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Sample records for quiet solar intranetwork

  1. Solar Intranetwork Magnetic Elements: Flux Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guiping; Wang, Jingxiu; Jin, Chunlan

    2013-04-01

    The current study aims at quantifying the flux distributions of solar intranetwork (IN) magnetic field based on the data taken in four quiet and two enhanced network areas with the Narrow-band Filter Imager of the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. More than 14000 IN elements and 3000 NT elements were visually identified. They exhibit a flux distribution function with a peak at 1 - 3×1016 Mx (maxwell) and 2 - 3×1017 Mx, respectively. We found that the IN elements contribute approximately to 52 % of the total flux and an average flux density of 12.4 gauss of the quiet region at any given time. By taking the lifetime of IN elements of about 3 min (Zhou et al., Solar Phys. 267, 63, 2010) into account, the IN fields are estimated to have total contributions to the solar magnetic flux up to 3.8×1026 Mx per day. No fundamental distinction can be identified in IN fields between the quiet and enhanced network areas.

  2. DOES THE VARIATION OF THE SOLAR INTRA-NETWORK HORIZONTAL FIELD FOLLOW THE SUNSPOT CYCLE?

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, C. L.; Wang, J. X.

    2015-07-01

    The ubiquitousness of the solar inter-network horizontal magnetic field has been revealed by space-borne observations with high spatial resolution and polarization sensitivity. However, no consensus has been achieved on the origin of the horizontal field among solar physicists. For a better understanding, in this study, we analyze the cyclic variation of the inter-network horizontal field by using the spectro-polarimeter observations provided by the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode, covering the interval from 2008 April to 2015 February. The method of wavelength integration is adopted to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. It is found that from 2008 to 2015 the inter-network horizontal field does not vary when solar activity increases, and the average flux density of the inter-network horizontal field is 87 ± 1 G, In addition, the imbalance between horizontal and vertical fields also keeps invariant within the scope of deviation, i.e., 8.7 ± 0.5, from the solar minimum to maximum of solar cycle 24. This result confirms that the inter-network horizontal field is independent of the sunspot cycle. The revelation favors the idea that a local dynamo is creating and maintaining the solar inter-network horizontal field.

  3. Reconnection brightenings in the quiet solar photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Rutten, Robert J.; Vissers, Gregal J. M.

    2016-08-01

    We describe a new quiet-Sun phenomenon which we call quiet-Sun Ellerman-like brightenings (QSEB). QSEBs are similar to Ellerman bombs (EB) in some respects but differ significantly in others. EBs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer Hα line that mark strong-field photospheric reconnection in complex active regions. QSEBs are similar but smaller and less intense Balmer-wing brightenings that occur in quiet areas away from active regions. In the Hα wing, we measure typical lengths of less than 0.5 arcsec, widths of 0.23 arcsec, and lifetimes of less than a minute. We discovered them using high-quality Hα imaging spectrometry from the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST) and show that, in lesser-quality data, they cannot be distinguished from more ubiquitous facular brightenings, nor in the UV diagnostics currently available from space platforms. We add evidence from concurrent SST spectropolarimetry that QSEBs also mark photospheric reconnection events, but in quiet regions on the solar surface. The movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. The heating of the quiet solar chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    1990-01-01

    The quiet solar chromosphere shows three distinct regions. Ordered according to the strength of the emission from the low and middle chromosphere they are (1) the magnetic elements on the boundary of supergranulation cells, (2) the bright points in the cell interior, and (3) the truly quiet chromosphere, also in the cell interior. The magnetic elements on the cell boundary are associated with intense magnetic fields and are heated by waves with very long periods, ranging from six to twelve minutes; the bright points are associated with magnetic elements of low field strength and are heated by (long-period) waves with periods near the acoustic cutoff period of three minutes; and the quiet cell interior, which is free of magnetic field, may be heated by short-period acoustic waves, with periods below one minute. This paper reviews mainly the heating of the bright points and concludes that the large-amplitude, long-period waves heating the bright points dissipate enough energy to account for their chromospheric temperature structure.

  5. Quiet-time Solar Wind Superhalo Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yang, L.; Tu, C. Y.; He, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Li, G.; Salem, C. S.; Bale, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Superhalo electrons carry important information on the electron acceleration in the solar wind. Using the STEREO/STE electron measurements at ~2-20 keV and WIND/3DP measurements at ~20-200 keV, we find that solar wind superhalo electrons are present in the interplanetary medium (IPM) even in absence of any significant solar and interplanetary activity. The observed superhalo electrons generally have a nearly isotropic angular distribution and a power-law energy spectrum, J~E-β. The spectral index β ranges from ~1.5 to ~3.7, with an average of ~2.4. Both the superhalo power-law spectrum and anisotropy show no obvious correlation with sunspot number, solar flares, solar wind core population, etc. These superhalo electrons may form a quiet-time energetic electron background/reservoir in the IPM. They may originate from nonthermal processes related to the acceleration of solar wind, followed by scattering into isotropic angular distributions in the IPM. Another possibility is that superhalo electrons could be formed mainly due to acceleration by wave-particle interactions through the IPM.

  6. Jovian electrons during solar quiet time periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Peral, L.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Sequeiros, J.; Kunow, H.; Müller-Mellin, R.

    2002-03-01

    The electron spectrum in the energy range 150 keV to 10 MeV, measured by EPHIN sensor onboard SOHO observatory during 1996 quiet time periods, is presented. The results show that the dominant electron population is of jovian origin. The spectral indexes obtained range from 1.5 to 1.8. In this work an estimation of the emission intensity of electrons from the jovian magnetosphere is also obtained. Unexpected recurrence of jovian electrons at the middle of 1996 during poor Earth-Jupiter magnetic connection have been observed.

  7. A theory of heating of quiet solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.

    2015-03-15

    A theory is proposed to discuss the creation of hot solar corona. We pay special attention to the transition region and the low corona, and consider that the sun is quiet. The proposed scenario suggests that the protons are heated by intrinsic Alfvénic turbulence, while the ambient electrons are heated by the hot protons via collisions. The theory contains two prime components: the generation of the Alfvénic fluctuations by the heavy minor ions in the transition region and second, the explanation of the temperature profile in the low solar atmosphere. The proposed heating process operates continuously in time and globally in space.

  8. Shocks in the Quiet Solar Photosphere: A Rather Common Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socas-Navarro, H.; Manso Sainz, R.

    2005-02-01

    We present observations of the quiet solar photosphere in the Fe I lines at 6302 Å where at least four different spatial locations exhibit upward-directed supersonic flows. These upflows can only be detected in the circular polarization profiles as a double-peaked structure in the blue lobe of both Fe I lines. We have detected cases of either magnetic polarity in the data. The polarization signals associated with the upflows are very weak, which is probably why they had not been seen before in this type of observation. We propose that the observed flows are the signature of aborted convective collapse, similar to the case reported by Bellot Rubio et al. Our data indicate that this phenomenon occurs frequently in the quiet Sun, which means that many magnetic elements (although the fraction is still unknown) are destroyed even before they are formed completely. The spectral signatures of supersonic upflows reported here are probably present in most spectropolarimetric observations of sufficient signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution.

  9. Energy distribution of nanoflares in the quiet solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Artyom

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of flare-like events in low layer of solar corona detected with TESIS instrument onboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite in 171 {Å} during high-cadence (5 sec) time-series. The estimated thermal energies of these small events amount to 10^{23} - 10^{26} erg. According to modern classification flare-like events with such energies are usually referred to as nanoflares. The big number of registered events (above 2000) allowed us to obtain precise distributions of geometric and physical parameters of nanoflares, the most intriguing being energy distribution. Following Aschwanden et al. (2000) and other authors we approximated the calculated energy distribution with a single power law slope: N(E)dE ˜ N^{-α}dE. The power law index was derived to be α = 2.4 ± 0.2, which is very close to the value reported by Krucker & Benz (1998): α ≈ 2.3 - 2.4. The total energy input from registered events constitute about 10^4 erg \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}, which is well beyond net losses in quiet corona (3 \\cdot 10^5 erg \\cdot cm^{-2} \\cdot s^{-1}). However, the value of α > 2 indicates that nanoflares with lower energies dominate over nanoflares with bigger energies and could contribute considerably to quiet corona heating.

  10. Spatiotemporal Organization of Energy Release Events in the Quiet Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, we show that temporal organization of energy release events in the quiet solar corona is close to random, in contrast to the clustered behavior of flaring times in solar active regions. The locations of the quiet-Sun events follow the meso- and supergranulation pattern of the underling photosphere. Together with earlier reports of the scale-free event size statistics, our findings suggest that quiet solar regions responsible for bulk coronal heating operate in a driven self-organized critical state, possibly involving long-range Alfvenic interactions.

  11. Spatiotemporal organization of energy release events in the quiet solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-11-01

    Using data from the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, we show that temporal organization of energy release events in the quiet solar corona is close to random, in contrast to the clustered behavior of flaring times in solar active regions. The locations of the quiet-Sun events follow the meso- and supergranulation pattern of the underling photosphere. Together with earlier reports of the scale-free event size statistics, our findings suggest that quiet solar regions responsible for bulk coronal heating operate in a driven self-organized critical state, possibly involving long-range Alfvénic interactions.

  12. Free Magnetic Energy and Helicity in Active and Quiet Solar Regions and their role in Solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziotziou, K.; Georgoulis, M. K.; Tsiropoula, G.; Moraitis, K.; Kontogiannis, I.

    2013-09-01

    We present a novel nonlinear force-free method designed to calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets of a solar region from a single photospheric/chromospheric vector magnetogram of the region. Our objective is to study the role of these quantities in solar eruptions and quiet-Sun dynamics. We apply the method to (1) derive the energy/helicity diagram of solar active regions from a sample of 162 vector magnetograms corresponding to 42 different active regions (ARs), suggesting that there exist 4 1031 erg and 2 1042 Mx2 thresholds in free energy and relative helicity, respectively, for ARs to enter eruptive territory, (2) study the dynamics of eruptive NOAA AR 11158 using a high-cadence 5-day time series of vector magnetograms, suggesting the formation of increasingly helical pre-eruption structures and a causal relation between flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and, (3) derive helicity and energy budgets in quiet Sun regions and construct the respective energy/helicity diagram. Our results highlight the importance of these two parameters in AR evolution and quiet-Sun dynamics and instigate further research including detailed analysis with synthetic, magnetohydrodynamical models. This work is supported by EU's Seventh Framework Programme via a Marie Curie Fellowship and by the Hellenic National Space Weather Research Network (HNSWRN) via the THALIS Programme.

  13. Distant (200-238 earth radii) magnetotail lobe characteristics during quiet solar wind conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Burton, Marcia E.; Smith, Edward J.; Jones, Douglas E.; Lepping, Ronald P.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous ISEE-3 magnetic field and IMP-8 magnetic field and plasma data have been used to investigate the distant tail lobe average properties under quiet solar wind conditions. Under solar wind pressures of not greater than 5 x 10 to the -10th dynes/sq cm, an average tail lobe strength of 7.1 + or - 1.2 nT, and an average plasma beta of 0.3, are found. Results suggest that under quiet solar wind conditions the distant tail lobes are relatively free from plasma and are usually dominated by the magnetic field pressure.

  14. Structure and Dynamics of the Quiet Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang; Wagner, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The grant supported research on the structure of the quiet, nonmagnetic chromosphere and on wave excitation and propagation in both the nonmagnetic chromosphere and the magnetic network. The work on the structure of the chromosphere culminated in the recognition that between two competing views of the solar chromosphere, older models by Avrett and collaborators (referred to as VAL) and the newer, dynamical model by Carlsson & Stein (referred to as CS), the clear decision is in favor of the older models, and this in spite of the evident lack of physics, which does not include wave motion and oscillations. The contrast between the static VAL models and the dynamical CS model can be stated most succinctly by comparing the temperature variation implied by the VAL models and the temperature fluctuations of the CS model, which are, respectively, of the order of 10% for the VAL model (at heights where hydrogen is 50% ionized) and a factor of 10 (at the upper boundary of their chromospheric model). The huge fluctuations of the CS model have never been observed, whereas the smaller temperature variations of the VAL models are consistent with ground-based and space-based observations. While it should be obvious which model describes the Sun and which one fails, the case is far from settled in the minds of solar physicists. Thus, much educational work remains to be done and, of course, more research to develop arguments that make the case more convincing. The research on waves and oscillations has been based on a unified theory of excitation of acoustic waves in the field-free atmosphere and of transverse and longitudinal waves in magnetic flux tubes located in the magnetic network by noting, first, that impulsive excitation of all these waves in gravitationally stratified media leads to oscillations at the respective cutoff frequencies and, second, that the observed oscillation frequencies in the nonmagnetic and magnetic parts of the chromosphere match corresponding cutoff

  15. Solar Wind ˜20-200 keV Superhalo Electrons at Quiet Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linghua; Yang, Liu; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Pei, Zhongtian; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Bale, Stuart D.

    2015-04-01

    High-energy superhalo electrons are present in the interplanetary medium (IPM) even in the absence of any significant solar activity, carrying important information on electron acceleration in the solar wind. We present a statistical survey of ˜20-200 keV superhalo electrons measured at 1 AU by the WIND 3D Plasma & Energetic Particle instrument during quiet-time periods from 1995 January through 2013 December. The selected 242 quiet-time samples mostly occur during the rising, maximum and decay phases of solar cycles. The observed omnidirectional differential flux of these quiet-time superhalo electrons generally fits to a power-law spectrum J=A× {{(\\frac{E}{{{m}e}{{c}2}})}-β }, with β ranging from ˜1.6 to ˜3.7 and the integrated density nsup ranging from 10-8 to 10-5 cm-3. In solar cycle 23 (24), the distribution of β has a broad maximum between 2.4 and 2.8 (2.0 and 2.4). Both β and the logarithm of nsup show no obvious correlation with sunspot number, solar flares, solar wind core population, etc. These superhalo electrons may form a quiet-time energetic electron background/reservoir in the IPM. We propose that they may originate from nonthermal processes related to the acceleration of the solar wind such as nanoflares, or could be formed in the IPM due to further acceleration and/or long-distance propagation effects.

  16. Models of the quiet and active solar atmosphere from Harvard OSO data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    Review of some Harvard Observatory programs aimed at defining the physical conditions in quiet and active solar regions on the basis of data obtained from the OSO-IV and OSO-VI spacecraft. The spectral range covered is from 300 A to 1400 A. This spectral range consists of emission lines and continua from abundant elements such as hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, magnesium, aluminum, neon, iron, and calcium in various ionization states ranging from neutral to 15 times ionized. The structure is discussed of the quiet solar atmosphere as deduced from center-to-limb behavior of spectral lines and continua formed in the chromosphere and corona. In reviewing investigations of solar active regions, it is shown that the structure of these regions varies in a complicated manner from point to point. The local structure is influenced by factors such as the magnetic field configuration within the active region and the age or evolutionary state of the region.

  17. The nature of relativistic electron intensity changes during solar flare quiet times between 1963 and 1969

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, F. B.; Cline, T. L.; Simnett, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    Time variations of the 3-12 MeV interplanetary electron intensity, observed by the Explorer-18, -28, and -33 spacecrafts, have been studied in detail. Apart from solar flare effects, there are five distinct periods when the electron intensity has undergone a series of increases, and these are strongly correlated with solar rotation. The intensity increases are separate phenomena, and are strikingly anticorrelated with increases in the low energy solar proton intensity. The electron energy spectrum during those quiet-time increases is typically represented by dJ/dE = k E/2.0 + or - 0.25 similar to the galactic electron spectrum. There are, in addition, Forbush decreases in the electron intensity frequently coincident with those in the neutron monitor. It is concluded that these characteristics all support the hypothesis of a galactic origin for the electrons observed during quiet-time increases.

  18. QUIET-TIME INTERPLANETARY {approx}2-20 keV SUPERHALO ELECTRONS AT SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Linghua; Lin, Robert P.; Salem, Chadi; Pulupa, Marc; Larson, Davin E.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Yoon, Peter H.

    2012-07-01

    We present a statistical survey of {approx}2-20 keV superhalo electrons in the solar wind measured by the SupraThermal Electron instrument on board the two STEREO spacecraft during quiet-time periods from 2007 March through 2009 March at solar minimum. The observed superhalo electrons have a nearly isotropic angular distribution and a power-law spectrum, f{proportional_to}v{sup -{gamma}}, with {gamma} ranging from 5 to 8.7, with nearly half between 6.5 and 7.5, and an average index of 6.69 {+-} 0.90. The observed power-law spectrum varies significantly on a spatial scale of {approx}>0.1 AU and a temporal scale of {approx}>several days. The integrated density of quiet-time superhalo electrons at 2-20 keV ranges from {approx}10{sup -8} cm{sup -3} to 10{sup -6} cm{sup -3}, about 10{sup -9}-10{sup -6} of the solar wind density, and, as well as the power-law spectrum, shows no correlation with solar wind proton density, velocity, or temperature. The density of superhalo electrons appears to show a solar-cycle variation at solar minimum, while the power-law spectral index {gamma} has no solar-cycle variation. These quiet-time superhalo electrons are present even in the absence of any solar activity-e.g., active regions, flares or microflares, type III radio bursts, etc.-suggesting that they may be accelerated by processes such as resonant wave-particle interactions in the interplanetary medium, or possibly by nonthermal processes related to the acceleration of the solar wind such as nanoflares, or by acceleration at the CIR forward shocks.

  19. Simulation of Quiet-Sun Hard X-Rays Related to Solar Wind Superhalo Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen; Wang, Linghua; Krucker, Säm; Hannah, Iain

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose that the accelerated electrons in the quiet Sun could collide with the solar atmosphere to emit Hard X-rays (HXRs) via non-thermal bremsstrahlung, while some of these electrons would move upwards and escape into the interplanetary medium, to form a superhalo electron population measured in the solar wind. After considering the electron energy loss due to Coulomb collisions and the ambipolar electrostatic potential, we find that the sources of the superhalo could only occur high in the corona (at a heliocentric altitude ≳ 1.9 R_{⊙} (the mean radius of the Sun)), to remain a power-law shape of electron spectrum as observed by Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) at 1 AU near solar minimum (Wang et al. in Astrophys. J. Lett. 753, L23, 2012). The modeled quiet-Sun HXRs related to the superhalo electrons fit well to a power-law spectrum, f ˜ ɛ^{-γ} in the photon energy ɛ, with an index γ≈2.0 - 2.3 (3.3 - 3.7) at 10 - 100 keV, for the warm/cold-thick-target (thin-target) emissions produced by the downward-traveling (upward-traveling) accelerated electrons. These simulated quiet-Sun spectra are significantly harder than the observed spectra of most solar HXR flares. Assuming that the quiet-Sun sources cover 5 % of the solar surface, the modeled thin-target HXRs are more than six orders of magnitude weaker than the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) upper limit for quiet-Sun HXRs (Hannah et al. in Astrophys. J. 724, 487, 2010). Using the thick-target model for the downward-traveling electrons, the RHESSI upper limit restricts the number of downward-traveling electrons to at most {≈} 3 times the number of escaping electrons. This ratio is fundamentally different from what is observed during solar flares associated with escaping electrons where the fraction of downward-traveling electrons dominates by a factor of 100 to 1000 over the escaping population.

  20. Studies of solar magnetic fields during the rise of Solar Cycle 22. Final report, 1 Oct 86-30 Sep 89

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.F.

    1991-01-15

    New information about the solar cycle and the changing magnetic fields includes: (1) Every solar cycle has a duration of 18-22 years even though the peak between successive cycles is approximately 11 years. This means that there are two solar cycles on the sun nearly all of the time; the exception is the few years preceeding solar maximum. (2) a large-scale velocity field was discovered around the perimeter of one of the major active regions that developed during the rise of the current solar cycle. If averaged over a several month interval, the velocity would be of the same order of magnitude as the velocity pattern of the torsional oscillation signal that varies systematically over the solar cycle. The newly discovered velocity pattern can be interpreted as either a severe contamination to the torsional oscillation signal or another way of observing the torsional oscillation velocity field. (3) Our analyses of small-scale magnetic fields on the quiet sun has shown that network magnetic fields are continuously being replaced by intranetwork magnetic fields. The replacement occurs when intranetwork magnetic fields collide with network magnetic fields; both polarities are observed to cancel each other at a mean rates of 10 to the 18th power Maxwells/hour. The non-cancelling components of the intranetwork magnetic field replace the cancelled components of the network. No net long-term increases or decreases in magnetic flux occur as a consequence of these processes.

  1. Structure and Dynamics of the Quiet Solar Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang; Wagner, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    For the meeting of the AAS/SPD in Albuquerque, NM, I organized a Topical Session of the AAS on Structure and Dynamics of Chromospheres. The grant support was used to bring to the US two of the speakers from abroad. I had invited them for presentations at the Session: Dr. Klaus Wilhelm, the former PI of the SUMER instrument on SOHO, from the Max-Planck Institut in Lindau, Germany, and Dr. Sirajul Hasan, from the Indian Institute of Astrophysics in Bangalore, India. Both speakers preceded their trip to the AAS meeting with a stay at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, where they interacted with members of the Solar and Stellar Physics division. The highlights of the visits were the talks at the AAS/SPD meeting, in which six invited speakers told the audience of astronomers about current problems in solar physics and their relation to stellar problems. An important result of the visits is a paper by Dr. Wilhelm and me on 'Observations of the upper solar chromosphere with SUMER on SOHO', which has been submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics for publication.

  2. Do the quiet sun magnetic fields vary with the solar cycle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faurobert, Marianne; Ricort, Gilbert; Lites, Bruce

    2015-10-01

    The quiet Sun observed in polarized light exhibits a rich and complex magnetic structuring which is still not fully resolved nor understood. The present work is intended to contribute to the debate about the origin of the quiet sun magnetic fields, in relation or not to the global solar dynamo. We present analysis of center-to-limb polarization measurements obtained with the SOT/SP spectropolarimeter onboard the Hinode satellite outside active regions, in 2007 and 2013, i.e. at a minimum and a maximum of the solar cycle, respectively. We compare the spatial fluctuation Fourier spectra of unsigned circular and linear polarization images after corrections for polarization bias and focus variations between the two data sets. The decay of active regions is clearly a source of magnetic fields in the quiet Sun. It leads to a global increase of the polarization fluctuation power spectrum in 2013 in the network. In the internetwork, we observe no variation of the polarization fluctuation power at mesogranular and granular scales, whereas it increases at sub-granular scales. We interpret these results in the following way. At the mesogranular and granular scales very efficient mechanisms of magnetic field removal are operating in the internetwork, that leads to a dissipation or a concentration of magnetic fields on smaller scales. So the cycle-invariant magnetic signal that we detect at mesogranular and granular scales must be continuously created by a dynamo mechanism which is independent of the solar cycle.

  3. STUDY OF CALIBRATION OF SOLAR RADIO SPECTROMETERS AND THE QUIET-SUN RADIO EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Chengming; Yan, Yihua; Tan, Baolin; Fu, Qijun; Liu, Yuying; Xu, Guirong

    2015-07-20

    This work presents a systematic investigation of the influence of weather conditions on the calibration errors by using Gaussian fitness, least chi-square linear fitness, and wavelet transform to analyze the calibration coefficients from observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometers (at frequency bands of 1.0–2.0 GHz, 2.6–3.8 GHz, and 5.2–7.6 GHz) during 1997–2007. We found that calibration coefficients are influenced by the local air temperature. Considering the temperature correction, the calibration error will reduce by about 10%–20% at 2800 MHz. Based on the above investigation and the calibration corrections, we further study the radio emission of the quiet Sun by using an appropriate hybrid model of the quiet-Sun atmosphere. The results indicate that the numerical flux of the hybrid model is much closer to the observation flux than that of other ones.

  4. Free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in active and quiet solar regions and their role in solar dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Archontis, Vasilis; Tsiropoula, Georgia; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Moraitis, Kostas; Kontogiannis, Ioannis

    We present a novel non-linear force-free method for the calculation of the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets of a solar region from a single photospheric/chromospheric vector magnetogram. Our objective is to study the role of these quantities both in solar eruptions and in quiet-Sun dynamics. The validity of the method is tested using both observations and synthetic magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) models. The method is applied for the derivation of the energy-helicity (EH) diagram of solar active regions (ARs) from a sample of 162 vector magnetograms corresponding to 42 different ARs, suggesting the existence of 4×10(31) erg and 2×10(42) Mx(2) thresholds in free energy and relative helicity, respectively, for ARs to enter eruptive territory. Furthermore, the dynamical evolution of both quantities in eruptive NOAA AR 11158, using a high-cadence 5-day time series of vector magnetograms, suggests the formation of increasingly helical pre-eruption structures and a causal relation between flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The method is also used to derive helicity and energy budgets in quiet Sun regions and construct the respective EH diagram. Our results highlight the importance of both energy and helicity in AR evolution and quiet-Sun dynamics and instigate further research on the underlying physics with three-dimensional MHD models. This work is supported by EU's Seventh Framework Programme via a Marie Curie Fellowship.

  5. Solar wind entry into the high-latitude terrestrial magnetosphere during geomagnetically quiet times.

    PubMed

    Shi, Q Q; Zong, Q-G; Fu, S Y; Dunlop, M W; Pu, Z Y; Parks, G K; Wei, Y; Li, W H; Zhang, H; Nowada, M; Wang, Y B; Sun, W J; Xiao, T; Reme, H; Carr, C; Fazakerley, A N; Lucek, E

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the transport of solar wind plasma into and throughout the terrestrial magnetosphere is crucial to space science and space weather. For non-active periods, there is little agreement on where and how plasma entry into the magnetosphere might occur. Moreover, behaviour in the high-latitude region behind the magnetospheric cusps, for example, the lobes, is poorly understood, partly because of lack of coverage by previous space missions. Here, using Cluster multi-spacecraft data, we report an unexpected discovery of regions of solar wind entry into the Earth's high-latitude magnetosphere tailward of the cusps. From statistical observational facts and simulation analysis we suggest that these regions are most likely produced by magnetic reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause, although other processes, such as impulsive penetration, may not be ruled out entirely. We find that the degree of entry can be significant for solar wind transport into the magnetosphere during such quiet times. PMID:23403567

  6. Solar wind entry into the high-latitude terrestrial magnetosphere during geomagnetically quiet times.

    PubMed

    Shi, Q Q; Zong, Q-G; Fu, S Y; Dunlop, M W; Pu, Z Y; Parks, G K; Wei, Y; Li, W H; Zhang, H; Nowada, M; Wang, Y B; Sun, W J; Xiao, T; Reme, H; Carr, C; Fazakerley, A N; Lucek, E

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the transport of solar wind plasma into and throughout the terrestrial magnetosphere is crucial to space science and space weather. For non-active periods, there is little agreement on where and how plasma entry into the magnetosphere might occur. Moreover, behaviour in the high-latitude region behind the magnetospheric cusps, for example, the lobes, is poorly understood, partly because of lack of coverage by previous space missions. Here, using Cluster multi-spacecraft data, we report an unexpected discovery of regions of solar wind entry into the Earth's high-latitude magnetosphere tailward of the cusps. From statistical observational facts and simulation analysis we suggest that these regions are most likely produced by magnetic reconnection at the high-latitude magnetopause, although other processes, such as impulsive penetration, may not be ruled out entirely. We find that the degree of entry can be significant for solar wind transport into the magnetosphere during such quiet times.

  7. Solar quiet day ionospheric source current in the West African region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiekezie, Theresa N.; Okeke, Francisca N.

    2013-05-01

    The Solar Quiet (Sq) day source current were calculated using the magnetic data obtained from a chain of 10 magnetotelluric stations installed in the African sector during the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) experiment in Africa. The components of geomagnetic field recorded at the stations from January-December in 1993 during the experiment were separated into the source and (induced) components of Sq using Spherical Harmonics Analysis (SHA) method. The range of the source current was calculated and this enabled the viewing of a full year's change in the source current system of Sq.

  8. Solar quiet day ionospheric source current in the West African region.

    PubMed

    Obiekezie, Theresa N; Okeke, Francisca N

    2013-05-01

    The Solar Quiet (Sq) day source current were calculated using the magnetic data obtained from a chain of 10 magnetotelluric stations installed in the African sector during the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) experiment in Africa. The components of geomagnetic field recorded at the stations from January-December in 1993 during the experiment were separated into the source and (induced) components of Sq using Spherical Harmonics Analysis (SHA) method. The range of the source current was calculated and this enabled the viewing of a full year's change in the source current system of Sq. PMID:25685434

  9. Alfvénic waves with sufficient energy to power the quiet solar corona and fast solar wind.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott W; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo; Boerner, Paul; Goossens, Marcel

    2011-07-28

    Energy is required to heat the outer solar atmosphere to millions of degrees (refs 1, 2) and to accelerate the solar wind to hundreds of kilometres per second (refs 2-6). Alfvén waves (travelling oscillations of ions and magnetic field) have been invoked as a possible mechanism to transport magneto-convective energy upwards along the Sun's magnetic field lines into the corona. Previous observations of Alfvénic waves in the corona revealed amplitudes far too small (0.5 km s(-1)) to supply the energy flux (100-200 W m(-2)) required to drive the fast solar wind or balance the radiative losses of the quiet corona. Here we report observations of the transition region (between the chromosphere and the corona) and of the corona that reveal how Alfvénic motions permeate the dynamic and finely structured outer solar atmosphere. The ubiquitous outward-propagating Alfvénic motions observed have amplitudes of the order of 20 km s(-1) and periods of the order of 100-500 s throughout the quiescent atmosphere (compatible with recent investigations), and are energetic enough to accelerate the fast solar wind and heat the quiet corona. PMID:21796206

  10. Alfvénic waves with sufficient energy to power the quiet solar corona and fast solar wind.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott W; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo; Boerner, Paul; Goossens, Marcel

    2011-07-27

    Energy is required to heat the outer solar atmosphere to millions of degrees (refs 1, 2) and to accelerate the solar wind to hundreds of kilometres per second (refs 2-6). Alfvén waves (travelling oscillations of ions and magnetic field) have been invoked as a possible mechanism to transport magneto-convective energy upwards along the Sun's magnetic field lines into the corona. Previous observations of Alfvénic waves in the corona revealed amplitudes far too small (0.5 km s(-1)) to supply the energy flux (100-200 W m(-2)) required to drive the fast solar wind or balance the radiative losses of the quiet corona. Here we report observations of the transition region (between the chromosphere and the corona) and of the corona that reveal how Alfvénic motions permeate the dynamic and finely structured outer solar atmosphere. The ubiquitous outward-propagating Alfvénic motions observed have amplitudes of the order of 20 km s(-1) and periods of the order of 100-500 s throughout the quiescent atmosphere (compatible with recent investigations), and are energetic enough to accelerate the fast solar wind and heat the quiet corona.

  11. NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION OCCURRING IN THE CHROMOSPHERE OF THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Jongchul; Ahn, K.; Goode, P. R.; Yurchysyn, V.; Abramenko, V.; Andic, A.; Cao, W.; Park, Y. D.

    2010-04-10

    Magnetic reconnection is a process in which field-line connectivity changes in a magnetized plasma. On the solar surface, it often occurs with the cancellation of two magnetic fragments of opposite polarity. Using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope, we observed the morphology and dynamics of plasma visible in the H{alpha} line, which is associated with a canceling magnetic feature (CMF) in the quiet Sun. The region can be divided into four magnetic domains: two pre-reconnection and two post-reconnection. In one post-reconnection domain, a small cloud erupted, with a plane-of-sky speed of 10 km s{sup -1}, while in the other one, brightening began at points and then tiny bright loops appeared and subsequently shrank. These features support the notion that magnetic reconnection taking place in the chromosphere is responsible for CMFs.

  12. Solar Wind ~0.1-1.5 keV Electrons at Quiet Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, J.; Wang, L.; Zong, Q. G.; Li, G.; He, J.; Tu, C.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Salem, C. S.; Yang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Solar wind halo/strahl electrons carry important information on the formation of suprathermal electrons in the solar wind. Here we present a statistical survey on the energy spectrum of 0.1-1.5 keV electrons observed by WIND/3DP in the solar wind during quiet times at solar minimum and maximum of solar cycle 23 and 24. First, we separate strahl electrons from halo electrons according to their different behaviors in the angular distribution. Secondly, we fit the observed energy spectrum of halo/strahl electrons at 0.1-1.5 keV to a kappa distribution function with an index κ and effective temperature Teff. We also integrate the electron measurements to obtain the number density n of halo/strahl electrons at 0.1-1.5 keV. We find a strong positive correlation between κ and Teff for both halo and strahl electrons. For strahl electrons, the index κ (number density n) appears to decrease (increase) with increasing solar activity. For halo electrons, the index κ also decreases with increasing solar activity, while the number density n shows no clear solar-cycle variation. Based on a simple model, we find that the escape of thermal electrons from the coronal region with a higher temperature T could lead to a larger κ for the 0.1-1.5 keV electrons measured in the solar wind, if T > ~0.73×106 K. These results suggest that strahl electrons are likely related to the escaping thermal electrons from different regions in the hot corona, while halo electrons are probably formed due to the scatter/acceleration of strahl electrons in the interplanetary medium.

  13. SCATTERING POLARIZATION OF THE Ca II IR TRIPLET FOR PROBING THE QUIET SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Manso Sainz, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J. E-mail: jtb@iac.e

    2010-10-20

    The chromosphere of the quiet Sun is a very important stellar atmospheric region whose thermal and magnetic structure we need to decipher in order to unlock new discoveries in solar and stellar physics. To this end, we need to identify and exploit observables sensitive to weak magnetic fields (B {approx}< 100 G) and to the presence of cool and hot gas in the bulk of the solar chromosphere. Here, we report on an investigation of the Hanle effect in two semi-empirical models of the quiet solar atmosphere with different chromospheric thermal structures. Our study reveals that the linear polarization profiles produced by scattering in the Ca II IR triplet have thermal and magnetic sensitivities potentially of great diagnostic value. The linear polarization in the 8498 A line shows a strong sensitivity to inclined magnetic fields with strengths between 0.001 and 10 G, while the emergent linear polarization in the 8542 A and 8662 A lines is mainly sensitive to magnetic fields with strengths between 0.001 and 0.1 G. The reason for this is that the scattering polarization of the 8542 A and 8662 A lines, unlike the 8498 A line, is controlled mainly by the Hanle effect in their (metastable) lower levels. Therefore, in regions with magnetic strengths noticeably larger than 1 G, their Stokes Q and U profiles are sensitive only to the orientation of the magnetic field vector. We also find that for given magnetic field configurations the sign of the Q/I and U/I profiles of the 8542 A and 8662 A lines is the same in both atmospheric models, while the sign of the linear polarization profile of the 8498 A line turns out to be very sensitive to the thermal structure of the lower chromosphere. We suggest that spectropolarimetric observations providing information on the relative scattering polarization amplitudes of the Ca II IR triplet will be very useful to improve our empirical understanding of the thermal and magnetic structure of the quiet chromosphere.

  14. Quiet-Time Spectra and Abundances of Energetic Particles During the 1996 Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    1998-01-01

    This report concerns the energy spectra and abundances of ions with atomic number, Z, in the interval 2 greater than or equal to Z and Z less than or equal to 36 and energies approximately 3-20 MeV/amu for solar and interplanetary quiet periods between November 1994 and April 1998 as measured by the large-geometry LEMT telescope on the Wind spacecraft near Earth. The energy spectra show the presence of galactic (GCR) and 'anomalous' cosmic ray (ACR) components, depending on the element. ACR components are reported for Mg and Si for the first time at 1 AU and the previous observation of S and Ar is confirmed. However, only GCR components are clearly apparent for the elements Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, as well as for C. New limits are placed on a possible ACR contribution for other elements, including Kr.

  15. Quiet-Time Spectra and Abundances of Energetic Particles During the 1996 Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    1999-01-01

    We report the energy spectra and abundances of ions with atomic number, Z, in the interval Z is greater than or equal to 2 and Z is less than or equal to 36 and energies approximately 3-20 MeV/amu for solar and interplanetary quiet periods between 1994 November and 1998 April as measured by the large-geometry Low Energy Matrix Telescope (LEMT) telescope on the Wind spacecraft near Earth. The energy spectra show the presence of galactic (GCR) and "anomalous" cosmic ray (ACR) components, depending on the element. ACR components are reported for Mg and Si for the first time at 1 AU and the previous observation of S and Ar is confirmed. However, only GCR components are clearly apparent for the elements Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, as well as for C. New limits are placed on a possible ACR contribution for other elements, including Kr.

  16. Markov Properties of the Magnetic Field in the Quiet Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorobets, A. Y.; Borrero, J. M.; Berdyugina, S.

    2016-07-01

    The observed magnetic field on the solar surface is characterized by a very complex spatial and temporal behavior. Although feature-tracking algorithms have allowed us to deepen our understanding of this behavior, subjectivity plays an important role in the identification and tracking of such features. In this paper, we study the temporal stochasticity of the magnetic field on the solar surface without relying on either the concept of magnetic feature or on the subjective assumptions about their identification and interaction. The analysis is applied to observations of the magnetic field of the quiet solar photosphere carried out with the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) instrument on board the stratospheric balloon, Sunrise. We show that the joint probability distribution functions of the longitudinal ({B}\\parallel ) and transverse ({B}\\perp ) components of the magnetic field, as well as of the magnetic pressure ({B}2={B}\\perp 2+{B}\\parallel 2), verify the necessary and sufficient condition for the Markov chains. Therefore, we establish that the magnetic field as seen by IMaX with a resolution of 0.″15–0.″18 and 33 s cadence, which can be considered as a memoryless temporal fluctuating quantity.

  17. DETECTION OF SMALL-SCALE GRANULAR STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN WITH THE NEW SOLAR TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, V. I.; Yurchyshyn, V. B.; Goode, P. R.; Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2012-09-10

    Results of a statistical analysis of solar granulation are presented. A data set of 36 images of a quiet-Sun area on the solar disk center was used. The data were obtained with the 1.6 m clear aperture New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory and with a broadband filter centered at the TiO (705.7 nm) spectral line. The very high spatial resolution of the data (diffraction limit of 77 km and pixel scale of 0.''0375) augmented by the very high image contrast (15.5% {+-} 0.6%) allowed us to detect for the first time a distinct subpopulation of mini-granular structures. These structures are dominant on spatial scales below 600 km. Their size is distributed as a power law with an index of -1.8 (which is close to the Kolmogorov's -5/3 law) and no predominant scale. The regular granules display a Gaussian (normal) size distribution with a mean diameter of 1050 km. Mini-granular structures contribute significantly to the total granular area. They are predominantly confined to the wide dark lanes between regular granules and often form chains and clusters, but different from magnetic bright points. A multi-fractality test reveals that the structures smaller than 600 km represent a multi-fractal, whereas on larger scales the granulation pattern shows no multi-fractality and can be considered as a Gaussian random field. The origin, properties, and role of the population of mini-granular structures in the solar magnetoconvection are yet to be explored.

  18. The angular distribution of solar wind ˜20-200 keV superhalo electrons at quiet times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; He, Jiansen; Salem, Chadi S.; Tu, Chuanyi; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Bale, Stuart D.

    2016-03-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the angular distribution of ˜20-200 keV superhalo electrons measured at 1 AU by the WIND 3DP instrument during quiet times from 1995 January through 2005 December. According to the interplanetary magnetic field, we re-bin the observed electron pitch angle distributions to obtain the differential flux, Jout (Jin), of electrons traveling outward from (inward toward) the Sun, and define the anisotropy of superhalo electrons as A =2/(Jo u t-Ji n) Jo u t+Ji n at a given energy. We found that for out in ˜96% of the selected quiet-time samples, superhalo electrons have isotropic angular distributions, while for ˜3% (˜1%) of quiet-time samples, superhalo electrons are outward-anisotropic (inward-anisotropic). All three groups of angular distributions show no correlation with the local solar wind plasma, interplanetary magnetic field and turbulence. Furthermore, the superhalo electron spectral index shows no correlation with the spectral index of local solar wind turbulence. These quiet-time superhalo electrons may be accelerated by nonthermal processes related to the solar wind source and strongly scattered/ reflected in the interplanetary medium, or could be formed due to the electron acceleration through the interplanetary medium.

  19. Spatial variability of solar quiet fields along 96° magnetic meridian in Africa: Results from MAGDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaji, O. S.; Rabiu, A. B.; Bello, O. R.; Yoshikawa, A.; Yumoto, K.; Odeyemi, O. O.; Ogunmodimu, O.

    2015-05-01

    We have used chains of Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) magnetometer records of the horizontal (H) and vertical (Z) magnetic field intensities during September 2008 to August 2009 (year of deep minimum) across Africa to study their variability during the quietest international days, which coincidently associated with the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event in January 2009. This selection of the most international quiet days is indicative of 80% that are strongly associated with days when unusually strong and prolonged sudden SSW event occurs in January 2009. Interestingly, in January, a significant magnitude depletion of solar quiet (Sq) equivalent current was observed near noon hours around the magnetic equator (Addis Ababa, ABB) compared to any other months along with a consistent significantly reduced value across the Northern Hemisphere and moderate decrease at the Southern Hemisphere. Also, we found that Nairobi and Dar es Salaam at the Southern Hemisphere, which are close to ABB (dip equator), are strongly prone to westward electric field compared to the magnetic equator and Khartoum at the Northern Hemisphere. Significant negative values of MSq(Z) magnitudes observed near noon hours at Hermanus indicate the presence of induced currents that suggest ocean effects along with reversal to significant positive values in the afternoon, which subsided before 1800 LT in almost all the months, indicate stronger influence of ionospheric currents. On seasonal variability of Sq(H), a slight depression at ABB during September equinox is one of the evidences of seasonal Sq focus shift. Latitudinal variability of Sq near-noon hours was also investigated.

  20. Tether-Cutting Energetics of a Solar Quiet Region Prominence Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    We study the morphology and energetics of a slowly-evolving quiet region solar prominence eruption occurring on 1999 February 8-9 in the solar north polar crown region, using soft X-ray data from the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh and Fe xv EUV 284 A data from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on SOHO. After rising at approx. 1 km/s for about six hours, the prominence accelerates to a velocity of approx. 10 km/s, leaving behind EUV and soft X-ray loop arcades of a weak flare in its source region. Intensity dimmings occur in the eruption region cospatially in EUV and soft X-rays, indicating that the dimmings result from a depletion of material. Over the first two hours of the prominence s rapid rise, flare-like brightenings occur beneath the rising prominence which may correspond to "tether cutting" magnetic reconnection. These brightenings have heating requirements of up to approx. 10(exp 28)-10(exp 29) ergs, and this is comparable to the mechanical energy required for the rising prominence over the same time period. If the ratio of mechanical energy to heating energy remains constant through the early phase of the eruption, then we infer that coronal signatures for the tether cutting may not be apparent at or shortly after the start of the fast phase in this or similar low-energy eruptions, since the plasma-heating energy levels would not exceed that of the background corona.

  1. Background reduction for quiet time particle fluxes aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, E.; Kecskeméty, K.; Kunow, H.; Müller-Mellin, R.; Torsti, J.

    2001-06-01

    Two versions of a method are presented to determine the background of energetic particle telescopes during low-flux periods at low energies. Traditional procedures first evaluate pulse heights of particle sensors working in coincidence then select certain areas of the ΔE/Δx versus E plane, where E is energy, and finally, accept all events falling on those areas as real particles. Such methods, however, often fail during low-flux conditions, as the background may become comparable to the genuine particle flux. The alternative methods suggested here analyze the shape of the distribution near the track of genuine particles and provide statistical estimation of its parameters to separate the background from the real particle flux. Results are presented for protons and helium during quiet activity periods of the recent solar minimum using data from energetic particle telescopes Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron (ERNE) Low Energy Detector (LED) and Comprehensive Suprathermal and Energetic Particle Analyzer (COSTEP) Electron Proton Helium Instrument (EPHIN) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. SOHO is a project of international collaboration between the European Space Agency and NASA.

  2. On the Solar Quiet Variation Measured in Latin America by the Embrace Magnetometer Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Moro, Juliano; Araujo Resende, Laysa Cristina; Chen, Sony Su

    2016-07-01

    The present work show the first results of the study about the seasonal variation of the Solar quiet (Sq) Earth's magnetic field based on magnetic measurements from the Embrace Magnetic Network (MagNet) at several latitudes in South America, covering the equatorial and low latitudinal region. For this study, we used data covering the period from September 2010 to December 2015, during the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24. Before analyzing the magnetic data collected from the Embrace Magnet, we compared the magnetic data collected by the Embrace variometer installed at Vassouras-RJ, in Brazil, with the same data collected by the absolute magnetometer installed by the Intermagnet at the same observatory. We show that our data is in pretty good agreement to the absolute values. With respect to the seasonal variation, we show clear seasonal modulation in all components, irrespective the latitude. The H component analysis revealed to have a seasonal dependence in both aspects: the duration of positive excursion along the day and the maximum amplitude. And the other components have also shown remarkable regional characteristic of the variation of the Sq. Finally, we take these results as the first steps towards developing a Sq model to be superimposed to International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model as a useful tool for space weather forecast.

  3. Solar wind ˜0.1-1.5 keV electrons at quiet times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jiawei; Wang, Linghua; Zong, Qiugang; Li, Gang; Salem, Chadi S.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Bale, Stuart D.

    2016-03-01

    We present a statistical survey of the energy spectrum of solar wind suprathermal (˜0.1-1.5 keV) electrons measured by the WIND 3-D Plasma & Energetic Particle (3DP) instrument at 1 AU during quiet times at the minimum and maximum of solar cycles 23 and 24. Firstly, we separate strahl (beaming) electrons and halo (isotropic) electrons based on their features in pitch angle distributions. Secondly, we fit the observed energy spectrum of both the strahl and halo electrons at ˜0.1-1.5 keV to a Kappa distribution function with an index κ, effective temperature Teff and density n0. We also integrate the the measurements over ˜0.1-1.5 keV to obtain the average electron energy Eavg of the strahl and halo. We find a strong positive correlation between κ and Teff for both the strahl and halo, possibly reflecting the nature of the generation of these suprathermal electrons. Among the 245 selected samples, ˜68% have the halo κ smaller than the strahl κ, while ˜50% have the halo Eh larger than the strahl Es.

  4. Tether-Cutting Energetics of a Solar Quiet Region Prominence Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    We study the morphology and energetics of a slowly evolving quiet-region solar prominence eruption occurring on 1999 February 8-9 in the solar north polar crown region, using soft X-ray data from the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh and Fexv EUV 284 Angstrom data from the EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). After rising at approximately equal to l kilometer per second for about six hours, the prominence accelerates to a velocity of approximately equal to 10 kilometers per second, leaving behind EUV and soft X-ray loop arcades of a weak flare in its source region. Intensity dimmings occur in the eruption region cospatially in EUV and soft X-rays, indicating that the dimmings result from a depletion of material. Over the first two hours of the prominences rapid rise, flare-like brightenings occur beneath the rising prominence that might correspond to tether-cutting magnetic reconnection. These brightenings have heating requirements of up to approximately 10(exp 28)-10(exp 29) ergs, and this is comparable to the mechanical energy required for the rising prominence over the same time period. If the ratio of mechanical energy to heating energy remains constant through the early phase of the eruption, then we infer that coronal signatures for the tether cutting may not be apparent at or shortly after the start of the fast phase in this or similar low-energy eruptions, since the plasma-heating energy levels would not exceed that of the background corona.

  5. EUV/XUV radiation of quiet Sun in solar minimum according to the "PHOKA/CORONAS-PHOTON" measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Alexey; Kotov, Yury

    Monitoring of solar EUV/XUV radiation was performed by instrument "PHOKA" installed on "CORONAS-PHOTON" satellite. Instrument has three spectral bands: 0.5-11 nm; (0.5-7)(27-37) nm and 116-125 nm (for H Ly-line 121.6 nm). During the flight the cross-calibration of working and spare detectors was used to estimate the system stability. Cadence of mon-itoring was 0.4 sec over a whole orbit. From the 28 Feb to 1 Dec 2009 the EUV/XUV radiation of quiet Sun as well as of small flares were measured. Received fluxes are com-pared with some other measurements performed in that period. As an example absolute flux of solar radiation for range 0.5-7 nm measured by PHOKA for quiet Sun (2009.02.28) is 6.0*10- 5W/m2withestimatederrorabout30

  6. Small Scale Dynamo Magnetism And the Heating of the Quiet Sun Solar Atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amari, T.

    2015-12-01

    The longstanding problem of the solar atmosphere heating has been addressed by many theoretical studies. Two specific mechanisms have been shown to play a key role in those : magnetic reconnection and waves. On the other hand the necessity of treating together chromosphere and corona has also been been stressed, with debates going on about the possibility of heating coronal plasma by energetic phenomena observed in the chromosphere,based on many key observations such as spicules, tornadoes…. We present some recent results about the modeling of quiet Sun heating in which magnetic fields are generated by a subphotospheric fluid dynamo which is connected to granulation. The model shows a topologically complex magnetic field of 160 G on the Sun's surface, agreeing with inferences obtained from spectropolarimetric observations.Those generated magnetic fields emerge into the chromosphere, providing the required energy flux and then small-scale eruptions releasing magnetic energy and driving sonic motions. Some of the more energetic eruptions can affect the very low corona only.It is also found that taking into account a vertical weak network magnetic field then allows to provide energy higher in the corona, while leaving unchanged the physics of chromospheric eruptions. The coronal heating mechanism rests on the eventual dissipation of Alfven waves generated inside the chromosphere and carrying upwards an adequate energy flux, while more energetic phenomena contribute only weakly to the heating of the corona.

  7. Explaining Inverted Temperature Loops in the Quiet Solar Corona with Magnetohydrodynamic Wave Mode Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, Avery; Cranmer, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    We simulate the temperature profiles along coronal loops measured with AIA DEM tomography and field-line extrapolation by Nuevo et al (2013). By varying the strength and nature of the heating mechanism, we modeled steady-state, gravitationally stable loops that have temperature profiles with local maxima below the loop apex. Because these loops have negative vertical temperature gradients over much of their length, they have been called "down loops" and were seen to exist primarily in equatorial quiet regions near solar minimum. In our models, the amount of heat deposited in the loop is attributed to two sources: (1) the dissipation of Alfven waves in a turbulent cascade, and (2) the dissipation of compressive waves over a variable length. The compressive waves are generated in a nonlinear process by which some fraction of the Alfven waves undergo mode conversion instead of contributing directly to the heating process. We found that when a large percentage (> 99%) of the Alfven waves underwent this conversion, the heating was greatly concentrated at the base of the loop and stable "down loops" were created. In some cases, we found loops with three extrema that are gravitationally stable. We map the full parameter space to explore which conditions lead to which loop types, and we demonstrate that the simulated characteristics of the loops -- including magnetic field strength, pressure, and temperature -- are consistent with values measured by Nuevo et al. (2013).

  8. ON QUIET-TIME SOLAR WIND ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN DYNAMICAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH LANGMUIR TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Zaheer, S.; Yoon, P. H.

    2013-10-01

    A recent series of papers put forth a self-consistent theory of an asymptotically steady-state electron distribution function and Langmuir turbulence intensity. The theory was developed in terms of the κ distribution which features Maxwellian low-energy electrons and a non-Maxwellian energetic power-law tail component. The present paper discusses a generalized κ distribution that features a Davydov-Druyvesteyn type of core component and an energetic power-law tail component. The physical motivation for such a generalization is so that the model may reflect the influence of low-energy electrons interacting with low-frequency kinetic Alfvénic turbulence as well as with high-frequency Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that such a solution and the accompanying Langmuir wave spectrum rigorously satisfy the balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced emission processes in both the particle and wave kinetic equations, and approximately satisfy the similar balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced scattering processes, which are nonlinear. In spite of the low velocity modification of the electron distribution function, it is shown that the resulting asymptotic velocity power-law index α, where f{sub e} ∼ v {sup –α} is close to the average index observed during the quiet-time solar wind condition, i.e., α ∼ O(6.5) whereas α{sub average} ∼ 6.69, according to observation.

  9. Solar quiet current response in the African sector due to a 2009 sudden stratospheric warming event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolaji, O. S.; Oyeyemi, E. O.; Owolabi, O. P.; Yamazaki, Y.; Rabiu, A. B.; Okoh, D.; Fujimoto, A.; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Seemala, G. K.; Yoshikawa, A.; Onanuga, O. K.

    2016-08-01

    We present solar quiet (Sq) variation of the horizontal (H) magnetic field intensity deduced from Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) records over Africa during an unusual strong and prolonged 2009 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event. A reduction in the SqH magnitude that enveloped the geomagnetic latitudes between 21.13°N (Fayum FYM) in Egypt and 39.51°S (Durban DRB) in South Africa was observed, while the stratospheric polar temperature was increasing and got strengthened when the stratospheric temperature reached its maximum. Another novel feature associated with the hemispheric reduction is the reversal in the north-south asymmetry of the SqH, which is indicative of higher SqH magnitude in the Northern Hemisphere compared to the Southern Hemisphere during SSW peak phase. The reversal of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) or the counter electrojet (CEJ) was observed after the polar stratospheric temperature reached its maximum. The effect of additional currents associated with CEJ was observed in the Southern Hemisphere at middle latitude. Similar changes were observed in the EEJ at the South America, Pacific Ocean, and Central Asia sectors. The effect of the SSW is largest in the South American sector and smallest in the Central Asian sector.

  10. Explaining Inverted-temperature Loops in the Quiet Solar Corona with Magnetohydrodynamic Wave-mode Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, Avery J.; Cranmer, Steven R.

    2016-11-01

    Coronal loops trace out bipolar, arch-like magnetic fields above the Sun’s surface. Recent measurements that combine rotational tomography, extreme-ultraviolet imaging, and potential-field extrapolation have shown the existence of large loops with inverted-temperature profiles, i.e., loops for which the apex temperature is a local minimum, not a maximum. These “down loops” appear to exist primarily in equatorial quiet regions near solar minimum. We simulate both these and the more prevalent large-scale “up loops” by modeling coronal heating as a time-steady superposition of (1) dissipation of incompressible Alfvén wave turbulence and (2) dissipation of compressive waves formed by mode conversion from the initial population of Alfvén waves. We found that when a large percentage (>99%) of the Alfvén waves undergo this conversion, heating is greatly concentrated at the footpoints and stable “down loops” are created. In some cases we found loops with three maxima that are also gravitationally stable. Models that agree with the tomographic temperature data exhibit higher gas pressures for “down loops” than for “up loops,” which is consistent with observations. These models also show a narrow range of Alfvén wave amplitudes: 3 to 6 km s‑1 at the coronal base. This is low in comparison to typical observed amplitudes of 20–30 km s‑1 in bright X-ray loops. However, the large-scale loops we model are believed to compose a weaker diffuse background that fills much of the volume of the corona. By constraining the physics of loops that underlie quiescent streamers, we hope to better understand the formation of the slow solar wind.

  11. NEWLY DISCOVERED GLOBAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN AT SOLAR MINIMUM

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Zhenguang; Frazin, Richard A.; Landi, Enrico; Manchester, Ward B.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Vasquez, Alberto M.

    2012-08-20

    Magnetic loops are building blocks of the closed-field corona. While active region loops are readily seen in images taken at EUV and X-ray wavelengths, quiet-Sun (QS) loops are seldom identifiable and are therefore difficult to study on an individual basis. The first analysis of solar minimum (Carrington Rotation 2077) QS coronal loops utilizing a novel technique called the Michigan Loop Diagnostic Technique (MLDT) is presented. This technique combines Differential Emission Measure Tomography and a potential field source surface (PFSS) model, and consists of tracing PFSS field lines through the tomographic grid on which the local differential emission measure is determined. As a result, the electron temperature T{sub e} and density N{sub e} at each point along each individual field line can be obtained. Using data from STEREO/EUVI and SOHO/MDI, the MLDT identifies two types of QS loops in the corona: so-called up loops in which the temperature increases with height and so-called down loops in which the temperature decreases with height. Up loops are expected, however, down loops are a surprise, and furthermore, they are ubiquitous in the low-latitude corona. Up loops dominate the QS at higher latitudes. The MLDT allows independent determination of the empirical pressure and density scale heights, and the differences between the two remain to be explained. The down loops appear to be a newly discovered property of the solar minimum corona that may shed light on the physics of coronal heating. The results are shown to be robust to the calibration uncertainties of the EUVI instrument.

  12. Fluxes of low-energy particles in quiet periods of solar activity and the MgII index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeldovich, M. A.; Logachev, Yu. I.; Kecskemety, K.; Surova, G. M.

    2009-10-01

    Low fluxes of protons with energies 0.3-10 MeV were studied during 21-23 solar cycles as a function of the MgII index using the data of the instruments CPME, EIS ( IMP8), and EPHIN ( SOHO). It has been shown that a) during quiet time of solar activity the fluxes of protons (background protons) have a positive correlation with the MgII index value throughout the solar cycle, b) specific features of variations of the MgII index during the solar minima of 1986-1987 and 1996-1997 can be considered, as well as variations of background fluxes of low energy charged particles, to be manifestations of the 22-year magnetic cycle of the Sun, and c) periods of the lowest value of the MgII index are also characterized by the smaller values of the ratio of intensities of protons and helium nuclei than in other quiet periods. A hypothesis is put forward that acceleration in a multitude of weak solar flares is one of the sources of background fluxes of low energy particles in the interplanetary space.

  13. Heliospheric and Geomagnetic Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Ray under Quiet and disturbed interplanetary conditions during Solar cycle 20-23.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalu, F. D.

    2015-12-01

    The modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) within the heliosphere leads to a reduction in the GCR count rates during period of high solar activity and conversely. Data from three geomagnetic observatories and three Neutron monitors (in close proximity to the geomagnetic stations) have been studied. The monthly residuals of the geomagnetic field components with respect to quiet time conditions from these three stations have been computed and compared with the cosmic ray count rates. The modulations of the GCR during quiet and disturbed interplanetary conditions have been investigated with a view to better understand the role of the global merged interaction regions and coronal mass ejections to the GCR modulation. From first-order partial correlation, we found that removing the influence of the total IMF-B, (especially during quiet conditions), and the influence of SW dynamic pressure (during disturbed conditions) generally enhances the correlation of the residual geomagnetic field with the GCR significantly. The influence of the more subtle parameters like speed, Bz component and proton density were masked by these dominant parameters. Results from this work are important for the modeling of long term GCR variability.

  14. Heliospheric and geomagnetic modulation of galactic cosmic rays under quiet and disturbed interplanetary conditions during solar cycles 20-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukwudi Okpala, Kingsley

    2015-08-01

    The modulation of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) within the heliosphere leads to a reduction in the GCR count rates during period of high solar activity and conversely. Data from three geomagnetic observatories and three Neutron monitors (in close proximity to the geomagnetic stations) have been studied. The monthly residuals of the geomagnetic field components with respect to quiet time conditions from these three stations have been computed and compared with the cosmic ray count rates. The modulations of the GCR during quiet and disturbed interplanetary conditions have been investigated with a view to better understand the role of the global merged interaction regions and intense magnetic fields to the GCR modulation. From first-order partial correlation, we found that removing the influence of the total IMF-B, (especially during quiet conditions) and the influence of SW dynamic pressure (during disturbed conditions) generally enhances the correlation of the residual geomagnetic field with the GCR significantly. The influence of the more subtle parameters like speed, Bz component and proton density were masked by these dominant parameters. Results from this work are important for the modeling of long term GCR variability.

  15. Pole-equator difference and the variability of the brightness of the chromospheric CaII-K-network elements in quiet regions over the solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kariyappa, R.

    1995-01-01

    The dependence of the brightness of chromospheric network elements on latitude was investigated for quiet solar regions. Calibrated photographic CaII K-spectroheliograms were used to compare the variation in brightness at the center of the disk with higher latitude of chromospheric network elements in a quiet region as a function of solar activity. It was found that there was no significant difference in brightness between the center of the solar disk and higher latitude. It is concluded that the brightness of the chromospheric network elements in a quiet region does not depend on the latitude, but that the variation in the intensity enhancement is related to the level of solar activity.

  16. Cosmic ray measurements on board Helios 1 from December 1974 to September 1975 Quiet time spectra, radial gradients, and solar events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunow, H.; Witte, M.; Wibberenz, G.; Hempe, H.; Mueller-Mellin, R.; Green, G.; Iwers, B.; Fuckner, J.

    1977-01-01

    The considered time period is characterized by a general decrease in solar activity towards a minimum which occurred in July 1976. The relatively quiet solar conditions facilitate the separation of the gradually varying galactic cosmic radiation from superimposed events of different characteristics. The inspection of neutron monitor data shows that the period is characterized by a slow increase of the high energy galactic cosmic radiation at a relatively constant rate. Attention is given to the instrumentation employed, intensity time profiles and preliminary radial gradients, and quiet time energy spectra. The solar particle events discussed include the January 5, 1976 event, the March 3, 1975 event, and the March 19/20, 1975 event.

  17. Upper limits to the quiet-time solar neutron flux from 10 to 100 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, S.; Simnett, G. M.; White, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The UCR large area solid-angle double scatter neutron telescope was flown to search for solar neutrons on 3 balloon flights on September 26, 1971, May 14, 1972 and September 19, 1972. The first two flights were launched from Palestine, Texas and the third from Cape Girardeau, Missouri. The float altitude on each flight was at about 5 g/sq cm residual atmosphere. Neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV were measured. No solar flares occurred during the flights. Upper limits to the quiet time solar neutron fluxes at the 95% confidence level are .00028, .00046, .00096 and .00090 neutrons/sq cm-sec in the energy intervals of 10-30, 30-50, 50-100 and 10-100 MeV, respectively.

  18. Correlation lifetimes of quiet and magnetic granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2. [Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Topka, K.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.

    1988-01-01

    The time sequences of diffraction limited granulation images obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter on Spacelab 2 are presented. The uncorrection autocorrelation limetime in magnetic regions is dominated by the 5-min oscillation. The removal of this oscillation causes the autocorrelation lifetime to increase by more than a factor of 2. The results suggest that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Horizontal displacements and transverse velocities in the intensity field are measured. Lower limits to the lifetime in the quiet and magnetic sun are set at 440 s and 950 s, respectively.

  19. The Angular Distribution of Quiet-time ~20-300 keV Superhalo Electrons in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Wang, L.; He, J.; Tu, C. Y.; Pei, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The angular distribution of solar wind superhalo electrons carries important information on the electron acceleration location and scattering in the interplanetary medium. Here we present a comprehensive study of the angular distribution of ~20-300 keV superhalo electrons measured at 1 AU by the WIND 3DP instrument during quiet-time periods from 1995 January through 2013 December. For quiet-time intervals, we re-bin the observed electron pitch angle distributions into the outward-traveling and inward-traveling bins, according the direction of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The inward-outward anisotropy of superhalo electrons at energy E is defined as A = 2(fout - fin)/(fout + fin), where fout (fin) is the average flux of outward-traveling (inward-traveling) electrons. We find that among all the ~640 quiet-time intervals, ~5% have an A > 0.1 (referred to as "outward events"), ~5% have an A < -0.1 (referred to as "inward events"), and ~90% have an |A| ≤ 0.1 (referred to as "isotropic events"). Isotropic events show no clear correlation with solar wind parameters (nSW, Vsw and Tp), IMF and solar wind turbulence spectrum. Inward and outward events also have no association with the IMF and nSW. But the occurrence ratio of outward (inward) events over all the events, α, roughly decreases (increases) with increasing VSW. Moreover, for outward (inward) events, α roughly increases with ρe/ρTp, where ρTp is the solar wind thermal proton gyroradius that is related to the separation between the turbulence inertial and dissipation ranges. These results suggest that quite-time superhalo electrons are generally isotropic due to the wave-particle interaction in the interplanetary medium; outward-traveling (inward-traveling) superhalo electrons may come from the acceleration occurring beyond (within) 1 AU, probably by CIRs or turbulence. We will also present a case study of several quiet-time electron events with the anisotropy A increasing with the electron energy E.

  20. Quiet-time Suprathermal (~0.1-1.5 keV) Electrons in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jiawei; Wang, Linghua; Zong, Qiugang; Li, Gang; Salem, Chadi S.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Bale, Stuart D.

    2016-03-01

    We present a statistical survey of the energy spectrum of solar wind suprathermal (˜0.1-1.5 keV) electrons measured by the WIND 3DP instrument at 1 AU during quiet times at the minimum and maximum of solar cycles 23 and 24. After separating (beaming) strahl electrons from (isotropic) halo electrons according to their different behaviors in the angular distribution, we fit the observed energy spectrum of both strahl and halo electrons at ˜0.1-1.5 keV to a Kappa distribution function with an index κ and effective temperature Teff. We also calculate the number density n and average energy Eavg of strahl and halo electrons by integrating the electron measurements between ˜0.1 and 1.5 keV. We find a strong positive correlation between κ and Teff for both strahl and halo electrons, and a strong positive correlation between the strahl n and halo n, likely reflecting the nature of the generation of these suprathermal electrons. In both solar cycles, κ is larger at solar minimum than at solar maximum for both strahl and halo electrons. The halo κ is generally smaller than the strahl κ (except during the solar minimum of cycle 23). The strahl n is larger at solar maximum, but the halo n shows no difference between solar minimum and maximum. Both the strahl n and halo n have no clear association with the solar wind core population, but the density ratio between the strahl and halo roughly anti-correlates (correlates) with the solar wind density (velocity).

  1. Long-term variation in the ionosphere and lower thermosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Hori, T.; Nose, M.; Otsuka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate characteristics of the long-term variation in the ionosphere and lower thermosphere, we analyzed the amplitude of geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) field daily variation using 1-h geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic stations within the period of 1947-2013. In the present data analysis, we took advantage of the Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET) products (metadata database and analysis software) for finding and handling the long-term observation data obtained at many observatories. The Sq amplitude observed at these geomagnetic stations showed a clear solar activity dependence and tended to be enhanced during each solar maximum phase. The Sq amplitude was the smallest around the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008-2009. This significant depression implies that the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation responsible for ionization of the upper atmosphere decreased during this solar cycle minimum. In order to examine a global distribution of the long-term trend in the Sq amplitude, we derived the residual Sq amplitude from the deviation from the fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude. As a result, a majority of the trends in the residual Sq amplitude showed negative values over a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. Moreover, we estimate the neutral wind in the lower thermosphere from the Sq amplitude and height-integrated ionospheric conductivity in order to know the physical mechanism of the long-term trend in the residual Sq amplitude. As a result, the estimated thermospheric zonal and meridional winds showed a seasonal variation with a period of one year or less, but the solar activity dependence was unclear. This result suggests that the solar cycle dependence of the Sq amplitude may be mainly attributed to the variation of the ionospheric conductivity.

  2. The quiet geomagnetic field at geosynchronous orbit and its dependence on solar wind dynamic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufenach, Clifford L.; Schaper, Justin; McPherron, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    Vector magnetic fields at geosynchronous orbit were measured during 1980-1984 using the operational GOES 2, GOES 5, and GOES 6 spacecraft magnetometers. These spacecraft measurements are corrected for offsets due to spacecraft state, and these field estimates were used to create a data base with 1-min resolution. Hourly quiet field values were calculated for these years from this data base using the ground-based geomagnetic index criteria AE less than 120 nT and absolute value of Dst less than 20 nT. These quiet field components, rotated into dipole HVD coordinates, were approximated by the first two coefficients of a two-dimensional Fourier series in time of day and season. The quiet geosynchronous field components, to first order, are given by mean values of about 90 nT, -60 nT, and 5 nT; and sinusoidal diurnal amplitudes of about 21 nT, 5 nT, and 5 nT, respectively, for H, V, and D where the spacecraft magnetometer was located near the geomagnetic meridian. The second harmonic diurnal amplitudes and the first and second harmonic seasonal amplitudes are typically of the order of a few nanoteslas or less except for the D component, which exhibits a larger seasonal variation. The H component of the quiet field increased 4.6 nT from 80.2 to 84.8 nT in its mean amplitude, and 20.8 nT from 11.9 to 32.7 nT in its first harmonic amplitude for Pd increasing from 0.71 x 10 exp -8 to 3.31 x 10 exp -8 dyn/sq cm. These quiet H measurements, including the pressure dependence, are compared with a first-order field model (Mead, 1964) superimposed with a tail current, resulting in magnetospheric currents (magnetopause and tail) in agreement with previous model values. The measured field pressure dependence and the Mead model suggest a tail current dependence on pressure.

  3. Long-term variation in the upper atmosphere as seen in the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, Atsuki; Koyama, Yukinobu; Nose, Masahito; Hori, Tomoaki; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yatagai, Akiyo

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet (Sq) geomagnetic field daily variation have been investigated using 1-h geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic observation stations within the period of 1947 to 2013. The Sq amplitude observed at these geomagnetic stations showed a clear dependence on the 10- to 12-year solar activity cycle and tended to be enhanced during each solar maximum phase. The Sq amplitude was the smallest around the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008 to 2009. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude was approximately linear but about 53% of geomagnetic stations showed a weak nonlinear relation to the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second-order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947 to 2013 and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, the majority of trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed negative values over a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity at 100-km altitude and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71% of the geomagnetic stations. Furthermore, the residual Sq amplitude at the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  4. Observations of low energy hydrogen and helium isotopes during solar quiet times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, G. J.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Results of a new quiet-time measurement of the relative abundance of cosmic-ray H-2 and He-4. The observations were made in selected time intervals between September 1972 and February 1973 with the Caltech Electron/Isotope Spectrometer on IMP-7. In the energy interval from 13 to 29 MeV/nucleon, an upper limit to the H-2 to He-4 ratio of less than 0.06 is found. This new upper limit is significantly lower than finite H-2/He-4 ratios measured in earlier years by other workers. Possible implications of this new result are discussed.

  5. Quiet-time periods observed by EPHIN/SOHO during the minimum of the 22nd solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Herrero, Raúl; RodrÍguez-FrÍas, M. Dolores; del Peral, Luis; Sequeiros, Juan; Müller-Mellin, Reinhold; Kunow, Horst; Sierks, Holger

    2000-06-01

    An analysis of the hydrogen and helium isotopic composition from EPHIN data, during the quiet-time period from January 1 to June 1, 1996, is presented. An isotopic discrimination and background rejection have been applied and relationships between the abundances of ^2H/^1H, ^3He/^4He, and ^4He/^1H have been calculated. The energy spectra in the 4-50 MeV nucl^-1 range have been obtained and the contribution of the different spectral components have been analysed in this energy range. We conclude that the main contribution to the ^4He spectrum is of anomalous origin, while the proton and ^3He spectra have contributions mainly from particles of solar origin at low energies and from the galactic cosmic radiation modulated by the heliosphere at high energies. The deuterium spectrum is mainly of galactic origin.

  6. Observations of high-energy jets in the corona above the quiet sun, the heating of the corona, and the acceleration of the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueckner, G. E.; Bartoe, J.-D. F.

    1983-01-01

    High spatial resolution observations of the ultraviolet solar spectrum which reveal high-energy events in the quiet sun are presented. The tandem Wadsworth spectrograph used to make the observations is described along with the observing techniques, and a brief description of the characteristics of high-resolution transition zone spectra is given. The sizes, velocities, line profiles, time behavior, temperature range, differential emission measures, densities, masses, energies, and birthrates of turbulent events and jets in the quiet sun are derived from the observations and discussed. Possible accelerating mechanisms for these events are discussed, and the consequences of these events for the heating of the solar corona are discussed. A cloud model of the solar wind is proposed and possible correlations between the high-energy events and other solar fine-structure features are discussed.

  7. Coronal Heating By the Interaction between Emerging Active Regions and the Quiet Sun Observed By the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Ting; Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Yuzong; Li, Leping; Chen, Feng; Peter, Hardi

    2015-02-01

    The question of what heats the solar corona remains one of the most important puzzles in solar physics and astrophysics. Here we report Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of coronal heating by the interaction between emerging active regions (EARs) and the surrounding quiet Sun (QS). The EARs continuously interact with the surrounding QS, resulting in dark ribbons which appear at the boundary of the EARs and the QS. The dark ribbons visible in extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths propagate away from the EARs with speeds of a few km s-1. The regions swept by the dark ribbons are brightening afterward, with the mean temperature increasing by one quarter. The observational findings demonstrate that uninterrupted magnetic reconnection between EARs and the QS occurs. When the EARs develop, the reconnection continues. The dark ribbons may be the track of the interface between the reconnected magnetic fields and the undisturbed QS’s fields. The propagating speed of the dark ribbons reflects the reconnection rate and is consistent with our numerical simulation. A long-term coronal heating which occurs in turn from nearby the EARs to far away from the EARs is proposed.

  8. Coronal Heating by the Interaction Between Emerging Active Regions and the Quiet Sun Observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The question of what heats the solar corona remains one of the most important puzzles in solar physics andastrophysics. Here we report Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of coronal heating by the interaction between emerging active regions (EARs) and the surrounding quiet Sun (QS). The EARs continuously interact with the surrounding QS, resulting in dark ribbons which appear at the boundary of the EARs and the QS. The dark ribbons visible in extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths propagate away from the EARs with speeds of a few km/s. The regions swept by the dark ribbons are brightening afterward, with the mean temperature increasing by one quarter. The observational findings demonstrate that uninterrupted magnetic reconnection between EARs and the QS occurs. When the EARs develop, the reconnection continues. The dark ribbons may be the track of the interface between the reconnected magnetic fields and the undisturbed QS’s fields. The propagating speed of the dark ribbons reflects the reconnection rate and is consistent with our numerical simulation. A long-term coronal heating which occurs in turn from nearby the EARs to far away from the EARs is proposed.

  9. CORONAL HEATING BY THE INTERACTION BETWEEN EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS AND THE QUIET SUN OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Ting; Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Yuzong; Li, Leping; Chen, Feng; Peter, Hardi E-mail: liting@nao.cas.cn E-mail: yuzong@nao.cas.cn E-mail: chen@mps.mpg.de

    2015-02-01

    The question of what heats the solar corona remains one of the most important puzzles in solar physics and astrophysics. Here we report Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of coronal heating by the interaction between emerging active regions (EARs) and the surrounding quiet Sun (QS). The EARs continuously interact with the surrounding QS, resulting in dark ribbons which appear at the boundary of the EARs and the QS. The dark ribbons visible in extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths propagate away from the EARs with speeds of a few km s{sup −1}. The regions swept by the dark ribbons are brightening afterward, with the mean temperature increasing by one quarter. The observational findings demonstrate that uninterrupted magnetic reconnection between EARs and the QS occurs. When the EARs develop, the reconnection continues. The dark ribbons may be the track of the interface between the reconnected magnetic fields and the undisturbed QS’s fields. The propagating speed of the dark ribbons reflects the reconnection rate and is consistent with our numerical simulation. A long-term coronal heating which occurs in turn from nearby the EARs to far away from the EARs is proposed.

  10. Spectral Characterization of Solar Active Region NOAA 8242 in Quiet and Sunspot Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janve, Vaibhav A.; Ambastha, Ashok

    2005-09-01

    We present results from the analysis of simultaneous Stokes I profile measurements in Fe I twin line in 6302 Å region and Ca II K 3934 Å line over NOAA 8242 on 13th June 1998. Advanced Stokes Polarimeter (ASP) instrument of the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) of Sac Peak, NSO, U.S.A was used for obtaining these observations. Along with the spectral data simultaneous filtergrams in G-band, Hα 6562.8 Å, and 6118.7 Å continuum were also obtained using the UBF filter. The slope corrected spectral data was used to construct spectroheliograms, and the maps of spectral asymmetry, velocity, FWHM, Equivalent width by a Gaussian fitting of spectral line profiles for both the quiet and sunspot regions. The implications for strong and weak magnetic field locations have been discussed.

  11. The quiet time spectra of low energy hydrogen and helium nuclei. [suggesting protons and alphas of solar origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements of the 1972-1973 quiet time hydrogen and helium spectra from 1.3-40 MeV/nuc are discussed. For both spectra the relative-intensity minimum occurs at lower energies than those reported for earlier years. There is no evidence of a low energy turnup in the He spectrum down to 2.4 MeV/nuc. The spectra indicate that the galactic component dominates down to about 10 MeV; a stable, non-solar He-4 component extends from higher energies down to about 2.4 MeV/nuc. At lower energies the periods of minimum H and He intensity do not coincide, and the relative abundance of H and He at 1.3-2.3 MeV/nuc is variable, with H/He ratios ranging from about 3 to about 10. The observations suggest that the 1.3-2.3 MeV/nuc protons and alphas are of solar origin.

  12. Wave propagation in a solar quiet region and the influence of the magnetic canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontogiannis, I.; Tsiropoula, G.; Tziotziou, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We seek indications or evidence of transmission/conversion of magnetoacoustic waves at the magnetic canopy, as a result of its impact on the properties of the wave field of the photosphere and chromosphere. Methods: We use cross-wavelet analysis to measure phase differences between intensity and Doppler signal oscillations in the Hα, Ca ii h, and G-band. We use the height of the magnetic canopy to create appropriate masks to separate internetwork (IN) and magnetic canopy regions. We study wave propagation and differences between these two regions. Results: The magnetic canopy affects wave propagation by lowering the phase differences of progressive waves and allowing the propagation of waves with frequencies lower than the acoustic cut-off. We also find indications in the Doppler signals of Hα of a response to the acoustic waves at the IN, observed in the Ca ii h line. This response is affected by the presence of the magnetic canopy. Conclusions: Phase difference analysis indicates the existence of a complicated wave field in the quiet Sun, which is composed of a mixture of progressive and standing waves. There are clear imprints of mode conversion and transmission due to the interaction between the p-modes and small-scale magnetic fields of the network and internetwork.

  13. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LARGE AND SMALL GRANULES IN SOLAR QUIET REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Daren; Xie Zongxia; Hu Qinghua; Yang Shuhong; Zhang Jun; Wang Jingxiu E-mail: zjun@ourstar.bao.ac.cn

    2011-12-10

    The normal mode observations of seven quiet regions obtained by the Hinode spacecraft are analyzed to study the physical properties of granules. An artificial intelligence technique is introduced to automatically find the spatial distribution of granules in feature spaces. In this work, we investigate the dependence of granular continuum intensity, mean Doppler velocity, and magnetic fields on granular diameter. We recognized 71,538 granules by an automatic segmentation technique and then extracted five properties: diameter, continuum intensity, Doppler velocity, and longitudinal and transverse magnetic flux density to describe the granules. To automatically explore the intrinsic structures of the granules in the five-dimensional parameter space, the X-means clustering algorithm and one-rule classifier are introduced to define the rules for classifying the granules. It is found that diameter is a dominating parameter in classifying the granules and two families of granules are derived: small granules with diameters smaller than 1.''44, and large granules with diameters larger than 1.''44. Based on statistical analysis of the detected granules, the following results are derived: (1) the averages of diameter, continuum intensity, and Doppler velocity in the upward direction of large granules are larger than those of small granules; (2) the averages of absolute longitudinal, transverse, and unsigned flux density of large granules are smaller than those of small granules; (3) for small granules, the average of continuum intensity increases with their diameters, while the averages of Doppler velocity, transverse, absolute longitudinal, and unsigned magnetic flux density decrease with their diameters. However, the mean properties of large granules are stable; (4) the intensity distributions of all granules and small granules do not satisfy Gaussian distribution, while that of large granules almost agrees with normal distribution with a peak at 1.04 I{sub 0}.

  14. Solar magnetic field studies using the 12 micron emission lines. I - Quiet sun time series and sunspot slices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake; Boyle, Robert J.; Jennings, Donald E.; Wiedemann, Gunter

    1988-01-01

    The use of the extremely Zeeman-sensitive IR emission line Mg I, at 12.32 microns, to study solar magnetic fields. Time series observations of the line in the quiet sun were obtained in order to determine the response time of the line to the five-minute oscillations. Based upon the velocity amplitude and average period measured in the line, it is concluded that it is formed in the temperature minimum region. The magnetic structure of sunspots is investigated by stepping a small field of view in linear 'slices' through the spots. The region of penumbral line formation does not show the Evershed outflow common in photospheric lines. The line intensity is a factor of two greater in sunspot penumbrae than in the photosphere, and at the limb the penumbral emission begins to depart from optical thinness, the line source function increasing with height. For a spot near disk center, the radial decrease in absolute magnetic field strength is steeper than the generally accepted dependence.

  15. Application of solar quiet day (Sq) current in determining mantle electrical-depth conductivity structure - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeke, Francisca N.; Obiora, Daniel N.

    2016-02-01

    This study has extensively reviewed the application of solar quiet day (Sq) current variation in determining mantle electrical-depth conductivity structure, in a number of countries and various hemispheres. The review includes basic theories and methods of analysis. There are few recent works on the determination of mantle conductivity-depth structure using Sq current. Results obtained have yielded very interesting and exciting information, hence, the need for this review. This review is expected to throw more light to the understanding of effects of Sq on mantle conductivity. There is evidence of controversy and marked differences in conductivity variation in the mantle when different methods are applied, from available literature on the application of Sq on mantle electrical depth conductivity. Other methods applying 1-D, 2-D and 3-D were also reviewed and hence, we recommend the need of combining the above methods with Sq method in future work for more robust results. We have discovered that findings emanating from this work could lead to more understanding of application of Sq current in determining mantle electrical depth conductivity structure.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Solar Quiet Daily Sq Variation and Equatorial Electrojet Over Africa: Results From International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiu, A.; Yumoto, K.; Bello, O.

    2010-12-01

    Space Environment Research Centre of Kyushu University, Japan, installed 13 units of Magnetic Data Acquisition Systems MAGDAS over Africa during the International Heliophysical Year IHY. Magnetic records from 10 stations along the African 96o Magnetic Meridian (Geographical 30o - 40o East) were examined for Solar quiet daily Sq variation in the three geomagnetic field components H, D and Z. Spatial variations of Sq in the geomagnetic components were examined. Signatures of equatorial electrojet and worldwide Sq were identified and studied in detail. H field experienced more variation within the equatorial electrojet zone. Diurnal and seasonal variations of the geomagnetic variations in the three components were discussed. Levels of inter-relationships between the Sq and its variability in the three components were statistically derived and interpreted in line with the mechanisms responsible for the variations of the geomagnetic field. Data from 2 magnetic observatories within equatorial electrojet EEJ strip and 2 stations outside the EEJ strip were employed to evaluate and study the signatures of the Equatorial electrojet over the African sector. The transient variations of the EEJ at two almost parallel axes using Lagos-Ilorin and Nairobi-Addis pairs were examined. The EEJ appear stronger in East than West Africa. The magnitudes and patterns of variation of EEJ strength along the two axes were examined for any simultaneity or otherwise of responses to ionospheric processes. The flow gradient of EEJ along the African sector was estimated and its diurnal variation studied.

  17. MESSENGER soft X-ray observations of the quiet solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Richard A.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Tolbert, Anne K; Dennis, Brian R.

    2014-06-01

    In a remarkable result from their "SphinX" experiment, Sylwester et al. (2012) found a non-varying base level of soft X-ray emission at the quietest times in 2009. We describe comparable data from the soft X-ray monitor on board MESSENGER (en route to Mercury) which had excellent coverage both in 2009 and during the true solar minimum of 2008. These observations overlap SphinX's and also are often exactly at Sun-MESSENGER-Earth conjunctions. During solar minimum the Sun-MESSENGER distance varied substantially, allowing us to use the inverse-square law to help distinguish the aperture flux (ie, solar X-rays) from that due to sources of background in the 2-5 keV range. The MESSENGER data show a non-varying background level for many months in 2008 when no active regions were present. We compare these data in detail with those from SphinX. Both sets of data reveal a different behavior when magnetic active regions are present on the Sun, and when they are not.Reference: Sylwester et al., ApJ 751, 111 (2012)

  18. Changes of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haoze; Zhou, Peng; Alcauter, Sarael; Chen, Yuanyuan; Cao, Hongbao; Tian, Miao; Ming, Dong; Qi, Hongzhi; Wang, Xuemin; Zhao, Xin; He, Feng; Ni, Hongyan; Gao, Wei

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a serious neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deficits of working memory, attention, language and many other cognitive functions. Although different stages of the disease are relatively well characterized by clinical criteria, stage-specific pathological changes in the brain remain relatively poorly understood, especially at the level of large-scale functional networks. In this study, we aimed to characterize the potential disruptions of large-scale functional brain networks based on a sample including amnestic mild cognition impairment (aMCI) and AD patients to help delineate the underlying stage-dependent AD pathology. Approach. We sought to identify the neural connectivity mechanisms of aMCI and AD through examination of both intranetwork and internetwork interactions among four of the brain’s key networks, namely dorsal attention network (DAN), default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN) and salience network (SAL). We analyzed functional connectivity based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from 25 Alzheimer’s disease patients, 20 aMCI patients and 35 elderly normal controls (NC). Main results. Intranetwork functional disruptions within the DAN and ECN were detected in both aMCI and AD patients. Disrupted intranetwork connectivity of DMN and anti-correlation between DAN and DMN were observed in AD patients. Moreover, aMCI-specific alterations in the internetwork functional connectivity of SAL were observed. Significance. Our results confirmed previous findings that AD pathology was related to dysconnectivity both within and between resting-state networks but revealed more spatial details. Moreover, the SAL network, reportedly flexibly coupling either with the DAN or DMN networks during different brain states, demonstrated interesting alterations specifically in the early stage of the disease.

  19. Quiet Ride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2006-01-01

    Several companies are marketing maintenance equipment to education institutions on a "quiet platform," citing benefits such as a safer, more pleasant indoor environment and unobtrusive operations during day cleaning or operating hours. This is basically "sound advice" (no one likes noisy equipment), but some of the messages can be confusing and…

  20. NEW Fe IX LINE IDENTIFICATIONS USING SOLAR AND HELIOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY/SOLAR ULTRAVIOLET MEASUREMENT OF EMITTED RADIATION AND HINODE/EIS JOINT OBSERVATIONS OF THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Young, P. R.

    2009-12-20

    In this work, we study joint observations of Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation of Fe IX lines emitted by the same level of the high energy configuration 3s {sup 2}3p {sup 5}4p. The intensity ratios of these lines are dependent on atomic physics parameters only and not on the physical parameters of the emitting plasma, so that they are excellent tools to verify the relative intensity calibration of high-resolution spectrometers that work in the 170-200 A and 700-850 A wavelength ranges. We carry out extensive atomic physics calculations to improve the accuracy of the predicted intensity ratio, and compare the results with simultaneous EIS-SUMER observations of an off-disk quiet Sun region. We were able to identify two ultraviolet lines in the SUMER spectrum that are emitted by the same level that emits one bright line in the EIS wavelength range. Comparison between predicted and measured intensity ratios, wavelengths and energy separation of Fe IX levels confirms the identifications we make. Blending and calibration uncertainties are discussed. The results of this work are important for cross-calibrating EIS and SUMER, as well as future instrumentation.

  1. Determination of Geomagnetically Quiet Time Disturbances of the Ionosphere over Uganda during the Beginning of Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habyarimana, Valence

    2016-07-01

    The ionosphere is prone to significant disturbances during geomagnetically active and quiet conditions. This study focused on the occurrence of ionospheric disturbances during geomagnetically quiet conditions. Ionospheric data comprised of Global Positioning System (GPS)-derived Total Electron Content (TEC), obtained over Mt. Baker, Entebbe, and Mbarara International Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Service (IGS) stations. The Disturbance storm time (Dst) index was obtained from Kyoto University website. The number of geomagnetically quiet days in the period under study were first identified. Their monthly percentages were compared for the two years. The monthly percentage of geomagnetically quiet days for all the months in 2009 numerically exceeded those in 2008. December had the highest percentage of geomagnetically quiet days for both years (94 % in 2008 and 100 % in 2009). Geomagnetically quiet days did not show seasonal dependence. The variation in percentage of geomagnetically quiet days during solstice months (May, June, July, November, December, and January) and equinoctial months (February, March, April, August, September, and October) was not uniform. Geomagnetically quiet time disturbances were found to be more significant from 09:00 UT to 13:00 UT. However, there were some other disturbances of small scale amplitude that occurred between 14:00 UT and 22:00 UT. Further analysis was done to identify the satellites that observed the irregularities that were responsible for TEC perturbations. Satellites are identified by Pseudo Random Numbers (PRNs). The ray path between individual PRNs and the corresponding receivers were analysed. Satellites with PRNs: 3, 7, 8, 19 and 21 registered most of the perturbations. It was found that Q disturbances led to fluctuations in density gradients. Significant TEC perturbations were observed on satellite with PRN 21 with receivers at Entebbe and Mbarara on June 28, 2009 between 18:00 UT and 21:00 UT.

  2. Mapping the earth conductivity-depth structure of African geomagnetic equatorial anomaly regions using solar quiet current variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugbor, D. O.; Okeke, F. N.; Yumoto, K.

    2016-04-01

    The solar quiet day ionospheric (Sq) current variations observed in Abuja, Bangui and Addis Ababa were used to delineate the mantle conductivity-depth structure along the equatorial African regions. Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) was employed in separating the internal and external field contributions to the Sq variations. For each of the paired external and internal coefficients of the SHA, we used transfer function to compute the conductivity-depth profile for the region. Strikingly, we observed increased electrical conductivity values in the Earth layers and deep depth penetration. The calculated average electrical conductivity values in Addis Ababa and Abuja are 0.087 Sm-1 and 0.104 Sm-1 at depths of 93 km and 121 km respectively. These values suddenly rose to 0.235 Sm-1 and 0.222 Sm-1 at depths of 440 km and 427 km respectively. In Bangui, the calculated average values are 0.092 Sm-1, 0.144 Sm-1, 0.312 Sm-1 and 0.466 Sm-1 at 96 km, 300 km, 834 km and 1228 km depths respectively. At the greatest depths of penetration of 1412 km, 1385 km and 1278 km in Addis Ababa, Abuja and Bangui, the electrical conductivity attained the highest values of 0.415 Sm-1, 0.467 Sm-1 and 0.515 Sm-1 respectively. Two most Earth conductive layers were discovered in the magnetic equatorial zone. These layers lie between the depth of about 100 and 400 km within the upper mantle and beyond 1200 km in the lower mantle. It can be inferred that the closer one goes towards the Earth magnetic equator; the deeper the Sq current can penetrate the Earth's interior.

  3. Altered Intranetwork and Internetwork Functional Connectivity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With and Without Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Xiong, Ying; Zhan, Ya-Feng; Guo, Lin-Ying; Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Ri-Feng; Yao, Yi-Hao; Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wen-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment. We investigated whether alterations of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity with T2DM progression exist, by using resting-state functional MRI. MRI data were analysed from 19 T2DM patients with normal cognition (DMCN) and 19 T2DM patients with cognitive impairment (DMCI), 19 healthy controls (HC). Functional connectivity among 36 previously well-defined brain regions which consisted of 5 resting-state network (RSN) systems [default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), control network (CON), salience network (SAL) and sensorimotor network (SMN)] was investigated at 3 levels (integrity, network and connectivity). Impaired intranetwork and internetwork connectivity were found in T2DM, especially in DMCI, on the basis of the three levels of analysis. The bilateral posterior cerebellum, the right insula, the DMN and the CON were mainly involved in these changes. The functional connectivity strength of specific brain architectures in T2DM was found to be associated with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), cognitive score and illness duration. These network alterations in intergroup differences, which were associated with brain functional impairment due to T2DM, indicate that network organizations might be potential biomarkers for predicting the clinical progression, evaluating the cognitive impairment, and further understanding the pathophysiology of T2DM. PMID:27622870

  4. Altered Intranetwork and Internetwork Functional Connectivity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With and Without Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Xiong, Ying; Zhan, Ya-Feng; Guo, Lin-Ying; Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Ri-Feng; Yao, Yi-Hao; Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wen-Zhen

    2016-09-13

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment. We investigated whether alterations of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity with T2DM progression exist, by using resting-state functional MRI. MRI data were analysed from 19 T2DM patients with normal cognition (DMCN) and 19 T2DM patients with cognitive impairment (DMCI), 19 healthy controls (HC). Functional connectivity among 36 previously well-defined brain regions which consisted of 5 resting-state network (RSN) systems [default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), control network (CON), salience network (SAL) and sensorimotor network (SMN)] was investigated at 3 levels (integrity, network and connectivity). Impaired intranetwork and internetwork connectivity were found in T2DM, especially in DMCI, on the basis of the three levels of analysis. The bilateral posterior cerebellum, the right insula, the DMN and the CON were mainly involved in these changes. The functional connectivity strength of specific brain architectures in T2DM was found to be associated with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), cognitive score and illness duration. These network alterations in intergroup differences, which were associated with brain functional impairment due to T2DM, indicate that network organizations might be potential biomarkers for predicting the clinical progression, evaluating the cognitive impairment, and further understanding the pathophysiology of T2DM.

  5. Altered Intranetwork and Internetwork Functional Connectivity in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With and Without Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Xiong, Ying; Zhan, Ya-Feng; Guo, Lin-Ying; Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Ri-Feng; Yao, Yi-Hao; Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wen-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive impairment. We investigated whether alterations of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity with T2DM progression exist, by using resting-state functional MRI. MRI data were analysed from 19 T2DM patients with normal cognition (DMCN) and 19 T2DM patients with cognitive impairment (DMCI), 19 healthy controls (HC). Functional connectivity among 36 previously well-defined brain regions which consisted of 5 resting-state network (RSN) systems [default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), control network (CON), salience network (SAL) and sensorimotor network (SMN)] was investigated at 3 levels (integrity, network and connectivity). Impaired intranetwork and internetwork connectivity were found in T2DM, especially in DMCI, on the basis of the three levels of analysis. The bilateral posterior cerebellum, the right insula, the DMN and the CON were mainly involved in these changes. The functional connectivity strength of specific brain architectures in T2DM was found to be associated with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), cognitive score and illness duration. These network alterations in intergroup differences, which were associated with brain functional impairment due to T2DM, indicate that network organizations might be potential biomarkers for predicting the clinical progression, evaluating the cognitive impairment, and further understanding the pathophysiology of T2DM. PMID:27622870

  6. Pulsed HF radiowave absorption measurements at 2.1 MHZ. over Delhi under quiet and solar flare conditions and related electron density height profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandra Swamy, A. C.

    EXTENDED ABSTRACT Pulsed HF radiowave absorption measurements at 2.1 MHZ. over Delhi under quiet and solar flare conditions and related electron density height profiles A.C.Balachandra swmay & Late C.S.G.K. Setty Absorption of radio waves in the ionosphere is of great practical importance for radio communication and navigation systems. The first attempt to measure the absolute magnitude of the radiowave absorption were made by appletion and Ratcliffe (1930) using the frequency change method for medium frequency waves reflected from the E-region. They concluded from their experiment that the main part of the attenuation occurred below the reflection level and named the absorption region, D-region of the ionosphere. One of the basic properties of the ionosphere is the absorption of high Frequency Radiowaves. HF radiowave absorption results mainly from collisions between electrons (which are set into forced oscillations by the electric field of the wave) and neutral air particles, the RF energy abstracted from the wave being converted into thermal energy. The radiowave absorption in the ionosphere depends on electron density and collision frequency. The most important absorbing regions are the D-region and the lower E-region (50-100 Km.) The regular diurnal variation of the electron density in this height range is caused mainly by the changes in the depth of penetration of solar XUV radiations with solar zenith angle under quiet solar conditions. In 1937 Dellinger J.H.identified fade outs in high frequency radio circuits as due to abnormal ionospheric absorption associated with solar flares. The onset of the fade out was usually rapid and the duration was typically tens of minutes like that of the visible flare, because of the sudden onset, the immediate effects of solar flares are known collectively as sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (STD). The phenomenon discovered by Dellinger is usually called a short Wave Fadeout(SWF). Since the SWF is due to abnormal absorption

  7. Analyses of cosmic ray induced-neutron based on spectrometers operated simultaneously at mid-latitude and Antarctica high-altitude stations during quiet solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper are described a new neutron spectrometer which operate in the Concordia station (Antarctica, Dome C) since December 2015. This instrument complements a network including neutron spectrometers operating in the Pic-du-Midi and the Pico dos Dias. Thus, this work present an analysis of cosmic ray induced-neutron based on spectrometers operated simultaneously in the Pic-du-Midi and the Concordia stations during a quiet solar activity. The both high station platforms allow for investigating the long period dynamics to analyze the spectral variation and effects of local and seasonal changes, but also the short term dynamics during solar flare events. A first part is devoted to analyze the count rates, the spectrum and the neutron fluxes, implying cross-comparisons between data obtained in the both stations. In a second part, measurements analyses were reinforced by modeling based on simulations of atmospheric cascades according to primary spectra which only depend on the solar modulation potential.

  8. The seasonal and solar cycle variations of electron density gradient scale length, vertical drift and layer height during magnetically quiet days: Implications for Spread F over Trivandrum, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manju, G.; Devasia, C. V.; Ravindran, S.

    2009-12-01

    A study has been carried out on the behaviour of electron density gradient scale length, L, vertical drift and layer height, around post sunset hours, during the magnetically quiet days of summer, winter and equinox seasons of solar maximum (2002) and minimum years (1995), using ionosonde data of Trivandrum (8.5°N, 76.5°E, dip = 0.5°N) in the Indian longitude sector. The results indicate a clear seasonal and solar cycle variation in all the three parameters. Further, the seasonal variation of equatorial Spread F (ESF) during the above period is examined in terms of the relative roles of L, the vertical drift and layer height (of the F layer) in the triggering of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The results, show for the first time, that L also plays an important role, in controlling the quiet time seasonal and solar cycle variability of ESF; whereas in earlier studies this parameter had been taken to be constant. The detailed results are presented and discussed.

  9. OBSERVATION OF HIGH-SPEED OUTFLOW ON PLUME-LIKE STRUCTURES OF THE QUIET SUN AND CORONAL HOLES WITH SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY/ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Hui; McIntosh, Scott W.; Habbal, Shadia Rifal; He Jiansen E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu E-mail: jshept@gmail.com

    2011-08-01

    Observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal ubiquitous episodic outflows (jets) with an average speed around 120 km s{sup -1} at temperatures often exceeding a million degree in plume-like structures, rooted in magnetized regions of the quiet solar atmosphere. These outflows are not restricted to the well-known plumes visible in polar coronal holes, but are also present in plume-like structures originating from equatorial coronal holes and quiet-Sun (QS) regions. Outflows are also visible in the 'inter-plume' regions throughout the atmosphere. Furthermore, the structures traced out by these flows in both plume and inter-plume regions continually exhibit transverse (Alfvenic) motion. Our finding suggests that high-speed outflows originate mainly from the magnetic network of the QS and coronal holes (CHs), and that the plume flows observed are highlighted by the denser plasma contained therein. These outflows might be an efficient means to provide heated mass into the corona and serve as an important source of mass supply to the solar wind. We demonstrate that the QS plume flows can sometimes significantly contaminate the spectroscopic observations of the adjacent CHs-greatly affecting the Doppler shifts observed, thus potentially impacting significant investigations of such regions.

  10. Differential energy spectra of low energy (less than 8.5 MeV per nucleon) heavy cosmic rays during solar quiet times. [from Explorer 47 satellite observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovestadt, D.; Vollmer, O.; Gloeckler, G.; Fan, C. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Explorer 47 satellite observations of carbon, oxygen, and heavier nuclei differential energy spectra below 8.5 MeV/nucleon are presented for solar quiet time periods. A dE/dx vs E method for particle identification and energy determination was used. The instrumentation telescope included an isobutane proportional counter, a surface barrier Si detector, and a cylindrical plastic scintillator anticoincidence shield. The observations were performed outside the bow-shock and in the ecliptic plane. Results show an anisotropy of about 25% at 22 degrees west of the sun with a C/O ratio of 0.5 supporting a solar origin. The low energy portions of the C and O spectra have steep negative slopes, and the corresponding power law is given. Peculiarities in the O spectrum are discussed.

  11. Observations of the ratio of low-energy cosmic-ray positrons and electrons during solar quiet times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, G. J.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of the quiet-time interplanetary positron and electron spectra between 0.16 and 1.6 MeV are reported. The measurements were made in selected time intervals between October 1, 1972 and February 1, 1973 with the Caltech Electron/Isotope Spectrometer on the IMP-7 satellite. The detector system consists of a stack of 11 silicon surface-barrier detectors surrounded by a plastic scintillator anti-coincidence cup. The method of e+ identification and possible background effects are discussed and upper limits to the 0.16 to 1.6 MeV quiet-time positron flux are reported. During this period positrons amounted to less than 20% of the total 0.16 to 1.6 MeV electron flux.

  12. Accuracy analysis and application of extrapolation of force-free fields in solar active and quiet regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Suo; Zhang, Hongqi; Su, Jiangtao; Song, Mutao

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the availability, applicability and deviation of nonlinear force-free (NLFF) fields extrapolated by Approximate Vertical Integration (AVI), Boundary Integral Equation (BIE) and Optimization (Opt.) methods are studied based on the comparison with two semi-analytical fields (Low & Lou 1990). These NLFF extrapolations based on the observational vector magnetograms are used to study the spatial magnetic field in the quiet Sun.

  13. USING REALISTIC MHD SIMULATIONS FOR THE MODELING AND INTERPRETATION OF QUIET-SUN OBSERVATIONS WITH THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY HELIOSEISMIC AND MAGNETIC IMAGER

    SciTech Connect

    Kitiashvili, I. N.; Couvidat, S.; Lagg, A.

    2015-07-20

    The solar atmosphere is extremely dynamic, and many important phenomena develop on small scales that are unresolved in observations with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. For correct calibration and interpretation of the observations, it is very important to investigate the effects of small-scale structures and dynamics on the HMI observables, such as Doppler shift, continuum intensity, spectral line depth, and width. We use 3D radiative hydrodynamics simulations of the upper turbulent convective layer and the atmosphere of the Sun, and a spectro-polarimetric radiative transfer code to study observational characteristics of the Fe i 6173 Å line observed by HMI in quiet-Sun regions. We use the modeling results to investigate the sensitivity of the line Doppler shift to plasma velocity, and also sensitivities of the line parameters to plasma temperature and density, and determine effective line formation heights for observations of solar regions located at different distances from the disk center. These estimates are important for the interpretation of helioseismology measurements. In addition, we consider various center-to-limb effects, such as convective blueshift, variations of helioseismic travel-times, and the “concave” Sun effect, and show that the simulations can qualitatively reproduce the observed phenomena, indicating that these effects are related to a complex interaction of the solar dynamics and radiative transfer.

  14. Dependences of statistical characteristics of NmE on the month of the year at middle and low latitudes under daytime geomagnetically quiet conditions at low solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. V.; Pavlova, N. M.

    2016-07-01

    Month-to-month changes in the statistical characteristics of the ionospheric E layer peak electron density NmE at medium and low geomagnetic latitudes under daytime geomagnetically quiet conditions are investigated. Critical frequencies of the ionospheric E layer measured by the middle latitude ionosonde Boulder and low latitude ionosondes Huancayo and Jicamarca at low solar activity from 1957 to 2015 have been used in the conducted statistical analysis. The mathematical expectation of NmE, standard deviation of NmE from the expectation of NmE, and NmE variation coefficient have been calculated for each month of the year. The months of the formation of extrema of these statistical parameters of NmE were found.

  15. Long-term monthly statistics of mid-latitudinal NmF2 in the Northern geographic hemisphere during geomagnetically quiet and steadily low solar activity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Anatoli; Pavlova, Nadezhda

    2016-07-01

    Long-term mid-latitude hourly values of NmF2 measured in 1957-2015 by 10 ionosondes (Point Arguello, Wallops Is., Boulder, de l'Ebre, Rome, Ottawa, Pruhonice, Dourbes, Slough, and Juliusruh) in the Northern geographic hemisphere were processed to select periods of geomagnetically quiet and low solar activity conditions to calculate several descriptive statistics of the noon NmF2 for each month, including the mathematical expectation, most probable value, arithmetic average, and arithmetic average median. The month-to-month variability of these descriptors allowed us to identify months of a year when they reach their extremes (maxima, minima). The calculated month-to-month variations of the NmF2 statistical parameters made it possible to study the winter anomaly and spring-autumn asymmetry in these statistical parameters.

  16. Long-term monthly statistics of mid-latitudinal NmF2 in the northern geographic hemisphere during geomagnetically quiet and steadily low solar activity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. V.; Pavlova, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    Long-term mid-latitude hourly values of NmF2 measured in 1957-2015 by 10 ionosondes in the Northern geographic hemisphere were processed to select periods of geomagnetically quiet and low solar activity conditions to calculate several descriptive statistics of the noon NmF2 for each month, including the mathematical expectation, most probable value, arithmetic average, and arithmetic average median. The month-to-month variability of these descriptors allowed us to identify months of a year when they reach their extremes (maxima, minima). The calculated month-to-month variations of the NmF2 statistical parameters made it possible to study the winter anomaly and spring-autumn asymmetry in these statistical parameters.

  17. Heating of the quiet solar corona from measurements of the FET/TESIS instrument on-board the KORONAS-FOTON satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybák, J.; Gömöry, P.; Benz, A.; Bogachev, P.; Brajša, R.

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents the first results of the observations of time evolution of the quiet solar corona brightenings obtained due to very rapid photography of the corona with full-disk EUV telescopes of the FET/TESIS instrument onboard the KORONA FOTON satellite. The measurements were performed simultaneously in the emission of the Fe IX / X 17.1 and Fe VIII 13.1 spectral lines with 10 second temporal cadence and spatial scale of 1.7 arc seconds within one hour. This test observation, carried out on 15 July 2009, was analyzed in order to determine whether this type of observation can be used to identify individual microevents in the solar corona heating that are above the tresholds of spatial and temporal resolutions of the observations of non-active regions in the solar atmosphere. For this purpose, a simple method was used involving cross-correlation of the plasma emission time evolution at different temperatures, each time from observations of identical elements. The results obtained are confronted with the expected observable manifestations of the corona heating via nanoflares. TESIS is a set of instruments for the Sun photography developed in the Lebedev Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences that was launched into orbit in January 2009.

  18. Fourier transform spectrometer observations of solar carbon monoxide. II - Simultaneous cospatial measurements of the fundamental and first-overtone bands, and Ca II K, in quiet and active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Testerman, L.; Brault, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Fourier transform spectrometry has yielded simultaneous cospatial measurements of important diagnostics of thermal structure in the high solar photosphere and low chromosphere. It is noted that the anomalous behavior of the fundamental bands of CO in quiet areas near the limb is accentuated in an active region plage observed close to the limb. The difference between the core temperatures of the CO fundamental bands in a plage and a nearby quiet region at the limb is larger than the corresponding brightness temperature differences in the inner wings of the Ca II line measured in a quiet region and several plages closer to the disk center. Numerical simulations indicate that the disparate behavior of the CO bands with respect to Ca II K cannot be reconciled with existing single component thermal structure models; a two-component atmosphere is required.

  19. OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF THE EMERGING EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET LOOPS IN THE QUIET SUN AS SEEN WITH THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Chitta, L. P.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; DeLuca, E. E.; Kariyappa, R.; Hasan, S. S.; Hanslmeier, A.

    2013-05-01

    We used data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to study coronal loops at small scales, emerging in the quiet Sun. With HMI line-of-sight magnetograms, we derive the integrated and unsigned photospheric magnetic flux at the loop footpoints in the photosphere. These loops are bright in the EUV channels of AIA. Using the six AIA EUV filters, we construct the differential emission measure (DEM) in the temperature range 5.7-6.5 in log T (K) for several hours of observations. The observed DEMs have a peak distribution around log T Almost-Equal-To 6.3, falling rapidly at higher temperatures. For log T < 6.3, DEMs are comparable to their peak values within an order of magnitude. The emission-weighted temperature is calculated, and its time variations are compared with those of magnetic flux. We present two possibilities for explaining the observed DEMs and temperatures variations. (1) Assuming that the observed loops are composed of a hundred thin strands with certain radius and length, we tested three time-dependent heating models and compared the resulting DEMs and temperatures with the observed quantities. This modeling used enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops (EBTEL), a zero-dimensional (0D) hydrodynamic code. The comparisons suggest that a medium-frequency heating model with a population of different heating amplitudes can roughly reproduce the observations. (2) We also consider a loop model with steady heating and non-uniform cross-section of the loop along its length, and find that this model can also reproduce the observed DEMs, provided the loop expansion factor {gamma} {approx} 5-10. More observational constraints are required to better understand the nature of coronal heating in the short emerging loops on the quiet Sun.

  20. On the statistical characteristics of radio-loud and radio-quiet halo coronal mass ejections and their associated flares during solar cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Nishant; Sharma, Joginder; Verma, Virendar Kumar; Garg, Vijay

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the characteristics of radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) front side halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) (angular width 360°) observed between the time period years 1996-2014. RL-HCMEs are associated with type II radio bursts, while RQ-HCMEs are not associated with type II radio bursts. CMEs near the Sun in the interplanetary medium associated with radio bursts also affect the magnetosphere. The type II radio burst data was observed by WIND/WAVES instrument and HCMEs were observed by LASCO/ SOHO instruments. In our study, we have examined the properties of RL-HCMEs and RQ-HCMEs and found that RL-HCMEs follow the solar cycle variation. Our study also shows that the 26% of slow speed HCMEs and 82% of fast speed HCMEs are RL. The average speed of RL-HCMEs and RQ-HCMEs are 1370 km/s and 727 km/s, respectively. Most of the RQ-HCMEs occur around the solar disc center while most of RL-HCMEs are uniformly distributed across the solar disc. The mean value of acceleration of RL-HCMEs is more than twice that of RQ-HCMEs and mean value of deceleration of RL- HCMEs is very small compare to RQ-HCMEs events. It is also found that RQ-HCMEs events are associated with C- and M-class of SXR flares, while RL-HCMEs events are associated with M and X-class of SXR flares, which indicates that the RQ-HCMEs are less energetic than the RL-HCMEs. We have also discussed the various results obtained in present investigation in view of recent scenario of solar physics.

  1. First combined observations in the German-Argentinean solar observatory: correlations in quiet and eruptive phenomena at the limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, G.; Bagalá, L. G.; Bauer, O. H.; Borda, R. F.; Francile, C.; Haerendel, G.; Rovira, M. G.; Schwenn, R.

    2000-11-01

    This is a first report of combined observations form the solar instruments at the recently inaugurated German-Argentinean Solar-Observatory at El Leoncito, San Juan, Argentina. The /Hα telescope (HASTA) and the mirror coronagraph (MICA) daily image the solar disk and the inner solar corona respectively with high temporal and spatial resolution. The excellent weather conditions for solar studies of the Observatory, and its south equatorial location allow a complementary summer-condition data with respect to the majority of the other observatories, mainly located in the northern hemisphere. In this paper, we present four events in order to study possible correlations between observations taken by both telescopes. Since each instrument records data in quite different temperature regimes, correlation between both set of data appears when the phenomena span a broad range of temperatures. This is explicitly shown for two of the four set of data presented here. On the other hand, the four cases are good examples of the contributions the two instruments can provide to the better understanding of the mechanisms at work in the inner solar atmosphere.

  2. Lower solar chromosphere-corona transition region. III - Implications of the observed quiet-sun emission measure including wave pressure effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, D. Tod; Holzer, Thomas E.; Macgregor, Keith B.

    1990-01-01

    The observed form of the emission measure (EM) is used as a function of temperature to infer the wave energy flux density and pressure throughout the lower transition region (TR). This procedure eliminates the need for specifying how the wave energy flux density is damped and addresses the question of whether there is any form of the mechanical heating associated with the degradation of an upward traveling wave energy flux density which is consistent with the observed EM and other observational constraints for the quiet sun. It is found that the observed form of the EM curve is incompatible with waves traveling vertically at the sound speed, regardless of any filling factor arguments. The same conclusion also applies to waves traveling at the Alfven speed, unless it is assumed that the emission in lower TR lines originates solely from small, spatially unresolved regions of large magnetic field strength (100 G), which cover a small fraction (filling factors of 1 percent) of the solar surface.

  3. Coherent structure in solar wind C{sup 6+}/C{sup 4+} ionic composition data during the quiet-sun conditions of 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, J. K.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Lynch, B. J.

    2013-11-20

    This analysis offers evidence of characteristic scale sizes in solar wind charge state data measured in situ for 13 quiet-Sun Carrington rotations in 2008. Using a previously established novel methodology, we analyze the wavelet power spectrum of the charge state ratio C{sup 6+}/C{sup 4+} measured in situ by ACE/SWICS for 2 hr and 12 minute cadence. We construct a statistical significance level in the wavelet power spectrum to quantify the interference effects arising from filling missing data in the time series, allowing extraction of significant power from the measured data to a resolution of 24 minutes. We analyze each wavelet power spectrum for transient coherency and global periodicities resulting from the superposition of repeating coherent structures. From the significant wavelet power spectra, we find evidence for a general upper limit on individual transient coherency of ∼10 days. We find evidence for a set of global periodicities between 4-5 hr and 35-45 days. We find evidence for the distribution of individual transient coherency scales consisting of two distinct populations. Below the ∼2 day timescale, the distribution is reasonably approximated by an inverse power law, whereas for scales ≳2 days, the distribution levels off, showing discrete peaks at common coherency scales. In addition, by organizing the transient coherency scale distributions by wind type, we find that these larger, common coherency scales are more prevalent and well defined in coronal hole wind. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for current theories of solar wind generation and describe future work for determining the relationship between the coherent structures in our ionic composition data and the structure of the coronal magnetic field.

  4. Fourier Transform Spectrometer observations of solar carbon monoxide. I - The fundamental and first overtone bands in the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Testerman, L.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the 2200/cm fundamental and 4300/cm first overtone vibration-rotation band systems of solar carbon monoxide, were obtained with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the McMath telescope at Kitt Peak. The overtone measurements were taken at the east, north, and west heliocentric limbs, and at disk center. Observations of the strong fundamental bands were obtained at disk center and near the north limb. The low core brightness temperatures of the strongest fundamental carbon monoxide lines near the limb, reported previously by Noyes (1972) and Hall (1974), are confirmed. The possibility that thermal inhomogeneities might be responsible for the unusual behavior of the fundamental carbon dioxide lines have been examined. The somewhat discordant behavior of the fundamental lines at disk center compared with the north limb seems to favor a limb shadowing effect. The first overtone limb equivalent widths and the best-fit thermal and microvelocity models indicate a solar carbon abundance of 0.004 (on the scale with A sub H = 1) for an oxygen-to-carbon abundance ratio of 2.

  5. On the inability of magnetically constricted transition regions to account for the 10 to the 5th to 10 to the 6th K plasma in the quiet solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowdy, James F., Jr.; Moore, Ronald L.; Emslie, A. Gordon

    1987-01-01

    Static models of the plasma in the quiet solar atmosphere incorporating not only conduction and radiation but also the effects of large magnetic constrictions are examined. It is found that the bulk of the solar plasma at temperatures below 7 x 10 to the 5th K cannot be produced by a conductive transition region when it is modeled by flux tubes with constriction compatible with observations. The present findings suggest that the major portion of the UEV plasma may be maintained in an ensemble of small, individual magnetic loops located within the supergranular network and having peak temperatures ranging from chromospheric to coronal values.

  6. An introduction to quiet daily geomagnetic fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet daily field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet Daily Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.

  7. Statistical Study of Network Jets Observed in the Solar Transition Region: a Comparison Between Coronal Holes and Quiet-Sun Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Nancy; Arbacher, Rebecca T.; Tian, Hui; Banerjee, Dipankar; Cranmer, Steven R.; DeLuca, Ed E.; McKillop, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Recent IRIS observations have revealed a prevalence of intermittent small-scale jets with apparent speeds of 80 - 250 km s^{-1}, emanating from small-scale bright regions inside network boundaries of coronal holes. We find that these network jets appear not only in coronal holes but also in quiet-sun regions. Using IRIS 1330 Å (C II) slit-jaw images, we extracted several parameters of these network jets, e.g. apparent speed, length, lifetime, and increase in foot-point brightness. Using several observations, we find that some properties of the jets are very similar, but others are obviously different between the quiet Sun and coronal holes. For example, our study shows that the coronal-hole jets appear to be faster and longer than those in the quiet Sun. This can be directly attributed to a difference in the magnetic configuration of the two regions, with open magnetic field lines rooted in coronal holes and magnetic loops often present in the quiet Sun. We also detected compact bright loops that are most likely transition region loops and are mostly located in quiet-Sun regions. These small loop-like regions are generally devoid of network jets. In spite of different magnetic structures in the coronal hole and quiet Sun in the transition region, there appears to be no substantial difference for the increase in footpoint brightness of the jets, which suggests that the generation mechanism of these network jets is very likely the same in both regions.

  8. Cavity-based robustness analysis of interdependent networks: Influences of intranetwork and internetwork degree-degree correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shunsuke; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We develop a methodology for analyzing the percolation phenomena of two mutually coupled (interdependent) networks based on the cavity method of statistical mechanics. In particular, we take into account the influence of degree-degree correlations inside and between the networks on the network robustness against targeted (random degree-dependent) attacks and random failures. We show that the developed methodology is reduced to the well-known generating function formalism in the absence of degree-degree correlations. The validity of the developed methodology is confirmed by a comparison with the results of numerical experiments. Our analytical results indicate that the robustness of the interdependent networks depends on both the intranetwork and internetwork degree-degree correlations in a nontrivial way for both cases of random failures and targeted attacks.

  9. Recent Advances in the Exploration of the Small-Scale Structure of the Quiet Solar Atmosphere: Vortex Flows, the Horizontal Magnetic Field, and the Stokes- V Line-Ratio Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, O.; Rezaei, R.

    2012-05-01

    We review (i) observations and numerical simulations of vortical flows in the solar atmosphere and (ii) measurements of the horizontal magnetic field in quiet Sun regions. First, we discuss various manifestations of vortical flows and emphasize the role of magnetic fields in mediating swirling motion created near the solar surface to the higher layers of the photosphere and to the chromosphere. We reexamine existing simulation runs of solar surface magnetoconvection with regard to vortical flows and compare to previously obtained results. Second, we reviews contradictory results and problems associated with measuring the angular distribution of the magnetic field in quiet Sun regions. Furthermore, we review the Stokes-V-amplitude ratio method for the lines Fe i λλ 630.15 and 630.25 nm. We come to the conclusion that the recently discovered two distinct populations in scatter plots of this ratio must not bee interpreted in terms of “uncollapsed'' and “collapsed'' fields but stem from weak granular magnetic fields and weak canopy fields located at the boundaries between granules and the intergranular space. Based on new simulation runs, we reaffirm earlier findings of a predominance of the horizontal field components over the vertical one, particularly in the upper photosphere and at the base of the chromosphere.

  10. The quiet and disturbed time performance of the IRI 2012 within 90°-130°E longitude sector during solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Pradip; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Supnithi, Pornchai; Kalita, Bitap Raj; Wang, Kehe; Komolmis, Tharadol; Yatini, Clara

    2016-07-01

    The performance of the IRI 2012 model is examined for the double peaked solar cycle 24 in the low latitude region of 90-130oE longitude in the context of the global longitudinal wave number four structure (WN4). The monthly mean values of the foF2 and the hmF2(if available) measurements at low and low mid-latitude stations Dibrugarh (27.5°N, 95°E), Hainan (19.2°N,109.7°E),Okinawa (26.5°N,128°E) and Cocos Island (12.2°S,96.8°E) during quiet times and Dibrugarh (27.5°N, 95°E), Chiang Mai (18.76°N,98.93°E), Chumphon (10.72°N,99.37°E), Kototabang (0.2°S,100.32°E) and Cocos Island (12.2°S,96.8°E ) during the disturbed days of a severe geomagnetic storm are investigated. These stations are located under the strongest peak of the longitudinal WN4 structure in NmF2 along 90-130°E longitudes. The IRI is quite successful in predicting the seasonal averages of NmF2 over this region except in the equinox afternoon period where IRI underestimates the NmF2 in low latitudes. When the monthly mean measured data is compared with IRI, the difference between the IRI model predictions and the measurements are found to follow a systematic pattern. The IRI-2012 with CCIR options slightly underestimates foF2 over Dibrugarh in day time and overestimates in the night time. The amount of underestimation varies from month to month and also depends on the solar activity levels. The IRI also underestimated the day time hmF2 and overestimated the night time hmF2 over Dibrugarh. In case of Hainan, the IRI overestimates the NmF2 in the equinox months and generally in the afternoon to post sunset period. The model values are closer in the solstice than in the equinox. In Okinawa, the trend reverses and the IRI overestimates the NmF2 in the day time and underestimates in the night time. The IRI overestimated the day time hmF2 and underestimated the night time hmF2 over Okinawa. In case of Cocos Island which lies almost on the EIA anomaly region of the southern hemisphere, IRI

  11. Radio-quiet Fast Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Kaiser, M. L.; Howard, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) drive shocks in the interplanetary medium that produce type II radio emission. These CMEs are faster and wider on the average, than the general population of CMEs. However, when we start from fast (speed > 900 km/s) and wide (angular width > 60 degrees), more than half of them are not associated with radio bursts. In order to understand why these CMEs are radio quiet, we collected all the fast and wide (FW) CMEs detected by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) mission's Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and isolated those without associated type II radio bursts. The radio bursts were identified in the dynamic spectra of the Radio and Plasma Wave (WAVES) Experiment on board the Wind spacecraft. We also checked the list against metric type II radio bursts reported in Solar Geophysical Data and isolated those without any radio emission. This exercise resulted in about 140 radio-quiet FW CMEs. We identified the source regions of these CMEs using the Solar Geophysical Data listings, cross-checked against the eruption regions in the SOHO/EIT movies. We explored a number of possibilities for the radio-quietness: (i) Source region being too far behind the limb, (ii) flare size, (iii) brightness of the CME, and (iv) the density of the ambient medium. We suggest that a combination of CME energy and the Alfven speed profile of the ambient medium is primarily responsible for the radio-quietness of these FW CMEs.

  12. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  13. Characteristics of long-term variation in the amlitude of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation using the Inter-university Upper atmosphere Gobal Observation NETwork (IUGONET) data analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Yatagai, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics of long-term variation in the amplitude of solar quiet geomagnetic field daily variation (Sq) have been investigated using 1-hour geomagnetic field data obtained from 69 geomagnetic stations in a period of 1947-2013. In the present data analysis, we took advantage of the IUGONET data analysis system. The Sq amplitude clearly showed a 10-12 year solar activity dependence and it tended to enhance during each solar maximum. During the minimum of solar cycle 23/24 in 2008-2009, the Sq amplitude became the smallest in the investigated period. The relationship between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude is approximately linear but 64 percent of geomagnetic stations show a weak nonlinear dependence on the solar F10.7 index. In order to remove the effect of solar activity seen in the long-term variation of the Sq amplitude, we calculated a linear or second order fitting curve between the solar F10.7 index and Sq amplitude during 1947-2013, and examined the residual Sq amplitude, which is defined as the deviation from the fitting curve. As a result, a majority of the trends in the residual Sq amplitude that passed through a trend test showed a negative value in a wide region. This tendency was relatively strong in Europe, India, the eastern part of Canada, and New Zealand. The relationship between the magnetic field intensity and residual Sq amplitude showed an anti-correlation for about 71 percent of geomagnetic stations. On the other hand, the residual Sq amplitude in the equatorial station (Addis Ababa) was anti-correlated with the absolute value of the magnetic field inclination. This implies the movement of the equatorial electrojet due to the secular variation of the ambient magnetic field.

  14. An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamazaki, Y.; Yumoto, K.; Cardinal, M.G.; Fraser, B.J.; Hattori, P.; Kakinami, Y.; Liu, J.Y.; Lynn, K.J.W.; Marshall, R.; McNamara, D.; Nagatsuma, T.; Nikiforov, V.M.; Otadoy, R.E.; Ruhimat, M.; Shevtsov, B.M.; Shiokawa, K.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.

    2011-01-01

    An empirical model of the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation has been constructed based on geomagnetic data obtained from 21 stations along the 210 Magnetic Meridian of the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) from 1996 to 2007. Using the least squares fitting method for geomagnetically quiet days (Kp ??? 2+), the quiet daily geomagnetic field variation at each station was described as a function of solar activity SA, day of year DOY, lunar age LA, and local time LT. After interpolation in latitude, the model can describe solar-activity dependence and seasonal dependence of solar quiet daily variations (S) and lunar quiet daily variations (L). We performed a spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) on these S and L variations to examine average characteristics of the equivalent external current systems. We found three particularly noteworthy results. First, the total current intensity of the S current system is largely controlled by solar activity while its focus position is not significantly affected by solar activity. Second, we found that seasonal variations of the S current intensity exhibit north-south asymmetry; the current intensity of the northern vortex shows a prominent annual variation while the southern vortex shows a clear semi-annual variation as well as annual variation. Thirdly, we found that the total intensity of the L current system changes depending on solar activity and season; seasonal variations of the L current intensity show an enhancement during the December solstice, independent of the level of solar activity. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Nanoflare Heating of the Quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, N. M.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    How the solar corona is heated to temperatures of over 1 MK, while the photosphere below is only ~ 6000 K remains one of the outstanding problems in all of space science. Solving this problem is crucial for understanding Sun-Earth connections, and will provide new insight into universal processes such as magnetic reconnection and wave-particle interactions. We use a systematic technique to analyze the properties of coronal heating throughout the solar corona using data taken with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Our technique computes cooling times of the coronal plasma on a pixel-by-pixel basis and has the advantage that it analyzes all of the coronal emission, including the diffuse emission surrounding distinguishable coronal features. We have already applied this technique to 15 different active regions, and find clear evidence for dynamic heating and cooling cycles that are consistent with the 'impulsive nanoflare' scenario. What about the rest of the Solar corona? Whether the quiet Sun is heated in a similar or distinct manner from active regions is a matter of great debate. Here we apply our coronal heating analysis technique to quiet Sun locations. We find areas of quiet Sun locations that also undergo dynamic heating and cooling cycles, consistent with impulsive nanoflares. However, there are important characteristics that are distinct from those of active regions.

  16. Horizontal or vertical magnetic fields on the quiet Sun. Angular distributions and their height variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2013-07-01

    Different analyses of identical Hinode SOT/SP data of quiet-Sun magnetic fields have in the past led to contradictory answers to the question of whether the angular distribution of field vectors is preferentially horizontal or vertical. These answers have been obtained by combining the measured circular and linear polarizations in different ways to derive the field inclinations. A problem with these combinations is that the circular and linear polarizations scale with field strength in profoundly different ways. Here, we avoid these problems by using an entirely different approach that is based exclusively on the fundamental symmetry properties of the transverse Zeeman effect for observations away from the disk center without any dependence on the circular polarization. Systematic errors are suppressed by the application of a doubly differential technique with the 5247-5250 Å line pair for observations with the ZIMPOL-2 imaging polarimeter on the French THEMIS telescope on Tenerife. For the weakest, intranetwork-type magnetic fields, the angular distribution changes sign with the center-to-limb distance, being preferentially horizontal limbwards of μ (cosine of the heliocentric angle) = 0.2, while favoring the vertical direction inside this disk position. Since decreasing μ corresponds to increasing height of line formation, this finding implies that the intranetwork fields are more peaked around the vertical direction in the low to middle photosphere, while they are more horizontal in the upper photosphere. The angular distribution is however also found to become more vertical with increasing flux density. Thus, all facular points that we have observed have a strong preference for the vertical direction for all disk positions, including those all the way to the extreme limb. In terms of spatial averages weighted by the intrinsic magnetic energy density, these results are independent of telescope resolution.

  17. The Quiet Skies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Steve

    2008-01-01

    To help promote student awareness of the connection between radio astronomy and radio frequency interference (RFI), an inquiry-based science curriculum was developed to allow high school students to determine RFI levels in their communities. The Quiet Skies Project--the result of a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space…

  18. The vertical propagation of waves in the solar atmosphere. II Phase delays in the quiet chromosphere and cell-network distinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lites, B. W.; Chipman, E. G.; White, O. R.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the phase of the velocity oscillations between a pair of chromospheric Ca II lines was measured using the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Sacramento Peak Observatory. The observed phase differences indicate that the acoustic modes are trapped or envanescent, rather than propagating, in the chromosphere. Systematic distinctions are found in the phase delays between quiet network and cell interior regions for both intensity and velocity oscillations in photospheric and chromospheric lines. The theory of linear perturbations in an isothermal atmosphere is invoked to interpret these differences. From this analysis it is found that one or more of the following explanations is possible: (1) the radiative damping is more effective in the network than in the cell interior; (2) the network features exclude oscillations of large horizontal wavenumber; or (3) the scale height of the chromosphere is larger in the network than in the cell interior.

  19. Investigation on Radio-Quiet and Radio-Loud Fast CMEs and Their Associated Flares During Solar Cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, K.; Shanmugaraju, A.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of a detailed analysis on the differences between radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) ( V≥900 km s-1) observed during the period 1996 - 2012. The analysis consists of three different steps in which we examined the properties of (i) RL and RQ CMEs, (ii) accelerating (class-A) and decelerating (class-D) CMEs among RL and RQ CMEs, and (iii) associated flares. The last two steps and events from a longer period are the extensions of the earlier work on RL and RQ CMEs that mainly aimed to determine the reason for the radio-quietness of some fast CMEs. During this period, we found that 38 % of fast CMEs are RL and 62 % of fast CMEs are RQ. Moreover, fewer RQ CMEs occur around the disc centre. The average speeds of RL and RQ CMEs are 1358 km s-1 and 1092 km s-1. Around 10 % of the RQ events are halo CMEs, but ≈ 66 % of RL events are halo CMEs. The mean acceleration or deceleration value of RL-CMEs is slightly greater than that of RQ-CMEs. When we divide these events based on their acceleration behaviour into class A and class D, there are no considerable differences between classes A and D of RL-CMEs or between classes A and D of RQ CMEs, except for their initial acceleration values. But there are significant differences among their associated flare properties. According to our study here, the RQ CMEs are less energetic than RL CMEs, and they are not associated with flares as strong as those associated with RL CMEs. This confirms the previous results that RQ CMEs do not often exceed the critical Alfvén speed of 1000 km s-1 in the outer corona that is needed to produce type II radio bursts.

  20. Quiet time enhancements over African latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orford, Nicola; Katamzi, Zama; Buresova, Dalia

    2016-07-01

    F2 layer disturbances not related to geomagnetic activity are known as quiet time enhancements (QTEs). The phenomenon of QTEs has not yet been studied over African latitudes. We therefore explore the occurrence of QTEs over Africa in order to expand our knowledge on the behaviour of the ionosphere over this region. Several GPS stations in the middle to equatorial latitudes, during the solar minimum (2009) and near solar maximum (2013), are used. This data was examined for possible trends in variation with solar cycle, season and latitude as well as time of commencement of enhancements. Over the southern mid-latitude region of Africa we have observed that the QTEs are more likely to commence during the night in both solar minimum and maximum, however a slightly larger portion of daytime commencements during solar minimum than during solar maximum were observed. The total number of enhancements for the solar minimum period appears greater than during solar maximum. A seasonal trend is seen with the maximum number of enhancements occurring in summer during solar minimum and in winter during solar maximum. We explore further whether these trends are mirrored or different at low latitude/equatorial African regions.

  1. The QUIET Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leitch, E. M.; Wollack, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ( approx 1 deg.) . Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 micro Ks(exp 1/2)) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 micro Ks(exp 1/2) at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01 (QUIET Collaboration 2012) The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range l approximately equals 25-975 . These are the largest HEMT-ba.sed arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument,

  2. Microwave Properties of Quiet Seas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Microwave fluxes from three quiet seas documented for five microwave frequencies. Measurements taken by satellite in Earth orbit with mechanically scanned antenna. 10-channel receiver used to record simultaneously signal intensities in both horizontal and vertical polarizations at each frequency. Comparisons of flux measurements of three quiet seas drawn, and results discussed and analyzed.

  3. Achieving a quiet rooftop installation

    SciTech Connect

    Harold, R.G.

    1993-12-01

    This article examines the design considerations for quiet roof top installations of air conditioning systems. The topics of the article include the elements of a quiet installation, acoustic design requirements for minimizing noise problems, incorporating system requirements into the overall design of the building, and survival of the system design through bid review and installation.

  4. The quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. G.

    1973-01-01

    An up-to-date textbook of solar physics is presented. The solar structure and processes, and the interior are described along with the photosphere, the chromosphere, and the corona. The strongest Fraunhofer lines, visible coronal lines, and coronal UV, XUV, and X-ray lines are listed.

  5. Long-term monthly statistics of the mid-latitude ionospheric E-layer peak electron density in the Northern geographic hemisphere during geomagnetically quiet and steadily low solar activity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, Anatoli; Pavlova, Nadezhda

    2016-07-01

    Long-term hourly values of the ionospheric E-layer peak electron density, NmE, measured during the time period of 1957-2014 by 4 mid-latitude ionosondes (Wallops Island, Boulder, de l'Ebre, and Rome) in the Northern geographic hemisphere were processed to select periods of geomagnetically quiet and low solar activity conditions to calculate several descriptive statistics of NmE close to noon for each month in a year, including the mathematical expectation of NmE, the standard deviations of NmE from the mathematically expected NmE, and the NmE variation coefficient. The month-to-month variability of these descriptors allowed us to identify months of a year when they reach their extremes (maxima, minima). We found that the most probable NmE cannot be considered as the best statistical parameter among the most probable NmE and the mathematically expected NmE in statistical studies of month-to-month variations of NmE. Depending on a choice of an ionosonde and a month, the calculated NmE variation coefficient changes from 5 to 12 %.

  6. The QUIET Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  7. Quiet powered-lift propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Latest results of programs exploring new propulsion technology for powered-lift aircraft systems are presented. Topics discussed include results from the 'quiet clean short-haul experimental engine' program and progress reports on the 'quiet short-haul research aircraft' and 'tilt-rotor research aircraft' programs. In addition to these NASA programs, the Air Force AMST YC 14 and YC 15 programs were reviewed.

  8. MAGNETIC BRIGHT POINTS IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Bonet, J. A.; Viticchie, B.

    2010-05-20

    We present a visual determination of the number of bright points (BPs) existing in the quiet Sun, which are structures though to trace intense kG magnetic concentrations. The measurement is based on a 0.''1 angular resolution G-band movie obtained with the Swedish Solar Telescope at the solar disk center. We find 0.97 BPs Mm{sup -2}, which is a factor 3 larger than any previous estimate. It corresponds to 1.2 BPs per solar granule. Depending on the details of the segmentation, the BPs cover between 0.9% and 2.2% of the solar surface. Assuming their field strength to be 1.5 kG, the detected BPs contribute to the solar magnetic flux with an unsigned flux density between 13 G and 33 G. If network and inter-network regions are counted separately, they contain 2.2 BPs Mm{sup -2} and 0.85 BPs Mm{sup -2}, respectively.

  9. IS THE POLAR REGION DIFFERENT FROM THE QUIET REGION OF THE SUN?

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Hiroaki; Shiota, Daikou; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Tsuneta, Saku

    2010-08-10

    Observations of the polar region of the Sun are critically important for understanding the solar dynamo and the acceleration of solar wind. We carried out precise magnetic observations on both the north polar region and the quiet Sun at the east limb with the spectropolarimeter of the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode to characterize the polar region with respect to the quiet Sun. The average area and the total magnetic flux of the kilo-Gauss magnetic concentrations in the polar region appear to be larger than those of the quiet Sun. The magnetic field vectors classified as vertical in the quiet Sun have symmetric histograms around zero in the strengths, showing balanced positive and negative fluxes, while the histogram in the north polar region is clearly asymmetric, showing a predominance of the negative polarity. The total magnetic flux of the polar region is larger than that of the quiet Sun. In contrast, the histogram of the horizontal magnetic fields is exactly the same for both the polar region and the quiet Sun. This is consistent with the idea that a local dynamo process is responsible for the horizontal magnetic fields. A high-resolution potential field extrapolation shows that the majority of magnetic field lines from the kG-patches in the polar region are open with a fanning-out structure very low in the atmosphere, while in the quiet Sun, almost all the field lines are closed.

  10. Is the Polar Region Different from the Quiet Region of the Sun?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroaki; Tsuneta, Saku; Shiota, Daikou; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Fujiki, Ken'ichi

    2010-08-01

    Observations of the polar region of the Sun are critically important for understanding the solar dynamo and the acceleration of solar wind. We carried out precise magnetic observations on both the north polar region and the quiet Sun at the east limb with the spectropolarimeter of the Solar Optical Telescope aboard Hinode to characterize the polar region with respect to the quiet Sun. The average area and the total magnetic flux of the kilo-Gauss magnetic concentrations in the polar region appear to be larger than those of the quiet Sun. The magnetic field vectors classified as vertical in the quiet Sun have symmetric histograms around zero in the strengths, showing balanced positive and negative fluxes, while the histogram in the north polar region is clearly asymmetric, showing a predominance of the negative polarity. The total magnetic flux of the polar region is larger than that of the quiet Sun. In contrast, the histogram of the horizontal magnetic fields is exactly the same for both the polar region and the quiet Sun. This is consistent with the idea that a local dynamo process is responsible for the horizontal magnetic fields. A high-resolution potential field extrapolation shows that the majority of magnetic field lines from the kG-patches in the polar region are open with a fanning-out structure very low in the atmosphere, while in the quiet Sun, almost all the field lines are closed.

  11. A triumph of quiet diplomacy

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    The new US agreement with North Korea is a breakthrough in the international effort to eliminate the most serious threat to the non-proliferation regime. Despite mutual mistrust, the two sides have, by quiet diplomacy, crafted an ingenious agreement that terminates Pyongyang`s current and future nuclear weapons program in return for economic benefits and an opportunity to join the international community.

  12. Looking for Peace and Quiet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palin, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Ray Palin, librarian at Sunapee Middle High School in Sunapee, New Hampshire describes what it takes to make the school library a space for those looking for "peace and quiet." Palin begins this article by noting that much has been written about the advantages associated with the learning commons model of library design, however less has…

  13. Modeling the Quiet Time Outflow Solution in the Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glocer, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We use the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) to study the geomagnetically quiet conditions in the polar cap during solar maximum, The PWOM solves the gyrotropic transport equations for O(+), H(+), and He(+) along several magnetic field lines in the polar region in order to reconstruct the full 3D solution. We directly compare our simulation results to the data based empirical model of Kitamura et al. [2011] of electron density, which is based on 63 months of Akebono satellite observations. The modeled ion and electron temperatures are also compared with a statistical compilation of quiet time data obtained by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and Intercosmos Satellites (Kitamura et al. [2011]). The data and model agree reasonably well. This study shows that photoelectrons play an important role in explaining the differences between sunlit and dark results, ion composition, as well as ion and electron temperatures of the quiet time polar wind solution. Moreover, these results provide validation of the PWOM's ability to model the quiet time ((background" solution.

  14. The heating of the solar chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalkofen, Wolfgang

    1991-01-01

    The solar atmosphere associated with magnetic fields is brighter in characteristic field emitters than the magnetic field-free portion of the atmosphere. The chromosphere can accordingly be identified with the atmosphere within such magnetic elements as flux tubes. Attention is presently given to bright points associated with the intranetwork magnetic fields, which are heated by large-amplitude compressive waves whose periods approximate the 3-min acoustic cutoff period. Relevant line and continuum radiation observations are studied; it is concluded that energy dissipated by the 3-min waves may suffice to heat the low and middle chromosphere, in the bright points, to the temperatures observed.

  15. The Quiet Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-07-01

    weak and 'soft' [1], very different from a gamma-ray burst and more in line with what is expected from a normal supernova." So, after the supernova was discovered, the team rapidly observed it from the Asiago Observatory in Northern Italy and established that it was a Type Ic supernova. "These are supernovae produced by stars that have lost their hydrogen and helium-rich outermost layers before exploding, and are the only type of supernovae which are associated with (long) gamma-ray bursts," explains Mazzali. "The object thus became even more interesting!" Earlier this year, an independent team of astronomers reported in the journal Nature that SN 2008D is a rather normal supernova. The fact that X-rays were detected was, they said, because for the first time, astronomers were lucky enough to catch the star in the act of exploding. Mazzali and his team think otherwise. "Our observations and modeling show this to be a rather unusual event, to be better understood in terms of an object lying at the boundary between normal supernovae and gamma-ray bursts." The team set up an observational campaign to monitor the evolution of the supernova using both ESO and national telescopes, collecting a large quantity of data. The early behaviour of the supernova indicated that it was a highly energetic event, although not quite as powerful as a gamma-ray burst. After a few days, however, the spectra of the supernova began to change. In particular Helium lines appeared, showing that the progenitor star was not stripped as deeply as supernovae associated with gamma-ray bursts. Over the years, Mazzali and his group have developed theoretical models to analyse the properties of supernovae. When applied to SN2008D, their models indicated that the progenitor star was at birth as massive as 30 times the Sun, but had lost so much mass that at the time of the explosion the star had a mass of only 8-10 solar masses. The likely result of the collapse of such a massive star is a black hole

  16. Low-frequency heliographic observations of the quiet Sun corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavsky, A. A.; Koval, A. A.; Konovalenko, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present new results of heliographic observations of quiet-Sun radio emission fulfilled by the UTR-2 radio telescope. The solar corona investigations have been made close to the last solar minimum (Cycle 23) in the late August and early September of 2010 by means of the two-dimensional heliograph within 16.5-33 MHz. Moreover, the UTR-2 radio telescope was used also as an 1-D heliograph for one-dimensional scanning of the Sun at the beginning of September 2010 as well as in short-time observational campaigns in April and August of 2012. The average values of integral flux density of the undisturbed Sun continuum emission at different frequencies have been found. Using the data, we have determined the spectral index of quiet-Sun radio emission in the range 16.5-200 MHz. It is equal to -2.1±0.1. The brightness distribution maps of outer solar corona at frequencies 20.0 MHz and 26.0 MHz have been obtained. The angular sizes of radio Sun were estimated. It is found that the solar corona at these frequencies is stretched-out along equatorial direction. The coefficient of corona ellipticity varies slightly during above period. Its mean magnitudes are equal to ≈ 0.75 and ≈ 0.73 at 20.0 MHz and 26.0 MHz, respectively. The presented results for continuum emission of solar corona conform with being ones at higher frequencies.

  17. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE VERY QUIET SUN MAGNETISM

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez Gonzalez, M. J.; Manso Sainz, R.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2010-03-10

    The behavior of the observed polarization amplitudes with spatial resolution is a strong constraint on the nature and organization of solar magnetic fields below the resolution limit. We study the polarization of the very quiet Sun at different spatial resolutions using ground- and space-based observations. It is shown that 80% of the observed polarization signals do not change with spatial resolution, suggesting that, observationally, the very quiet Sun magnetism remains the same despite the high spatial resolution of space-based observations. Our analysis also reveals a cascade of spatial scales for the magnetic field within the resolution element. It is manifest that the Zeeman effect is sensitive to the microturbulent field usually associated with Hanle diagnostics. This demonstrates that Zeeman and Hanle studies show complementary perspectives of the same magnetism.

  18. Microbial proteomics: the quiet revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Seraphin, Bertrand; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments in DNA sequencing and their application to study thousands of microbial genomes or even microbial ecosystems still today often make the headlines of general newspapers and scientific journals. These revolutionary changes are hiding another revolution that is unfolding more quietly in the background: the development of microbial proteomics to study genome expression products. It is important to recognize that while DNA sequencing reveals extensive details about the genomic potential of an organism or community, proteomic measurements reveal the functional gene products that are present and operational under specific environmental conditions, and thus perhaps better characterize the critical biomolecules that execute the life processes (enzymes, signaling, structural factors, etc.).

  19. Smart materials for turbomachinery quieting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonson, Michael L.; Lysak, Peter D.; Willits, Steven M.

    2000-06-01

    As part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) SAMPSON program, a team has been developing and testing the use of smart materials for quieting turbomachinery. The team is composed of representatives form Pennsylvania State University, General Dynamics Electric Boat, GTE BBN Technologies, and the Naval Surface Warfare Center Carderock Division. Four concepts for quieting were proposed and wind tunnel testing, water tunnel testing, as well as computational fluid dynamic analysis were performed to down select two of the concepts for further consideration: protuberance and gap control. The wind tunnel testing was performed to determine the optimum shape of the protuberance. Water tunnel testing was performed at Penn State University/Applied Research Laboratory to establish the performance of the protuberance and gap control elements. Piezoelectric inchworm actuators, developed by PSU/Center for Acoustics and Vibration, were utilized for the evaluation of the two concepts. GTE BBN Technologies developed the control system simulation for the ultimate concept, the General Dynamics Electric Boat was responsible for hydrodynamic and hydroacoustic analysis. Naval Surface Warfare Center/Carderock Division performed hydrodynamic analysis and developed the rotary component design for the water tunnel test fixture. Successful testing in the twelve- inch diameter water tunnel at PSU/ARL demonstrated superior performance with the gap control concept over the protuberance control concept, and efforts are on-going to develop the final large scale demonstration. This paper summarizes the result of these activities.

  20. Abundances and charge states in quiet-time low-energy ion fluxes at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskemety, Karoly; Zeldovich, Mariya; Klecker, Berndt; Logachev, Yurii

    Abundances of C and Fe ions with energies 0.04-1.28 MeV/nuc in the 23rd solar activity cycle are examined in the quiet-time fluxes using ACE, SOHO and STEREO data. They are com-bined with charge state measurement data from SEPICA (ACE, 0.18-0.43 MeV/nuc). Quiet periods of solar activity were selected using the criteria a) Jp < 2x10-4 protons/(cm2 s sr MeV) for 4-8 MeV protons (from EPHIN/SOHO) and b) the ratio H/He < 10 at these energies. The values of C/O and Fe/O were determined over the solar cycle and the following was found. In about 50% of the time intervals during high activity they both were near the average values observed in the solar corona, whereas at solar minimum in more than 90% of the periods the ratios were around the solar wind values. Most of the quiet time periods around maximum, which have sufficient statistics show high average Fe charge states (>15), consistent with im-pulsive solar event origin. During the SC minima the abundances in almost all cases correspond to solar wind values. The results obtained suggest that the active structures on the Sun arising at low solar activity are mostly responsible for background particle fluxes at these energies. There may be microflares, disappearing of ribbons, soft X-ray bright points etc.

  1. Studies Highlight Classroom Plight of Quiet Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    Educators often look for ways to bring quiet children out of their shells, but emerging research suggests schools can improve academic outcomes for introverted students by reducing the pressure to be outgoing and giving all students a little more time to reflect. A 2011 study found teachers from across K-12 rated hypothetical quiet children as…

  2. A Quiet Place for Student Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    As electronic gadgets predominate a student's life, there comes a need for silence. A quiet place free of electromagnetic spectrum waves, dirty and stray electricity, and the endless chirps, whistles, beeps, and customized signaling. A quiet place can offer solitude for meditation, inspiration, and spiritual awareness. Student involvement in the…

  3. MAGNETIC LOOPS IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegelmann, T.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Borrero, J. M.; Schmidt, W.; Pillet, V. MartInez; Bonet, J. A.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    We investigate the fine structure of magnetic fields in the atmosphere of the quiet Sun. We use photospheric magnetic field measurements from SUNRISE/IMaX with unprecedented spatial resolution to extrapolate the photospheric magnetic field into higher layers of the solar atmosphere with the help of potential and force-free extrapolation techniques. We find that most magnetic loops that reach into the chromosphere or higher have one footpoint in relatively strong magnetic field regions in the photosphere. Ninety-one percent of the magnetic energy in the mid-chromosphere (at a height of 1 Mm) is in field lines, whose stronger footpoint has a strength of more than 300 G, i.e., above the equipartition field strength with convection. The loops reaching into the chromosphere and corona are also found to be asymmetric in the sense that the weaker footpoint has a strength B < 300 G and is located in the internetwork (IN). Such loops are expected to be strongly dynamic and have short lifetimes, as dictated by the properties of the IN fields.

  4. First results on quiet and magnetic granulation from SOUP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S. H.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.; Morrill, M.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 allowed the collection of time sequences of diffraction limited (0.5 arc sec) granulation images with excellent pointing (0.003 arc sec) and completely free of the distortion that plagues groundbased images. The p-mode oscillations are clearly seen in the data. Using Fourier transforms in the temporal and spatial domain, it was shown that the p-modes dominate the autocorrelation lifetime in magnetic regions. When these oscillations are removed the autocorrelation lifetime is found to be 500 sec in quiet and 950 sec in magnetic regions. In quiet areas exploding granules are seen to be common. It is speculated that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Using local correlation tracking techniques it was able to measure horizontal displacements, and thus transverse velocities, in the magnetic field. In quiet sun it is possible to detect both super and mesogranulation. Horizontal velocities are as great as 1000 m/s and the average velocity is 400 m/s. In magnetic regions horizontal velocities are much less, about 100 m/s.

  5. Statistical Characteristics of EMIC Waves Observed at Geosynchronous Orbit during Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. S.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, D. H.; Lee, E.; Jin, H.

    2014-12-01

    It is generally accepted that the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can be generated under the conditions of anisotropic (T⊥ > T∥) and energetic (larger than a few tens keV) ion population. Such conditions are expected when the magnetospheric convection is enhanced or when the magnetosphere is compressed by solar wind dynamic pressure enhancement. Even in the absence of strong magnetospheric convection or strong solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements, we have observed EMIC waves at geosynchronous orbit. In this study, we report the GOES observations of the EMIC waves excited during quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp ≤ 1) in the period from January 2007 to December in 2008. Unlike previous studies, the occurrence rate of quiet time EMIC waves is dominant in morning-to-afternoon sector. We will examine the source of free energy to excite quiet time EMIC waves and also examine wave's characteristics.

  6. Magnetospheric convection during quiet or moderately disturbed times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caudal, G.; Blanc, M.

    1988-01-01

    The processes which contribute to the large-scale plasma circulation in the earth's environment during quiet times, or during reasonable stable magnetic conditions are reviewed. The various sources of field-aligned current generation in the solar wind and the magnetosphere are presented. The generation of field-aligned currents on open field lines connected to either polar cap and the generation of closed field lines of the inner magnetosphere are examined. Consideration is given to the hypothesis of Caudal (1987) that loss processes of trapped particles are competing with adiabatic motions in the generation of field-aligned currents in the inner magnetosphere.

  7. PERVASIVE LINEAR POLARIZATION SIGNALS IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Orozco Suarez, D.

    2012-09-20

    This paper investigates the distribution of linear polarization signals in the quiet-Sun internetwork using ultra-deep spectropolarimetric data. We reduce the noise of the observations as much as is feasible by adding single-slit measurements of the Zeeman-sensitive Fe I 630 nm lines taken by the Hinode spectropolarimeter. The integrated Stokes spectra are employed to determine the fraction of the field of view covered by linear polarization signals. We find that up to 69% of the quiet solar surface at disk center shows Stokes Q or U profiles with amplitudes larger than 0.032% (4.5 times the noise level of 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} reached by the longer integrations). The mere presence of linear polarization in most of the quiet Sun implies that the weak internetwork fields must be highly inclined, but we quantify this by inverting those pixels with Stokes Q or U signals well above the noise. This allows for a precise determination of the field inclination, field strength, and field azimuth because the information carried by all four Stokes spectra is used simultaneously. The inversion is performed for 53% of the observed field of view at a noise level of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} I{sub c}. The derived magnetic distributions are thus representative of more than half of the quiet-Sun internetwork. Our results confirm the conclusions drawn from previous analyses using mainly Stokes I and V: internetwork fields are very inclined, but except in azimuth they do not seem to be isotropically distributed.

  8. Quiet High-Speed Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth; Repp, Russ; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    A calibration of the acoustic and aerodynamic prediction methods was performed and a baseline fan definition was established and evaluated to support the quiet high speed fan program. A computational fluid dynamic analysis of the NASA QF-12 Fan rotor, using the DAWES flow simulation program was performed to demonstrate and verify the causes of the relatively poor aerodynamic performance observed during the fan test. In addition, the rotor flowfield characteristics were qualitatively compared to the acoustic measurements to identify the key acoustic characteristics of the flow. The V072 turbofan source noise prediction code was used to generate noise predictions for the TFE731-60 fan at three operating conditions and compared to experimental data. V072 results were also used in the Acoustic Radiation Code to generate far field noise for the TFE731-60 nacelle at three speed points for the blade passage tone. A full 3-D viscous flow simulation of the current production TFE731-60 fan rotor was performed with the DAWES flow analysis program. The DAWES analysis was used to estimate the onset of multiple pure tone noise, based on predictions of inlet shock position as a function of the rotor tip speed. Finally, the TFE731-60 fan rotor wake structure predicted by the DAWES program was used to define a redesigned stator with the leading edge configured to minimize the acoustic effects of rotor wake / stator interaction, without appreciably degrading performance.

  9. The 'Love Hormone' May Quiet Tinnitus

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161110.html The 'Love Hormone' May Quiet Tinnitus Small, preliminary study suggests oxytocin ... tinnitus -- may find some relief by spraying the hormone oxytocin in their nose, a small initial study ...

  10. ON THE PROBABLE EXISTENCE OF AN ABRUPT MAGNETIZATION IN THE UPPER CHROMOSPHERE OF THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan, JirI; Trujillo Bueno, Javier E-mail: jtb@iac.es

    2010-03-10

    We report on a detailed radiative transfer modeling of the observed scattering polarization in the H{alpha} line, which allows us to infer quantitative information on the magnetization of the quiet solar chromosphere. Our analysis suggests the presence of a magnetic complexity zone with a mean field strength (B) > 30 G lying just below the sudden transition region to the coronal temperatures. The chromospheric plasma directly underneath is very weakly magnetized, with (B) {approx} 1 G. The possible existence of this abrupt change in the degree of magnetization of the upper chromosphere of the quiet Sun might have large significance for our understanding of chromospheric (and, therefore, coronal) heating.

  11. SMALL MAGNETIC LOOPS CONNECTING THE QUIET SURFACE AND THE HOT OUTER ATMOSPHERE OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez Gonzalez, M. J.; Manso Sainz, R.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2010-05-01

    Sunspots are the most spectacular manifestation of solar magnetism, yet 99% of the solar surface remains 'quiet' at any time of the solar cycle. The quiet sun is not void of magnetic fields, though; they are organized at smaller spatial scales and evolve relatively fast, which makes them difficult to detect. Thus, although extensive quiet Sun magnetism would be a natural driver to a uniform, steady heating of the outer solar atmosphere, it is not clear what the physical processes involved would be, due to lack of observational evidence. We report on the topology and dynamics of the magnetic field in very quiet regions of the Sun from spectropolarimetric observations of the Hinode satellite, showing a continuous injection of magnetic flux with a well-organized topology of {omega}-loop from below the solar surface into the upper layers. At first stages, when the loop travels across the photosphere, it has a flattened (staple-like) geometry and a mean velocity ascent of {approx}3 km s{sup -1}. When the loop crosses the minimum temperature region, the magnetic fields at the footpoints become almost vertical and the loop topology resembles a potential field. The mean ascent velocity at chromospheric height is {approx}12 km s{sup -1}. The energy input rate of these small-scale loops in the lower boundary of the chromosphere is (at least) of 1.4 x 10{sup 6}-2.2 x 10{sup 7} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Our findings provide empirical evidence for solar magnetism as a multi-scale system, in which small-scale low-flux magnetism plays a crucial role, at least as important as active regions, coupling different layers of the solar atmosphere and being an important ingredient for chromospheric and coronal heating models.

  12. Soft X-ray Luminosity and Photospheric Magnetic Field in Quiet Sun.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevtsov, A. A.; Acton, L. W.

    2000-05-01

    We are using full disk soft X-ray data from Yohkoh and Kitt Peak daily magnetograms to study the coronal luminosity and photospheric magnetic field in the quiet Sun between 1991 November and 1998 December. For every image of our data set we extract three areas 4 by 4 solar degrees in size centered at 00N00W, 50N00W and 50S00W and compute X-ray luminosity and unsigned magnetic flux for each of these areas. Between 1991 (active Sun) and 1996 (quiet Sun) the X-ray luminosity at the heliographic center decreases by more than a factor of 7...while the magnetic flux decreases by only a factor of 2. A similar tendency is observed for our high latitude samples. Apart from the cycle-related variations, all three areas of quiet Sun exhibit significant non-periodic changes in X-ray luminosity. These variations occur on 9-12 month intervals and clearly correlate with increase/decrease in sunspot activity. Similar variations are present in the total X-ray irradiance averaged over the solar disk. On the contrary, the magnetic fluxes from the same areas of quiet Sun show no corresponding variations on this time scale. In our opinion, coronal heating models based on the reconnection of quiet sun magnetic elements (variously called chromospheric network, "magnetic carpet" or "salt and pepper" field) can not explain the million degree corona observed by the Yohkoh soft X-ray telescope. We conclude that the X-ray luminosity in the quiet Sun (at least in the Yohkoh temperature range, >2 MK) is primarily associated with the strong magnetic fields of active regions, not with weak photospheric fields. To further support this conclusion, we show one example of a dramatic change in X-ray luminosity over the entire visible corona that was associated with the emergence of a single small active region.

  13. A substantial amount of hidden magnetic energy in the quiet Sun.

    PubMed

    Bueno, J Trujillo; Shchukina, N; Ramos, A Asensio

    2004-07-15

    Deciphering and understanding the small-scale magnetic activity of the quiet solar photosphere should help to solve many of the key problems of solar and stellar physics, such as the magnetic coupling to the outer atmosphere and the coronal heating. At present, we can see only approximately 1 per cent of the complex magnetism of the quiet Sun, which highlights the need to develop a reliable way to investigate the remaining 99 per cent. Here we report three-dimensional radiative transfer modelling of scattering polarization in atomic and molecular lines that indicates the presence of hidden, mixed-polarity fields on subresolution scales. Combining this modelling with recent observational data, we find a ubiquitous tangled magnetic field with an average strength of approximately 130 G, which is much stronger in the intergranular regions of solar surface convection than in the granular regions. So the average magnetic energy density in the quiet solar photosphere is at least two orders of magnitude greater than that derived from simplistic one-dimensional investigations, and sufficient to balance radiative energy losses from the solar chromosphere. PMID:15254531

  14. Determination of the radial gradient in the region 0.81-1.0 AU using both high- and low-energy /more than 10-GeV and more than 52-MeV/ detectors for the 1-AU monitor. [solar quiet measurements of alpha particles and protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.; Bukata, R. P.; Rao, U. R.

    1974-01-01

    A determination of the radial gradient for alpha particles (31-46 MeV/nuc) and protons with energies above 7.5 MeV and 44-77 MeV in the region 1.0-0.81 AU is presented for the solar-quiet year 1966. The determinations are based on data from the Pioneer 6 space probe. Two different detectors are used: the Deep River neutron monitor and measurements of low energy protons made on the IMP-C satellite. The average energy response of the Deep River monitor is 16 GeV, whereas the IMP-C data is for protons with energies above 50 MeV. The resulting radial gradient is found to be nearly zero for the alpha particles and slightly negative for the protons. The same qualitative results were found using the IMP-C data and the Deep River neutron monitor to measure the temporal variation in the cosmic ray intensity. The present analysis indicates that detectors over a wide range of energies are suitable for measuring the radial gradient, providing sufficient statistical precision is obtained to evaluate short-term modulation and the azimuthal separation of the detectors is not great.

  15. 76 FR 64353 - Buy Quiet Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Buy Quiet Workshop AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  16. 47 CFR 1.924 - Quiet zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... impact on the operations of radio astronomy or other facilities that are highly sensitive to interference. Consent throughout this paragraph means written consent from the quiet zone, radio astronomy, research... Radio Astronomy Observatory site located at Green Bank, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, and at...

  17. MASS COMPOSITION IN PRE-ERUPTION QUIET SUN FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kilper, Gary; Gilbert, Holly; Alexander, David

    2009-10-10

    Filament eruptions are extremely important phenomena due to their association with coronal mass ejections and their effects on space weather. Little is known about the filament mass and composition in the eruption process, since most of the related research has concentrated on the evolution and disruption of the magnetic field. Following up on our previous work, we present here an analysis of nineteen quiet Sun filament eruptions observed by Mauna Loa Solar Observatory in Halpha and He I 10830 A that has identified a compositional precursor common to all of these eruptions. There is a combined trend of an apparent increase in the homogenization of the filament mass composition, with concurrent increases in absorption in Halpha and He I and in the level of activity, all starting at least one day prior to eruption. This finding suggests that a prolonged period of mass motions, compositional mixing, and possibly even extensive mass loading is occurring during the build up of these eruptions.

  18. Energy budget in the magnetic loops of the quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Cormack, C.; Nuevo, F. A.; Vásquez, A. M.; López Fuentes, M.; Frazin, R. A.; Landi, E.; Mandrini, C. H.

    2016-08-01

    The characteristic temperature of the solar corona is hotter than that of the photosphere. The causes for such heating are of a magnetic nature and several possible mechanisms have been proposed. Most studies on coronal heating focus on active regions, but the so called quiet sun, or diffuse corona, is also subject to heating phenomena. By combining differential emission measure tomography applied to EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) images time series, with potential extrapolations of the coronal magnetic field, it is possible to estimate the radiative loss energy along coronal loops of the diffuse corona, and the energy flux at their foot-points that is required to maintain thermodynamically stable structures. In this work we show the first results of this technique.

  19. Is There Such a Thing as Quiet Sun?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, M. P.

    2010-06-01

    The Cycle 23-Cycle 24 minimum was deep and prolonged, similar to minima of the late 19th and early 20th centuries but quite different from those between the overlapping cycles of the early space age. This provides a unique opportunity to study the Sun at very low levels of magnetic activity. Here we examine the quiet Sun, defining it to be those portions of the Sun for which continuum intensity variations are dominated by thermal perturbations as opposed to opacity fluctuations due to the presence of magnetic fields. We briefly present evidence that: (1) The expected thermal signature of the solar supergranulation can not be separated from magnetic contributions without masking the contribution of at least 95% of the pixels. By this measure, at most 5% of the Sun is truly quiet. (2) There was a rapid decay of active network magnetic fields entering this solar minimum, a consequent increase in the internetwork area, but a nearly constant fractional area covered by network fields. This suggests the continuous fragmentation and decay of active region fields into weaker field components, but also, possibly, an underlying continuous flux concentration mechanism maintaining the network field. (3) One of the first flux emergence episodes of Cycle 24 did not occur as a coherent active region, but instead in the form of disorganized spatially-dispersed small-scale magnetic elements. Under the paradigm of a deep-rooted dynamo, this suggests an episode of incoherent field loss from the generation region or a failed/shredded omega loop rise through the convection zone.

  20. 49 CFR 222.42 - How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones and Intermediate Partial Quiet Zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.42 How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones...

  1. 49 CFR 222.42 - How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones and Intermediate Partial Quiet Zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.42 How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones...

  2. 49 CFR 222.42 - How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones and Intermediate Partial Quiet Zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.42 How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones...

  3. 49 CFR 222.42 - How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones and Intermediate Partial Quiet Zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.42 How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones...

  4. 49 CFR 222.42 - How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones and Intermediate Partial Quiet Zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.42 How does this rule affect Intermediate Quiet Zones...

  5. QUIET-SUN INTENSITY CONTRASTS IN THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET AS MEASURED FROM SUNRISE

    SciTech Connect

    Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Borrero, J. M.; Gandorfer, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Afram, N.; Unruh, Y. C.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Bonet, J. A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    We present high-resolution images of the Sun in the near-ultraviolet spectral range between 214 nm and 397 nm as obtained from the first science flight of the 1 m SUNRISE balloon-borne solar telescope. The quiet-Sun rms intensity contrasts found in this wavelength range are among the highest values ever obtained for quiet-Sun solar surface structures-up to 32.8% at a wavelength of 214 nm. We compare the rms contrasts obtained from the observational data with theoretical intensity contrasts obtained from numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations. For 388 nm and 312 nm the observations agree well with the numerical simulations whereas at shorter wavelengths discrepancies between observed and simulated contrasts remain.

  6. Requirements for the Analysis of Quiet-Sun Internetwork Magnetic Elements with EST and ATST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco Suárez, D.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Katsukawa, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The quiet-Sun internetwork is permeated by weak and highly inclined magnetic fields whose physical properties, dynamics, and magnetic interactions are not fully understood. High spatial resolution magnetograms show them as discrete magnetic elements that appear/emerge and disappear/cancel continuously over the quiet Sun surface. The 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST) and the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will obtain two-dimensional, high cadence, high precision polarimetric measurements at the diffraction limit (30 km). Here, we compile the basic requirements for the observation of internetwork fields with EST and ATST (field of view, cadence, instrument configuration, etc.). More specifically, we concentrate on the field-of-view requirements. To set them we analyze the proper motion of internetwork magnetic elements across the solar surface. We use 13 hours of magnetograms taken with the Hinode satellite to identify and track thousands of internetwork magnetic element in an isolated supergranular cell. We calculate the velocity components of each element and the mean distance they travel. The results show that, on average, magnetic elements in the interior of supergranular cells move toward the network. The radial velocity is observed to depend on the distance to the center of the supergranule. Internetwork magnetic elements travel 4″ on average. These results suggest that ATST and EST should cover, at least, one supergranular cell to obtain a complete picture of the quiet Sun internetwork.

  7. 3D Radiative MHD Modeling of Quiet-Sun Magnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitiashvili, Irina

    2016-05-01

    Quiet-Sun regions that cover most of the solar surface represent a background state that plays an extremely important role in the dynamics and energetics of the solar atmosphere. A clear understanding of these regions is required for accurate interpretation of solar activity events such as emergence of magnetic flux, sunspot formation, and eruptive dynamics. Modern high-resolution observations from ground and space telescopes have revealed a complicated dynamics of turbulent magnetoconvection and its effects in the solar atmosphere and corona, showing intense interactions across different temporal and spatial scales. Interpretation of the observed complex phenomena and understanding of their origins is impossible without advanced numerical models. I will present new results of realistic-type 3D radiative MHD simulations of the upper turbulent convective layer and atmosphere of the Sun. The results reveal the mechanism of formation and properties of the Sun’s “magnetic carpet” controlled by subsurface small-scale dynamo processes, and demonstrate interaction between the subsurface layers and the atmosphere via spontaneous small-scale eruptions and wave phenomena. To link the simulations to solar data the spectro-polarimetric radiative transfer code SPINOR is used to convert the simulated data into the Stokes profiles of various spectral lines, including the SDO and Hinode observables. The results provide a detailed physical understanding of the quiet-Sun dynamics, and show potential for future observations with the DKIST and other large solar telescopes.

  8. Geomagnetic variations and middle latitude IMF in periods of magnetic quietness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, P. K.; Kleimenova, N. G.

    The slight variations of the midlatitude geomagnetic field during quiet and slightly disturbed periods are studied. These variations serve as the background of the powerful nonlinear processes of strong magnetic storms. An analysis is presented of the relationship between the variations of the magnetic field H-component at the Panagyurishte Observatory (phi = 41 deg, lambda = 103 deg) during relatively quiet magnetic periods preceding the sudden commencement of magnetic storms with the variations of the energy entering the magnetosphere and the variations of the solar wind parameters, B(z) and B(y). The quiet diurnal values are obtained from the observed hourly values of the H-component of the field and the rate of variation of the quiet diurnal value is analyzed. A regression analysis is performed of the variability, the hourly variations of delta-B(z) and delta-B(y), and the velocity variations of the energy entering the magnetosphere. Examples are given of the results obtained from these analyses.

  9. The Hidden Gifts of Quiet Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trierweiler, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    The author relates that she was an introvert child. It has always taken her time and energy to find her place in a group. As a grown-up, she still needed quiet time to regroup during a busy day. In this article, the author presents an interview with Marti Olsen Laney, author of "The Hidden Gifts of the Introverted Child." During the interview,…

  10. Radio-quiet Gamma-ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lupin Chun-Che

    2016-09-01

    A radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar is a neutron star that has significant γ-ray pulsation but without observed radio emission or only limited emission detected by high sensitivity radio surveys. The launch of the Fermi spacecraft in 2008 opened a new epoch to study the population of these pulsars. In the 2nd Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog of γ-ray pulsars, there are 35 (30 % of the 117 pulsars in the catalog) known samples classified as radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars with radio flux density (S1400) of less than 30 μJy. Accompanying the observations obtained in various wavelengths, astronomers not only have the opportunity to study the emitting nature of radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars but also have proposed different models to explain their radiation mechanism. This article will review the history of the discovery, the emission properties, and the previous efforts to study pulsars in this population. Some particular cases known as Geminga-like pulsars (e.g., PSR J0633+1746, PSR J0007+7303, PSR J2021+4026, and so on) are also specified to discuss their common and specific features.

  11. BUY QUIET INITIATIVE IN THE USA

    PubMed Central

    Beamer, Bryan; McCleery, Trudi; Hayden, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is still considered one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States of America. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health launched a national Buy Quiet campaign to raise awareness of the importance of purchasing quieter equipment. Buy Quiet encourages companies to seek out and demand quieter equipment thus driving the market to design and create quieter products. In the long run, investment in noise controls should be more prevalent as the market demands quieter products. This paradigm occurs as the market for quieter products expands both from the supply side (manufacturers) and the demand side (tool and equipment purchasers). The key to experiencing the reduced costs and increased benefits of Buy Quiet will be to develop partnerships between manufacturers and consumers. To this end, the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health continues to work with partners to educate stakeholders about the risks and true costs of noise-induced hearing loss, as well as the economic benefits of buying quieter equipment. PMID:27274613

  12. QUIET-SUN NETWORK BRIGHT POINT PHENOMENA WITH SIGMOIDAL SIGNATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Chesny, D. L.; Oluseyi, H. M.; Orange, N. B.; Champey, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    Ubiquitous solar atmospheric coronal and transition region bright points (BPs) are compact features overlying strong concentrations of magnetic flux. Here, we utilize high-cadence observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory to provide the first observations of extreme ultraviolet quiet-Sun (QS) network BP activity associated with sigmoidal structuring. To our knowledge, this previously unresolved fine structure has never been associated with such small-scale QS events. This QS event precedes a bi-directional jet in a compact, low-energy, and low-temperature environment, where evidence is found in support of the typical fan-spine magnetic field topology. As in active regions and micro-sigmoids, the sigmoidal arcade is likely formed via tether-cutting reconnection and precedes peak intensity enhancements and eruptive activity. Our QS BP sigmoid provides a new class of small-scale structuring exhibiting self-organized criticality that highlights a multi-scaled self-similarity between large-scale, high-temperature coronal fields and the small-scale, lower-temperature QS network. Finally, our QS BP sigmoid elevates arguments for coronal heating contributions from cooler atmospheric layers, as this class of structure may provide evidence favoring mass, energy, and helicity injections into the heliosphere.

  13. EXCITATION OF ACOUSTIC WAVES BY VORTICES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Kitiashvili, I. N.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Mansour, N. N.; Wray, A. A.

    2011-02-01

    The five-minute oscillations are one of the basic properties of solar convection. Observations show a mixture of a large number of acoustic wave fronts propagating from their sources. We investigate the process of acoustic waves excitation from the point of view of individual events, by using a realistic three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulation of the quiet Sun. The results show that the excitation events are related to the dynamics of vortex tubes (or swirls) in intergranular lanes of solar convection. These whirlpool-like flows are characterized by very strong horizontal velocities (7-11 km s{sup -1}) and downflows ({approx}7 km s{sup -1}), and are accompanied by strong decreases of temperature, density, and pressure at the surface and 0.5-1 Mm below the surface. High-speed whirlpool flows can attract and capture other vortices. According to our simulation results the processes of vortex interaction, such as vortex annihilation, can cause excitation of acoustic waves on the Sun.

  14. Low-latitude Pi2 pulsations during intervals of quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp≤1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, H.-J.; Kim, K.-H.; Jun, C.-W.; Takahashi, K.; Lee, D.-H.; Lee, E.; Jin, H.; Seon, J.; Park, Y.-D.; Hwang, J.

    2013-10-01

    It has been reported that Pi2 pulsations can be excited under extremely quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp=0). However, there have been few comprehensive reports of Pi2 pulsations in such a near ground state magnetosphere. To understand the characteristics of quiet-time Pi2 pulsations, we statistically examined Pi2 events observed on the nightside between 1800 and 0600 local time at the low-latitude Bohyun (BOH, L = 1.35) station in South Korea. We chose year 2008 for analysis because geomagnetic activity was unusually low in that year. A total of 982 Pi2 events were identified when Kp≤1. About 80% of the Pi2 pulsations had a period between 110 and 300 s, which significantly differs from the conventional Pi2 period from 40 to 150 s. Comparing Pi2 periods and solar wind conditions, we found that Pi2 periods decrease with increasing solar wind speed, consistent with the result of Troitskaya (1967). The observed wave properties are discussed in terms of plasmaspheric resonance, which has been proposed for Pi2 pulsations in the inner magnetosphere. We also found that Pi2 pulsations occur quasi-periodically with a repetition period of ˜23-38 min. We will discuss what determines such a recurrence time of Pi2 pulsations under quiet geomagnetic conditions.

  15. Soft X-Ray Luminosity and Photospheric Magnetic Field in Quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Acton, Loren W.

    2001-06-01

    We use full-disk soft X-ray data from Yohkoh and Kitt Peak daily magnetograms to study the coronal irradiance and photospheric magnetic field remote from active regions between 1991 November and 1998 December. For every image of our data set we extract three areas 4°×4° in size centered at N00° W00°, N50° W00°, and S50° W00° and compute X-ray irradiance and unsigned magnetic flux for each of these areas. Between 1991 (active Sun) and 1996 (quiet Sun) the X-ray irradiance at the heliographic center decreased by more than a factor of 7, while the magnetic flux decreased by only a factor of 2. A similar tendency is observed for our high-latitude samples. Apart from the cycle-related variations, all three areas of quiet Sun exhibit significant nonperiodic changes in X-ray irradiance. These variations occur on 9-12 month intervals and clearly correlate with changes in sunspot activity. Similar variations are present in the total X-ray irradiance averaged over the solar disk. By contrast, the magnetic fluxes from the photosphere beneath these same areas show no corresponding variations on this time scale. In our opinion, coronal heating models based on the reconnection of quiet-Sun magnetic elements (variously called chromospheric network, ``magnetic carpet,'' or ``salt and pepper'' field) can at best account for a minimal contribution to heating the million-degree corona observed by the Yohkoh soft X-ray telescope. We conclude that the X-ray irradiance in the quiet Sun (at least in the Yohkoh temperature range, >2 MK) is primarily associated with the strong magnetic fields of active regions, not with weak photospheric fields. The association, however, is not direct. We interpret the enhanced X-ray irradiance above the quiet Sun not as a result of the coronal ``canopy'' formed by the active-region magnetic field above the quiet-Sun areas, but as the large-scale relaxation process in the corona triggered by the evolution of active regions. To further support this

  16. Design of Quiet Rotorcraft Approach Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Burley, Casey L.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    A optimization procedure for identifying quiet rotorcraft approach trajectories is proposed and demonstrated. The procedure employs a multi-objective genetic algorithm in order to reduce noise and create approach paths that will be acceptable to pilots and passengers. The concept is demonstrated by application to two different helicopters. The optimized paths are compared with one another and to a standard 6-deg approach path. The two demonstration cases validate the optimization procedure but highlight the need for improved noise prediction techniques and for additional rotorcraft acoustic data sets.

  17. Delayed stochastic differential model for quiet standing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Yu, P.; Essex, C.

    2001-02-01

    A physiological quiet standing model, described by a delayed differential equation, subject to a white noise perturbation, is proposed to study the postural control system of human beings. It has been found that the white noise destabilizes the equilibrium state, and inertia accelerates the destabilizing process, and that the position of a person is detected and processed by the person's nervous system with a delay. This paper focuses on the analysis of Hopf bifurcation and its stability in this context. Based on the analytical predictions confirmed by numerical simulations, it has been shown that the posture of a person is controlled in such a way that possible amplitude oscillations are minimized.

  18. The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Peter; Thorpe, Alan; Brunet, Gilbert

    2015-09-01

    Advances in numerical weather prediction represent a quiet revolution because they have resulted from a steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and technological advances over many years that, with only a few exceptions, have not been associated with the aura of fundamental physics breakthroughs. Nonetheless, the impact of numerical weather prediction is among the greatest of any area of physical science. As a computational problem, global weather prediction is comparable to the simulation of the human brain and of the evolution of the early Universe, and it is performed every day at major operational centres across the world.

  19. SOHO reveals violent action on the quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-05-01

    SOHO's scientists are impressed by the vigorous action that they see going on every day, because the Sun is in the very quietest phase of its eleven-year cycle of activity. To ground-based observatories it appears extremely calm just now. The early indications of SOHO's performance amply justify the creation of a sungazing spacecraft capable of observing ultraviolet emissions that are blotted out by the Earth's atmosphere. Apart from the imager, two ultraviolet spectrometers and an ultraviolet coronagraph (an imager for the outer atmosphere) are busy analysing the violent processes at a wide range of wavelengths. Between them, these instruments should cure long-lasting ignorance concerning the Sun, especially about why the atmosphere is so hot and what drives the solar wind that blows non-stop into the Solar System. Scientists from other experimental teams use SOHO to explore the Sun from its deep interior to the far reaches of the solar wind. They have watched the supposedly quiet Sun belching huge masses of gas into space. They have mapped a hole burnt by the solar wind in a breeze of gas coming from the stars. And they have detected currents of gas flowing just below the visible surface. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between the European Space Agency and NASA. The spacecraft was built in Europe and instrumented by scientists on both sides of the Atlantic. NASA launched SOHO on 2 December 1995, and also provides the ground stations and an operations centre near Washington. The first results are the more remarkable because SOHO arrived at its vantage point 1,500,000 kilometres out in space only in February, and formally completed its commissioning on 16 April. It has a long life ahead of it. All scientific instruments are working well. The luminosity oscillation imager belonging to the VIRGO experiment had trouble with its lens cover. When opened, the cover rebounded on its hinges and closed again. Commands were devised that gave a shorter impulse

  20. Characteristics of the large-scale traveling atmospheric disturbances during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods simulated by a whole atmosphere general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Miyoshi, Yasunobu

    2006-10-01

    We have investigated characteristics of the large-scale traveling atmospheric disturbances (LS-TADs) generated during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods using a whole atmosphere general circulation model (GCM). The GCM simulations show that various TADs appear in association with passages of regions with large temperature gradients near the solar terminator, midnight temperature anomaly, and auroral oval which move with the Earth's rotation. These TADs, which are superimposed on each other, appear even when a geomagnetically quiet period. The TADs generated during a geomagnetically quiet period show structures extending in the longitudinal direction at high-latitude and in the latitudinal direction at mid- and low-latitude. These structures disappear after their short-range propagations. The TADs generated during a geomagnetically disturbed period show structures extending widely in the longitudinal direction and propagate from high- to low-latitude. These simulation results suggest the different generation mechanisms and features between the TADs generated during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods.

  1. 49 CFR 222.35 - What are the minimum requirements for quiet zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones... that is added onto an existing quiet zone, provided there is no public highway-rail grade crossing at... crossing, unless a New Quiet Zone or New Partial Quiet Zone is being added onto an existing quiet zone....

  2. 49 CFR 222.35 - What are the minimum requirements for quiet zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones... that is added onto an existing quiet zone, provided there is no public highway-rail grade crossing at... crossing, unless a New Quiet Zone or New Partial Quiet Zone is being added onto an existing quiet zone....

  3. 49 CFR 222.35 - What are the minimum requirements for quiet zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones... that is added onto an existing quiet zone, provided there is no public highway-rail grade crossing at... crossing, unless a New Quiet Zone or New Partial Quiet Zone is being added onto an existing quiet zone....

  4. 49 CFR 222.35 - What are the minimum requirements for quiet zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones... that is added onto an existing quiet zone, provided there is no public highway-rail grade crossing at... crossing, unless a New Quiet Zone or New Partial Quiet Zone is being added onto an existing quiet zone....

  5. 49 CFR 222.35 - What are the minimum requirements for quiet zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones... that is added onto an existing quiet zone, provided there is no public highway-rail grade crossing at... crossing, unless a New Quiet Zone or New Partial Quiet Zone is being added onto an existing quiet zone....

  6. Transverse pelvic rotation during quiet human stance.

    PubMed

    Günther, Michael; Otto, Daniel; Müller, Otto; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2008-04-01

    The mechanism of two-legged quiet stance is unclear. This study specifically investigated biomechanical parameters characterising the mechanisms of rotation around the longitudinal axis (parallel to gravitational acceleration, i.e. in the transverse plane parallel to the ground). Subjects (10) were examined while standing quietly on two force platforms which measured the transverse component of the ground reaction torque (GRT). In addition, right and left hip kinematics were acquired by tracking markers in the sagittal plane. The pelvic rotation in the transverse plane (pelvic angle) was then calculated from the anterior-posterior coordinates of the hip markers. We verified the hypothesis that the pelvis generally may be coupled to the ground by a rotational stiffness provided by both legs. Thus, we asked whether the transverse GRT component may be proportional to the pelvic angle. This hypothesis was rejected. However, the transverse GRT component could be identified as one rotational stabilising mechanism which drove the higher-frequency (>1 Hz) deflections of the pelvic angle back to its lower-frequency fraction. The respective stiffness coefficient between transverse GRT component and relative displacement between higher- and lower-frequency pelvic angular fraction was about 2.4 Nm/degrees. Implications for the character and the localisation of active control of body rotation around the longitudinal axis are discussed.

  7. Microwave properties of a quiet sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J.

    1985-01-01

    The microwave flux responses of a quiet sea are observed at five microwave frequencies and with both horizontal and vertical polarizations at each frequency--a simultaneous 10 channel receiving system. The measurements are taken from Earth orbit with an articulating antenna. The 10 channel responses are taken simultaneously since they share a common articulating collector with a multifrequency feed. The plotted flux responses show: (1) the effects of the relative, on-axis-gain of the collecting aperture for each frequency; (2) the effects of polarization rotation in the output responses of the receive when the collecting aperture mechanically rotates about a feed that is fixed; (3) the difference between the flux magnitudes for the horizontal and vertical channels, at each of the five frequencies, and for each pointing position, over a 44 degree scan angle; and (4) the RMS value of the clutter--as reckoned over the interval of a full swath for each of the 10 channels. The clutter is derived from the standard error of estimate of the plotted swath response for each channel. The expected value of the background temperature is computed for each of the three quiet seas. The background temperature includes contributions from the cosmic background, the downwelling path, the sea surface, and the upwelling path.

  8. The "Quiet" Troubles of Low-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Most of the troubles poor at-risk children have are not "loud" problems like disruptive behavior or gang involvement. They are "quiet." The range of these problems is vast. Hunger, dehydration, asthma, obesity, and hearing problems can all insidiously trip children up in school. Some quiet problems are psychological--depression, anxiety, the fear…

  9. Mired in the Shadows: Quiet Students in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Greg; Bell, James

    2011-01-01

    Quiet students are a feature of the organisation of secondary schools. Using qualitative methods and Deleuzean conceptualisations of modern subjectivity, this paper explores the ways that quiet students negotiate the terrain of their school. These negotiations often seem to produce a self that is trapped rather than a subject who seizes…

  10. Determination of the decameter wavelength spectrum of the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. C.; Kundu, M. R.; Mahoney, M. J.; Gergely, T. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Teepee Tee array of the Clark Lake Radio Observatory has been used to compare the flux of the Sun with that of the sidereal sources Tau A and Vir A at several frequencies in the range 109.0-19.0 MHz. Only the two central banks of the E-W arm of the array were used as elements of a phase switched interferometer so that the Sun could be observed as a point source and compared directly to the sidereal sources. The Sun was still partially resolved however, and appropriate corrections for this effect were made. The observations were taken at times when the Sun and either Tau A or Vir A were at the same declination. We have therefore been able to derive the values for the solar flux, without having to resort to a gain vs zenith distance correction. The observations, combined with those available in the literature, allow us to derive an accurate meter and decameter wavelength spectrum of the quiet Sun.

  11. Quiet(er) marine protected areas.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Erbe, Christine; Ashe, Erin; Clark, Christopher W

    2015-11-15

    A core task in endangered species conservation is identifying important habitats and managing human activities to mitigate threats. Many marine organisms, from invertebrates to fish to marine mammals, use acoustic cues to find food, avoid predators, choose mates, and navigate. Ocean noise can affect animal behavior and disrupt trophic linkages. Substantial potential exists for area-based management to reduce exposure of animals to chronic ocean noise. Incorporating noise into spatial planning (e.g., critical habitat designation or marine protected areas) may improve ecological integrity and promote ecological resilience to withstand additional stressors. Previous work identified areas with high ship noise requiring mitigation. This study introduces the concept of "opportunity sites" - important habitats that experience low ship noise. Working with existing patterns in ocean noise and animal distribution will facilitate conservation gains while minimizing societal costs, by identifying opportunities to protect important wildlife habitats that happen to be quiet.

  12. The quiet short-haul research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochrane, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design concepts, performance capabilities, and projected applications of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) are discussed. The propulsive lift system of the QSRA provides the lift required for short field operations at low community noise levels. This system consists of four high bipass ratio, geared turbofan engines mounted so that the engine exhaust flows across the upper surface of the wing (upper surface blowing). Large specially shaped flaps behind each engine control the direction of the flow for each phase of flight. A 95 passenger short haul transport based on this technology could operate out of a 2500 foot runway with a combined takeoff and landing 90 EPNdB footprint area of 2.7 sq mi.

  13. Quiet swimming at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Anders; Wadhwa, Navish; Kiorboe, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Planktonic organisms that inhabit the water masses of the oceans are faced with a dilemma: They need to swim to find food and mates, but by swimming they inevitably create flow disturbances that attract predators. We discuss that planktonic swimmers can reduce the flow disturbances due to their swimming, simply by appropriately arranging their propulsion apparatus. Motivated by recent experiments, we demonstrate that a three-Stokeslet model of a breast stroke swimmer is an example of a quiet swimmer. We show that the flow disturbances around the organism in both the near field and the far field are small in comparison with simple pullers and pushers, and we find that the far field power laws are valid surprisingly close to the organism. Breast stroke swimming may thus be advantageous, and this might explain why it is very common in the world of the plankton.

  14. Polar convection patterns under quiet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1985-10-01

    Convection electric field patterns at high latitudes appropriate to periods of low geomagnetic activity are presented. The postulate that the global Joule dissipation rate is a minimum is employed to derive characteristic field distributions for the situation when ring current ohmic losses are negligible and the auroral oval enhancement of height-integrated Hall conductivity is small. The fast Fourier transform is introduced to compute Fourier coefficients of discrete field-aligned current data, and the method is shown to be quite useful in this context as a least squares fitting routine. The model calculations demonstrate the approach of the high-latitude ionosphere toward the perfect shielding configuration predicted by the theory for quiet times.

  15. CORONAL SEISMOLOGY USING EIT WAVES: ESTIMATION OF THE CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    West, M. J.; Zhukov, A. N.; Dolla, L.; Rodriguez, L.

    2011-04-01

    Coronal EIT waves have been observed for many years. The nature of EIT waves is still contentious, however, there is strong evidence that some of them might be fast magnetosonic waves, or at least have a fast magnetosonic wave component. The fast magnetosonic wave speed is formed from two components; the Alfven speed (magnetic) and the sound speed (thermal). By making measurements of the wave speed, coronal density and temperature it is possible to calculate the quiet-Sun coronal magnetic field strength through coronal seismology. In this paper, we investigate an EIT wave observed on 2009 February 13 by the SECCHI/EUVI instruments on board the STEREO satellites. The wave epicenter was observed at disk center in the STEREO B (Behind) satellite. At this time, the STEREO satellites were separated by approximately 90 deg., and as a consequence the STEREO A (Ahead) satellite observed the wave on the solar limb. These observations allowed us to make accurate speed measurements of the wave. The background coronal density was derived through Hinode/Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer observations of the quiet Sun and the temperature was estimated through the narrow temperature response in the EUVI bandpasses. The density, temperature, and speed measurements allowed us to estimate the quiet-Sun coronal magnetic field strength to be approximately 0.7 {+-} 0.7 G.

  16. Some effects of quiet geomagnetic field changes upon values used for main field modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of three methods of data selection upon the assumed main field levels for geomagnetic observatory records used in main field modeling were investigated for a year of very low solar-terrestrial activity. The first method concerned the differences between the year's average of quiet day field values and the average of all values during the year. For H these differences were 2-3 gammas, for D they were -0.04 to -0.12???, for Z the differences were negligible. The second method of selection concerned the effects of the daytime internal Sq variations upon the daily mean values of field. The midnight field levels when the Sq currents were a minimum deviated from the daily mean levels by as much as 4-7 gammas in H and Z but were negligible for D. The third method of selection was designed to avoid the annual and semi-annual quiet level changes of field caused by the seasonal changes in the magnetosphere. Contributions from these changes were found to be as much as 4-7 gammas in quiet years and expected to be greater than 10 gammas in active years. Suggestions for improved methods of improved data selection in main field modeling are given. ?? 1987.

  17. RESPONSE OF GRANULATION TO SMALL-SCALE BRIGHT FEATURES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Andic, A.; Chae, J.; Goode, P. R.; Cao, W.; Ahn, K.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Abramenko, V.

    2011-04-10

    We detected 2.8 bright points (BPs) per Mm{sup 2} in the quiet Sun with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory, using the TiO 705.68 nm spectral line at an angular resolution {approx}0.''1 to obtain a 30 minute data sequence. Some BPs formed knots that were stable in time and influenced the properties of the granulation pattern around them. The observed granulation pattern within {approx}3'' of knots presents smaller granules than those observed in a normal granulation pattern, i.e., around the knots a suppressed convection is detected. Observed BPs covered {approx}5% of the solar surface and were not homogeneously distributed. BPs had an average size of 0.''22, they were detectable for 4.28 minutes on average, and had an averaged contrast of 0.1% in the deep red TiO spectral line.

  18. Overview of the Arizona Quiet Pavement Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donavan, Paul; Scofield, Larry

    2005-09-01

    The Arizona Quiet Pavement Pilot Program (QP3) was initially implemented to reduce highway related traffic noise by overlaying most of the Phoenix metropolitan area Portland cement concrete pavement with a one inch thick asphalt rubber friction coarse. With FHWA support, this program represents the first time that pavement surface type has been allowed as a noise mitigation strategy on federally funded projects. As a condition of using pavement type as a noise mitigation strategy, ADOT developed a ten-year, $3.8 million research program to evaluate the noise reduction performance over time. Historically, pavement surface type was not considered a permanent solution. As a result, the research program was designed to specifically address this issue. Noise performance is being evaluated through three means: (1) conventional roadside testing within the roadway corridor (e.g., far field measurements within the right-of-way) (2) the use of near field measurements, both close proximity (CPX) and sound intensity (SI); and (3) far field measurements obtained beyond the noise barriers within the surrounding neighborhoods. This paper provides an overview of the program development, presents the research conducted to support the decision to overlay the urban freeway, and the status of current research.

  19. Prognostic Analysis of the Tactical Quiet Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, Lee M

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Army needs prognostic analysis of mission-critical equipment to enable condition-based maintenance before failure. ORNL has developed and patented prognostic technology that quantifies condition change from noisy, multi-channel, time-serial data. This report describes an initial application of ORNL's prognostic technology to the Army's Tactical Quiet Generator (TQG), which is designed to operate continuously at 10 kW. Less-than-full power operation causes unburned fuel to accumulate on internal components, thereby degrading operation and eventually leading to failure. The first objective of this work was identification of easily-acquired, process-indicative data. Two types of appropriate data were identified, namely output-electrical current and voltage, plus tri-axial acceleration (vibration). The second objective of this work was data quality analysis to avoid the garbage-in-garbage-out syndrome. Quality analysis identified more than 10% of the current data as having consecutive values that are constant, or that saturate at an extreme value. Consequently, the electrical data were not analyzed further. The third objective was condition-change analysis to indicate operational stress under non-ideal operation and machine degradation in proportion to the operational stress. Application of ORNL's novel phase-space dissimilarity measures to the vibration power quantified the rising operational stress in direct proportion to the less-than-full-load power. We conclude that ORNL's technology is an excellent candidate to meet the U.S. Army's need for equipment prognostication.

  20. Quiet swimming at low Reynolds number.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Anders; Wadhwa, Navish; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The stresslet provides a simple model of the flow created by a small, freely swimming and neutrally buoyant aquatic organism and shows that the far field fluid disturbance created by such an organism in general decays as one over distance squared. Here we discuss a quieter swimming mode that eliminates the stresslet component of the flow and leads to a faster spatial decay of the fluid disturbance described by a force quadrupole that decays as one over distance cubed. Motivated by recent experimental results on fluid disturbances due to small aquatic organisms, we demonstrate that a three-Stokeslet model of a swimming organism which uses breast stroke type kinematics is an example of such a quiet swimmer. We show that the fluid disturbance in both the near field and the far field is significantly reduced by appropriately arranging the propulsion apparatus, and we find that the far field power laws are valid surprisingly close to the organism. Finally, we discuss point force models as a general framework for hypothesis generation and experimental exploration of fluid mediated predator-prey interactions in the planktonic world.

  1. Quiet swimming at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Anders; Wadhwa, Navish; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The stresslet provides a simple model of the flow created by a small, freely swimming and neutrally buoyant aquatic organism and shows that the far field fluid disturbance created by such an organism in general decays as one over distance squared. Here we discuss a quieter swimming mode that eliminates the stresslet component of the flow and leads to a faster spatial decay of the fluid disturbance described by a force quadrupole that decays as one over distance cubed. Motivated by recent experimental results on fluid disturbances due to small aquatic organisms, we demonstrate that a three-Stokeslet model of a swimming organism which uses breast stroke type kinematics is an example of such a quiet swimmer. We show that the fluid disturbance in both the near field and the far field is significantly reduced by appropriately arranging the propulsion apparatus, and we find that the far field power laws are valid surprisingly close to the organism. Finally, we discuss point force models as a general framework for hypothesis generation and experimental exploration of fluid mediated predator-prey interactions in the planktonic world.

  2. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Guide to Establishing Quiet Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Section III of the Guide provides information on establishing Pre-Rule Quiet Zones. A Pre-Rule Quiet Zone... differences between New and Pre-Rule Quiet Zones will be explained. Public Authority Designation and Public Authority Application to FRA methods also apply to Pre-Rule Quiet Zones. Section IV of the Guide deals...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Guide to Establishing Quiet Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Section III of the Guide provides information on establishing Pre-Rule Quiet Zones. A Pre-Rule Quiet Zone... differences between New and Pre-Rule Quiet Zones will be explained. Public Authority Designation and Public Authority Application to FRA methods also apply to Pre-Rule Quiet Zones. Section IV of the Guide deals...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Guide to Establishing Quiet Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Section III of the Guide provides information on establishing Pre-Rule Quiet Zones. A Pre-Rule Quiet Zone... differences between New and Pre-Rule Quiet Zones will be explained. Public Authority Designation and Public Authority Application to FRA methods also apply to Pre-Rule Quiet Zones. Section IV of the Guide deals...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Guide to Establishing Quiet Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Section III of the Guide provides information on establishing Pre-Rule Quiet Zones. A Pre-Rule Quiet Zone... differences between New and Pre-Rule Quiet Zones will be explained. Public Authority Designation and Public Authority Application to FRA methods also apply to Pre-Rule Quiet Zones. Section IV of the Guide deals...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 222 - Guide to Establishing Quiet Zones

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Section III of the Guide provides information on establishing Pre-Rule Quiet Zones. A Pre-Rule Quiet Zone... differences between New and Pre-Rule Quiet Zones will be explained. Public Authority Designation and Public Authority Application to FRA methods also apply to Pre-Rule Quiet Zones. Section IV of the Guide deals...

  7. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    A study of quiet turbofan short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation was conducted. The objectives of the study were to: (1) define representative aircraft configurations, characteristics, and costs associated with their development, (2) identify critical technology and technology related problems to be resolved in successful introduction of representative short haul aircraft, (3) determine relationships between quiet short takeoff aircraft and the economic and social viability of short haul, and (4) identify high payoff technology areas.

  8. Relationship between extreme ultraviolet microflares and small-scale magnetic fields in the quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fayu; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Shuhong

    2015-06-01

    Microflares are small dynamic signatures observed in X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet channels. Because of their impulsive emission enhancements and wide distribution, they are thought to be closely related to coronal heating. By using the high-resolution 171 Å images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the lines-of-sight magnetograms obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we trace 10794 microflares in a quiet region near the disk center with a field of view of 960″ × 1068″ during 24 hr. The microflares have an occurrence rate of 4.4 × 103 hr-1 extrapolated over the whole Sun. Their average brightness, size, and lifetime are 1.7I0 (of the quiet Sun), 9.6 Mm2, and 3.6 min, respectively. There exists a mutual positive correlation between the microflares' brightness, area, and lifetime. In general, the microflares distribute uniformly across the solar disk, but form network patterns locally, which are similar to and matched with the magnetic network structures. Typical cases show that the microflares prefer to occur in magnetic cancellation regions of network boundaries. We roughly calculate the upper limit of energy flux supplied by the microflares and find that the result is still a factor of ˜ 15 below the coronal heating requirement.

  9. Relationship between extreme ultraviolet microflares and small-scale magnetic fields in the quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fayu; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Shuhong

    2016-04-01

    Microflares are small dynamic signatures observed in X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet channels. Because of their impulsive emission enhancements and wide distribution, they are thought to be closely related to coronal heating. By using the high resolution 171 Å images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the lines-of-sight magnetograms obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we trace 10794 microflares in a quiet region near the disk center with a field of view of 960''× 1068'' during 24 hr. The microflares have an occurrence rate of 4.4 × 103 hr-1 extrapolated over the whole Sun. Their average brightness, size, and lifetime are 1.7 I0 (of the quiet Sun), 9.6 Mm2, and 3.6 min, respectively. There exists a mutual positive correlation between the microflares' brightness, area and lifetime. In general, the microflares distribute uniformly across the solar disk, but form network patterns locally, which are similar to and matched with the magnetic network structures. Typical cases show that the microflares prefer to occur in magnetic cancellation regions of network boundaries. We roughly calculate the upper limit of energy flux supplied by the microflares and find that the result is still a factor of ˜15 below the coronal heating requirement.

  10. Vertical variations of charged-particle temperature and density in quiet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apati, I.; Semerei, T.; Afonin, V.; Bezrukikh, V.; Shiutte, N.; Bentse, P.

    1983-09-01

    Electrostatic analyzers aboard the Vertical-6 rocket were used to study vertical variations of charged-particle temperature and density at heights of 200-1200 km during quiet-solar conditions on October 25, 1977. The heating of the electron-ion gas was found to have an essentially nonmonotonic character. Above the F-region maximum, significant fluctuations of ion-gas temperature were observed, apparently associated with vertical variations of cooling and heating due to the excitation of the fine structure of atomic-oxygen levels as well as due to the effect of ion-exchange reactions. The maximum heating of ion gas occurs at heights where hydrogen ions begin to predominate. It is noted that the results obtained can be used to improve existing ionospheric models relating to periods of low solar activity.

  11. A quiet ego quiets death anxiety: humility as an existential anxiety buffer.

    PubMed

    Kesebir, Pelin

    2014-04-01

    Five studies tested the hypothesis that a quiet ego, as exemplified by humility, would buffer death anxiety. Humility is characterized by a willingness to accept the self and life without comforting illusions, and by low levels of self-focus. As a consequence, it was expected to render mortality thoughts less threatening and less likely to evoke potentially destructive behavior patterns. In line with this reasoning, Study 1 found that people high in humility do not engage in self-serving moral disengagement following mortality reminders, whereas people low in humility do. Study 2 showed that only people low in humility respond to death reminders with increased fear of death, and established that this effect was driven uniquely by humility and not by some other related personality trait. In Study 3, a low sense of psychological entitlement decreased cultural worldview defense in response to death thoughts, whereas a high sense of entitlement tended to increase it. Study 4 demonstrated that priming humility reduces self-reported death anxiety relative to both a baseline and a pride priming condition. Finally, in Study 5, experimentally induced feelings of humility prevented mortality reminders from leading to depleted self-control. As a whole, these findings obtained from relatively diverse Internet samples illustrate that the dark side of death anxiety is brought about by a noisy ego only and not by a quiet ego, revealing self-transcendence as a sturdier, healthier anxiety buffer than self-enhancement.

  12. Stiffness control of balance in quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Winter, D A; Patla, A E; Prince, F; Ishac, M; Gielo-Perczak, K

    1998-09-01

    Our goal was to provide some insights into how the CNS controls and maintains an upright standing posture, which is an integral part of activities of daily living. Although researchers have used simple performance measures of maintenance of this posture quite effectively in clinical decision making, the mechanisms and control principles involved have not been clear. We propose a relatively simple control scheme for regulation of upright posture that provides almost instantaneous corrective response and reduces the operating demands on the CNS. The analytic model is derived and experimentally validated. A stiffness model was developed for quiet standing. The model assumes that muscles act as springs to cause the center-of-pressure (COP) to move in phase with the center-of-mass (COM) as the body sways about some desired position. In the sagittal plane this stiffness control exists at the ankle plantarflexors, in the frontal plane by the hip abductors/adductors. On the basis of observations that the COP-COM error signal continuously oscillates, it is evident that the inverted pendulum model is severely underdamped, approaching the undamped condition. The spectrum of this error signal is seen to match that of a tuned mass, spring, damper system, and a curve fit of this "tuned circuit" yields omega n the undamped natural frequency of the system. The effective stiffness of the system, Ke, is then estimated from Ke = I omega n2, and the damping B is estimated from B = BW X I, where BW is the bandwidth of the tuned response (in rad/s), and I is the moment of inertia of the body about the ankle joint. Ten adult subjects were assessed while standing quietly at three stance widths: 50% hip-to-hip distance, 100 and 150%. Subjects stood for 2 min in each position with eyes open; the 100% stance width was repeated with eyes closed. In all trials and in both planes, the COP oscillated virtually in phase (within 6 ms) with COM, which was predicted by a simple 0th order spring

  13. OBSERVATIONS OF AN ENERGETICALLY ISOLATED QUIET SUN TRANSIENT: EVIDENCE OF QUASI-STEADY CORONAL HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Orange, N. Brice; Chesny, David L.; Oluseyi, Hakeem M.

    2015-09-10

    Increasing evidence for coronal heating contributions from cooler solar atmospheric layers, notably quiet Sun (QS) conditions, challenges standard solar atmospheric descriptions of bright transition region (TR) emission. As such, questions about the role of dynamic QS transients in contributing to the total coronal energy budget are raised. Using observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Heliosemic Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and numerical model extrapolations of coronal magnetic fields, we investigate a dynamic QS transient that is energetically isolated to the TR and extrudes from a common footpoint shared with two heated loop arcades. A non-causal relationship is established between episodic heating of the QS transient and widespread magnetic field re-organization events, while evidence is found favoring a magnetic topology that is typical of eruptive processes. Quasi-steady interchange reconnection events are implicated as a source of the transient’s visibly bright radiative signature. We consider the QS transient’s temporally stable (≈35 minutes) radiative nature to occur as a result of the large-scale magnetic field geometries of the QS and/or relatively quiet nature of the magnetic photosphere, which possibly act to inhibit energetic build-up processes that are required to initiate a catastrophic eruption phase. This work provides insight into the QS’s thermodynamic and magnetic relation to eruptive processes that quasi-steadily heat a small-scale dynamic and TR transient. This work explores arguments of non-negligible coronal heating contributions from cool atmospheric layers in QS conditions and contributes evidence to the notion that  solar wind mass feeds off of dynamic transients therein.

  14. Two-Component Fitting of Coronal-Hole and Quiet-Sun He I 1083 Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.; Malanushenko, Elena V.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present reduction techniques and first results for detailed fitting of solar spectra obtained with the NASA/National Solar Observatory Spectromagnetograph (NASA/NSO SPM over a 2 nm bandpass centered on the He 1 1083 nm line. The observation for this analysis was a spectra-spectroheliogram obtained at the NSO/Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope (KPVT) on 00 Apr 17 at 21:46 UT spanning an area of 512 x 900 arc-seconds; the field of view included a coronal hole near disk center as well as surrounding quiet sun. Since the He I line is very weak and blended with nearby solar and telluric lines, accurate determination of the continuum intensity as a function of wavelength is crucial. We have modified the technique of Malanushenko {\\it et al.) (1992; {\\it AA) (\\bf 259), 567) to tie regions of continuua and the wings of spectral lines which show little variation over the image to standard reference spectra such as the NSO Fourier Transform Spectrometer atlas (Wallace {\\it et al). 1993; NSO Tech Report \\#93-001). We performed detailed least-squares fits of spectra from selected areas, accounting for all the known telluric and solar absorbers in the spectral bandpass. The best physically consistent fits to the Helium lines were obtained with Gaussian profiles from two components (one ''cool'', characteristic of the upper chromosphere; one ''hot'', representing the cool transition region at 2-3 x 10$^{4)$ K). In the coronal hole, the transition-region component, shifted by 6-7 km/s to the blue, is mildly dominant, consistent with mass outflow as suggested by Dupree {\\it et all. (1996; {\\it Ap. J.}-{\\bf 467), 121). In quiet-sun spectra there is less evidence of outward flow, and the chromospheric component is more important. All our fitted spectra show a very weak unidentified absorption feature at 1082.880 nm in the red wing of the nearby Si I line.

  15. First simultaneous SST/CRISP and IRIS observations of a small-scale quiet Sun vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.-H.; Tsiropoula, G.; Kontogiannis, I.; Tziotziou, K.; Scullion, E.; Doyle, J. G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Ubiquitous small-scale vortices have recently been found in the lower atmosphere of the quiet Sun in state-of-the-art solar observations and in numerical simulations. Aims: We investigate the characteristics and temporal evolution of a granular-scale vortex and its associated upflows through the photosphere and chromosphere of a quiet Sun internetwork region. Methods: We analyzed high spatial and temporal resolution ground- and spaced-based observations of a quiet Sun region. The observations consist of high-cadence time series of wideband and narrowband images of both Hα 6563 Å and Ca II 8542 Å lines obtained with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) instrument at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST), as well as ultraviolet imaging and spectral data simultaneously obtained by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Results: A small-scale vortex is observed for the first time simultaneously in Hα, Ca II 8542 Å, and Mg II k lines. During the evolution of the vortex, Hα narrowband images at -0.77 Å and Ca II 8542 Å narrowband images at -0.5 Å, and their corresponding Doppler signal maps, clearly show consecutive high-speed upflow events in the vortex region. These high-speed upflows with a size of 0.5-1 Mm appear in the shape of spiral arms and exhibit two distinctive apparent motions in the plane of sky for a few minutes: (1) a swirling motion with an average speed of 13 km s-1 and (2) an expanding motion at a rate of 4-6 km s-1. Furthermore, the spectral analysis of Mg II k and Mg II subordinate lines in the vortex region indicates an upward velocity of up to ~8 km s-1 along with a higher temperature compared to the nearby quiet Sun chromosphere. Conclusions: The consecutive small-scale vortex events can heat the upper chromosphere by driving continuous high-speed upflows through the lower atmosphere. Movies associated to Figs. 2 and 3 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  16. OBSERVATIONS OF THE INTERACTION OF ACOUSTIC WAVES AND SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELDS IN A QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Chitta, Lakshmi Pradeep; Kariyappa, R.; Jain, Rekha; Jefferies, Stuart M. E-mail: rkari@iiap.res.in E-mail: stuartj@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2012-01-10

    The effect of the magnetic field on photospheric intensity and velocity oscillations at the sites of small-scale magnetic fields (SMFs) in a quiet Sun near the solar disk center is studied. We use observations made by the G-band filter in the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode for intensity oscillations; Doppler velocity, magnetic field, and continuum intensity are derived from an Ni I photospheric absorption line at 6767.8 A using the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Our analysis shows that both the high-resolution intensity observed in the G band and velocity oscillations are influenced by the presence of a magnetic field. While intensity oscillations are suppressed at all frequencies in strong magnetic field regions compared to weak magnetic field regions, velocity oscillations show an enhancement of power in the frequency band 5.5-7 mHz. We find that there is a drop of 20%-30% in the p-mode power of velocity oscillations within the SMFs when compared to the regions surrounding them. Our findings indicate that the nature of the interaction of acoustic waves with the quiet Sun SMFs is similar to that of large-scale magnetic fields in active regions. We also report the first results of the center-to-limb variation of such effects using the observations of the quiet Sun from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). The independent verification of these interactions using SDO/HMI suggests that the velocity power drop of 20%-30% in p-modes is fairly constant across the solar disk.

  17. 49 CFR 222.41 - How does this rule affect Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.41 How does this rule affect Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule... public highway-rail grade crossing within the quiet zone one or more SSMs identified in appendix A...

  18. 49 CFR 222.41 - How does this rule affect Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.41 How does this rule affect Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule... public highway-rail grade crossing within the quiet zone one or more SSMs identified in appendix A...

  19. 49 CFR 222.41 - How does this rule affect Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.41 How does this rule affect Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule... public highway-rail grade crossing within the quiet zone one or more SSMs identified in appendix A...

  20. 49 CFR 222.41 - How does this rule affect Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.41 How does this rule affect Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule... public highway-rail grade crossing within the quiet zone one or more SSMs identified in appendix A...

  1. 49 CFR 222.41 - How does this rule affect Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.41 How does this rule affect Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule... public highway-rail grade crossing within the quiet zone one or more SSMs identified in appendix A...

  2. The quiet-Sun photosphere and chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Robert J

    2012-07-13

    The overall structure and the fine structure of the solar photosphere outside active regions are largely understood, except possibly the important roles of a turbulent near-surface dynamo at its bottom, internal gravity waves at its top and small-scale vorticity. Classical one-dimensional static radiation-escape modelling has been replaced by three-dimensional time-dependent magento-hydrodynamic simulations that come closer to reality. The solar chromosphere, in contrast, remains little understood, although its pivotal role in coronal mass and energy loading makes it a principal research area. Its fine structure defines its overall structure, so that hard-to-observe and hard-to-model small-scale dynamical processes are key to understanding. However, both chromospheric observation and chromospheric simulation presently mature towards the required sophistication. Open-field features seem of greater interest than easier-to-see closed-field features. PMID:22665896

  3. HOMOLOGOUS CYCLONES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xinting; Zhang, Jun; Li, Ting; Zhang, Yuzong; Yang, Shuhong E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn E-mail: yuzong@nao.cas.cn

    2014-02-20

    Through observations with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, we tracked one rotating network magnetic field (RNF) near the solar equator. It lasted for more than 100 hr, from 2013 February 23 to 28. During its evolution, three cyclones were found to be rooted in this structure. Each cyclone event lasted for about 8 to 10 hr. While near the polar region, another RNF was investigated. It lasted for a shorter time (∼70 hr), from 2013 July 7 to 9. There were two cyclones rooted in the RNF and each lasted for 8 and 11 hr, respectively. For the two given examples, the cyclones have a similar dynamic evolution, and thus we put forward a new term: homologous cyclones. The detected brightening in AIA 171 Å maps indicates the release of energy, which is potentially available to heat the corona.

  4. The quiet-Sun photosphere and chromosphere.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Robert J

    2012-07-13

    The overall structure and the fine structure of the solar photosphere outside active regions are largely understood, except possibly the important roles of a turbulent near-surface dynamo at its bottom, internal gravity waves at its top and small-scale vorticity. Classical one-dimensional static radiation-escape modelling has been replaced by three-dimensional time-dependent magento-hydrodynamic simulations that come closer to reality. The solar chromosphere, in contrast, remains little understood, although its pivotal role in coronal mass and energy loading makes it a principal research area. Its fine structure defines its overall structure, so that hard-to-observe and hard-to-model small-scale dynamical processes are key to understanding. However, both chromospheric observation and chromospheric simulation presently mature towards the required sophistication. Open-field features seem of greater interest than easier-to-see closed-field features.

  5. A New Observation of the Quiet Sun Soft X-ray (0.5-5 keV) Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; Woods, T. N.; Stone, J.

    2012-12-01

    The solar corona is the brightest source of X-rays in the solar system, and the X-ray emission is highly variable with solar activity. While this is particularly true during solar flares, when emission can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude up to gamma-ray energies, even the so-called "quiet Sun" is bright in soft X-rays (SXRs), as the ~1-2 MK ambient plasma of the corona emits significant thermal bremsstrahlung up to ~5 keV. However, the actual solar SXR (0.5-5 keV) spectrum is not well known, particularly during quiet periods, as, with few exceptions, this energy range has not been systematically studied in many years. Previous observations include ultra-high-resolution but very narrow-band spectra from crystral spectrometers (e.g. Yohkoh/BCS), or integrated broadband irradiances from photometers (e.g. GOES/XRS, TIMED/XPS, etc.) that lack detailed spectral information. In recent years, broadband measurements with fair energy resolution (~0.5-0.7 keV FWHM) were made by SphinX on CORONAS-Photon and XRS on MESSENGER, although they did not extend below ~1 keV. We present observations of the quiet Sun SXR emission obtained using a new SXR spectrometer flown on the third SDO/EVE underflight calibration rocket (NASA 36.286). The commercial off-the-shelf Amptek X123 silicon drift detector, with an 8-micron Be window and custom aperture, measured the solar SXR emission from ~0.5 to >10 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM resolution (though, due to hardware limitations, with only ~0.12 keV binning) and 2-sec cadence over ~5 minutes on 23 June 2012. Despite the rising solar cycle, activity on 23 June 2012 was abnormally low, with no visible active regions and GOES XRS emission near 2010 levels; we measured no solar counts above ~4 keV during the observation period. We compare our X123 measurements with spectra and broadband irradiances from other instruments, including the SphinX observations during the deep solar minimum of 2009, and with upper limits of >3 keV quiet Sun emission

  6. STUDY OF SINGLE-LOBED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION PROFILES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Sainz Dalda, A.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; Title, A.; Bellot Rubio, L. E-mail: asainz@lmsal.com

    2012-03-20

    The existence of asymmetries in the circular polarization (Stokes V) profiles emerging from the solar photosphere has been known since the 1970s. These profiles require the presence of a velocity gradient along the line of sight (LOS), possibly associated with gradients of magnetic field strength, inclination, and/or azimuth. We have focused our study on the Stokes V profiles showing extreme asymmetry in the form of only one lobe. Using Hinode spectropolarimetric measurements, we have performed a statistical study of the properties of these profiles in the quiet Sun. We show their spatial distribution, their main physical properties, how they are related with several physical observables, and their behavior with respect to their position on the solar disk. The single-lobed Stokes V profiles occupy roughly 2% of the solar surface. For the first time, we have observed their temporal evolution and have retrieved the physical conditions of the atmospheres from which they emerged using an inversion code implementing discontinuities of the atmospheric parameters along the LOS. In addition, we use synthetic Stokes profiles from three-dimensional magnetoconvection simulations to complement the results of the inversion. The main features of the synthetic single-lobed profiles are in general agreement with the observed ones, lending support to the magnetic and dynamic topologies inferred from the inversion. The combination of all these different analyses suggests that most of the single-lobed Stokes V profiles are signals coming from the magnetic flux emergence and/or submergence processes taking place in small patches in the photosphere of the quiet Sun.

  7. Quiet Sonic Booms: A NASA and Industry Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, David Nils; Martin, Roy; Haering, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this Oral Presentation is to present a progress report on NASA and Industry efforts related to Quiet Sonic Boom Program activities. This presentation will review changes in aircraft shaping to produce quiet supersonic booms and associated supersonic flight test methods and results. In addition, new flight test profiles have been recently developed that have allowed for the generation of sonic booms of varying intensity. These new flight test profiles have allowed for ground testing of the response of various building structures to sonic booms and the associated public acceptability to various sonic boom intensities. The new flight test profiles and associated ground measurement test methods will be reviewed. Finally, this Oral Presentation will review the International Regulatory requirements that would be involved to change aviation regulation and allow for overland quiet supersonic flight.

  8. Commission 12: Solar Radiation and Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, Alexander; Cauzzi, Gianna; Pillet, Valentin Martinez; Asplund, Martin; Brandenburg, Axel; Chou, Dean-Yi; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen; Gan, Weiqun; Kuznetsov, Vladimir D.; Rovira, Marta G.; Shchukina, Nataliya; Venkatakrishnan, P.

    2012-04-01

    Commission 12 of the International Astronomical Union encompasses investigations of the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun, mostly accessible through the techniques of local and global helioseismology, the quiet solar atmosphere, solar radiation and its variability, and the nature of relatively stable magnetic structures like sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network. The Commission sees participation of over 350 scientists worldwide.

  9. Quiet Sun Magnetic Field Evolution Observed with Hinode SOT and IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, C. E.; Bello González, N.; Rezaei, R.

    2016-04-01

    We study two physical processes that can be commonly observed in the quiet sun and involve temporal evolution of the magnetic field: convective collapse and flux cancellation. The aim is to investigate the response of the chromosphere to the magnetic events in the photosphere below. We have calibrated and aligned a co-spatial and co-temporal 3 hour quiet sun time series observed with the Hinode SOT (Solar Optical Telescope) and the IRIS (Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph) satellites. Convective collapse events are identified in the photosphere by inverting spectropolarimetric data and searching for magnetic field intensification, preceded by a downflow and accompanied by the development of a bright point in Ca II H images. We find a corresponding downflow in the low chromosphere as deduced from IRIS Mg II k and h spectra and an ensuing oscillatory velocity pattern. We use magnetograms in the high photosphere to study pairs of magnetic elements involved in flux cancellation and find an increase in the entire quasi-continuum of the IRIS Mg II k and h spectrum following the flux cancellation process and indicating a substantial energy deposit into the lower atmosphere.

  10. UBIQUITOUS ROTATING NETWORK MAGNETIC FIELDS AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET CYCLONES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jun; Liu Yang E-mail: yliu@sun.stanford.edu

    2011-11-01

    We present Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations of EUV cyclones in the quiet Sun. These cyclones are rooted in the rotating network magnetic fields (RNFs). Such cyclones can last several to more than 10 hr and, at the later phase, they are found to be associated with EUV brightenings (microflares) and even EUV waves. SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) observations show a ubiquitous presence of RNFs. Using HMI line-of-sight magnetograms on 2010 July 8, we find 388 RNFs in an area of 800 x 980 arcsec{sup 2} near the disk center where no active region is present. The sense of rotation shows a weak hemisphere preference. The unsigned magnetic flux of the RNFs is about 4.0 x 10{sup 21} Mx, or 78% of the total network flux. These observational phenomena at small scale reported in this Letter are consistent with those at large scale in active regions. The ubiquitous RNFs and EUV cyclones over the quiet Sun may suggest an effective way to heat the corona.

  11. 3D Simulations of the Quiet Sun Radio Emission at Millimeter and Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Luz, V.; Lara, A.; Mendoza, E.; Shimojo, M.

    2008-07-01

    We present 2D projections of 3D simulations of the quiet-sun radio-emission, at different frequencies on the centimeter- submillimeter wavelength range (specifically at 1.4, 3.9, 17, 34, 43, 110, 212 and 250 GHz). We have built a 3D, spherically symmetric, solar model and solved the classical equation of radiative transfer using quiet-sun temperature and electronic density models. We compare our results with Nobeyama Radio Heliograph observations at 17 GHz. The 3.9 and 43 GHz images will be useful to calibrate the observations of the new 5 meter millimeter telescope (RT5) which is going to be installed at "Sierra Negra" Volcano, in the state of Puebla, México, at an altitude of 4,600 m. over the sea level. This project is a collaboration between Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).

  12. Milne-Eddington inversion for unresolved magnetic structures in the quiet Sun photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommier, Véronique

    2016-06-01

    This paper is first devoted to present our method for modeling unresolved magnetic structures in the Milne-Eddington inversion of spectropolarimetric data. The related definitions and other approaches and different used inversion algorithms are recalled for comparison. In a second part, we apply our method to quiet Sun data outside active regions. We obtain the quiet Sun photospheric magnetic field as composed of unresolved opening and connected magnetic flux tubes, which form a loop carpet of field lines. We then analyze the spatial correlation, which we also observed for the magnetic field vector, in terms of flux tube diameter, distance, and field strength. We find that different observations with the Zurich imaging polarimeter and THEMIS polarimeter mounted on the THEMIS telescope give very close results, and we add results also very close derived from HINODE/Solar Optical Telescope/spectropolarimeter observations analyzed with the same method. We obtain a mean flux tube diameter of 30 km, a mean flux tube distance of 230 km, and a mean flux tube magnetic field of 1.3 kG.

  13. Quiet geomagnetic field representation for all days and latitudes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.; Schiffmacher, E.R.; Arora, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a technique for obtaining the quiet-time geomagnetic field variation expected for all days of the year and distribution of latitudes from a limited set of selected quiet days within a year at a discrete set of locations. A data set of observatories near 75??E longitude was used as illustration. The method relies upon spatial smoothing of the decomposed spectral components. An evaluation of the fidelity of the resulting model shows correlation coefficients usually above 0.9 at the lower latitudes and near 0.7 at the higher latitudes with variations identified as dependent upon season and field element. -from Authors

  14. Photospheric Magnetic Field Properties of Flaring versus Flare-quiet Active Regions. II. Discriminant Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.

    2003-10-01

    We apply statistical tests based on discriminant analysis to the wide range of photospheric magnetic parameters described in a companion paper by Leka & Barnes, with the goal of identifying those properties that are important for the production of energetic events such as solar flares. The photospheric vector magnetic field data from the University of Hawai'i Imaging Vector Magnetograph are well sampled both temporally and spatially, and we include here data covering 24 flare-event and flare-quiet epochs taken from seven active regions. The mean value and rate of change of each magnetic parameter are treated as separate variables, thus evaluating both the parameter's state and its evolution, to determine which properties are associated with flaring. Considering single variables first, Hotelling's T2-tests show small statistical differences between flare-producing and flare-quiet epochs. Even pairs of variables considered simultaneously, which do show a statistical difference for a number of properties, have high error rates, implying a large degree of overlap of the samples. To better distinguish between flare-producing and flare-quiet populations, larger numbers of variables are simultaneously considered; lower error rates result, but no unique combination of variables is clearly the best discriminator. The sample size is too small to directly compare the predictive power of large numbers of variables simultaneously. Instead, we rank all possible four-variable permutations based on Hotelling's T2-test and look for the most frequently appearing variables in the best permutations, with the interpretation that they are most likely to be associated with flaring. These variables include an increasing kurtosis of the twist parameter and a larger standard deviation of the twist parameter, but a smaller standard deviation of the distribution of the horizontal shear angle and a horizontal field that has a smaller standard deviation but a larger kurtosis. To support the

  15. Contemplative Pedagogy: A Quiet Revolution in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    During the last fifteen years a quiet pedagogical revolution has taken place in colleges, universities, and community colleges across the United States and increasingly around the world. Often flying under the name "contemplative pedagogy," it offers to its practitioners a wide range of educational methods that support the development of student…

  16. On the hazard of quiet vehicles to pedestrians and drivers.

    PubMed

    Wogalter, Michael S; Lim, Raymond W; Nyeste, Patrick G

    2014-09-01

    The need to produce more efficient and less polluting vehicles has encouraged mass production of alternative energy vehicles, such as hybrid and electric cars. Many of these vehicles are capable of very quiet operation. While reducing noise pollution is desirable, quieter vehicles could negatively affect pedestrian safety because of reduced sound cues compared to louder internal combustion engines. Three studies were performed to investigate people's concern about this issue. In Study 1, a questionnaire completed by 378 people showed substantial positive interest in quiet hybrid and electric cars. However, they also indicated concern about the reduced auditory cues of quiet vehicles. In Study 2, 316 participants rated 14 sounds that could be potentially added to quiet alternative-energy vehicles. The data showed that participants did not want annoying sounds, but preferred adding "engine" and "hum" sounds relative to other types of sounds. In Study 3, 24 persons heard and rated 18 actual sounds within 6 categories that were added to a video of a hybrid vehicle driving by. The sounds most preferred were "engine" followed by "white noise" and "hum". Implications for adding sounds to facilitate pedestrians' detection of moving vehicles and for aiding drivers' awareness of speed are discussed. PMID:24035347

  17. Quiet Times: The Place for Sadness in Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Val J.

    1999-01-01

    Compares clinical depression with reactive depression, a normal part of childhood development. Looks at quiet times children may experience, and provides examples of how normal childhood sadness can turn into depression. Suggests coping mechanisms and support structures that can prevent this cycle from occurring. (Author/JDM)

  18. Remote Observations of Ion Temperatures in the Quiet Time Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keesee, A. M.; Buzulukova, N.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.; Scime, E. E.; Spence, H.; Fok, M. C.; Tallaksen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Ion temperature analysis of the first energetic neutral atom images of the quiet -time, extended magnetosphere provides evidence of multiple regions of ion heating. This study confirms the existence of a dawn -dusk asymmetry in ion temperature predicted for quiescent magnetospheric conditions by Spence and Kivelson (1993) and demonstrates that it is an inherent magnetospheric feature.

  19. On the hazard of quiet vehicles to pedestrians and drivers.

    PubMed

    Wogalter, Michael S; Lim, Raymond W; Nyeste, Patrick G

    2014-09-01

    The need to produce more efficient and less polluting vehicles has encouraged mass production of alternative energy vehicles, such as hybrid and electric cars. Many of these vehicles are capable of very quiet operation. While reducing noise pollution is desirable, quieter vehicles could negatively affect pedestrian safety because of reduced sound cues compared to louder internal combustion engines. Three studies were performed to investigate people's concern about this issue. In Study 1, a questionnaire completed by 378 people showed substantial positive interest in quiet hybrid and electric cars. However, they also indicated concern about the reduced auditory cues of quiet vehicles. In Study 2, 316 participants rated 14 sounds that could be potentially added to quiet alternative-energy vehicles. The data showed that participants did not want annoying sounds, but preferred adding "engine" and "hum" sounds relative to other types of sounds. In Study 3, 24 persons heard and rated 18 actual sounds within 6 categories that were added to a video of a hybrid vehicle driving by. The sounds most preferred were "engine" followed by "white noise" and "hum". Implications for adding sounds to facilitate pedestrians' detection of moving vehicles and for aiding drivers' awareness of speed are discussed.

  20. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2013-05-01

    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  1. The Reform Movement and the Quiet Crisis in Gifted Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.; Reis, Sally M.

    1991-01-01

    Gifted education faces a quiet crisis as reform movements focus on cosmetic administrative changes in school organization and management rather than interaction among teachers, students, and the material to be learned. Two goals of American education are presented: providing the best possible education to promising students and improving the…

  2. Design note about a 75 KVA quiet power distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.T.

    1984-04-05

    This note describes a 75KVA quiet power distribution system for X 653 in neutrino Lab D. It is fed from the regular AC distribution which exists in the building and it has no standby power. Its purpose is to remove electrical disturbances which are present on the regular AC distribution.

  3. SLOW MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES OBSERVED ABOVE A QUIET-SUN REGION IN A DARK CAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Jiajia; Zhou Zhenjun; Wang Yuming; Liu Rui; Liao Chijian; Shen Chenglong; Zheng Huinan; Miao Bin; Su Zhenpeng; Wang, S.; Wang Bin E-mail: ymwang@ustc.edu.cn

    2012-10-20

    Waves play a crucial role in diagnosing the plasma properties of various structures in the solar corona and coronal heating. Slow magnetoacoustic (MA) waves are one of the important types of magnetohydrodynamic waves. In past decades, numerous slow MA waves were detected above active regions and coronal holes, but were rarely found elsewhere. Here, we investigate a 'tornado'-like structure consisting of quasi-periodic streaks within a dark cavity at about 40-110 Mm above a quiet-Sun region on 2011 September 25. Our analysis reveals that these streaks are actually slow MA wave trains. The properties of these wave trains, including phase speed, compression ratio, and kinetic energy density, are similar to those of the reported slow MA waves, except that the period of these waves is about 50 s, much shorter than the typical reported values (3-5 minutes).

  4. Slow Magneto-acoustic Waves Observed above Quiet-Sun Region in a Dark Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenjun, Z.; Jiajia, L.; Wang, Y.; Rui, L.; Bin, W.; Chijian, L.; Shen, C.; Zheng, H.; Miao, B.; Su, Z.; Wang, S.

    2012-12-01

    Waves play a crucial role in diagnosing the plasma properties of various structures in the solar corona and coronal heating. Slow magneto-acoustic (MA) waves are one of the important magnetohydrodynamic waves. In past decades, numerous slow MA waves were detected above the active regions and coronal holes, but rarely found elsewhere. Here, we investigate a 'tornado'-like structure consisting of quasi-periodic streaks within a dark cavity at about 40-110 Mm above the quiet-Sun region on 2011 September 25. Our analysis reveals that these streaks are actually slow MA wave trains. The properties of these wave trains, including the phase speed, compression ratio, kinetic energy density, etc., are similar to those of the reported slow MA waves, except that the period of these waves is about 50 s, much shorter than the typical reported values (3-5 minutes).t;

  5. Numerical simulations of quiet sun magnetism: On the contribution from a small-scale dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Rempel, M.

    2014-07-10

    We present a series of radiative MHD simulations addressing the origin and distribution of the mixed polarity magnetic field in the solar photosphere. To this end, we consider numerical simulations that cover the uppermost 2-6 Mm of the solar convection zone and we explore scales ranging from 2 km to 25 Mm. We study how the strength and distribution of the magnetic field in the photosphere and subsurface layers depend on resolution, domain size, and boundary conditions. We find that 50% of the magnetic energy at the τ = 1 level comes from fields with the less than 500 G strength and that 50% of the energy resides on scales smaller than about 100 km. While the probability distribution functions are essentially independent of resolution, properly describing the spectral energy distribution requires grid spacings of 8 km or smaller. The formation of flux concentrations in the photosphere exceeding 1 kG requires a mean vertical field strength greater than 30-40 G at τ = 1. The filling factor of kG flux concentrations increases with overall domain size as the magnetic field becomes organized by larger, longer-lived flow structures. A solution with a mean vertical field strength of around 85 G at τ = 1 requires a subsurface rms field strength increasing with depth at the same rate as the equipartition field strength. We consider this an upper limit for the quiet Sun field strength, which implies that most of the convection zone is magnetized close to the equipartition. We discuss these findings in view of recent high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of quiet Sun magnetism.

  6. On the day-to-day variation of the equatorial electrojet during quiet periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Richmond, A. D.; Maute, A.; Liu, H.-L.; Pedatella, N.; Sassi, F.

    2014-08-01

    It has been known for a long time that the equatorial electrojet varies from day to day even when solar and geomagnetic activities are very low. The quiet time day-to-day variation is considered to be due to irregular variability of the neutral wind, but little is known about how variable winds drive the electrojet variability. We employ a numerical model introduced by Liu et al. (2013), which takes into account weather changes in the lower atmosphere and thus can reproduce ionospheric variability due to forcing from below. The simulation is run for May and June 2009. Constant solar and magnetospheric energy inputs are used so that day-to-day changes will arise only from lower atmospheric forcing. The simulated electrojet current shows day-to-day variability of ±25%, which produces day-to-day variations in ground level geomagnetic perturbations near the magnetic equator. The current system associated with the day-to-day variation of the equatorial electrojet is traced based on a covariance analysis. The current pattern reveals return flow at both sides of the electrojet, in agreement with those inferred from ground-based magnetometer data in previous studies. The day-to-day variation in the electrojet current is compared with those in the neutral wind at various altitudes, latitudes, and longitudes. It is found that the electrojet variability is dominated by the zonal wind at 100-120 km altitudes near the magnetic equator. These results suggest that the response of the zonal polarization electric field to variable zonal winds is the main source of the day-to-day variation of the equatorial electrojet during quiet periods.

  7. The History of a Quiet-Sun Magnetic Element Revealed by IMaX/SUNRISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requerey, Iker S.; Del Toro Iniesta, Jose Carlos; Bellot Rubio, Luis R.; Bonet, José A.; Martínez Pillet, Valentín; Solanki, Sami K.; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    Isolated flux tubes are considered to be fundamental magnetic building blocks of the solar photosphere. Their formation is usually attributed to the concentration of magnetic field to kG strengths by the convective collapse mechanism. However, the small size of the magnetic elements in quiet-Sun areas has prevented this scenario from being studied in fully resolved structures. Here, we report on the formation and subsequent evolution of one such photospheric magnetic flux tube, observed in the quiet Sun with unprecedented spatial resolution (0.''15-0.''18) and high temporal cadence (33 s). The observations were acquired by the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment on board the SUNRISE balloon-borne solar observatory. The equipartition field strength magnetic element is the result of the merging of several same polarity magnetic flux patches, including a footpoint of a previously emerged loop. The magnetic structure is then further intensified to kG field strengths by convective collapse. The fine structure found within the flux concentration reveals that the scenario is more complex than can be described by a thin flux tube model with bright points and downflow plumes being established near the edges of the kG magnetic feature. We also observe a daisy-like alignment of surrounding granules and a long-lived inflow toward the magnetic feature. After a subsequent weakening process, the field is again intensified to kG strengths. The area of the magnetic feature is seen to change in anti-phase with the field strength, while the brightness of the bright points and the speed of the downflows varies in phase. We also find a relation between the brightness of the bright point and the presence of upflows within it.

  8. THE STORAGE AND DISSIPATION OF MAGNETIC ENERGY IN THE QUIET SUN CORONA DETERMINED FROM SDO/HMI MAGNETOGRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, K. A.; Sabol, J.; Mackay, D. H.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    2013-06-20

    In recent years, higher cadence, higher resolution observations have revealed the quiet-Sun photosphere to be complex and rapidly evolving. Since magnetic fields anchored in the photosphere extend up into the solar corona, it is expected that the small-scale coronal magnetic field exhibits similar complexity. For the first time, the quiet-Sun coronal magnetic field is continuously evolved through a series of non-potential, quasi-static equilibria, deduced from magnetograms observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, where the photospheric boundary condition which drives the coronal evolution exactly reproduces the observed magnetograms. The build-up, storage, and dissipation of magnetic energy within the simulations is studied. We find that the free magnetic energy built up and stored within the field is sufficient to explain small-scale, impulsive events such as nanoflares. On comparing with coronal images of the same region, the energy storage and dissipation visually reproduces many of the observed features. The results indicate that the complex small-scale magnetic evolution of a large number of magnetic features is a key element in explaining the nature of the solar corona.

  9. ON THE TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF THE DISK COUNTERPART OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Sekse, D. H.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; De Pontieu, B.

    2013-02-20

    The newly established type II spicule has been speculated to provide enough hot plasma to play an important role in the mass loading and heating of the solar corona. With the identification of rapid blueshifted excursions (RBEs) as the on-disk counterpart of type II spicules we have analyzed three different high-quality timeseries with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) at the Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma and subjected to an automated detection routine to detect a large number of RBEs for statistical purposes. Our observations are of a quiet-Sun region at disk center and we find lower Doppler velocities, 15-40 km s{sup -1}, and Doppler widths, 2-15 km s{sup -1}, of RBEs than in earlier coronal hole studies, 30-50 km s{sup -1} and 7-23 km s{sup -1}, respectively. In addition, we examine the spatial dependence of Doppler velocities and widths along the RBE axis and conclude that there is no clear trend to this over the field of view or in individual RBEs in the quiet Sun at disk center. These differences with previous coronal hole studies are attributed to the more varying magnetic field configuration in quiet-Sun conditions. Using an extremely high-cadence data set has allowed us to improve greatly on the determination of lifetimes of RBEs, which we find to range from 5 to 60 s with an average lifetime of 30 s, as well as the transverse motions in RBEs, with transverse velocities up to 55 km s{sup -1} and averaging 12 km s{sup -1}. Furthermore, our measurements of the recurrence rates of RBEs provide important new constraints on coronal heating by spicules. We also see many examples of a sinusoidal wave pattern in the transverse motion of RBEs with periods averaging 54 s and amplitudes from 21.5 to 129 km which agrees well with previous studies of wave motion in spicules at the limb. We interpret the appearance of RBEs over their full length within a few seconds as the result of a combination of three kinds of motions as is earlier reported for

  10. The quiet Sun magnetism: What can we learn from the Hanle effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faurobert, M.

    2012-12-01

    The physics of the outer layers of the Sun is mostly driven by magnetic phenomena. This is the reason why high resolution investigations of the magnetic fields in the hot and dilute outer atmosphere of the Sun, from the photosphere to the chromosphere and corona, are the major objectives of future large solar telescopes, such as the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), or the European Solar Telescope (EST). The so-called "quiet Sun" is filled in with magnetic fields distributed in strengths and over a wide range of spatial scales. The magnetic energy content of this distribution of fields is a crucial issue, related to the long standing questions of the coronal and chromospheric heatings. Zeeman diagnostics of the magnetic fields depend crucially on the spatial resolution of the observations, whereas diagnostics based on the Hanle effect do provide valuable information on the average field strength even if the magnetic structures are not resolved. However, they rely on the precise radiative transfer modeling of polarized lines formed under non-LTE conditions. The use of the differential Hanle effect on lines with different magnetic sensitivities is a method of choice to obtain model-independent diagnostics. Another promissing way explored nowdays is to make use of the complementary diagnostics provided by both the Zeeman and Hanle effects when they can be observed in the same lines.

  11. Systematic radial flows in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona of the quiet sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Rottman, Gary J.; Orrall, Frank Q.

    1991-05-01

    An observational study of the systematic radial flows representative of the quiet sun's chromosphere, transition region, and corona is presented. A sounding rocket experiment (July 27, 1987) obtained high-resolution EUV spectra along a solar diameter with spatial resolution of 20 x 20 arcsec. The center-to-limb behavior of four representative lines (Si II 1533 A, Fe II 1563 A, C IV 1548 A, Ne VIII 770 A formed at different heights in the solar atmosphere is discussed. Assuming that horizontal motions cancel statistically so that the line-of-sight velocity approaches zero at the limb, the net radial downflow is approximately 7.5 + or - 1.0 km/s for C IV, 2.7 + or - 1.5 km/s for Fe II 1563 A, and upper limits of 0 + or - 1.2 km/s and 0 + or - 4 km/s for Si II and Ne VIII, respectively. The absolute wavelengths of each emission line were determined by direct comparison with wavelengths of known platinum lines generated by an inflight calibration lamp. The assumption of line-of-sight velocity approaching zero at the limb is then tested by comparing the wavelengths with recently published laboratory rest wavelengths of the solar emission lines.

  12. Spectral Inversion of Multiline Full-Disk Observations of Quiet Sun Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthasar, H.; Demidov, M. L.

    2012-10-01

    Spectral inversion codes are powerful tools for analyzing spectropolarimetric observations, and they provide important diagnostics of solar magnetic fields. Inversion codes differ according to numerical procedure, approximation of the atmospheric model, and description of radiative transfer. Stokes Inversion based on Response functions (SIR) is an implementation widely used by the solar physics community. It allows one to work with different atmospheric components, where gradients of different physical parameters are possible, e.g., magnetic field strength and velocities. The spectropolarimetric full-disk observations were carried out with the Stokesmeter of the Solar Telescope for Operative Prediction (STOP) at the Sayan Observatory on 3 February 2009, when neither an active region nor any other extended flux concentration was present on the Sun. In this study of quiet Sun magnetic fields, we apply the SIR code simultaneously to 15 spectral lines. A tendency is found that weaker magnetic field strengths occur closer to the limb. We explain this finding by the fact that, close to the limb, we are more sensitive to higher altitudes in an expanding flux tube, where the field strength should be smaller since the magnetic flux is conserved with height. Typically, the inversions deliver two populations of magnetic elements: i) high magnetic field strengths (1500 - 2000 G) and high temperatures (5500 - 6500 K) and ii) weak magnetic fields (50 - 150 G) and low temperatures (5000 - 5300 K).

  13. Difference at chromospheric levels between rs cvn-type binaries, active and quiet chromosphere single stars, and active and quiet regions in the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Linsky, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper summarizes the differences in the properties of active chromospheres compared with quiet chromospheres by comparing active and quiet regions on the Sun, active and quiet chromosphere stars, and the very active chromospheres seen in close binary systems with chromospheres of single stars. In particular, the chromospheres of the RS CVn-type binary systems UX Arietis and HR 1099 and the chromosphere of UX Arietis during a flare are modeled.

  14. Effect of Energetic Electrons on Quiet Auroral Arc Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroki; Ohno, Nobuaki; Sato, Tetsuya

    2010-11-01

    The theory of feedback instability between the magnetosphere and ionosphere is believed as one of the candidate to explain the formation of quiet auroral arc. Then, some magneto-hydro- dynamics simulations showed the arc formation by this macroscopic instability, while the effect of auroral energetic electrons on the arc formation was neglected or given as a macroscopic parameter in these simulations. On the other hand, because of the recent development of particle simulations, auroral energetic electrons are thought to be produced by the super ion-acoustic double layer that should be created by microscopic instability. To make close investigation of auroral arc formation, it is necessary to consider the interaction with microscopic instability. In this paper, we numerically study the effect of energetic electrons on quiet auroral arc formation by means of the Macro-Micro Interlocked simulation.

  15. Quantitative Global Heat Transfer in a Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, John P.; Schneider, Steven P.; Liu, Tianshu; Rubal, Justin; Ward, Chris; Dussling, Joseph; Rice, Cody; Foley, Ryan; Cai, Zeimin; Wang, Bo; Woodiga, Sudesh

    2012-01-01

    This project developed quantitative methods for obtaining heat transfer from temperature sensitive paint (TSP) measurements in the Mach-6 quiet tunnel at Purdue, which is a Ludwieg tube with a downstream valve, moderately-short flow duration and low levels of heat transfer. Previous difficulties with inferring heat transfer from TSP in the Mach-6 quiet tunnel were traced to (1) the large transient heat transfer that occurs during the unusually long tunnel startup and shutdown, (2) the non-uniform thickness of the insulating coating, (3) inconsistencies and imperfections in the painting process and (4) the low levels of heat transfer observed on slender models at typical stagnation temperatures near 430K. Repeated measurements were conducted on 7 degree-half-angle sharp circular cones at zero angle of attack in order to evaluate the techniques, isolate the problems and identify solutions. An attempt at developing a two-color TSP method is also summarized.

  16. The influence of "quiet time" for patients in critical care.

    PubMed

    Maidl, Carolyn A; Leske, Jane S; Garcia, Annette E

    2014-10-01

    The primary aim was to examine the influence of "quiet time" in critical care. A dual-unit, nonrandomized, uncontrolled trial of a quiet time (QT) protocol was completed. A sample of adult patients from the Neurosciences Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit (CVICU) participated. Environmental stressors were reduced and patient rest promoted prior to QT. One hundred twenty-nine patients participated in 205 QTs. A one-way, repeated measure analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was calculated comparing Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire scores, pain and anxiety over three consecutive QTs. No significant statistical effect was found. However, patients rated sleep higher and anxiety levels decreased over consecutive QTs. Ninety-three percent of patients reported QT mattered to them. The combined efforts of nursing, medicine, and ancillary staff are necessary to foster periods of uninterrupted rest, thereby optimizing patient care. Further research is needed to determine if successive QTs positively influence patient outcomes. PMID:23847172

  17. Radio Quiet Protection at the Australian Square Kilometre array site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Smith, Lisa

    2015-08-01

    Radio astronomy relies on the detection of very faint signals from the universe. Many radio telescopes are now detrimentally affected by radio frequency interference (RFI), which results from a wide range of active spectrum users such as communications, aviation and satellites. This is why many new radio observatories are being sited at increasingly remote locations.The site for the Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders in Australia is the Murchison Radio-Astronomy Observatory (MRO). The MRO is located more than 350km from the nearest population centre and has a large radio-quiet zone that is managed under a range of legislative agreements.In this talk I will describe the radio quiet zone, what protection it gives, how it works and how astronomers interact with the spectrum management authorities.

  18. Dark Skies are a Universal Resource. So are Quiet Skies!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddalena, Ronald J.; Heatherly, S.

    2008-05-01

    You've just purchased your first telescope. But where to set it up? Certainly not a WalMart parking lot. Too much light pollution! In the same way that man-made light obscures our night sky and blinds ground-based optical telescopes, man-made radio signals blind radio telescopes as well. NRAO developed the Quiet Skies project to increase awareness of radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy in general by engaging students in local studies of RFI. To do that we created a sensitive detector which measures RFI. We produced 20 of these, and assembled kits containing detectors and supplementary materials for loan to schools. Students conduct experiments to measure the properties of RFI in their area, and input their measurements into a web-based data base. The Quiet Skies project is a perfect complement to the IYA Dark Skies Awareness initiative. We hope to place 500 Quiet Skies detectors into the field through outreach to museums and schools around the world. Should we be successful, we will sustain this global initiative via a continuing loan program. One day we hope to have a publicly generated image of the Earth which shows RFI much as the Earth at Night image illustrates light pollution. The poster will present the components of the project in detail, including our plans for IYA, and various low-cost alternative strategies for introducing RFI and radio astronomy to the public. We will share the results of some of the experiments already being performed by high school students. Development of the Quiet Skies project was funded by a NASA IDEAS grant. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  19. Quiet Clean General Aviation Turbofan (QCGAT) technology study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary design of an engine which satisfies the requirements of a quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) engine is described. Also an experimental program to demonstrate performance is suggested. The T700 QCGAT engine preliminary design indicates that it will radiate noise at the same level as an aircraft without engine noise, have exhaust emissions within the EPA 1981 Standards, have lower fuel consumption than is available in comparable size engines, and have sufficient life for five years between overhauls.

  20. Monitoring Radio Frequency Interference: The Quiet Skies Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, S.; Gear, C.; Maddalena, R. J.; Heatherly, S. A.

    2004-12-01

    The Quiet Skies Project is a result of the Research Experience for Teacher (RET) program during the summer of 2004. Teachers were involved in discovering the relationship between radio frequency interference (RFI) and radio astronomy observations. S. Rapp participated in astronomy observations with the Green Bank Telescope in order to characterize RFI issues at radio observatories and worked closely with the Green Bank Interference Protection Group. This work included such tasks as mitigation of locally-generated RFI from power poles and running radiation propagation studies for transmitters within the National Radio Quiet Zone. A curriculum was created to allow high school students to participate in a research effort to determine RFI levels in their communities. The aim of the project is to promote student awareness of radio astronomy and radio frequency interference through an inquiry-based science curriculum. It is hoped that the project will go national by 2007. A prototype RFI detector was created and tested at four wavelengths; 850, 900, 1425, and 1675 MHz. High school students used a beta version of the RFI detector to explore the occurrence of RFI at their schools and in their communities. The student goals of the Quiet Skies Project are to: Measure interference levels at their schools and in their communities; Reduce and transmit their data to an NRAO data base; Use online spectrum allocation data, and local information to determine possible causes of interference in their area; Analyze the complex trade-offs between radio astronomy's need for quiet skies, and other commercial, and non-commercial uses of the spectrum and share their insights with others. This work was funded by the NSF-RET program and a grant from the NASA-IDEAS program

  1. Can Quiet Standing Posture Predict Compensatory Postural Adjustment?

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Gabriel Bueno Lahóz; Siqueira, Cássio Marinho; Caffaro, Renê Rogieri; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to analyze whether quiet standing posture is related to compensatory postural adjustment. INTRODUCTION The latest data in clinical practice suggests that static posture may play a significant role in musculoskeletal function, even in dynamic activities. However, no evidence exists regarding whether static posture during quiet standing is related to postural adjustment. METHODS Twenty healthy participants standing on a movable surface underwent unexpected, standardized backward and forward postural perturbations while kinematic data were acquired; ankle, knee, pelvis and trunk positions were then calculated. An initial and a final video frame representing quiet standing posture and the end of the postural perturbation were selected in such a way that postural adjustments had occurred between these frames. The positions of the body segments were calculated in these initial and final frames, together with the displacement of body segments during postural adjustments between the initial and final frames. The relationship between the positions of body segments in the initial and final frames and their displacements over this time period was analyzed using multiple regressions with a significance level of p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS We failed to identify a relationship between the position of the body segments in the initial and final frames and the associated displacement of the body segments. DISCUSSION The motion pattern during compensatory postural adjustment is not related to quiet standing posture or to the final posture of compensatory postural adjustment. This fact should be considered when treating balance disturbances and musculoskeletal abnormalities. CONCLUSION Static posture cannot predict how body segments will behave during compensatory postural adjustment. PMID:19690665

  2. Evidence for wave heating of the quiet-sun corona

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2014-11-10

    We have measured the energy and dissipation of Alfvénic waves in the quiet Sun. A magnetic field model was used to infer the location and orientation of the magnetic field lines along which the waves are expected to travel. The waves were measured using spectral lines to infer the wave amplitude. The waves cause a non-thermal broadening of the spectral lines, which can be expressed as a non-thermal velocity v {sub nt}. By combining the spectroscopic measurements with this magnetic field model, we were able to trace the variation of v {sub nt} along the magnetic field. At each footpoint of the quiet-Sun loops, we find that waves inject an energy flux in the range of 1.3-5.5 × 10{sup 5} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. At the minimum of this range, this amounts to more than 80% of the energy needed to heat the quiet Sun. We also find that these waves are dissipated over a region centered on the top of the loops. The position along the loop where the damping begins is strongly correlated with the length of the loop, implying that the damping mechanism depends on the global loop properties rather than on local collisional dissipation.

  3. Spatial deconvolution of spectropolarimetric data: an application to quiet Sun magnetic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Ruiz Cobo, B.

    2015-07-01

    Context. One of the difficulties in extracting reliable information about the thermodynamical and magnetic properties of solar plasmas from spectropolarimetric observations is the presence of light dispersed inside the instruments, known as stray light. Aims: We aim to analyze quiet Sun observations after the spatial deconvolution of the data. We examine the validity of the deconvolution process with noisy data as we analyze the physical properties of quiet Sun magnetic elements. Methods: We used a regularization method that decouples the Stokes inversion from the deconvolution process, so that large maps can be quickly inverted without much additional computational burden. We applied the method on Hinode quiet Sun spectropolarimetric data. We examined the spatial and polarimetric properties of the deconvolved profiles, comparing them with the original data. After that, we inverted the Stokes profiles using the Stokes Inversion based on Response functions (SIR) code, which allow us to obtain the optical depth dependence of the atmospheric physical parameters. Results: The deconvolution process increases the contrast of continuum images and makes the magnetic structures sharper. The deconvolved Stokes I profiles reveal the presence of the Zeeman splitting while the Stokes V profiles significantly change their amplitude. The area and amplitude asymmetries of these profiles increase in absolute value after the deconvolution process. We inverted the original Stokes profiles from a magnetic element and found that the magnetic field intensity reproduces the overall behavior of theoretical magnetic flux tubes, that is, the magnetic field lines are vertical in the center of the structure and start to fan when we move far away from the center of the magnetic element. The magnetic field vector inferred from the deconvolved Stokes profiles also mimic a magnetic flux tube but in this case we found stronger field strengths and the gradients along the line-of-sight are larger

  4. Using SOHO to Understand CME-Producing Quiet-Region Filament Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.; Harra, L. K.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years we have been studying solar eruptions in an attempt to determine their primary initiation mechanism. We have focused on events involving filaments, because motions of the filaments just prior to their violent eruption are indicative of changes in the entire magnetic field system involved in the eruption. When the pre-eruption filament resides in a quiet region, the motions leading up to eruption are slower than in similar eruptions in active regions due to the weaker magnetic field strength and correspondingly lower Alfven velocities. These early motions manifest themselves in a slow rise (a few km/s) of the filament, in some cases lasting several hours. After this the filament and associated magnetic structures erupt rapidly, accelerating to speeds of a few 10 kmh over a few minutes. Because of their slow evolution, quiet-region eruptions such as these can be effectively studied in EUV with SOHO/EIT, with its regular cadence of about 12 min. For several cases we have combined EIT images with SOHO/MDI magnetograms and data from other other instruments, and compared our observations with predictions from various eruption scenarios, in particular the "breakout" (Antiochos 1998), "tether cutting" (e.g., Moore et al. 2001), and MHD instability mechanisms. Here we present a representative example of a quiet-region eruption involving a filament ejection, that occurred on 2001 February 28 in a magnetically quadrupolar region and produced a halo CME in SOHO/LASCO images. In addition to EIT and MDI, we analyzed spectral data from SOHO/CDS and soft X-ray (SXR) images from Yohkoh/SXT. We found that flux emergence occurred near one end of the filament, and that both this emergence and resulting microflaring in SXRs and EUV were temporally and spatially closely related to the start of the filament's slow rise. Intensity changes (dimmings and brightenings) in the EIT and SXT images indicate that fields far removed from the erupting core were involved in the

  5. NASA gateways at L1 and L2 and the radio-quiet Moon Farside imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2005-07-01

    NASA is currently studying the possibility of establishing future space bases at either of the libration points (also called Lagrangian points) L1 and L2 of the Earth Moon system. Two more similar points L1 and L2 of the Sun Earth system are also under consideration. Such possible future space bases are called Gateways in the NASA jargon. Each Gateway has its own pros and cons in terms of gravitational pull, distance from the Earth, and targets attainable by future spacecraft departing from the Gateway. A preliminary, concise review of these alternative possibilities is presented in this paper. We claim, however, that an extra factor has to be included in the NASA scenario also. This is the Radio-Quiet Moon Farside Imperative, called simply the Farside Imperative hereafter. This imperative is the need to keep at least the central part of the Farside of the Moon free from Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) coming from the Earth and shielded by the Moon's spherical body. In fact, the Farside of the Moon, and the Quiet Cone that extends into space above it for a few thousands of kilometers, represent a unique outpost for humankind: they are the only place close to the Earth where all radio-garbage produced by modern human civilization cannot reach. Thus, an array of radio antennas located there would sense the rest of the universe to an unprecedented degree of radio cleanliness, and, hence, of radio details. Not only would astrophysics and radio astronomy in general greatly benefit from this radio-quiet environment, but we would possibly achieve there for the first time a neat radio contact with an extraterrestrial civilization harboring somewhere else in the Galaxy (SETI) that could be too noisy to be detected on Earth. It is thus felt that a fair balance has to be reached between the astronautical drive to enlarge the exploration of the solar system and the imperative to keep the Farside of the Moon radio-clean. This paper puts forward a set of constructing

  6. Micro Coronal Bright Points Observed in the Quiet Magnetic Network by SOHO/EIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    When one looks at SOHO/EIT Fe XII images of quiet regions, one can see the conventional coronal bright points (> 10 arcsec in diameter), but one will also notice many smaller faint enhancements in brightness (Figure 1). Do these micro coronal bright points belong to the same family as the conventional bright points? To investigate this question we compared SOHO/EIT Fe XII images with Kitt Peak magnetograms to determine whether the micro bright points are in the magnetic network and mark magnetic bipoles within the network. To identify the coronal bright points, we applied a picture frame filter to the Fe XII images; this brings out the Fe XII network and bright points (Figure 2) and allows us to study the bright points down to the resolution limit of the SOHO/EIT instrument. This picture frame filter is a square smoothing function (hlargelyalf a network cell wide) with a central square (quarter of a network cell wide) removed so that a bright point's intensity does not effect its own background. This smoothing function is applied to the full disk image. Then we divide the original image by the smoothed image to obtain our filtered image. A bright point is defined as any contiguous set of pixels (including diagonally) which have enhancements of 30% or more above the background; a micro bright point is any bright point 16 pixels or smaller in size. We then analyzed the bright points that were fully within quiet regions (0.6 x 0.6 solar radius) centered on disk center on six different days.

  7. Coronal extension of the MURaM radiative MHD code: From quiet sun to flare simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, Matthias D.; Cheung, Mark

    2016-05-01

    We present a new version of the MURaM radiative MHD code, which includes a treatment of the solar corona in terms of MHD, optically thin radiative loss and field-aligned heat conduction. In order to relax the severe time-step constraints imposed by large Alfven velocities and heat conduction we use a combination of semi-relativistic MHD with reduced speed of light ("Boris correction") and a hyperbolic formulation of heat conduction. We apply the numerical setup to 4 different setups including a mixed polarity quiet sun, an open flux region, an arcade solution and an active region setup and find all cases an amount of coronal heating sufficient to maintain a corona with temperatures from 1 MK (quiet sun) to 2 MK (active region, arcade). In all our setups the Poynting flux is self-consistently created by photospheric and sub-photospheric magneto-convection in the lower part of our simulation domain. Varying the maximum allowed Alfven velocity ("reduced speed of light") leads to only minor changes in the coronal structure as long as the limited Alfven velocity remains larger than the speed of sound and about 1.5-3 times larger than the peak advection velocity. We also found that varying details of the numerical diffusivities that govern the resistive and viscous energy dissipation do not strongly affect the overall coronal heating, but the ratio of resistive and viscous energy dependence is strongly dependent on the effective numerical magnetic Prandtl number. We use our active region setup in order to simulate a flare triggered by the emergence of a twisted flux rope into a pre-existing bipolar active region. Our simulation yields a series of flares, with the strongest one reaching GOES M1 class. The simulation reproduces many observed properties of eruptions such as flare ribbons, post flare loops and a sunquake.

  8. New View on Quiet-Sun Photospheric Dynamics Offered by NST Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, V.; Goode, P. R.

    2011-05-01

    Recent observations of the quiet sun photosphere obtained with the 1.6 meter New Solar telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar observatory (BBSO) delivered new information about photospheric fine structures and their dynamics, as well as posing new questions. The 2-hour uninterrupted data set of solar granulation obtained under excellent seeing conditions on August 3, 2010 (with cadence of 10 sec) was the basis for the study. Statistical analysis of automatically detected and tracked magnetic bright points (MBPs) showed that the MBPs population monotonically increases as their size decreases, down to 60-70 km. Our analysis shows that if the smallest magnetic flux tubes exist, their size is still smaller that 60-70 km, which impose strong restrictions on the modeling of these structures. We also found that the distributions of the MBP's size and lifetime do not follow a traditional Gaussian distribution, typical for random processes. Instead, it follows a log-normal distribution, typical for avalanches, catastrophes, stock market data, etc. Our data set also demonstrated that a majority (98.6 %) of MBPs are short live (<2 min). This remarkable fact was not obvious from previous studies because an extremely high time cadence was required. The fact indicates that the majority of MBPs appear for a very short time (tens of seconds), similar to other transient features, for example, chromospheric jets. The most important point here is that these small and short living MBPs significantly increase dynamics (flux emergence, collapse into MBPs, and magnetic flux recycling) of the solar surface magnetic fields.

  9. Outflow structure of the quiet sun corona probed by spacecraft radio scintillations in strong scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki; Toda, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Masato; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Shiota, Daikou; Isobe, Hiroaki; Asai, Ayumi; Miyamoto, Mayu; Häusler, Bernd; Pätzold, Martin; Nabatov, Alexander; Yaji, Kentaro; Yamada, Manabu

    2014-06-20

    Radio scintillation observations have been unable to probe flow speeds in the low corona where the scattering of radio waves is exceedingly strong. Here we estimate outflow speeds continuously from the vicinity of the Sun to the outer corona (heliocentric distances of 1.5-20.5 solar radii) by applying the strong scattering theory to radio scintillations for the first time, using the Akatsuki spacecraft as the radio source. Small, nonzero outflow speeds were observed over a wide latitudinal range in the quiet-Sun low corona, suggesting that the supply of plasma from closed loops to the solar wind occurs over an extended area. The existence of power-law density fluctuations down to the scale of 100 m was suggested, which is indicative of well-developed turbulence which can play a key role in heating the corona. At higher altitudes, a rapid acceleration typical of radial open fields is observed, and the temperatures derived from the speed profile show a distinct maximum in the outer corona. This study opened up a possibility of observing detailed flow structures near the Sun from a vast amount of existing interplanetary scintillation data.

  10. Orbiting solar observatory 8 high resolution ultraviolet spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Oscillations, physical properties of the solar atmosphere, motions in the quiet solar atmosphere, coronal holes, motions in solar active regions, solar flares, the structure of plage regions, an atlas, and aeronomy are summarized. Photometric sensitivity, scattered light, ghosts, focus and spectral resolution, wavelength drive, photometric sensitivity, and scattered light, are also summarized. Experiments are described according to spacecraft made and experiment type. Some of the most useful data reduction programs are described.

  11. Space-based solar limbograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdusamatov, H. I.

    2006-04-01

    A new system called the solar limbograph has been developed. This is a new reflective optical telescope with the best possible thermal properties, intended for high-accuracy measurements of the temporal variations of the shape of the limb and the diameter of the disk of the sun, as well as of the fine structure of individual active and quiet regions of the sun from on board a spacecraft. The optical system of the solar limbograph simulates an annular solar eclipse with an artificial moon mounted obliquely at the intermediate focus of its primary mirror.

  12. Moon Farside, Quiet Cone and the "RLI" Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, C.

    The Farside of the Moon is a unique place. Radio emissions coming from the Earth, and notably the from Telecommunication Satellites orbiting the Earth, don't get there since shielded by the Moon's spherical body. A radio telescope placed inside Crater Daedalus (just at the center of the Farside) would thus sense no man-made RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) and would be ideal for all radio astronomical and SETI searches. Above the Farside, a conical region extends into space, the ``Quiet Cone'', tangent to the Moon surface and with apex a few thousands of kilometers above the Moon. The size of the Quiet Cone, however, is only vaguely known, and changes in time, because the orbits of secret military satellites around the Earth are of course unknown. The only way to know the current, actual size of the Quiet Cone is to send a radiometer into orbit around the Moon and find out where the RFI coming from the Earth is actually shielded and where it is not. The RLI Experiment (RLI is an acronym for ``Radiometro Lunare Italiano'', i.e. Italian Moon Radiometer), is currently under construction by an Italian team coordinated by this author as Principal Investigator. The RLI is hopefully going to be put into orbit around the Moon before 2007. This will be done by placing the RLI radiometer aboard the ``Trailbalzer'', the first American commercial Moon spacecraft, built by TransOrbital Inc.. The RLI Experiment will take direct measurements of the intensity of man-made RFI around two frequencies: The band in between 10.7 and 11.8 GHz (main frequency band of European TV transmissions and, in part, also of American TV transmissions) and The band in between 10 Hz and 10 kHz, to get a Fourier spectrum of the very thin Moon atmosphere. A scientific and technical description of the RLI mission is given in this paper.

  13. Clamoring for quiet: new ways to mitigate noise.

    PubMed

    Manuel, John

    2005-01-01

    New technologies are providing innovative ways to reduce sound levels in many areas. Aircraft engineers are finding ways to reduce the noise produced by jet engines, while road builders are using rubber-enhanced pavement to quiet highway noise. Indoor acoustics are benefiting from materials that transform sound waves to heat, and so-called active noise control reduces harmful sounds through production of a mirror-image sound field. And new lawn equipment makes weekends at home quieter for yard lovers and their neighbors. PMID:15631960

  14. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    Conceptual designs of Quiet Turbofan STOL Short-Haul Transport Aircraft for the mid-1980 time period are developed and analyzed to determine their technical, operational, and economic feasibility. A matrix of aircraft using various high-lift systems and design parameters are considered. Variations in aircraft characteristics, airport geometry and location, and operational techniques are analyzed systematically to determine their effects on the market, operating economics, and community acceptance. In these studies, the total systems approach is considered to be critically important in analyzing the potential of STOL aircraft to reduce noise pollution and alleviate the increasing air corridor and airport congestion.

  15. Structure of magnetic fields on the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Haimin

    1988-01-01

    To obtain quantitative temporal and spatial information on the network magnetic fields, auto- and cross-correlation techniques are applied to the Big Bear videomagnetogram data. The average size of the network magnetic elements derived from the auto-correlation curve is about 5700 km. The distance between the primary and secondary peak in the auto-correlation curve is about 17,000 km, which is half of the size of the supergranule as determined from the velocity map. The canceling features and the emergence of ephemeral regions are the major sources for the loss and replenishment of magnetic flux on the quiet sun.

  16. Design Guidelines for Quiet Fans and Pumps for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, John S.; Magliozzi, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This document presents guidelines for the design of quiet fans and pumps of the class used on space vehicles. A simple procedure is presented for the prediction of fan noise over the meaningful frequency spectrum. A section also presents general design criteria for axial flow fans, squirrel cage fans, centrifugal fans, and centrifugal pumps. The basis for this report is an experimental program conducted by Hamilton Standard under NASA Contract NAS 9-12457. The derivations of the noise predicting methods used in this document are explained in Hamilton Standard Report SVHSER 6183, "Fan and Pump Noise Control," dated May 1973 (6).

  17. NASA/GE quiet engine C acoustic test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.; Pass, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    The acoustic investigation and evaluation of the C propulsion turbofan engine are discussed. The engine was built as a part of the Quiet Engine Program. The objectives of the program are as follows: (1) to determine the noise levels produced turbofan bypass engines, (2) to demonstrate the technology and innovations which will reduce the production and radiation of noise in turbofan engines, and (3) to acquire experimental acoustic and aerodynamic data for high bypass turbofan engines to provide a better understanding of noise production mechanisms. The goals of the program called for a turbofan engine 15 to 20 PNdB quieter than currently available engines in the same thrust class.

  18. Empirical modeling of the quiet time nightside magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Spence, H. E.; Stern, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    Empirical modeling of plasma pressure and magnetic field for the quiet time nightside magnetosphere is investigated. Two models are constructed for this study. One model, referred to here as T89R, is basically the magnetic field model of Tsyganenko (1989) but is modified by the addition of an inner eastward ring current at a radial distance of approximately 3 RE as suggested by observation. The other is a combination of the T89R model and the long version of the magnetic field model of Tsyganenko (1987) such that the former dominates the magnetic field in the inner magnetosphere while the latter prevails in the distant tail. The distribution of plasma pressure which is required to balance the magnetic force for each of these two field models is computed along the tail axis in the midnight meridian. The occurrence of pressure anisotropy in the inner magnetospheric region is also taken into account by determining an empirical fit to the observed plasma pressure anisotropy. This represents the first effort to obtain the plasma pressure distribution in force equilibrium with magnetic stresses from an empirical field model with the inclusion of pressure anisotropy. The inclusion of pressure anisotropy alters the plasma pressure by as much as a factor of approximately 3 in the inner magnetosphere. The deduced plasma pressure profile along the tail axis is found to be in good agreement with the observed quiet time plasma pressure for geocentric distances between approximately 2 and approximately 35 RE.

  19. Dark energy and the quietness of the local Hubble flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axenides, M.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

    2002-06-01

    The linearity and quietness of the local (<10 Mpc) Hubble flow (LHF) in view of the very clumpy local universe is a long standing puzzle in standard and in open CDM (cold dark matter) cosmogony. The question addressed in this paper is whether the antigravity component of the recently discovered dark energy can cool the velocity flow enough to provide a solution to this puzzle. We calculate the growth of matter fluctuations in a flat universe containing a fraction ΩX(t0) of dark energy obeying the time independent equation of state pX=wρX. We find that dark energy can indeed cool the LHF. However the dark energy parameter values required to make the predicted velocity dispersion consistent with the observed value vrms~=40 km/s have been ruled out by other observational tests constraining the dark energy parameters w and ΩX. Therefore despite the claims of recent qualitative studies, dark energy with time independent equation of state cannot by itself explain the quietness and linearity of the local Hubble flow.

  20. Retention of quiet eye in older skilled basketball players.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Lennart; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Tirp, Judith; Baker, Joseph; Strauss, Bernd; Schorer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting research to suggest that cognitive and motor expertise is more resistant to age-related decline than more general capacities. The authors investigated the retention of skills in medium-aged skilled (n = 14) and older-aged skilled (n = 7) athletes by comparing them with medium-aged less skilled (n = 15) and older-aged less skilled (n = 15) participants. Participants performed basketball free throws and dart throws as a transfer task under standardized conditions. Motor performance (accuracy) and perceptual performance (quiet eye) were examined across the four groups. There were significant differences between skill groups and age groups in throwing accuracy on both throwing tasks. Skilled players outperformed less skilled and medium-aged players outperformed older-aged players in basketball and dart throws. There were no significant differences in quiet eye duration across the skill or age groups in either task. These results indicate expertise in a perceptual motor task such as the basketball free throw can be retained in older athletes and that present models of skill maintenance should be re-evaluated to consider the issue of transfer.

  1. 49 CFR 222.37 - Who may establish a quiet zone?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.37 Who... the provisions of this part. If a proposed quiet zone includes public highway-rail grade...

  2. 49 CFR 222.51 - Under what conditions will quiet zone status be terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... under 49 U.S.C. 20104 and 49 CFR part 211. (d) Termination by the public authority. (1) Any public...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings... SSM at every public crossing within the quiet zone or for quiet zones established by reducing...

  3. 49 CFR 222.51 - Under what conditions will quiet zone status be terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... under 49 U.S.C. 20104 and 49 CFR part 211. (d) Termination by the public authority. (1) Any public...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings... SSM at every public crossing within the quiet zone or for quiet zones established by reducing...

  4. 49 CFR 222.37 - Who may establish a quiet zone?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.37 Who... the provisions of this part. If a proposed quiet zone includes public highway-rail grade...

  5. 49 CFR 222.37 - Who may establish a quiet zone?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.37 Who... the provisions of this part. If a proposed quiet zone includes public highway-rail grade...

  6. 49 CFR 222.51 - Under what conditions will quiet zone status be terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under 49 U.S.C. 20104 and 49 CFR part 211. (d) Termination by the public authority. (1) Any public...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings... SSM at every public crossing within the quiet zone or for quiet zones established by reducing...

  7. 49 CFR 222.39 - How is a quiet zone established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.39 How... be established by implementing, at every public highway-rail grade crossing within the quiet...

  8. 49 CFR 222.39 - How is a quiet zone established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.39 How... be established by implementing, at every public highway-rail grade crossing within the quiet...

  9. 49 CFR 222.51 - Under what conditions will quiet zone status be terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under 49 U.S.C. 20104 and 49 CFR part 211. (d) Termination by the public authority. (1) Any public...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings... SSM at every public crossing within the quiet zone or for quiet zones established by reducing...

  10. 49 CFR 222.51 - Under what conditions will quiet zone status be terminated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... under 49 U.S.C. 20104 and 49 CFR part 211. (d) Termination by the public authority. (1) Any public...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings... SSM at every public crossing within the quiet zone or for quiet zones established by reducing...

  11. 49 CFR 222.37 - Who may establish a quiet zone?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.37 Who... the provisions of this part. If a proposed quiet zone includes public highway-rail grade...

  12. 49 CFR 222.39 - How is a quiet zone established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.39 How... be established by implementing, at every public highway-rail grade crossing within the quiet...

  13. 49 CFR 222.37 - Who may establish a quiet zone?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.37 Who... the provisions of this part. If a proposed quiet zone includes public highway-rail grade...

  14. 49 CFR 222.39 - How is a quiet zone established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.39 How... be established by implementing, at every public highway-rail grade crossing within the quiet...

  15. 49 CFR 222.39 - How is a quiet zone established?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.39 How... be established by implementing, at every public highway-rail grade crossing within the quiet...

  16. Effect of Repeated Exposures on Word Learning in Quiet and Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaiser, Kristina M.; Nelson, Peggy B.; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of repeated exposures on word learning of preschool children with and without hearing loss (HL) in quiet and noise conditions. Participants were 19 children with HL and 17 peers with normal hearing (NH). Children were introduced to 16 words: 8 in quiet and 8 in noise conditions. Production and identification scores…

  17. Why Some Fast and Wide Coronal Mass Ejections are Radio-quiet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Xie, H.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.; Howard, R. A.; Bougeret, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    The radio-quiet CMEs lack type II radio burst association in the metric and decameter-hectometric (DH) wavelengths. We compiled CMEs faster than 900 km/s and wider than 60 degrees and checked against metric and interplanetary type II bursts and found that about one third of them were radio-quiet. We compared the radio-quiet CMEs with the radio-loud ones occurring over the same study period (1996-2005). The radio-quiet and radio-loud CMEs had average speeds of 1129 and 1524 km/s, respectively bracketing the average speed of all FW CMEs (1303 km/s). The width distributions also showed a similar behavior: the fraction of halo and partial halo CMEs was the largest for the radio-loud CMEs (54%), smallest for the radio-quiet CMEs (18%) and intermediate for all fast and wide CMEs (42%). The majority of radio-quiet CMEs (55%) were back-sided; most of the frontsided ones also originated close to the limb. This is in contrast to the radio-loud CMEs which originated generally on the disk with only a small fraction (13%) was back-sided. The average flare size was also slightly smaller for the radio-quiet CMEs compared to that of radio-loud CMEs. Back-sided and limb CMEs have only part of the shock surface visible to the observer. This seems to be an important factor deciding whether a CME is radio quiet.

  18. 76 FR 6495 - Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Natural Quiet Valuation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; National Park Service Natural Quiet Valuation AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Park Service... natural quiet in national parks. Under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and a part......

  19. Quiet. Indian Ethnic Heritage Studies Curriculum Development Project 1974-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bublitz, Mona

    Part of the Native American way is to be quiet; traditionally Native Americans had to be quiet to survive, to be secure, and to show respect. This curriculum guide, suitable for use at intermediate grade levels, presents a unit designed to share this important aspect of the Native American culture. The six lessons provide teachers with background…

  20. DYNAMICS OF MULTI-CORED MAGNETIC STRUCTURES IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Requerey, Iker S.; Iniesta, Jose Carlos Del Toro; Rubio, Luis R. Bellot; Pillet, Valentín Martínez; Solanki, Sami K.; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    We report on the dynamical interaction of quiet-Sun magnetic fields and granular convection in the solar photosphere as seen by Sunrise. We use high spatial resolution (0.″15–0.″18) and temporal cadence (33 s) spectropolarimetric Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment data, together with simultaneous CN and Ca ii H filtergrams from Sunrise Filter Imager. We apply the SIR inversion code to the polarimetric data in order to infer the line of sight velocity and vector magnetic field in the photosphere. The analysis reveals bundles of individual flux tubes evolving as a single entity during the entire 23 minute data set. The group shares a common canopy in the upper photospheric layers, while the individual tubes continually intensify, fragment and merge in the same way that chains of bright points in photometric observations have been reported to do. The evolution of the tube cores are driven by the local granular convection flows. They intensify when they are “compressed” by surrounding granules and split when they are “squeezed” between two moving granules. The resulting fragments are usually later regrouped in intergranular lanes by the granular flows. The continual intensification, fragmentation and coalescence of flux results in magnetic field oscillations of the global entity. From the observations we conclude that the magnetic field oscillations first reported by Martínez González et al. correspond to the forcing by granular motions and not to characteristic oscillatory modes of thin flux tubes.

  1. Dynamic Flaring Non-potential Fields on Quiet Sun Network Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesny, D. L.; Oluseyi, H. M.; Orange, N. B.

    2016-05-01

    We report on the identification of dynamic flaring non-potential structures on quiet Sun (QS) supergranular network scales. Data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory allow for the high spatial and temporal resolution of this diverse class of compact structures. The rapidly evolving non-potential events presented here, with lifetimes <10 minutes, are on the order of 10″ in length. Thus, they contrast significantly with well-known active region (AR) non-potential structures such as high-temperature X-ray and EUV sigmoids (>100″) and micro-sigmoids (>10″) with lifetimes on the order of hours to days. The photospheric magnetic field environment derived from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager shows a lack of evidence for these flaring non-potential fields being associated with significant concentrations of bipolar magnetic elements. Of much interest to our events is the possibility of establishing them as precursor signatures of eruptive dynamics, similar to notions for AR sigmoids and micro-sigmoids, but associated with uneventful magnetic network regions. We suggest that the mixed network flux of QS-like magnetic environments, though unresolved, can provide sufficient free magnetic energy for flaring non-potential plasma structuring. The appearance of non-potential magnetic fields could be a fundamental process leading to self-organized criticality in the QS-like supergranular network and contribute to coronal heating, as these events undergo rapid helicial and vortical relaxations.

  2. UNNOTICED MAGNETIC FIELD OSCILLATIONS IN THE VERY QUIET SUN REVEALED BY SUNRISE/IMaX

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez Gonzalez, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Khomenko, E.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Lopez Ariste, A.

    2011-04-01

    We present observational evidence for oscillations of magnetic flux density in the quiet areas of the Sun. The majority of magnetic fields on the solar surface have strengths of the order of or lower than the equipartition field (300-500 G). This results in a myriad of magnetic fields whose evolution is largely determined by the turbulent plasma motions. When granules evolve they squash the magnetic field lines together or pull them apart. Here, we report on the periodic deformation of the shapes of features in circular polarization observed at high resolution with SUNRISE. In particular, we note that the area of patches with a constant magnetic flux oscillates with time, which implies that the apparent magnetic field intensity oscillates in antiphase. The periods associated with this oscillatory pattern are compatible with the granular lifetime and change abruptly, which suggests that these oscillations might not correspond to characteristic oscillatory modes of magnetic structures, but to the forcing by granular motions. In one particular case, we find three patches around the same granule oscillating in phase, which means that the spatial coherence of these oscillations can reach 1600 km. Interestingly, the same kind of oscillatory phenomenon is also found in the upper photosphere.

  3. Unnoticed Magnetic Field Oscillations in the Very Quiet Sun Revealed by SUNRISE/IMaX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Khomenko, E.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Solanki, S. K.; López Ariste, A.; Schmidt, W.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.

    2011-04-01

    We present observational evidence for oscillations of magnetic flux density in the quiet areas of the Sun. The majority of magnetic fields on the solar surface have strengths of the order of or lower than the equipartition field (300-500 G). This results in a myriad of magnetic fields whose evolution is largely determined by the turbulent plasma motions. When granules evolve they squash the magnetic field lines together or pull them apart. Here, we report on the periodic deformation of the shapes of features in circular polarization observed at high resolution with SUNRISE. In particular, we note that the area of patches with a constant magnetic flux oscillates with time, which implies that the apparent magnetic field intensity oscillates in antiphase. The periods associated with this oscillatory pattern are compatible with the granular lifetime and change abruptly, which suggests that these oscillations might not correspond to characteristic oscillatory modes of magnetic structures, but to the forcing by granular motions. In one particular case, we find three patches around the same granule oscillating in phase, which means that the spatial coherence of these oscillations can reach 1600 km. Interestingly, the same kind of oscillatory phenomenon is also found in the upper photosphere.

  4. Dynamics of Multi-cored Magnetic Structures in the Quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requerey, Iker S.; Del Toro Iniesta, Jose Carlos; Bellot Rubio, Luis R.; Martínez Pillet, Valentín; Solanki, Sami K.; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2015-09-01

    We report on the dynamical interaction of quiet-Sun magnetic fields and granular convection in the solar photosphere as seen by Sunrise. We use high spatial resolution (0.″15–0.″18) and temporal cadence (33 s) spectropolarimetric Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment data, together with simultaneous CN and Ca ii H filtergrams from Sunrise Filter Imager. We apply the SIR inversion code to the polarimetric data in order to infer the line of sight velocity and vector magnetic field in the photosphere. The analysis reveals bundles of individual flux tubes evolving as a single entity during the entire 23 minute data set. The group shares a common canopy in the upper photospheric layers, while the individual tubes continually intensify, fragment and merge in the same way that chains of bright points in photometric observations have been reported to do. The evolution of the tube cores are driven by the local granular convection flows. They intensify when they are “compressed” by surrounding granules and split when they are “squeezed” between two moving granules. The resulting fragments are usually later regrouped in intergranular lanes by the granular flows. The continual intensification, fragmentation and coalescence of flux results in magnetic field oscillations of the global entity. From the observations we conclude that the magnetic field oscillations first reported by Martínez González et al. correspond to the forcing by granular motions and not to characteristic oscillatory modes of thin flux tubes.

  5. DETERMINING THE MAGNETIZATION OF THE QUIET SUN PHOTOSPHERE FROM THE HANLE EFFECT AND SURFACE DYNAMO SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shchukina, Nataliya; Trujillo Bueno, Javier E-mail: jtb@iac.es

    2011-04-10

    The bulk of the quiet solar photosphere is thought to be significantly magnetized, due to the ubiquitous presence of a tangled magnetic field at subresolution scales with an average strength (B) {approx} 100 G. This conclusion was reached through detailed three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer modeling of the Hanle effect in the Sr I 4607 A line, using the microturbulent field approximation and assuming that the shape of the probability density function of the magnetic field strength is exponential. Here, we relax both approximations by modeling the observed scattering polarization in terms of the Hanle effect produced by the magnetic field of a 3D photospheric model resulting from a (state-of-the-art) magneto-convection simulation with surface dynamo action. We show that the scattering polarization amplitudes observed in the Sr I 4607 A line can be explained only after enhancing the magnetic strength of the photospheric model by a sizable scaling factor, F {approx} 10, which implies (B) {approx} 130 G in the upper photosphere. We also argue that in order to explain both the Hanle depolarization of the Sr I 4607 A line and the Zeeman signals observed in Fe I lines, we need to introduce a height-dependent scaling factor, such that the ensuing (B) {approx} 160 G in the low photosphere and (B) {approx} 130 G in the upper photosphere.

  6. Airesearch QCGAT program. [quiet clean general aviation turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Norgren, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    A model TFE731-1 engine was used as a baseline for the NASA quiet clean general aviation turbofan engine and engine/nacelle program designed to demonstrate the applicability of large turbofan engine technology to small general aviation turbofan engines, and to obtain significant reductions in noise and pollutant emissions while reducing or maintaining fuel consumption levels. All new technology design for rotating parts and all items in the engine and nacelle that contributed to the acoustic and pollution characteristics of the engine system were of flight design, weight, and construction. The major noise, emissions, and performance goals were met. Noise levels estimated for the three FAR Part 36 conditions, are 10 t0 15 ENPdB below FAA requirements; emission values are considerably reduced below that of current technology engines; and the engine performance represents a TSFC improvement of approximately 9 percent over other turbofan engines.

  7. Electrical noise to a knee joint stabilizes quiet bipedal stance.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tetsuya; Kouzaki, Motoki

    2013-04-01

    Studies have shown that a minute, noise-like electrical stimulation (ES) of a lower limb joint stabilizes one-legged standing (OS), possibly due to the noise-enhanced joint proprioception. To demonstrate the practical utility of this finding, we assessed whether the bipedal stance (BS), relatively stable and generally employed in daily activities, is also stabilized by the same ES method. Twelve volunteers maintained quiet BS with or without an unperceivable, noise-like ES of a knee joint. The results showed that the average amplitude, peak-to-peak amplitude, and standard deviation of the foot center of pressure in the anteroposterior direction were significantly attenuated by the ES (P<0.05). These results indicate that the BS also can be stabilized by an unperceivable, noise-like ES of a knee joint. PMID:23044409

  8. Quiet High Speed Fan II (QHSF II): Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, Karen; Weir, Don; Ross, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This report details the aerodynamic, mechanical, structural design and fabrication of a Honey Engines Quiet High Speed Fan II (lower hub/tip ratio and higher specific flow than the Baseline I fan). This fan/nacelle system incorporates features such as advanced forward sweep and an advanced integrated fan/fan exit guide vane design that provides for the following characteristics: (1) Reduced noise at supersonic tip speeds, in comparison to current state-of-the-art fan technology; (2) Improved aeroelastic stability within the anticipated operating envelope; and (3) Aerodynamic performance consistent with current state-of-the-art fan technology. This fan was fabricated by Honeywell and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel for aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance.

  9. No quiet surrender: molecular guardians in multiple sclerosis brain.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Lawrence

    2015-04-01

    The brain under immunological attack does not surrender quietly. Investigation of brain lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) reveals a coordinated molecular response involving various proteins and small molecules ranging from heat shock proteins to small lipids, neurotransmitters, and even gases, which provide protection and foster repair. Reduction of inflammation serves as a necessary prerequisite for effective recovery and regeneration. Remarkably, many lesion-resident molecules activate pathways leading to both suppression of inflammation and promotion of repair mechanisms. These guardian molecules and their corresponding physiologic pathways could potentially be exploited to silence inflammation and repair the injured and degenerating brain and spinal cord in both relapsing-remitting and progressive forms of MS and may be beneficial in other neurologic and psychiatric conditions.

  10. No quiet surrender: molecular guardians in multiple sclerosis brain

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The brain under immunological attack does not surrender quietly. Investigation of brain lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) reveals a coordinated molecular response involving various proteins and small molecules ranging from heat shock proteins to small lipids, neurotransmitters, and even gases, which provide protection and foster repair. Reduction of inflammation serves as a necessary prerequisite for effective recovery and regeneration. Remarkably, many lesion-resident molecules activate pathways leading to both suppression of inflammation and promotion of repair mechanisms. These guardian molecules and their corresponding physiologic pathways could potentially be exploited to silence inflammation and repair the injured and degenerating brain and spinal cord in both relapsing-remitting and progressive forms of MS and may be beneficial in other neurologic and psychiatric conditions. PMID:25831441

  11. Experimental quiet engine program aerodynamic performance of Fan C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, R. G.; Parker, D. E.; Dunbar, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents the aerodynamic component test results of Fan C, a high-bypass-ratio, low-aerodynamic-loading, 1550 feet per second (472.4 m/sec), single-stage fan, which was designed and tested as part of the NASA Experimental Quiet Engine Program. The fan was designed to deliver a bypass pressure ratio of 1.60 with an adiabatic efficiency of 84.2 percent at a total fan flow of 915 lb/sec (415.0 kg/sec). It was tested with and without inlet distortion. A bypass total-pressure ratio of 1.61 and an adiabatic efficiency of 83.9 percent at a total fan flow of 921 lb/sec (417.8 kg/sec) were actually achieved. An operating margin in excess of 14.6 percent was demonstrated at design speed.

  12. Quiet short-haul research aircraft familiarization document, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppel, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The design features and general characteristics of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft are described. Aerodynamic characteristics and performance are discussed based on predictions and early flight test data. Principle airplane systems, including the airborne data acquisition system, are also described. The aircraft was designed and built to fulfill the need for a national research facility to explore the use of upper surface blowing, propulsive lift technology in providing short takeoff and landing capability, and perform advanced experiments in various technical disciplines such as aerodynamics, propulsion, stability and control, handling qualities, avionics and flight control systems, trailing vortex phenomena, acoustics, structure and loads, operating systems, human factors, and airworthiness/certification criteria. An unusually austere approach using experimental shop practices resulted in a low cost and high research capability.

  13. The dependence of solar energetic particle fluxes in the Earth-Mars-Earth route on solar activity period.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, N V; Nymmik, R A

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of analyzing the relative importance of particle fluxes of different origin in the Earth-Mars-Earth route during different solar activity periods. The analysis has been made in terms of the galactic cosmic ray and solar energetic particle flux models developed at Moscow State University. The results demonstrate the extreme importance of the high-energy solar particle fluxes in interplanetary space even during the years of "quiet" Sun.

  14. Differential emission measure analysis of active region cores and quiet Sun for the non-Maxwellian κ-distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackovjak, Š.; Dzifčáková, E.; Dudík, J.

    2014-04-01

    Context. The non-Maxwellian κ-distributions have been detected in the solar wind and can explain intensities of some transition region lines. Presence of such distributions in the outer layers of the solar atmosphere influences the ionization and excitation equilibrium and widens the line contribution functions. This behavior may be reflected on the reconstructed differential emission measure (DEM). Aims: We aim to investigate the influence of κ-distributions on the reconstructed DEMs. Methods: We perform DEM reconstruction for three active region cores and a quiet Sun region using the Withbroe-Sylwester method and the regularization method. Results: We find that the reconstructed DEMs depend on the value of κ. The DEMs of the active region cores show similar behavior with decreasing κ, or an increasing departure from the Maxwellian distribution. For lower κ, the peaks of the DEMs are typically shifted to higher temperatures and the DEMs themselves become more concave. This is caused by the less steep high-temperature slopes for lower κ. However, the low-temperature slopes do not change significantly even for extremely low κ. The behavior of the quiet-Sun DEM distribution is different. It becomes progressively less multithermal for lower κ with the EM-loci plots that indicate near-isothermal plasma for κ = 2. Conclusions: The κ-distributions can influence the reconstructed DEMs. The slopes of the DEM, however, do not change with κ significantly enough to produce different constraints on the heating mechanism in terms of frequency of coronal heating events.

  15. Variation of solar acoustic emission and its relation to phase of the solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruizhu; Zhao, Junwei

    2016-05-01

    Solar acoustic emission is closely related to solar convection and photospheric magnetic field. Variation of acoustic emission and its relation to the phase of solar cycles are important to understand dynamics of solar cycles and excitation of acoustic waves. In this work we use 6 years of SDO/HMI Dopplergram data to study acoustic emissions of the whole sun and of the quiet-sun regions, respectively, in multiple acoustic frequency bands. We show the variation of acoustic emission from May 2010 to April 2016, covering half of the solar cycle 24, and analyze its correlation with the solar activity level indexed by daily sunspot number and total magnetic flux. Results show that the correlation between the whole-Sun acoustic emission and the solar activity level is strongly negative for low frequencies between 2.5 and 4.5 mHz, but strongly positive for high frequencies between 4.5 and 6.0 mHz. For high frequencies, the acoustic emission excess in sunspot halos overwhelms the emission deficiency in sunspot umbrae and penumbrae. The correlation between the acoustic emission in quiet regions and the solar activity level is negative for 2.5-4.0 mHz and positive for 4.0-5.5 mHz. This shows that the solar background acoustic power, with active regions excluded, also varies during a solar cycle, implying the excitation frequencies or depths are highly related to the solar magnetic field.

  16. Properties of the suprathermal heavy ion population near 1 AU during solar cycles 23 and 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayeh, Maher A.; Desai, Mihir I.; Ebert, Robert W.; Mason, Glenn M.

    2016-03-01

    Using measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Ultra-Low Energy Isotope Spectrometer (ACE/ULEIS) near 1 AU, we surveyed the composition and spectra of heavy ions (He-through-Fe) during interplanetary quiet times from 1998 January 1 to 2014 December 31 at suprathermal energies between ˜0.11 and ˜1.28 MeV nucleon-1. The selected time period covers the maxima of solar cycles 23 and 24 and the extended solar minimum in between. We find the following: (1) The number of quiet-hours in each year correlates well with the sunspot number, year 2009 was the quietest for about 90% of the time; (2) The composition of the quiet-time suprathermal heavy ion population (3He, C-through-O, and Fe) correlates well with the level of solar activity, exhibiting SEP-like composition signatures during solar maximum, and CIR- or solar wind-like composition during solar minimum; (3) The heavy ion spectra at ˜0.11-0.32 MeV nucleon-1 exhibit suprathermal tails with power-law spectral indices ranging from 1.4 to 2.7. (4) Fe spectral indices get softer (steeper) from solar minimum of cycle 23 to solar cycle 24 maximum. These results imply that during IP quiet times and at energies above ˜0.1 MeV nucleon-1, the IP medium is dominated by material from prior solar and interplanetary events.

  17. Quiet Spike(TradeMark) Build-up Ground Vibration Testing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Natalie D.; Herrera, Claudia Y.; Truax, Roger; Pak, Chan-gi; Freund, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Flight tests of the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation s Quiet Spike(TradeMark) hardware were recently completed on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center F-15B airplane. NASA Dryden uses a modified F-15B (836) airplane as a testbed aircraft to cost-effectively fly flight research experiments that are typically mounted underneath the airplane, along the fuselage centerline. For the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) experiment, instead of a centerline mounting, a forward-pointing boom was attached to the radar bulkhead of the airplane. The Quiet Spike(TradeMark) experiment is a stepping-stone to airframe structural morphing technologies designed to mitigate the sonic-boom strength of business jets flying over land. Prior to flying the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) experiment on the F-15B airplane several ground vibration tests were required to understand the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) modal characteristics and coupling effects with the F-15B airplane. Because of flight hardware availability and compressed schedule requirements, a "traditional" ground vibration test of the mated F-15B Quiet Spike(TradeMark) ready-for-flight configuration did not leave sufficient time available for the finite element model update and flutter analyses before flight-testing. Therefore, a "nontraditional" ground vibration testing approach was taken. This report provides an overview of each phase of the "nontraditional" ground vibration testing completed for the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) project.

  18. Focused study on the quiet side effect in dwellings highly exposed to road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick

    2012-12-01

    This study provides additional evidence for the positive effect of the presence of a quiet façade at a dwelling and aims at unraveling potential mechanisms. Locations with dominant road traffic noise and high L(den)-levels at the most exposed façade were selected. Dwellings both with and without a quiet façade were deliberately sought out. Face-to-face questionnaires (N = 100) were taken to study the influence of the presence of a quiet side in relation to noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. As a direct effect, the absence of a quiet façade in the dwelling (approached as a front-back façade noise level difference smaller than 10 dBA) leads to an important increase of at least moderately annoyed people (odds-ratio adjusted for noise sensitivity equals 3.3). In an indirect way, a bedroom located at the quiet side leads to an even stronger reduction of the self-reported noise annoyance (odds-ratio equal to 10.6 when adjusted for noise sensitivity and front façade L(den)). The quiet side effect seems to be especially applicable for noise sensitive persons. A bedroom located at the quiet side also reduces noise-induced sleep disturbances. On a loud side, bedroom windows are more often closed, however, conflicting with the preference of dwellers.

  19. Do Quiet Areas Afford Greater Health-Related Quality of Life than Noisy Areas?

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; McBride, David

    2013-01-01

    People typically choose to live in quiet areas in order to safeguard their health and wellbeing. However, the benefits of living in quiet areas are relatively understudied compared to the burdens associated with living in noisy areas. Additionally, research is increasingly focusing on the relationship between the human response to noise and measures of health and wellbeing, complementing traditional dose-response approaches, and further elucidating the impact of noise and health by incorporating human factors as mediators and moderators. To further explore the benefits of living in quiet areas, we compared the results of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire datasets collected from households in localities differentiated by their soundscapes and population density: noisy city, quiet city, quiet rural, and noisy rural. The dose-response relationships between noise annoyance and HRQOL measures indicated an inverse relationship between the two. Additionally, quiet areas were found to have higher mean HRQOL domain scores than noisy areas. This research further supports the protection of quiet locales and ongoing noise abatement in noisy areas. PMID:23535280

  20. Ionospheric manifestations of acoustic-gravity waves under quiet and disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, Vladimir; Chernogor, Leonid; Panasenko, Sergii; Domnin, Igor

    2014-05-01

    We present the observation results of wave disturbances in the ionosphere, which are known to be manifestations of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs). The observations have been conducted under quiet and naturally or artificially disturbed conditions by ionosonde and incoherent scatter radar located near Kharkiv, Ukraine. Wave disturbance parameters under quiet conditions were obtained and analysed during geophysical periods including vernal and autumn equinoxes as well as summer and winter solstices. The prevailing oscillation in ionospheric F2- layer had the period of 140 - 200 min and relative amplitude of 0.1 - 0.2. The duration of this oscillation changed from 5 - 7 to 24 hours, depending on a season. The amplitude of fluctuations with other periods was noticeably smaller. The time intervals at which the intensity of incoherent scatter signals varied quasi-periodically in the altitude range from 150 to 300 km were detected. The parameters of these variations were estimated using statistical analysis and bandpass filtering. The periods of wave processes were shown to be of 30 - 120 min, there durations did not exceed of 2 - 6 periods and relative amplitudes usually ranged from 0.03 to 0.15. The phase of oscillations was detected to propagate downwards. The vertical phase velocity of travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) was estimated to be in the range from 50 to 200 m/s and increased with altitude. The observations of the partial solar eclipse on January, 4, 2011 near Kharkiv were used to study the ionospheric parameters in naturally disturbed conditions. The F2-layer critical frequency dropped by a factor of 2.1. The time delay of these variations with respect to the main magnitude of the solar disk obscuration was equal to about 16 minutes. The virtual height of signal reflection near the maximum of the F2-layer ionization increased by 70 km, and the height of the model parabolic layer increased by 10 km. Some decrease in electron density and

  1. Aeroelastic Calculations of Quiet High- Speed Fan Performed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Mehmed, Oral; Min, James B.

    2002-01-01

    An advanced high-speed fan was recently designed under a cooperative effort between the NASA Glenn Research Center and Honeywell Engines & Systems. The principal design goals were to improve performance and to reduce fan noise at takeoff. Scale models of the Quiet High-Speed Fan were tested for operability, performance, and acoustics. During testing, the fan showed significantly improved noise characteristics, but a self-excited aeroelastic vibration known as flutter was encountered in the operating range. Flutter calculations were carried out for the Quiet High-Speed Fan using a three-dimensional, unsteady aerodynamic, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbomachinery code named "TURBO." The TURBO code can accurately model the viscous flow effects that can play an important role in various aeroelastic problems such as flutter with flow separation, flutter at high loading conditions near the stall line (stall flutter), and flutter in the presence of shock and boundary-layer interaction. Initially, calculations were performed with no blade vibrations. These calculations were at a constant rotational speed and a varying mass flow rate. The mass flow rate was varied by changing the backpressure at the exit boundary of the computational domain. These initial steady calculations were followed by aeroelastic calculations in which the blades were prescribed to vibrate harmonically in a natural mode, at a natural frequency, and with a fixed interblade phase angle between adjacent blades. The AE-prep preprocessor was used to interpolate the in-vacuum mode shapes from the structural dynamics mesh onto the computational fluid dynamics mesh and to smoothly propagate the grid deformations from the blade surface to the interior points of the grid. The aeroelastic calculations provided the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the blade surface due to blade vibrations. These forces were vector multiplied with the structural dynamic mode shape to calculate the work done on the blade during

  2. Measuring the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime

    2010-11-01

    The new CRISP filter at the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope provides opportunities for observing the solar atmosphere with unprecedented spatial resolution and cadence. In order to benefit from the high quality of observational data from this instrument, we have developed methods for calibrating and restoring polarized Stokes images, obtained at optical and near infrared wavelengths, taking into account field-of-view variations of the filter properties. In order to facilitate velocity measurements, a time series from a 3D hydrodynamical granulation simulation is used to compute quiet Sun spectral line profiles at different heliocentric angles. The synthetic line profiles, with their convective blueshifts, can be used as absolute references for line-of-sight velocities. Observations of the Ca II 8542 Å line are used to study magnetic fields in chromospheric fibrils. The line wings show the granulation pattern at mid-photospheric heights whereas the overlying chromosphere is seen in the core of the line. Using full Stokes data, we have attempted to observationally verify the alignment of chromospheric fibrils with the magnetic field. Our results suggest that in most cases fibrils are aligned along the magnetic field direction, but we also find examples where this is not the case. Detailed interpretation of Stokes data from spectral lines formed in the chromospheric data can be made using non-LTE inversion codes. For the first time, we use a realistic 3D MHD chromospheric simulation of the quiet Sun to assess how well NLTE inversions recover physical quantities from spectropolarimetric observations of Ca II 8542 Å. We demonstrate that inversions provide realistic estimates of depth-averaged quantities in the chromosphere, although high spectral resolution and high sensitivity are needed to measure quiet Sun chromospheric magnetic fields.

  3. Observational Criteria For Small-scale Turbulent Dynamo In The Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Goode, P.; Yurchyshyn, V.

    2012-05-01

    Generation and dispersal of the magnetic field on the Sun is a key mechanism responsible for solar activity on all spatial and temporal scales - from the solar cycle down to the evolution of small-scale magnetic elements in the quiet Sun. The solar dynamo operates as a non-linear dynamical process and is thought to be manifested in two types: as a global dynamo responsible for the solar cycle periodicity, and as a small-scale turbulent dynamo (SSTD) responsible for the formation of magnetic carpet in the quiet Sun. Numerous MHD simulations of the solar turbulence did not yet reach a consensus as to the existence and role of SSTD on the Sun. At the same time, high-resolution observations of the quiet Sun are capable to provide certain criteria to prove or rule out SSTD. We suggest to probe four possible criteria: i) mutual behaviour of the kinetic and magnetic power spectra; ii) intermittency/multifractality of the magnetic field; iii) smallest observed scale of magnetic flux tubes; iv) regime of magnetic diffusivity on smallest observable scales. We analyse magnetic, velocity and solar granulation data as derived from Hinode/SOT, SOHO/MDI, SDO/HMI and the New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) to explore the possibilities for SSTD in the quiet Sun.

  4. The Role of Velocity Redistribution in Enhancing the Intensity of the He II 304 A Line in the Quiet Sun Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andretta, Vincenzo; Jordan, Stuart D.; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Davila, Joseph M.; Thomas, Roger J.; Behring, William E.; Thompson, William T.; Garcia, Adriana

    1999-01-01

    We present observational evidence of the effect of small scale ("microturbulent") velocities in enhancing the intensity of the He II lambda304 line with respect to other transition region emission lines, a process we call "velocity redistribution". We first show results from the 1991 and 1993 flights of SERTS (Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph). The spectral resolution of the SERTS instrument was sufficient to infer that, at the spatial resolution of 5", the line profile is nearly gaussian both in the quiet Sun and in active regions. We were then able to determine, for the quiet Sun, a lower limit for the amplitude of non-thermal motions in the region of formation of the 304 A line of the order of 10 km/s. We estimated that, in the presence of the steep temperature gradients of the solar Transition Region (TR), velocities of this magnitude can significantly enhance the intensity of that line, thus at least helping to bridge the gap between calculated and observed values. We also estimated the functional dependence of such an enhancement on the relevant parameters (non-thermal velocities, temperature gradient, and pressure). We then present results from a coordinated campaign, using SOHO/CDS and H-alpha spectroheliograms from Coimbra Observatory, aimed at determining the relationship between regions of enhanced helium emission and chromospheric velocity fields and transition region emission in the quiescent atmosphere. Using these data, we examined the behavior of the He II lambda304 line in the quiet Sun supergranular network and compared it with other TR lines, in particular with O III lambda600. We also examined the association of 304 A emission with the so-called "coarse dark mottle", chromospheric structures seen in H-alpha red wing images and associated with spicules. We found that all these observations are consistent with the velocity redistribution picture.

  5. Preliminary QCGAT program test results. [Quiet, Clean General Aviation Turbofan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, R. W.; Sievers, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the NASA Lewis program to demonstrate that large engine technology can be applied to general aviation engines to reduce noise, emissions, and fuel consumption. After a Phase I study, two contractors, Garrett AiResearch and AVCO-Lycoming, were selected to design, manufacture, assemble, test, and deliver their Quiet, Clean, General Aviation Turbofan (QCGAT) engines to NASA. Noise, emission, and performance goals and how well they were met are discussed. Noise goals involve take off noise 3.5 n. mi. from runway threshold, sideline noise at .25 n mi. and approach noise 1 n mi. from the runway at an altitude of 370 ft. The AiResearch engines power a stretched Learjet 35 and the Lycoming a specially conceived Beech executive jet, resulting in differing power goals. Thus the thrust goal for the Lycoming was 1622 lb. while the AiResearch goal was 3937 lb. Cruise thrust goals were 485 lb. at Mach 0.6 at 25,000 ft. and 903 lb. at Mach 0.8 at 40,000 ft. respectively. The design of both engines, based on existing cores, is studied, noting such special QCGAT features as new reduction gears, combustor and power turbine. Test results are given, indicating that while the goals for noise and thrust were met those for emissions were only partially met.

  6. Quiet transcranial magnetic stimulation: Status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Peterchev, Angel V; Murphy, David L K; Goetz, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    A significant limitation of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is that the magnetic pulse delivery is associated with a loud clicking sound as high as 140 dB resulting from electromagnetic forces. The loud noise significantly impedes both basic research and clinical applications of TMS. It effectively makes TMS less focal since every click activates auditory cortex, brainstem, and other connected regions, synchronously with the magnetic pulse. The repetitive clicking sound can induce neuromodulation that can interfere with and confound the intended effects at the TMS target. As well, there are known concerns regarding blinding of TMS studies, hearing loss, induction of tinnitus, as well as tolerability. Addressing this need, we are developing a quiet TMS (qTMS) device that incorporates two key concepts: First, the dominant frequency components of the TMS pulse sound (typically 2-5 kHz) are shifted to higher frequencies that are above the human hearing upper threshold of about 20 kHz. Second, the TMS coil is designed electrically and mechanically to generate suprathreshold electric field pulses while minimizing the sound emitted at audible frequencies (<; 20 kHz). The enhanced acoustic properties of the coil are accomplished with a novel, layered coil design. We summarize a proof-of-concept qTMS prototype demonstrating noise loudness reduction by 19 dB(A) with ultrabrief pulses at conventional amplitudes. Further, we outline next steps to accomplish further sound reduction and suprathreshold pulse amplitudes.

  7. Local area networking in a radio quiet environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, Edwin L.; Hunt, Gareth; Brandt, Joseph J.

    2002-11-01

    The Green Bank facility of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is spread out over 2,700 acres in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. Good communication has always been needed between the radio telescopes and the control buildings. The National Radio Quiet Zone helps protect the Green Bank site from radio transmissions that interfere with the astronomical signals. Due to stringent Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) requirements, a fiber optic communication system was used for Ethernet transmissions on the site and coaxial cable within the buildings. With the need for higher speed communications, the entire network has been upgraded to use optical fiber with modern Ethernet switches. As with most modern equipment, the implementation of the control of the newly deployed Green Bank Telescope (GBT) depends heavily on TCP/IP. In order to protect the GBT from the commodity Internet, the GBT uses a non-routable network. Communication between the control building Local Area Network (LAN) and the GBT is implemented using a Virtual LAN (VLAN). This configuration will be extended to achieve isolation between trusted local user systems, the GBT, and other Internet users. Legitimate access to the site, for example by remote observers, is likely to be implemented using a virtual private network (VPN).

  8. Driver perceptions of the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cocron, Peter; Krems, Josef F

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on the safety implications of quiet electric vehicles (EVs) has mostly focused on pedestrians' acoustic perception of EVs, and suggests that EVs are more difficult for pedestrians to hear and, therefore, compromise traffic safety. The two German field studies presented here examine the experiences of 70 drivers with low noise emissions of EVs and the drivers' long-term evaluation of the issue. Participants were surveyed via interviews and questionnaires before driving an EV for the first time, after 3 months of driving, and in the first study, again after 6 months. Based on participants' reports, a catalogue of safety-relevant incidents was composed in Study 1. The catalogue revealed that low noise-related critical incidents only rarely occur, and mostly take place in low-speed environments. The degree of hazard related to these incidents was rated as low to medium. In Study 1, driver concern for vulnerable road users as a result of low noise diminished with increasing driving experience, while perceived comfort due to this feature increased. These results were replicated in Study 2. In the second study, it was additionally examined, if drivers adjust their perceived risk of harming other road users over time. Results show that the affective assessment of risk also decreased with increased driving experience. Based on individual experience, drivers adjust their evaluation of noise-related hazards, suggesting that dangers associated with low noise emissions might be less significant than previously expected.

  9. Radio quiet quasar main sequence - a hidden parameter behind it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerny, B.; Du, P.; Wang, J.-M.; Wildy, C.

    2016-08-01

    The existence of the hidden parameter behind the properties of the radio-quiet type 1 AGN is known since the work by Boroson & Green. The concept gains importance with an increase in the number of sources in catalogs. It has been recently argued that a single observational parameter R_Fe actually catches the most important AGN properties. However, it still leaves an open issue what this parameter is in the context of basic theoretical parameters of AGN: black hole mass, Eddington ratio, spin and the inclination. We propose that the hidden parameter is the position of the maximum of the AGN broad band band spectrum. This, in the case of the simplest Shakura-Sunyaev disk is equivalent to the maximum temperature of the accretion disk, and is fully determined by the ratio of the Eddington ratio to the mass. This qualitatively explains a decrease of R_Fe with mass and an increase with L/L_Edd. Using the recent values of the black hole masses from Lijiang monitoring of high L/L_Edd objects and the quasars from SDSS catalog we try to produce a conversion between R_Fe and the basic accretion disk parameters.

  10. The quiet revolution in Asia's rice value chains.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Thomas; Chen, Kevin Z; Minten, Bart; Adriano, Lourdes; Dao, The Anh; Wang, Jianying; Gupta, Sunipa Das

    2014-12-01

    There is a rapid transformation afoot in the rice value chain in Asia. The upstream is changing quickly-farmers are undertaking capital-led intensification and participating in burgeoning markets for land rental, fertilizer and pesticides, irrigation water, and seed, and shifting from subsistence to small commercialized farms; in some areas landholdings are concentrating. Midstream, in wholesale and milling, there is a quiet revolution underway, with thousands of entrepreneurs investing in equipment, increasing scale, diversifying into higher quality, and the segments are undergoing consolidation and vertical coordination and integration. Mills, especially in China, are packaging and branding, and building agent networks in wholesale markets, and large mills are building direct relationships with supermarkets. The downstream retail segment is undergoing a "supermarket revolution," again with the lead in change in China. In most cases the government is not playing a direct role in the market, but enabling this transformation through infrastructural investment. The transformation appears to be improving food security for cities by reducing margins, offering lower consumer rice prices, and increasing quality and diversity of rice. This paper discusses findings derived from unique stacked surveys of all value chain segments in seven zones, more and less developed, around Bangladesh, China, India, and Vietnam.

  11. High energy neutrinos from radio-quiet active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Mészáros, Peter

    2004-12-01

    Most active galactic nuclei (AGN) lack prominent jets, and show modest radio emission and significant x-ray emission which arises mainly from the galactic core, very near the central black hole. We use a quantitative scenario of such core-dominated radio-quiet AGN, which attributes a substantial fraction of the x-ray emission to the presence of abortive jets involving the collision of gas blobs in the core. Here we investigate the consequences of the acceleration of protons in the shocks from such collisions. We find that protons will be accelerated up to energies above the pion photoproduction threshold on both the x rays and the UV photons from the accretion disk. The secondary charged pions decay, producing neutrinos. We predict significant fluxes of TeV-PeV neutrinos, and show that the AMANDA II detector is already constraining several important astrophysical parameters of these sources. Larger cubic kilometer detectors such as IceCube will be able to detect such neutrinos in less than one year of operation, or otherwise rule out this scenario.

  12. MODELING THE CHROMOSPHERE OF A SUNSPOT AND THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Avrett, E.; Tian, H.; Landi, E.; Curdt, W.; Wülser, J.-P.

    2015-10-01

    Semiempirical atmospheric modeling attempts to match an observed spectrum by finding the temperature distribution and other physical parameters along the line of sight through the emitting region such that the calculated spectrum agrees with the observed one. In this paper we take the observed spectrum of a sunspot and the quiet Sun in the EUV wavelength range 668–1475 Å from the 2001 SUMER atlas of Curdt et al. to determine models of the two atmospheric regions, extending from the photosphere through the overlying chromosphere into the transition region. We solve the coupled statistical equilibrium and optically thick radiative transfer equations for a set of 32 atoms and ions. The atoms that are part of molecules are treated separately, and are excluded from the atomic abundances and atomic opacities. We compare the Mg ii k line profile observations from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph with the profiles calculated from the two models. The calculated profiles for the sunspot are substantially lower than the observed ones, based on the SUMER models. The only way we have found to raise the calculated Mg ii lines to agree with the observations is to introduce illumination of the sunspot from the surrounding active region.

  13. Quiet transcranial magnetic stimulation: Status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Peterchev, Angel V; Murphy, David L K; Goetz, Stefan M

    2015-01-01

    A significant limitation of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is that the magnetic pulse delivery is associated with a loud clicking sound as high as 140 dB resulting from electromagnetic forces. The loud noise significantly impedes both basic research and clinical applications of TMS. It effectively makes TMS less focal since every click activates auditory cortex, brainstem, and other connected regions, synchronously with the magnetic pulse. The repetitive clicking sound can induce neuromodulation that can interfere with and confound the intended effects at the TMS target. As well, there are known concerns regarding blinding of TMS studies, hearing loss, induction of tinnitus, as well as tolerability. Addressing this need, we are developing a quiet TMS (qTMS) device that incorporates two key concepts: First, the dominant frequency components of the TMS pulse sound (typically 2-5 kHz) are shifted to higher frequencies that are above the human hearing upper threshold of about 20 kHz. Second, the TMS coil is designed electrically and mechanically to generate suprathreshold electric field pulses while minimizing the sound emitted at audible frequencies (<; 20 kHz). The enhanced acoustic properties of the coil are accomplished with a novel, layered coil design. We summarize a proof-of-concept qTMS prototype demonstrating noise loudness reduction by 19 dB(A) with ultrabrief pulses at conventional amplitudes. Further, we outline next steps to accomplish further sound reduction and suprathreshold pulse amplitudes. PMID:26736241

  14. The quiet revolution in Asia's rice value chains.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Thomas; Chen, Kevin Z; Minten, Bart; Adriano, Lourdes; Dao, The Anh; Wang, Jianying; Gupta, Sunipa Das

    2014-12-01

    There is a rapid transformation afoot in the rice value chain in Asia. The upstream is changing quickly-farmers are undertaking capital-led intensification and participating in burgeoning markets for land rental, fertilizer and pesticides, irrigation water, and seed, and shifting from subsistence to small commercialized farms; in some areas landholdings are concentrating. Midstream, in wholesale and milling, there is a quiet revolution underway, with thousands of entrepreneurs investing in equipment, increasing scale, diversifying into higher quality, and the segments are undergoing consolidation and vertical coordination and integration. Mills, especially in China, are packaging and branding, and building agent networks in wholesale markets, and large mills are building direct relationships with supermarkets. The downstream retail segment is undergoing a "supermarket revolution," again with the lead in change in China. In most cases the government is not playing a direct role in the market, but enabling this transformation through infrastructural investment. The transformation appears to be improving food security for cities by reducing margins, offering lower consumer rice prices, and increasing quality and diversity of rice. This paper discusses findings derived from unique stacked surveys of all value chain segments in seven zones, more and less developed, around Bangladesh, China, India, and Vietnam. PMID:24735399

  15. Anomalously extended minima of solar cycle~23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ambika; Tiwari, Anil Kumar; Agrawal, S. P.

    The new millennium extended solar minimum of solar cycle 23 (2007-2009) contains some distinct surprises and is anomalous in comparison to the past few solar cycles. In general, the level of solar activity goes through the cyclic changes lasting roughly 11 years. The last solar cycle 23 started in the year 1996 and was expected to last until 2006. Nevertheless, the solar activity minima continued beyond the year 2006 and lasted till 2009. In fact, anomalously, during the years 2007-09, a deep sunspot minima was observed at the end of the last solar cycle 23. It is observed that the sun had no sunspots continuously for over 50 days in July-August, 2009. More so, it is found that the solar cycle 23 has the longest quiet period as compared to the last many previous solar cycles. Anomalously low values of the geomagnetic disturbance Ap is observed during the whole quiet period (2007-09) of the sun, particularly in the month of January-September 2009, during which the high speed solar wind streams are also not observed. As such, the past solar cycle 23 seems to have the very long period of about 14 years, which is anomalously distinct from previous four solar cycles, besides the obvious Ap correlation of very low activity. The low values of the sunspot numbers in years 2007-2009 also have a very distinct effect in producing lowest modulation in cosmic ray intensity, with highest values of neutron monitor counts observed in the year 2009, as compared to that observed so far in previous solar cycles. These results are discussed in the light of many associated solar-terrestrial phenomena.

  16. Supersonic quiet-tunnel development for laminar-turbulent transition research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven P.

    1995-01-01

    This grant supported research into quiet-flow supersonic wind-tunnels, between February 1994 and February 1995. Quiet-flow nozzles operate with laminar nozzle-wall boundary layers, in order to provide low-disturbance flow for studies of laminar-turbulent transition under conditions comparable to flight. Major accomplishments include: (1) development of the Purdue Quiet-Flow Ludwieg Tube, (2) computational evaluation of the square nozzle concept for quiet-flow nozzles, and (3) measurement of the presence of early transition on the flat sidewalls of the NASA LaRC Mach 3.5 supersonic low-disturbance tunnel. Since items (1) and (2) are described in the final report for companion grant NAG1-1133, only item (3) is described here. A thesis addressing the development of square nozzles for high-speed, low-disturbance wind tunnels is included as an appendix.

  17. Quiet zone within a seismic gap near western Nicaragua: Possible location of a future large earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harlow, D.H.; White, R.A.; Cifuentes, I.L.; Aburto, Q.A.

    1981-01-01

    A 5700-square-kilometer quiet zone occurs in the midst of the locations of more than 4000 earthquakes off the Pacific coast of Nicaragua. The region is indicated by the seismic gap technique to be a likely location for an earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. The quiet zone has existed since at least 1950; the last large earthquake originating from this area occurred in 1898 and was of magnitude 7.5. A rough estimate indicates that the magnitude of an earthquake rupturing the entire quiet zone could be as large as that of the 1898 event. It is not yet possible to forecast a time frame for the occurrence of such an earthquake in the quiet zone. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  18. Stability of a double inverted pendulum model during human quiet stance with continuous delay feedback control.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Nomura, Taishin; Morasso, Pietro

    2011-01-01

    Recent debate about neural mechanisms for stabilizing human upright quiet stance focuses on whether the active and time delay neural feedback control generating muscle torque is continuous or intermittent. A single inverted pendulum controlled by the active torque actuating the ankle joint has often been used for the debate on the presumption of well-known ankle strategy hypothesis claiming that the upright quiet stance can be stabilized mostly by the ankle torque. However, detailed measurements are showing that the hip joint angle exhibits amount of fluctuations comparable with the ankle joint angle during natural postural sway. Here we analyze a double inverted pendulum model during human quiet stance to demonstrate that the conventional proportional and derivative delay feedback control, i.e., the continuous delay PD control with gains in the physiologically plausible range is far from adequate as the neural mechanism for stabilizing human upright quiet stance. PMID:22256061

  19. Solar limb brightening at 350 microns

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.; Hildebrand, R.H.; Keene, J.; Whitcomb, S.E.

    1981-09-01

    We have used the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at Mauna Kea to observe the intensity profile of the quiet solar limb in the 300--400 ..mu..m continuum. We find a significant resolved brightening of several percent over the outer 60'' of the solar limb in this band. However, the magnitude of the brightening is considerably less than that indicated by earlier observations of a total solar eclipse in integrated Sun--Moon radiation by Beckman, Lesurf, and Ross in the 1.2 mm continuum.

  20. The Total Solar Irradiance Climate Data Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitte, Steven; Nevens, Stijn

    2016-10-01

    We present the composite measurements of total solar irradiance (TSI) as measured by an ensemble of space instruments. The measurements of the individual instruments are put on a common absolute scale, and their quality is assessed by intercomparison. The composite time series is the average of all available measurements. From 1984 April to the present the TSI shows a variation in phase with the 11 yr solar cycle and no significant changes of the quiet-Sun level in between the three covered solar minima.

  1. Characterizing Postural Sway during Quiet Stance Based on the Intermittent Control Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Taishin; Nakamura, Toru; Fukada, Kei; Sakoda, Saburo

    2007-07-01

    This article illustrates a signal processing methodology for the time series of postural sway and accompanied electromyographs from the lower limb muscles during quiet stance. It was shown that the proposed methodology was capable of identifying the underlying postural control mechanisms. A preliminary application of the methodology provided evidence that supports the intermittent control hypothesis alternative to the conventional stiffness control hypothesis during human quiet upright stance.

  2. Quiet Spike(TradeMark) Build-up Ground Vibration Testing Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spivey, Natalie D.; Herrera, Claudia Y.; Truax, Roger; Pak, Chan-gi; Freund, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Flight tests of Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation s Quiet Spike(TradeMark) hardware were recently completed on the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center F-15B airplane. NASA Dryden uses a modified F-15B airplane as a testbed aircraft to cost-effectively fly flight research experiments that are typically mounted underneath the F-15B airplane, along the fuselage centerline. For the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) experiment, however, instead of a centerline mounting, a relatively long forward-pointing boom was attached to the radar bulkhead of the F-15B airplane. The Quiet Spike(TradeMark) experiment is a stepping-stone to airframe structural morphing technologies designed to mitigate the sonic-boom strength of business jets over land. The Quiet Spike(TradeMark) boom is a concept in which an aircraft s noseboom would be extended prior to supersonic acceleration. This morphing effectively lengthens the aircraft, thus reducing the peak sonic-boom amplitude, but is also expected to partition the otherwise strong bow shock into a series of reduced-strength, noncoalescing shocklets. Prior to flying the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) experiment on the F-15B airplane several ground vibration tests were required to understand the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) modal characteristics and coupling effects with the F-15B airplane. However, due to the flight hardware availability and compressed schedule requirements, a "traditional" ground vibration test of the mated F-15B Quiet Spike(TradeMark) ready-for- flight configuration did not leave sufficient time available for the finite element model update and flutter analyses before flight testing. Therefore, a "nontraditional" ground vibration testing approach was taken. This paper provides an overview of each phase of the "nontraditional" ground vibration testing completed for the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) project which includes the test setup details, instrumentation layout, and modal results obtained in support of the structural dynamic modeling and flutter

  3. The horse-collar aurora - A frequent pattern of the aurora in quiet times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hones, E. W., Jr.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Evans, D. S.; Newell, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    The frequent appearance of the 'horse-collar aurora' pattern in quiet-time DE 1 images is reported, presenting a two-hour image sequence that displays the basic features and shows that it sometimes evolves toward the theta configuration. There is some evidence for interplanetary magnetic field B(y) influence on the temporal development of the pattern. A preliminary statistical analysis finds the pattern appearing in one-third or more of the image sequences recorded during quiet times.

  4. Magnetic Upflow Events in the Quiet-Sun Photosphere. I. Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarzadeh, S.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.

    2015-09-01

    Rapid magnetic upflows in the quiet-Sun photosphere were recently uncovered from both Sunrise/IMaX and Hinode/SOT observations. Here, we study magnetic upflow events (MUEs) from high-quality, high- (spatial, temporal, and spectral) resolution, and full Stokes observations in four photospheric magnetically sensitive Fe i lines centered at 5250.21, 6173.34, 6301.51, and 6302.50 Å acquired with the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST)/CRISP. We detect MUEs by subtracting in-line Stokes V signals from those in the far blue wing whose signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) ≥slant 7. We find a larger number of MUEs at any given time (2.0× {10}-2 arcsec‑2), larger by one to two orders of magnitude, than previously reported. The MUEs appear to fall into four classes presenting different shapes of Stokes V profiles with (I) asymmetric double lobes, (II) single lobes, (III) double-humped (two same-polarity lobes), and (IV) three lobes (an extra blueshifted bump in addition to double lobes), of which less than half are single-lobed. We also find that MUEs are almost equally distributed in network and internetwork areas and they appear in the interior or at the edge of granules in both regions. Distributions of physical properties, except for horizontal velocity, of the MUEs (namely, Stokes V signal, size, line-of-sight velocity, and lifetime) are almost identical for the different spectral lines in our data. A bisector analysis of our spectrally resolved observations shows that these events host modest upflows and do not show a direct indication of the presence of supersonic upflows reported earlier. Our findings reveal that the numbers, types (classes), and properties determined for MUEs can strongly depend on the detection techniques used and the properties of the employed data, namely, S/Ns, resolutions, and wavelengths.

  5. Development of quiet-flow supersonic wind tunnels for laminar-turbulent transition research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven P.

    1994-01-01

    This grant supported research into quiet-flow supersonic wind-tunnels, between May 1990 and December 1994. Quiet-flow nozzles operate with laminar nozzle-wall boundary layers, in order to provide low-disturbance flow for studies of laminar-turbulent transition under conditions comparable to flight. Major accomplishments include: (1) the design, fabrication, and performance-evaluation of a new kind of quiet tunnel, a quiet-flow Ludweig tube; (2) the integration of preexisting codes for nozzle design, 2D boundary-layer computation, and transition-estimation into a single user-friendly package for quiet-nozzle design; and (3) the design and preliminary evaluation of supersonic nozzles with square cross-section, as an alternative to conventional quiet-flow nozzles. After a brief summary of (1), a description of (2) is presented. Published work describing (3) is then summarized. The report concludes with a description of recent results for the Tollmien-Schlichting and Gortler instability in one of the square nozzles previously analyzed.

  6. Cosmic ray albedo gamma rays from the quiet sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seckel, D.; Stanev, T.; Gaisser, T. K.

    1992-01-01

    We estimate the flux of gamma-rays that result from collisions of high energy galactic cosmic rays with the solar atmosphere. An important aspect of our model is the propagation of cosmic rays through the magnetic fields of the inner solar systems. We use diffusion to model propagation down to the bottom of the corona. Below the corona we trace particle orbits through the photospheric fields to determine the location of cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere and evolve the resultant cascades. For our nominal choice of parameters, we predict an integrated flux of gamma rays (at 1 AU) of F(E(sub gamma) greater than 100 MeV) approximately = 5 x 10(exp -8)/sq cm sec. This can be an order of magnitude above the galactic background and should be observable by the Energetic Gamma Ray experiment telescope (EGRET).

  7. Quiet eye training facilitates competitive putting performance in elite golfers.

    PubMed

    Vine, Samuel J; Moore, Lee J; Wilson, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a brief quiet eye (QE) training intervention aimed at optimizing visuomotor control and putting performance of elite golfers under pressure, and in real competition. Twenty-two elite golfers (mean handicap 2.7) recorded putting statistics over 10 rounds of competitive golf before attending training individually. Having been randomly assigned to either a QE training or Control group, participants were fitted with an Applied Science Laboratories Mobile Eye tracker and performed 20 baseline (pre-test) putts from 10 ft. Training consisted of video feedback of their gaze behavior while they completed 20 putts; however the QE-trained group received additional instructions related to maintaining a longer QE period. Participants then recorded their putting statistics over a further 10 competitive rounds and re-visited the laboratory for retention and pressure tests of their visuomotor control and putting performance. Overall, the results were supportive of the efficacy of the QE training intervention. QE duration predicted 43% of the variance in putting performance, underlying its critical role in the visuomotor control of putting. The QE-trained group maintained their optimal QE under pressure conditions, whereas the Control group experienced reductions in QE when anxious, with subsequent effects on performance. Although their performance was similar in the pre-test, the QE-trained group holed more putts and left the ball closer to the hole on missed putts than their Control group counterparts in the pressure test. Importantly, these advantages transferred to the golf course, where QE-trained golfers made 1.9 fewer putts per round, compared to pre-training, whereas the Control group showed no change in their putting statistics. These results reveal that QE training, incorporated into a pre-shot routine, is an effective intervention to help golfers maintain control when anxious.

  8. Relationships between Fluid Vorticity, Kinetic Helicity, and Magnetic Field on Small-scales (Quiet-Network) on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, C. R.; Rajaguru, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    We derive horizontal fluid motions on the solar surface over large areas covering the quiet-Sun magnetic network from local correlation tracking of convective granules imaged in continuum intensity and Doppler velocity by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. From these we calculate the horizontal divergence, the vertical component of vorticity, and the kinetic helicity of fluid motions. We study the correlations between fluid divergence and vorticity, and between vorticity (kinetic helicity) and the magnetic field. We find that the vorticity (kinetic helicity) around small-scale fields exhibits a hemispherical pattern (in sign) similar to that followed by the magnetic helicity of large-scale active regions (containing sunspots). We identify this pattern to be a result of the Coriolis force acting on supergranular-scale flows (both the outflows and inflows), consistent with earlier studies using local helioseismology. Furthermore, we show that the magnetic fields cause transfer of vorticity from supergranular inflow regions to outflow regions, and that they tend to suppress the vortical motions around them when magnetic flux densities exceed about 300 G (from HMI). We also show that such an action of the magnetic fields leads to marked changes in the correlations between fluid divergence and vorticity. These results are speculated to be of importance to local dynamo action (if present) and to the dynamical evolution of magnetic helicity at the small-scale.

  9. Ionospheric response to the High Speed Solar Streams during last solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosna, Zbysek; Koucka Knizova, Petra; Georgieva, Katya

    Ionosphere is a highly variable system. Response of ionospheric plasma to the High Speed Solar Streams (HSS) by means of critical frequencies fof2, heights of maximum electron concentration hmf2 and the occurrence of sporadic E-layer during last prolonged solar minimum is presented and we compare it to previous studies. State of the ionosphere depends on the daytime, season, phase of solar cycle etc. The extent of ionospheric response to the solar event (HSS, CME etc.) is a subject of mentioned conditions and strength of solar event itself but it also significantly depends on the actual geomagnetic and ionospheric situation and the memory of the system, e.g. length of the preceding quiet or disturbed period. Ionospheric storms have been relatively widely studied. However, last solar minimum gives us an exceptional possibility to study ionospheric processes under conditions of unusually long time of low solar activity.

  10. Improvement of background solar wind predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dálya, Zsuzsanna; Opitz, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In order to estimate the solar wind properties at any heliospheric positions propagation tools use solar measurements as input data. The ballistic method extrapolates in-situ solar wind observations to the target position. This works well for undisturbed solar wind, while solar wind disturbances such as Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) need more consideration. We are working on dedicated ICME lists to clean these signatures from the input data in order to improve our prediction accuracy. These ICME lists are created from several heliospheric spacecraft measurements: ACE, WIND, STEREO, SOHO, MEX and VEX. As a result, we are able to filter out these events from the time series. Our corrected predictions contribute to the investigation of the quiet solar wind and space weather studies.

  11. Energy balance in solar and stellar chromospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avrett, E. H.

    1981-01-01

    Net radiative cooling rates for quiet and active regions of the solar chromosphere and for two stellar chromospheres are calculated from corresponding atmospheric models. Models of chromospheric temperature and microvelocity distributions are derived from observed spectra of a dark point within a cell, the average sun and a very bright network element on the quiet sun, a solar plage and flare, and the stars Alpha Boo and Lambda And. Net radiative cooling rates due to the transitions of various atoms and ions are then calculated from the models as a function of depth. Large values of the net radiative cooling rate are found at the base of the chromosphere-corona transition region which are due primarily to Lyman alpha emission, and a temperature plateau is obtained in the transition region itself. In the chromospheric regions, the calculated cooling rate is equal to the mechanical energy input as a function of height and thus provides a direct constraint on theories of chromospheric heating.

  12. Submillimeter solar images from the JCMT

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, G.; Lindsey, C.

    1992-01-01

    We present nearly full-disk, diffraction-limited solar images made at 350 and 850 [mu]m and at 1.3 mm from the 15 m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea. These wavelengths sample the thermal structure of the solar chromosphere at altitude from 500 to about 1500 km, providing a height-dependent diagnostic of the atmosphere. Filament channels and neutral lines are apparent in the submillimeter images, although filaments themselves are not clearly visible. The submillimeter images show plage approximately 20% brigher than the surrounding quiet Sun, while sunspot intensities are comparable to the quiet Sun. Circumfacules,' dark are similar to those seen in Ca 8542; comparison with Ca H and K may give estimates of the temperature and filing factor of the hot gas present in these probably bifurcated regions.

  13. Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under heightened anxiety: the roles of response programming and external attention.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee J; Vine, Samuel J; Cooke, Andrew; Ring, Christopher; Wilson, Mark R

    2012-07-01

    Quiet eye training expedites skill learning and facilitates anxiety-resistant performance. Changes in response programming and external focus of attention may explain such benefits. We examined the effects of quiet eye training on golf-putting performance, quiet eye duration, kinematics (clubhead acceleration), and physiological (heart rate, muscle activity) responses. Forty participants were assigned to a quiet eye or technical trained group and completed 420 baseline, training, retention, and pressure putts. The quiet eye group performed more accurately and displayed more effective gaze control, lower clubhead acceleration, greater heart rate deceleration, and reduced muscle activity than the technical trained group during retention and pressure tests. Thus, quiet eye training was linked to indirect measures of improved response programming and an external focus. Mediation analyses partially endorsed a response programming explanation. PMID:22564009

  14. Sources of the Slow Solar Wind During the Solar Cycle 23/24 Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpua, E. K. J.; Madjarska, M. S.; Karna, N.; Wiegelmann, T.; Farrugia, C.; Yu, W.; Andreeova, K.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the characteristics and the sources of the slow ({<} 450 km s^{-1}) solar wind during the four years (2006 - 2009) of low solar activity between Solar Cycles 23 and 24. We used a comprehensive set of in-situ observations in the near-Earth solar wind ( Wind and ACE) and removed the periods when large-scale interplanetary coronal mass ejections were present. The investigated period features significant variations in the global coronal structure, including the frequent presence of low-latitude active regions in 2006 - 2007, long-lived low- and mid-latitude coronal holes in 2006 - mid-2008 and mostly the quiet Sun in 2009. We examined Carrington rotation averages of selected solar plasma, charge state, and compositional parameters and distributions of these parameters related to the quiet Sun, active region Sun, and the coronal hole Sun. While some of the investigated parameters ( e.g. speed, the C+6/C+4 and He/H ratios) show clear variations over our study period and with solar wind source type, some (Fe/O) exhibit very little changes. Our results highlight the difficulty of distinguishing between the slow solar wind sources based on the inspection of solar wind conditions.

  15. Sources of the Slow Solar Wind During the Solar Cycle 23/24 Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpua, E. K. J.; Madjarska, M. S.; Karna, N.; Wiegelmann, T.; Farrugia, C.; Yu, W.; Andreeova, K.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the characteristics and the sources of the slow ( {<} 450 km s^{-1}) solar wind during the four years (2006 - 2009) of low solar activity between Solar Cycles 23 and 24. We used a comprehensive set of in-situ observations in the near-Earth solar wind (Wind and ACE) and removed the periods when large-scale interplanetary coronal mass ejections were present. The investigated period features significant variations in the global coronal structure, including the frequent presence of low-latitude active regions in 2006 - 2007, long-lived low- and mid-latitude coronal holes in 2006 - mid-2008 and mostly the quiet Sun in 2009. We examined Carrington rotation averages of selected solar plasma, charge state, and compositional parameters and distributions of these parameters related to the quiet Sun, active region Sun, and the coronal hole Sun. While some of the investigated parameters (e.g. speed, the C+6/C+4 and He/H ratios) show clear variations over our study period and with solar wind source type, some (Fe/O) exhibit very little changes. Our results highlight the difficulty of distinguishing between the slow solar wind sources based on the inspection of solar wind conditions.

  16. The Area Coverage of Small-scale Solar Magnetic Structures in a Quiet Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiehr, E.; Bovelet, B.

    Inter-granular structures, IgS, are segmented with the `multiple-level tracking' pattern recognition algorithm, MLT 4 in a 149 '' x 117 '' G-band image taken at disc centre of the non-active Sun. From the total of 7593 IgS, the non-magnetic ones are identified in the scatterplot of continuum and G-band brightness which is known to show a magnetic and a non-magnetic branch. The overlap regime of both is largely disentangled applying an intrinsic Ca II H contrast criterion. For the thus obtained 2995 magnetic IgS, the MIgS, we obtain a number density of 0.32 MIgS/Mm^2. Their sizes, provided by MLT 4 in pixel counts independent of the shape, yield a total area contribution of 2.0%. Superimposing the MIgS to the simultaneously observed Hα image, we find a preferred location at the foot points of the dark fibrils, which are known to mark the network boundaries. A substantial amount of the MIgS is, however, located in the fibril voids, and thus in the inter-network.

  17. High speed magnetized flows in the quiet Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintero Noda, C.; Borrero, J. M.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Ruiz Cobo, B.

    2014-09-01

    Context. We analyzed spectropolarimetric data recorded with Hinode/SP in quiet-Sun regions located at the disk center. We found single-lobed Stokes V profiles showing highly blue- and red-shifted signals. Oftentimes both types of events appear to be related to each other. Aims: We aim to set constraints on the nature and physical causes of these highly Doppler-shifted signals, as well as to study their spatial distribution, spectropolarimetric properties, size, and rate of occurrence. Also, we plan to retrieve the variation of the physical parameters with optical depth through the photosphere. Methods: We have examined the spatial and polarimetric properties of these events using a variety of data from the Hinode spacecraft. We have also inferred the atmospheric stratification of the physical parameters by means of the inversion of the observed Stokes profiles employing the Stokes Inversion based on Response functions (SIR) code. Finally, we analyzed their evolution using a time series from the same instrument. Results: Blue-shifted events tend to appear over bright regions at the edge of granules, while red-shifted events are seen predominantly over dark regions on intergranular lanes. Large linear polarization signals can be seen in the region that connects them. The magnetic structure inferred from the time series revealed that the structure corresponds to a Ω-loop, with one footpoint always over the edge of a granule and the other inside an intergranular lane. The physical parameters obtained from the inversions of the observed Stokes profiles in both events show an increase with respect to the Harvard-Smithonian reference atmosphere in the temperature at log τ500 ∈ (-1, -3) and a strong magnetic field, B ≥ 1 kG, at the bottom of the atmosphere that quickly decreases upward until vanishing at log τ500 ≈ -2. In the blue-shifted events, the LOS velocities change from upflows at the bottom to downflows at the top of the atmosphere. Red-shifted events

  18. Flight Testing of the Gulfstream Quiet Spike(TradeMark) on a NASA F-15B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolka, James W.; Cowert, Robert A.; Molzahn, Leslie M.

    2007-01-01

    Gulfstream Aerospace has long been interested in the development of an economically viable supersonic business jet (SBJ). A design requirement for such an aircraft is the ability for unrestricted supersonic flight over land. Although independent studies continue to substantiate that a market for a SBJ exists, regulatory and public acceptance challenges still remain for supersonic operation over land. The largest technical barrier to achieving this goal is sonic boom attenuation. Gulfstream's attention has been focused on fundamental research into sonic boom suppression for several years. This research was conducted in partnership with the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) supersonic airframe cruise efficiency technical challenge. The Quiet Spike, a multi-stage telescopic nose boom and a Gulfstream-patented design (references 1 and 2), was developed to address the sonic boom attenuation challenge and validate the technical feasibility of a morphing fuselage. The Quiet Spike Flight Test Program represents a major step into supersonic technology development for sonic boom suppression. The Gulfstream Aerospace Quiet Spike was designed to reduce the sonic boom signature of the forward fuselage for an aircraft flying at supersonic speeds. In 2004, the Quiet Spike Flight Test Program was conceived by Gulfstream and NASA to demonstrate the feasibility of sonic boom mitigation and centered on the structural and mechanical viability of the translating test article design. Research testing of the Quiet Spike consisted of numerous ground and flight operations. Each step in the process had unique objectives, and involved numerous test team members from the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Gulfstream Aerospace. Flight testing of the Quiet Spike was conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center on an F-15B aircraft from August, 2006, to February, 2007. During this period, the Quiet Spike was flown at supersonic speeds up to Mach 1.8 at the

  19. Quiet Periods in Edge Turbulence Preceding the L-H Transition in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S; Hager, R; Hallatschek, K; Kaye, S M; Munsat, T; Poli, F M; Roquemore, A L; Sechrest, Y

    2010-04-26

    This paper describes the first observations in NSTX of ‘quiet periods’ in the edge turbulence preceding the L-H transition, as diagnosed by the GPI diagnostic near the outer midplane separatrix. During these quiet periods the GPI Dα light emission pattern was transiently similar to that seen during Hmode, i.e. with a relatively small fraction of the GPI light emission located outside the separatrix. These quiet periods had a frequency of ~3 kHz for at least 30 msec before the L-H transition, and were correlated with changes in the direction of the local poloidal velocity. The GPI turbulence images were also analyzed to obtain an estimate for the dimensionless poloidal shearing S =(dVp/dr)(Lr/Lp)τ. The values of S were strongly modulated by the quiet periods, but not otherwise varying for at least 30 msec preceding the L-H transition. Since neither the quiet periods nor the shear flow increased significantly immediately preceding the L-H transition, neither of these appears to be the trigger for this transition, at least for these cases in NSTX.

  20. Generalized similarity in finite range solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S C; Nicol, R M

    2009-12-11

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum--with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approximately 2 in power--provides a test of this invariance. PMID:20366193

  1. Generalized similarity in finite range solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S C; Nicol, R M

    2009-12-11

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum--with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approximately 2 in power--provides a test of this invariance.

  2. Generalized Similarity in Finite Range Solar Wind Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, S. C.; Nicol, R. M.

    2009-12-11

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum - with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approx2 in power - provides a test of this invariance.

  3. Solar Coronal Plumes and the Fast Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Bhola N.; Wilhelm, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    The spectral profiles of the coronal Ne viii line at 77 nm have different shapes in quiet-Sun regions and Coronal Holes (CHs). A single Gaussian fit of the line profile provides an adequate approximation in quiet-Sun areas, whereas, a strong shoulder on the long-wavelength side is a systematic feature in CHs. Although this has been noticed since 1999, no physical reason for the peculiar shape could be given. In an attempt to identify the cause of this peculiarity, we address three problems that could not be conclusively resolved, in a review article by a study team of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) (Wilhelm et al. 2011): (1) The physical processes operating at the base and inside of plumes, as well as their interaction with the Solar Wind (SW). (2) The possible contribution of plume plasma to the fast SW streams. (3) The signature of the First-Ionization Potential (FIP) effect between plumes and inter-plume regions (IPRs). Before the spectroscopic peculiarities in IPRs and plumes in Polar Coronal Holes (PCHs) can be further investigated with the instrument Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), it is mandatory to summarize the results of the review to place the spectroscopic observations into context. Finally, a plume model is proposed that satisfactorily explains the plasma flows up and down the plume field lines and leads to the shape of the neon line in PCHs.

  4. Effects of electrical noise to a knee joint on quiet bipedal stance and treadmill walking.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Taki, C; Shiozawa, N; Kouzaki, M

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed whether an unperceivable, noise-like electrical stimulation of a knee joint enhances the stability of quiet bipedal stance and treadmill walking in young subjects. The results showed that the slow postural sway measures in quiet bipedal stance were significantly reduced by the electrical noise (P<0.05). In the treadmill walking, low frequency component (below 1 Hz) of mediolateral acceleration, measured at the third lumbar vertebra, significantly decreased with the electrical noise (P<0.05), while there were no changes in the anteroposterior and vertical directions. These results indicate that the electrical noise to a knee joint can be applied to enhance postural control in quiet bipedal stance and treadmill walking. PMID:24110917

  5. Covering factors of the dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Maitrayee; Sikora, Marek; Nalewajko, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    We compare covering factors of circumnuclear dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. The radio-loud quasars are represented by a sample of FR II quasars obtained by cross-matching a catalog of the FR II radio sources selected by van Velzen et al. with the SDSS DR7 catalog of quasars. Covering factors of FR II quasars are compared with covering factors of the radio-quiet quasars matched with them in redshift, black hole mass, and Eddington-ratio. We found that covering factors, proxied by the infrared-to-bolometric luminosity ratio, are on average slightly smaller in FR II quasars than in radio-quiet quasars, however, this difference is statistically significant only for the highest Eddington ratios. For both samples, no statistically significant dependence of a median covering factor on Eddington ratio, black hole mass, nor redshift can be claimed.

  6. A quiet flow Ludwieg tube for study of transition in compressible boundary layers: Design and feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    Laminar-turbulent transition in high speed boundary layers is a complicated problem which is still poorly understood, partly because of experimental ambiguities caused by operating in noisy wind tunnels. The NASA Langley experience with quiet tunnel design has been used to design a quiet flow tunnel which can be constructed less expensively. Fabrication techniques have been investigated, and inviscid, boundary layer, and stability computer codes have been adapted for use in the nozzle design. Construction of such a facility seems feasible, at a reasonable cost. Two facilities have been proposed: a large one, with a quiet flow region large enough to study the end of transition, and a smaller and less expensive one, capable of studying low Reynolds number issues such as receptivity. Funding for either facility remains to be obtained, although key facility elements have been obtained and are being integrated into the existing Purdue supersonic facilities.

  7. A quiet-flow Ludwieg tube for experimental study of high speed boundary layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    Laminar-turbulent transition in high speed boundary layers is a complicated problem which is still poorly understood, partly because of experimental ambiguities caused by operating in noisy wind tunnels. The NASA Langley experience with quiet tunnel design has been used to design a quiet flow tunnel which can be constructed less expensively. Fabrication techniques have been investigated, and inviscid, boundary layer, and stability computer codes have been adapted for use in the nozzle design. Construction of such a facility seems feasible, at a reasonable cost. Two facilities have been proposed: a large one, with a quiet flow region large enough to study the end of transition, and a smaller and less expensive one, capable of studying low Reynolds number issues such as receptivity. Funding for either facility remains to be obtained, although key facility elements have been obtained and are being integrated into the existing Purdue supersonic facilities.

  8. The influence of quiet eye training and pressure on attention and visuo-motor control.

    PubMed

    Vine, Samuel J; Wilson, Mark R

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of an intervention designed to train effective visual attentional control (quiet eye-training) for a far aiming skill, and determine whether such training protected against attentional disruptions associated with performing under pressure. Sixteen novice participants wore a mobile eye-tracker to assess their visual attentional control (quiet eye) during the completion of 520 basketball free throws carried out over 8 days. They first performed 40 pre-test free throws and were randomly allocated into a quiet eye (QE) training or Control group (technical instruction only). Participants then performed 360 free throws during a training period and a further 120 test free throws under conditions designed to manipulate the level of anxiety experienced. The QE trained group maintained more effective visual attentional control and performed significantly better in the pressure test compared to the Control group, providing support for the efficacy of attentional training for visuo-motor skills.

  9. Improvement of Quiet Standing Balance in Patients with Wallenberg Syndrome after Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Na, Eun Hye; Han, Soo Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate quiet standing balance of patients with Wallenberg syndrome before and after rehabilitation. Method Six patients with Wallenberg syndrome were enrolled within one month after being affected by an infarct of the lateral medulla. Quiet standing balance was assessed using posturography with eyes open and closed. The assessment was repeated after the patients had undergone rehabilitation treatment for three to nine months, and the results of the two assessments were compared. Results The quiet standing balance evaluation was performed by measurement of center of pressure (CoP) movement. In the initial test, the mean scores of mediolateral and anteroposterior speed, velocity movement, mediolateral and anteroposterior extent of CoP were all high, indicating impairments of quiet standing balance in the patients. After rehabilitation treatment, the anteroposterior speed and extent, the mediolateral speed and extent, and velocity moment of CoP showed statistically significant reductions in the eyes open condition (p<0.05), and the anteroposterior speed and extent and velocity moment of CoP had decreased in the eyes closed condition (p<0.05). Mediolateral speed and extent of CoP in the eyes closed condition had also decreased, but the reduction was not statistically significant. Conclusion This study demonstrated improvements of quiet standing balance, especially anteroposterior balance, in patients with Wallenberg syndrome following rehabilitation. We suggest that balance training is important in the rehabilitation of Wallenberg syndrome and that, as an objective measure of balance status, posturography is useful in the assessment of quiet standing balance. PMID:22506207

  10. The Spectrum of Solar Wind Superhalo Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yang, L.; Tu, C. Y.; He, J.; Yoon, P. H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Salem, C. S.; Bale, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    The WIND/3DP measurements show that solar wind superhalo electrons are continuously present at energies above 2 keV in the interplanetary medium (IPM), even in absence of any significant solar and interplanetary activity (e.g., solar flares, shocks, etc.). The observed omnidirectional differential flux of quiet-time superhalo electrons generally fits to a power-law spectrum, J~E-β, with an average index β of ~2.4. Thus, superhalo electrons appear to be one of the most common electron acceleration phenomena in the heliosphere. The superhalo power-law spectrum shows no obvious correlation with sunspot number and solar wind core populations. If they are formed by acceleration through the IPM, then solar wind halo/strahl electrons can provide seed electrons for such acceleration. Finally, we will also present the correlation between the power-law spectrum of superhalo electrons and the kappa distribution of halo/strahl electrons.

  11. A description of the external and internal quiet daily variation currents at North American locations for a quiet-Sun year.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    An order 4, degree 12 spherical harmonic analysis of the smoothed quiet geomagnetic daily variations was used to separate the external and internal geomagnetic Sq field at North American locations for the quiet-Sun year, 1965. These fields were represented by a month-by-month display of equivalent current vortex systems with dominant, pre-noon foci. The focus reached 40o latitude near the June solstice and about 30o latitude near the December solstice. The daily range of Sq current amplitudes was largest in late July to early August and smallest in mid-December. Semi-annual variations of Sq currents dominated only the equatorial region. Daily maxima in mid-latitudes, occurred mostly near local noon in December to February and about 1 hr before noon in June to mid-October. -Author

  12. A quiet flow Ludwieg tube for study of transition in compressible boundary layers: Design and feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven P.

    1990-01-01

    Since Ludwieg tubes have been around for many years, and NASA has already established the feasibility of creating quiet-flow wind tunnels, the major question addressed was the cost of the proposed facility. Cost estimates were obtained for major system components, and new designs which allowed fabrication at lower cost were developed. A large fraction of the facility cost comes from the fabrication of the highly polished quiet-flow supersonic nozzle. Methods for the design of this nozzle were studied at length in an attempt to find an effective but less expensive design. Progress was sufficient to show that a quality facility can be fabricated at a reasonable cost.

  13. Combined X-Ray and mm-Wave Observations of Radio Quiet Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behar, E.

    2016-06-01

    A connection between the X-ray and radio sources in radio quiet active galaxies (AGNs) will be demonstrated. High radio frequency, i.e., mm-wave observations are promising probes of the X-ray emitting inner regions of the accretion disks in radio quiet AGNs. An argument for simultaneous observations in X-rays and in mm waves will be made, in order to promote these as one of the future science goals of X-ray and AGN astronomy in the next decade. Preliminary results from an exploratory campaign with several space and ground based telescopes will be presented.

  14. Development of a quiet supersonic wind tunnel with a cryogenic adaptive nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of this work is to demonstrate the potential of a cryogenic adaptive nozzle to generate quiet (low disturbance) supersonic flow. A drive system was researched for the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory (FML) Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT) using a pilot tunnel. A supportive effort for ongoing Proof of Concept (PoC) research leading to the design of critical components of the LFSWT was maintained. The state-of-the-art in quiet supersonic wind tunnel design was investigated. A supersonic research capability was developed within the FML.

  15. Operational evaluation of a proppeller test stand in the quiet flow facility at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, P. J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Operational proof tests of a propeller test stand (PTS) in a quiet flow facility (QFF) are presented. The PTS is an experimental test bed for acoustic propeller research in the quiet flow environment of the QFF. These proof tests validate thrust and torque predictions, examine the repeatability of measurements on the PTS, and determine the effect of applying artificial roughness to the propeller blades. Since a thrusting propeller causes an open jet to contract, the potential flow core was surveyed to examine the magnitude of the contraction. These measurements are compared with predicted values. The predictions are used to determine operational limitations for testing a given propeller design in the QFF.

  16. Magnetic Signatures of Ionospheric and Magnetospheric Current Systems During Geomagnetic Quiet Conditions—An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    High-precision magnetic measurements taken by LEO satellites (flying at altitudes between 300 and 800 km) allow for studying the ionospheric and magnetospheric processes and electric currents that causes only weak magnetic signature of a few nanotesla during geomagnetic quiet conditions. Of particular importance for this endeavour are multipoint observations in space, such as provided by the Swarm satellite constellation mission, in order to better characterize the space-time-structure of the current systems. Focusing on geomagnetic quiet conditions, we provide an overview of ionospheric and magnetospheric sources and illustrate their magnetic signatures with Swarm satellite observations.

  17. Observation and Modeling of the Solar Transition Region. 1; Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oluseyi, Hakeem M.; Walker, A. B. C., II; Porter, Jason; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    We report on observations of the solar atmosphere in several extreme-ultraviolet and far-ultraviolet bandpasses obtained by the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array, a rocket-borne spectroheliograph, on flights in 1987, 1991, and 1994, spanning the last solar maximum. Quiet-Sun emission observed in the 171-175 Angstrom bandpass, which includes lines of O v, O VI, Fe IX, and Fe X, has been analyzed to test models of the temperatures and geometries of the structures responsible for this emission. Analyses of intensity variations above the solar limb reveal scale heights consistent with a quiet-Sun plasma temperature of 500,000 less than or equal to T (sub e) less than or equal to 800,000 K. The structures responsible for the quiet-Sun EUV emission are modeled as small quasi-static loops. We submit our models to several tests. We compare the emission our models would produce in the bandpass of our telescope to the emission we have observed. We find that the emission predicted by loop models with maximum temperatures between 700,000 and 900,000 K are consistent with our observations. We also compare the absolute flux predicted by our models in a typical upper transition region line to the flux measured by previous observers. Finally, we present a preliminary comparison of the predictions of our models with diagnostic spectral line ratios from previous observers. Intensity modulations in the quiet Sun are observed to occur on a scale comparable to the supergranular scale. We discuss the implications that a distribution of loops of the type we model here would have for heating the local network at the loops' footpoints.

  18. Solar Wind Strahl Broadening by Self-Generated Plasma Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavan, J.; Vinas, A. F.; Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.

    2013-01-01

    This Letter reports on the results of numerical simulations which may provide a possible explanation for the strahl broadening during quiet solar conditions. The relevant processes involved in the broadening are due to kinetic quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. Making use of static analytical electron distribution in an inhomogeneous field, it is found that self-generated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency, i.e., Langmuir waves, are capable of scattering the strahl component, resulting in energy and pitch-angle diffusion that broadens its velocity distribution significantly. The present theoretical results provide an alternative or complementary explanation to the usual whistler diffusion scenario, suggesting that self-induced electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency might play a key role in broadening the solar wind strahl during quiet solar conditions.

  19. SOLAR WIND STRAHL BROADENING BY SELF-GENERATED PLASMA WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Pavan, J.; Gaelzer, R.; Vinas, A. F.; Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F. E-mail: rudi@ufpel.edu.br E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu

    2013-06-01

    This Letter reports on the results of numerical simulations which may provide a possible explanation for the strahl broadening during quiet solar conditions. The relevant processes involved in the broadening are due to kinetic quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. Making use of static analytical electron distribution in an inhomogeneous field, it is found that self-generated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency, i.e., Langmuir waves, are capable of scattering the strahl component, resulting in energy and pitch-angle diffusion that broadens its velocity distribution significantly. The present theoretical results provide an alternative or complementary explanation to the usual whistler diffusion scenario, suggesting that self-induced electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency might play a key role in broadening the solar wind strahl during quiet solar conditions.

  20. 49 CFR 222.43 - What notices and other information are required to create or continue a quiet zone?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.43 What notices and other information are required to create or... over the public highway-rail grade crossings within the quiet zone; the State agency responsible...

  1. 49 CFR 222.43 - What notices and other information are required to create or continue a quiet zone?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.43 What notices and other information are required to create or... over the public highway-rail grade crossings within the quiet zone; the State agency responsible...

  2. 49 CFR 222.43 - What notices and other information are required to create or continue a quiet zone?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.43 What notices and other information are required to create or... over the public highway-rail grade crossings within the quiet zone; the State agency responsible...

  3. 49 CFR 222.43 - What notices and other information are required to create or continue a quiet zone?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.43 What notices and other information are required to create or... over the public highway-rail grade crossings within the quiet zone; the State agency responsible...

  4. 49 CFR 222.43 - What notices and other information are required to create or continue a quiet zone?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.43 What notices and other information are required to create or... over the public highway-rail grade crossings within the quiet zone; the State agency responsible...

  5. Laboratory studies in ultraviolet solar physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Kohl, J. L.; Gardner, L. D.; Raymond, J. C.; Smith, P. L.

    1991-01-01

    The research activity comprised the measurement of basic atomic processes and parameters which relate directly to the interpretation of solar ultraviolet observations and to the development of comprehensive models of the component structures of the solar atmosphere. The research was specifically directed towards providing the relevant atomic data needed to perform and to improve solar diagnostic techniques which probe active and quiet portions of the solar chromosphere, the transition zone, the inner corona, and the solar wind acceleration regions of the extended corona. The accuracy with which the physical conditions in these structures can be determined depends directly on the accuracy and completeness of the atomic and molecular data. These laboratory data are used to support the analysis programs of past and current solar observations (e.g., the Orbiting solar Observatories, the Solar Maximum Mission, the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount, and the Naval Research Laboratory's rocket-borne High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph). In addition, we attempted to anticipate the needs of future space-borne solar studies such as from the joint ESA/NASA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. Our laboratory activities stressed two categories of study: (1) the measurement of absolute rate coefficients for dielectronic recombination and electron impact excitation; and (2) the measurement of atomic transition probabilities for solar density diagnostics. A brief summary of the research activity is provided.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UV spectrum of the quiet Sun above the limb (Warren+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, H. P.; Ugarte-Urra, I.; Landi, E.

    2014-09-01

    First, we compare full-disk mosaics constructed by scanning the EIS slot over the Sun with irradiance observations made by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE; Woods et al. 2012SoPh..275..115W) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission. These comparisons provide a means of establishing the absolute calibration for EIS. Second, we combine extended EIS observations from above the limb in the quiet Sun with a simple temperature model to simultaneously determine the differential emission measure (DEM) distribution and the time-dependent changes to the effective areas that best fit all of the available spectral lines. In Figure 2 we show the average spectrum from an observation of seven consecutive runs of ELFULLCCDWSUMER. The observations began on 2007 November 4 19:12 and ended on the same date at 23:51 UT. The EIS field of view was centered at (990", -50") about 22" above the limb of the Sun. The central 129 pixels along the slit have been averaged over 38 exposures (11 exposures were corrupted in transmission to the ground) for a total of 4902 intensity measurements at each wavelength. Since each exposure is 300s, the spectrum represents 1470600 pixels of effective exposure time and allows weak lines at the ends of the detector to be measured. (1 data file).

  7. Cycle 23's Long Decline: Quiet but not dull!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Janet

    2009-05-01

    The Sun has recently reminded us about its unpredictable predictability (or predictable unpredictability). Even as it arrives into its anticipated minimum phase, we are appreciating that even modest deviations from what we have experienced in the space age so far can have measurable and significant consequences. Fortunately we now have a much better understanding of the physical connections between the Sun, the heliosphere, and the planetary environments than in any previous cycle. We can put what is happening now in context, and take a new look at how solar cycle variations have and will stretch the range of what we consider 'normal' behavior. This understanding also bears on the question of the distant past and likely future experiences in living with our star.

  8. THE SUN'S SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC ELEMENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 23

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, C. L.; Wang, J. X.; Song, Q.; Zhao, H. E-mail: wangjx@nao.cas.cn

    2011-04-10

    With the unique database from the Michelson Doppler Imager on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory in an interval embodying solar cycle 23, the cyclic behavior of solar small-scale magnetic elements is studied. More than 13 million small-scale magnetic elements are selected, and the following results are found. (1) The quiet regions dominated the Sun's magnetic flux for about 8 years in the 12.25 year duration of cycle 23. They contributed (0.94-1.44) x10{sup 23} Mx flux to the Sun from the solar minimum to maximum. The monthly average magnetic flux of the quiet regions is 1.12 times that of the active regions in the cycle. (2) The ratio of quiet region flux to that of the total Sun equally characterizes the course of a solar cycle. The 6 month running average flux ratio of the quiet regions was larger than 90.0% for 28 continuous months from July 2007 to October 2009, which very well characterizes the grand solar minima of cycles 23-24. (3) From the small to the large end of the flux spectrum, the variations of numbers and total flux of the network elements show no correlation, anti-correlation, and correlation with sunspots, respectively. The anti-correlated elements, covering the flux of (2.9-32.0)x10{sup 18} Mx, occupy 77.2% of the total element number and 37.4% of the quiet-Sun flux. These results provide insight into the reason for anti-correlations of small-scale magnetic activity during the solar cycle.

  9. Effects of road traffic noise and the benefit of access to quietness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.; Skånberg, A.; Svensson, H.; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, A.

    2006-08-01

    Socio-acoustic surveys were carried out as part of the Soundscape Support to Health research programme to assess the health effects of various soundscapes in residential areas. The study was designed to test whether having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling enhances opportunities for relaxation and reduces noise annoyance and other adverse health effects related to noise. The dwellings chosen were exposed to sound levels from road traffic ranging from about L=45-68 dB at the most-exposed side. The study involved 956 individuals aged 18-75 years. The results demonstrate that access to quiet indoor and outdoor sections of one's dwelling supports health; it produces a lower degree and extent of annoyance and disturbed daytime relaxation, improves sleep and contributes to physiological and psychological well-being. Having access to a quiet side of one's dwelling reduces disturbances by an average of 30-50% for the various critical effects, and corresponds to a reduction in sound levels of ( LAeq,24h) 5 dB at the most-exposed side. To protect most people (80%) from annoyance and other adverse effects, sound levels from road traffic should not exceed ( LAeq,24h) 60 dB at the most-exposed side, even if there is access to a quiet side of one's dwelling ( LAeq,24h⩽45 dB).

  10. Development of a quiet supersonic wind tunnel with a cryogenic adaptive nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1995-01-01

    Low-disturbance or 'quiet' wind tunnels are now considered an essential part of meaningful boundary layer transition research. Advances in Supersonic Laminar Flow Control (SLFC) technology for swept wings depends on a better understanding of the receptivity of the transition phenomena to attachment-line contamination and cross-flows. This need has provided the impetus for building the Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT) at NASA-Ames, as part of the NASA High Speed Research Program (HSRP). The LFSWT was designed to provide NASA with an unequaled capability for transition research at low supersonic Mach numbers (<2.5). The following are the objectives in support of the new Fluid Mechanic Laboratory (FML) quiet supersonic wind tunnel: (I) Develop a unique injector drive system using the existing FML indraft compressor; (2) Develop an FML instrumentation capability for quiet supersonic wind tunnel evaluation and transition studies at NASA-Ames; (3) Determine the State of the Art in quiet supersonic wind tunnel design; (4) Build and commission the LFSWT; (5) Make detailed flow quality measurements in the LFSWT; (6) Perform tests of swept wing models in the LFSWT in support of the NASA HSR program; and (7) Provide documentation of research progress.

  11. Organization of Functional Postural Responses Following Perturbations in Multiple Directions in Elderly Fallers Standing Quietly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matjacic, Zlatko; Sok, David; Jakovljevic, Miroljub; Cikajlo, Imre

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess functional postural responses by analyzing the center-of-pressure trajectories resulting from perturbations delivered in multiple directions to elderly fallers. Ten elderly individuals were standing quietly on two force platforms while an apparatus delivered controlled perturbations at the level of pelvis…

  12. White dwarf models for type 1 supernovae and quiet supernovae, and presupernova evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nomoto, K.

    1980-01-01

    Supernova mechanisms in accreting white dwarfs are considered with emphasis on deflagration as a plausible mechanism for producing Type I supernovae and electron captures to form quiet supernovae leaving neutron stars. These outcomes depend on accretion rate of helium, initial mass and composition of the white dwarf. The various types of hydrogen shell burning in the presupernova stage are also discussed.

  13. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering.

    PubMed

    Wayment, Heidi A; Collier, Ann F; Birkett, Melissa; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Till, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Excessive self-concern increases perceptions of threat and defensiveness. In contrast, fostering a more inclusive and expanded sense of self can reduce stress and improve well-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student's compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics: detached awareness, inclusive identity, perspective taking, and growth. Students (N = 32) in their first semester of college who reported greater self-protective (e.g., defensive) goals in the first 2 weeks of the semester were invited to participate in the study. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: quiet ego contemplation (QEC), QEC with virtual reality (VR) headset (QEC-VR), and control. Participants came to the lab three times to engage in a 15-min exercise in a 30-days period. The 15-min QEC briefly described each quiet ego characteristic followed by a few minutes time to reflect on what that characteristic meant to them. Those in the QEC condition reported improved quiet ego characteristics and pluralistic thinking, decreases in a urinary marker of oxidative stress, and reduced mind-wandering on a cognitive task. Contrary to expectation, participants who wore the VR headsets while listening to the QEC demonstrated the least improvement. Results suggest that a brief intervention that reduces self-focus and strengthens a more compassionate self-view may offer an additional resource that individuals can use in their everyday lives. PMID:26483734

  14. Quiet Eye Duration Is Responsive to Variability of Practice and to the Axis of Target Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Robert R.; Okumura, Michelle S.; Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Gardin, Fredrick A.; Sylvester, Curtis T.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that quiet eye, the final fixation before the initiation of a movement in aiming tasks, is used to scale the movement's parameters. Two groups of 12 participants (N = 24) threw darts to targets in the horizontal and vertical axes under conditions of higher (random) or lower (blocked) target variability. Supporting our…

  15. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering.

    PubMed

    Wayment, Heidi A; Collier, Ann F; Birkett, Melissa; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Till, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Excessive self-concern increases perceptions of threat and defensiveness. In contrast, fostering a more inclusive and expanded sense of self can reduce stress and improve well-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student's compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics: detached awareness, inclusive identity, perspective taking, and growth. Students (N = 32) in their first semester of college who reported greater self-protective (e.g., defensive) goals in the first 2 weeks of the semester were invited to participate in the study. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: quiet ego contemplation (QEC), QEC with virtual reality (VR) headset (QEC-VR), and control. Participants came to the lab three times to engage in a 15-min exercise in a 30-days period. The 15-min QEC briefly described each quiet ego characteristic followed by a few minutes time to reflect on what that characteristic meant to them. Those in the QEC condition reported improved quiet ego characteristics and pluralistic thinking, decreases in a urinary marker of oxidative stress, and reduced mind-wandering on a cognitive task. Contrary to expectation, participants who wore the VR headsets while listening to the QEC demonstrated the least improvement. Results suggest that a brief intervention that reduces self-focus and strengthens a more compassionate self-view may offer an additional resource that individuals can use in their everyday lives.

  16. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QSCEE). Preliminary analyses and design report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The experimental propulsion systems to be built and tested in the 'quiet, clean, short-haul experimental engine' program are presented. The flight propulsion systems are also presented. The following areas are discussed: acoustic design; emissions control; engine cycle and performance; fan aerodynamic design; variable-pitch actuation systems; fan rotor mechanical design; fan frame mechanical design; and reduction gear design.

  17. Boundary-Layer Instability Measurements in a Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berridge, Dennis C.; Ward, Christopher, A. C.; Luersen, Ryan P. K.; Chou, Amanda; Abney, Andrew D.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Several experiments have been performed in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at Purdue University. A 7 degree half angle cone at 6 degree angle of attack with temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) and PCB pressure transducers was tested under quiet flow. The stationary crossflow vortices appear to break down to turbulence near the lee ray for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. Attempts to use roughness elements to control the spacing of hot streaks on a flared cone in quiet flow did not succeed. Roughness was observed to damp the second-mode waves in areas influenced by the roughness, and wide roughness spacing allowed hot streaks to form between the roughness elements. A forward-facing cavity was used for proof-of-concept studies for a laser perturber. The lowest density at which the freestream laser perturbations could be detected was 1.07 x 10(exp -2) kilograms per cubic meter. Experiments were conducted to determine the transition characteristics of a streamwise corner flow at hypersonic velocities. Quiet flow resulted in a delayed onset of hot streak spreading. Under low Reynolds number flow hot streak spreading did not occur along the model. A new shock tube has been built at Purdue. The shock tube is designed to create weak shocks suitable for calibrating sensors, particularly PCB-132 sensors. PCB-132 measurements in another shock tube show the shock response and a linear calibration over a moderate pressure range.

  18. The Epistemology of Mathematical and Statistical Modeling: A Quiet Methodological Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee

    2010-01-01

    A quiet methodological revolution, a modeling revolution, has occurred over the past several decades, almost without discussion. In contrast, the 20th century ended with contentious argument over the utility of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The NHST controversy may have been at least partially irrelevant, because in certain ways the…

  19. Aborted jets and the X-ray emission of radio-quiet AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Haardt, F.; Matt, G.

    2004-01-01

    We propose that radio-quiet quasars and Seyfert galaxies have central black holes powering outflows and jets which propagate only for a short distance, because the velocity of the ejected material is smaller than the escape velocity. We call them ``aborted" jets. If the central engine works intermittently, blobs of material may be produced, which can reach a maximum radial distance and then fall back, colliding with the blobs produced later and still moving outwards. These collisions dissipate the bulk kinetic energy of the blobs by heating the plasma, and can be responsible (entirely or at least in part) for the generation of the high energy emission in radio-quiet objects. This is alternative to the more conventional scenario in which the X-ray spectrum of radio-quiet sources originates in a hot (and possibly patchy) corona above the accretion disk. In the latter case the ultimate source of energy of the emission of both the disk and the corona is accretion. Here we instead propose that the high energy emission is powered also by the extraction of the rotational energy of the black hole (and possibly of the disk). By means of Montecarlo simulations we calculate the time dependent spectra and light curves, and discuss their relevance to the X-ray spectra in radio-quiet AGNs and galactic black hole sources. In particular, we show that time variability and spectra are similar to those observed in Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  20. Effect of Minimal Hearing Loss on Children's Ability to Multitask in Quiet and in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Brittany; Pittman, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of minimal hearing loss (HL) on children's ability to perform simultaneous tasks in quiet and in noise. Method: Ten children with minimal HL and 11 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. Both groups ranged in age from 8 to 12 years. The children categorized common words…

  1. Brief quiet ego contemplation reduces oxidative stress and mind-wandering

    PubMed Central

    Wayment, Heidi A.; Collier, Ann F.; Birkett, Melissa; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Till, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive self-concern increases perceptions of threat and defensiveness. In contrast, fostering a more inclusive and expanded sense of self can reduce stress and improve well-being. We developed and tested a novel brief intervention designed to strengthen a student’s compassionate self-identity, an identity that values balance and growth by reminding them of four quiet ego characteristics: detached awareness, inclusive identity, perspective taking, and growth. Students (N = 32) in their first semester of college who reported greater self-protective (e.g., defensive) goals in the first 2 weeks of the semester were invited to participate in the study. Volunteers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: quiet ego contemplation (QEC), QEC with virtual reality (VR) headset (QEC-VR), and control. Participants came to the lab three times to engage in a 15-min exercise in a 30-days period. The 15-min QEC briefly described each quiet ego characteristic followed by a few minutes time to reflect on what that characteristic meant to them. Those in the QEC condition reported improved quiet ego characteristics and pluralistic thinking, decreases in a urinary marker of oxidative stress, and reduced mind-wandering on a cognitive task. Contrary to expectation, participants who wore the VR headsets while listening to the QEC demonstrated the least improvement. Results suggest that a brief intervention that reduces self-focus and strengthens a more compassionate self-view may offer an additional resource that individuals can use in their everyday lives. PMID:26483734

  2. Behavioral effect of knee joint motion on body's center of mass during human quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akio; Sasagawa, Shun; Oba, Naoko; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2015-01-01

    The balance control mechanism during upright standing has often been investigated using single- or double-link inverted pendulum models, involving the ankle joint only or both the ankle and hip joints, respectively. Several studies, however, have reported that knee joint motion during quiet standing cannot be ignored. This study aimed to investigate the degree to which knee joint motion contributes to the center of mass (COM) kinematics during quiet standing. Eight healthy adults were asked to stand quietly for 30s on a force platform. Angular displacements and accelerations of the ankle, knee, and hip joints were calculated from kinematic data obtained by a motion capture system. We found that the amplitude of the angular acceleration was smallest in the ankle joint and largest in the hip joint (ankle < knee < hip). These angular accelerations were then substituted into three biomechanical models with or without the knee joint to estimate COM acceleration in the anterior-posterior direction. Although the "without-knee" models greatly overestimated the COM acceleration, the COM acceleration estimated by the "with-knee" model was similar to the actual acceleration obtained from force platform measurement. These results indicate substantial effects of knee joint motion on the COM kinematics during quiet standing. We suggest that investigations based on the multi-joint model, including the knee joint, are required to reveal the physiologically plausible balance control mechanism implemented by the central nervous system. PMID:25248799

  3. Behavioral effect of knee joint motion on body's center of mass during human quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akio; Sasagawa, Shun; Oba, Naoko; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2015-01-01

    The balance control mechanism during upright standing has often been investigated using single- or double-link inverted pendulum models, involving the ankle joint only or both the ankle and hip joints, respectively. Several studies, however, have reported that knee joint motion during quiet standing cannot be ignored. This study aimed to investigate the degree to which knee joint motion contributes to the center of mass (COM) kinematics during quiet standing. Eight healthy adults were asked to stand quietly for 30s on a force platform. Angular displacements and accelerations of the ankle, knee, and hip joints were calculated from kinematic data obtained by a motion capture system. We found that the amplitude of the angular acceleration was smallest in the ankle joint and largest in the hip joint (ankle < knee < hip). These angular accelerations were then substituted into three biomechanical models with or without the knee joint to estimate COM acceleration in the anterior-posterior direction. Although the "without-knee" models greatly overestimated the COM acceleration, the COM acceleration estimated by the "with-knee" model was similar to the actual acceleration obtained from force platform measurement. These results indicate substantial effects of knee joint motion on the COM kinematics during quiet standing. We suggest that investigations based on the multi-joint model, including the knee joint, are required to reveal the physiologically plausible balance control mechanism implemented by the central nervous system.

  4. HIGH-SPEED TRANSITION REGION AND CORONAL UPFLOWS IN THE QUIET SUN

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, Bart E-mail: bdp@lmsal.co

    2009-12-10

    We study the line profiles of a range of transition region (TR) emission lines observed in typical quiet-Sun regions. In magnetic network regions, the Si IV 1402 A, C IV 1548 A, N V 1238 A, O VI 1031 A, and Ne VIII 770 A spectral lines show significant asymmetry in the blue wing of the emission line profiles. We interpret these high-velocity upflows in the lower and upper TR as the quiet-Sun equivalent of the recently discovered upflows in the low corona above plage regions. The latter have been shown to be directly associated with high-velocity chromospheric spicules that are (partially) heated to coronal temperatures and play a significant role in supplying the active region corona with hot plasma. We show that a similar process likely dominates the quiet-Sun network. We provide a new interpretation of the observed quiet-Sun TR emission in terms of the relentless mass transport between the chromosphere and corona-a mixture of emission from dynamic episodic heating and mass injection into the corona as well as that from the previously filled, slowly cooling, coronal plasma. Analysis of the observed upflow component shows that it carries enough hot plasma to play a significant role in the energy and mass balance of the quiet corona. We determine the temperature dependence of the upflow velocities to constrain the acceleration and heating mechanism that drives these upflows. We also show that the temporal characteristics of these upflows suggest an episodic driver that sometimes leads to quasi-periodic signals. We suggest that at least some of the quasi-periodicities observed with coronal imagers and spectrographs that have previously been interpreted as propagating magnetoacoustic waves, may instead be caused by these upflows.

  5. Phase synchronisation of the three leg joints in quiet human stance.

    PubMed

    Günther, Michael; Putsche, Peter; Leistritz, Lutz; Grimmer, Sten

    2011-03-01

    Quiet human stance is a dynamic multi-segment phenomenon. In literature, coupled ankle and hip actions are in the focus and examinations are usually restricted to frequency contributions below 4 Hz. Very few studies point to the knee playing an active role, and just one study gives evidence of higher frequency contributions. In order to investigate the dynamic coupling of all three leg joints in more depth, we revisited an experimental data set on quiet human stance. Since phase synchronisation is a strong indicator of non-linear coupling behind, we used the phase synchronisation index (PSI) to quantify the degree of leg joint coupling as a function of frequency. One main result is that we did not find any synchronisation between ankle and hip across the whole frequency range examined up to 8 Hz. In contrast, there is significant synchronisation between ankle and knee at a couple of frequencies between 1.25 Hz and 8 Hz when looking at the kinematics. Their joint torques rather synchronise below 2 Hz. There is also synchronisation between knee and hip kinematics above 6 Hz, however, only significant at one frequency bin in our data set. From this, we would infer that the multiple mechanical degrees of freedom contributing to quiet human stance should be chosen according to, thus map, physiology. Thereby, the knee is indispensable and bi-articular muscles play a central role in organising quiet human stance. Examining the non-stationarity of phase synchronisations will probably advance the understanding of self-organisation of quiet human stance.

  6. Solar cycle variation of the statistical distribution of the solar wind ɛ parameter and its constituent variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindale, E.; Chapman, S. C.

    2016-06-01

    We use 20 years of Wind solar wind observations to investigate the solar cycle variation of the solar wind driving of the magnetosphere. For the first time, we use generalized quantile-quantile plots to compare the statistical distribution of four commonly used solar wind coupling parameters, Poynting flux, B2, the ɛ parameter, and vB, between the maxima and minima of solar cycles 23 and 24. We find the distribution is multicomponent and has the same functional form at all solar cycle phases; the change in distribution is captured by a simple transformation of variables for each component. The ɛ parameter is less sensitive than its constituent variables to changes in the distribution of extreme values between successive solar maxima. The quiet minimum of cycle 23 manifests only in lower extreme values, while cycle 24 was less active across the full distribution range.

  7. A review of the Nimbus-7 ERB solar dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyle, H. L.; Hoyt, D. V.; Hickey, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Fourteen years (November 16, 1978 through January 24, 1993) of Nimbus-7 total solar irradiance measurements have been made. The measured mean annual solar energy just outside of the Earth's atmosphere was about 0.1% (1.4 W per sq m) higher in the peak years of 1979 (cycle 21) and 1991 (cycle 22) than in the quiet Sun years of 1985/86. Comparison with shorter independent solar measurement sets and with empirical models qualitatively confirms the Nimbus-7 results. But these comparisons also raise questions of detail for future studies: in which years did the peaks actually occur and just how accurate are the models and the measurements?

  8. Solar astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, Robert; Noyes, Robert; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Canfield, Richard C.; Chupp, Edward L.; Deming, Drake; Doschek, George A.; Dulk, George A.; Foukal, Peter V.; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of modern solar physics. Topics covered include the solar interior, the solar surface, the solar atmosphere, the Large Earth-based Solar Telescope (LEST), the Orbiting Solar Laboratory, the High Energy Solar Physics mission, the Space Exploration Initiative, solar-terrestrial physics, and adaptive optics. Policy and related programmatic recommendations are given for university research and education, facilitating solar research, and integrated support for solar research.

  9. Solar Flare Observations at Submm-waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Raulin, J.-P.; Correia, E.; Costa, J. E. R.; Guillermo, C.; de Castro, Giménez; Silva, A. V. R.; Levato, H.; Rovira, M.; Mandrini, C.; Fernández-Borda, R.; Bauer, O.

    We report on the recent installation of the new Solar Submillimeter Telescope(SST) at the El Leoncito site, located in the Argentinean Andes, and also show first observational results. The instrument consists of a radome-enclosed 1.5-m cassegrain reflector and a system of two radiometers at 405 GHz and four at 212 GHz. The SST observes the quiet Sun and solar bursts simultaneously at both submillimeter-wave frequencies with a sampling rate of 1 millisecond. Since SST has seen the "first light" in May 1999, nearly 45 hours of continuous tracking of solar active regions were collected during short campaigns which produced first evidence for solar activity. The project has been funded by the Brazilian agency FAPESP, receiving support from the Argentinean agency CONICET through their institutes CASLEO and IAFE and from IAP, University of Bern and the Swiss National Science Foundation.

  10. Observation of Quiet Limb in He I 1083.0 nm, H Paschen alpha1281.8 nm and H Brackett gamma 2166.1 nm lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Choudhary, Debi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we shall present the results of an observational study of the quiet solar limb in the near infrared lines using the New IR Array Camera (NAC) and the vertical spectrograph at the focal plane of McMath-Pierce telescope. The NAC, at the exit port of the spectrograph, was used to record the limb spectrum in HeI 1083.0 nm, Hydrogen Paschen 1281.8 nm and Brackett 2165.5 nm wavelength regions. The NAC is a 1024x1024 InSb Alladin III Detector operating over 1-5 micron range with high density sampling at 0.018 arc second/pixel. The all-reflective optical train minimizes number of surfaces and eliminates ghosts leading to low scatter, ghost-free optics. The close-cycle cryogenic provides a stable cooling environment over six hour period with an accuracy of 0.01K leading to low dark current. The low read out noise combined with low scattered light and dark current makes NAC an ideal detector for making high quality infrared spectral observations of solar limb. The limb spectrums were obtained by placing the spectrograph slit perpendicular to the limb at an interval of 10 degrees around the solar disk. We shall report the intensity profile, line-of-sight velocity and line width distribution around the sun derived from the spectra along the slit.

  11. Helioseismology with Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löptien, Björn; Birch, Aaron C.; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper; Appourchaux, Thierry; Blanco Rodríguez, Julián; Cally, Paul S.; Dominguez-Tagle, Carlos; Gandorfer, Achim; Hill, Frank; Hirzberger, Johann; Scherrer, Philip H.; Solanki, Sami K.

    2015-12-01

    The Solar Orbiter mission, to be launched in July 2017, will carry a suite of remote sensing and in-situ instruments, including the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). PHI will deliver high-cadence images of the Sun in intensity and Doppler velocity suitable for carrying out novel helioseismic studies. The orbit of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft will reach a solar latitude of up to 21∘ (up to 34∘ by the end of the extended mission) and thus will enable the first local helioseismology studies of the polar regions. Here we consider an array of science objectives to be addressed by helioseismology within the baseline telemetry allocation (51 Gbit per orbit, current baseline) and within the science observing windows (baseline 3×10 days per orbit). A particularly important objective is the measurement of large-scale flows at high latitudes (rotation and meridional flow), which are largely unknown but play an important role in flux transport dynamos. For both helioseismology and feature tracking methods convection is a source of noise in the measurement of longitudinally averaged large-scale flows, which decreases as T -1/2 where T is the total duration of the observations. Therefore, the detection of small amplitude signals (e.g., meridional circulation, flows in the deep solar interior) requires long observation times. As an example, one hundred days of observations at lower spatial resolution would provide a noise level of about three m/s on the meridional flow at 80∘ latitude. Longer time-series are also needed to study temporal variations with the solar cycle. The full range of Earth-Sun-spacecraft angles provided by the orbit will enable helioseismology from two vantage points by combining PHI with another instrument: stereoscopic helioseismology will allow the study of the deep solar interior and a better understanding of the physics of solar oscillations in both quiet Sun and sunspots. We have used a model of the PHI instrument to study its

  12. Solar activity dependence of nightside aurora in winter conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Su; Luan, Xiaoli; Dou, Xiankang

    2016-02-01

    The dependence of the nightside (21:00-03:00 MLT; magnetic local time) auroral energy flux on solar activity was quantitatively studied for winter/dark and geomagnetically quiet conditions. Using data combined from Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Global Ultraviolet Imager and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager observations, we separated the effects of geomagnetic activity from those of solar flux on the nightside auroral precipitation. The results showed that the nightside auroral power was reduced by ~42% in solar maximum (F10.7 = 200 sfu; solar flux unit 1 sfu = 10-22 W m-2 Hz-1) with respect to that under solar minimum (F10.7 = 70 sfu) for the Kp = 1 condition, and this change rate became less (~21%) for the Kp = 3 condition. In addition, the solar cycle dependence of nightside auroral power was similar with that from both the premidnight (21:00-23:00 MLT) and postmidnight (01:00-03:00 MLT) sectors. These results indicated that as the ionospheric ionization increases with the enhanced auroral and geomagnetic activities, the solar activity dependences of nightside auroral power become weaker, at least under geomagnetically quiet conditions.

  13. X-RAY PULSATIONS FROM THE RADIO-QUIET GAMMA-RAY PULSAR IN CTA 1

    SciTech Connect

    Caraveo, P. A.; De Luca, A.; Marelli, M.; Bignami, G. F.; Ray, P. S.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Kanbach, G.

    2010-12-10

    Prompted by the Fermi-LAT discovery of a radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar inside the CTA 1 supernova remnant, we obtained a 130 ks XMM-Newton observation to assess the timing behavior of this pulsar. Exploiting both the unprecedented photon harvest and the contemporary Fermi-LAT timing measurements, a 4.7{sigma} single-peak pulsation is detected, making PSR J0007+7303 the second example, after Geminga, of a radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar also seen to pulsate in X-rays. Phase-resolved spectroscopy shows that the off-pulse portion of the light curve is dominated by a power-law, non-thermal spectrum, while the X-ray peak emission appears to be mainly of thermal origin, probably from a polar cap heated by magnetospheric return currents, pointing to a hot spot varying throughout the pulsar rotation.

  14. Quiet-time observation of a coherent compressional Pc-4 micropulsation at synchronous altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulikas, G. A.; Schulz, M.; Barfield, J. N.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Maclennan, C. G.

    1971-01-01

    During a magnetically quiet interval the magnetic-field intensity and energetic electron fluxes at ATS 1 exhibited coherent modulations having a frequency of 33.8 cph and a duration of approximately 40 oscillations. The electron fluxes and the magnetic field oscillated in phase. The field perturbation reached 8 jamma (peak to peak) in the direction of the unperturbed geomagnetic field. The transverse component of the field perturbation was practically zero. The characteristics of the observed oscillations appear compatible with those of a compressional excitation of the outer magnetosphere. The substantially radial normal mode is perhaps driven by a bounce-resonant interaction with the 15-keV protons that populate the quiet-day ring current.

  15. Quiet eye gaze behavior of expert, and near-expert, baseball plate umpires.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane G; Hines, Bridget B; Smith, Melissa S

    2013-02-01

    The quiet eye gaze behavior of 4 near-expert and 4 expert baseball umpires who called balls and strikes in simulated pitch-hit situations was assessed with a mobile eye cornea tracker system. Statistical analyses of the umpires' gaze behavior (fixation/pursuit tracking, saccades, and blinks)--onset, duration, offset, and frequency--were performed between and within 4 stages (pitcher's preparation, pitcher's delivery, ball in flight, and umpire call) by umpire's skill level. The results indicated that the quiet eye of expert umpires at onset of the pitcher's release point occurred earlier and was longer in duration than near-expert umpires. Expert expert umpires. The area outside the pitcher's ball release point may be the key environment cue for the behind-the-plate umpire.

  16. The host galaxies of radio-loud and radio-quiet AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Vale Asari, N.; Stasinska, G.; Sikora, M.

    2016-08-01

    To infer whether the jet production efficiency depends on the host properties or is determined just by intrinsic properties of the accretion flows we compared optical properties of the host galaxies of radio-quiet (RQ) and radio-loud (RL) Type 2 AGNs. We carefully selected galaxies from SDSS, FIRST, and NVSS catalogues. We confirmed that the fraction of RL AGNs increases with the black hole (BH) masses and decreases with the Eddington ratio. Therefore, the comparison of the nature of the hosts of RL and RQ AGNs requires pairmatching techniques. By pairing RL and RQ samples in BH mass, Eddington ratio and redshift, we showed that the radio-loudness correlates with the host-galaxy concentration index and morphological type, and anti-correlates with the recent specific star-formation rate and dust attenuation. Contrary to some previous studies, we found no significant difference between our radio-loud and radio-quiet samples regarding merger/interaction features.

  17. Commission 12: Solar Radiation & Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Thomas. J.; Martínez Pillet, Valentin; Asplund, M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cauzzi, G.; Cram, L. E.; Dravins, D.; Gan, W.; Henzl, P.; Kosovichev, A.; Mariska, J. T.; Rovira, M. G.; Venkatakrishnan, P.

    2007-03-01

    Commission 12 covers research on the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun, the "quiet" solar atmosphere, solar radiation and its variability, and the nature of relatively stable magnetic structures like sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network. There is considerable productive overlap with the other Commissions of Division II as investigations move progressively toward the fertile intellectual boundaries between traditional research disciplines. In large part, the solar magnetic field provides the linkage that connects these diverse themes. The same magnetic field that produces the more subtle variations of solar structure and radiative output over the 11 yr activity cycle is also implicated in rapid and often violent phenomena such as flares, coronal mass ejections, prominence eruptions, and episodes of sporadic magnetic reconnection.The last three years have again brought significant progress in nearly all the research endeavors touched upon by the interests of Commission 12. The underlying causes for this success remain the same: sustained advances in computing capabilities coupled with diverse observations with increasing levels of spatial, temporal and spectral resolution. It is all but impossible to deal with these many advances here in anything except a cursory and selective fashion. Thankfully, the Living Reviews in Solar Physics; has published several extensive reviews over the last two years that deal explicitly with issues relevant to the purview of Commission 12. The reader who is eager for a deeper and more complete understanding of some of these advances is directed to http://www.livingreviews.org for access to these articles.

  18. Loss of Geosynchronous Relativistic Electrons By Emic Wave Scattering Under Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Hyun, K.; Lee, E.; Lee, D. H.

    2014-12-01

    We have examined relativistic electron flux losses at geosynchronous orbit under quiet geomagnetic conditions. One 3-day period, from 11 to 13 October 2007, was chosen for analysis because geomagnetic conditions were very quiet (3-day average of Kp < 1), and significant losses of geosynchronous relativistic electrons were observed. During this interval, there was no geomagnetic storm activity. Thus, the loss processes associated with geomagnetic field modulations caused by ring current buildup can be excluded. The >2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit shows typical diurnal variations with a maximum near noon and a minimum near midnight for each day. The flux level of the daily variation significantly decreased from first day to third day for the 3-day period by a factor of >10. The total magnetic field strength (BT) of the daily variation on the third day, however, is comparable to that on the first day. Unlike electron flux decreases, the flux of protons with energies between 0.8 and 4 MeV adiabatically responses to the daily variation of BT. That is, there is no significant decrease of the proton flux when the electron flux decreases. During the interval of quiet geomagnetic conditions, well-defined electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were detected at geosynchronous spacecraft. Low-altitude polar orbiting spacecraft observed the precipitation of energetic protons and relativistic electrons in the interval of EMIC waves enhancement. From these observations, we suggest that the EMIC waves at geosynchronous orbit cause pitch-angle scattering and electron loss to the atmosphere under quiet geomagnetic conditions.

  19. Loss of geosynchronous relativistic electrons by EMIC wave scattering under quiet geomagnetic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, K.; Kim, K.-H.; Lee, E.; Kwon, H.-J.; Lee, D.-H.; Jin, H.

    2014-10-01

    We have examined relativistic electron flux losses at geosynchronous orbit under quiet geomagnetic conditions. One 3 day period, from 11 to 13 October 2007, was chosen for analysis because geomagnetic conditions were very quiet (3 day average of Kp< 1), and significant losses of geosynchronous relativistic electrons were observed. During this interval, there was no geomagnetic storm activity. Thus, the loss processes associated with geomagnetic field modulations caused by ring current buildup can be excluded. The >2 MeV electron flux at geosynchronous orbit shows typical diurnal variations with a maximum near noon and a minimum near midnight for each day. The flux level of the daily variation significantly decreased from first day to third day for the 3 day period by a factor of >10. The total magnetic field strength (BT) of the daily variation on the third day, however, is comparable to that on the first day. Unlike electron flux decreases, the flux of protons with energies between 0.8 and 4 MeV adiabatically responses to the daily variation of BT. That is, there is no significant decrease of the proton flux when the electron flux decreases. During the interval of quiet geomagnetic conditions, well-defined electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves were detected at geosynchronous spacecraft. Low-altitude polar-orbiting spacecraft observed the precipitation of energetic protons and relativistic electrons in the interval of EMIC waves enhancement. From these observations, we suggest that the EMIC waves at geosynchronous orbit cause pitch angle scattering and relativistic electron losses to the atmosphere under quiet geomagnetic conditions.

  20. A quiet-flow Ludwieg tube for experimental study of high speed boundary layer transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven P.

    1992-01-01

    A new low Reynolds number quiet-flow Ludwieg tube facility, now under construction, is briefly described, and its advantages outlined. The facility is characterized by good optical access and may be particularly useful for the development of optical instrumentation for the generation and measurement of instability waves. Initial research plans also include work on hot-wire instrumentation, wave generation techniques, roughness and receptivity effects, and suction distribution effects.

  1. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) Under-The-Wing (UTW) composite nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    The detail design of the under the wing experimental composite nacelle components is summarized. Analysis of an inlet, fan bypass duct doors, core cowl doors, and variable fan nozzle are given. The required technology to meet propulsion system performance, weight, and operational characteristics is discussed. The materials, design, and fabrication technology for quiet propulsion systems which will yield installed thrust to weight ratios greater than 3.5 to 1 are described.

  2. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) clean combustor test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A component pressure test was conducted on a F101 PFRT combustor to evaluate the emissions levels of this combustor design at selected under the wing and over the wing operating conditions for the quiet clean short haul experimental engine (QCSEE). Emissions reduction techniques were evaluated which included compressor discharge bleed and sector burning in the combustor. The results of this test were utilized to compare the expected QCSEE emissions levels with the emission goals of the QCSEE engine program.

  3. A proposed space mission around the Moon to measure the Moon Radio-Quiet Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonietti, N.; Pagana, G.; Pluchino, S.; Maccone, C.

    In a series of papers published since 2000 mainly in Acta Astronautica the senior author Maccone dealt with the advantages of the Farside of the Moon for future utilization Clearly the Moon Farside is free from RFI Radio Frequency Interference produced in larger and larger amounts by the increasing human exploitation of radio technologies That author suggested that crater Daedalus located at the center of the Farside was the best possible location to build up in the future one or more radiotelescopes or phased arrays to achieve the maximum sensitivity in radioastronomical and SETI searches Also a radio-quiet region of space above the Farside of the Moon exists and is called the Quiet Cone The Quiet Cone actual size however is largely unknown since it depends on the orbits of radio-emitting satellites around the Earth that are themselves largely unknown due to the military involvements In addition diffraction of electromagnetic waves grazing the surface of the Moon causes further changes in the geometrical shape of the Quiet Cone This riddle can be solved only by direct measurements of the radio attenuation above the Farside of the Moon performed by satellites orbiting the Moon itself In this paper we propose to let one or more low cost radiometers be put into orbit around the Moon to measure the RFI attenuation at different frequencies and altitudes above the Moon The opportunity of adding more payload s such as an ion detector and or a temperature sensor is evaluated also In this regard we present in this paper the experience gained by

  4. The Quiet Revolution that Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family. NBER Working Paper No. 11953

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Claudia

    2006-01-01

    The modern economic role of women emerged in four phases. The first three were evolutionary; the last was revolutionary. Phase I occurred from the late nineteenth century to the 1920s; Phase II was from 1930 to 1950; Phase III extended from 1950 to the late 1970s; and Phase IV, the "quiet revolution," began in the late 1970s and is still ongoing.…

  5. The influence of ankle muscle activation on postural sway during quiet stance.

    PubMed

    Warnica, Meagan J; Weaver, Tyler B; Prentice, Stephen D; Laing, Andrew C

    2014-04-01

    Although balance during quiet standing is postulated to be influenced by multiple factors, including ankle stiffness, it is unclear how different mechanisms underlying increases in stiffness affect balance control. Accordingly, this study examined the influence of muscle activation and passive ankle stiffness increases on the magnitude and frequency of postural sway. Sixteen young adults participated in six quiet stance conditions including: relaxed standing, four muscle active conditions (10%, 20%, 30% and 40% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)), and one passive condition wearing an ankle foot orthotic (AFO). Kinetics were collected from a force plate, while whole-body kinematics were collected with a 12-sensor motion capture system. Bilateral electromyographic signals were recorded from the tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles. Quiet stance sway amplitude (range and root mean square) and frequency (mean frequency and velocity) in the sagittal plane were calculated from time-varying centre of gravity (COG) and centre of pressure (COP) data. Compared to the relaxed standing condition, metrics of sway amplitude were significantly increased (between 37.5 and 63.2%) at muscle activation levels of 30% and 40% MVC. Similarly, frequency measures increased between 30.5 and 154.2% in the 20-40% MVC conditions. In contrast, passive ankle stiffness, induced through the AFO, significantly decreased sway amplitude (by 23-26%), decreased COG velocity by 13.8%, and increased mean COP frequency by 24.9%. These results demonstrate that active co-contraction of ankle musculature (common in Parkinson's Disease patients) may have differential effects on quiet stance balance control compared to the use of an ankle foot orthotic (common for those recovering from stroke).

  6. Solar cycle and seasonal variations in F region electrodynamics at Millstone Hill

    SciTech Connect

    Buonsanto, M.J.; Hagan, M.E.; Salah, J.E.; Fejer, B.G.

    1993-09-01

    Incoherent scatter radar observations of ion drifts taken at Millstone Hill (42.6{degrees}N, 288.5{degrees}E) during 73 experiments in the period February 1984 to February 1992 are used to construct, for the first time at this station, average quiet-time ExB drift patterns for both solar cycle maximum and minimum, for the summer, winter, and equinox seasons. The daily variation of V{sub {perpendicular}N} shows a reversal from northward to southward drifts near noon, and a return to northward drifts in the premidnight hours. The weaker southward drift in the afternoon in summer noted by Wand and Evans is shown to occur only at sunspot minimum. The daily variation of V{sub {perpendicular}E} shows daytime eastward drifts and nighttime westward drifts, except in summer when the usual daytime eastward maximum near 1200 LT is suppressed. The daily mean drift is westward for all seasons, and is largest in summer. The daytime eastward drift and nighttime westward drift tend to be stronger at solar maximum than at solar minimum. Average drift patterns are also constructed for equinox for both extremely quiet and geomagnetically disturbed periods. V{sub {perpendicular}N} is appreciably more northward under extremely quiet than under disturbed conditions in the postmidnight and morning periods. During extremely quiet periods, V{sub {perpendicular}E} turns slightly eastward in the evening hours, while it is strongly westward for disturbed conditions. This result contrasts with the strong eastward drifts in the evening in summer reported for extremely quiet conditions at Millstone Hill by Gonzalez et al. A strong anticorrelation is seen at Millstone Hill between V{sub {perpendicular}N} and V{sub {parallel}}, as is found at lower latitude stations. The quiet-time patterns are discussed in terms of the causative E and F region dynamo mechanisms. 39 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Thermospheric/ionospheric disturbances under quiet and magneto-perturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Ivan G.; Mozgovaya, O. L.

    2003-04-01

    The basic mechanisms of ionospheric storms (IS) are investigated sufficiently full. Despite of it a quantitative forecast of ionospheric disturbance is not always satisfactory. One of the possible causes can be related to the insufficient account of a background ionospheric. In particualr using electron concentration Ne in the peak of F2-region and total electron content are shown, that the amplitude of a IS positive phase for similar magnetic storms can differ by ~1,5 times. Hence a cause of distinction can be variations in the thermosphere conditions, not reflected by known activity indices. For further research we used the incoherent scatter radar data of the Institute of ionosphere in height range 200-1000 km in the very quiet periods coming to the geomagnetic disturbance. A steady periodic disturbance in Ne during quiet conditions in all heights is established, which can be identified as tidal moda m=6. The amplitude of wave is ~15%, the phase changes with a height. The storm onset leads to an increase of the amplitudes approximately twice without a change in the phase. An ionospheric disturbance in very quiet conditions can lead to additional complicating an ionosphere reaction to magnetic storm.

  8. The effects of vision-related aspects on noise perception of wind turbines in quiet areas.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Luigi; Iachini, Tina; Masullo, Massimiliano; Aletta, Francesco; Sorrentino, Francesco; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Ruotolo, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    Preserving the soundscape and geographic extension of quiet areas is a great challenge against the wide-spreading of environmental noise. The E.U. Environmental Noise Directive underlines the need to preserve quiet areas as a new aim for the management of noise in European countries. At the same time, due to their low population density, rural areas characterized by suitable wind are considered appropriate locations for installing wind farms. However, despite the fact that wind farms are represented as environmentally friendly projects, these plants are often viewed as visual and audible intruders, that spoil the landscape and generate noise. Even though the correlations are still unclear, it is obvious that visual impacts of wind farms could increase due to their size and coherence with respect to the rural/quiet environment. In this paper, by using the Immersive Virtual Reality technique, some visual and acoustical aspects of the impact of a wind farm on a sample of subjects were assessed and analyzed. The subjects were immersed in a virtual scenario that represented a situation of a typical rural outdoor scenario that they experienced at different distances from the wind turbines. The influence of the number and the colour of wind turbines on global, visual and auditory judgment were investigated. The main results showed that, regarding the number of wind turbines, the visual component has a weak effect on individual reactions, while the colour influences both visual and auditory individual reactions, although in a different way. PMID:23624578

  9. The Effects of Vision-Related Aspects on Noise Perception of Wind Turbines in Quiet Areas

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Luigi; Iachini, Tina; Masullo, Massimiliano; Aletta, Francesco; Sorrentino, Francesco; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Ruotolo, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Preserving the soundscape and geographic extension of quiet areas is a great challenge against the wide-spreading of environmental noise. The E.U. Environmental Noise Directive underlines the need to preserve quiet areas as a new aim for the management of noise in European countries. At the same time, due to their low population density, rural areas characterized by suitable wind are considered appropriate locations for installing wind farms. However, despite the fact that wind farms are represented as environmentally friendly projects, these plants are often viewed as visual and audible intruders, that spoil the landscape and generate noise. Even though the correlations are still unclear, it is obvious that visual impacts of wind farms could increase due to their size and coherence with respect to the rural/quiet environment. In this paper, by using the Immersive Virtual Reality technique, some visual and acoustical aspects of the impact of a wind farm on a sample of subjects were assessed and analyzed. The subjects were immersed in a virtual scenario that represented a situation of a typical rural outdoor scenario that they experienced at different distances from the wind turbines. The influence of the number and the colour of wind turbines on global, visual and auditory judgment were investigated. The main results showed that, regarding the number of wind turbines, the visual component has a weak effect on individual reactions, while the colour influences both visual and auditory individual reactions, although in a different way. PMID:23624578

  10. The effects of vision-related aspects on noise perception of wind turbines in quiet areas.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Luigi; Iachini, Tina; Masullo, Massimiliano; Aletta, Francesco; Sorrentino, Francesco; Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Ruotolo, Francesco

    2013-04-26

    Preserving the soundscape and geographic extension of quiet areas is a great challenge against the wide-spreading of environmental noise. The E.U. Environmental Noise Directive underlines the need to preserve quiet areas as a new aim for the management of noise in European countries. At the same time, due to their low population density, rural areas characterized by suitable wind are considered appropriate locations for installing wind farms. However, despite the fact that wind farms are represented as environmentally friendly projects, these plants are often viewed as visual and audible intruders, that spoil the landscape and generate noise. Even though the correlations are still unclear, it is obvious that visual impacts of wind farms could increase due to their size and coherence with respect to the rural/quiet environment. In this paper, by using the Immersive Virtual Reality technique, some visual and acoustical aspects of the impact of a wind farm on a sample of subjects were assessed and analyzed. The subjects were immersed in a virtual scenario that represented a situation of a typical rural outdoor scenario that they experienced at different distances from the wind turbines. The influence of the number and the colour of wind turbines on global, visual and auditory judgment were investigated. The main results showed that, regarding the number of wind turbines, the visual component has a weak effect on individual reactions, while the colour influences both visual and auditory individual reactions, although in a different way.

  11. FULLY RESOLVED QUIET-SUN MAGNETIC FLUX TUBE OBSERVED WITH THE SUNRISE/IMAX INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Riethmueller, T. L.; Schuessler, M.; Hirzberger, J.; Feller, A.; Borrero, J. M.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; MartInez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Knoelker, M.; Title, A. M.

    2010-11-10

    Until today, the small size of magnetic elements in quiet-Sun areas has required the application of indirect methods, such as the line-ratio technique or multi-component inversions, to infer their physical properties. A consistent match to the observed Stokes profiles could only be obtained by introducing a magnetic filling factor that specifies the fraction of the observed pixel filled with magnetic field. Here, we investigate the properties of a small magnetic patch in the quiet Sun observed with the IMaX magnetograph on board the balloon-borne telescope SUNRISE with unprecedented spatial resolution and low instrumental stray light. We apply an inversion technique based on the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation to retrieve the temperature stratification and the field strength in the magnetic patch. The observations can be well reproduced with a one-component, fully magnetized atmosphere with a field strength exceeding 1 kG and a significantly enhanced temperature in the mid to upper photosphere with respect to its surroundings, consistent with semi-empirical flux tube models for plage regions. We therefore conclude that, within the framework of a simple atmospheric model, the IMaX measurements resolve the observed quiet-Sun flux tube.

  12. Quiet as an Environmental Value: A Contrast between Two Legislative Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Robert; Shepherd, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of “quiet” as an “environmental value” in terms of amenity and wellbeing from a legislative context. Critical review of two pieces of environmental legislation from Australia and New Zealand forms the basis of the paper. The Australian legislation is Queensland’s Environmental Protection Act, and the New Zealand legislation is that nation’s Resource Management Act. Quiet is part of the psychoacoustic continuum between a tranquil and an intrusively noisy sound environment. As such, quiet possesses intrinsic value in terms of overall sound within the environment (soundscape) and to individuals and communities. In both pieces of legislation, guidance, either directly or indirectly, is given to “maximum” sound levels to describe the acoustic environment. Only in Queensland is wellbeing and amenity described as environmental values, while in the New Zealand approach, amenity is identified as the core value to defend, but guidance is not well established. Wellbeing can be related to degrees of quietness and the absence of intrusive noise, the character of sound within an environment (“soundscape”), as well as the overall level of sound. The quality of life experienced by individuals is related to that person’s physical and mental health, sense of amenity and wellbeing. These characteristics can be described in terms of subjective and objective measures, though legislation does not always acknowledge the subjective. PMID:23823712

  13. Center of pressure velocity reflects body acceleration rather than body velocity during quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Masani, Kei; Vette, Albert H; Abe, Masaki O; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the center of pressure (COP) velocity reflects the center of mass (COM) acceleration due to a large derivative gain in the neural control system during quiet standing. Twenty-seven young (27.2±4.5 years) and twenty-three elderly (66.2±5.0 years) subjects participated in this study. Each subject was requested to stand quietly on a force plate for five trials, each 90 s long. The COP and COM displacements, the COP and COM velocities, and the COM acceleration were acquired via a force plate and a laser displacement sensor. The amount of fluctuation of each variable was quantified using the root mean square. Following the experimental study, a simulation study was executed to investigate the experimental findings. The experimental results revealed that the COP velocity was correlated with the COM velocity, but more highly correlated with the COM acceleration. The equation of motion of the inverted pendulum model, however, accounts only for the correlation between the COP and COM velocities. These experimental results can be meaningfully explained by the simulation study, which indicated that the neural motor command presumably contains a significant portion that is proportional to body velocity. In conclusion, the COP velocity fluctuation reflects the COM acceleration fluctuation rather than the COM velocity fluctuation, implying that the neural motor command controlling quiet standing posture contains a significant portion that is proportional to body velocity.

  14. Postural sway and joint kinematics during quiet standing are affected by lumbar extensor fatigue.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Michael L; Davidson, Bradley S; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in postural sway and strategy elicited by lumbar extensor muscle fatigue. Specifically, changes in center of mass (COM), center of pressure (COP), and joint kinematics during quiet standing were determined, as well as selected cross correlations between these variables that are indicative of movement strategy. Twelve healthy male participants stood quietly both before and after exercises that fatigued the lumbar extensors. Whole-body movement and ground reaction force data were recorded and used to calculate mean body posture and variability of COM, COP, and joint kinematics during quiet standing. Three main findings emerged. First, participants adopted a slight forward lean post-fatigue as evidenced by an anterior shift of the COM and COP. Second, post-fatigue increases in joint angle variability were observed at multiple joints including joints distal to the fatigued musculature. Despite these increases, anterior-posterior (AP) ankle angle correlated well with AP COM position, suggesting the body still behaved similar to an inverted pendulum. Third, global measures of sway based on COM and COP were not necessarily indicative of changes in individual joint kinematics. Thus, in trying to advance our understanding of how localized fatigue affects movement patterns and the postural control system, it appears that joint kinematics and/or multivariate measures of postural sway are necessary.

  15. Cosmic ray density gradient and its dependence on the north-south asymmetry in solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    BADRUDDIN; Yadav, R. S.; Yadav, N. R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the diurnal anisotropy on geomagnetically quiet days was performed using neutron monitor data at Deep River, Leeds, Rome and Tokyo, well distributed in latitude and longitude for the period 1964-79. The days were separated according to the polarity of IMF on that day. A significant difference in the amplitude and phase was found on towards and away polarity days, particularly during the years of high solar activity and large north-south asymmetry. These results (particularly time of maximum) on geomagnetically quiet days show some better relationship to the expected results as compared to the results obtained using all the days in a year.

  16. Solar large-scale positive polarity magnetic fields and geomagnetic disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bumba, V.

    1972-01-01

    Unlike the negative polarity solar magnetic field large-scale regular features that correlate with enhanced solar activity regions, the positive polarity regular formations formed in the weak and old background magnetic fields seem to correlate well with geomagnetically enhanced periods of time (shifted for 4 days), which means that they seem to be the source of the quiet solar wind. This behavior of the large intervals of heliographic longitude with prevailing positive polarity fields may be followed to the end of the 18th cycle, during the declining part of the 19th cycle, and during the first half of the present 20th cycle of solar activity.

  17. Radius of the Sun from observations of the total solar eclipse of 31 July 1981.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, L. A.; Belkina, I. L.; Dyatel, N. P.; Marchenko, G. P.

    The moments of local contacts of 24 points on the east and west solar limbs are determined from the cinematographic solar continuum observations during the 31 July 1981 eclipse. The value of the solar radius averaged over limb regions with different activity was found by the least-squares method - rs = 959.97±0.04″ The solar radius estimates made separately for active and quiet limb regions reveal that the effect of active regions on the measured radius value is significant and may be as much as 0.14″

  18. Solar radio astronomy at low frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, George A.

    1990-01-01

    The characteristics of solar radio emissions at decametric to kilometric wavelengths are reviewed. Special attention is given to the radiation of the quiet sun at several metric and decametric wavelengths and to nonthermal radiation from the active sun, including radio bursts of type III (electron beams), type-III bursts from behind the sun, storms of type III bursts, the flare-associated radio bursts, type II bursts (shock waves), and shock-associated bursts. It is pointed out that almost no observations have been made so far of solar radiation between about 20 MHz and about 2 MHz. Below about 2 MHz, dynamic spectra of flux densities of solar burst have been recorded in space and observations were made of the directions of centroids and characteristic sizes of the emitting sources.

  19. Solar System Gamma Ray observations using Fermi-LAT detector

    SciTech Connect

    Giglietto, N.

    2009-04-08

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, launched in June 2008, is an international space mission dedicated to the study of the high-energy gamma rays from the Universe. The main instrument aboard Fermi is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), a pair conversion telescope equipped with the state-of-the art in gamma-ray detectors technology, and operating at energies >30 MeV. During first two months of data taking, Fermi has detected high-energy gamma rays from the quiet Sun and the Moon. This emission is produced by interactions of cosmic rays; by nucleons with the solar and lunar surface, and electrons with solar photons in the heliosphere. While the Moon was detected by EGRET on CGRO with low statistics, Fermi provides high-sensitivity measurements on a daily basis allowing both short- and long-term variability to be studied. Since Galactic cosmic rays are at their maximum flux at solar minimum we expect that the quiescent solar and lunar emission to be a maximum during the period covered by this report. Fermi is the only mission capable of monitoring the Sun at energies above several hundred MeV over the full 24th solar cycle. We present first analysis showing images of Moon and the quiet emission of the solar disk, giving a description of the analysis tools used.

  20. Forma y acción de la liberación de energía en la atmósfera solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrini, C. H.

    2016-08-01

    We briefly describe the lines of work developed over more than twenty years and their relevant results. Our scope is essentially that of active events that occur in the solar atmosphere covering wide temporal and spatial scales and energy range. We present results derived from the comparative analysis of active events and their interplanetary counterparts, as well as of aspects related to the quiet solar atmosphere, such as the heating of the corona and the origin of the slow solar wind.

  1. Modeling Solar Zenith Angle Effects on the Polar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glocer, A; Kitamura, N.; Toth, G; Gombosi, T.

    2012-01-01

    We use the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) to study the geomagnetically quiet conditions in the polar cap during solar maximum. The PWOM solves the gyrotropic transport equations for O+, H+, and He+ along several magnetic field lines in the polar region in order to reconstruct the full 3D solution. We directly compare our simulation results to the data based empirical model of Kitamura et al. (2011) of electron density which is based on 63 months of Akebono satellite observations. The modeled ion and electron temperatures are also compared with a statistical compilation of quiet time data obtained by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and Intercosmos Satellites. The data and model agree reasonably well, albeit with some differences. This study shows that photoelectrons play an important role in explaining the differences between sunlit and dark results of electron density, ion composition, as well as ion and electron temperatures of the quiet time polar wind solution. Moreover, these results provide an initial validation of the PWOM s ability to model the quiet time "background" solution.

  2. On Solar Flares and Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossobokov, V. G.; Le Mouel, J.; Courtillot, V.

    2011-12-01

    The anomalous character of solar cycle 23 has been pointed out. It is proposed that the solar dynamo is undergoing a transition from a state of "grand maximum" to one of "regular oscillations". In this study, we analyze the time distribution of the number and energy of solar flares, and the duration of intervals between them, from cycle 21 to 23. We consider 32355 flares of class C2 and larger (C2+) from the GOES catalogue. Daily values of X-ray flux (wavelengths 1-8Å) have been computed by summing the energy proxies of the events. The series of daily numbers of C2+ solar flares are strongly correlated to their daily energy flux. The long duration of cycle 23 (~13 years), the long interval with no C2+ flare between the end of cycle 23 and the start of cycle 24 (466 days) are remarkable compared to the two earlier cycles. Amplitudes of extreme flares increase when mean flux decreases. We have calculated running averages of energy flux over intervals going from 7 to 365 days: the singular shape of cycle 23 is increasingly striking with increasing interval: the first ~70% of the cycle display (in logarithmic scale) linearly rising maxima, whereas minima are aligned along a descending slope for the latter part of the cycle. Energy flux oscillates between these and takes the shape of a bifurcation, starting near 2002. Durations of inter-event intervals between successive C2+ flares undergo quasi-periodic (~11yr) oscillations between two distinct states, which we call "active" and "quiet", with sharp onset and termination. The ratio of time spent in the active vs quiet states ranges from 1.8 to 1.4 for cycles 21 to 23, cycle 23 having the longest quiet period. It has been proposed that anomalous cycle 23 resembles cycle 4, which was followed by reduced cycles 5 and 6 at the time of the Dalton-minimum in solar activity, often associated with a cooler global climate. It will be interesting to monitor the evolution of solar flares in cycle 24, in order to further our

  3. The structure of the solar wind in the inner heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Christina On-Yee

    2010-12-01

    This dissertation is devoted to expanding our understanding of the solar wind structure in the inner heliosphere and variations therein with solar activity. Using spacecraft observations and numerical models, the origins of the large-scale structures and long-term trends of the solar wind are explored in order to gain insights on how our Sun determines the space environments of the terrestrial planets. I use long term measurements of the solar wind density, velocity, interplanetary magnetic field, and particles, together with models based on solar magnetic field data, to generate time series of these properties that span one solar rotation (˜27 days). From these time series, I assemble and obtain the synoptic overviews of the solar wind properties. The resulting synoptic overviews show that the solar wind around Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars is a complex co-rotating structure with recurring features and occasional transients. During quiet solar conditions, the heliospheric current sheet, which separates the positive interplanetary magnetic field from the negative, usually has a remarkably steady two- or four-sector structure that persists for many solar rotations. Within the sector boundaries are the slow and fast speed solar wind streams that originate from the open coronal magnetic field sources that map to the ecliptic. At the sector boundaries, compressed high-density and the related high-dynamic pressure ridges form where streams from different coronal source regions interact. High fluxes of energetic particles also occur at the boundaries, and are seen most prominently during the quiet solar period. The existence of these recurring features depends on how long-lived are their source regions. In the last decade, 3D numerical solar wind models have become more widely available. They provide important scientific tools for obtaining a more global view of the inner heliosphere and of the relationships between conditions at Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. When

  4. Chromospheric alfvenic waves strong enough to power the solar wind.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, B; McIntosh, S W; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V H; Tarbell, T D; Schrijver, C J; Title, A M; Shine, R A; Tsuneta, S; Katsukawa, Y; Ichimoto, K; Suematsu, Y; Shimizu, T; Nagata, S

    2007-12-01

    Alfvén waves have been invoked as a possible mechanism for the heating of the Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona, to millions of degrees and for the acceleration of the solar wind to hundreds of kilometers per second. However, Alfvén waves of sufficient strength have not been unambiguously observed in the solar atmosphere. We used images of high temporal and spatial resolution obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Japanese Hinode satellite to reveal that the chromosphere, the region sandwiched between the solar surface and the corona, is permeated by Alfvén waves with strong amplitudes on the order of 10 to 25 kilometers per second and periods of 100 to 500 seconds. Estimates of the energy flux carried by these waves and comparisons with advanced radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations indicate that such Alfvén waves are energetic enough to accelerate the solar wind and possibly to heat the quiet corona. PMID:18063784

  5. Chromospheric alfvenic waves strong enough to power the solar wind.

    PubMed

    De Pontieu, B; McIntosh, S W; Carlsson, M; Hansteen, V H; Tarbell, T D; Schrijver, C J; Title, A M; Shine, R A; Tsuneta, S; Katsukawa, Y; Ichimoto, K; Suematsu, Y; Shimizu, T; Nagata, S

    2007-12-01

    Alfvén waves have been invoked as a possible mechanism for the heating of the Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona, to millions of degrees and for the acceleration of the solar wind to hundreds of kilometers per second. However, Alfvén waves of sufficient strength have not been unambiguously observed in the solar atmosphere. We used images of high temporal and spatial resolution obtained with the Solar Optical Telescope onboard the Japanese Hinode satellite to reveal that the chromosphere, the region sandwiched between the solar surface and the corona, is permeated by Alfvén waves with strong amplitudes on the order of 10 to 25 kilometers per second and periods of 100 to 500 seconds. Estimates of the energy flux carried by these waves and comparisons with advanced radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations indicate that such Alfvén waves are energetic enough to accelerate the solar wind and possibly to heat the quiet corona.

  6. Enron Corporation bets $150 million on solar-powered generation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This nation`s largest natural gas company is betting $150 million that it can produce solar power at rates competitive with those of energy generated from oil, gas and coal. The Enron Corporation plans to build a photovoltaic power plant in the southern Nevada desert that would be the largest operation in the country making electricity directly from sunlight, producing enough to power a city of 100,000 people. It is expected to begin operating in two to three years. Some of the nation`s leading solar power experts say Enron`s optimistic goal probably is reachable. The cost of solar power generation has quietly declined by two-thirds. Far from depending on some wondrous breakthrough, the experts say, Enron can offer commercially competitive solar power by inexpensively mass-producing solar panels and then employing thousands of them in the Nevada desert.

  7. The dynamic character of the polar solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H.-S.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P. E-mail: hsyu@ucsd.edu E-mail: pphick@ucsd.edu

    2014-09-20

    The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph C2 and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) COR2A coronagraph images, when analyzed using correlation tracking techniques, show a surprising result in places ordinarily thought of as 'quiet' solar wind above the poles in coronal hole regions. Instead of the static well-ordered flow and gradual acceleration normally expected, coronagraph images show outflow in polar coronal holes consisting of a mixture of intermittent slow and fast patches of material. We compare measurements of this highly variable solar wind from C2 and COR2A images and show that both coronagraphs measure essentially the same structures. Measurements of the mean velocity as a function of height of these structures are compared with mass flux determinations of the solar wind outflow in the large polar coronal hole regions and give similar results.

  8. Multi-scale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gamborino, Diana; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Martinell, Julio J.

    2016-07-08

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps that are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions, we show that the multi-scale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also to be extracted from the analysis.

  9. Instability and transition on the HIFiRE-5 in a Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliano, Thomas J.

    A 2:1 aspect-ratio elliptic cone with a blunt nosetip was tested in the Boeing/ AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel to investigate the effects of freestream noise level, surface roughness, angle of attack, and freestream Reynolds number on laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition on the windward surface. The cone had a minor axis half-angle of 7° and a nose radius of 0.95 mm. Temperature-sensitive paint enabled a global measurement of the temperature distribution and detection of the transition front. Transition apparently arising from two mechanisms was observed: transition along the centerline suspected to arise from the amplification of second-mode waves in the inflected boundary layer, and transition roughly halfway between the centerline and leading edges probably due to the breakdown of crossflow vortices. Reducing noise level from conventional (root-mean-square pressure 3% of the mean) to quiet (root-mean-square pressure less than 0.1% of the mean) substantially delayed transition due to both mechanisms. Increasing the angle of attack from 0° to 4° delayed the crossflow transition mode on the windward side. Transition moved forward as freestream unit Reynolds number increased from 2.6 · 106 /m to 11.9 · 106 /m. PCB fast-response pressure transducers installed along the model centerline detected apparent instabilities at frequencies from 50 to 150 kHz prior to transition under noisy flow; quiet-flow results are less clear. Mass flux profiles along the centerline were measured with a calibrated hot wire.

  10. Spectral Structure of Pc1 Geomagnetic Pulsations under Magnetically Quiet and Disturbed Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feygin, F. Z.; Khabazin, Yu. G.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Malysheva, L. M.

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of geomagnetic Pc1 pulsations recorded in 2006-2010 at the Scandinavian network of the induction magnetometers has been performed. It was found that the spectral structure of Pc1 pulsations was different under the quiet and disturbed magnetic conditions. Analysis of these data showed that in magnetically quiet conditions (Kp ~0-1), in more than 90% of cases, Pc1 pulsations were observed in a narrow frequency band of around 0.2-0.4 Hz with the central oscillation frequency in the series (wave packets) of ~ 0.5-0.7 Hz. Under the disturbed conditions (Kp ~ 2-3), the central frequency of Pc1 waves became almost twice greater (~ 1.0-1.2 Hz) and the spectral width increased up to ~ 0.5-0.7 Hz. The relation of the frequency spectrum width of Pc1 pulsations with magnetospheric parameters was theoretically studied. An analytical expression was obtained and the numerical calculations have been performed. The performed theoretical calculations showed that the evolution of the frequency width of the dynamic spectrum of the Pc1 wave packets depends on the magnetosphere plasma parameters. It was found that the Pc1 spectral width increases with decreasing of the proton thermal anisotropy. We suppose that under quiet conditions, the Pc1 generation can take place inside the plasmasphere but near the plasmapause located at higher L there were small VA values. During the disturbed periods, the Pc1 generation can take place outside the plasmasphere at lower L there were high VA values.

  11. Interjoint dynamic interaction during constrained human quiet standing examined by induced acceleration analysis.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Shun; Shinya, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that human quiet standing is a multijoint movement, whereby the central nervous system (CNS) is required to deal with dynamic interactions among the joints to achieve optimal motor performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the CNS deals with such interjoint interaction during quiet standing by examining the relationship between the kinetics (torque) and kinematics (angular acceleration) within the multi-degree of freedom system. We modeled quiet standing as a double-link inverted pendulum involving both ankle and hip joints and conducted an "induced acceleration analysis." We found that the net ankle and hip torques induced angular accelerations of comparable magnitudes to the ankle (3.8 ± 1.4°/s(2) and 3.3 ± 1.2°/s(2)) and hip (9.1 ± 3.2°/s(2) and 10.5 ± 3.5°/s(2)) joints, respectively. Angular accelerations induced by the net ankle and hip torques were modulated in a temporally antiphase pattern to one another in each of the two joints. These quantitative and temporal relationships allowed the angular accelerations induced by the two net torques to countercompensate one another, thereby substantially (∼70%) reducing the resultant angular accelerations of the individual joints. These results suggest that, by taking advantage of the interjoint interaction, the CNS prevents the net torques from producing large amplitudes of the resultant angular accelerations when combined with the kinematic effects of all other torques in the chain.

  12. BLACK HOLE SPIN AND THE RADIO LOUD/QUIET DICHOTOMY OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Narayan, Ramesh; McKinney, Jonathan C. E-mail: rnarayan@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-03-01

    Radio loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are on average 1000 times brighter in the radio band compared to radio quiet AGNs. We investigate whether this radio loud/quiet dichotomy can be due to differences in the spin of the central black holes (BHs) that power the radio-emitting jets. Using general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we construct steady state axisymmetric numerical models for a wide range of BH spins (dimensionless spin parameter 0.1 <= a <= 0.9999) and a variety of jet geometries. We assume that the total magnetic flux through the BH horizon at radius r{sub H}(a) is held constant. If the BH is surrounded by a thin accretion disk, we find that the total BH power output depends approximately quadratically on the angular frequency of the hole, P {proportional_to} OMEGA{sup 2}{sub H} {proportional_to} (a/r{sub H}){sup 2}. We conclude that, in this scenario, differences in the BH spin can produce power variations of only a few tens at most. However, if the disk is thick such that the jet subtends a narrow solid angle around the polar axis, then the power dependence becomes much steeper, P {proportional_to} OMEGA{sup 4}{sub H} or even {proportional_to}OMEGA{sup 6}{sub H}. Power variations of 1000 are then possible for realistic BH spin distributions. We derive an analytic solution that accurately reproduces the steeper scaling of jet power with OMEGA{sub H} and we provide a numerical fitting formula that reproduces all our simulation results. We discuss other physical effects that might contribute to the observed radio loud/quiet dichotomy of AGNs.

  13. Universal and individual characteristics of postural sway during quiet standing in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomohisa; Smith, Charles E; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Kiyono, Ken; Tanahashi, Takao; Sakoda, Saburo; Morasso, Pietro; Nomura, Taishin

    2015-03-01

    The time course of the center of pressure (CoP) during human quiet standing, corresponding to body sway, is a stochastic process, influenced by a variety of features of the underlying neuro-musculo-skeletal system, such as postural stability and flexibility. Due to complexity of the process, sway patterns have been characterized in an empirical way by a number of indices, such as sway size and mean sway velocity. Here, we describe a statistical approach with the aim of estimating "universal" indices, namely parameters that are independent of individual body characteristics and thus are not "hidden" by the presence of individual, daily, and circadian variations of sway; in this manner it is possible to characterize the common aspects of sway dynamics across healthy young adults, in the assumption that they might reflect underlying neural control during quiet standing. Such universal indices are identified by analyzing intra and inter-subject variability of various indices, after sorting out individual-specific indices that contribute to individual discriminations. It is shown that the universal indices characterize mainly slow components of sway, such as scaling exponents of power-law behavior at a low-frequency regime. On the other hand, most of the individual-specific indices contributing to the individual discriminations exhibit significant correlation with body parameters, and they can be associated with fast oscillatory components of sway. These results are consistent with a mechanistic hypothesis claiming that the slow and the fast components of sway are associated, respectively, with neural control and biomechanics, supporting our assumption that the universal characteristics of postural sway might represent neural control strategies during quiet standing.

  14. Interjoint dynamic interaction during constrained human quiet standing examined by induced acceleration analysis.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Shun; Shinya, Masahiro; Nakazawa, Kimitaka

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that human quiet standing is a multijoint movement, whereby the central nervous system (CNS) is required to deal with dynamic interactions among the joints to achieve optimal motor performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the CNS deals with such interjoint interaction during quiet standing by examining the relationship between the kinetics (torque) and kinematics (angular acceleration) within the multi-degree of freedom system. We modeled quiet standing as a double-link inverted pendulum involving both ankle and hip joints and conducted an "induced acceleration analysis." We found that the net ankle and hip torques induced angular accelerations of comparable magnitudes to the ankle (3.8 ± 1.4°/s(2) and 3.3 ± 1.2°/s(2)) and hip (9.1 ± 3.2°/s(2) and 10.5 ± 3.5°/s(2)) joints, respectively. Angular accelerations induced by the net ankle and hip torques were modulated in a temporally antiphase pattern to one another in each of the two joints. These quantitative and temporal relationships allowed the angular accelerations induced by the two net torques to countercompensate one another, thereby substantially (∼70%) reducing the resultant angular accelerations of the individual joints. These results suggest that, by taking advantage of the interjoint interaction, the CNS prevents the net torques from producing large amplitudes of the resultant angular accelerations when combined with the kinematic effects of all other torques in the chain. PMID:24089399

  15. Kinematic and kinetic validity of the inverted pendulum model in quiet standing.

    PubMed

    Gage, William H; Winter, David A; Frank, James S; Adkin, Allan L

    2004-04-01

    Movements of the whole-body center of mass during quiet standing have been estimated from measurements of body segment movements. These whole-body center of mass movements have been compared with movements of the center of mass as predicted from a simple inverted-pendulum model of standing. However, the total body center of mass is a weighted average of the center of mass of all individual body segments. The question arises as to how well the total body center of mass represents the individual segments and lower limb joint angles. This study focuses on the validity of how well the individual segments and lower limb angles temporally and spatially synchronize with the total body center of mass. Eleven healthy university students volunteered to participate. Kinematic data were collected using a 3D optoelectronic camera system; kinetic data were collected using a 3D force plate. Participants stood quietly, with eyes open, for 120 s. Segment and whole body centers of mass were calculated from a 14 segment, 3D bilateral model. Segment and joint angles were calculated for the lower limbs, bilaterally, and the trunk. Segment center of mass root-mean-square displacements were strongly correlated with center of mass height relative to the ankle joint and were synchronized, or temporally locked, to the movement of the whole body center of mass. Sagittal plane ankle angular displacements were highly correlated to sagittal plane center of mass movement; stronger correlations between body center of mass and lower limb angular displacement were observed, the result of compensatory knee joint angular displacements. These data support and extend the use of an inverted pendulum model to represent quiet standing postural control.

  16. Nobeyama/SOHO/BBSO Comparison of Solar Polar Coronal Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, D. E.; Enome, S.; Shibasaki, K.; Gurman, J. B.; Shine, R. A.

    1997-05-01

    Although it is not widely known outside the discipline of solar radiophysics, a long-standing puzzle exists: the poles of the Sun appear brighter than the rest of the quiet Sun in a restricted range of wavelengths roughly from 15 GHz to about 48 GHz (cf. Kosugi et al. 1986). At somewhat lower radio frequencies the poles appear darker than the quiet Sun due to a deficit of coronal material, while at mm-wavelengths the polar and non-polar quiet Sun appear quite uniform due to the similarity of the atmospheric structure at lower heights in the chromosphere. The excess brightness at the poles has also been reported in coronal holes on the disk, and so is apparently related to the phenomenon of coronal holes. The brightening likely corresponds to an elevated temperature in the upper chromosphere in coronal holes relative to normal quiet Sun. The phenomenon is especially well suited to study via radio emission due to the unique sensitivity of radio waves to this height range in the chromosphere. The possibility exists that the different chromospheric structure for coronal holes implied by the radio brightening may offer some clue to the origin of the fast solar wind, which is now well established to arise in coronal holes. Radio brightening of coronal holes is a difficult observational problem because an instrument is needed that can image large areas of the Sun at relatively high resolution. The Nobeyama Radioheliograph has the required capability and operates at 17 and 34 GHz, nicely within the frequency range where the brightening occurs. We compare Nobeyama radio synthesis images on several days in 1996 with images from the EIT, CDS, and MDI experiments on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, and with high resolution images from the Big Bear Solar Observatory, with the aim of determining the spatial and temporal characteristics of the brightening. We compare the extent of the radio brightening with the boundaries of the coronal holes seen from

  17. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Double-annular clean combustor technology development report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, D. W.; Burrus, D. L.; Sabla, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A sector combustor technology development program was conducted to define an advanced double annular dome combustor sized for use in the quiet clean short haul experimental engine (QCSEE). A design which meets the emission goals, and combustor performance goals of the QCSEE engine program was developed. Key design features were identified which resulted in substantial reduction in carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emission levels at ground idle operating conditions, in addition to very low nitric oxide emission levels at high power operating conditions. Their significant results are reported.

  18. Non-Gaussian center-of-pressure velocity distribution during quiet stance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, E. S. D.; Picoli, S.; Deprá, P. P.; Mendes, R. S.

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigate patterns in the postural sway that characterize the static balance in human beings. To measure the postural sway, sixteen healthy young subjects performed quiet stance tasks providing the center-of-pressure (COP) trajectories. From these trajectories, we obtained the COP velocities. We verified that the velocity distributions exhibit non-normal behavior and can be approximated by generalized Gaussians with fat tails. We also discuss possible implications of modeling COP velocity by using generalized Fokker-Planck equations related to Tsallis statistics and Richardson anomalous diffusion.

  19. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): Acoustic treatment development and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, A.

    1979-01-01

    Acoustic treatment designs for the quiet clean short-haul experimental engines are defined. The procedures used in the development of each noise-source suppressor device are presented and discussed in detail. A complete description of all treatment concepts considered and the test facilities utilized in obtaining background data used in treatment development are also described. Additional supporting investigations that are complementary to the treatment development work are presented. The expected suppression results for each treatment configuration are given in terms of delta SPL versus frequency and in terms of delta PNdB.

  20. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 6: Systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A systems analysis of the quiet turbofan aircraft for short-haul transportation was conducted. The purpose of the study was to integrate the representative data generated by aircraft, market, and economic analyses. Activities of the study were to develop the approach and to refine the methodologies for analytic tradeoff, and sensitivity studies of propulsive lift conceptual aircraft and their performance in simulated regional airlines. The operations of appropriate airlines in each of six geographic regions of the United States were simulated. The offshore domestic regions were evaluated to provide a complete domestic evaluation of the STOL concept applicability.

  1. Design and Test of Fan/Nacelle Models Quiet High-Speed Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J. (Technical Monitor); Weir, Donald

    2003-01-01

    The Quiet High-Speed Fan program is a cooperative effort between Honeywell Engines & Systems (formerly AlliedSignal Engines & Systems) and the NASA Glenn Research Center. Engines & Systems has designed an advanced high-speed fan that will be tested on the Ultra High Bypass Propulsion Simulator in the NASA Glenn 9 x 15 foot wind tunnel, currently scheduled for the second quarter of 2000. An Engines & Systems modern fan design will be used as a baseline. A nacelle model is provided that is characteristic of a typical, modern regional aircraft nacelle and meets all of the program test objectives.

  2. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 2: Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A study of the quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation was conducted. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) to determine the relationships between STOL characteristics and economic and social viability of short haul air transportation, (2) to identify critical technology problems involving introduction of STOL short haul systems, (3) to define representative aircraft configurations, characteristics, and costs, and (4) to identify high payoff technology areas to improve STOL systems. The analyses of the aircraft designs which were generated to fulfill the objectives are summarized. The baseline aircraft characteristics are documented and significant trade studies are presented.

  3. The application of QCSEE technology to V/STOL. [Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, W. S.; Genever-Watling, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    While at this point in time no particular propulsion system configuration has been chosen for the V/STOL Type A, many combinations of number of fans, gas generators, and methods of power interconnection have been investigated. Low pressure systems under consideration include variable pitch and variable inlet guide vanes for thrust modulation, geared and direct turbine drive, and shaft and gas power transfer systems. Several of these features are being studied in the Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul, Experimental Engine (QCSEE) program, which is developing the technology needed for future short-haul passenger aircraft. Test status and key characteristics of QCSEE engines and their components are discussed in detail.

  4. Design and Test of Fan/Nacelle Models Quiet High-Speed Fan Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J. (Technical Monitor); Repp, Russ; Gentile, David; Hanson, David; Chunduru, Srinivas

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of the Quiet High-Speed Fan (QHSF) program was to develop an advanced high-speed fan design that will achieve a 6 dB reduction in overall fan noise over a baseline configuration while maintaining similar performance. The program applies and validates acoustic, aerodynamic, aeroelastic, and mechanical design tools developed by NASA, US industry, and academia. The successful fan design will be used in an AlliedSignal Engines (AE) advanced regional engine to be marketed in the year 2000 and beyond. This technology is needed to maintain US industry leadership in the regional turbofan engine market.

  5. An overview of the quiet short-haul research aircraft program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shovlin, M. D.; Cochrane, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Program is presented, with special emphasis on its propulsion and acoustic aspects. A description of the NASA technical participation in the program including wind tunnel testing, engine ground tests, and advanced aircraft simulation is given. The aircraft and its systems are described and, measured performance, where available, is compared to program goals. Preliminary data indicate that additional research and development are needed in some areas of which acoustics is an example. Some of these additional research areas and potential experiments using the QSRA to develop the technology are discussed. The concept of the QSRA as a national flight research facility is explained.

  6. Quiet High Speed Fan (QHSF) Flutter Calculations Using the TURBO Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Min, James B.; Mehmed, Oral

    2006-01-01

    A scale model of the NASA/Honeywell Engines Quiet High Speed Fan (QHSF) encountered flutter wind tunnel testing. This report documents aeroelastic calculations done for the QHSF scale model using the blade vibration capability of the TURBO code. Calculations at design speed were used to quantify the effect of numerical parameters on the aerodynamic damping predictions. This numerical study allowed the selection of appropriate values of these parameters, and also allowed an assessment of the variability in the calculated aerodynamic damping. Calculations were also done at 90 percent of design speed. The predicted trends in aerodynamic damping corresponded to those observed during testing.

  7. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual designs of Quiet Turbofan STOL Short-Haul Transport Aircraft for the mid-1980 time period are developed and analyzed to determine their technical, operational, and economic feasibility. A matrix of aircraft using various high-lift systems and design parameters are considered. Variations in aircraft characteristics, airport geometry and location, and operational techniques are analyzed systematically to determine their effects on the market, operating economics, and community acceptance. The total systems approach is considered to be critically important in analyzing the potential of STOL aircraft to reduce noise pollution and alleviate the increasing air corridor and airport congestion.

  8. Observations of intense ULF pulsation activity near the geomagnetic equator during quiet times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Zanetti, L. J.; Potemra, T. A.; Klumpar, D. M.; Strangeway, R. J.; Acuna, M. H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyzes observations, made by particle and field instruments on the AMPTE CCE satellite, of intense ULF pulsations in the earth's magnetosphere near the geomagnetic equator. These pulsations were observed during magnetically quiet periods in regions characterized by intense fluxes of warm strongly trapped light ions, predominantly H(+), and often with streaming low-energy plasma. The strong latitudinal localization of these pulsations is interpreted to be due to equatorial mass loading or to partial reflection of Alfven wave energy by latitudinal gradients in plasma density. Possible sources of wave energy for these events are discussed.

  9. Cost and schedule management on the quiet short-haul research aircraft project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. E.; Patterakis, P.

    1979-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) Project, one of the largest aeronautical programs undertaken by NASA to date, achieved a significant cost underrun. This is attributed to numerous factors, not the least of which were the contractual arrangement and the system of cost and schedule management employed by the contractor. This paper summarizes that system and the methods used for cost/performance measurement by the contractor and by the NASA project management. Recommendations are made for the use of some of these concepts in particular for future programs of a similar nature.

  10. Empirical regional models for the short-term forecast of M3000F2 during not quiet geomagnetic conditions over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrella, M.

    2013-10-01

    Twelve empirical local models have been developed for the long-term prediction of the ionospheric characteristic M3000F2, and then used as starting point for the development of a short-term forecasting empirical regional model of M3000F2 under not quiet geomagnetic conditions. Under the assumption that the monthly median measurements of M3000F2 are linearly correlated to the solar activity, a set of regression coefficients were calculated over 12 months and 24 h for each of 12 ionospheric observatories located in the European area, and then used for the long-term prediction of M3000F2 at each station under consideration. Based on the 12 long-term prediction empirical local models of M3000F2, an empirical regional model for the prediction of the monthly median field of M3000F2 over Europe (indicated as RM_M3000F2) was developed. Thanks to the IFELM_foF2 models, which are able to provide short-term forecasts of the critical frequency of the F2 layer (foF2STF) up to three hours in advance, it was possible to considerer the Brudley-Dudeney algorithm as a function of foF2STF to correct RM_M3000F2 and thus obtain an empirical regional model for the short-term forecasting of M3000F2 (indicated as RM_M3000F2_BD) up to three hours in advance under not quiet geomagnetic conditions. From the long-term predictions of M3000F2 provided by the IRI model, an empirical regional model for the forecast of the monthly median field of M3000F2 over Europe (indicated as IRI_RM_M3000F2) was derived. IRI_RM_M3000F2 predictions were modified with the Bradley-Dudeney correction factor, and another empirical regional model for the short-term forecasting of M3000F2 (indicated as IRI_RM_M3000F2_BD) up to three hours ahead under not quiet geomagnetic conditions was obtained. The main results achieved comparing the performance of RM_M3000F2, RM_M3000F2_BD, IRI_RM_M3000F2, and IRI_RM_M3000F2_BD are (1) in the case of moderate geomagnetic activity, the Bradley-Dudeney correction factor does not

  11. Ka-band and X-band observations of the solar corona acquired during the Cassini 2001 superior conjunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous dual-frequency Ka-band (32 GHz) and X-band (8.4 GHz) carrier signal data have been acquired during the superior conjunction of the Cassini spacecraft June 2001, using the NASA Deep Space Network's facilities located in Goldstone, California. The solar elongation angle of the observations varied from -4.1 degrees (-16 solar radii) to -0.6 degrees (-2.3 solar radii). The observed coronal and solar effects on the signals include spectral broadening, amplitude scintillation, phase scintillation, and increased noise. The measurements were generally consistent with existing solar models, except during solar transient events when the signatures of the measurements were observed to increase significantly above the quiet background levels. This is the second solar conjunction of Cassini for which simultaneous X/Ka data were acquired. Both solar conjunctions, conducted in May 2000 and June 2001, occurred near the peak of the current 11 year solar cycle.

  12. Implementation of a quiet hour: effect on noise levels and infant sleep states.

    PubMed

    Strauch, C; Brandt, S; Edwards-Beckett, J

    1993-03-01

    It is necessary to decrease environmental stimuli in order to provide developmentally supportive care to the very low birthweight (VLBW) infant, thereby enhancing the sleep/wake cycle and possibly physiologic stability. The purpose of this study was to determine if it was possible to decrease the noise level in the Developmental Unit, and promote sleep states in infants on the unit. After determining control noise levels and infant state, the last hour of each shift was designated a Quiet Hour. During this time, noise levels were monitored in the room in five locations. Infant sleep states were also noted. The results indicate that noise levels decreased significantly on two of the three shifts. Fewer infants were crying during the Quiet Hour than the control period (2.4 vs 14.3 percent), and more were in deep or light sleep (84.5 vs 33.9 percent). This study demonstrates that noise levels in Developmental Units can be significantly decreased, and that the decreased noise levels positively impact infant state. By enhancing sleep states, nurses can enhance the long term developmental outcome of the VLBW infant. However, the reduction of noise is highly dependent on the collaborative efforts of all health care providers within the unit.

  13. Build-up Approach to Updating the Mock Quiet Spike(TM)Beam Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Claudia Y.; Pak, Chan-gi

    2007-01-01

    A crucial part of aircraft design is ensuring that the required margin for flutter is satisfied. A trustworthy flutter analysis, which begins by possessing an accurate dynamics model, is necessary for this task. Traditionally, a model was updated manually by fine tuning specific stiffness parameters until the analytical results matched test data. This is a time consuming iterative process. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a mode matching code to execute this process in a more efficient manner. Recently, this code was implemented in the F-15B/Quiet Spike (Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, Georgia) model update. A build-up approach requiring several ground vibration test configurations and a series of model updates was implemented to determine the connection stiffness between aircraft and test article. The mode matching code successfully updated various models for the F-15B/Quiet Spike project to within 1 percent error in frequency and the modal assurance criteria values ranged from 88.51-99.42 percent.

  14. English vowel identification in quiet and noise: effects of listeners' native language background

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of listener's native language (L1) and the types of noise on English vowel identification in noise. Method: Identification of 12 English vowels was measured in quiet and in long-term speech-shaped noise and multi-talker babble (MTB) noise for English- (EN), Chinese- (CN) and Korean-native (KN) listeners at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Results: Compared to non-native listeners, EN listeners performed significantly better in quiet and in noise. Vowel identification in long-term speech-shaped noise and in MTB noise was similar between CN and KN listeners. This is different from our previous study in which KN listeners performed better than CN listeners in English sentence recognition in MTB noise. Discussion: Results from the current study suggest that depending on speech materials, the effect of non-native listeners' L1 on speech perception in noise may be different. That is, in the perception of speech materials with little linguistic cues like isolated vowels, the characteristics of non-native listener's native language may not play a significant role. On the other hand, in the perception of running speech in which listeners need to use more linguistic cues (e.g., acoustic-phonetic, semantic, and prosodic cues), the non-native listener's native language background might result in a different masking effect. PMID:25400538

  15. Quiet comfort: noise, otherness, and the mobile production of personal space.

    PubMed

    Hagood, Mack

    2011-01-01

    Marketing, news reports, and reviews of Bose QuietComfort noise-canceling headphones position them as essential gear for the mobile rational actor of the neoliberal market—the business traveler. This article concerns noise-canceling headphones’ utility as soundscaping devices, which render a sense of personal space by mediating sound. The airplane and airport are paradoxical spaces in which the pursuit of freedom impedes its own enjoyment. Rather than fight the discomforts of air travel as a systemic problem, travelers use the tactic of soundscaping to suppress the perceived presence of others. Attention to soundscaping enables the scholar to explore relationships between media, space, freedom, otherness, and selfhood in an era characterized by neoliberalism and increased mobility. Air travel is a moment in which people with diverse backgrounds, beliefs, and bodies crowd together in unusually close proximity. Noise is the sound of individualism and difference in conflict. Noise is othered sound, and like any type of othering, the perception of noise is socially constructed and situated in hierarchies of race, class, age, and gender. The normative QuietComfort user in media representations is white, male, rational, monied, and mobile; women, children, and “chatty” passengers are cast as noisemakers. Moreover, in putting on noise-canceling headphones, diverse selves put on the historically Western subjectivity that has been built into their technology, one that suppresses the noise of difference in favor of the smooth circulation of people, information, and commodities.

  16. Intranight optical variability of radio-quiet weak emission line quasars - IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parveen; Chand, Hum; Gopal-Krishna

    2016-09-01

    We report an extension of our programme to search for radio-quiet BL Lac candidates using intranight optical variability (INOV) as a probe. The present INOV observations cover a well-defined representative set of 10 `radio-quiet weak-emission-line quasars' (RQWLQs), selected from a newly published sample of 46 such sources, derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (Data release 7). Intranight CCD monitoring of the 10 RQWLQs was carried out in 18 sessions lasting at least 3.5 h. For each session, differential light curves of the target RQWLQ were derived relative to two steady comparison stars monitored simultaneously. Combining these new data with those already published by us for 15 RQWLQs monitored in 30 sessions, we estimate an INOV duty cycle of ˜3 per cent for the RQWLQs, which appears inconsistent with BL Lacs. However, the observed INOV events (which occurred in just two of the sessions) are strong (with a fractional variability amplitude ψ > 10 per cent), hence blazar-like. We briefly point out the prospects of an appreciable rise in the estimated INOV duty cycle for RQWLQs with a relatively modest increase in sensitivity for monitoring these rather faint objects.

  17. Development of a quiet supersonic wind tunnel with a cryogenic adaptive nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to develop an interim Quiet (low-disturbance) supersonic wind tunnel for the NASA-Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory (FML). The main emphasis is to bring on-line a full-scale Mach 1.6 tunnel as rapidly as possible to impact the NASA High Speed Research Program (HSRP). The development of a cryogenic adaptive nozzle and other sophisticated features of the tunnel will now happen later, after the full scale wind tunnel is in operation. The work under this contract for the period of this report can be summarized as follows: provide aerodynamic design requirements for the NASA-Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory (FML) Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT); research design parameters for a unique Mach 1.6 drive system for the LFSWT using an 1/8th-scale Proof-of-Concept (PoC) supersonic wind tunnel; carry out boundary layer transition studies in PoC to aid the design of critical components of the LFSWT; appraise the State of the Art in quiet supersonic wind tunnel design; and help develop a supersonic research capability within the FML particularly in the areas of high speed transition measurements and schlieren techniques. The body of this annual report summarizes the work of the Principal Investigator.

  18. Annoyance, Sleep and Concentration Problems due to Combined Traffic Noise and the Benefit of Quiet Side

    PubMed Central

    Bodin, Theo; Björk, Jonas; Ardö, Jonas; Albin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to a quiet side in one’s dwelling is thought to compensate for higher noise levels at the most exposed façade. It has also been indicated that noise from combined traffic sources causes more noise annoyance than equal average levels from either road traffic or railway noise separately. Methods: 2612 persons in Malmö, Sweden, answered to a residential environment survey including questions on outdoor environment, noise sensitivity, noise annoyance, sleep quality and concentration problems. Road traffic and railway noise was modeled using Geographic Information System. Results: Access to a quiet side, i.e., at least one window facing yard, water or green space, was associated with reduced risk of annoyance OR (95%CI) 0.47 (0.38–0.59), and concentration problems 0.76 (0.61–0.95). Bedroom window facing the same environment was associated to reduced risk of reporting of poor sleep quality 0.78 (0.64–1.00). Railway noise was associated with reduced risk of annoyance below 55 dB(A) but not at higher levels of exposure. Conclusions: Having a window facing a yard, water or green space was associated to a substantially reduced risk of noise annoyance and concentration problems. If this window was the bedroom window, sleeping problems were less likely. PMID:25642690

  19. Quiet Cruise Efficient Short Take-off and Landing Subsonic Transport System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This NASA funded study conceived a revolutionary airplane concept to enable future traffic growth by using regional air space. This requires a very quiet airplane with STOL capability. Starting with a Blended Wing Body that is cruise efficient with inherent low noise characteristics from forward noise shielding and void of aft downward noise reflections, integration of embedded distributed propulsion enables incorporation of the revolutionary concept for jet noise shielding. Embedded distributed propulsion also enables incorporation of a fan bleed internally blown flap for quiet powered lift. The powered lift provides STOL capability for operation at regional airports with rapid take-off and descent to further reduce flyover noise. This study focused on configuring the total engine noise shielding STOL concept with a BWB airplane using the Boeing Phantom Works WingMOD multidisciplinary optimization code to define a planform that is pitch controllable. The configuration was then sized and mission data developed to enable NASA to assess the flyover and sideline noise. The foundational technologies needed are identified including military dual use benefits.

  20. Build-up Approach to Updating the Mock Quiet Spike(TradeMark) Beam Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Claudia Y.; Pak, Chan-gi

    2007-01-01

    A crucial part of aircraft design is ensuring that the required margin for flutter is satisfied. A trustworthy flutter analysis, which begins by possessing an accurate dynamics model, is necessary for this task. Traditionally, a model was updated manually by fine tuning specific stiffness parameters until the analytical results matched test data. This is a time consuming iterative process. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a mode matching code to execute this process in a more efficient manner. Recently, this code was implemented in the F-15B/Quiet Spike(TradeMark) (Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, Georgia) model update. A build-up approach requiring several ground vibration test configurations and a series of model updates was implemented in order to determine the connection stiffness between aircraft and test article. The mode matching code successfully updated various models for the F-15B/Quiet Spike(TradeMark) project to within 1 percent error in frequency and the modal assurance criteria values ranged from 88.51-99.42 percent.

  1. Variability in the Mesosphere/Thermosphere/Ionosphere System During the Quiet Time of April 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharenko, L. P.; Salah, J.; Coster, A.; Rideout, W.; Zhang, S. R.; Paxton, L.; Zhang, Y.; Crowley, G.; Taran, V.; Reinisch, B.; Clark, R.; Manson, A.; Mitchell, N.; Murayama, Y.; Riggin, D.; Singer, W.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the structure of the global mesosphere-thermosphere-ionosphere system using multi-instrument observations during the April 2002 period, with focus on geomagnetically quiet periods. Large variations in electron density were observed at midlatitudes by the array of incoherent scatter radars, ionosondes and GPS receivers. On April 16, 2002, electron density decreases to ~50-70% of the level observed on Apr 15, 2002. This depletion far exceeds commonly observed 10-20% quiet-time variations. At the same time, the observations from the array of MF and meteor radars show global presence of planetary wave disturbances, and a westward offset in the zonal wind of 15 m/s was noticed at locations coincident with the area of large variations in the electron density. We find that variations in ionospheric parameters have a strong relationship with neutral density, and show that an extensive area of depleted electron density as observed by GPS receivers, ISR radars and ionosondes is coincident with the area of large decrease in the column integrated O/N2 ratio measured by the GUVI instrument on board of TIMED satellite. Similar variations are also predicted by the TIMEGCM/ASPEN model in both O/N2 ratio and electron density, though the magnitude of the variations in the model is significantly smaller.

  2. Recognition of accented English in quiet and noise by younger and older listeners

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Yeni-Komshian, Grace H.; Fitzgibbons, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age and hearing loss on perception of accented speech presented in quiet and noise. The relative importance of alterations in phonetic segments vs. temporal patterns in a carrier phrase with accented speech also was examined. English sentences recorded by a native English speaker and a native Spanish speaker, together with hybrid sentences that varied the native language of the speaker of the carrier phrase and the final target word of the sentence were presented to younger and older listeners with normal hearing and older listeners with hearing loss in quiet and noise. Effects of age and hearing loss were observed in both listening environments, but varied with speaker accent. All groups exhibited lower recognition performance for the final target word spoken by the accented speaker compared to that spoken by the native speaker, indicating that alterations in segmental cues due to accent play a prominent role in intelligibility. Effects of the carrier phrase were minimal. The findings indicate that recognition of accented speech, especially in noise, is a particularly challenging communication task for older people. PMID:21110610

  3. High resolution deep imaging of a bright radio quiet QSO at z ~ 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Ping; He, Wei; Yamada, Toru; Tanaka, Ichi; Iye, Masanori; Ji, Tuo

    2015-05-01

    We have obtained deep J and Ks-band images centered on a bright radio quiet QSO UM 402 (zem = 2.856) using the IRCS camera and adaptive optics systems that are part of the Subaru Telescope, as well as retrieved WFC3/F140W archive images of this object. A faint galaxy (mk = 23.32±0.05 in the Vega magnitude system) that lies ~ 2.4″ north of the QSO sightline has been clearly resolved in all three deep high resolution datasets, and appears as an irregular galaxy with two close components in the Ks-band images (separation ~ 0.3″). Given the small impact parameter (b = 19.6 kpc, at zlls = 2.531), as well as the red color of (J - Ks)Vega ~ 1.6, it might be a candidate galaxy giving rise to the Lyman Limit system absorption at zabs = 2.531 seen in the QSO spectrum. After carefully subtracting the point spread function from the QSO images, the host galaxy of this bright radio quiet QSO at z ~ 3 was marginally revealed. We placed a lower limit on the host component of mk ~ 23.3 according to our analyses. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  4. F-15B Quiet Spike(TradeMark) Aeroservoelastic Flight-Test Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.

    2007-01-01

    System identification is utilized in the aerospace community for development of simulation models for robust control law design. These models are often described as linear, time-invariant processes and assumed to be uniform throughout the flight envelope. Nevertheless, it is well known that the underlying process is inherently nonlinear. Over the past several decades the controls and biomedical communities have made great advances in developing tools for the identification of nonlin ear systems. In this report, we show the application of one such nonlinear system identification technique, structure detection, for the an alysis of Quiet Spike(TradeMark)(Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, Georgia) aeroservoelastic flight-test data. Structure detectio n is concerned with the selection of a subset of candidate terms that best describe the observed output. Structure computation as a tool fo r black-box modeling may be of critical importance for the development of robust, parsimonious models for the flight-test community. The ob jectives of this study are to demonstrate via analysis of Quiet Spike(TradeMark) aeroservoelastic flight-test data for several flight conditions that: linear models are inefficient for modelling aeroservoelast ic data, nonlinear identification provides a parsimonious model description whilst providing a high percent fit for cross-validated data an d the model structure and parameters vary as the flight condition is altered.

  5. Quiet comfort: noise, otherness, and the mobile production of personal space.

    PubMed

    Hagood, Mack

    2011-01-01

    Marketing, news reports, and reviews of Bose QuietComfort noise-canceling headphones position them as essential gear for the mobile rational actor of the neoliberal market—the business traveler. This article concerns noise-canceling headphones’ utility as soundscaping devices, which render a sense of personal space by mediating sound. The airplane and airport are paradoxical spaces in which the pursuit of freedom impedes its own enjoyment. Rather than fight the discomforts of air travel as a systemic problem, travelers use the tactic of soundscaping to suppress the perceived presence of others. Attention to soundscaping enables the scholar to explore relationships between media, space, freedom, otherness, and selfhood in an era characterized by neoliberalism and increased mobility. Air travel is a moment in which people with diverse backgrounds, beliefs, and bodies crowd together in unusually close proximity. Noise is the sound of individualism and difference in conflict. Noise is othered sound, and like any type of othering, the perception of noise is socially constructed and situated in hierarchies of race, class, age, and gender. The normative QuietComfort user in media representations is white, male, rational, monied, and mobile; women, children, and “chatty” passengers are cast as noisemakers. Moreover, in putting on noise-canceling headphones, diverse selves put on the historically Western subjectivity that has been built into their technology, one that suppresses the noise of difference in favor of the smooth circulation of people, information, and commodities. PMID:22165166

  6. Head stability during quiet sitting in children with cerebral palsy: effect of vision and trunk support

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Sandra; Woollacott, Marjorie; van Donkelaar, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Deficits in postural control are one of the hallmarks of disability in children with cerebral palsy. Yet, much remains unknown regarding the etiology of postural deficits in these children. Here we evaluated postural control at a simplified task level by measuring head stability during quiet sitting while systematically manipulating the level of trunk support and vision in 15 children with CP (6–16 years), 26 typically developing (TD) children (4–14 years), and 11 adults. While TD children did not differ significantly from adults, children with CP had greater head movement than adults in both the sagittal and frontal planes under all conditions except frontal plane movement with Torso Support. Vision did not affect head stability in the sagittal plane for any group while it had differential effects on head stability in the frontal plane. Lack of vision improved head stability in adults and older TD children while destabilizing the head in young children (TD and CP) during the most unstable sitting position. Moreover, vision affected children with CP differently depending on their movement disorder. Children with spastic CP performed worse with eyes closed while those with dyskinetic CP had improved head stability with eyes closed. Our results demonstrate that children with mild to moderate CP have deficits in head stability even during quiet sitting. PMID:19756550

  7. Tracking pigeons in a magnetic anomaly and in magnetically "quiet" terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffner, Ingo; Fuhrmann, Patrick; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2011-07-01

    Pigeons were released at two sites of equal distance from the loft, one within a magnetic anomaly, the other in magnetically quiet terrain, and their tracks were recorded with the help of GPS receivers. A comparison of the beginning of the tracks revealed striking differences: within the anomaly, the initial phase lasted longer, and the distance flown was longer, with the pigeons' headings considerably farther from the home direction. During the following departure phase, the birds were well homeward oriented at the magnetically quiet site, whereas they continued to be disoriented within the anomaly. Comparing the tracks in the anomaly with the underlying magnetic contours shows considerable differences between individuals, without a common pattern emerging. The differences in magnetic intensity along the pigeons' path do not differ from a random distribution of intensity differences around the release site, indicating that the magnetic contours do not directly affect the pigeons' routes. Within the anomaly, pigeons take longer until their flights are oriented, but 5 km from the release point, the birds, still within the anomaly, are also significantly oriented in the home direction. These findings support the assumption that magnetically anomalous conditions initially interfere with the pigeons' navigational processes, with birds showing rather individual responses in their attempts to overcome these problems.

  8. Modeling speech intelligibility in quiet and noise in listeners with normal and impaired hearing.

    PubMed

    Rhebergen, Koenraad S; Lyzenga, Johannes; Dreschler, Wouter A; Festen, Joost M

    2010-03-01

    The speech intelligibility index (SII) is an often used calculation method for estimating the proportion of audible speech in noise. For speech reception thresholds (SRTs), measured in normally hearing listeners using various types of stationary noise, this model predicts a fairly constant speech proportion of about 0.33, necessary for Dutch sentence intelligibility. However, when the SII model is applied for SRTs in quiet, the estimated speech proportions are often higher, and show a larger inter-subject variability, than found for speech in noise near normal speech levels [65 dB sound pressure level (SPL)]. The present model attempts to alleviate this problem by including cochlear compression. It is based on a loudness model for normally hearing and hearing-impaired listeners of Moore and Glasberg [(2004). Hear. Res. 188, 70-88]. It estimates internal excitation levels for speech and noise and then calculates the proportion of speech above noise and threshold using similar spectral weighting as used in the SII. The present model and the standard SII were used to predict SII values in quiet and in stationary noise for normally hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. The present model predicted SIIs for three listener types (normal hearing, noise-induced, and age-induced hearing loss) with markedly less variability than the standard SII.

  9. Stability and Control Analysis of the F-15B Quiet SpikeTM Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McWherter, Shaun C.; Moua, Cheng M.; Gera, Joseph; Cox, Timothy H.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Quiet Spike(TradeMark) flight research program was to analyze the aerodynamic, structural, and mechanical proof-of-concept of a large multi-stage telescoping nose spike installed on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California) F-15B airplane. This report describes the preflight stability and control analysis performed to assess the effect of the spike on the stability, controllability, and handling qualities of the airplane; and to develop an envelope expansion approach to maintain safety of flight. The overall flight test objective was to collect flight data to validate the spike structural dynamics and loads model up to Mach 1.8. Other objectives included validating the mechanical feasibility of a morphing fuselage at operational conditions and determining the near-field shock wave characterization. The two main issues relevant to the stability and control objectives were the effects of the spike-influenced aerodynamics on the F-15B airplane flight dynamics, and the air data and angle-of-attack sensors. The analysis covered the sensitivity of the stability margins, and the handling qualities due to aerodynamic variation and the maneuvering limitations of the F-15B Quiet Spike configuration. The results of the analysis and the implications for the flight test program are also presented.

  10. Redefining the Poet as Healer: Valerie Gillies's Collaborative Role in the Edinburgh Marie Curie Hospice Quiet Room Project.

    PubMed

    Severin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the poetic contribution of Valerie Gillies, Edinburgh Makar (or poet of the city) from 2005-2008, to the Edinburgh Marie Curie Hospice Quiet Room, a new contemplation space for patients, families, and staff. In collaboration with others, Gillies created a transitional space for the Quiet Room, centered on the display of her sonnet, "A Place Apart." This space functions to comfort visitors to the Quiet Room by relocating them in their surroundings and offering the solace provided by nature and history. With this project, her first as Edinburgh Makar, Gillies redefines the role of the poet as healer and advocates for newer forms of palliative care that focus on patients' spiritual and emotional, as well as physical, wellbeing.

  11. The solar XUV He I and He II emission lines. I - Intensities and gross center-to-limb behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, S. A.; Bohlin, J. D.; Glackin, D. L.; Linsky, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The center-to-limb variation of the He II 304- and 256-A lines and He I 584- and 537-A lines is derived for different solar features, but averaged over the chromospheric supergranulation structure. The general trend is for limb brightening in quiet-sun regions, limb neutrality in unipolar magnetic regions (UMR), and limb darkening in polar coronal holes. The center-to-limb behavior in these optically thick emission lines indicates collisional excitation and decreasing transition-region temperature gradients with respect to optical depth in the sequence quiet sun to UMR to coronal hole.

  12. White-light movies of the solar photosphere from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab. [Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; Acton, L; Duncan, D.; Simon, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    Initial results are presented on solar granulation, pores and sunspots from the white-light films obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) instrument in Spacelab 2. Several hours of movies were taken at various disk and limb positions in quiet and active regions. The images are diffraction-limited at 0.5 arcsec resolution and are, of course, free of atmospheric seeing and distortion. Properties of the granulation in magnetic and nonmagnetic regions are compared and are found to differ significantly in size, rate of intensity variation, and lifetime. In quiet sun, on the order of fifty-percent of the area has at least one 'exploding granule' occurring in it during a 25-min period. Local correlation tracking has detected several types of transverse flows, including systematic outflow from the penumbral boundary of a spot, motion of penumbral filaments, and cellular flow patterns of supergranular and mesogranular size. Feature tracking has shown that, in the quiet sun, the average granule fragment has a velocity of about one kilometer/second.

  13. Safety evaluation of the ITP filter/stripper test runs and quiet time runs using simulant solution. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, M.K.

    1994-06-01

    The purpose is to provide the technical bases for the evaluation of Unreviewed Safety Question for the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) Filter/Stripper Test Runs (Ref. 7) and Quiet Time Runs Program (described in Section 3.6). The Filter/Stripper Test Runs and Quiet Time Runs program involves a 12,000 gallon feed tank containing an agitator, a 4,000 gallon flush tank, a variable speed pump, associated piping and controls, and equipment within both the Filter and the Stripper Building.

  14. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kai, K.

    1986-01-01

    A project for space observations of solar flares for the coming solar maximum phase is briefly described. The main objective is to make a comprehensive study of high energy phenomena of flares through simultaneous imagings in both hard and soft X-rays. The project will be performed with collaboration from US scientists. The HESP (High Energy Solar Physics) WG of ISAS (Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences) has extensively discussed future aspects of space observations of high energy phenomena of solar flares based on successful results of the Hinotori mission, and proposed a comprehensive research program for the next solar maximum, called the HESP (SOLAR-A) project. The objective of the HESP project is to make a comprehensive study of both high energy phenomena of flares and quiet structures including pre-flare states, which have been left uncovered by SMM and Hinotori. For such a study simultaneous imagings with better resolutions in space and time in a wide range of energy will be extremely important.

  15. New SSI and TSI reconstruction suggests large value of the radiative solar forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, A.; Schmutz, W. K.; Thuillier, G.; Rozanov, E.; Haberreiter, M.; Schoell, M.; Shapiro, A.; Nyeki, S.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed and published the COde for Solar Irradiance (COSI) which allows us to calculate the entire solar spectrum. COSI reproduces the spectral irradiance measured by SOLSTICE (up to 320 nm) and SIM (from 320 nm onward) onboard the SORCE satellite during the 2008 solar minimum as well as SOLSPEC during the ATLAS 3 mission in 1994 with high accuracy. COSI is also used as a tool for modeling the variability of the solar irradiance. In our new reconstruction we represent the quiet Sun as a combination of two components. The first corresponds to the least active areas of the Sun as presently observed, while the second component is responsible for the magnetic activity of the quiet Sun. The time-dependent filling factors of these components are calculated based on the solar activity as derived from cosmogenic isotope concentrations in natural archieves. This allows us to obtain a time-dependent reconstructed solar spectrum from 7000 BC to the present with a temporal resolution of 22 years. From 1610 onward we have additional information from sunspot numbers, which allows the reconstruction of the spectral solar irradiance with a yearly resolution. These basic assumptions lead to a total and spectral solar irradiance that was substantially lower during the Maunder minimum than observed today. The difference is remarkably larger than other estimations published in the recent literature. Using our reconstruction as an input to a chemistry-climate model we show that the enhanced UV variability results in significant variations of stratospheric ozone and temperature.

  16. Red Giants and Solar Sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matloff, G. L.

    Our Sun will eventually leave the main sequence and expand in size and luminosity to become a giant star. For much of its ~108 year career as a giant, the Sun will reside on the horizontal branch of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, with a surface temperature of ~5000 K, a radius about 10x its present-day radius, and about 50x its current luminosity. A space-manufactured beryllium solar-photon sail could be used for emigration from the solar system during this solar phase. Space environmental effects limit the closest approach distance to the giant star to around 0.5 AU, assuming the quiet phase of the stellar activity cycle. Beryllium spectral reflectivity values are used to calculate a wavelength averaged sail spectral reflectivity. This parameter and a reasonable value of spacecraft areal mass thickness (8.87 x 10-5 kg/m2) are used to estimate the interstellar cruise velocity for a sail fully unfurled at a 0.5-1 AU perihelion from an initially parabolic orbit that is always oriented normal to the star. These will be 2-3x greater than those possible for the same craft launched from today's Sun.

  17. SUMER observations detecting downward propagating waves in the solar transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wikstol, O.; Judge, P. G.; Hansteen, V.; Wilhelm, K.; Schuehle, U.; Moran, T.

    1997-01-01

    The O IV density sensitive emission lines around 1400 A, using the solar ultraviolet measurement of emitted radiation (SUMER) instrument onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), are reported on. The data for the quiet sun, obtained close to the disk center and the solar limb were acquired. A systematic correlation between a density sensitive emission line ratio and Doppler shift across the same emission profiles was obtained. The correlation is such that the density is higher in the downflowing than in the upflowing plasma. The results are in good agreement with the simulations of downward propagating waves.

  18. Statistical properties of solar granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution.

  19. Suprathermal Solar Wind Electrons and Langmuir Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunjung; Yoon, Peter H.; Choe, G. S.; moon, Y.-J.

    2016-09-01

    The steady-state model recently put forth for the solar wind electron velocity distribution function during quiet time conditions, was originally composed of three population electrons (core, halo, and superhalo) with the core remaining nonresonant with any plasma waves while the halo and superhalo separately maintained steady-state resonance with whistler- and Langmuir-frequency range fluctuations, respectively. However, a recent paper demonstrates that whistler-range fluctuations in fact have no significant contribution. The present paper represents a consummation of the model in that a self-consistent model of the suprathermal electron population, which encompasses both the halo and the superhalo, is constructed solely on the basis of the Langmuir fluctuation spectrum. Numerical solutions to steady-state particle and wave kinetic equations are obtained on the basis of an initial trial electron distribution and Langmuir wave spectrum. Such a finding offers a self-consistent explanation for the observed steady-state electron distribution in the solar wind.

  20. The biological effects of solar activity.

    PubMed

    Breus, T K; Pimenov, K Yu; Cornélissen, G; Halberg, E; Syutkina, E V; Baevsky, R M; Petrov, V M; Orth-Gómer, K; Akerstedt, T; Otsuka, K; Watanabe, Y; Chibisov, S M

    2002-01-01

    The synchronization of biological circadian and circannual rhythms is broadly viewed as a result of photic solar effects. Evidence for non-photic solar effects on biota is also slowly being recognized. The ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes from rabbits, the time structure of blood pressure and heart rate of neonates, and the heart rate variability of human adults on earth and in space were examined during magnetically disturbed and quiet days, as were morbidity statistics. Alterations in both the about-daily (circadian) and about-weekly (circaseptan) components are observed during disturbed vs. quite days. The about-weekly period of neonatal blood pressure correlates with that of the local geomagnetic disturbance index K. Circaseptans which are seen early in human life and in various other forms of life, including unicells, may provide information about the possible site(s) of life's origins from an integrative as well as adaptive evolutionary perspective. PMID:12653180