population is less likely to be included in clinical trials (eg, pediatric, pregnant, or psychiatric patients). Pharmaceutical companies are not allowed to promote their medications for an off-label use, which has lead to several large settlements for illegal marketing. To limit liability, physicians should prescribe medications only for indications that they believe are in the best interest of the patient. In addition, health care professionals should educate themselves about OLDU to weigh the risks and benefits and provide the best possible care for their patients.

  15. Expert panel answers questions for Super Safety and Health Day at KSC.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A panel of NASA and contractor senior staff, plus officers from the 45th Space Wing, discuss safety- and health-related concerns in front of an audience of KSC employees as part of Super Safety and Health Day. Moderating at the podium is Loren Shriver, deputy director for Launch & Payload Processing. Seated left to right are Burt Summerfield, associate director of the Biomedical Office; Colonel William S. Swindling, commander, 45th Medical Group, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; Ron Dittemore, manager, Space Shuttle Programs, Johnson Space Center; Roy Bridges, Center Director; Col. Tom Deppe, vice commander, 45th Space Wing, Patrick Air Force Base; Jim Schoefield, program manager, Payload Ground Operations, Boeing; Bill Hickman, program manager, Space Gateway Support; and Ed Adamek, vice president and associate program manager for Ground Operations, United Space Alliance. Answering a question at the microphone on the floor is Dave King, director, Shuttle Processing. The panel was one of the presentations during KSC's second annual day-long dedication to safety. Most normal work activities were suspended to allow personnel to attend related activities. The theme, 'Safety and Health Go Hand in Hand,' emphasized KSC's commitment to place the safety and health of the public, astronauts, employees and space- related resources first and foremost. Events also included a keynote address, vendor exhibits, and safety training in work groups. The keynote address and panel session were also broadcast internally over NASA television.

  16. A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

  17. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness.

    PubMed

    de Lusignan, Simon; Crawford, Laura; Munro, Neil

    2015-01-01

    New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Real-World Evidence (RWE) is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined. This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1) includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2) defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3) applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies. However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy.

  18. Counseling in fetal medicine: evidence-based answers to clinical questions on morbidly adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, F; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J; Lim, P S; Forlani, F; Lanzone, A; Timor-Tritsch, I; Cali, G

    2016-03-01

    Although the incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) has risen progressively in the last two decades, there remains uncertainty about the diagnosis and management of this condition. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date and evidence-based answers to common clinical questions regarding the diagnosis and management of MAP. Different risk factors have been associated with MAP; however, previous Cesarean section and placenta previa are the most frequently associated. Ultrasound is the primary method for diagnosing MAP and has a good overall diagnostic accuracy for its detection. When considering the different ultrasound signs of MAP, color Doppler seems to provide the best diagnostic performance. Magnetic resonance imaging has the same accuracy in diagnosing MAP as does ultrasound examination; its use should be considered when a resective procedure, such as hysterectomy, is planned as it can provide detailed information about the topography of placental invasion and predict difficulties that may arise in surgery. The optimal gestational age for delivery in pregnancies with MAP is yet to be established; planning surgery between 35 and 36 weeks of gestation provides the best balance between fetal maturity and the risk of unexpected episodes of heavy bleeding, which are more likely to occur with delivery after this timepoint, especially in severe cases of MAP. The optimal surgical approach to MAP depends on multiple factors, including availability of an experienced team, specific surgical skills and hospital resources. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26195324

  19. Topology of Innovation Spaces in the Knowledge Networks Emerging through Questions-And-Answers.

    PubMed

    Andjelković, Miroslav; Tadić, Bosiljka; Mitrović Dankulov, Marija; Rajković, Milan; Melnik, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    The communication processes of knowledge creation represent a particular class of human dynamics where the expertise of individuals plays a substantial role, thus offering a unique possibility to study the structure of knowledge networks from online data. Here, we use the empirical evidence from questions-and-answers in mathematics to analyse the emergence of the network of knowledge contents (or tags) as the individual experts use them in the process. After removing extra edges from the network-associated graph, we apply the methods of algebraic topology of graphs to examine the structure of higher-order combinatorial spaces in networks for four consecutive time intervals. We find that the ranking distributions of the suitably scaled topological dimensions of nodes fall into a unique curve for all time intervals and filtering levels, suggesting a robust architecture of knowledge networks. Moreover, these networks preserve the logical structure of knowledge within emergent communities of nodes, labeled according to a standard mathematical classification scheme. Further, we investigate the appearance of new contents over time and their innovative combinations, which expand the knowledge network. In each network, we identify an innovation channel as a subgraph of triangles and larger simplices to which new tags attach. Our results show that the increasing topological complexity of the innovation channels contributes to network's architecture over different time periods, and is consistent with temporal correlations of the occurrence of new tags. The methodology applies to a wide class of data with the suitable temporal resolution and clearly identified knowledge-content units.

  20. Counseling in fetal medicine: evidence-based answers to clinical questions on morbidly adherent placenta.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, F; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J; Lim, P S; Forlani, F; Lanzone, A; Timor-Tritsch, I; Cali, G

    2016-03-01

    Although the incidence of morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) has risen progressively in the last two decades, there remains uncertainty about the diagnosis and management of this condition. The aim of this review is to provide up-to-date and evidence-based answers to common clinical questions regarding the diagnosis and management of MAP. Different risk factors have been associated with MAP; however, previous Cesarean section and placenta previa are the most frequently associated. Ultrasound is the primary method for diagnosing MAP and has a good overall diagnostic accuracy for its detection. When considering the different ultrasound signs of MAP, color Doppler seems to provide the best diagnostic performance. Magnetic resonance imaging has the same accuracy in diagnosing MAP as does ultrasound examination; its use should be considered when a resective procedure, such as hysterectomy, is planned as it can provide detailed information about the topography of placental invasion and predict difficulties that may arise in surgery. The optimal gestational age for delivery in pregnancies with MAP is yet to be established; planning surgery between 35 and 36 weeks of gestation provides the best balance between fetal maturity and the risk of unexpected episodes of heavy bleeding, which are more likely to occur with delivery after this timepoint, especially in severe cases of MAP. The optimal surgical approach to MAP depends on multiple factors, including availability of an experienced team, specific surgical skills and hospital resources. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. NBC's ``10.5'' May Answer An Age-Old Seismologic Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Andrew V.

    2004-04-01

    There is a new NBC 4-hour miniseries set to air during the May sweeps period (2-3 May) titled simply enough ``10.5.'' No, this is not a sequel to ``9 and ½ weeks'', nor is it a mini-sequel to ``10''. This number instead refers to a mega-earthquake that rocks the west coast of the United States. One may think that the network writers have done their homework and have consulted a geophysicist or two regarding the realism of their program, let alone the title. This is just a short note to comment on their potential folly. I would like to clarify to the network writers, as well as to the non-seismologists in the Earth science community what exactly a magnitude 10.5 earthquake could be, and why, if such were to occur, it may be more than just a west coast problem. Alternatively, NBC may just soon answer an age-old seismologic question...

  2. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  3. Analysis of Student Performance on Multiple-Choice Questions in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, JudithAnn R.; Lin, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    The percentage of students choosing the correct answer (PSCA) on 17 multiple-choice algorithmic questions taken from general chemistry exams is analyzed. PSCAs for these questions varied from 47 to 93%, and a decrease of 4.5% in PSCA was observed with each additional step in the algorithm required for solving the problem (R[superscript 2] = 0.80).…

  4. Towards answering the "so what" question in marine renewables environmental impact assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degraer, Steven; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Braeckman, Ulrike; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Dannheim, Jennifer; De Mesel, Ilse; Grégoire, Marilaure; Kerckhof, Francis; Lacroix, Geneviève; Lindeboom, Han; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Van Hoey, Gert

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) projects are increasingly occupying the European North-Atlantic coasts and this is clearly observed in the North Sea. Given the expected impacts on the marine environment, each individual project is accompanied by a legally mandatory, environmental monitoring programme. These programmes are focused on the resultant effects on ecosystem component structure (e.g. species composition, numbers and densities) of single industrial projects. To date, there is a tendency to further narrow down to only a selection of ecosystem components (e.g. marine mammals and birds). While a wide knowledge-based understanding of structural impacts on (a selection of) ecosystem components exists, this evidence is largely lacking when undertaking impact assessments at the ecosystem functioning level (e.g. trophic interactions, dispersal and nutrient cycling). This critical knowledge gap compromises a scientifically-underpinned answer to the "so what" question of environmental impacts, i.e. whether the observed impacts are considered to be good or bad, or acceptable or unacceptable. The importance of ecosystem functioning is further acknowledged in the descriptors 4 and 6 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU MSFD) and is at the heart of a sustainable use and management of our marine resources. There hence is a fundamental need to focus on ecosystem functioning at the spatial scales at which marine ecosystems function when assessing MRE impacts. Here, we make a plea for an increased investment in a large (spatial) scale impact assessment of MRE projects focused on ecosystem functioning. This presentation will cover a selection of examples from North Sea MRE monitoring programmes, where the current knowledge has limited conclusions on the "so what" question. We will demonstrate how an ecosystem functioning-focused approach at an appropriate spatial scale could advance our current understanding, whilst assessing these issues. These examples will cover

  5. Toward automated classification of consumers' cancer-related questions with a new taxonomy of expected answer types.

    PubMed

    McRoy, Susan; Jones, Sean; Kurmally, Adam

    2016-09-01

    This article examines methods for automated question classification applied to cancer-related questions that people have asked on the web. This work is part of a broader effort to provide automated question answering for health education. We created a new corpus of consumer-health questions related to cancer and a new taxonomy for those questions. We then compared the effectiveness of different statistical methods for developing classifiers, including weighted classification and resampling. Basic methods for building classifiers were limited by the high variability in the natural distribution of questions and typical refinement approaches of feature selection and merging categories achieved only small improvements to classifier accuracy. Best performance was achieved using weighted classification and resampling methods, the latter yielding an accuracy of F1 = 0.963. Thus, it would appear that statistical classifiers can be trained on natural data, but only if natural distributions of classes are smoothed. Such classifiers would be useful for automated question answering, for enriching web-based content, or assisting clinical professionals to answer questions.

  6. Effect of lecture instruction on student performance on qualitative questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2015-06-01

    The impact of lecture instruction on student conceptual understanding in physics has been the subject of research for several decades. Most studies have reported disappointingly small improvements in student performance on conceptual questions despite direct instruction on the relevant topics. These results have spurred a number of attempts to improve learning in physics courses through new curricula and instructional techniques. This paper contributes to the research base through a retrospective analysis of 20 randomly selected qualitative questions on topics in kinematics, dynamics, electrostatics, waves, and physical optics that have been given in introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington over a period of 15 years. In some classes, questions were administered after relevant lecture instruction had been completed; in others, it had yet to begin. Simple statistical tests indicate that the average performance of the "after lecture" classes was significantly better than that of the "before lecture" classes for 11 questions, significantly worse for two questions, and indistinguishable for the remaining seven. However, the classes had not been randomly assigned to be tested before or after lecture instruction. Multiple linear regression was therefore conducted with variables (such as class size) that could plausibly lead to systematic differences in performance and thus obscure (or artificially enhance) the effect of lecture instruction. The regression models support the results of the simple tests for all but four questions. In those cases, the effect of lecture instruction was reduced to a nonsignificant level, or increased to a significant, negative level when other variables were considered. Thus the results provide robust evidence that instruction in lecture can increase student ability to give correct answers to conceptual questions but does not necessarily do so; in some cases it can even lead to a decrease.

  7. Peer generation of multiple-choice questions: student engagement and experiences.

    PubMed

    Rhind, Susan M; Pettigrew, Graham W

    2012-01-01

    A free online system for generation of multiple-choice questions (PeerWise) was implemented in three courses (course A, B, and C) in two different years (second and third year) of a veterinary degree program. Students were asked to author questions, and answer and rate each other's questions. Student experiences of the system were explored using an online survey. The majority of students in both years either agreed or strongly agreed that both authoring and answering questions was helpful for their studies and wanted to use the system again in future courses. Thematic analysis highlighted students' views that engaging with the resource increased breadth and depth of knowledge and understanding and was very useful for revision purposes. There was a statistically significant difference between students in second and third year regarding whether students felt it was necessary for academic staff to be involved in the review process. Thematic analysis of this aspect identified issues relating to confidence in the ability of the peer group and the need for reassurance in the second-year group. Student engagement with the system was correlated with examination performance. In courses A and B there was a positive correlation between number of questions answered and examination performance, in course C there was no correlation. This study highlights the benefits of peer activity around question generation and proposes that such activities are an efficient and effective means to support student learning.

  8. A Participatory Learning Approach to Biochemistry Using Student Authored and Evaluated Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs…

  9. The Place of Health Information and Socio-Emotional Support in Social Questioning and Answering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrall, Adam; Oh, Sanghee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the quality of health information in social contexts or how socio-emotional factors impact users' evaluations of quality. We explored how librarians, nurses and users assessed the quality of health answers posted on Yahoo! Answers, focusing on socio-emotional reactions displayed, advice given to users and…

  10. Pharmacodynamic endpoints as clinical trial objectives to answer important questions in oncology drug development.

    PubMed

    Parchment, Ralph E; Doroshow, James H

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing the molecular interplay between malignancies and therapeutic agents is rarely a straightforward process, but we hope that this special issue of Seminars has highlighted the clinical value of such endeavors as well as the relevant theoretical and practical considerations. Here, we conclude with both an overview of the various high-value applications of clinical pharmacodynamics (PD) in developmental therapeutics and an outline of the framework for incorporating PD analyses into the design of clinical trials. Given the increasingly recognized importance of determining and administering the biologically effective dose (BED) and schedule of targeted agents, we explain how clinical PD biomarkers specific to the agent mechanism of action (MOA) can be used for the development of pharmacodynamics-guided biologically effective dosage regimens (PD-BEDR) to maximize the efficacy and minimize the toxicity of targeted therapies. In addition, we discuss how MOA-based PD biomarker analyses can be used both as patient selection diagnostic tools and for designing novel drug combinations targeting the specific mutational signature of a given malignancy. We also describe the role of PD analyses in clinical trials, including for MOA confirmation and dosage regimen optimization during phase 0 trials as well as for correlating molecular changes with clinical efficacy when establishing proof-of-concept in phase I/II trials. Finally, we outline the critical technological developments that are needed to enhance the quality and quantity of future clinical PD data collection, broaden the types of molecular questions that can be answered in the clinic, and, ultimately, improve patient outcomes. PMID:27663483

  11. Fluid management in burn patients: results from a European survey-more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Joachim; Papsdorf, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Many strategies were proposed for fluid management in burn patients with different composition containing saline solution, colloids, or plasma. The actual clinical use of volume replacement regimen in burn patients in Europe was analysed by an international survey. A total of 187 questionnaires consisting of 20 multiple-choice questions were sent to 187 burn units listed by the European Burn Association. The response rate was 43%. The answers came from a total of 20 European countries. Volume replacement is mostly exclusively with crystalloids (always: 58%; often: 28%). The majority still use fixed formulae: 12% always use the traditional Baxter formula, in 50% modifications of this formula are used. The most often used colloid is albumin (always: 17%, often: 38%), followed by HES (always: 4%, often: 34%). Gelatins, dextrans, and hypertonic saline are used only very rarely. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is given in 12% of the units as the colloid of choice. Albumin was named most often to be able to improve patients' outcome (64%), followed by HES (53%), and the exclusive use of crystalloids (45%). Central venous pressure (CVP) is most often used to monitor volume therapy (35%), followed by the PiCCO-system (23%), and mixed-venous saturation (ScVO2; 10%). It is concluded that the kind of volume therapy differs widely among European burn units. This survey supported that no generally accepted volume replacement strategy in burn patients exists. New results, e.g. importance of goal-directed therapy or data concerning use of albumin in the critically ill, have not yet influenced strategies of volume replacement in the burn patient.

  12. Topology of Innovation Spaces in the Knowledge Networks Emerging through Questions-And-Answers

    PubMed Central

    Andjelković, Miroslav; Tadić, Bosiljka; Mitrović Dankulov, Marija; Rajković, Milan; Melnik, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    The communication processes of knowledge creation represent a particular class of human dynamics where the expertise of individuals plays a substantial role, thus offering a unique possibility to study the structure of knowledge networks from online data. Here, we use the empirical evidence from questions-and-answers in mathematics to analyse the emergence of the network of knowledge contents (or tags) as the individual experts use them in the process. After removing extra edges from the network-associated graph, we apply the methods of algebraic topology of graphs to examine the structure of higher-order combinatorial spaces in networks for four consecutive time intervals. We find that the ranking distributions of the suitably scaled topological dimensions of nodes fall into a unique curve for all time intervals and filtering levels, suggesting a robust architecture of knowledge networks. Moreover, these networks preserve the logical structure of knowledge within emergent communities of nodes, labeled according to a standard mathematical classification scheme. Further, we investigate the appearance of new contents over time and their innovative combinations, which expand the knowledge network. In each network, we identify an innovation channel as a subgraph of triangles and larger simplices to which new tags attach. Our results show that the increasing topological complexity of the innovation channels contributes to network’s architecture over different time periods, and is consistent with temporal correlations of the occurrence of new tags. The methodology applies to a wide class of data with the suitable temporal resolution and clearly identified knowledge-content units. PMID:27171149

  13. Pharmacodynamic endpoints as clinical trial objectives to answer important questions in oncology drug development.

    PubMed

    Parchment, Ralph E; Doroshow, James H

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing the molecular interplay between malignancies and therapeutic agents is rarely a straightforward process, but we hope that this special issue of Seminars has highlighted the clinical value of such endeavors as well as the relevant theoretical and practical considerations. Here, we conclude with both an overview of the various high-value applications of clinical pharmacodynamics (PD) in developmental therapeutics and an outline of the framework for incorporating PD analyses into the design of clinical trials. Given the increasingly recognized importance of determining and administering the biologically effective dose (BED) and schedule of targeted agents, we explain how clinical PD biomarkers specific to the agent mechanism of action (MOA) can be used for the development of pharmacodynamics-guided biologically effective dosage regimens (PD-BEDR) to maximize the efficacy and minimize the toxicity of targeted therapies. In addition, we discuss how MOA-based PD biomarker analyses can be used both as patient selection diagnostic tools and for designing novel drug combinations targeting the specific mutational signature of a given malignancy. We also describe the role of PD analyses in clinical trials, including for MOA confirmation and dosage regimen optimization during phase 0 trials as well as for correlating molecular changes with clinical efficacy when establishing proof-of-concept in phase I/II trials. Finally, we outline the critical technological developments that are needed to enhance the quality and quantity of future clinical PD data collection, broaden the types of molecular questions that can be answered in the clinic, and, ultimately, improve patient outcomes.

  14. Students Asking Questions in the Middle School Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Asking questions is a vital part of student learning. Teachers ask students questions in order to get their minds working and thinking. Students ask questions in order to gain more knowledge or satiate their curiosity. If a student has trouble asking questions in the classroom they might miss an important step and become lost. In a class, such as…

  15. To Change or Not to Change: Investigating the Value of MCQ Answer Changing for Gulf Arab Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hamly, Mashael; Coombe, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates whether the practice of answer changing on multiple-choice questions (MCQs) is beneficial to Gulf Arab students' overall test performance. The proficiency exam used in this study is the Michigan English Language Institute College English Test - Grammar, Cloze, Vocabulary, Reading (MELICET-GCVR), which was developed using…

  16. Common drugs and treatments for cancer and age-related diseases: revitalizing answers to NCI's provocative questions

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has announced 24 provocative questions on cancer. Some of these questions have been already answered in “NCI's provocative questions on cancer: some answers to ignite discussion” (published in Oncotarget, 2011, 2: 1352.) The questions included “Why do many cancer cells die when suddenly deprived of a protein encoded by an oncogene?” “Can we extend patient survival by using approaches that keep tumors static?” “Why are some disseminated cancers cured by chemotherapy alone?” “Can we develop methods to rapidly test interventions for cancer treatment or prevention?” “Can we use our knowledge of aging to enhance prevention or treatment of cancer?” “What is the mechanism by which some drugs commonly and chronically used for other indications protect against cancer?” “How does obesity contribute to cancer risk?” I devoted a single subchapter to each the answer. As expected, the provocative questions were very diverse and numerous. Now I choose and combine, as a single problem, only three last questions, all related to common mechanisms and treatment of age-related diseases including obesity and cancer. Can we use common existing drugs for cancer prevention and treatment? Can we use some targeted “cancer-selective” agents for other diseases and … aging itself. PMID:23565531

  17. Nevada Education Law: Federal and State Law Governing Nevada K-12 Education in Question/Answer Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, Richard F.; Cockerill, Charles P.

    This book provides answers to the most common legal questions of Nevada's school board members, administrators, and educators. Chapter 1, "The Nevada School System: Governance, Programs, and Standards," explores the constitutional, legal, and statutory basis of school system governance. Chapter 2, "The Nevada Plan: Finance of Public Education,"…

  18. 26 CFR 35.3405-1 - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. 35.3405-1 Section 35.3405-1 Internal... withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred income. The following questions and answers relate to withholding on pensions, annuities, and other deferred income under section 3405 of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.165-13T - Questions and answers relating to the treatment of losses on certain straddle transactions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Recovery Tax Act of 1981, under section 108 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.165-13T Section 1... Act of 1984 (temporary). The following questions and answers concern the treatment of losses on... 1981, under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 494). Q-1 What is the scope of section 108 of the...

  20. "Remember to Hand out Medals": Peer Rating and Expertise in a Question-and-Answer Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A) study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can…

  1. 75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal... guidance for industry 211 entitled ``Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers... availability of a draft guidance for industry 211 entitled ``Residual Solvents in Animal ] Drug...

  2. 78 FR 70953 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is reopening the comment period for the notice of availability entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1)'', published in the Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55261). In that notice, FDA requested public comment on the draft guidance. FDA is reopening the comment......

  3. 78 FR 55261 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers (Revision 1); Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability...

  4. 77 FR 51814 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Generic Drug User Fee Amendments of 2012: Questions and Answers; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) is announcing the availability of...

  5. Talking with Children and Teens about Alzheimer's Disease: A Question and Answer Guidebook for Parents, Teachers and Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, James M.

    Professionals in the fields of nursing, education, health care, recreation, and social work, who specialize in dealing with Alzheimer's disease, wrote answers to questions collected from discussion sessions held at four Pennsylvania elder facilities and made suggestions for talking to young people about the disease and its impact. This guidebook…

  6. Where Have All the Teachers Gone? Finding Answers to the Most Basic Questions about California's Teacher Workforce. CenterView

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This policy brief presents a strong case for the creation of a statewide teacher data system in California by highlighting some of the simple teacher workforce questions that cannot be answered because such a system does not currently exist. At the state level, data on teacher qualifications are needed to fulfill the new reporting requirements of…

  7. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k)...

  8. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k)...

  9. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k)...

  10. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k)...

  11. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k) provide? A-1:...

  12. [What Can We Learn from the English Primary Schools? Questions and Answers from My Fulbright Administrative Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firlik, Russell J.

    This paper discusses the primary education system in England as a whole and the operation of primary schools in Leicestershire in particular. It also contains questions and answers concerning English primary education. The paper describes the organization, funding, and administration of English primary schools, which provide the first 6 years of…

  13. 26 CFR 7.105-1 - Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE TAX REFORM ACT OF 1976 § 7.105-1 Questions and answers relating to exclusions of certain disability income... Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1566): Q-1: What effect on the sick pay exclusion does the new...

  14. Answers to the Most Frequently Asked Questions about Reinspections under the AHERA Asbestos-In-Schools Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    This document was prepared in response to inquiries that have been received by the Environmental Protection Agency concerning the reinspection requirements and related provisions of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) regulations. The answers developed represent the Agency's responses to the 15 most frequently asked questions to…

  15. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A) network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers) were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction) and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information to answer OSH questions

  16. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple

  17. Using Chat and Text Technologies to Answer Sexual and Reproductive Health Questions: Planned Parenthood Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Leslie M; Levine, Deborah S; Arons, Whitney

    2013-01-01

    Background Teens and young adults in the United States are in need of sexual and reproductive health information, as evidenced by elevated rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pregnancy, and births among this population. In-person sexuality education programs are helpful, but they are unlikely to rapidly accommodate teens and young adults in a moment of crisis. Evidence suggests that technologies such as instant messaging (IM) and text messaging may be effective ways to provide teens and young adults with sexual and reproductive health information. In September 2010, Planned Parenthood Federation of America launched a text and IM program designed to provide immediate answers to urgent sexual and reproductive health questions from a reliable and confidential source and to link young people to sexual and reproductive health services if needed. Objective To assess whether this program is successful in reaching the target population, whether user characteristics vary by mode (IM vs text), and whether mode is associated with reaching individuals with high levels of worry or reducing worry postchat. Methods Data were collected from prechat and postchat surveys for all IM and text message conversations between September 2010 and August 2011. A bivariate analysis was conducted using chi-square tests for differences in the main covariates by mode of conversation. In the multivariable analysis, logistic regression was used to identify factors that were independently associated with prechat levels of worry and changes in worry postchat. Results A total of 32,589 conversations occurred during the program’s first year. The odds of feeling very worried prechat were highest for IM users (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.43, 95% CI 1.20-1.72), users 17 years and younger (AOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.50-1.74), Latino/Hispanic users (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.27-1.46), and black users (AOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.30-1.50). After controlling for the study covariates, there was no significant

  18. The use of why-questions to enhance college science students' comprehension of their textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Betty Lou

    2002-01-01

    Why-questions adjunct to reading material consistently help students remember unfamiliar information (recall) according to research investigating elaborative interrogation. Why-questions ask students to explain why statements pulled-out from a text are true. But no one apparently has assessed why-questions' effectiveness when measuring comprehension of paraphrased meaningful information and when students are learning in a naturalistic classroom context. This study investigated the use of why-questions in enhancing science reading comprehension. Undergraduates (123 males and 171 females) using a chapter from their introductory biology textbooks were randomly assigned to a treatment group with 21 adjunct why-questions or to a control group with no adjunct why-questions. The treatment group was instructed to read the textbook material and to answer the why-questions. The control group was instructed to read the same textbook material twice, a standard methodological procedure used in such research. Posttest data was collected using a posttest only equivalent group design. A test for students' prior knowledge and a test for students' verbal ability were administered to the students prior to the study. Findings revealed that students in the treatment group using adjunct why-question outperformed (p < .05) students in the control group without why-questions on a comprehension posttest. Of interest is that students with low-verbal ability who answered adjunct why-questions significantly outperformed students with low-verbal ability in the control group. Why-questions seem to be a potentially powerful learning device to improve student comprehension of college biology textbooks.

  19. Learning biology through research papers: a stimulus for question-asking by high-school students.

    PubMed

    Brill, Gilat; Yarden, Anat

    2003-01-01

    Question-asking is a basic skill, required for the development of scientific thinking. However, the way in which science lessons are conducted does not usually stimulate question-asking by students. To make students more familiar with the scientific inquiry process, we developed a curriculum in developmental biology based on research papers suitable for high-school students. Since a scientific paper poses a research question, demonstrates the events that led to the answer, and poses new questions, we attempted to examine the effect of studying through research papers on students' ability to pose questions. Students were asked before, during, and after instruction what they found interesting to know about embryonic development. In addition, we monitored students' questions, which were asked orally during the lessons. Questions were scored according to three categories: properties, comparisons, and causal relationships. We found that before learning through research papers, students tend to ask only questions of the properties category. In contrast, students tend to pose questions that reveal a higher level of thinking and uniqueness during or following instruction with research papers. This change was not observed during or following instruction with a textbook. We suggest that learning through research papers may be one way to provide a stimulus for question-asking by high-school students and results in higher thinking levels and uniqueness. PMID:14673492

  20. ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS MOST FREQUENTLY ASKED BY VISITORS TO FLINT'S COMMUNITY SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint Board of Education, MI.

    QUESTIONS ARE RAISED CONCERNING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE MOTT FOUNDATION PROGRAM, THE FLINT BOARD OF EDUCATION, THE COST OF THE PROGRAM, AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL PROGRAM. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO THE COMMUNITY SCHOOL DIRECTOR RANGE FROM HIS ROLE TO HIS ON-THE-JOB TRAINING. QUESTIONS PERTAINING TO ADULT EDUCATION AND THE…

  1. An Online Partner for Holocaust Remembrance Education: Students Approaching the Yahoo! Answers Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Alon; Litvak Hirsch, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Holocaust education has gained increased importance in recent decades and attention has latterly been directed to the role of the Internet within the field. Of major importance within the virtual space are Question and Answer communities. We investigated the interactions taking place within the Yahoo! Answers community following questions posted…

  2. Guide to the Family and Medical Leave Act: Questions & Answers. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Partnership for Women and Families, Washington, DC.

    The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) provided workers with the right to take time off from work to care for their families or themselves without fear of losing their jobs. Although this law is relatively straightforward, some employees and employers may be unsure about how it actually works. This guide is designed to answer many…

  3. Vermont Public Library Almanac: A Compendium of Often-Answered Questions. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotch, Marianne

    This document contains brief answers to some of the most frequently raised issues related to running a small Vermont public library. Areas covered include accessibility, the American Library Association, automation, awards, binding, services for the blind and physically handicapped, the Board of Libraries, the Board of Trustees, book dealers, book…

  4. Teaching Critical Questions about Argumentation through the Revising Process: Effects of Strategy Instruction on College Students' Argumentative Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yi; Ferretti, Ralph P.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of self-regulated strategy development revising instruction for college students that targeted the use of argumentation schemes and critical questions were assessed in three conditions. In the first condition, students were taught to revise their essays by asking and answering critical questions about the "argument from consequences"…

  5. [Practical approach to management of gynecomastia: six questions to be answered by the paediatrician regarding a patient with gynecomastia].

    PubMed

    2011-08-01

    Pubertal gynecomastia is a common concern in the consultation of the adolescent. Usually, it is accompanied by an emotional component that can lead to changes in everyday attitudes of youth. The responsability of the pediatrician is to rule out other etiologies, to avoid unnecessary additional studies, to limit active therapeutic attitudes, and to reaffirm the variation of normality. We briefly describe six eminently practical questions to be answered by the physician.

  6. The answering system to yes-no truth-functional questions in Korean-English bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hansook

    2014-06-01

    This study presents an experiment that explores the patterns of answers to yes-no truth-functional questions in English and Korean. The answering patterns are examined from 12 Korean-English bilingual children and 10 Korean-monolingual children. Four types of sentences in relation to given situations (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961) were provided as questions such as true affirmative (TA), true negative (TN), false affirmative (FA), and false negative (FN). The bilingual children's answers were observed in separate language settings, English and Korean. The results by the bilingual in the Korean setting were compared with those by the monolinguals. The results show that bilingual children can process two systems rather successfully by providing correct responses to the given questions. But difficulty patterns, measured from error rates in each setting, are found different in two languages. The bilinguals' difficulty patterns in English and Korean, however, show deviation from monolinguals' difficulty patterns suggested in previous studies (Wason in Br J Psychol 52:133-142, 1961, Akiyama in Dev Psychol 20:219-228, 1984, Kim in Dev Psychol 21(3):462-472, 1985, Choi in Dev Psychol 29(3):407-420, 1991). The present work also shows that negatives are not uniformly reported with more errors than affirmatives when the truth condition and the answering system are further involved. All in all, the current study suggests that bilingual children have two separate processing systems for yes-no truth-functional questions. However, the two systems cannot be understood as a simple coexistence of two monolingual systems. Interaction of the two competing linguistic systems is discussed further.

  7. The White Presence on the Black Campus: Some Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles I.

    Findings regarding white students, faculty, and administrators on the black college campus are reviewed. Studies indicate that the typical white student at a traditionally black campus in the South is a native of the Southern region, 27-30 years old, and likely to be married. The student has both pleasant and unpleasant experiences related to…

  8. Questions and Answers on Library Law: The Freedom of Information Act, Part 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhler, Scott; Petsche, Janet; Allison, Rinda

    1999-01-01

    This column, part of a series of commonly asked questions on library law, completes discussion of two previous columns on common questions about the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Highlights include: procedures if a request for records is denied; appealing a denial of records; how FOIA is enforced and interpreted by the courts; personal…

  9. Cues Matter: Learning Assistants Influence Introductory Biology Student Interactions during Clicker-Question Discussions.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jennifer K; Wise, Sarah B; Rentsch, Jeremy; Furtak, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    The cues undergraduate biology instructors provide to students before discussions of clicker questions have previously been shown to influence student discussion. We further explored how student discussions were influenced by interactions with learning assistants (LAs, or peer coaches). We recorded and transcribed 140 clicker-question discussions in an introductory molecular biology course and coded them for features such as the use of reasoning and types of questions asked. Students who did not interact with LAs had discussions that were similar in most ways to students who did interact with LAs. When students interacted with LAs, the only significant changes in their discussions were the use of more questioning and more time spent in discussion. However, when individual LA-student interactions were examined within discussions, different LA prompts were found to generate specific student responses: question prompts promoted student use of reasoning, while students usually stopped their discussions when LAs explained reasons for answers. These results demonstrate that LA prompts directly influence student interactions during in-class discussions. Because clicker discussions can encourage student articulation of reasoning, instructors and LAs should focus on how to effectively implement questioning techniques rather than providing explanations. PMID:26590204

  10. Cues Matter: Learning Assistants Influence Introductory Biology Student Interactions during Clicker-Question Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jennifer K.; Wise, Sarah B.; Rentsch, Jeremy; Furtak, Erin M.

    2015-01-01

    The cues undergraduate biology instructors provide to students before discussions of clicker questions have previously been shown to influence student discussion. We further explored how student discussions were influenced by interactions with learning assistants (LAs, or peer coaches). We recorded and transcribed 140 clicker-question discussions in an introductory molecular biology course and coded them for features such as the use of reasoning and types of questions asked. Students who did not interact with LAs had discussions that were similar in most ways to students who did interact with LAs. When students interacted with LAs, the only significant changes in their discussions were the use of more questioning and more time spent in discussion. However, when individual LA–student interactions were examined within discussions, different LA prompts were found to generate specific student responses: question prompts promoted student use of reasoning, while students usually stopped their discussions when LAs explained reasons for answers. These results demonstrate that LA prompts directly influence student interactions during in-class discussions. Because clicker discussions can encourage student articulation of reasoning, instructors and LAs should focus on how to effectively implement questioning techniques rather than providing explanations. PMID:26590204

  11. Problem-based learning: Using students' questions to drive knowledge construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Christine; Chia, Li-Gek

    2004-09-01

    This study employed problem-based learning for project work in a year 9 biology class. The purpose of the study was to investigate (a) students' inspirations for their self-generated problems and questions, (b) the kinds of questions that students asked individually and collaboratively, and (c) how students' questions guided them in knowledge construction. Data sources included observation and field notes, students' written documents, audiotapes and videotapes of students working in groups, and student interviews. Sources of inspiration for students' problems and questions included cultural beliefs and folklore; wonderment about information propagated by advertisements and the media; curiosity arising from personal encounters, family members' concerns, or observations of others; and issues arising from previous lessons in the school curriculum. Questions asked individually pertained to validation of common beliefs and misconceptions, basic information, explanations, and imagined scenarios. The findings regarding questions asked collaboratively are presented as two assertions. Assertion 1 maintained that students' course of learning were driven by their questions. Assertion 2 was that the ability to ask the right'' questions and the extent to which these could be answered, were important in sustaining students' interest in the project. Implications of the findings for instructional practice are discussed.

  12. Questions and answers: Some questions discussed at one of the round tables held at Chicago Institute with public health nurses.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Ella Phillips

    2012-01-01

    There were a number of issues confronting public health nurses in 1919, including the differentiation of practice between visiting nurses and public health nurses, use of community partnerships when developing a new nursing service in a community, and standards of nursing work. Other issues included the focus of nursing work at the community/population versus individual level, how to balance the work load where there was only one nurse in a community, and educating the public about the value of public health nursing to the community. In this excerpt from the original publication, Ella Phillips Crandall responded to questions raised at a round table session held in Chicago in 1919 as a part of a Public Health Nursing Forum, and then published in the October 1919 issue of The Public Health Nurse. While the social context in which PHNs worked in 1919 were significantly different from those nurses face today, these insights are prescient to the issues faced by PHNs today as the profession continues to address issues related to standards of practice, role development, and educational preparation for both entry level and advanced practice.

  13. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  14. Primary sleep disorders in people with epilepsy: clinical questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The questions facing clinicians with patients with sleep disorder and epilepsy are addressed in this article. Both adult and child epilepsy are discussed in the context of the most typical questions a clinician would have, such as "Are parasomnias more common in people with epilepsy?", "Is sleep architecture abnormal in children with epilepsy", along with outcomes of numerous questionnaire-based, case-based, and double-blind placebo studies on such aspects as sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, anxiety and fears, limb movement, nocturnal seizures, agitation, behavioral disorders, and learning disorders. PMID:25455580

  15. What are Middle School Students Talking About During Clicker Questions? Characterizing Small-Group Conversations Mediated by Classroom Response Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren A.; Smith, Michelle K.; Capps, Daniel K.; Lewin, Justin D.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing interest in using classroom response systems or clickers in science classrooms at both the university and K-12 levels. Typically, when instructors use this technology, students are asked to answer and discuss clicker questions with their peers. The existing literature on using clickers at the K-12 level has largely focused on the efficacy of clicker implementation, with few studies investigating collaboration and discourse among students. To expand on this work, we investigated the question: Does clicker use promote productive peer discussion among middle school science students? Specifically, we collected data from middle school students in a physical science course. Students were asked to answer a clicker question individually, discuss the question with their peers, answer the same question again, and then subsequently answer a new matched-pair question individually. We audio recorded the peer conversations to characterize the nature of the student discourse. To analyze these conversations, we used a grounded analysis approach and drew on literature about collaborative knowledge co-construction. The analysis of the conversations revealed that middle school students talked about science content and collaboratively discussed ideas. Furthermore, the majority of conversations, both ones that positively and negatively impacted student performance, contained evidence of collaborative knowledge co-construction.

  16. Answering the Questions of Rape Prevention Research: A Response to Tharp et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Rape prevention programmers and researchers have long struggled to select the most appropriate theoretical models to frame their work. Questions abound regarding appropriate standards of evidence for success of program interventions. The present article provides an alternative point of view to the one put forward by seven staff members from the…

  17. [The answers to the questions. The difficult academic and professional equilibrium in pre-European Spain].

    PubMed

    Medina Moya, José Luis

    2005-10-01

    After the sweep of the three preceding articles, the author responds to the questions posed in the first article, concluding that a turn towards a practical-reflexive position can, over the medium term, solve the tensions which the positivist conceptions have created between knowledge and professional action. A bibliography for all four articles is included. PMID:16304828

  18. Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

  19. Questions in the Answers to Primary School Educational Reconstruction in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current issues in pre- and primary school reform and to pose questions on the long-term implications of present day solutions. Such an exercise will open up discussion on the probable effects of educational policy decisions with a view to minimize negative effects brought on by new policies. Because data…

  20. The Iowa Gambling Task and the somatic marker hypothesis: some questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Bechara, A; Damasio, H; Tranel, D; Damasio, A R

    2005-04-01

    A recent study by Maia and McClelland on participants' knowledge in the Iowa Gambling Task suggests a different interpretation for an experiment we reported in 1997. The authors use their results to question the evidence for the somatic marker hypothesis. Here we consider whether the authors' conclusions are justified.

  1. The Answer Depends on the Question: A Reply to Eric Jensen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The question that Eric Jensen addresses in his article is whether brain research can provide a basis for educational practice. He debates John Bruer, president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, and argues that brain research can, in fact, provide a basis for what educators do. Most of Jensen's article is devoted to showing ways in which brain…

  2. "Don't Know" Responding to Answerable and Unanswerable Questions during Misleading and Hypnotic Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Kirsch, Irving

    2008-01-01

    "Don't know" (DK) responses to interview questions are conceptually heterogeneous, and may represent uncertainty or clear statements about the contents of memory. A study examined the subjective intent of DK responses in relation to the objective status of information queried, in the context of memory distorting procedures. Participants viewed a…

  3. Multi-scale ecosystem monitoring: an application of scaling data to answer multiple ecological questions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Question/Methods Standardized monitoring data collection efforts using a probabilistic sample design, such as in the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) Strategy, provide a core suite of ecological indicators, maximize data collection efficiency,...

  4. 26 CFR 1.416-1 - Questions and answers on top-heavy plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.416-1 Questions...-heavy plans under section 416 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as added by section 240 of the Tax... 713(f) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-369): Table of Contents G—General Provisions...

  5. Does the man in the moon ever sleep? An analysis of student answers about simple astronomical events: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, Jane

    2002-08-01

    In this article the answers provided by 98, 12-year-old students to questions included in an end-of-year science examination are analysed. Almost all of the students are able to explain day and night, but the reason why the Moon always presents the same face to the Earth is less well understood. Estimations of the time in Earth days from sunrise to sunrise on the Moon vary. Most students can explain the apparent movement of stars across the night-sky, but their direction is less certain. Implications of the findings for teaching and learning are addressed.

  6. Readers with Autism Can Produce Inferences, but they Cannot Answer Inferential Questions.

    PubMed

    Tirado, Maria J; Saldaña, David

    2016-03-01

    Readers with autism (ASD), poor comprehension (PC), and typical development (TD) took part in three reading experiments requiring the production of inferences. In Experiments 1 and 2 reading times for target phrases-placed immediately after text implicitly indicating the emotion of a protagonist or after a number of filler sentences, respectively--were used as measures of inferencing. In Experiment 3, participants were explicitly asked to identify the protagonist's emotion. There were no significant differences among groups in Experiment 1. Compared to TD readers, the PC group performed poorly in Experiments 2 and 3. ASD readers performed worse than PC participants only in the explicit-question task. Although ASD readers can produce inferences, they respond to questions about them with difficulty.

  7. Questions of importance to the conservation of global biological diversity: answers from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

    2010-06-01

    Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary in order to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  8. Questions of importance to the conservation of biological diversity: answers from the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. J.; Bhagwat, S. A.

    2010-11-01

    Paleoecological records are replete with examples of biotic responses to past climate change and human impact, but how can we use these records in the conservation of current and future biodiversity? A recently published list of (One Hundred Questions of Importance to the Conservation of Global Biological Diversity) (Sutherland et al., 2009) highlights a number of key research questions that need a temporal perspective. Many of these questions are related to the determination of ecological processes in order to assess ecosystem function and services, climate change-integrated conservation strategies, and ecosystem management and restoration. However, it is noticeable that not a single contributor to this list was from the paleo-research community and that extremely few paleo-records are ever used in the development of terrestrial conservation management plans. This lack of dialogue between conservationists and the paleo-community is partially driven by a perception that the data provided by paleoecological records are purely descriptive and not of relevance to the day-to-day management and conservation of biological diversity. This paper illustrates, through a series of case-studies, how long-term ecological records (>50 years) can provide a test of predictions and assumptions of ecological processes that are directly relevant to management strategies necessary to retain biological diversity in a changing climate. This discussion paper includes information on diversity baselines, thresholds, resilience, and restoration of ecological processes.

  9. Semi-Automatic Grading of Students' Answers Written in Free Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escudeiro, Nuno; Escudeiro, Paula; Cruz, Augusto

    2011-01-01

    The correct grading of free text answers to exam questions during an assessment process is time consuming and subject to fluctuations in the application of evaluation criteria, particularly when the number of answers is high (in the hundreds). In consequence of these fluctuations, inherent to human nature, and largely determined by emotional…

  10. Sensitivity and Predictive Value of 15 PubMed Search Strategies to Answer Clinical Questions Rated Against Full Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Merglen, Arnaud; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Combescure, Christophe; Garin, Nicolas; Perrier, Arnaud; Perneger, Thomas V

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinicians perform searches in PubMed daily, but retrieving relevant studies is challenging due to the rapid expansion of medical knowledge. Little is known about the performance of search strategies when they are applied to answer specific clinical questions. Objective To compare the performance of 15 PubMed search strategies in retrieving relevant clinical trials on therapeutic interventions. Methods We used Cochrane systematic reviews to identify relevant trials for 30 clinical questions. Search terms were extracted from the abstract using a predefined procedure based on the population, interventions, comparison, outcomes (PICO) framework and combined into queries. We tested 15 search strategies that varied in their query (PIC or PICO), use of PubMed’s Clinical Queries therapeutic filters (broad or narrow), search limits, and PubMed links to related articles. We assessed sensitivity (recall) and positive predictive value (precision) of each strategy on the first 2 PubMed pages (40 articles) and on the complete search output. Results The performance of the search strategies varied widely according to the clinical question. Unfiltered searches and those using the broad filter of Clinical Queries produced large outputs and retrieved few relevant articles within the first 2 pages, resulting in a median sensitivity of only 10%–25%. In contrast, all searches using the narrow filter performed significantly better, with a median sensitivity of about 50% (all P < .001 compared with unfiltered queries) and positive predictive values of 20%–30% (P < .001 compared with unfiltered queries). This benefit was consistent for most clinical questions. Searches based on related articles retrieved about a third of the relevant studies. Conclusions The Clinical Queries narrow filter, along with well-formulated queries based on the PICO framework, provided the greatest aid in retrieving relevant clinical trials within the 2 first PubMed pages. These results can help

  11. Questions and Answers About the Effects of Septic Systems on Water Quality in the La Pine Area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John S.; Morgan, David S.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate levels in the ground-water aquifer underlying the central Oregon city of La Pine and the surrounding area are increasing due to contamination from residential septic systems. This contamination has public health implications because ground water is the sole source of drinking water for area residents. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Deschutes County and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, studied the movement and chemistry of nitrate in the aquifer and developed computer models that can be used to predict future nitrate levels and to evaluate alternatives for protecting water quality. This fact sheet summarizes the results of that study in the form of questions and answers.

  12. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  13. Using Collaboration, Co-Teaching, and Question Answer Relationships to Enhance Content Area Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenty, Nicole S.; McDuffie-Landrum, Kim; Fisher, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents who struggle in the area of literacy tend to experience difficulty accessing texts across many different content areas. These students could benefit from increased collaborative interactions between general education content area teachers, special education teachers, and other school personnel with expertise in the area of literacy…

  14. When Writing Professors Teach Literature: Shaping Questions, Finding Answers, Effecting Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    The article explores writing-centered pedagogies that deepen student learning in literature survey courses. More broadly, the article also responds to Richard Fulkerson and Maureen Daly Goggin, who challenge professors of English studies to find disciplinary unity within the diverse epistemologies of rhetoric. (Contains 5 notes.)

  15. The Written English Proficiency Test at UMKC: An Intelligent Answer to an Unintelligent Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilson, Joan T.

    Because of consistent faculty involvement from its earliest stages, the writing assessment program at the University of Missouri at Kansas City (UMKC) represents a competent, fair, and useful procedure for the large-scale testing and evaluation of student writing. UMKC's assessment curriculum builds on the existing sequence of three composition…

  16. Answering the ultimate question "what is the proximal cause of aging?".

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2012-12-01

    Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging?

  17. Commentary: Plastic ocean and the cancer connection: 7 questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Benno Meyer-Rochow, V; Valérie Gross, J; Steffany, Frank; Zeuss, Dominique; Erren, Thomas C

    2015-10-01

    A plethora of recent scientific reports testifies to challenges the world is facing from an ever-increasing marine plastic pollution. Toxicological concerns have been put forward, but possible links between the now ubiquitous synthetic polymers and human as well as wildlife cancers remain to be investigated. Hence, this commentary which addresses seven questions. Given numerous uncertainties on the factual impacts of plastics, we should embark on empirical studies into the validity of biologically plausible links between plastic residues and cancers and concomitantly consider ways to reduce plastics in the world within and around us.

  18. The Rights of Spring: A Forum Answers an Old Question of Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert

    1970-01-01

    This issue of Lehigh University News is completely devoted to the events that lead to the formation of the new all-University forum. In the week of April 7-15, 1970, a coalition of frustrated militant and moderate students occupied the University Center, called a strike, demanded seats on the board of trustees and a 50-50 split of the power in an…

  19. How well do websites concerning children's anxiety answer parents' questions about treatment choices?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kristin A; Walker, John R; Walsh, Kate

    2015-10-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the quality of information concerning anxiety disorders in children that is available on the Internet and to evaluate changes in the quality of website information over time. The authors identified websites addressing child anxiety disorders (N = 26) using a Google search and recommendations from an expert in child anxiety. Each website was evaluated on the extent to which it addressed questions that parents consider important, the quality of information, and the reading level. All websites provided adequate information describing treatment options; however, fewer websites had information addressing many questions that are important to parents, including the duration of treatment, what happens when treatment stops, and the benefits and risks of various treatments. Many websites provided inadequate information on pharmacological treatment. Most websites were of moderate quality and had more difficult reading levels than is recommended. Five years after the initial assessment, authors re-analyzed the websites in order to investigate changes in content over time. The content of only six websites had been updated since the original analysis, the majority of which improved on the three aforementioned areas of evaluation. Websites could be strengthened by providing important information that would support parent decision-making.

  20. Good Student Questions in Inquiry Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombard, François E.; Schneider, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    Acquisition of scientific reasoning is one of the big challenges in education. A popular educational strategy advocated for acquiring deep knowledge is inquiry-based learning, which is driven by emerging "good questions". This study will address the question: "Which design features allow learners to refine questions while preserving…

  1. Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Tish

    2009-01-01

    The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

  2. Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment.

    PubMed

    Aucamp, Pieter J

    2007-03-01

    The ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen and is mainly formed by the action of the ultraviolet rays of the sun on the diatomic oxygen molecules in the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere (called the stratosphere). Atmospheric pollution near the Earth's surface can form localized areas of ozone. The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the mid 1970s it was discovered that some manmade products destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere. This destruction can result in damage to ecosystems and to materials such as plastics. It may cause an increase in human diseases such as skin cancers and cataracts. The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field. Computer models predicted a disaster if no action was taken to protect the ozone layer. Based on this research and monitoring, the nations of the world took action in 1985 with the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer followed by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. The Convention and Protocol were amended and adjusted several times as new knowledge was obtained. The Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol appointed three Assessment Panels to review the progress in scientific knowledge on their behalf. These panels are the Scientific Assessment Panel, the Technological and Economic Assessment Panel and the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel. Each panel covers a designated area and there is a natural level of overlap. The main reports of the Panels are published every four years as required by the Meeting of the Parties. All the reports have an executive summary that is distributed more widely than the main report itself. It became customary to add a set of questions and answers--mainly for non-expert readers--to the executive summaries. This

  3. Questions and answers about the effects of the depletion of the ozone layer on humans and the environment.

    PubMed

    Aucamp, Pieter J

    2007-03-01

    The ozone molecule contains three atoms of oxygen and is mainly formed by the action of the ultraviolet rays of the sun on the diatomic oxygen molecules in the upper part of the Earth's atmosphere (called the stratosphere). Atmospheric pollution near the Earth's surface can form localized areas of ozone. The stratospheric ozone layer protects life on Earth by absorbing most of the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. In the mid 1970s it was discovered that some manmade products destroy ozone molecules in the stratosphere. This destruction can result in damage to ecosystems and to materials such as plastics. It may cause an increase in human diseases such as skin cancers and cataracts. The discovery of the role of the synthetic ozone-depleting chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) stimulated increased research and monitoring in this field. Computer models predicted a disaster if no action was taken to protect the ozone layer. Based on this research and monitoring, the nations of the world took action in 1985 with the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer followed by the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in 1987. The Convention and Protocol were amended and adjusted several times as new knowledge was obtained. The Meetings of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol appointed three Assessment Panels to review the progress in scientific knowledge on their behalf. These panels are the Scientific Assessment Panel, the Technological and Economic Assessment Panel and the Environmental Effects Assessment Panel. Each panel covers a designated area and there is a natural level of overlap. The main reports of the Panels are published every four years as required by the Meeting of the Parties. All the reports have an executive summary that is distributed more widely than the main report itself. It became customary to add a set of questions and answers--mainly for non-expert readers--to the executive summaries. This

  4. The role of AQP4 in neuromyelitis optica: More answers, more questions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Ransom, Bruce R; Ma, Jian-Fang

    2016-09-15

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a recurrent inflammatory disease that preferentially targets the optic nerves and spinal cord. The presence of antibodies to the water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), expressed almost exclusively in astrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS), is a reliable biomarker for NMO. These antibodies, NMO-IgG, may be responsible for the sequential cascade of immune events, including IgG/IgM deposition, infiltration of granulocytes and complement-mediated cytotoxicity (i.e. astrocyte loss) and demyelination. This review summarizes current thinking about the role of NMO-IgG in the pathogenesis of this condition. New insights were also generated along with important additional questions. PMID:27609277

  5. Answering the ultimate question “What is the Proximal Cause of Aging?”

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries suggest that aging is neither driven by accumulation of molecular damage of any cause, nor by random damage of any kind. Some predictions of a new theory, quasi-programmed hyperfunction, have already been confirmed and a clinically-available drug slows aging and delays diseases in animals. The relationship between diseases and aging becomes easily apparent. Yet, the essence of aging turns out to be so startling that the theory cannot be instantly accepted and any possible arguments are raised for its disposal. I discuss that these arguments actually support a new theory. Are any questions remaining? And might accumulation of molecular damage still play a peculiar role in aging? PMID:23425777

  6. Feminist bioethics: toward developing a "feminist" answer to the surrogate motherhood question.

    PubMed

    Tong, Rosemarie

    1996-03-01

    Although a wide variety of feminist approaches to bioethics presently share a common feminist methodology (sometimes referred to as "raising the woman question"), they do not all share the same feminist politics, ontology, epistemology, and ethics. As a result of their philosophical differences, feminist bioethicists do not always agree on which biomedical principles, practices, and policies are best suited to serving women's interests. In other words, some feminist bioethicists insist that so-called "assisted reproduction" enhances women's procreative liberty, while others claim that it does nothing of the sort. Although such disagreement among feminist bioethicists reassures the general public that the feminist "program" for bioethics is not ideologically monolithic, it also confuses the public, especially women. In order to overcome this confusion, feminist bioethicists should work toward developing the kind of shared theoretical base that will foster frequent consensus on the biomedical principles, practices, and policies most likely to serve the interests of most women in the U.S. today.

  7. Moving Students' Questions out of the Parking Lot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2014-01-01

    This article provides teachers with ideas on how to address students' self-generated questions. Following a third-grade classroom, the article explores the use of a "parking lot" -- a repository for the seemingly off-task questions which curious students naturally pose. As students encounter informational text with genuine purposes,…

  8. Supporting Argumentation through Students' Questions: Case Studies in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Christine; Osborne, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how student-generated questions can support argumentation in science. Students were asked to discuss which of two graphs showing the change in temperature with time when ice is heated to steam was correct. Four classes of students, aged 12-14 years, from two countries, first wrote questions about the phenomenon. Then, working…

  9. Any Questions? Want to Stimulate Student Curiosity? Let Them Ask Questions!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Tarin Harrar

    2013-01-01

    Of the eight scientific practices highlighted in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas," the first is for students to develop abilities to ask questions and define problems (NRC 2012). Constructing a range of questions about an object or phenomenon validates not only what students have…

  10. Accuracy of Answers to Cell Lineage Questions Depends on Single-Cell Genomics Data Quality and Quantity.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Adam; Shapiro, Ehud

    2016-06-01

    Advances in single-cell (SC) genomics enable commensurate improvements in methods for uncovering lineage relations among individual cells, as determined by phylogenetic analysis of the somatic mutations harbored by each cell. Theoretically, complete and accurate knowledge of the genome of each cell of an individual can produce an extremely accurate cell lineage tree of that individual. However, the reality of SC genomics is that such complete and accurate knowledge would be wanting, in quality and in quantity, for the foreseeable future. In this paper we offer a framework for systematically exploring the feasibility of answering cell lineage questions based on SC somatic mutational analysis, as a function of SC genomics data quality and quantity. We take into consideration the current limitations of SC genomics in terms of mutation data quality, most notably amplification bias and allele dropouts (ADO), as well as cost, which puts practical limits on mutation data quantity obtained from each cell as well as on cell sample density. We do so by generating in silico cell lineage trees using a dedicated formal language, eSTG, and show how the ability to answer correctly a cell lineage question depends on the quality and quantity of the SC mutation data. The presented framework can serve as a baseline for the potential of current SC genomics to unravel cell lineage dynamics, as well as the potential contributions of future advancement, both biochemical and computational, for the task. PMID:27295404

  11. Accuracy of Answers to Cell Lineage Questions Depends on Single-Cell Genomics Data Quality and Quantity

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, Adam; Shapiro, Ehud

    2016-01-01

    Advances in single-cell (SC) genomics enable commensurate improvements in methods for uncovering lineage relations among individual cells, as determined by phylogenetic analysis of the somatic mutations harbored by each cell. Theoretically, complete and accurate knowledge of the genome of each cell of an individual can produce an extremely accurate cell lineage tree of that individual. However, the reality of SC genomics is that such complete and accurate knowledge would be wanting, in quality and in quantity, for the foreseeable future. In this paper we offer a framework for systematically exploring the feasibility of answering cell lineage questions based on SC somatic mutational analysis, as a function of SC genomics data quality and quantity. We take into consideration the current limitations of SC genomics in terms of mutation data quality, most notably amplification bias and allele dropouts (ADO), as well as cost, which puts practical limits on mutation data quantity obtained from each cell as well as on cell sample density. We do so by generating in silico cell lineage trees using a dedicated formal language, eSTG, and show how the ability to answer correctly a cell lineage question depends on the quality and quantity of the SC mutation data. The presented framework can serve as a baseline for the potential of current SC genomics to unravel cell lineage dynamics, as well as the potential contributions of future advancement, both biochemical and computational, for the task. PMID:27295404

  12. The evolution of centipede venom claws - open questions and possible answers.

    PubMed

    Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin; Schweigert, Günter; Sombke, Andy

    2014-01-01

    The maxilliped venom claw is an intriguing structure in centipedes. We address open questions concerning this structure. The maxillipeds of fossil centipedes from the Carboniferous (about 300 million years old) have been described, but not been depicted previously. Re-investigation demonstrates that they resemble their modern counterparts. A Jurassic geophilomorph centipede (about 150 million years old) was originally described as possessing a rather leg-like maxilliped. Our re-investigation shows that the maxilliped is, in fact, highly specialized as in modern Geophilomorpha. A scenario for the evolution of the centipede maxilliped is presented. It supports one of the two supposed hypotheses of centipede phylogeny, the Pleurostigmophora hypothesis. Although this hypothesis appears now well established, many aspects of character evolution resulting from this phylogeny remain to be told in detail. One such aspect is the special joint of the maxilliped in some species of Cryptops. Cryptops is an in-group of Scolopendromorpha, but its maxilliped joint can resemble that of Lithobiomorpha or even possess a mixture of characters between the both. Detailed investigation of fossils, larger sample sizes of extant species, and developmental data will be necessary to allow further improvements of the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of centipedes.

  13. Cajal's prophetic functional considerations on respiratory reflexes: new questions about old answers.

    PubMed

    Schwarzacher, Stephan W

    2002-01-01

    In the "Histology of the Nervous System" (Histologie, Spanish edition, 1899, 1904; French translation, 1909, 1911; all citations are from the American translation, 1995) Cajal did not only describe the origins and central pathways of cranial nerves but his detailed observations led him to numerous conclusions about the functional organization of brainstem reflexes. From studies of vagal and glossopharyngeal afferents he proposed a structural organization of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS). His view has been considerably changed by several authors on the basis of modern tracing studies. However, detailed histological examinations of functionally identified sensory fibers provided new understanding of a functional organization of the solitary nucleus that is very well in line with Cajal's original descriptions. The prophetic character of Cajal's concepts of structural-functional relations becomes even more evident by a reconsideration of his explanations of the reflexes underlying respiration, coughing and vomiting. Recent electrophysiological studies of spontaneously rhythmically active in vitro preparations have provided us with new insights in respiratory control. However, it appears that quite a number of Cajal's key questions concerning respiratory reflexes are still not solved. Therefore, a reconsideration of old and partly forgotten concepts might indeed provide a novel understanding of the structural and functional organization of brainstem reflexes.

  14. ALAT-2014 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Clinical Practice Guidelines: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, María; López Varela, María Victorina; Acuña, Agustín; Schiavi, Eduardo; Rey, María Alejandra; Jardim, José; Casas, Alejandro; Tokumoto, Antonio; Torres Duque, Carlos A; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; García, Gabriel; Stirbulov, Roberto; Camelier, Aquiles; Bergna, Miguel; Cohen, Mark; Guzmán, Santiago; Sánchez, Efraín

    2015-08-01

    ALAT-2014 COPD Clinical Practice Guidelines used clinical questions in PICO format to compile evidence related to risk factors, COPD screening, disease prognosis, treatment and exacerbations. Evidence reveals the existence of risk factors for COPD other than tobacco, as well as gender differences in disease presentation. It shows the benefit of screening in an at-risk population, and the predictive value use of multidimensional prognostic indexes. In stable COPD, similar benefits in dyspnea, pulmonary function and quality of life are achieved with LAMA or LABA long-acting bronchodilators, whereas LAMA is more effective in preventing exacerbations. Dual bronchodilator therapy has more benefits than monotherapy. LAMA and combination LABA/IC are similarly effective, but there is an increased risk of pneumonia with LABA/IC. Data on the efficacy and safety of triple therapy are scarce. Evidence supports influenza vaccination in all patients and anti-pneumococcal vaccination in patients <65years of age and/or with severe airflow limitation. Antibiotic prophylaxis may decrease exacerbation frequency in patients at risk. The use of systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics are justified in exacerbations requiring hospitalization and in some patients managed in an outpatient setting.

  15. Overwintering of herbaceous plants in a changing climate. Still more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Rapacz, Marcin; Ergon, Ashild; Höglind, Mats; Jørgensen, Marit; Jurczyk, Barbara; Ostrem, Liv; Rognli, Odd Arne; Tronsmo, Anne Marte

    2014-08-01

    The increase in surface temperature of the Earth indicates a lower risk of exposure for temperate grassland and crop to extremely low temperatures. However, the risk of low winter survival rate, especially in higher latitudes may not be smaller, due to complex interactions among different environmental factors. For example, the frequency, degree and length of extreme winter warming events, leading to snowmelt during winter increased, affecting the risks of anoxia, ice encasement and freezing of plants not covered with snow. Future climate projections suggest that cold acclimation will occur later in autumn, under shorter photoperiod and lower light intensity, which may affect the energy partitioning between the elongation growth, accumulation of organic reserves and cold acclimation. Rising CO2 levels may also disturb the cold acclimation process. Predicting problems with winter pathogens is also very complex, because climate change may greatly influence the pathogen population and because the plant resistance to these pathogens is increased by cold acclimation. All these factors, often with contradictory effects on winter survival, make plant overwintering viability under future climates an open question. Close cooperation between climatologists, ecologists, plant physiologists, geneticists and plant breeders is strongly required to predict and prevent possible problems.

  16. Killing or letting die? Proposal of a (somewhat) new answer to a perennial question.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    There is as yet no widely agreed-upon solution to the standard textbook problem whether actively shutting off a life-sustaining medical device, e.g. a respirator, and thus bringing about a patient's death amounts to active killing or just to an omission of further treatment. Apart from a range of astutely contrived case examples and respective particular solutions proposed in the literature, there seems to be no consensus on the normative principles such solutions should be grounded in, not even on the need for such principles beyond sheer intuition. The present paper attempts to develop a normative approach based on fundamental principles of law. From this perspective, what is decisive for the question of 'killing or letting die' in such cases is not that death ensues from a behaviour that is active and relevantly causative, but rather, whether or not the agent in performing the deadly act transgresses the boundaries of the domain of his or her sole normative authority, and thereby intervenes in the protected sphere of another. Unless he or she does so, their behaviour cannot be classified as active commission regardless of the amount of causal activity it may display and regardless of its potentially harmful consequences. This conception is spelled out in detail and tested in a range of case examples, as are several of its corollaries that deviate from standard type solutions.

  17. The evolution of centipede venom claws - open questions and possible answers.

    PubMed

    Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin; Schweigert, Günter; Sombke, Andy

    2014-01-01

    The maxilliped venom claw is an intriguing structure in centipedes. We address open questions concerning this structure. The maxillipeds of fossil centipedes from the Carboniferous (about 300 million years old) have been described, but not been depicted previously. Re-investigation demonstrates that they resemble their modern counterparts. A Jurassic geophilomorph centipede (about 150 million years old) was originally described as possessing a rather leg-like maxilliped. Our re-investigation shows that the maxilliped is, in fact, highly specialized as in modern Geophilomorpha. A scenario for the evolution of the centipede maxilliped is presented. It supports one of the two supposed hypotheses of centipede phylogeny, the Pleurostigmophora hypothesis. Although this hypothesis appears now well established, many aspects of character evolution resulting from this phylogeny remain to be told in detail. One such aspect is the special joint of the maxilliped in some species of Cryptops. Cryptops is an in-group of Scolopendromorpha, but its maxilliped joint can resemble that of Lithobiomorpha or even possess a mixture of characters between the both. Detailed investigation of fossils, larger sample sizes of extant species, and developmental data will be necessary to allow further improvements of the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of centipedes. PMID:24211515

  18. When asking the question changes the ultimate answer: Metamemory judgments change memory.

    PubMed

    Mitchum, Ainsley L; Kelley, Colleen M; Fox, Mark C

    2016-02-01

    Self-report measurements are ubiquitous in psychology, but they carry the potential of altering processes they are meant to measure. We assessed whether a common metamemory measure, judgments of learning, can change the ongoing process of memorizing and subsequent memory performance. Judgments of learning are a form of metamemory monitoring described as conscious reflection on one's own memory performance or encoding activities for the purpose of exerting strategic control over one's study and retrieval activities (T. O. Nelson & Narens, 1990). Much of the work examining the conscious monitoring of encoding relies heavily on a paradigm in which participants are asked to estimate the probability that they will recall a given item in a judgment of learning. In 5 experiments, we find effects of measuring judgments of learning on how people allocate their study time to difficult versus easy items, and on what they will recall. These results suggest that judgments of learning are partially constructed in response to the measurement question. The tendency of judgments of learning to alter performance places them in the company of other reactive verbal reporting methods, counseling researchers to consider incorporating control groups, creating alternative scales, and exploring other verbal reporting methods. Less directive methods of accessing participants' metacognition and other judgments should be considered as an alternative to response scales.

  19. ALAT-2014 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Clinical Practice Guidelines: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, María; López Varela, María Victorina; Acuña, Agustín; Schiavi, Eduardo; Rey, María Alejandra; Jardim, José; Casas, Alejandro; Tokumoto, Antonio; Torres Duque, Carlos A; Ramírez-Venegas, Alejandra; García, Gabriel; Stirbulov, Roberto; Camelier, Aquiles; Bergna, Miguel; Cohen, Mark; Guzmán, Santiago; Sánchez, Efraín

    2015-08-01

    ALAT-2014 COPD Clinical Practice Guidelines used clinical questions in PICO format to compile evidence related to risk factors, COPD screening, disease prognosis, treatment and exacerbations. Evidence reveals the existence of risk factors for COPD other than tobacco, as well as gender differences in disease presentation. It shows the benefit of screening in an at-risk population, and the predictive value use of multidimensional prognostic indexes. In stable COPD, similar benefits in dyspnea, pulmonary function and quality of life are achieved with LAMA or LABA long-acting bronchodilators, whereas LAMA is more effective in preventing exacerbations. Dual bronchodilator therapy has more benefits than monotherapy. LAMA and combination LABA/IC are similarly effective, but there is an increased risk of pneumonia with LABA/IC. Data on the efficacy and safety of triple therapy are scarce. Evidence supports influenza vaccination in all patients and anti-pneumococcal vaccination in patients <65years of age and/or with severe airflow limitation. Antibiotic prophylaxis may decrease exacerbation frequency in patients at risk. The use of systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics are justified in exacerbations requiring hospitalization and in some patients managed in an outpatient setting. PMID:25596991

  20. To Charter or Not to Charter: What Questions Should We Ask, and What Will the Answers Tell Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry; Schouten, Gina

    2014-01-01

    In this essay, Harry Brighouse and Gina Schouten outline four standards for judging whether to support the chartering of a new school within a given jurisdiction. The authors pose the following questions to a hypothetical school board member: Will the school increase equality of opportunity? Will it benefit the least-advantaged students in the…

  1. Exploring the Validity of Assessment in Anatomy: Do Images Influence Cognitive Processes Used in Answering Extended Matching Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Bouter, Shifra T.; van den Hurk, Marianne M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is an important aspect of medical education because it tests students' competence and motivates them to study. Various assessment methods, with and without images, are used in the study of anatomy. In this study, we investigated the use of extended matching questions (EMQs). To gain insight into the influence of images on the…

  2. Combining Peer Discussion with Instructor Explanation Increases Student Learning from In-Class Concept Questions

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M.K.; Wood, W.B.; Krauter, K.; Knight, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    Use of in-class concept questions with clickers can transform an instructor-centered “transmissionist” environment to a more learner-centered constructivist classroom. To compare the effectiveness of three different approaches using clickers, pairs of similar questions were used to monitor student understanding in majors’ and nonmajors’ genetics courses. After answering the first question individually, students participated in peer discussion only, listened to an instructor explanation only, or engaged in peer discussion followed by instructor explanation, before answering a second question individually. Our results show that the combination of peer discussion followed by instructor explanation improved average student performance substantially when compared with either alone. When gains in learning were analyzed for three ability groups of students (weak, medium, and strong, based on overall clicker performance), all groups benefited most from the combination approach, suggesting that peer discussion and instructor explanation are synergistic in helping students. However, this analysis also revealed that, for the nonmajors, the gains of weak performers using the combination approach were only slightly better than their gains using instructor explanation alone. In contrast, the strong performers in both courses were not helped by the instructor-only approach, emphasizing the importance of peer discussion, even among top-performing students. PMID:21364100

  3. Combining peer discussion with instructor explanation increases student learning from in-class concept questions.

    PubMed

    Smith, M K; Wood, W B; Krauter, K; Knight, J K

    2011-01-01

    Use of in-class concept questions with clickers can transform an instructor-centered "transmissionist" environment to a more learner-centered constructivist classroom. To compare the effectiveness of three different approaches using clickers, pairs of similar questions were used to monitor student understanding in majors' and nonmajors' genetics courses. After answering the first question individually, students participated in peer discussion only, listened to an instructor explanation only, or engaged in peer discussion followed by instructor explanation, before answering a second question individually. Our results show that the combination of peer discussion followed by instructor explanation improved average student performance substantially when compared with either alone. When gains in learning were analyzed for three ability groups of students (weak, medium, and strong, based on overall clicker performance), all groups benefited most from the combination approach, suggesting that peer discussion and instructor explanation are synergistic in helping students. However, this analysis also revealed that, for the nonmajors, the gains of weak performers using the combination approach were only slightly better than their gains using instructor explanation alone. In contrast, the strong performers in both courses were not helped by the instructor-only approach, emphasizing the importance of peer discussion, even among top-performing students.

  4. Eye Tracking Research to Answer Questions about Augmentative and Alternative Communication Assessment and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Krista M.; Mitchell, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, eye tracking technologies (i.e., technologies that automatically track the point of an individual’s gaze while that person views or interacts with a visual image) have become available for research purposes. These technologies record the orientation of the individual’s eyes in a series of samples taken at rapid intervals through measurement of infrared light reflected from the cornea (the curved portion of the eyeball) and the pupil, and as a function of the distance of the eyes from the monitor. Based on the sampling information, researchers can quantify which locations within the visual image were fixated (viewed), for how long, and how many times. These automated eye tracking technologies open up a wealth of avenues for investigating how individuals with developmental or acquired communication disabilities may respond to aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. In this paper, we introduce basic terminology and summarize some of the considerations of importance to researchers seeking to do this type of research. We also explore some of the special challenges of conducting eye tracking research with populations with disabilities who might use AAC, including challenges of inferring attention from the presence of fixation and challenges related to calibration that may result from participant characteristics, behavioral idiosyncracies, and/or the number of calibration points. We also examine how the technology can be applied to ask well-structured experimental questions that have direct clinical relevance, with a focus on the unique contributions that eye tracking research can provide by (a) allowing evaluation of skills in individuals who are difficult to assess via traditional methods and (b) facilitating access to information on underlying visual cognitive processes that is not accessible via traditional behavioral measures. PMID:24758526

  5. Treatment of burns in the first 24 hours: simple and practical guide by answering 10 questions in a step-by-step form

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Residents in training, medical students and other staff in surgical sector, emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) or Burn Unit face a multitude of questions regarding burn care. Treatment of burns is not always straightforward. Furthermore, National and International guidelines differ from one region to another. On one hand, it is important to understand pathophysiology, classification of burns, surgical treatment, and the latest updates in burn science. On the other hand, the clinical situation for treating these cases needs clear guidelines to cover every single aspect during the treatment procedure. Thus, 10 questions have been organised and discussed in a step-by-step form in order to achieve the excellence of education and the optimal treatment of burn injuries in the first 24 hours. These 10 questions will clearly discuss referral criteria to the burn unit, primary and secondary survey, estimation of the total burned surface area (%TBSA) and the degree of burns as well as resuscitation process, routine interventions, laboratory tests, indications of Bronchoscopy and special considerations for Inhalation trauma, immediate consultations and referrals, emergency surgery and admission orders. Understanding and answering the 10 questions will not only cover the management process of Burns during the first 24 hours but also seems to be an interactive clear guide for education purpose. PMID:22583548

  6. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: a bifactor answer to a two-factor question?

    PubMed

    McKay, Michael T; Boduszek, Daniel; Harvey, Séamus A

    2014-01-01

    Despite its long-standing and widespread use, disagreement remains regarding the structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). In particular, concern remains regarding the degree to which the scale assesses self-esteem as a unidimensional or multidimensional (positive and negative self-esteem) construct. Using a sample of 3,862 high school students in the United Kingdom, 4 models were tested: (a) a unidimensional model, (b) a correlated 2-factor model in which the 2 latent variables are represented by positive and negative self-esteem, (c) a hierarchical model, and (d) a bifactor model. The totality of results including item loadings, goodness-of-fit indexes, reliability estimates, and correlations with self-efficacy measures all supported the bifactor model, suggesting that the 2 hypothesized factors are better understood as "grouping" factors rather than as representative of latent constructs. Accordingly, this study supports the unidimensionality of the RSES and the scoring of all 10 items to produce a global self-esteem score.

  7. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: a bifactor answer to a two-factor question?

    PubMed

    McKay, Michael T; Boduszek, Daniel; Harvey, Séamus A

    2014-01-01

    Despite its long-standing and widespread use, disagreement remains regarding the structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). In particular, concern remains regarding the degree to which the scale assesses self-esteem as a unidimensional or multidimensional (positive and negative self-esteem) construct. Using a sample of 3,862 high school students in the United Kingdom, 4 models were tested: (a) a unidimensional model, (b) a correlated 2-factor model in which the 2 latent variables are represented by positive and negative self-esteem, (c) a hierarchical model, and (d) a bifactor model. The totality of results including item loadings, goodness-of-fit indexes, reliability estimates, and correlations with self-efficacy measures all supported the bifactor model, suggesting that the 2 hypothesized factors are better understood as "grouping" factors rather than as representative of latent constructs. Accordingly, this study supports the unidimensionality of the RSES and the scoring of all 10 items to produce a global self-esteem score. PMID:24940657

  8. Effects of Wh-Question Graphic Organizers on Reading Comprehension Skills of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethune, Keri S.; Wood,Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Students with autism spectrum disorders often have difficulty with reading comprehension. This study used a delayed multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effects of graphic organizers on the accuracy of wh-questions answered following short passage reading. Participants were three elementary-age students with autism spectrum…

  9. Petroleum, Convenience, & Automotive Marketing [Student Book and] Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozek, Ed; Faught, Suzanne G.

    This student manual and answer book/teacher's guide focus on the industry-specific information and skills needed by students who plan to enter, or who may already be receiving, training in a petroleum-related business, such as a full-service gas station, convenience store, or automotive specialty service shop. The student manual contains 16…

  10. Questions Students Ask: The Frequencies of Metal Locators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Roger E.

    1984-01-01

    Answers a question about operating frequency of metal locators, discussing signal attenuation due to inverse square law and interaction with conducting media. Compares frequency to conductivity for various media and resultant penetration of media by signal, relating to transmission of extremely low frequency signals for submarine communications by…

  11. Moving from answer finding to sensemaking: Supporting middle school students' online inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meilan

    Online inquiry, use of the Web as an information source to conduct inquiry for a scientific question, has become increasingly common in middle schools in recent years. However, while valuable Web resources provide unprecedented learning opportunities, easy access to information does not guarantee learning. Previous research has found that middle school students tend to use the Web in a superficial manner. To address the challenges that students face in online inquiry, this study explored several supporting strategies implemented in Digital IdeaKeeper, a scaffolded software tool to help students move from passively finding a ready-made answer to actively making sense of the information they encounter through support for inquiry planning, information search, analysis, and synthesis. This study examined the differences and similarities between regular online inquiry and supported online inquiry performed by several sixth-graders in real classroom settings. Four pairs from a sixth grade class used IdeaKeeper for their online inquiry project, and another four pairs from a different sixth grade class taught by the same teacher used regular online search engines only. Both groups worked on the same science topic-water, and the entire project lasted about four weeks. During that time, students in both groups used computers for about 10-14 days to conduct online research. Multiple sources of data were collected, including video recordings of students' computer activities and conversations, students' artifacts, log files and student final writings. Several themes emerged from the data analysis. First, the findings refer to the importance of providing a structure for students' online inquiry, to promote a more integrated, efficient, continuous, metacognitive and engaging online inquiry. In addition, guidance is important to promote more careful, thorough, and purposeful online reading, Overall, the results suggest that middle school students' online inquiry needs to be

  12. Helping Students Motivate Themselves: Practical Answers to Classroom Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferlazzo, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Give your students the tools they need to motivate themselves with tips from award-winning educator Larry Ferlazzo. A comprehensive outline of common classroom challenges, this book presents immediately applicable steps and lesson plans for all middle and high school teachers looking to help students motivate themselves. With coverage of…

  13. Positive Peer Solutions: One Answer for the Rejected Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Steven L.; McKeon, Loren M.; Dinero, Thomas E.

    1999-01-01

    Positive Peer Groups (PPG) is a leadership training program that helps alienated and disengaged students bond to school via participation in school-oriented service activities stressing work, discipline, and responsibility. Students form affiliations with peers involved in the same efforts. Results in Ohio schools are encouraging. (MLH)

  14. Use of key feature questions in summative assessment of veterinary medicine students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To prove the hypothesis that procedural knowledge might be tested using Key Feature (KF) questions in written exams, the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Foundation (TiHo) pioneered this format in summative assessment of veterinary medicine students. Exams in veterinary medicine are either tested orally, practically, in written form or digitally in written form. The only question formats which were previously used in the written e-exams were Type A Single-choice Questions, Image Analysis and Short Answer Questions. E-exams are held at the TiHo using the electronic exam system Q [kju:] by CODIPLAN GmbH. Methods In order to examine less factual knowledge and more procedural knowledge and thus the decision-making skills of the students, a new question format was integrated into the exam regulations by the TiHo and some examiner used this for the first time in the computer based assessment. Following a successful pilot phase in formative e-exams for students, KF questions were also introduced in summative exams. A number of multiple choice questions were replaced by KF questions in four computer based assessment in veterinary medicine. The subjects were internal medicine, surgery, reproductive medicine and dairy science. Results The integration and linking of KF questions into the computer based assessment system Q [kju:] went without any complications. The new question format was well received both by the students and the teaching staff who formulated the questions. Conclusion The hypothesis could be proven that Key Feature questions represent a practicable addition to the existing e-exam question formats for testing procedural knowledge. The number of KF questions will be therefore further increased in examinations in veterinary medicine at the TiHo. PMID:23497425

  15. Postreading Questioning and Middle School Students' Understanding of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Lauren Aimonette; Watkins, Naomi M.; Graves, Michael F.; Hosp, John

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a "story map," a questioning technique (Beck & McKeown, 1981) for improving students' understanding of literature. Though the story map idea was widely adopted as a student-initiated strategy, the original story map--a teacher-generated, postreading questioning framework--was never empirically tested. This…

  16. How to Help Students Confront Life's "Big Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walvoord, Barbara E.

    2008-01-01

    Many college students are interested in spirituality and the "big questions" about life's meaning and values, but many professors seem not to know how to respond to that interest. In this article, the author offers several strategies to help students confront the "big questions". One way is to structure assignments and discussions so that students…

  17. Assessing the Quality of a Student-Generated Question Repository

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Riise, Jonathan; Homer, Danny

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a study that categorizes and assesses the quality of questions and explanations authored by students in question repositories produced as part of the summative assessment in introductory physics courses over two academic sessions. Mapping question quality onto the levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy, we…

  18. Sepsis Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... has kidney problems, sepsis can lead to kidney failure that requires lifelong dialysis. Top of Page How ... to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Recently, CDC has projects specifically focused on sepsis prevention so that we ...

  19. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Environmental Epidemiology. This study reports on the estimated average dietary intakes of perchlorate and iodine based ... Dietary Intake of Perchlorate and Iodine" study? The estimated lower bound to upper bound average perchlorate intakes ...

  20. Answering the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Julie Leavitt

    2011-01-01

    As a mother of a daughter with special needs, as well as to a son without, the author can say having had both experiences, all mothers, regardless of her children, struggle in one form or another. That may actually be a part of the job description: Mother: must be able to function well with minimal sleep; is capable of multi-tasking; be clever…

  1. More Questions Than Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickhouse, Nancy W.

    2002-01-01

    Comments on the article 'Time to Change Drivers for Science Literacy' by Peter Fensham and addresses two issues: (1) Why is reforming the science curriculum so hard?; and (2) What are the potential possibilities of and problems with Fensham's reform proposal? (Contains 12 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... my child? Rabies is not common in dogs, cats, ferrets, and live- stock in the United States ... rabies isn't common in U.S. dogs and cats anymore, is there anything to worry about? Unfortunately, ...

  3. Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States . Why is there a week-long lag between the data and when it’s ... surveillance data collection is based on a reporting week that starts on Sunday and ends on Saturday ...

  4. Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... or CT Scan, renal ultrasound, echocardiogram of the heart, EKG, eye exam and a Wood's Lamp evaluation ... or a number of other symptoms. In the heart, the tumors are usually at their largest at ...

  5. Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... as 400,000 hospitalizations from pneumococcal pneumonia are estimated to occur annually in the United States. Pneumococci ... cord) in the United States. There are an estimated 3,000 cases of pneumococcal meningitis each year. ...

  6. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... destroyed by cooking to a safe minimum internal temperature. They are also destroyed through typical water treatment ... meat, poultry, or seafood. COOK: Cook to Safe Temperatures Use a clean food thermometer when measuring the ...

  7. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... is not cooked to a safe minimum internal temperature, as measured with a food thermometer. Salmonella can ... are not cooked to a safe minimum internal temperature as measured with a food thermometer and fruits ...

  8. Tetanus: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... the most dangerous kind of injury involves possible contamination with dirt, animal feces, and manure. Although we ... should I do? Any wound that may involve contamination with tetanus bacilli should be attended to as ...

  9. Student questions in urban middle school science communities of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groome, Meghan

    This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation. Their access to participation was blocked by participation frameworks that elevated some students as "gatekeepers" while suppressing the participation of others. The next two studies detail the introduction of written questioning opportunities, one into a public middle school classroom and the other into an informal classroom. In both studies, students responded to the interventions differently, most notable the adoption of the opportunity by female students who do not participate orally. Dissertation-wide findings indicate all students were able to ask questions, but varied in level of cognitive complexity, and the diagnostic interventions were able to identify students who were not known to be "target students", students who asked a high number of questions and were considered "interested in science". Some students' roles were as "gatekeepers" to participation of their peers. Two out of three teachers in the studies reported major shifts in their teaching practice due to the focus on questions and the methods used here have been found to be effective in producing educational research as well as supporting high-need classrooms in prior research. In conclusion, these studies indicate that social factors, including participation frameworks, gender dynamics, and the availability of alternative participation methods, play an important role in how students ask science-related questions. It is recommended that researchers continue to examine social factors that reduce student questions and modify their teaching strategies to facilitate

  10. Improving multiple-choice questions to better assess dental student knowledge: distractor utilization in oral and maxillofacial pathology course examinations.

    PubMed

    McMahan, C Alex; Pinckard, R Neal; Prihoda, Thomas J; Hendricson, William D; Jones, Anne Cale

    2013-12-01

    How many incorrect response options (known as distractors) to use in multiple-choice questions has been the source of considerable debate in the assessment literature, especially relative to influence on the likelihood of students' guessing the correct answer. This study compared distractor use by second-year dental students in three successive oral and maxillofacial pathology classes that had three different examination question formats and scoring resulting in different levels of academic performance. One class was given all multiple-choice questions; the two other were given half multiple-choice questions, with and without formula scoring, and half un-cued short-answer questions. Use by at least 1 percent of the students was found to better identify functioning distractors than higher cutoffs. The average number of functioning distractors differed among the three classes and did not always correspond to differences in class scores. Increased numbers of functioning distractors were associated with higher question discrimination and greater question difficulty. Fewer functioning distractors fostered more effective student guessing and overestimation of academic achievement. Appropriate identification of functioning distractors is essential for improving examination quality and better estimating actual student knowledge through retrospective use of formula scoring, where the amount subtracted for incorrect answers is based on the harmonic mean number of functioning distractors.

  11. Field-Based Teacher Research: How Teachers and Scientists Working Together Answers Questions about Turtle Nesting Ecology while Enhancing Teachers' Inquiry Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, J. M.; Jungblut, D.; Catena, A. N.; Rubenstein, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Providing rigorous academic supplement to a professional development program for teachers, QUEST is a fusion of Drexel University's environmental science research department with Princeton University's Program in Teacher Preparation. Completed in the summers of 2012 (in partnership with Earthwatch) and 2013 in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, QUEST's terrapin field research program enhances K-12 teachers' ecological knowledge, develops inquiry-based thinking in the classroom, and builds citizen science engagement. With a focus on quality question development and data analysis to answer questions, teachers are coached in developing, implementing, and presenting independent research projects on diamondback terrapin nesting ecology. As a result, teachers participating in QUEST's week long program bring a realistic example of science in action into their classrooms, helping to develop their own students' critical thinking skills. For teachers, this program provides training towards educating students on how to do real and imaginative science - subsequently sending students to university better prepared to engage in their own independent research. An essential component of the collaboration through QUEST, in addition to the teacher's experience during and after the summer institute, is the research data collected which supplements that of the Principal Investigator. In 2012, by documenting terrapin nest site predators, teachers gained valuable scientific experience, while Drexel acquired important ecological data which would have not been able to be collected otherwise. In 2013, teachers helped answer important questions about terrapin nesting success post Superstorm Sandy. In fact, the 2013 QUEST teachers are the first to visualize the frighteningly increased erosion of a primary terrapin nesting site due to Sandy; showing how most terrapin nests now lie in the bay, instead of safe on shore. Teachers comment that interacting with scientists in the field, and contributing to

  12. Answering the Call: Facilitating Responsive Services for Students Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothaus, Tim; Lorelle, Sonya; Anderson, Kie; Knight, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    After a review of the literature elucidating the status quo for students experiencing homelessness, this article shares the results of a mixed methods study. With a phenomenological qualitative emphasis, the mixed methods study explored the perceptions of parents and children experiencing homelessness regarding their academic needs and the…

  13. University of Phoenix Lets Students Find Answers Virtually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article talks about a software designed by the University of Phoenix for its business, information-technology, education, and health-care courses. Through the university's "virtual organizations"--online teaching tools designed to simulate the experience of working at a typical corporation, school, or government agency, Phoenix students can…

  14. What Works in Learning? Students Provide the Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, Mary H.; Smith, Paul J.

    1982-01-01

    The five teaching techniques most often cited as effective by secondary students surveyed in Little Rock (Arkansas) were: (1) provision of clear, complete explanations and concrete examples; (2) a positive, relaxed learning environment; (3) individualized instruction; (4) adequate academic learning time; and (5) teacher enthusiasm and ability to…

  15. Our American Government: What Is It? How Does It Function? 150 Questions and Answers. Ninety Fifth Congress, First Session. House Document No. 95-257.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Committee on Printing, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents information about the United States government, its bases, processes, and branches, in a question and answer format. Based on questions similar to those frequently received by Members of Congress from their constituents, it offers brief and concise information. Topics covered are democracy and its American sources, the…

  16. Providing Real-Time Captioning, C-Print Speech To Print Transcription, Assistive Listening Devices and Other Technologies: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cheryl; Francis, Pamela; Harlan, Denese

    This booklet provides questions and answers for postsecondary educational institutions concerning provision of access and accommodations to individuals who are deaf and hard of hearing. Questions are about assistive listening devices (ALDs), C-Print technology, real-time captioning, and policy issues. Preliminary information concerns the mission…

  17. Supermarket Special Departments. [Student Manual] and Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Melissa Lynn; Summerall, Mary

    This document on food marketing for supermarket special departments contains both a student's manual and an answer book/teacher's guide. The student's manual contains the following 11 assignments: (1) supermarkets of today; (2) merchandising; (3) pharmacy and cosmetics department; (4) housewares and home hardware; (5) video/camera/electronics…

  18. Marketing in Financial Institutions [Student Book and] Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Sandra; And Others

    This student manual and answer book/teacher's guide focus on the industry-specific information and skills needed by students who plan to enter, or who may already be receiving, training in a financial institution, such as commercial banks, savings and loans, and credit unions, as well as pawn shops, credit departments of retail stores, and other…

  19. ANSWER OBSERVING IN PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION--II. THE EFFECT OF INCENTIVE ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE WITHIN AND AFTER PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GEIS, GEORGE L.; NIELSEN, SUSAN

    THIS STUDY REPLICATES EARLIER DATA CONCERNING CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH STUDENTS CHECK OR "OBSERVE" ANSWERS TO A PRINTED PROGRAM, AND THE RELATION OF ANSWER OBSERVING TO ERROR RATE. THIRTY COLLEGE STUDENTS STUDIED TWO PROGRAMS ON MEDICINE. FREQUENCY OF ANSWER OBSERVING WAS OBTAINED BY SELF-REPORT. PAY INCENTIVES (THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE) WERE GIVEN…

  20. Students' Perceptions of Reading through Peer Questioning in Cooperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Makiko; Sanchez, Edward

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated perceptions of a class of 20 first-year Japanese college students on peer questioning in cooperative reading activities. After the instructor gave an hour of interactive explanations of the reading, in which students were encouraged to interact actively with the instructor in interpreting the reading material, students were…

  1. Student Engagement Research in Higher Education: Questioning an Academic Orthodoxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that student engagement research is not often investigated critically. It attempts to change this. After briefly outlining a conceptual framework for student engagement, it explores three critical questions about it. First, it asks whether in trying to be all things in teaching and learning, student engagement focuses too…

  2. Assessing the quality of a student-generated question repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Simon P.; Galloway, Ross K.; Riise, Jonathan; Homer, Danny

    2014-12-01

    We present results from a study that categorizes and assesses the quality of questions and explanations authored by students in question repositories produced as part of the summative assessment in introductory physics courses over two academic sessions. Mapping question quality onto the levels in the cognitive domain of Bloom's taxonomy, we find that students produce questions of high quality. More than three-quarters of questions fall into categories beyond simple recall, in contrast to similar studies of student-authored content in different subject domains. Similarly, the quality of student-authored explanations for questions was also high, with approximately 60% of all explanations classified as being of high or outstanding quality. Overall, 75% of questions met combined quality criteria, which we hypothesize is due in part to the in-class scaffolding activities that we provided for students ahead of requiring them to author questions. This work presents the first systematic investigation into the quality of student produced assessment material in an introductory physics context, and thus complements and extends related studies in other disciplines.

  3. CoPub update: CoPub 5.0 a text mining system to answer biological questions.

    PubMed

    Fleuren, Wilco W M; Verhoeven, Stefan; Frijters, Raoul; Heupers, Bart; Polman, Jan; van Schaik, René; de Vlieg, Jacob; Alkema, Wynand

    2011-07-01

    In this article, we present CoPub 5.0, a publicly available text mining system, which uses Medline abstracts to calculate robust statistics for keyword co-occurrences. CoPub was initially developed for the analysis of microarray data, but we broadened the scope by implementing new technology and new thesauri. In CoPub 5.0, we integrated existing CoPub technology with new features, and provided a new advanced interface, which can be used to answer a variety of biological questions. CoPub 5.0 allows searching for keywords of interest and its relations to curated thesauri and provides highlighting and sorting mechanisms, using its statistics, to retrieve the most important abstracts in which the terms co-occur. It also provides a way to search for indirect relations between genes, drugs, pathways and diseases, following an ABC principle, in which A and C have no direct connection but are connected via shared B intermediates. With CoPub 5.0, it is possible to create, annotate and analyze networks using the layout and highlight options of Cytoscape web, allowing for literature based systems biology. Finally, operations of the CoPub 5.0 Web service enable to implement the CoPub technology in bioinformatics workflows. CoPub 5.0 can be accessed through the CoPub portal http://www.copub.org.

  4. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S.; Porter, S.W. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell`s {open_quotes}doublethink{close_quotes} should be generalized to {open_quotes}polythink{close_quotes} to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics.

  5. Answering the big questions about differential response in Colorado: safety and cost outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Marc; Ellis, Raquel; Drury, Ida; Rogers, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, jurisdictions across the United States have implemented differential response (DR), which provides child protective services with the flexibility to tailor their response to reports of child abuse or neglect based on the level of risk. Given the widespread adoption of DR, there has been an increasing demand from policymakers, practitioners, and community stakeholders to build the evidence base for this innovative child welfare approach. This study was designed to answer the big questions regarding the effect of differential response on child welfare outcomes and costs using a randomized controlled trial in five Colorado counties. Specifically, the study examined the safety outcomes and costs of families who were randomly assigned to either a family assessment response (FAR) or an investigation response (IR). According to the regression results, there were no differences between the tracks on measures of system re-involvement. However, survival analysis findings indicate that FAR families were 18% less likely, over time, to have a high risk assessment after their initial accepted referral than were IR families. The cost study revealed no differences between the tracks on initial costs for caseworker contacts, services, and out-of-home placements. However, the results suggest that follow-up costs for IR cases were significantly higher (p<0.001) than for FAR cases. The authors discuss policy and practice implications for jurisdictions considering DR.

  6. Student and Teacher Questioning during Conversations about Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily H.; Iwasyk, Marletta; Kurose, Akiko; Simpson, Dorothy; Wild, Judy

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes case studies developed by a group of collaborating educators. Investigates ways of speaking that encourage students to formulate insightful questions about science topics and express their own ideas during reflective discussions. (Contains 68 references.) (Author/YDS)

  7. Questions About the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.

    This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…

  8. Profiling Students' Multiple Source Use by Question Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, Alexandra; Grossnickle, Emily M.; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate students' multiple source use in response to two different types of academic questions, one discrete and one open-ended. Participants (N = 240) responded to two questions using a library of eight digital sources, varying in source type (e.g., newspaper article) and reliability (e.g., authors' credentials).…

  9. "Reading an Object": Developing Effective Scientific Inquiry Using Student Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes-Berry, Mary; Berry, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    We explore the power of allowing students to construct their own conceptual understanding as they "read an object" in a series of guided inquiry steps, developing their own questions about the object. Their ownership of questions increases the learner's engagement and results in more efficacious learning and meets the standards of…

  10. Another kind of 'BOLD Response': answering multiple-choice questions via online decoded single-trial brain signals.

    PubMed

    Sorger, Bettina; Dahmen, Brigitte; Reithler, Joel; Gosseries, Olivia; Maudoux, Audrey; Laureys, Steven; Goebel, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The term 'locked-in'syndrome (LIS) describes a medical condition in which persons concerned are severely paralyzed and at the same time fully conscious and awake. The resulting anarthria makes it impossible for these patients to naturally communicate, which results in diagnostic as well as serious practical and ethical problems. Therefore, developing alternative, muscle-independent communication means is of prime importance. Such communication means can be realized via brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) circumventing the muscular system by using brain signals associated with preserved cognitive, sensory, and emotional brain functions. Primarily, BCIs based on electrophysiological measures have been developed and applied with remarkable success. Recently, also blood flow-based neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), have been explored in this context. After reviewing recent literature on the development of especially hemodynamically based BCIs, we introduce a highly reliable and easy-to-apply communication procedure that enables untrained participants to motor-independently and relatively effortlessly answer multiple-choice questions based on intentionally generated single-trial fMRI signals that can be decoded online. Our technique takes advantage of the participants' capability to voluntarily influence certain spatio-temporal aspects of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal: source location (by using different mental tasks), signal onset and offset. We show that healthy participants are capable of hemodynamically encoding at least four distinct information units on a single-trial level without extensive pretraining and with little effort. Moreover, real-time data analysis based on simple multi-filter correlations allows for automated answer decoding with a high accuracy (94.9%) demonstrating the robustness of the presented method. Following our 'proof of concept', the

  11. Effect of Lecture Instruction on Student Performance on Qualitative Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of lecture instruction on student conceptual understanding in physics has been the subject of research for several decades. Most studies have reported disappointingly small improvements in student performance on conceptual questions despite direct instruction on the relevant topics. These results have spurred a number of attempts to…

  12. The Phenomenon of Questioning as Perceived by Visual Arts Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Julie

    The process of questioning and its relationship to researching, problem solving, and experimentation are central to visual arts education policy in Queensland, Australia. Students are introduced to the world of visual arts within the context of the late 20th century, diversity, and postmodernism. This challenges students as it demands awareness…

  13. Does the Answer Order Matter on Multiple-Choice Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellinghuisen, Joel; Sulikowski, Michelle M.

    2008-01-01

    Surprising version-dependent differences are noted in student performance on certain questions in a standardized general chemistry exam. The exam in question has two versions, on which both questions and answers are ordered differently. For the questions suspected of answer-order bias, the performance is better in ten of twelve cases when students…

  14. La Frontera: Student Achievement in Texas Border and Nonborder Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 027

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloat, Edward F.; Makkonen, Reino; Koehler, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This report contrasts the characteristics of border and nonborder districts in Texas from both a demographic and student achievement standpoint. The information in this report should also inform and strengthen border initiatives, such as those emphasized at the 2006 U.S.-Mexico Border Governors Conference. The study sought to answer three…

  15. Neuroscience cannot answer these questions: a response to G. and R. Murrow's essay hypothesizing a link between dehumanization, human rights abuses and public policy

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Morris B.

    2015-01-01

    The Murrows' paper, ‘A hypothetical link between dehumanization and human rights abuses’, in which they propose that neuroscience may answer some difficult public policy questions, including questions about the First Amendment, is an unfortunate foray into law and public policy unjustified by the current state of neuroscience. Neuroscientific insights may one day have important implications for the law, and for some of the folk psychological assumptions embedded in the law, but they will never change the words of the written Constitution, or answer difficult policy questions in the interstices of those words. Suggesting that neuroscience can today inform these questions does a disservice to science, law and the complexity of the human condition. PMID:27774237

  16. 26 CFR 1.1(i)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the tax on unearned income certain minor children (Temporary). 1.1(i)-1T Section 1.1(i)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes §...

  17. I Didn't Know Oxygen Could Boil! What Preservice and Inservice Elementary Teachers' Answers to "Simple" Science Questions Reveals about Their Subject Matter Knowledge. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    In this descriptive study, the science subject matter knowledge of preservice and inservice elementary teachers was examined and compared. Over an eight-year period, answers to 13 science questions, including 10 from the US National Science Foundation's Survey of Public Attitudes Toward and Understanding of Science and Technology, were collected…

  18. 26 CFR 1.505(c)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under paragraphs (9), (17) and (20) of Section 501(c) (temporary). 1.505(c)-1T Section 1.505(c)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  19. Mixing the Emic and Etic Perspectives: A Study Exploring Development of Fixed-Answer Questions to Measure In-Service Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertshaw, M. Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Using a sequential mixed-method methodology, this dissertation study set out to understand the emic and etic perspectives of the knowledge encompassed in the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework and to develop fixed-answer questions based on that knowledge. While there have been many studies examining ways to measure TPACK…

  20. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.267(a)-2T Section 1.267(a)-2T Internal Revenue... Act of 1984 (temporary). (a) Introduction—(1) Scope. This section prescribes temporary question and... Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. No. 98-369. (2) Effective date. Except as otherwise provided by Answer 2...

  1. 26 CFR 54.4977-1T - Questions and answers relating to the election concerning lines of business in existence on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). 54.4977-1T Section 54.4977-1T... concerning lines of business in existence on January 1, 1984 (temporary). The following questions and answers... section 531(e)(1) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (98 Stat. 886), to treat all employees of any line...

  2. How To Talk to Your Kids about Really Important Things: For Children Four to Twelve. Specific Questions and Answers and Useful Things To Say.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Charles E.; DiGeronimo, Theresa Foy

    Intended to help parents find the words they need to talk to their children and answer their children's practical questions, this book offers practical guidance on a wide range of life's experiences, from family changes such as divorce and remarriage, to controversial subjects such as child abuse and AIDS. The major focus is on children ages 4 to…

  3. Individual and Collaborative Technology-Mediated Learning Using Question & Answer Online Discussion Forums--Perceptions of Public Health Learners in Dubai, UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofeso, Niyi; Hassan, Moustafa; Hamidi, Samer

    2016-01-01

    This case study provides evidence-based suggestions for the use of Question and Answer discussion forums for improving quality and assessment of online learning. General online discussion forums are accessible at any time to all subscribers, making it possible for some learners to update, concur with or paraphrase discussions posted earlier by…

  4. Answers to Questions Commonly Asked by Families, Professionals, and Members of the Community. Information Pages for People Involved in the Lives of Individuals with Deaf-Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, David

    This packet contains six information pages providing basic answers to questions commonly asked by people involved with individuals who are deaf blind. The first one is on understanding deaf-blindness and addresses what the condition is, its impact on the ability to receive information, how the condition affects caregiver strategies, and what it is…

  5. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary). 1.267(a)-2T Section 1.267(a)-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Not Deductible §...

  6. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to go on leave as long as she can still work... conditions. However, health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination...

  7. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to go on leave as long as she can still work... conditions. However, health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination...

  8. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to go on leave as long as she can still work... conditions. However, health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination...

  9. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to go on leave as long as she can still work... conditions. However, health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination...

  10. Student-Generated Content: Enhancing learning through sharing multiple-choice questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Judy; Bates, Simon P.; Casey, Morag M.; Galloway, Kyle W.; Galloway, Ross K.; Kay, Alison E.; Kirsop, Peter; McQueen, Heather A.

    2014-09-01

    The relationship between students' use of PeerWise, an online tool that facilitates peer learning through student-generated content in the form of multiple-choice questions (MCQs), and achievement, as measured by their performance in the end-of-module examinations, was investigated in 5 large early-years science modules (in physics, chemistry and biology) across 3 research-intensive UK universities. A complex pattern was observed in terms of which type of activity (writing, answering or commenting on questions) was most beneficial for students; however, there was some evidence that students of lower intermediate ability may have gained particular benefit. In all modules, a modest but statistically significant positive correlation was found between students' PeerWise activity and their examination performance, after taking prior ability into account. This suggests that engaging with the production and discussion of student-generated content in the form of MCQs can support student learning in a way that is not critically dependent on course, institution, instructor or student.

  11. Data Mining Student Answers with Moodle to Investigate Learning Pathways in an Introductory Geohazards Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sit, S. M.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Colella, H. V.

    2012-12-01

    The recent growth of online learning in higher education is primarily motivated by a desire to (a) increase the availability of learning experiences for learners who cannot, or choose not, to attend traditional face-to-face offerings, (b) assemble and disseminate instructional content more cost-efficiently, or (c) enable instructors to handle more students while maintaining a learning outcome quality that is equivalent to that of comparable face-to-face instruction. However, a less recognized incentive is that online learning also provides an opportunity for data mining, or efficient discovery of non-obvious valuable patterns from a large collection of data, that can be used to investigate learning pathways as opposed to focusing solely on assessing student outcomes. Course management systems that enable online courses provide a means to collect a vast amount of information to analyze students' behavior and the learning process in general. One of the most commonly used is Moodle (modular object-oriented developmental learning environment), a free learning management system that enables creation of powerful, flexible, and engaging online courses and experiences. In order to examine student learning pathways, the online learning modules we are constructing take advantage of Moodle capabilities to provide immediate formative feedback, verifying answers as correct or incorrect and elaborating on knowledge components to guide students towards the correct answer. By permitting multiple attempts in which credit is diminished for each incorrect answer, we provide opportunities to use data mining strategies to assess thousands of students' actions for evidence of problem solving strategies and mastery of concepts. We will show preliminary results from application of this approach to a ~90 student introductory geohazard course that is migrating toward online instruction. We hope more continuous assessment of students' performances will help generate cognitive models that can

  12. A participatory learning approach to biochemistry using student authored and evaluated multiple-choice questions.

    PubMed

    Bottomley, Steven; Denny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A participatory learning approach, combined with both a traditional and a competitive assessment, was used to motivate students and promote a deep approach to learning biochemistry. Students were challenged to research, author, and explain their own multiple-choice questions (MCQs). They were also required to answer, evaluate, and discuss MCQs written by their peers. The technology used to support this activity was PeerWise--a freely available, innovative web-based system that supports students in the creation of an annotated question repository. In this case study, we describe students' contributions to, and perceptions of, the PeerWise system for a cohort of 107 second-year biomedical science students from three degree streams studying a core biochemistry subject. Our study suggests that the students are eager participants and produce a large repository of relevant, good quality MCQs. In addition, they rate the PeerWise system highly and use higher order thinking skills while taking an active role in their learning. We also discuss potential issues and future work using PeerWise for biomedical students.

  13. [EBM Service: evidence-based answers provided by general practitioners to questions asked by general practitioners--a project from South Tyrol/Italy].

    PubMed

    Piccoliori, Giuliano; Kostner, Simon; Abholz, Heinz-Harald

    2010-01-01

    General practices also require more and more evidence-based decision-making. But knowledge is increasing rapidly and guidelines produced to help doctors to find answers to their problems seem to exclude a number of problems that are important in general practices. Here we report on the introduction and activities of an EbM Service provided by general practitioners to answer questions of their colleagues. The aim is to give EBM answers, but also, in doing so, to teach the application of EBM and--in the long run--to enable the users themselves to find EBM answers. The provision of EBM answers is fairly pragmatic: after using the service the inquiring physician should be better informed, i.e., have more evidence-based information, but sometimes this need not be the "ultimate truth" that experts might deliver. EBM answers are published both on the homepage of the College of General Practitioners and in their journal. It took quite a while to implement this service, and the number of those using it has increased slowly but constantly.

  14. The Citizen Bee Guide to American Studies [with] Student Answer Key. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close Up Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    Designed for students, this survey of American history, culture, government, economics, and geography tests their knowledge in these areas through a variety of questions. The questions are organized into 12 subtopics divided among 4 major categories: 5 topics under History, 5 under Government, 1 under Economics, and 1 under Geography. The topic…

  15. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  16. Iranian Students' Performance on the IELTS: A Question of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaemi, Farid; Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension has won much effort on the part of teachers, testers, and researchers in Iran due to the fact that the immediate need of Iranian students at different university levels is the ability to read in order to get new information on the topic they are studying. The question raised is how much reading practice can move learners…

  17. Customize Learning with Student-Generated Guiding Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virgin, Robb

    2015-01-01

    Outlined in this article is the three-year journey of a middle school social studies department that led to a shift from teacher-led units of instruction (e.g., Reconstruction) to units that used student-generated questions (e.g., What was life like for former slaves?, How did Southerners' lifestyles change?, Did the North and South cooperate?,…

  18. An Analysis of College Students' Anonymous Questions about Human Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Waring, Kathryn A.

    1991-01-01

    Study analyzed the frequency and type of questions about sexuality submitted anonymously by college students in health education courses over five semesters. The most common categories were sexual arousal/response; general anatomy/physiology; contraception; dating/relationships; pregnancy/fertility; and sexually transmitted diseases. The appendix…

  19. Basic Visual Merchandising. Second Edition. [Student's Manual and] Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This student's manual that features content needed to do tasks related to visual merchandising is intended for students in co-op training stations and entry-level, master employee, and supervisory-level employees. It contains 13 assignments. Each assignment has questions covering specific information and also features activities in which students…

  20. 29 CFR 2509.75-8 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designation. FR-13 Q: If the named fiduciaries of an employee benefit plan allocate their fiduciary... fiduciary responsibility under the Act, thereby supplementing ERISA IB 75-5 (29 CFR 2555.75-5) which was... extent that plans utilize or rely on these answers and the requirements of regulations...

  1. 29 CFR 2509.75-8 - Questions and answers relating to fiduciary responsibility under the Employee Retirement Income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... designation. FR-13 Q: If the named fiduciaries of an employee benefit plan allocate their fiduciary... fiduciary responsibility under the Act, thereby supplementing ERISA IB 75-5 (29 CFR 2555.75-5) which was... extent that plans utilize or rely on these answers and the requirements of regulations...

  2. Answer first: Applying the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to examine student intuitive thinking in the context of physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Grosz, Nathaniel

    2014-12-01

    We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after instruction specifically designed to address student conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified by rigorous research, many undergraduate physics students fail to build reasoning chains from fundamental principles even though they possess the required knowledge and skills to do so. Instead, they often rely on a variety of intuitive reasoning strategies. In this study, we developed and employed a methodology that allowed for the disentanglement of student conceptual understanding and reasoning approaches through the use of sequences of related questions. We have shown that the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning can be used to account for, in a mechanistic fashion, the observed inconsistencies in student responses. In particular, we found that students tended to apply their correct ideas in a selective manner that supported a specific and likely anticipated conclusion while neglecting to employ the same ideas to refute an erroneous intuitive conclusion. The observed reasoning patterns were consistent with the heuristic-analytic theory, according to which reasoners develop a "first-impression" mental model and then construct an argument in support of the answer suggested by this model. We discuss implications for instruction and argue that efforts to improve student metacognition, which serves to regulate the interaction between intuitive and analytical reasoning, is likely to lead to improved student reasoning.

  3. The Effects of Student Response System and Single Student Questioning Technique on Graduate Students' Recall and Application of Lecture Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicard, Sara; Bicard, David F.; Casey, Laura Baylot; Smith, Clinton; Plank, Esther; Casey, Cort

    2008-01-01

    This study was an empirical investigation of active student responding (ASR) utilizing a student response system (SRS) vs. single student questioning (SSQ) and no student responding in a graduate level special education class of 23 participants. During the SRS condition, every participant responded to questions using remotes/clickers. During the…

  4. 26 CFR 35.3405-1T - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... business under the laws of any State. See, also, question f-21. a-5. Q. When does the new law take effect...-6. Q. What effect does the new law have on the old law provisions relating to withholding of tax... when the new provisions take effect unless the rule provided in question a-7 applies. However,...

  5. 26 CFR 35.3405-1T - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... business under the laws of any State. See, also, question f-21. a-5. Q. When does the new law take effect...-6. Q. What effect does the new law have on the old law provisions relating to withholding of tax... when the new provisions take effect unless the rule provided in question a-7 applies. However,...

  6. 26 CFR 35.3405-1T - Questions and answers relating to withholding on pensions, annuities, and certain other deferred...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... business under the laws of any State. See, also, question f-21. a-5. Q. When does the new law take effect...-6. Q. What effect does the new law have on the old law provisions relating to withholding of tax... when the new provisions take effect unless the rule provided in question a-7 applies. However,...

  7. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Questions and Answers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Key Points The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial is a large, randomized study to determine whether the use of certain screening tests will reduce the risk of dying of those four cancers.  (Question 1) PLCO results showed that: |

  8. Open-ended questions: An alternative mode to assess the students' performance in concept development and use of scientific vocabulary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agairre-Ortiz, Maria

    1998-10-01

    Important reform movements across the nation recognize that improved science performance, language development, and alternative assessment are national priorities. This study examined the effect of two modes of alternative assessment on students' performance in in-depth concept development (IDC) and use of scientific vocabulary (VOC). The research questions asked for significant differences in students' performance in IDC and VOC across time regarding: (1) mode of assessment, (2) science achievement level, and classes. The study also investigated what are the: (1) students' opinions and feelings about the assessment modes (2) similarities and differences between OE-W and OE-D groups regarding the quality of IDC and VOC used. The sample of convenience included one hundred and four fifth grade LEP students randomly assigned to two groups. Students in both groups were asked to answer the same open-ended question at three assessment times during the study of a chapter on electricity and magnetism. Students in group one were asked to answer the question by writing paragraphs and students in group two answered the same question by making drawings. Results from a four-way repeated measures analysis showed that students in the OE-D mode, especially above-average performed better in in-depth concept development than those in the writing mode across time. The non-significant four-way interaction suggests that the differences in assessment mode across time are not influenced by science achievement level and the classes. The results suggest that although the OE-D mode in general yielded better scores, both modes of assessment could be used to assess Spanish-dominant LEP students' conceptual development and scientific vocabulary use. In general, students expressed preference for OE-D because they felt more confident and comfortable answering questions by drawing. Most of the statistical results were supported by the qualitative analysis for both dependent variables. Small size

  9. Beyond the single answer: a process-oriented exam for science students.

    PubMed

    Nastos, Stash; Rangachari, P K

    2016-08-01

    This commentary describes an assessment exercise known as the TRIPSE (Tri-Partite Problem Solving Exercise) that mimics science in operation. Students frame hypotheses based on limited data, design experiments to test them, which they later revise with new information. It is emphasised that there are no single correct answers, only sets with varying degrees of plausibility. The approach is flexible and can be adapted to any of the basic biomedical sciences and for students at multiple levels, undergraduate to graduate. In comparison to other testing methods, this process-oriented exercise provides a better learning experience. It captures the excitement and fascination of science and gives students a more realistic view of how scientists function. PMID:27435330

  10. Tales of the Expected: The Influence of Students' Expectations on Question Validity and Implications for Writing Exam Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria; Sweiry, Ezekiel; Ahmed, Ayesha; Pollitt, Alastair

    2008-01-01

    Background: Through classroom preparation and exposure to past papers, textbooks and practice tests students develop expectations about examinations: what will be asked, how it will be asked and how they will be judged. Expectations are also involved in the automatic process of understanding questions. Where a question and a student's expectations…

  11. The Physics Questions in Student Selection Examination and Physics Curriculum and the Effect of Those Questions in Students' Success in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirci, Neset

    2007-01-01

    Success of high school students in solving physics questions of student selection examination (OSS) that has to be taken by high school students before entering the Turkish universities have been investigated with regard to these questions to be solved by students and suitability to high school physics curriculum and factors affecting students…

  12. Perceived Teacher Support of Student Questioning in the College Classroom: Its Relation to Student Characteristics and Role in the Classroom Questioning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabenick, Stuart A.; Sharma, Rajeev

    1994-01-01

    Perceptions of 1,615 college students of their teachers' support of student's questioning were examined in 2 experiments. Perceived support had significant and consistent relationships with student motivation and strategy use typical of self-regulated learners. It also appeared to affect the likelihood of student questioning. (SLD)

  13. Questions Students Ask: Bridging the Gap between Scientists and Students in a Research Institute Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Bev; Bay, Jacquie L.

    2010-01-01

    It was proposed that an analysis of the questions students anticipate asking, and ask, could provide information about an enculturation encounter between Year 13 biology students and scientists working in a biomedical-clinical research unit. As part of a day-long intervention at this research institute, small groups of students (10-15) met with…

  14. Student Perceptions on Using Guided Reading Questions to Motivate Student Reading in the Flipped Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles A.; Danvers, Kreag; Doran, David T.

    2016-01-01

    Although upper-level accounting majors tend to be more motivated than introductory-level students, or non-accounting majors, it is still challenging to motivate such students to complete and understand assigned readings. The purpose of this study is to assess student perceptions on the implementation of guided reading questions to motivate and…

  15. A Different Approach to Answering a Good Question: A Response to Hewes's Models of Communication Effects on Small Group Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonito, Joseph A.; Sanders, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to Hewes's (1986, 1996, 2009) models of communication effects on small group outcomes. As sophisticated and thoughtful as Hewes's new model is, however, the authors take issue with it. For one, there is reason to question whether his approach is feasible. For another, his models are not founded on solid…

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Supplement No. 1 to Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR This Supplement... to the EAR. It is intended to give the public guidance in understanding how BIS interprets this...

  17. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Supplement No. 1 to Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR This Supplement... to the EAR. It is intended to give the public guidance in understanding how BIS interprets this...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Supplement No. 1 to Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR This Supplement... to the EAR. It is intended to give the public guidance in understanding how BIS interprets this...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Software Subject to the EAR No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... Supplement No. 1 to Part 734—Questions and Answers—Technology and Software Subject to the EAR This supplement... to the EAR. It is intended to give the public guidance in understanding how BIS interprets this...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6621-2T - Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (temporary). 301.6621-2T Section 301.6621-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... underpayments attributable to certain tax motivated transactions (temporary). The following questions and...), relating to certain deductions of tax shelters; and (9) In the case of a taxpayer who computes...