Science.gov

Sample records for quimioterapia es independiente

  1. [Analysis of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Española de Quimioterapia].

    PubMed

    Gimeno Sieres, E

    2007-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare some of the bibliometric indicators of the continuity, circulation and productivity of the Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia up to 2003 with other spanish journals of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. This was done by reviewing periodicals directories, such as the ISSN (International Standard Serial Number/Número Internacional Normalizado de Publicaciones Seriadas) and ULRICH'S (Periodicals Directory), as well as the CDU (Classification Universal Decimal), national and international databases including IME (Indice Médico Español), ICYT (Indice Espanol de Ciencia y Tecnologia), IPA (International Pharmaceutical Abstracts), SCI Expanded (Science Citation Index Expanded), MEDLINE (Index Medicus), EMBASE (Excerpta Medica), BIOSIS PREVIEWS, ANALYTICAL ABSTRACTS, FSTA (Food Science and Technology Abstracts), SCIFINDER SCHOLAR and CHEMISTRY CITATION INDEX. According to the results, the Revista Española de Quimioterapia, in publication for 15 years, is widely distributed and has a good rating among other scientific journals of the same discipline.

  2. ES Review, Fall 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Sector, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "ES Review" brings together in one publication recent Education Sector work that reflects both the reach of its policy projects and its commitment to translating the complexities of education policymaking for a wide range of audiences. Articles in this first edition of "ES Review" are: (1) Community College Confidential…

  3. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  4. Determining the half-lives of /sup 253/Es, /sup 254/Es, /sup 254m/Es, /sup 255/Es, /sup 257/Es, /sup 256/Fm

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Yu.S.; Timofeev, G.A.; Mishenev, V.B.; Kovantsev, V.N.; Elesin, A.A.

    1988-03-01

    Semiconductor alpha, gamma, and x-ray spectrometry has been used to identify einsteinium and fermium isotopes having mass numbers 253-257 in californium targets irradiated in the central channel of the high-flux SM-2 reactor. Half-life measurements have been made for /sup 253/Es, /sup 254/Es, /sup 254m/Es, /sup 255/Es, /sup 257/Es, /sup 256/Fm. The measurements are compared with published data.

  5. ES '70 REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    IN A JULY 1967 MEETING, THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FOR THE SEVENTIES (ES '70) EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE (1) REVIEWED THE PLANS FOR THE SUMMER WORKSHOP FOR LOCAL ES '70 PROGRAM COORDINATORS TO BE HELD IN AUGUST 1967, (2) REVIEWED THE LIST OF 15 PARTICIPATING SCHOOL SYSTEMS--BLOOMFIELD HILLS, MICHIGAN, MINEOLA, NEW YORK, SAN MATEO, CALIFORNIA, MONROE,…

  6. ES Review: Selections from 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The second edition of the "ES Review" brings together, in one setting, abridged versions of research reports, outside articles and op-eds, book reviews, and other Education Sector publications. The 2007 edition features: (1) K-12 Accountability (Laboratories of Reform: Virtual High Schools and Innovation in Public Education (Bill…

  7. ES Cell International & regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Colman, Alan; Alliston, Doug

    2006-03-01

    ES Cell International believes that human embryonic stem cells offer a renewable source material for the elaboration of a multitude of different tissues for use in human cell replacement therapy. There are many challenges to the successful implementation of this vision including technical, regulatory, financial and ethical hurdles. However with demographic changes towards an aging population in the richer countries, leading to growing demands of ways to combat degenerative disease, science would be remiss not to explore every potential medical solution.

  8. Fission barriers for /sup 255/Es, /sup 256/Es, and /sup 255/Fm

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, H.C.; Cheifetz, E.; Hoffman, D.C.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Dupzyk, R.J.; Lougheed, R.W.

    1980-02-01

    Fission coincidence data are presented for (d,pf), (t,pf), and (/sup 3/He,df) reactions on a /sup 254/Es target. A possible resonance is observed in /sup 255/Es. Estimates for the height of the first peak of the fission barrier for /sup 255/Es, /sup 256/Es, and /sup 255/Fm are presented. The possibility of additional structure in the potential energy surface in the vicinity of the first peak of the fission barrier is discussed.

  9. Fish ES cells and applications to biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Carmen; Béjar, Julia; Chen, Songlin; Hong, Yunhan

    2007-01-01

    ES cells provide a promising tool for the generation of transgenic animals with site-directed mutations. When ES cells colonize germ cells in chimeras, transgenic animals with modified phenotypes are generated and used either for functional genomics studies or for improving productivity in commercial settings. Although the ES cell approach has been limited to mice, there is strong interest for developing the technology in fish. We describe the step-by-step procedure for developing ES cells in fish. Key aspects include avoiding cell differentiation, specific in vitro traits of pluripotency, and, most importantly, testing for production of chimeric animals as the main evidence of pluripotency. The entire process focuses on two model species, zebrafish and medaka, in which most work has been done. The achievements attained in these species, as well as their applicability to other commercial fish, are discussed. Because of the difficulties relating to germ line competence, mostly of long-term fish ES cells, alternative cell-based approaches such as primordial germ cells and nuclear transfer need to be considered. Although progress to date has been slow, there are promising achievements in homologous recombination and alternative avenues yet to be explored that can bring ES technology in fish to fruition.

  10. Sporadic Layer es and Siesmic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimov, Obid; Blokhin, Alexandr; Kalashnikova, Tatyana

    2016-07-01

    To determine the influence of seismogenic disturbances on the calm state of the iono-sphere and assess the impact of turbulence development in sporadic-E during earthquake prepa-ration period we calculated the variation in the range of semitransparency ∆fES = f0ES - fbES. The study was based primarily on the ionograms obtained by vertical sounding of the ionosphere at Dushanbe at nighttime station from 15 to 29 August 1986. In this time period four successive earthquakes took place, which serves the purpose of this study of the impact of seis-mogenic processes on the intensity of the continuous generation of ionospheric turbulence. Analysis of the results obtained for seismic-ionospheric effects of 1986 earthquakes at station Dushanbe has shown that disturbance of ionospheric parameters during earthquake prepa-ration period displays a pronounced maximum with a duration of t = 1-6 hours. Ionospheric effects associated with the processes of earthquake preparation emerge quite predictably, which verifies seismogenic disturbances in the ionosphere. During the preparation of strong earthquakes, ionograms of vertical sounding produced at station Dushanbe - near the epicenter area - often shown the phenomenon of spreading traces of sporadic Es. It is assumed that the duration of manifestation of seismic ionospheric precursors in Du-shanbe τ = 1 - 6 hours may be associated with deformation processes in the Earth's crust and var-ious faults, as well as dissimilar properties of the environment of the epicentral area. It has been shown that for earthquakes with 4.5 ≤ M ≤ 5.5 1-2 days prior to the event iono-spheric perturbations in the parameters of the sporadic layer Es and an increase in the value of the range of semitransparency Es - ΔfEs were observed, which could lead to turbulence at altitudes of 100-130 km.

  11. The Earth System (ES-DOC) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Mark; Murphy, Sylvia; Treshansky, Allyn; DeLuca, Cecilia; Guilyardi, Eric; Denvil, Sebastien

    2014-05-01

    ESSI1.3 New Paradigms, Modelling, and International Collaboration Strategies for Earth System Sciences Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying tools & services in support of earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation eco-system that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software and places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system. Within this context ES-DOC leverages emerging documentation standards and supports the following projects: Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP); National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop. This presentation will introduce the project to a wider audience and demonstrate the range of tools and services currently available for use. It will also demonstrate how international collaborative efforts are essential to the success of ES-DOC.

  12. ES Review: Selections from 2009 and 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This fourth edition of the "ES Review" brings together, in one setting, some of the best work from 2009-10. It features: (1) Teacher Quality (Teachers at Work: Improving Teacher Quality Through School Design (Elena Silva); Understanding Teachers Contracts (Andrew J. Rotherham); How Teachers Unions Lost the Media (Richard Whitmire and…

  13. ES Review: Selections from 2008 & 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This third edition of the "ES Review" brings together, in one setting, some of the best work from 2008-09. It features: (1) K-12 Accountability (Measuring Skills for the 21st Century (Elena Silva); Beyond the Bubble: Technology and the Future of Student Assessment (Bill Tucker); Testing the Limits (Bill Tucker); Changing the Game: The…

  14. PRC2 Complexes with JARID2, MTF2, and esPRC2p48 in ES Cells to Modulate ES Cell Pluripotency and Somatic Cell Reprograming

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo; Jones, Amanda; Sun, Chiao-Wang; Li, Chao; Chang, Chia-Wei; Joo, Heui-Yun; Dai, Qian; Mysliwiec, Matthew R.; Wu, Li-Chen; Guo, Yahong; Yang, Wei; Liu, Kaimao; Pawlik, Kevin M.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Lee, Youngsook; Min, Jinrong; Townes, Tim M.; Wang, Hengbin

    2012-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex two (PRC2) has been implicated in embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency; however, the mechanistic roles of this complex are unclear. It was assumed that ES cells contain PRC2 with the same subunit composition as that identified in HeLa cells and Drosophila embryos. Here, we report that PRC2 in mouse ES cells contains at least three additional subunits: JARID2, MTF2, and a novel protein denoted esPRC2p48. JARID2, MTF2, and esPRC2p48 are highly expressed in mouse ES cells compared to differentiated cells. Importantly, knockdowns of JARID2, MTF2, or esPRC2p48 alter the level of PRC2-mediated H3K27 methylation and result in the expression of differentiation-associated genes in ES cells. Interestingly, expression of JARID2, MTF2, and esPRC2p48 together, but not individually, enhances Oct4/Sox2/Klf4-mediated reprograming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into induced pluripotent stem cells, whereas knockdown or knockout of JARID2, MTF2, or esPRC2p48 significantly inhibits reprograming. JARID2, MTF2, and esPRC2p48 modulate H3K27 methylation and facilitate repression of lineage-associated gene expression when transduced into MEFs, and synergistically stimulate the histone methyl-transferase activity of PRC2 in vitro. Therefore, these studies identify JARID2, MTF2, and esPRC2p48 as important regulatory subunits of PRC2 in ES cells and reveal critical functions of these subunits in modulating PRC2’s activity and gene expression both in ES cells and during somatic cell reprograming. PMID:21732481

  15. Geometrical parameters of E+S pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampazzo, Roberto; Sulentic, Jack W.

    1990-01-01

    Local environmental conditions (i.e., density and angular momentum properties of protogalactic clouds) are thought to be factors affecting the ultimate morphology of a galaxy. The existence of significant numbers of mixed morphology (E/SO+S) pairs of galaxies would represent a direct challenge to this idea unless all early-type components are formed by mergers. The authors wished to isolate candidate E+S pairs for detailed study. The authors have observed 22 pairs of mixed morphology galaxies (containing at least one early-type component) selected from a catalog of Sulentic (1988: unpublished) based upon the ESO sky survey. The observed sample and relevant morphological and interaction characteristics are summarized in tabular form. The authors report the relevant geometrical properties of the galaxies in another table. They list the maximum values measured for the ellipticity and the a(4)/a shape parameter together with the total measured twisting along the profile beyond the seeing disk (they set an inner limit of 3 arcsed). An asterisk indicates objects in which a(4)/a is neither predominantly boxy nor disky. They found a large number of true mixed pairs with 13/22 E+S pairs in the present sample. The remaining objects include 5 disk pairs (composed of SO and S members) and 3 early-type pairs comprising E and SO members. They estimate that between 25 and 50 percent of the pairs in any complete sample will be of the E+S type. This suggests that 100 to 200 such pairs exist on the sky brighter than m sub pg = 16.0. They found no global evidence for a difference between E members of this sample and those in more general samples (e.g., Bender et al. 1989). In particular, they found that about 30 percent of the early-type galaxies cannot be classified either predominantly boxy or disky because the a(4)/a profile shows both of these features at a comparable level or does not show any significant trend. Isophotal twisting is observed with a range and distribution

  16. Study of TrES-3 Exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodniza, A. Q.; Rojas, M.; Reyes, K.

    2011-10-01

    The first amateur observation of an exoplanet was made from the Nyrola Observatory in September 16, 2000. (Marko Moilanen, Jalo Ojanperä, Jouni Sorvari, Aki Id and Arto Oksanen). The jovian-type planet orbits a star that is 153 light years far away, and was called HD209458b in Pegasus [1]. The equipment used by this Observatory was a 16 inches MEADE LX200, a ST7E CCD SBIG camera with a V photometric filter and an f/6.3 focal distance reducer. At the University of Nariño Observatory we have a similar equipment. The equipment we employed is: 14"LX200 GPS MEADE telescope and STL-1001 SBIG. The camera we used in our search is much more sensible than the one used by the Nyrola Observatory [2]. From the Astronomical Observatory at the University of Nariño-COLOMBIA, we begun a systematic search for exoplanets. We have already confirmed the transit of the exoplanet TrES-3. This exoplanet was discovered by O'Donovan and other investigators, and turns around the GSC 03089- 00929, with an orbital period of 1.30619 days (31.34856 hours) and inclination of 82.15 deg [3]. The TrES-3 is quite interesting because it has one of the smallest periods found on exoplanets. Jessie L. Christiansen, et.al. observed seven transits and they found that the duration of transit is 81.9+/-1.1 minutes and inclination of 81.99+/-0.30 deg [4], [5]. We have captured a lot of data to elaborate the lightcurves so we can estimate the physical parameters of the exoplanet.

  17. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  18. ES&H self-assessment and improvement program

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, K.; Campisi, J.; Kelly, B.M.

    1997-06-01

    This document provides an overview of the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) self-assessment and improvement process at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). It also suggests further developments for self-assessment and improvement. Section 1 explains the many purposes of the self-assessment and improvement program. Section 2 is a description of ES&H self-assessment and improvement and includes information on performance objectives and performance indicators, self-assessment of work areas and activities, reporting of self-assessment results, improvements and corrective actions, and records retention. The sub-section on self-assessment of work areas and activities includes detailed descriptions of organizational self-assessment, ES&H functional program self-assessments, internal independent ES&H assessment, Lockheed Martin Corporate ES&H assessments, and ES&H self-assessment information analysis and integration. Section 3 defines the roles and responsibilities of the ES&H Assessment Department, ES&H Center, SNL management, SNL employees, and contractors, SNL {open_quotes}Line{close_quotes} organizations, and ES&H functional program owners. Section 4 references associated manuals, policies, and companion documents. The appendix is a glossary of terms used in ES&H assessments.

  19. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=1998-08-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  20. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  1. Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Preparation for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denvil, S.; Murphy, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Lawrence, B.; Guilyardi, E.; Pascoe, C.; Treshanksy, A.; Elkington, M.; Hibling, E.; Hassell, D.

    2015-12-01

    During the course of 2015 the Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) project began its preparations for CMIP6 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 6) by further extending the ES-DOC tooling ecosystem in support of Earth System Model (ESM) documentation creation, search, viewing & comparison. The ES-DOC online questionnaire, the ES-DOC desktop notebook, and the ES-DOC python toolkit will serve as multiple complementary pathways to generating CMIP6 documentation. It is envisaged that institutes will leverage these tools at different points of the CMIP6 lifecycle. Institutes will be particularly interested to know that the documentation burden will be either streamlined or completely automated.As all the tools are tightly integrated with the ES-DOC web-service, institutes can be confident that the latency between documentation creation & publishing will be reduced to a minimum. Published documents will be viewable with the online ES-DOC Viewer (accessible via citable URL's). Model inter-comparison scenarios will be supported using the ES-DOC online Comparator tool. The Comparator is being extended to:• Support comparison of both Model descriptions & Simulation runs;• Greatly streamline the effort involved in compiling official tables.The entire ES-DOC ecosystem is open source and built upon open standards such as the Common Information Model (CIM) (versions 1 and 2).

  2. Embryonic Stem Cell (ES)-Specific Enhancers Specify the Expression Potential of ES Genes in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Revital; Meron, Nurit; Toperoff, Gidon; Edrei, Yifat; Bergman, Yehudit; Hellman, Asaf

    2016-01-01

    Cancers often display gene expression profiles resembling those of undifferentiated cells. The mechanisms controlling these expression programs have yet to be identified. Exploring transcriptional enhancers throughout hematopoietic cell development and derived cancers, we uncovered a novel class of regulatory epigenetic mutations. These epimutations are particularly enriched in a group of enhancers, designated ES-specific enhancers (ESSEs) of the hematopoietic cell lineage. We found that hematopoietic ESSEs are prone to DNA methylation changes, indicative of their chromatin activity states. Strikingly, ESSE methylation is associated with gene transcriptional activity in cancer. Methylated ESSEs are hypermethylated in cancer relative to normal somatic cells and co-localized with silenced genes, whereas unmethylated ESSEs tend to be hypomethylated in cancer and associated with reactivated genes. Constitutive or hematopoietic stem cell-specific enhancers do not show these trends, suggesting selective reactivation of ESSEs in cancer. Further analyses of a hypomethylated ESSE downstream to the VEGFA gene revealed a novel regulatory circuit affecting VEGFA transcript levels across cancers and patients. We suggest that the discovered enhancer sites provide a framework for reactivation of ES genes in cancer. PMID:26886256

  3. ¿Qué es Indoor airPLUS?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El Programa Interior de airPLUS es una asociación entre EPA, los constructores, raters, las utilidades, y organizaciones sanitarias e interiores ambientales de mejorar aire interior en nuevas casas casas verdes.

  4. Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the Department’s review of comments received on the HPwES v2 proposal and presents a multi-year action plan to both address Department goals and incorporate industry feedback.

  5. Final Technical Report: Electronic Structure Workshop (ES13)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shiwei

    2015-02-26

    The 25th Annual Workshop on Recent Developments in Electronic Structure Methods (ES2013) was successfully held at the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg VA on June 11-14, 2013. The workshop website is at http://es13.wm.edu/ , which contains updated information on the workshop and a permanent archive of the scientific contents. DOE's continued support has been instrumental to the success of the workshop.

  6. GroEL/ES inhibitors as potential antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Abdeen, Sanofar; Salim, Nilshad; Mammadova, Najiba; Summers, Corey M; Frankson, Rochelle; Ambrose, Andrew J; Anderson, Gregory G; Schultz, Peter G; Horwich, Arthur L; Chapman, Eli; Johnson, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported results from a high-throughput screening effort that identified 235 inhibitors of the Escherichia coli GroEL/ES chaperonin system [Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.2014, 24, 786]. As the GroEL/ES chaperonin system is essential for growth under all conditions, we reasoned that targeting GroEL/ES with small molecule inhibitors could be a viable antibacterial strategy. Extending from our initial screen, we report here the antibacterial activities of 22 GroEL/ES inhibitors against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. GroEL/ES inhibitors were more effective at blocking the proliferation of Gram-positive bacteria, in particular S. aureus, where lead compounds exhibited antibiotic effects from the low-μM to mid-nM range. While several compounds inhibited the human HSP60/10 refolding cycle, some were able to selectively target the bacterial GroEL/ES system. Despite inhibiting HSP60/10, many compounds exhibited low to no cytotoxicity against human liver and kidney cell lines. Two lead candidates emerged from the panel, compounds 8 and 18, that exhibit >50-fold selectivity for inhibiting S. aureus growth compared to liver or kidney cell cytotoxicity. Compounds 8 and 18 inhibited drug-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains with potencies comparable to vancomycin, daptomycin, and streptomycin, and are promising candidates to explore for validating the GroEL/ES chaperonin system as a viable antibiotic target.

  7. The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) Software Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, M. A.; Murphy, S.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high-quality tools & services in support of earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation eco-system that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system and currently supporting the following projects: * Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); * Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP); * National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop. This talk will demonstrate that ES-DOC implements a relatively mature software development process. Taking a pragmatic Agile process as inspiration, ES-DOC: * Iteratively develops and releases working software; * Captures user requirements via a narrative based approach; * Uses online collaboration tools (e.g. Earth System CoG) to manage progress; * Prototypes applications to validate their feasibility; * Leverages meta-programming techniques where appropriate; * Automates testing whenever sensibly feasible; * Streamlines complex deployments to a single command; * Extensively leverages GitHub and Pivotal Tracker; * Enforces strict separation of the UI from underlying API's; * Conducts code reviews.

  8. Specification Section 01065S ES&H for Service Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, Greg C.

    2014-07-01

    Section Includes: Requirements and guidelines in performance of work concerning protection of environment and property, and the safety and health of Contractors, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Department of Energy (DOE) employees, visitors to SNL, and members of the public. This Section is applicable only to Service Contracts that do not involve construction or construction-like activities. Construction and construction-like activities are covered by Section 01065, Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) for Construction Contracts. The entire ES&H program shall focus on safe-by-design intent, understanding the technical basis for the work, identifying and controlling energy sources, unacceptable consequences, risk assessments, and positive verification.

  9. [And Sarah Félix created "L 'Eau des Fées" and "La Parfumerie des Fées"].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile

    2015-12-01

    century, the parisian perfumery of Sarah Felix was famous especially for her cosmetic "L'Eau des Fées" ("Water of the Fairies"), a dyeing supposed to give back to the old hair the color of their youth. Sarah Felix, sister of the famous actress Rachel, exercised several jobs before becoming perfumer. At first, she was actress, then she tried ... oyster culture in Normandy ! Abandoning these activities, Sarah Felix became really a businesswoman in Paris. She dedicated herself to perfumery, in particular to "L'Eau des Fées", from 1866. To launch its product, she was associated to competency characters (engineer, pharmacist, physician) and benefited from the protection of the imperial family. A lawsuit between the associates and the 1870 war hindered the company's early days, but "L'Eau des Fées" provided with quality pledges, imposed itself definitely. The "Parfumerie des Fées" completed the range of its cosmetics with creams, powders, etc. Sarah Félix paid attention to present "L'Eau des Fées" as a dye devoid of toxicity. Was it really the case and could il be sold nowadays? These two issues are discussed in the last part.

  10. The Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S.; Greenslade, M. A.; Treshansky, A.; DeLuca, C.; Guilyardi, E.; Denvil, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earth System Documentation (ES-DOC) is an international project supplying high quality tools and services in support of Earth system documentation creation, analysis and dissemination. It is nurturing a sustainable standards based documentation ecosystem that aims to become an integral part of the next generation of exa-scale dataset archives. ES-DOC leverages open source software, and applies a software development methodology that places end-user narratives at the heart of all it does. ES-DOC has initially focused upon nurturing the Earth System Model (ESM) documentation eco-system. Within this context ES-DOC leverages the emerging Common Information Model (CIM) metadata standard, which has supported the following projects: ** Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5); ** Dynamical Core Model Inter-comparison Project (DCMIP-2012); ** National Climate Predictions and Projections Platforms (NCPP) Quantitative Evaluation of Downscaling Workshop (QED-2013). This presentation will introduce the project to a wider audience and will demonstrate the current production level capabilities of the eco-system: ** An ESM documentation Viewer embeddable into any website; ** An ESM Questionnaire configurable on a project by project basis; ** An ESM comparison tool reusable across projects; ** An ESM visualization tool reusable across projects; ** A search engine for speedily accessing published documentation; ** Libraries for streamlining document creation, validation and publishing pipelines.

  11. Project ES '70 Training for Local Coordinators. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Majory E.

    The "organic curriculum" of the Educational System of the Seventies Project (ES '70) is one which integrates academic training, occupational training, and personal development in grades nine through 12 and which draws heavily on research dealing with individualized instruction. The program held at Kingsley Inn, Bloomfield Hills,…

  12. Stereotyping in "Damals war es Friedrich" and "Brandstiftung."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Gisela

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of young adult books in teaching high school and college-level German, particularly "Damals war es Friedrich" and "Brandstiftung." The didactic intentions of these books are to inform younger adults about the Nazi periods of the past and the Neo-nazi resurgence of the present, encourage them to confront the issues, and to take a…

  13. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG-ES)

    MedlinePlus

    ... electrolytes to prevent dehydration and other serious side effects that may be caused by fluid loss as ... PEG-ES may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: nausea stomach pain, cramps, or fullness ...

  14. Purification and Characterization of AsES Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chalfoun, Nadia R.; Grellet-Bournonville, Carlos F.; Martínez-Zamora, Martín G.; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Castagnaro, Atilio P.; Díaz-Ricci, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the purification and characterization of an extracellular elicitor protein, designated AsES, produced by an avirulent isolate of the strawberry pathogen Acremonium strictum, are reported. The defense eliciting activity present in culture filtrates was recovered and purified by ultrafiltration (cutoff, 30 kDa), anionic exchange (Q-Sepharose, pH 7.5), and hydrophobic interaction (phenyl-Sepharose) chromatographies. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of the purified active fraction revealed a single spot of 34 kDa and pI 8.8. HPLC (C2/C18) and MS/MS analysis confirmed purification to homogeneity. Foliar spray with AsES provided a total systemic protection against anthracnose disease in strawberry, accompanied by the expression of defense-related genes (i.e. PR1 and Chi2-1). Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (e.g. H2O2 and O2˙̄) and callose was also observed in Arabidopsis. By using degenerate primers designed from the partial amino acid sequences and rapid amplification reactions of cDNA ends, the complete AsES-coding cDNA of 1167 nucleotides was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant identity with fungal serine proteinases of the subtilisin family, indicating that AsES is synthesized as a larger precursor containing a 15-residue secretory signal peptide and a 90-residue peptidase inhibitor I9 domain in addition to the 283-residue mature protein. AsES exhibited proteolytic activity in vitro, and its resistance eliciting activity was eliminated when inhibited with PMSF, suggesting that its proteolytic activity is required to induce the defense response. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a fungal subtilisin that shows eliciting activity in plants. This finding could contribute to develop disease biocontrol strategies in plants by activating its innate immunity. PMID:23530047

  15. [Cross-cultural adaptation to the European Portuguese of the questionnaire "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES)].

    PubMed

    Salmerón Rubio, Joaquín; Iglésias-Ferreira, Paula; García Delgado, Pilar; Mateus-Santos, Henrique; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this work is to conduct the cross-cultural adaptation from Spanish to European Portuguese of a questionnaire to measure the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" (CPM-ES-ES). A method based on six steps was applied: 1. Translation into Portuguese, 2. Elaboration of the first consensus version in Portuguese; 3.Back-translation into Spanish; 4. Elaboration of the second consensus version (cultural equivalency); 5. Conducting the pre-test; 6. Evaluation of the overall results. A cross-culturally adapted questionnaire in European Portuguese that measures the degree of "Patient Knowledge about their Medications" is proposed. The pre-test confirmation obtained 100% agreement with the corrected version of the second consensus version after pre-testing. The methodology selected made it possible to cross-culturally adapt the Spanish version of the CPM-ES-ES questionnaire to the Portuguese version. Further studies should demonstrate the equivalence of the psychometric properties of the cross-cultural translation into Portuguese with the original version.

  16. Electrical stimulation (ES) in the management of sexual pain disorders.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E; Ferdeghini, Francesea; Abbiati, Ileana; Vercesi, Claudia; Farina, Claudio; Polatti, Franco

    2003-01-01

    We performed an open study to investigate the use of electrical stimulation (ES) on the vestibular area and vaginal introitus in women with sexual pain disorders. We recruited 29 women (age range 20-45 years) from among the patients at our Reproductive Psychobiology Unit to participate in the present study. They each experienced vestibular pain, inducing dyspareunia and vaginism. We performed ES with an ECL43400 apparatus (Elite, EssediEsse srl, Milan, Italy) once a week for 10 weeks. To evaluate the muscular activity of the perineal floor and sexual function, we employed the same apparatus with a vaginal probe for recording myoelectrical activity (muV), we employed a VAS scale for evaluating pain, and we administered the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000) before and after the study protocol. We analyzed data by parametric and nonparametric comparisons and correlations, as appropriate. Our major findings were as follows: (a) the contractile ability of pelvic floor muscles (p < 0.001), as well as the resting ability (p < 0.001), significantly improved following ES; (b) the current intensity tolerated significantly increased (p < 0.001) throughout the study, from 41.3 +/- 7.4 mA at the start of the study to 50 +/- 7.4 mA at the end of the stimulation protocol; (c) the Visual Analogic Scale (VAS) for pain significantly declined (p < 0.001), whereas FSFI pain scores (p < 0.001) and full scale scores (p < 0.001) significantly improved following ES, and 4 out of 9 women with vaginism went back to coital activity; (d) FSFI pain score and the current intensity tolerated, both before (R = .59; p < 0.006) and at the end (R = .53; p < 0.02) of the stimulation protocol, positively correlated. ES may be effective in the management of sexual pain disorders. Further controlled studies are necessary to standardize stimulation protocols according to the severity of pain and to better clarify the long-term clinical effects of ES.

  17. Cloning of ES cells and mice by nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Wakayama, Sayaka; Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2009-01-01

    We have been able to develop a stable nuclear transfer (NT) method in the mouse, in which donor nuclei are directly injected into the oocyte using a piezo-actuated micromanipulator. Although the piezo unit is a complex tool, once mastered it is of great help not only in NT experiments, but also in almost all other forms of micromanipulation. Using this technique, embryonic stem (ntES) cell lines established from somatic cell nuclei can be generated relatively easily from a variety of mouse genotypes and cell types. Such ntES cells can be used not only for experimental models of human therapeutic cloning but also as a means of preserving mouse genomes instead of preserving germ cells. Here, we describe our most recent protocols for mouse cloning.

  18. Mário Magalhães: Development is Health.

    PubMed

    Escorel, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Mário Magalhães da Silveira (1905-1986) was the main mentor of the school of thought known as "developmental public health" whose influence peaked at the III National Health Assembly. A critic of the adoption of North American models of public health organization, of the centralism and vertical organization of public health campaigns and the interference of international bodies, the public health doctor held the view that as health is a problem of superstructure, it depends on industrial economic development. He also defended the urgent need to municipalize public health in order to attend to the real needs of the Brazilian population. A pioneer of the intermingling of economic and demographic variables, he may be seen as a predecessor of the health economy discipline. The article describes the professional path of Mário Magalhães as a backdrop to his critical thinking on specific national situations and the health policies adopted.

  19. Electron-capture delayed fission properties of 244Es

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, Dawn A.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Adams, Jeb L.; Lane, Michael R.; Laue, Carola A.; Lee, Diana M.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Ninov, Victor; Patin, Joshua B.; Strellis, Dan A.; Sylwester, Eric R.; Wilk, Philip A.; Hoffman, Darleane C.

    2001-03-16

    Electron-capture delayed fission was observed in {sup 244}Es produced via the {sup 237}Np({sup 12}C,5n){sup 244}Es reaction at 81 MeV (on target) with a production cross section of 0.31{+-}0.12 {micro}b. The mass-yield distribution of the fission fragments is highly asymmetric. The average preneutron-emission total kinetic energy of the fragments was measured to be 186{+-}19 MeV. Based on the ratio of the number of fission events to the measured number of {alpha} decays from the electron-capture daughter {sup 244}Cf (100% {alpha} branch), the probability of delayed fission was determined to be (1.2{+-}0.4) x 10{sup -4}. This value for the delayed fission probability fits the experimentally observed trend of increasing delayed fission probability with increasing Q value for electron-capture.

  20. Generation of Gene Knockout Mice by ES Cell Microinjection

    PubMed Central

    Longenecker, Glenn; Kulkarni, Ashok B

    2009-01-01

    This unit lists and describes protocols used in the production of chimeric mice leading to the generation of gene knockout mice. These protocols include the collection of blastocyst embryos, ES cell injection, and uterine transfer of injected blastocysts. Support protocols in the superovulation of blastocyst donor mice, generation of pseudopregnant recipients, fabrication of glass pipettes, and generation of germline mice are also included. Practical tips and solutions are mentioned to help troubleshoot problems that may occur. PMID:19731226

  1. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T.; Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  2. APOSTLE: 11 TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF TrES-3b

    SciTech Connect

    Kundurthy, P.; Becker, A. C.; Agol, E.; Barnes, R.; Williams, B.

    2013-02-10

    The Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) observed 11 transits of TrES-3b over two years in order to constrain system parameters and look for transit timing and depth variations. We describe an updated analysis protocol for APOSTLE data, including the reduction pipeline, transit model, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyzer. Our estimates of the system parameters for TrES-3b are consistent with previous estimates to within the 2{sigma} confidence level. We improved the errors (by 10%-30%) on system parameters such as the orbital inclination (i {sub orb}), impact parameter (b), and stellar density ({rho}{sub *}) compared to previous measurements. The near-grazing nature of the system, and incomplete sampling of some transits, limited our ability to place reliable uncertainties on individual transit depths and hence we do not report strong evidence for variability. Our analysis of the transit timing data shows no evidence for transit timing variations and our timing measurements are able to rule out super-Earth and gas giant companions in low-order mean motion resonance with TrES-3b.

  3. [History of the Journées Dermatologiques de Paris].

    PubMed

    Tilles, G

    2013-12-01

    Founded in 1801 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, under Jean-Louis Alibert, the French School of Dermatology was initially structured around the French Society of Dermatology (1889) and the organization of two world congresses (Paris 1889, 1900). After World War I, the creation of dermatological societies in the provinces infused French dermatology with new energy. In 1922, the first congress of the French-speaking dermatologists further contributed to the public profile of dermatologists in France. The "Journées de Mars" were initiated in 1961 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, and in 1975 they went on to become the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris". Pr. Jean Civatte played a key role in their creation and in their organization for 30 years. After 1979, since actual patients could no longer be presented, the organizers of the congress had to change the content of the meeting from clinical presentations to post-graduate teaching and clinical research. From its origins in the form of meetings of French dermatologists in an intimate setting at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris" grew within the ensuing decades into a major scientific event of the French-speaking dermatological community, bringing together more than 4000 participants in December each year.

  4. At most three ES cells contribute to the somatic lineages of chimeric mice and of mice produced by ES-tetraploid complementation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongde; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2004-11-01

    Chimeric or entirely embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived mice ("ES mice") can be produced by injecting ES cells into diploid (2n) or tetraploid (4n) host blastocysts, respectively. Usually, between 10 and 15 ES cells are injected into the host blastocyst, but it is not clear how many of the injected cells contribute to the somatic lineages, thus serve as "founder cells" of the embryo proper. We have used genetically labeled ES cells to retrospectively determine the number of founder ES cells that generate the somatic lineages of chimeric and of ES mice. ES cell clones individually labeled with provirus were mixed in equal numbers and injected into 2n or 4n blastocysts to generate chimeric or ES mice. Southern analysis of DNA from the resulting animals indicated that the somatic lineages were most often derived from one or two and sometimes from up to three founder ES cells. The number of founder cells was independent of the total number of cells injected into the host blastocysts. Our results are consistent with the notion that constraints of the host embryo restrict the number of ES cells that can contribute to a chimeric or an ES mouse.

  5. Lignes directrices simplifiées sur les lipides

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Lindblad, Adrienne J.; Comeau, Ann; Coppola, John; Hudson, Brianne; Mannarino, Marco; McMinis, Cindy; Padwal, Raj; Schelstraete, Christine; Zarnke, Kelly; Garrison, Scott; Cotton, Candra; Korownyk, Christina; McCormack, James; Nickel, Sharon; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Produire un guide de pratique clinique comportant une approche simplifiée à la prévention primaire des maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV), en insistant sur l’estimation du risque de MCV et la prise en charge des profils lipidiques à l’intention des cliniciens de soins primaires et leurs équipes; nous avons recherché la contribution de professionnels des soins primaires qui n’avaient que peu ou pas de conflits d’intérêts et nous nous sommes concentrés sur les données probantes de la plus haute qualité accessibles. Méthodes Neuf professionnels de la santé (4 médecins de famille, 2 internistes, 1 infirmière praticienne, 1 infirmière autorisée et 1 pharmacienne) et 1 membre non votant (pharmacienne gestionnaire de projet) formaient le comité principal appelé le Lipid Pathway Committee (le comité). La sélection des membres s’est fondée sur la profession, le milieu de pratique et son emplacement. Les membres ont divulgué tous leurs conflits d’intérêts potentiels ou réels. Le processus d’élaboration des lignes directrices était itératif et s’appuyait sur des affichages en ligne, une révision détaillée des données probantes, des réunions par téléphone et en ligne. Le comité a cerné 12 questions prioritaires à répondre. Le groupe de révision des données probantes a répondu à ces questions. À la suite d’un examen des réponses, les principales recommandations ont été formulées par consensus du comité. Nous avons produit une ébauche des lignes directrices qui a ensuite été peaufinée, distribuée à un groupe de cliniciens (médecins de famille, autres spécialistes, pharmaciens, infirmières et infirmières praticiennes) et à des patients pour obtenir de la rétroaction, la réviser en conséquence et le comité l’a ensuite finalisée. Recommandations Des recommandations sont présentées concernant le dépistage et les analyses, les évaluations du risque, le suivi, de même que le r

  6. SN2002es-like Supernovae from Different Viewing Angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, S. R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Papadogiannakis, S.; Nugent, P. E.; Masci, Frank J.; Bue, Brian D.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we compare optical light curves of two SN2002es-like Type Ia supernovae (SNe), iPTF14atg and iPTF14dpk, from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory. Although the two light curves resemble each other around and after maximum, they show distinct early-phase rise behavior in the r-band. On the one hand, iPTF14atg revealed a slow and steady rise that lasted for 22 days with a mean rise rate of 0.2-0.3 mag day-1, before it reached the R-band peak (-18.05 mag). On the other hand, iPTF14dpk rose rapidly to -17 mag within a day of discovery with a rise rate \\gt 1.8 {{mag}} {{{day}}}-1, and then rose slowly to its peak (-18.19 mag) with a rise rate similar to iPTF14atg. The apparent total rise time of iPTF14dpk is therefore only 16 days. We show that emission from iPTF14atg before -17 days with respect to its maximum can be entirely attributed to radiation produced by collision between the SN and its companion star. Such emission is absent from iPTF14dpk probably because of an unfavored viewing angle, provided that SN2002es-like events arise from the same progenitor channel. We further show that an SN2002es-like SN may experience a dark phase after the explosion but before its radioactively powered light curve becomes visible. This dark phase may be lit by radiation from supernova-companion interaction.

  7. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  8. Zum Glück gibt es Garantie!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrmann, Volker

    Die numerische Lösung von Gleichungssystemen ist eine zentrale Aufgabe bei der Untersuchung fast jeden wissenschaftlichen Problems. Die Beschreibung physikalischer, chemischer oder biologischer Prozesse erfolgt im Wesentlichen immer durch Systeme von Gleichungen. Diese können aus Differentialgleichungen oder auch algebraischen Gleichungen bestehen. Lösungsverfahren dieser Systeme führen jedoch meist auf das Lösen von sehr großen linearen Gleichungssystemen. Daher ist es notwendig Methoden zu entwickeln um diese linearen Gleichungssysteme effizient zu lösen.

  9. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  10. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  11. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  12. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  13. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  14. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  15. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  16. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-01-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  17. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=1999-07-17] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  18. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  19. CERES ERBE-like Instantaneous TOA Estimates (ES-8) in HDF (CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ES-8 archival data product contains a 24-hour, single-satellite, instantaneous view of scanner fluxes at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reduced from spacecraft altitude unfiltered radiances using Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner Inversion algorithms and the ERBE shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) Angular Distribution Models (ADMs). The ES-8 also includes the total (TOT), SW, LW, and window (WN) channel radiometric data; SW, LW, and WN unfiltered radiance values; and the ERBE scene identification for each measurement. These data are organized according to the CERES 3.3-second scan into 6.6-second records. As long as there is one valid scanner measurement within a record, the ES-8 record will be generated. The following CERES ES8 data sets are currently available: CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES8_TRMM-PFM_Transient-Ops2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES8_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES8_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES8_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1997-12-27; Stop_Date=2005-11-01] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Temporal_Resolution=1 day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Daily - < Weekly].

  20. Binaires semi-détachées : taxonomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameury, Jean-Marie

    2001-01-01

    We discuss here compact binaries in which the orbital separation is small enough that mass is transferred from one star to the other. These systems are classified according to the nature of the primary: algols for ordinary stars, cataclysmic variables for white dwarfs, and X-ray binaries for black holes and neutron stars. These classes are often studied separately, even though the same physical processes occur in all objects; a global approach is most useful for understanding these objects and the physical processes. On discutera ici des binaires serrées dans lesquelles la séparation est suffisamment faible pour qu'il y ait échange de matière entre les deux étoiles. La classification de ces systèmes est liée à la nature de l'étoile accrétante: algols pour la séquence principale, variables cataclysmiques pour les naines blanches, et binaires X pour les étoiles à neutrons ou les trous noirs. Ces classes sont souvent étudiées de façon séparée, mais elles révèlent des processus physiques communs; la compréhension des objets et de la physique sous-jacente bénéficie d'une approche globale.

  1. ES&H development activities for the W89 warhead

    SciTech Connect

    Pretzel, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) issues became an important design consideration during the development of the W89 warhead for the SRAM 11 (Short-Range Attack Missile) missile. An action plan was developed to handle these issues at all the production agencies and at both the system and the component level. The main thrust was in the area of solvent substitution, in particular for solder flux removal. The cleaner d-limonene followed by an isopropyl alcohol rinse was selected for applications were the traditional cleaners were 1,1,1 trichloroethane or trichloroethylene. Compatibility testing rather than efficacy testing dominated the development effort. In addition to other solvent substitution applications, organic materials that were free of toluene diisocynate (TDI), and methylene dianiline (MDA) were explored for use in the W89.

  2. Urban agriculture and Anopheles habitats in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dongus, Stefan; Nyika, Dickson; Kannady, Khadija; Mtasiwa, Deo; Mshinda, Hassan; Gosoniu, Laura; Drescher, Axel W; Fillinger, Ulrike; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Castro, Marcia C

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of agricultural areas, combined with routinely monitored mosquito larval information, was conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate how agricultural and geographical features may influence the presence of Anopheles larvae. Data were integrated into a geographical information systems framework, and predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in farming areas were assessed using multivariate logistic regression with independent random effects. It was found that more than 5% of the study area (total size 16.8 km2) was used for farming in backyard gardens and larger open spaces. The proportion of habitats containing Anopheles larvae was 1.7 times higher in agricultural areas compared to other areas (95% confidence interval = 1.56-1.92). Significant geographic predictors of the presence of Anopheles larvae in gardens included location in lowland areas, proximity to river, and relatively impermeable soils. Agriculture-related predictors comprised specific seedbed types, mid-sized gardens, irrigation by wells, as well as cultivation of sugar cane or leafy vegetables. Negative predictors included small garden size, irrigation by tap water, rainfed production and cultivation of leguminous crops or fruit trees. Although there was an increased chance of finding Anopheles larvae in agricultural sites, it was found that breeding sites originated by urban agriculture account for less than a fifth of all breeding sites of malaria vectors in Dar es Salaam. It is suggested that strategies comprising an integrated malaria control effort in malaria-endemic African cities include participatory involvement of farmers by planting shade trees near larval habitats.

  3. CHRONIC ENTERITIS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING PELVIC RADIOTHERAPY: PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND ASSOCIATED COMPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Moreno, Ana; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Kyriakos, Georgios; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Urioste-Fondo, Ana; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la radiacion de los tumores de la cavidad pelvica puede provocar mucositis a nivel intestinal. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue determinar la prevalencia, los factores de riesgo y las complicaciones de la enteritis radica cronica en los pacientes tratados con radioterapia pelvica. Pacientes y métodos: estudio transversal sobre 150 pacientes tratados con radioterapia pelvica durante el ano 2008 debido a un cancer de prostata, cervix, endometrio o recto. Se interrogo a los pacientes sobre la presencia de sintomas sugestivos de enteritis y sobre cambios en el peso habitual y modificaciones en su dieta. Los parametros considerados como posibles factores de riesgo de enteritis cronica (sexo, edad, tratamiento antitumoral, enteritis aguda previa y tipo de tumor) se analizaron con metodos univariantes y multivariantes. Resultados: el estudio incluyo finalmente a 100 pacientes, el 84% varones, con una mediana de edad de 72,3 anos. Se encontro una prevalencia de enteritis radica cronica del 20%, en la mayoria de grado 1 (45%). Por otra parte, el 10% referian una perdida de peso ≥ 5 kg, el 3% habian requerido hospitalizacion debido a diarrea incoercible o a obstruccion intestinal, y el 11% habian modificado su patron de alimentacion habitual, reduciendo principalmente el consumo de verduras, legumbres y dulces. Se encontro asociacion entre la enteritis radica cronica y el sexo masculino, la edad, la enteritis radica aguda previa y la quimioterapia, pero solo esta resulto asociarse de forma independiente con el desarrollo de enteritis radica cronica despues del analisis multivariante (OR = 3,59 [95% CI 1,20–10,73]). Conclusión: la enteritis cronica es una entidad frecuente en los pacientes tratados con radioterapia pelvica, sobre todo cuando se asocia con quimioterapia. La tasa de complicaciones por esta patologia es baja, pero un numero importante de pacientes realiza modificaciones en su dieta habitual para aliviar o evitar la sintomatologia derivada

  4. 75 FR 51876 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1041-ES

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...; Comment Request for Form 1041-ES AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and... comments concerning Form 1041-ES, Estimated Income Tax for Estates and Trusts. DATES: Written comments... Trusts. OMB Number: 1545-0971. [[Page 51877

  5. 76 FR 44906 - Foremost 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog; Amended Cancellation Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog; Amended Cancellation Order AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...), of an amended cancellation order for the pesticide product Foremost 4809-ES Insect-O-Fog, a pesticide product containing Piperonyl Butoxide and Pyrethrins. The registrant of Foremost 4809-ES...

  6. 78 FR 58607 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1041-ES

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1041-ES AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1041-ES, Estimated Income Tax... Income Tax for Estates and Trusts. OMB Number: 1545-0971. Form Number: Form 1041-ES. Abstract:...

  7. 75 FR 4759 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Manufacturing (Import) Exemption for Veolia ES Technical Solutions, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Veolia ES Technical Solutions, LLC AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Withdrawal of proposed rule. SUMMARY: On November 14, 2006, Veolia ES Technical Solutions, LLC, (Veolia) submitted a... Veolia ES Technical Solutions, LLC. ] Since that time, Veolia submitted a request to withdraw...

  8. Homicide death in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 2005.

    PubMed

    Outwater, Anne H; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Mgaya, Edward; Abraham, Alison G; Kinabo, Linna; Kazaura, Method; Kub, Joan

    2008-12-01

    Violence disproportionately affects low- and middle-income countries. Deeper understanding is needed in areas where little research has occurred. The objectives of the study were to: (a) ascertain rate of homicide death; (b) describe the victims and circumstances surrounding their deaths in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania in 2005. This study was developed by adapting the WHO/CDC Injury Surveillance Guidelines (Holder et al., 2001). Data on 12 variables were collected on all homicide deaths. Descriptive statistics and hypothesis tests were done when appropriate. Age standardised, age-specific and cause-specific mortality rates are presented. The overall homicide rate was 12.57 (males and females respectively: 22.26 and 2.64). Homicide deaths were 93.4% male, mostly unemployed, with a mean age of 28.2 years. Most deaths occurred in urban areas. Mob violence was the cause of 57% of deaths. The risk of homicide death for males was greater than the world average, but for females it was less. Most homicides were committed by community members policing against thieves.

  9. ES cell technology: an introduction to genetic manipulation, differentiation and therapeutic cloning.

    PubMed

    Hook, Lilian; O'Brien, Carmel; Allsopp, Timothy

    2005-12-12

    ES cells are extraordinary cells, capable of proliferating in a pluripotent state indefinitely and of differentiating spontaneously into all cell types in vivo and many in vitro. However, the manipulation and modification of ES cells by processes such as directed differentiation and genetic modification have placed ES cells at the forefront of many biological studies and could lead to their application in biopharmaceutical areas such as cellular therapy and drug screening. Here we describe some of the ES cell based technologies that have lead to this realisation of ES cell potential.

  10. Capteurs à ondes élastiques guidées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, D.; Dieulesaint, E.; Legras, O.

    1992-01-01

    The sensors described here have been studied in our laboratory. The industrial development of some of them is now in progress. They exploit the properties of elastic waves propagating, according to a chosen mode, in a plate or in a cylinder. The sensors comprising a plate are a graphic tablet, a map coordinate resolver, a touch screen and a liquid presence detector. The sensors comprising a cylinder are a liquid presence detector and a liquid level sensor. Before describing these devices, we comment on the dispersion curves and express the attenuation factor for guided waves in presence of a liquid. Les capteurs présentés dont certains sont en cours de développement industriel ont été étudiés dans notre laboratoire. Ils exploitent les propriétés d'ondes élastiques se propageant, suivant un mode choisi, dans une plaque ou un cylindre. Les capteurs comprenant une plaque sont une tablette de saisie de graphiques, un coordinomètre, un écran tactile et un détecteur de la présence d'un liquide, les capteurs comprenant un cylindre ou un tube sont un détecteur de présence et un jaugeur du niveau d'un liquide. Avant de les décrire, nous commentons les courbes de dispersion et calculons le coefficient d'atténuation de ces ondes guidées en présence d'un liquide.

  11. Homicide of children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2005

    PubMed Central

    Outwater, Anne; Mgaya, Edward; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Becker, Stan; Kinabo, Linna; Menick, Daniel Mbassa

    2014-01-01

    Background Although data are sparse, it has been estimated that the highest rates of homicide death amongst children are in Africa. Little information is available on ages 0 -< 15 years. No reliable quantitative surveillance analysis of neonaticide (killed at less than one week) has been done. Methods A Violent Death Survey following WHO/CDC Guidelines was completed in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania (DSM) (population 2.845 million) in 2005. Qualitative and quantitative data were gathered and analyzed using mixed methods techniques. Results The overall age adjusted rate of discarded and killed children in DSM was 2.05. The rate of neonaticide was 27.7 per 100,000) while the rate of homicide incidence for children > one day was Discussion The overall estimated homicide rate for Africa of children under age 15 was 4.53 per 100,000, whereas. The estimated global rate is 1.7 per 100,000 closer to DSM‘s rate. The results in DSM show that broad age groupings such as ” <1 year” or “0–4 years” or “0 – <15 years” may mask a high incidence of neonaticide and an otherwise low incidence of murdered children. The print media provided good in-depth coverage for a few cases but it is not known if the reported cases are representative. Conclusion Eighty percent of homicides of children in DSM are neonaticides. Since it is believed that the forces behind neonaticide are fundamentally different than homicides of older children, it is suggested that data of future surveys be parsed to include neonates, until the phenomenon is more clearly understood and addressed. Further understanding of the mother and father of the deceased is needed. Continued surveillance data collection is important to expand the sample size. PMID:22066333

  12. ES and H-compatible lubrication for duplex bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Steinhoff, R.G.

    1997-10-01

    Two ES and H-compatible lubricants (environment, safety, and health) for duplex bearing applications and one hybrid material duplex bearing were evaluated and compared against duplex bearings with trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon) deposition of low molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bearing lubricant extracted from Vydax{trademark}. Vydax is a product manufactured by DuPont consisting of various molecular weights of PTFE suspended in trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon), which is an ozone-depleting solvent. Vydax has been used as a bearing lubricant in strong link mechanisms since 1974. Hybrid duplex bearings with silicon nitride balls and molded glass-nylon-Teflon retainers, duplex bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on races and retainers, and duplex bearings lubricated with electrophoretic deposited MoS{sub 2} were evaluated. Bearings with electrophoretic deposited MoS{sub 2} performed as well as bearings with Freon deposition of PTFE from Freon-based Vydax. Hybrid bearings with silicon nitride balls performed worse than bearings lubricated with Vydax, but their performance would still be acceptable for most applications. Bearings lubricated with sputtered MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers had varying amounts of film on the bearings. This affected the performance of the bearings. Bearings with a uniform coating performed to acceptable levels, but bearings with no visible MoS{sub 2} on the races and retainers did not perform as well as bearings with the other coatings. Unless process controls are incorporated in the sputtering process or the bearings are screened, they do not appear to be acceptable for duplex bearing applications.

  13. Monomer-heptamer equilibrium of the Escherichia coli chaperonin GroES.

    PubMed

    Zondlo, J; Fisher, K E; Lin, Z; Ducote, K R; Eisenstein, E

    1995-08-22

    In an effort to clarify the role of GroES in chaperonin-facilitated protein folding, a plasmid-encoding expression system for GroES incorporating a histidine-tagged, thrombin-cleavable, N-terminal sequence was constructed. This approach facilitated the rapid purification of native-like, histidine-cleaved GroES (HC-GroES). The addition of NaSCN to purification buffers to mildly promote subunit dissociation enabled the complete separation of chromosomally encoded, wild-type GroES chains from recombinant chains, allowing the production of homogeneous mutant variants of GroES. A substitution of histidine-7 to tryptophan in GroES was used to demonstrate the concentration-dependent modulation of the heptameric quaternary structure of the chaperonin. Fluorescence and light scattering studies of this mutant suggest that GroES heptamers dissociate to monomers upon dilution with half-times of 2-4 min. Sedimentation equilibrium experiments using either wild-type or HC-GroES can best be described by a monomer--heptamer equilibrium, yielding dissociation constants of 1 x 10(-38) M6 for native GroES and 2 x 10(-32) M6 for HC-GroES. These results are supported by subunit exchange experiments using mixtures of native or HC-GroES and GroES containing the complete N-terminal histidine tail. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrates that these mixtures form an eight-membered hybrid set within minutes. The studies described here suggest a dynamic equilibrium for the quaternary structure of GroES, which may be an important feature for its role in GroEL-mediated protein folding reactions.

  14. Challenges in diagnosing paediatric malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality. As no clinical features clearly differentiate malaria from other febrile illnesses, and malaria diagnosis is challenged by often lacking laboratory equipment and expertise, overdiagnosis and overtreatment is common. Methods Children admitted with fever at the general paediatric wards at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania from January to June 2009 were recruited consecutively and prospectively. Demographic and clinical features were registered. Routine thick blood smear microscopy at MNH was compared to results of subsequent thin blood smear microscopy, and rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs). Genus-specific PCR of Plasmodium mitochondrial DNA was performed on DNA extracted from whole blood and species-specific PCR was done on positive samples. Results Among 304 included children, 62.6% had received anti-malarials during the last four weeks prior to admission and 65.1% during the hospital stay. Routine thick blood smears, research blood smears, PCR and RDT detected malaria in 13.2%, 6.6%, 25.0% and 13.5%, respectively. Positive routine microscopy was confirmed in only 43% (17/40), 45% (18/40) and 53% (21/40), by research microscopy, RDTs and PCR, respectively. Eighteen percent (56/304) had positive PCR but negative research microscopy. Reported low parasitaemia on routine microscopy was associated with negative research blood slide and PCR. RDT-positive cases were associated with signs of severe malaria. Palmar pallor, low haemoglobin and low platelet count were significantly associated with positive PCR, research microscopy and RDT. Conclusions The true morbidity attributable to malaria in the study population remains uncertain due to the discrepancies in results among the diagnostic methods. The current routine microscopy appears to result in overdiagnosis of malaria and, consequently, overuse of anti-malarials. Conversely, children with a false positive malaria diagnosis

  15. Generation of Hprt-disrupted rat through mouse←rat ES chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Isotani, Ayako; Yamagata, Kazuo; Okabe, Masaru; Ikawa, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    We established rat embryonic stem (ES) cell lines from a double transgenic rat line which harbours CAG-GFP for ubiquitous expression of GFP in somatic cells and Acr3-EGFP for expression in sperm (green body and green sperm: GBGS rat). By injecting the GBGS rat ES cells into mouse blastocysts and transplanting them into pseudopregnant mice, rat spermatozoa were produced in mouse←rat ES chimeras. Rat spermatozoa from the chimeric testis were able to fertilize eggs by testicular sperm extraction combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (TESE-ICSI). In the present paper, we disrupted rat hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (Hprt) gene in ES cells and produced a Hprt-disrupted rat line using the mouse←rat ES chimera system. The mouse←rat ES chimera system demonstrated the dual advantages of space conservation and a clear indication of germ line transmission in knockout rat production. PMID:27062982

  16. Zscan4 regulates telomere elongation and genomic stability in ES cells

    PubMed Central

    Zalzman, Michal; Falco, Geppino; Sharova, Lioudmila V.; Nishiyama, Akira; Thomas, Marshall; Lee, Sung-Lim; Stagg, Carole A.; Hoang, Hien G.; Yang, Hsih-Te; Indig, Fred E.; Wersto, Robert P.; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Exceptional genomic stability is one of the hallmarks of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. However, the genes contributing to this stability remain obscure. We previously identified Zscan4 as a specific marker for 2-cell embryo and ES cells. Here we show that Zscan4 is involved in telomere maintenance and long-term-genomic stability in ES cells. Only 5% of ES cells express Zscan4 at a given time, but nearly all ES cells activate Zscan4 at least once within nine passages. The transient Zscan4-positive state is associated with rapid telomere extension by telomere recombination and upregulation of meiosis-specific homologous recombination genes, which encode proteins that are colocalized with ZSCAN4 on telomeres. Furthermore, Zscan4 knockdown shortens telomeres, increases karyotype abnormalities and spontaneous sister chromatid exchange, and slows down cell proliferation until reaching crisis by eight passages. Together, our data reveal a unique mode of genome maintenance in ES cells. PMID:20336070

  17. Base de données des étoiles doubles et multiples.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblak, E.; Chareton, M.; Dumon, R.; Kurpinska-Winiarska, M.; Kundera, T.

    Les auteurs réalisent à Besançon une base de données de tous les types d'étoiles doubles et multiples. Le traitement des données concerne l'acquisition de nouvelles données, l'examen de celles déjà disponibles, et le développement d'un outil informatique de gestion et d'interrogation à distance de la base.

  18. Overexpression of MCT8 enhances the differentiation of ES cells into neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Mika; Nagaoka, Masato; Yabuuchi, Hikaru; Akaike, Toshihiro

    2007-09-07

    Embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation is regulated by cytokines and growth factors, as well as small-compound chemicals incorporated into cells by transporter proteins. Little is known regarding the effect of transporters on ES cell differentiation. This study focused on the effect of transporters during the neural-lineage differentiation of ES cells. Among the 27 types of SLC family transporters, MCT8 expression was coincident with that of neural stem cell markers, and the overexpression of MCT8 accelerated the differentiation into neural cells. These results suggested that the transporters and their substrates also play a crucial role in the regulation of ES cell differentiation.

  19. ES1 is a mitochondrial enlarging factor contributing to form mega-mitochondria in zebrafish cones.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Takamasa; Wada, Yasutaka; Kawamura, Satoru

    2016-03-01

    Total mass of mitochondria increases during cell proliferation and differentiation through mitochondrial biogenesis, which includes mitochondrial proliferation and growth. During the mitochondrial growth, individual mitochondria have been considered to be enlarged independently of mitochondrial fusion. However, molecular basis for this enlarging process has been poorly understood. Cone photoreceptor cells in the retina possess large mitochondria, so-called mega-mitochondria that have been considered to arise via the enlarging process. Here we show that ES1 is a novel mitochondria-enlarging factor contributing to form mega-mitochondria in cones. ES1 is specifically expressed in cones and localized to mitochondria including mega-mitochondria. Knockdown of ES1 markedly reduced the mitochondrial size in cones. In contrast, ectopic expression of ES1 in rods significantly increased both the size of individual mitochondria and the total mass of the mitochondrial cluster without changing the number of them. RNA-seq analysis showed that ERRα and its downstream mitochondrial genes were significantly up-regulated in the ES1-expressing rods, suggesting facilitation of mitochondrial enlargement via ERRα-dependent processes. Furthermore, higher energy state was detected in the ES1-expressing rods, indicating that the enlarged mitochondria by ES1 are capable of producing high energy. ES1 is the mitochondrial protein that is first found to promote enlargement of individual mitochondria.

  20. In vitro enhanced differentiation of neural networks in ES gut-like organ from mouse ES cells by a 5-HT4-receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Miyako; Misawa, Hiromi; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Kawahara, Isao; Goto, Kei; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Obata, Koji; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2011-03-25

    Using an embryoid body (EB) culture system, we developed a functional organ-like cluster, a "gut", from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells (ES gut). Each ES gut exhibited various types of spontaneous movements. In these spontaneously contracting ES guts, dense distributions of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) (c-kit, a transmembrane receptor that has tyrosine kinase activity, positive cells; gut pacemaker cells) and smooth muscle cells were discernibly identified, but enteric neural networks were not identified. In the present study, we succeeded in forming dense enteric neural networks by a 5-HT(4)-receptor (SR4) agonist, mosapride citrate (1-10 μM) added only during EB formation. Addition of an SR4-antagonist, GR113808 (10 μM) abolished the SR4-agonist-induced formation of enteric neural networks. The SR4-agonist (1 μM) up-regulated the expression of mRNA of SR4 and the SR4-antagonist abolished this upregulation. 5-HT per se exerted similar effects to those of SR4-agonist, though less potent. These results suggest SR4-agonist differentiated enteric neural networks, mediated via activation of SR4 in the ES gut.

  1. Producing fully ES cell-derived mice from eight-cell stage embryo injections.

    PubMed

    DeChiara, Thomas M; Poueymirou, William T; Auerbach, Wojtek; Frendewey, David; Yancopoulos, George D; Valenzuela, David M

    2010-01-01

    In conventional methods for the generation of genetically modified mice, gene-targeted embryonic stem (ES) cells are injected into blastocyst-stage embryos or are aggregated with morula-stage embryos, which are then transferred to the uterus of a surrogate mother. F0 generation mice born from the embryos are chimeras composed of genetic contributions from both the modified ES cells and the recipient embryos. Obtaining a mouse strain that carries the gene-targeted mutation requires breeding the chimeras to transmit the ES cell genetic component through the germ line to the next (F1) generation (germ line transmission, GLT). To skip the chimera stage, we developed the VelociMouse method, in which injection of genetically modified ES cells into eight-cell embryos followed by maturation to the blastocyst stage and transfer to a surrogate mother produces F0 generation mice that are fully derived from the injected ES cells and exhibit a 100% GLT efficiency. The method is simple and flexible. Both male and female ES cells can be introduced into the eight-cell embryo by any method of injection or aggregation and using all ES cell and host embryo combinations from inbred, hybrid, and outbred genetic backgrounds. The VelociMouse method provides several unique opportunities for shortening project timelines and reducing mouse husbandry costs. First, as VelociMice exhibit 100% GLT, there is no need to test cross chimeras to establish GLT. Second, because the VelociMouse method permits efficient production of ES cell-derived mice from female ES cells, XO ES cell subclones, identified by screening for spontaneous loss of the Y chromosome, can be used to generate F0 females that can be bred with isogenic F0 males derived from the original targeted ES cell clone to obtain homozygous mutant mice in the F1 generation. Third, as VelociMice are genetically identical to the ES cells from which they were derived, the VelociMouse method opens up myriad possibilities for creating mice with

  2. Studies of sporadic E (Es) associated with the main ionospheric trough

    SciTech Connect

    Rodger, A.S.; Morrell, C.; Dudeney, J.R.

    1983-11-01

    Sporadic E, or E(s) events under the main F region trough have been confirmed on the basis of ionograms from a vertical incidence ionosonde at Halley Bay, Antarctica. Analyses indicate that E(s) is frequently observable under both the equatorward and the poleward edges of the trough, as well as poleward of it. Before magnetic midnight, E(s) layers whose semithickness resembles those of the normal E layer are common, in contrast to layers seen after magnetic midnight which show the characteristics of thin E(s) layers. A possible explanation of the observed change in the E(s) layer characteristics at magnetic midnight is related to differences in the type and spectra of the precipitating particles. It is shown that the redistribution of ionization by the convection electric field may be important. 40 references.

  3. A Hard X-Ray View of Two Distant VHE Blazars: 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, A.; Costamante, L.; Madejski, G.; Reimer, O.; Dorner, D.

    2008-08-01

    TeV blazars are known as prominent nonthermal emitters across the entire electromagnetic spectrum with their photon power peaking in the X-ray and TeV bands. If distant, absorption of γ-ray photons by the extragalactic background light (EBL) alters the intrinsic TeV spectral shape, thereby affecting the overall interpretation. Suzaku observations for two of the more distant TeV blazars known to date, 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113, were carried out in 2006 May and July, respectively, including a quasi-simultaneous coverage with the state-of-the-art Cerenkov telescope facilities. We report on the resulting data sets with emphasis on the X-ray band and set in context to their historical behavior. During our campaign, we did not detect any significant X-ray or γ-ray variability. 1ES 1101-232 was found in a quiescent state with the lowest X-ray flux ever measured. The combined XIS and HXD PIN data for 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113 clearly indicate spectral curvature up to the highest hard X-ray data point (~30 keV), manifesting as softening with increasing energy. We describe this spectral shape by either a broken power law or a log-parabolic fit with equal statistical goodness of fits. The combined 1ES 1553+113 very high energy spectrum (90-500 GeV) did not show any significant changes with respect to earlier observations. The resulting contemporaneous broadband spectral energy distributions of both TeV blazars are discussed in view of implications for intrinsic blazar parameter values, taking into account the γ-ray absorption in the EBL.

  4. A Hard X-ray View on Two Distant VHE Blazars: 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, A.; Costamente, L.; Madejski, G.; Reimer, O.; Dorner, D.; /Wurzburg U.

    2008-05-02

    TeV-blazars are known as prominent non-thermal emitters across the entire electromagnetic spectrum with their photon power peaking in the X-ray and TeV-band. If distant, absorption of -ray photons by the extragalactic background light (EBL) alters the intrinsic TeV spectral shape, thereby affecting the overall interpretation. Suzaku observations for two of the more distant TeV-blazars known to date, 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113, were carried out in May and July 2006, respectively, including a quasi-simultaneous coverage with the state of the art Cherenkov telescope facilities. We report on the resulting data sets with emphasis on the X-ray band, and set into context to their historical behavior. During our campaign, we did not detect any significant X-ray or {gamma}-ray variability. 1ES 1101-232 was found in a quiescent state with the lowest X-ray flux ever measured. The combined XIS and HXD PIN data for 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113 clearly indicate spectral curvature up to the highest hard X-ray data point ({approx} 30 keV), manifesting as softening with increasing energy. We describe this spectral shape by either a broken power law or a log-parabolic fit with equal statistical goodness of fits. The combined 1ES 1553+113 very high energy spectrum (90-500 GeV) did not show any significant changes with respect to earlier observations. The resulting contemporaneous broadband spectral energy distributions of both TeV-blazars are discussed in view of implications for intrinsic blazar parameter values, taking into account the {gamma}-ray absorption in the EBL.

  5. Development of Side Impact Thoracic Injury Criteria and Their Application to the Modified ES-2 Dummy with Rib Extensions (ES-2re).

    PubMed

    Kuppa, Shashi; Eppinger, Rolf H; McKoy, Felicia; Nguyen, Thuvan; Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan

    2003-10-01

    Forty-two side impact cadaver sled tests were conducted at 24 and 32 km/h impact speeds into rigid and padded walls. The post-mortem human subjects were instrumented with accelerometers on the ribs and spine and chest bands around the thorax and abdomen to characterize their mechanical response during the impact. Load cells at the wall measured the impact force at the level of the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities. The resulting injuries were determined through detailed autopsy and radiography. Rib fractures with or without associated hemo/pneumo thorax or flail chest were the most common injury with severity ranging from AIS=0 to 5. Full and half thorax deflections were computed from the chest band data. The cadaver test data was analyzed using ANOVA and logistic regression. The age of the subject at the time of death had influence on injury outcome while gender and mass of the subject had little or no influence on injury outcome. Existing side impact injury criteria were evaluated such as Thoracic Trauma Index (TTI), Average Spinal Acceleration (ASA), full and half thorax deflections, chest velocity and viscous criterion, and contact force. The analysis results indicate that maximum normalized average half thorax deflection was the best predictor of AIS>/=3 and AIS>/=4 thoracic injury. TTI and upper spine accelerations were also good predictors of thoracic injury. Sixteen side impact sled tests were also conducted with the modified ES-2 dummy with rib extensions (ES-2re) under similar impact conditions as the cadaver tests. The rib extensions were added to the original ES-2 dummy ribs to prevent the "seat grabbing" action of the back plate that was noticed in some side impact vehicle crash tests with the ES-2 dummy. A separate analysis was conducted using the injury response and subject characteristics from the cadaver tests and the physical parameters derived from measurements on the ES-2re dummy in sled tests under similar conditions as the cadaver

  6. Functional evaluation of ES-somatic cell hybrids in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Huseyin; Kim, Kitai; Liu, Jun; Ng, Kitwa; Daley, George Q; Verma, Paul J

    2014-06-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have previously been reported to reprogram somatic cells following fusion. The resulting ES-somatic cell hybrids have been shown to adopt the transcriptional profile of ESCs, suggesting that the pluripotent program is dominant. ES-somatic cell hybrids have most characteristics of pluripotent cells in vitro; however, it remains unclear whether the somatic genome is an active partner in the hybrid cells or simply retained predominately as silent cargo. Furthermore, the functional properties of ES-somatic cell hybrids in vivo have been limited to studies on their contribution to teratomas and developing embryos/chimeras. The extent of their pluripotency remains largely unclear. Here we determined that the somatic genome is actively transcribed by generating ES-somatic cell hybrids using Rag2-deficient ESCs fused to autologous wild-type somatic cells. Rag2 expression was detected during in vitro differentiation, suggesting that the somatic genome follows the correct temporal cues during differentiation. Furthermore, ES-somatic cell hybrids maintain their tetraploid state following 4 weeks of differentiation in vivo and are immune tolerated when transferred into matched individuals. The ES-somatic cell hybrids can efficiently differentiate into hematopoietic precursors in both myeloid and lymphoid lineages in vitro, suggesting that the somatic genome is actively transcribed following cell fusion based reprogramming. However, the ES-somatic cell hybrids showed an altered hematopoietic potential following in vitro differentiation and were unable to show hematopoietic engraftment in a mouse model.

  7. Mc-hES, a novel plasmid carrying human endostatin gene, inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth.

    PubMed

    Xu, B-L; Yuan, L; Wu, J-X; Xu, N; Fang, W-J; Zhao, P; Huang, W-L

    2012-02-01

    Conventional plasmids for gene therapy produce low-level and short-term gene expression. Here, we first created minicircle carrying endostatin (mc-hES) for measurement of transfection efficiency. Compared with pcDNA-hES, MC-mediated endostatin gene transfer in vitro resulted in seven-fold greater endostatin expression levels in transfected cells and inhibited the growth of Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) more efficiently. HUVEC cell migration and tube-formation assays suggested that MC-mediated endostatin gene has significant anti-migration and anti-tube-formation capacity than that in pcDNA-hES. In vivo experiments showed that after transfection, mc-hES inhibited the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenografts. The tumor inhibition rates of mc-hES and pcDNA-hES were 60.8% and 26.9%, respectively (P<0.05). MC-mediated intratumoral endostatin expression in vivo was 2.2-17.9 times higher than pcDNA-hES in xenografted mice and lasted for 20 days. Our results suggest that minicircle DNA vectors might be a promising vector for biotherapy and should be further investigated.

  8. The Carbohydrate-linked Phosphorylcholine of the Parasitic Nematode Product ES-62 Modulates Complement Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Umul Kulthum; Maller, N. Claire; Iqbal, Asif J.; Al-Riyami, Lamyaa; Harnett, William; Raynes, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes manufacture various carbohydrate-linked phosphorylcholine (PCh)-containing molecules, including ES-62, a protein with an N-linked glycan terminally substituted with PCh. The PCh component is biologically important because it is required for immunomodulatory effects. We showed that most ES-62 was bound to a single protein, C-reactive protein (CRP), in normal human serum, displaying a calcium-dependent, high-avidity interaction and ability to form large complexes. Unexpectedly, CRP binding to ES-62 failed to efficiently activate complement as far as the C3 convertase stage in comparison with PCh-BSA and PCh-containing Streptococcus pneumoniae cell wall polysaccharide. C1q capture assays demonstrated an ES-62-CRP-C1q interaction in serum. The three ligands all activated C1 and generated C4b to similar extents. However, a C2a active site was not generated following ES-62 binding to CRP, demonstrating that C2 cleavage was far less efficient for ES-62-containing complexes. We proposed that failure of C2 cleavage was due to the flexible nature of carbohydrate-bound PCh and that reduced proximity of the C1 complex was the reason that C2 was poorly cleaved. This was confirmed using synthetic analogues that were similar to ES-62 only in respect of having a flexible PCh. Furthermore, ES-62 was shown to deplete early complement components, such as the rate-limiting C4, following CRP interaction and thereby inhibit classical pathway activation. Thus, flexible PCh-glycan represents a novel mechanism for subversion of complement activation. These data illustrate the importance of the rate-limiting C4/C2 stage of complement activation and reveal a new addition to the repertoire of ES-62 immunomodulatory mechanisms with possible therapeutic applications. PMID:27044740

  9. The Carbohydrate-linked Phosphorylcholine of the Parasitic Nematode Product ES-62 Modulates Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Umul Kulthum; Maller, N Claire; Iqbal, Asif J; Al-Riyami, Lamyaa; Harnett, William; Raynes, John G

    2016-05-27

    Parasitic nematodes manufacture various carbohydrate-linked phosphorylcholine (PCh)-containing molecules, including ES-62, a protein with an N-linked glycan terminally substituted with PCh. The PCh component is biologically important because it is required for immunomodulatory effects. We showed that most ES-62 was bound to a single protein, C-reactive protein (CRP), in normal human serum, displaying a calcium-dependent, high-avidity interaction and ability to form large complexes. Unexpectedly, CRP binding to ES-62 failed to efficiently activate complement as far as the C3 convertase stage in comparison with PCh-BSA and PCh-containing Streptococcus pneumoniae cell wall polysaccharide. C1q capture assays demonstrated an ES-62-CRP-C1q interaction in serum. The three ligands all activated C1 and generated C4b to similar extents. However, a C2a active site was not generated following ES-62 binding to CRP, demonstrating that C2 cleavage was far less efficient for ES-62-containing complexes. We proposed that failure of C2 cleavage was due to the flexible nature of carbohydrate-bound PCh and that reduced proximity of the C1 complex was the reason that C2 was poorly cleaved. This was confirmed using synthetic analogues that were similar to ES-62 only in respect of having a flexible PCh. Furthermore, ES-62 was shown to deplete early complement components, such as the rate-limiting C4, following CRP interaction and thereby inhibit classical pathway activation. Thus, flexible PCh-glycan represents a novel mechanism for subversion of complement activation. These data illustrate the importance of the rate-limiting C4/C2 stage of complement activation and reveal a new addition to the repertoire of ES-62 immunomodulatory mechanisms with possible therapeutic applications.

  10. Circuit for connecting the Videoton-340 with the ES-1030 as an operator console

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uskov, V. A.; PRYADIN

    1979-01-01

    A system of connection of the Videoton-340 text display to the standard ES-7070 unit, for use as an operator console, partially replacing and supplementing the ES-7070 electric typewriter, is described. The interactions, including the specific instructions, among the Videoton-340, the Consul-260.1 electric typewriter and the ES-7070, which is the means of user access to the unified system of computers, are presented. Users at the Institute of Space Research note the reliability, high information output rate, noiselessness and convenience of the keyboard of the system.

  11. Hyperfine field of einsteinium in iron and nuclear magnetic moment of {sup 254}Es

    SciTech Connect

    Severijns, N.; Kraev, I. S.; Phalet, T.; Tandecki, M.; Traykov, E.; Gorp, S. Van; Wauters, F.; Belyaev, A. A.; Lukhanin, A. A.; Noga, V. I.; Erzinkyan, A. L.; Parfenova, V. P.; Eversheim, P.-D.; Herzog, P.; Tramm, C.; Filimonov, V. T.; Toporov, Yu. G.; Zotov, E.; Golovko, V. V.; Gurevich, G. M.

    2009-06-15

    The angular distributions of {gamma} rays and {alpha} particles from oriented {sup 250}Bk, {sup 253,254}Es, and {sup 255}Fm nuclei were investigated to extract hyperfine interaction information for these actinide impurities in an iron host lattice. The hyperfine field of einsteinium in iron was found to be |B{sub hf}(EsFe{sub lowbar|})=396(32) T. With this value the magnetic moment of {sup 254}Es was then determined as |{mu}|=4.35(41) {mu}{sub N}.

  12. A murine-ES like state facilitates transgenesis and homologous recombination in human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Buecker, Christa; Chen, Hsu-Hsin; Polo, Jose; Daheron, Laurence; Bu, Lei; Barakat, Tahsin Stefan; Okwieka, Patricia; Porter, Andrew; Gribnau, Joost; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Geijsen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Murine embryonic stem cells have been shown to exist in two functionally distinct pluripotent states, embryonic stem cells (ES cell)- and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), which are defined by the culture growth factor conditions. Human ES cells appear to exist in an epiblast-like state, which in comparison to their murine counterparts, is relatively difficult to propagate and manipulate. As a result, gene targeting is difficult and to-date only a handful of human knock-in or knock-out cell lines exist. We explored whether an alternative stem cell state exists for human stem cells as well, and demonstrate that manipulation of the growth factor milieu allows the derivation of a novel human stem cell type that displays morphological, molecular and functional properties of murine ES cells and facilitates gene targeting. As such, the murine ES-like state provides a powerful tool for the generation of recombinant human pluripotent stem cell lines. PMID:20569691

  13. BootES: an R package for bootstrap confidence intervals on effect sizes.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Kris N; Gerlanc, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Bootstrap Effect Sizes (bootES; Gerlanc & Kirby, 2012) is a free, open-source software package for R (R Development Core Team, 2012), which is a language and environment for statistical computing. BootES computes both unstandardized and standardized effect sizes (such as Cohen's d, Hedges's g, and Pearson's r) and makes easily available for the first time the computation of their bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs). In this article, we illustrate how to use bootES to find effect sizes for contrasts in between-subjects, within-subjects, and mixed factorial designs and to find bootstrap CIs for correlations and differences between correlations. An appendix gives a brief introduction to R that will allow readers to use bootES without having prior knowledge of R.

  14. Destructive Testing of an ES-3100 Shipping Container at the Savannah River National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.

    2015-06-09

    Destructive testing of an ES-3100 Shipping Container was completed by the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems organization within the Savannah River National Laboratory in order to qualify the ES-3100 as a candidate storage and transport package for applications at various facilities at the Savannah River Site. The testing consisted of the detonation of three explosive charges at separate locations on a single ES-3100. The locations for the placement were chosen based the design of the ES-3100 as well as the most likely places for the package to incur damage as a result of the detonation. The testing was completed at an offsite location, which raised challenges as well as allowed for development of new partnerships for this testing and for potential future testing. The results of the testing, the methods used to complete the testing, and similar, potential future work will be discussed.

  15. Validation of the protective Ostertagia ostertagi ES-thiol antigens with different adjuvantia.

    PubMed

    Geldhof, P; Vercauteren, I; Vercruysse, J; Knox, D P; Van Den Broeck, W; Claerebout, E

    2004-01-01

    Intramuscular immunization of calves with an excretory-secretory antigen fraction enriched for cysteine proteinase activity (ES-thiol) and QuilA as adjuvant induces a protective immune response against the abomasal nematode Ostertagia ostertagi. The objectives of the present study were to confirm the protective capacity of ES-thiol in combination with QuilA, to test Al(OH)(3) as adjuvant for vaccination against O. ostertagi and to look for correlations between protection and immunological effector responses. Calves(seven animals/group) were vaccinated three times intramuscularly with 100 micro g antigen and/or adjuvant (ES-thiol with QuilA, ES-thiol with Al(OH)(3), QuilA alone and Al(OH)(3) alone) and subsequently challenged with a trickled oral infection of 25 000 infective larvae in total over 25 days. Faecal egg counts in the ES-thiol QuilA group were reduced by 56% during the two-month period of the trial compared to the QuilA control group (P < 0.002). Calves immunized with ES-thiol QuilA had significantly smaller adult worms (P < 0.002) and less eggs/female worm (P < 0.05) compared to the QuilA control group. No differences in egg output, worm counts or parameters of worm fitness were observed in the ES-thiol Al(OH)(3) group compared to the Al(OH)(3) control group. Although the protective immune mechanism against O. ostertagi remains unknown, protection in the ES-thiol QuilA group was associated with high levels of parasite-specific antibodies in the abomasal mucosa.

  16. Chemical redox reactions in ES-MS: Study of electrode reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Feimeng; VAn Berkel, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    The authors previously demonstrated that chemical redox reactions can be used to ionize neutral commpounds for electrospray mass spectrometric (ES-MS) detection. Two different compounds, viz, C{sub 60}F{sub 48} and {beta}-carotene were used to demonstrate the utility of chemical redox reactions with on-line ES-MS for the elucidation of mechanisms of complicated electron transfer reactions and for the kinetic study of electrode reactions in which relatively short-lived intermediates are involved.

  17. Regulation of ES cell differentiation by functional and conformational modulation of p53.

    PubMed Central

    Sabapathy, K; Klemm, M; Jaenisch, R; Wagner, E F

    1997-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines were used to examine the role of p53 during in vitro differentiation. Undifferentiated ES cells express high levels of p53 exclusively in the wild-type conformation, immunoprecipitable by monoclonal antibody PAb246, and p53 was found to be functionally active as determined by its ability to bind DNA specifically and to activate transcription of target genes. Differentiation in vitro resulted in a decrease in the levels of p53 and in a shift in its conformational status to the mutant form, detectable by monoclonal antibody PAb240, with a concomitant loss of functional activity. The presence of functional p53 in the undifferentiated ES cells renders them hypersensitive to UV irradiation, whereas the differentiated cells were resistant to UV treatment. ES cells lacking p53 exhibit enhanced proliferation in both the undifferentiated and differentiated state, and apoptosis accompanying differentiation was found to be reduced. Furthermore, wild-type ES cells undergoing apoptosis expressed functional p53. Expression of the temperature-sensitive p53val135 mutant in wild-type ES cells resulted in a reduction of apoptosis accompanying differentiation when it adopted a mutant conformation at 39 degrees C. These data demonstrate that functional inactivation of p53 allows differentiating cells to escape from apoptosis, and suggest that the conformational switch could regulate the inactivation process. PMID:9321401

  18. Studies of electronic configurations in the emission spectra of lanthanides and actinides: application to the interpretation of Es I and Es II, predictions for Fm I

    SciTech Connect

    Wyart, Jean-Francois . E-mail: jean-francois.wyart@lac.u-psud.fr; Blaise, Jean; Worden, Earl F.

    2005-02-15

    The interpretation of the spectra of free atoms and gaseous ions in the 4f{sup N} and 5f{sup N} periods became less active after critical compilations of energy levels appeared. However, several spectra are still under study and the application of the Racah-Slater and HFR methods to extended sets of configurations leads to revisions and additions. In doubly charged ions of lanthanides, the treatment of configuration interaction by means of effective parameters and by extension of the basis of states are both important. Concerning actinides, calculations of several observables (Lande factors and isotope shifts in Pu I, hyperfine constants, transition probabilities) prove the quality of eigenfunctions. The classification of Es I and Es II has been extended and radial parameters for fine and hyperfine structures have been derived. Level predictions for the next element fermium are supported by parameter extrapolations.

  19. Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) self-assessment guide

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, R.T.; Golden, N.L.; Romero, J.R.; Yesner, S.

    1997-06-01

    This document has been prepared as a guide for conducting self-assessments of ES&H functional programs and organizational (line) implementation of these programs. This guide is intended for use by individuals and/or teams involved in or familiar with ES&H programs and line operations (e.g., the {open_quotes}self{close_quotes}in self-assessment). Essential elements of the self-assessment process are described including: schedule and priorities, scope and approach, assessment criteria (e.g., performance objectives and measures), information gathering and analysis techniques, and documentation of planning efforts and results. The appendices in this guide include: (1) an assessment prioritization process, (2) generic performance objectives for line implementation and for ES&H functional programs, (3) sources for ES&H assessment information, (4) systemic factors (developed for SNL`s root cause analysis program), (5) Lockheed Martin audit questions for management systems, compliance and validation, and specific areas and concerns, (6) DOE facility representatives checklist, and (7) assessment tools and resources developed at SNL and other DOE/Lockheed Martin sites. This document is a product of the efforts associated with the SNL ES&H Oversight Pilot Project conducted from June 1995 to January 1997. This Pilot was part of the overall initiative by DOE to reduce burdensome agency oversight by placing greater reliance on contractor self-assessment.

  20. Uncovering early response of gene regulatory networks in ES cells by systematic induction of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Akira; Xin, Li; Sharov, Alexei A.; Thomas, Marshall; Mowrer, Gregory; Meyers, Emily; Piao, Yulan; Mehta, Samir; Yee, Sarah; Nakatake, Yuhki; Stagg, Carole; Sharova, Lioudmila; Correa-Cerro, Lina S.; Bassey, Uwem; Hoang, Hien; Kim, Eugene; Tapnio, Richard; Qian, Yong; Dudekula, Dawood; Zalzman, Michal; Li, Manxiang; Falco, Geppino; Yang, Hsih-Te; Lee, Sung-Lim; Monti, Manuela; Stanghellini, Ilaria; Islam, Md. Nurul; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Goldberg, Ilya; Wang, Weidong; Longo, Dan L.; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY To examine transcription factor (TF) network(s), we created mouse ES cell lines, in each of which one of 50 TFs tagged with a FLAG moiety is inserted into a ubiquitously controllable tetracycline-repressible locus. Of the 50 TFs, Cdx2 provoked the most extensive transcriptome perturbation in ES cells, followed by Esx1, Sox9, Tcf3, Klf4, and Gata3. ChIP-Seq revealed that CDX2 binds to promoters of up-regulated target genes. By contrast, genes down-regulated by CDX2 did not show CDX2 binding, but were enriched with binding sites for POU5F1, SOX2, and NANOG. Genes with binding sites for these core TFs were also down-regulated by the induction of at least 15 other TFs, suggesting a common initial step for ES cell differentiation mediated by interference with the binding of core TFs to their target genes. These ES cell lines provide a fundamental resource to study biological networks in ES cells and mice. PMID:19796622

  1. Neural conversion of ES cells by an inductive activity on human amniotic membrane matrix

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Morio; Matsumura, Michiru; Watanabe, Kiichi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Osakada, Fumitaka; Takahashi, Masayo; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Sasai, Yoshiki

    2006-01-01

    Here we report a human-derived material with potent inductive activity that selectively converts ES cells into neural tissues. Both mouse and human ES cells efficiently differentiate into neural precursors when cultured on the matrix components of the human amniotic membrane in serum-free medium [amniotic membrane matrix-based ES cell differentiation (AMED)]. AMED-induced neural tissues have regional characteristics (brainstem) similar to those induced by coculture with mouse PA6 stromal cells [a common method called stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA) culture]. Like the SDIA culture, the AMED system is applicable to the in vitro generation of various CNS tissues, including dopaminergic neurons, motor neurons, and retinal pigment epithelium. In contrast to the SDIA method, which uses animal cells, the AMED culture uses a noncellular inductive material derived from an easily available human tissue; therefore, AMED should provide a more suitable and versatile system for generating a variety of neural tissues for clinical applications. PMID:16766664

  2. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation for grid-connected performance of integrated distributed PV-ES systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Z. H.; Li, Q.; Huang, R. W.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, D.

    2016-08-01

    Based on the discussion about topology structure of integrated distributed photovoltaic (PV) power generation system and energy storage (ES) in single or mixed type, this paper focuses on analyzing grid-connected performance of integrated distributed photovoltaic and energy storage (PV-ES) systems, and proposes a comprehensive evaluation index system. Then a multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method based on grey correlation degree is proposed, and the calculations for weight matrix and fuzzy matrix are presented step by step. Finally, a distributed integrated PV-ES power generation system connected to a 380 V low voltage distribution network is taken as the example, and some suggestions are made based on the evaluation results.

  3. Establishment of key grid-connected performance index system for integrated PV-ES system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q.; Yuan, X. D.; Qi, Q.; Liu, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    In order to further promote integrated optimization operation of distributed new energy/ energy storage/ active load, this paper studies the integrated photovoltaic-energy storage (PV-ES) system which is connected with the distribution network, and analyzes typical structure and configuration selection for integrated PV-ES generation system. By combining practical grid- connected characteristics requirements and technology standard specification of photovoltaic generation system, this paper takes full account of energy storage system, and then proposes several new grid-connected performance indexes such as paralleled current sharing characteristic, parallel response consistency, adjusting characteristic, virtual moment of inertia characteristic, on- grid/off-grid switch characteristic, and so on. A comprehensive and feasible grid-connected performance index system is then established to support grid-connected performance testing on integrated PV-ES system.

  4. Chemical Composition of the Planet-harboring Star TrES-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, Alessandro; Yong, David; Carney, Bruce W.; Laird, John B.; Latham, David W.; Torres, Guillermo

    2006-04-01

    We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of the parent star of the transiting extrasolar planet TrES-1. Based on high-resolution Keck HIRES and Hobby-Eberly Telescope HRS spectra, we have determined abundances relative to the Sun for 16 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba). The resulting average abundance of <[X/H]>=-0.02+/-0.06 is in good agreement with initial estimates of solar metallicity based on iron. We compare the elemental abundances of TrES-1 with those of the sample of stars with planets, searching for possible chemical abundance anomalies. TrES-1 appears not to be chemically peculiar in any measurable way. We investigate possible signs of selective accretion of refractory elements in TrES-1 and other stars with planets and find no statistically significant trends of metallicity [X/H] with condensation temperature Tc. We use published abundances and kinematic information for the sample of planet-hosting stars (including TrES-1) and several statistical indicators to provide an updated classification in terms of their likelihood to belong to either the thin disk or the thick disk of the Milky Way. TrES-1 is found to be very likely a member of the thin-disk population. By comparing α-element abundances of planet hosts and a large control sample of field stars, we also find that metal-rich ([Fe/H]>~0.0) stars with planets appear to be systematically underabundant in [α/Fe] by ~0.1 dex with respect to comparison field stars. The reason for this signature is unclear, but systematic differences in the analysis procedures adopted by different groups cannot be ruled out.

  5. Chemical Composition of the Planet-Harboring Star TrES-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, A.; Yong, D.; Carney, B. W.; Laird, J. B.; Latham, D. W.; Torres, G.

    2005-12-01

    We present a detailed chemical abundance analysis of the parent star of the transiting extrasolar planet TrES-1. Based on high-resolution Keck/HIRES and HET/HRS spectra, we have determined abundances relative to the Sun for 16 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba). The resulting average abundance of <[X/H]> = -0.02± 0.06 is in good agreement with initial estimates of solar metallicity based on iron. We compare the elemental abundances of TrES-1 with those of the sample of stars with planets, searching for possible chemical abundance anomalies. TrES-1 appears not to be chemically peculiar in any measurable way. We investigate possible signs of selective accretion of refractory elements in TrES-1 and other stars with planets, and find no statistically significant trends of metallicity [X/H] with condensation temperature Tc. We use published abundances and kinematic information for the sample of planet-hosting stars (including TrES-1) and several statistical indicators to provide an updated classification in terms of their likelihood to belong to either the thin disk or the thick disk of the Milky Way Galaxy. TrES-1 is found to be a very likely member of the thin disk population. By comparing α -element abundances of planet hosts and a large control sample of field stars, we also find that metal-rich ([Fe/H]> 0.0) stars with planets appear to be systematically underabundant in [α /Fe] by ˜ 0.1 dex with respect to comparison field stars. The reason for this signature is unclear, but systematic differences in the analysis procedures adopted by different groups cannot be ruled out.

  6. Detailed Analysis of Starburst and AGN Activity in Blue E/S0 Galaxies in RESOLVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Ashley; Snyder, Elaine M.; Kannappan, Sheila; Norman, Dara J.; Norris, Mark A.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Stark, David; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We identify a population of ~120 blue E/S0 galaxies among the ~1350 galaxies that are targeted for spectroscopy and have measured morphologies in the highly complete REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local Volume (RESOLVE) survey. Blue E/S0s are identified as being early type objects morphologically classified between E and S0/a that fall on the blue sequence. Most (~85%) of our blue E/S0s have stellar masses <10^10 M_sun. Using pPXF, we have measured the stellar velocity dispersions (sigma values) from high resolution 485 - 550 nm spectroscopy for ~15% of the blue E/S0 sample. Using three variations of the M_BH -- sigma relation, this kinematic subsample is estimated to typically host central black holes within the range log M_BH = 4-6 M_sun. Following up on previous suggestions of nuclear activity in the blue E/S0 population, we investigate nuclear starburst and/or AGN activity occurring within the full sample. Preliminary results from cross-checking known AGN catalogs with the blue E/S0 sample have revealed nuclear activity in ~20 of these galaxies based on heterogeneous criteria (BPT line ratio analysis, spectral line broadening, etc.), some of which may not entirely distinguish starburst from AGN activity. In an attempt to break the degeneracy between AGN and starburst activity, we perform detailed spectral analysis for a few of the galaxies with kinematic data. We also consider the viability of alternate AGN detection methods based on L_Edd estimates calculated from the M_BH estimates. This research has been supported by the National Science Foundation through the CAP REU Program (ACI-1156614) and the RESOLVE Survey (AST-0955368) as well as the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program and the NC Space Grant Consortium.

  7. Chaperonins GroEL and GroES: views from atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Mou, J; Sheng, S; Ho, R; Shao, Z

    1996-01-01

    The Escherichia coli chaperonins, GroEL and GroES, as well as their complexes in the presence of a nonhydrolyzable nucleotide AMP-PNP, have been imaged with the atomic force microscope (AFM). We demonstrate that both GroEL and GroES that have been adsorbed to a mica surface can be resolved directly by the AFM in aqueous solution at room temperature. However, with glutaraldehyde fixation of already adsorbed molecules, the resolution of both GroEL and GroES was further improved, as all seven subunits were well resolved without any image processing. We also found that chemical fixation was necessary for the contact mode AFM to image GroEL/ES complexes, and in the AFM images. GroEL with GroES bound can be clearly distinguished from those without. The GroEL/ES complex was about 5 nm higher than GroEL alone, indicating a 2 nm upward movement of the apical domains of GroEL. Using a slightly larger probe force, unfixed GroEL could be dissected: the upper heptamer was removed to expose the contact surface of the two heptamers. These results clearly demonstrate the usefulness of cross-linking agents for the determination of molecular structures with the AFM. They also pave the way for using the AFM to study the structural basis for the function of GroE system and other molecular chaperones. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8889197

  8. The Nature of the Enigmatic 10-Minute Accreting Binary System ES CET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeghs, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    ES Cet is one of the most compact binary systems known with an orbital period of only 10.3 minutes. Our allocated observations with the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite were performed in January and July 2004, with the data being delivered to the PI in August 2004. Preliminary results were presented by the PI in September 2004 and January 2005. We have also secured supporting optical observations of ES Ceti using the Magellan telescopes (November 2004). The team is currently performing a thorough and final analysis of the X-ray, UV and optical data sets with the latest XMM pipeline software and our own analysis packages.

  9. Generation of mouse ES cell lines engineered for the forced induction of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Cerro, Lina S.; Piao, Yulan; Sharov, Alexei A.; Nishiyama, Akira; Cadet, Jean S.; Yu, Hong; Sharova, Lioudmila V.; Xin, Li; Hoang, Hien G.; Thomas, Marshall; Qian, Yong; Dudekula, Dawood B.; Meyers, Emily; Binder, Bernard Y.; Mowrer, Gregory; Bassey, Uwem; Longo, Dan L.; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the generation and characterization of 84 mouse ES cell lines with doxycycline-controllable transcription factors (TFs) which, together with the previous 53 lines, cover 7–10% of all TFs encoded in the mouse genome. Global gene expression profiles of all 137 lines after the induction of TFs for 48 hrs can associate each TF with the direction of ES cell differentiation, regulatory pathways, and mouse phenotypes. These cell lines and microarray data provide building blocks for a variety of future biomedical research applications as a community resource. PMID:22355682

  10. Department of Energy Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment Savannah River Site interim compensatory measures

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, W.E.

    1994-09-15

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recently completed a self-assessment of potential vulnerabilities associated with plutonium and other transuranic materials stored at the site. An independent Working Group Assessment Team (WGAT) appointed by DOE/ES&H also performed an independent assessment, and reviewed and validated the site self-assessment. The purpose of this report is to provide a status of interim compensatory measures at SRS to address hazards in advance of any corrective actions. ES&H has requested this status for all vulnerabilities ranked medium or higher with respect to potential consequences to workers, environment, and the public.

  11. El fenotipo de las mucinas en el esófago de Barrett

    PubMed Central

    Torrado, Julio; Piazuelo, María Blanca; Ruiz, Irune; Izarzugaza, María Isabel; Camargo, María Constanza; Delgado, Alberto; Abdirad, Afshin; Correa, Pelayo

    2011-01-01

    Antecedentes El esófago de Barrett es una reconocida lesión precursora de adenocarcinoma esofágico. Aunque generalmente asociada al reflujo gastroesofágico, los mecanismos patogénicos de la enfermedad no son bien conocidos. El objetivo del presente estudio es explorar la historia natural e identificar marcadores de progreso del proceso precanceroso. Material y métodos Se utilizaron cortes histológicos de 67 especímenes de esófago correspondientes a 14 pacientes con esófago de Barrett, a los que se siguió entre 1 – 9 años. Se clasificaron las lesiones en: esófago de Barrett sin displasia, indefinido para displasia o con displasia. Se evaluó la expresión de diferentes mucinas en las células caliciformes y en las columnares usando técnicas de histoquímica e inmunohistoquímica. Resultados En todos los casos se comprobó la presencia de metaplasia intestinal incompleta. Las células columnares dentro del epitelio metaplásico contenían mucinas neutras. A mayor severidad de la lesión se encontró significativamente menor expresión de sialomucinas en las células columnares (p de tendencia igual a 0,03). En sujetos con lesiones indefinidas para displasia se observó un mayor contenido de sulfomucinas en las células caliciformes (p=0,034) y de MUC2 en las células columnares (p=0,029) que en sujetos con esófago de Barrett sin displasia. Se observó expresión de la mucina intestinal MUC2 y de la mucina gástrica MUC5AC en todas las muestras. MUC6, una mucina de las glándulas profundas gástricas, se presentó ocasionalmente. Conclusión La evaluación de los perfiles de mucinas en el esófago de Barrett sugiere una transición gradual del fenotipo del epitelio metaplásico a medida que la lesión avanza en el tiempo. PMID:21804831

  12. Pharmacokinetics of PEGylated recombinant human endostatin (M2ES) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zuo-gang; Jia, Lin; Guo, Li-fang; Yu, Min; Sun, Xu; Nie, Wen; Fu, Yan; Rao, Chun-ming; Wang, Jun-zhi; Luo, Yong-zhang

    2015-01-01

    Aim: M2ES is PEGylated recombinant human endostatin. In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of M2ES in rats. Methods: 125I-radiolabeled M2ES was administered to rats by intravenous bolus injection at 3 mg/kg. The pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of M2ES were investigated using the trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation method. Results: The serum M2ES concentration-time curve after a single intravenous dose of 3 mg/kg in rats was fitted with a non-compartment model. The pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated as follows: Cmax=28.3 μg·equ/mL, t1/2=71.5 h, AUC(0–∞)=174.6 μg·equ·h/mL, Cl=17.2 mL·h−1·kg−1, MRT=57.6 h, and Vss=989.8 mL/kg for the total radioactivity; Cmax=30.3 μg·equ/mL, t1/2=60.1 h, AUC(0–∞)=146.2 μg·equ·h/mL, Cl=20.6 mL·h−1·kg−1, MRT=47.4 h, and Vss=974.6 mL/kg for the TCA precipitate radioactivity. M2ES was rapidly and widely distributed in various tissues and showed substantial deposition in kidney, adrenal gland, lung, spleen, bladder and liver. The radioactivity recovered in the urine and feces by 432 h post-dose was 71.3% and 8.3%, respectively. Only 0.98% of radioactivity was excreted in the bile by 24 h post-dose. Conclusion: PEG modification substantially prolongs the circulation time of recombinant human endostatin and effectively improves its pharmacokinetic behavior. M2ES is extensively distributed in most tissues of rats, including kidney, adrenal gland, lung, spleen, bladder and liver. Urinary excretion was the major elimination route for M2ES. PMID:26027657

  13. Application of transit timing variation method (TTV) to exoplanet system TrES-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznyetsova, Yu.; Shliakhetskaya, Y.; Matsiaka, O.; Krushevska, V.; Romanyuk, Ya.

    2015-10-01

    On the basis of the original photometric data, the light curves of several transits in the exoplanet system TrES-3 were simulated by Monte Carlo method. Using these curves, the estimates of precise values of mid-transit time were calculated to assess the possibility of finding new planets by timing method in already known exoplanet systems using ground-based observations at small telescopes. More accurate values of the some orbital and physical parameters of TrES-3 system were also obtained including following the planet-star radius ratio (RP/R*), the angle of the planet orbital plane inclination (i).

  14. Integrating ICT into Teaching and Learning at the University of Dar es Salaam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Dachi, Hilary; Raphael, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Since 1985, Tanzania has been undergoing significant political and economic changes from a centralized to a more market-oriented and globally connected economy. The University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) has responded to these changes by reviewing its legal status, vision, and functions, particularly those related to research, teaching, and public…

  15. Students' Experiences and Challenges of Blended Learning at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mtebe, Joel S.; Raphael, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), especially eLearning, have heightened the need for University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) to supplement on-campus face-to-face delivery as well as meeting increased students' enrolments through blended distance learning. Since 2008, the University has been offering three…

  16. Planetary transit observations at the University Observatory Jena: TrES-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raetz, St.; Mugrauer, M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Roell, T.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Hohle, M. M.; Koeltzsch, A.; Vaňko, M.; Ginski, Ch.; Marka, C.; Moualla, M.; Tetzlaff, N.; Seifahrt, A.; Broeg, Ch.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Raetz, M.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on observations of several transit events of the transiting planet TrES-2 obtained with the Cassegrain-Teleskop-Kamera at the University Observatory Jena. Between March 2007 and November 2008 ten different transits and almost a complete orbital period were observed. Overall, in 40 nights of observation 4291 exposures (in total 71.52 h of observation) of the TrES-2 parent star were taken. With the transit timings for TrES-2 from the 34 events published by the TrES-network, the Transit Light Curve project and the Exoplanet Transit Database plus our own ten transits, we find that the orbital period is P=(2.470614± 0.000001) d, a slight change by ˜ 0.6 s compared to the previously published period. We present new ephemeris for this transiting planet. Furthermore, we found a second dip after the transit which could either be due to a blended variable star or occultation of a second star or even an additional object in the system. Our observations will be useful for future investigations of timing variations caused by additional perturbing planets and/or stellar spots and/or moons. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena and the 80cm telescope of the Wendelstein Observatory of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich.

  17. Clinical, Virologic, and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Dengue Outbreak, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mboera, Leonard E.G.; De Nardo, Pasquale; Oriyo, Ndekya M.; Meschi, Silvia; Rumisha, Susan F.; Colavita, Francesca; Mhina, Athanas; Carletti, Fabrizio; Mwakapeje, Elibariki; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Nicastri, Emanuele; Malecela, Mwelecele N.; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We investigated a dengue outbreak in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2014, that was caused by dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2. DENV infection was present in 101 (20.9%) of 483 patients. Patient age and location of residence were associated with infection. Seven (4.0%) of 176 patients were co-infected with malaria and DENV. PMID:27088845

  18. Clinical, Virologic, and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Dengue Outbreak, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014.

    PubMed

    Vairo, Francesco; Mboera, Leonard E G; De Nardo, Pasquale; Oriyo, Ndekya M; Meschi, Silvia; Rumisha, Susan F; Colavita, Francesca; Mhina, Athanas; Carletti, Fabrizio; Mwakapeje, Elibariki; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Caro, Antonino; Nicastri, Emanuele; Malecela, Mwelecele N; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    We investigated a dengue outbreak in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2014, that was caused by dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2. DENV infection was present in 101 (20.9%) of 483 patients. Patient age and location of residence were associated with infection. Seven (4.0%) of 176 patients were co-infected with malaria and DENV.

  19. 29ièmes Journées Franco-Belges de Pharmacochimie: Meeting Report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The “Journées Franco-Belges de Pharmacochimie” is a recognized two-day annual meeting on Medicinal Chemistry that is renowned for the advanced science presented, conviviality, and outstanding opportunities for senior and young scientists to exchange knowledge. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:26593925

  20. 30ièmes Journées Franco-Belges de Pharmacochimie.

    PubMed

    Aci-Sèche, Samia; Buron, Frédéric; Plé, Karen; Robin, Laurent; Suzenet, Franck; Routier, Sylvain

    2016-11-18

    The "Journées Franco-Belges de Pharmacochimie" is a recognized annual meeting in organic and medicinal chemistry known for the quality of scientific exchange and conviviality. Young researchers were encouraged to present their work and share ideas with senior scientists. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report.

  1. Enterprise Systems (ES) Software in Business School Curriculum--Evaluation of Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seethamraju, Ravi

    2007-01-01

    Considering the increasing importance of enterprise systems in business, and their pedagogical value in demonstrating business process orientation and concepts of integration, several universities have incorporated popular enterprise system (ES) software products such as SAP R/3 into their business school curricula. This paper describes an attempt…

  2. How Children Living in Poor Areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania Perceive Their Own Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Pauline; Humble, Steve; Chan, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out with 1,857 poor children from 17 schools, living in low-income areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. All children took the "Student Multiple Intelligences Profile" (SMIP) questionnaire as part of a bigger project that gathered data around concepts and beliefs of talent. This paper sets out two aims, first to…

  3. Reversible Redox Effect on Gas Permeation of Cobalt Doped Ethoxy Polysiloxane (ES40) Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher R.; Wang, David K.; Smart, Simon; Diniz da Costa, João C.

    2013-01-01

    This work reports the remarkable effect of reversible gas molecular sieving for high temperature gas separation from cobalt doped ethoxy polysiloxane (CoES40) membranes. This effect stemmed from alternating the reducing and oxidising (redox) state of the cobalt particles embedded in the ES40 matrix. The reduced membranes gave the best H2 permeances of 1 × 10−6 mol m−2 s−1 Pa−1 and H2/N2 permselectivities of 65. The reduction process tailored a molecular gap attributed to changes in the specific volume between the reduced cobalt (Co(OH)2 and CoO) particles in the ES40 structure, thus allowing for the increased diffusion of gases. Upon re-oxidation, the tailored molecular gap became constricted as the particles reversed to Co3O4 resulting a lower gas diffusion, particularly for the larger gases ie. CO2 and N2. The ES40 matrix proved to be structurally rigid enough to withstand the reversible redox effect of cobalt particles across multiple cycles. PMID:23571730

  4. X-ray Flaring State in the HBL Source 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, Bidzina

    2015-09-01

    The nearby (z=0.048) TeV-detected HBL object 1ES 1959+650 has been observed three times with X-ray Telecope onboard Swift satellite (Swift-XRT) since 2015 August 25 on the basis of our ToO request of medium urgency (see https://www.swift.psu.edu/secure/toop/summary.php).

  5. A High X-ray Brightness State of HBL Source 1ES 0033+595

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, Bidzina

    2015-09-01

    The TeV-detected HBL object of unknown redshift 1ES 0033+595 has been observed six times with X-ray Telecope onboard Swift satellite (Swift-XRT) since 2015 August 30 on the basis of our Target of Opportunity (ToO) requests of low and medium urgencies (see https://www.swift.psu.edu/secure/toop/summary.php).

  6. 30ièmes Journées Franco-Belges de Pharmacochimie

    PubMed Central

    Aci-Sèche, Samia; Buron, Frédéric; Plé, Karen; Robin, Laurent; Suzenet, Franck; Routier, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The “Journées Franco-Belges de Pharmacochimie” is a recognized annual meeting in organic and medicinal chemistry known for the quality of scientific exchange and conviviality. Young researchers were encouraged to present their work and share ideas with senior scientists. Abstracts of plenary lectures, oral communications, and posters presented during the meeting are collected in this report. PMID:27869720

  7. Solar Eclipse Effects of 22 July 2009 on Es-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Chen; Zhao, Zhengyu

    The total solar eclipse of July 22, 2009, was visible from some regions of China and the in-tense Es-layer broke out during the solar eclipse period provided unique chance to study the solar eclipse effects on Es-layer. The ground based high-frequency (HF) vertical-incidence and oblique-incidence backscatter radio systems in Wuhan and two HF oblique receivers located in Suzhou and Huaian respectively were operated to detect the Es-layer. The vertical, oblique and backscatter ionograms of 21, 22 and 23 July were recorded and processed. Initial data analysis shows that the critical frequency of Es, the hop number of the rays transmitted from Wuhan to Suzhou and the Doppler frequency shift of the oblique-incidence waves all increased during the solar eclipse period. These variations are displayed in the paper and explained by the wind-field, which is produced by the air flows from the sunshine region to the moon's shadow.

  8. The hard TeV spectrum of 1ES 0229+200: new clues from Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Costamante, L.; Franceschini, A.

    2009-10-01

    The BL Lac object 1ES 0229+200 (z = 0.14) has been detected by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) during observations taking place in 2005-2006. The TeV spectrum, when corrected for the absorption of gamma-ray photons through the interaction with the extragalactic background light, is extremely hard, even if the most conservative level for the background is considered. The case of 1ES 0229+200 is very similar to that of 1ES 1101-232, for which a possible explanation, in the framework of the standard one-zone synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) model, is that the high-energy emission is SSC radiation of electrons distributed as a power law with a large value of the minimum energy. In this scenario, the hard TeV spectrum is accompanied by a very hard synchrotron continuum below the soft X-ray band. We will show that recent Swift observations of 1ES 0229+200 in the critical UV X-ray band support this model, showing the presence of the expected spectral break and hard continuum between the UV and the X-ray bands.

  9. Child Labour in Urban Agriculture: The Case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlozi, Malongo R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Urban agriculture in Dar es Salaam was found to use child labor of both children with parents of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES). Discusses policy implications and calls for the education of parents of lower SES not to expect an economic contribution from their children's labor, and the education of children about their rights. (LZ)

  10. A new strategy of gene trapping in ES cells using 3'RACE.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, M; Yagi, T; Furuta, Y; Takayanagi, K; Kominami, R; Takeda, N; Tokunaga, T; Chiba, J; Ikawa, Y; Aizawa, S

    1995-07-01

    "Gene trapping" in embryonic stem (ES) cells is a novel approach to identify a series of genes in mammals concomitant with the production of the corresponding mutant mice. However, this approach is currently unable to identify genes that are not expressed in ES cells. Here we describe a strategy to identify gene trapping clones which is not based on expression of a reporter gene. It uses the neor gene which lacks a polyadenylation signal and has a splice donor signal. Expression of the neor gene as fusion transcripts with the 3' end containing the polyadenylation signal of tagged genes allows the identification of these clones by 3' rapid amplification of the cDNA end in undifferentiated ES cells, even if the genes are not expressed in ES cells. Amplification was observed in about 25% of G418-resistant clones. Sequence analyses suggested the amplifications represent gene trapping events. The feasibility of this approach was further assessed by analysing one clone, PAT-12, in detail.

  11. A parallel circuit of LIF signalling pathways maintains pluripotency of mouse ES cells.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Hitoshi; Ogawa, Kazuya; Shimosato, Daisuke; Adachi, Kenjiro

    2009-07-02

    The cytokine leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) integrates signals into mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells to maintain pluripotency. Although the Jak-Stat3 pathway is essential and sufficient to mediate LIF signals, it is still unclear how these signals are linked to the core circuitry of pluripotency-associated transcription factors, consisting of Oct3/4 (also called Pou5f1), Sox2 and Nanog. Here we show that two LIF signalling pathways are each connected to the core circuitry via different transcription factors. In mouse ES cells, Klf4 is mainly activated by the Jak-Stat3 pathway and preferentially activates Sox2, whereas Tbx3 is preferentially regulated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase-Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and predominantly stimulates Nanog. In the absence of LIF, artificial expression of Klf4 or Tbx3 is sufficient to maintain pluripotency while maintaining the expression of Oct3/4. Notably, overexpression of Nanog supports LIF-independent self-renewal of mouse ES cells in the absence of Klf4 and Tbx3 activity. Therefore, Klf4 and Tbx3 are involved in mediating LIF signalling to the core circuitry but are not directly associated with the maintenance of pluripotency, because ES cells keep pluripotency without their expression in the particular context.

  12. Practical aspects of the use of intrathecal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Jiménez, Raquel; Espuny-Miró, Alberto; Cárceles Rodríguez, Carlos; Díaz-Carrasco, María Sacramento

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: La quimioterapia intratecal es utilizada frecuentemente, en la practica clinica, para el tratamiento y prevencion de la meningitis neoplasica. A pesar de su uso extendido, existe poca informacion acerca de aspectos practicos tales como el volumen de farmaco a administrar o la forma de preparacion y administracion. Objetivo: Realizar una revision de la literatura acerca de aspectos practicos de la utilizacion de la quimioterapia intratecal.

  13. ES2 neck injury assessment reference values for lateral loading in side facing seats.

    PubMed

    Philippens, M; Wismans, J; Forbes, P A; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Soltis, S J

    2009-11-01

    Injury assessment reference values (IARV) predicting neck injuries are currently not available for side facing seated aircraft passengers in crash conditions. The aircraft impact scenario results in inertial loading of the head and neck, a condition known to be inherently different from common automotive side impact conditions as crash pulse and seating configurations are different. The objective of this study is to develop these IARV for the European Side Impact Dummy-2 (ES-2) previously selected by the US-FAA as the most suitable ATD for evaluating side facing aircraft seats. The development of the IARV is an extended analysis of previously published PMHS neck loads by identifying the most likely injury scenarios, comparing head-neck kinematics and neck loads of the ES2 versus PMHS, and development of injury risk curves for the ES2. The ES2 showed a similar kinematic response as the PMHS, particularly during the loading phase. The ES2 exhibited a stiffer response than the PMHS in the thoracic region, resulting in a faster rebound and smaller excursions in the vertical direction. Neck loads were consistent with results from previous authors and served as the basis for the ES2 neck injury risk curve developed here. Regression analysis of the previously published PMHS neck loads indicated that the tension force at the occipital condyles was the only neck load component with a significant correlation (Pearson r2 = 0.9158) to AIS3+ classified injuries. Tension force in the ES2 upper neck showed a weaker but still significant correlation with injury severity (r2 = 0.72) and is proposed to be used as an IARV with a tolerance of 2094 N for 50% AIS3+ risk. Although the prime focus of this study is on loading conditions typical in an aircraft crash environment, it is expected that the proposed IARV's can be used as an extension of typical automotive conditions, particularly for military vehicles and public transport applications where side facing upright seating

  14. Towards saturation of the electron-capture delayed fission probability: The new isotopes 240Es and 236Bk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konki, J.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Block, M.; Briselet, R.; Cox, D. M.; Dasgupta, M.; Di Nitto, A.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Grahn, T.; Hauschild, K.; Herzán, A.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hinde, D. J.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Jäger, E.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Leino, M.; Lommel, B.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Luong, D. H.; Mallaburn, M.; Nishio, K.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Rezynkina, K.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.; Sulignano, B.; Theisen, Ch.; Ward, A.; Yakushev, A.; Yakusheva, V.

    2017-01-01

    The new neutron-deficient nuclei 240Es and 236Bk were synthesised at the gas-filled recoil separator RITU. They were identified by their radioactive decay chains starting from 240Es produced in the fusion-evaporation reaction 209Bi(34S,3n)240Es. Half-lives of 6 (2)s and 22-6+13s were obtained for 240Es and 236Bk, respectively. Two groups of α particles with energies Eα = 8.19 (3)MeV and 8.09 (3)MeV were unambiguously assigned to 240Es. Electron-capture delayed fission branches with probabilities of 0.16 (6) and 0.04 (2) were measured for 240Es and 236Bk, respectively. These new data show a continuation of the exponential increase of ECDF probabilities in more neutron-deficient isotopes.

  15. Easy assessment of ES cell clone potency for chimeric development and germ-line competency by an optimized aggregation method.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, G; Yamamoto, Y; Yoshida, K; Suzuki, Y; Osuka, S; Nakano, Y; Morita, T; Takeda, J

    1999-05-13

    Production of germ-line competent chimeric mice from embryonic stem (ES) cells is an inevitable step in establishing gene-manipulated mouse lineages. A common method used for creating chimeric mice is the injection of ES cells into the blastocoelic cavity (blastocyst injection). The aggregation method is an alternative way to introduce ES cells to the host embryo which is less difficult than blastocyst injection. Here we re-examined the condition of embryo-ES cell coculture on the aggregation method and found improvement of germ-line competent chimeric production by a simple modification of the coculture medium. Moreover, R1 ES cell and its 10 gene-manipulated subclones were tested by this method. Although all ES cell clones showed good morphology and a normal karyotype, the efficiency of chimeric development and germ-line transmission varied among clones and were classified into three grades according to germ-line competency. In the first group (class A), both the incidence of chimera with high ES cell contribution and the rate of germ-line transmission were fairly high. Germ-line competent chimeras were obtained but with rather low efficiency in the second group (class B), while another group (class C) showed an absence of high ES cell-contributed chimeras and no germ-line transmission. These results suggest the usefulness of this modified aggregation method to predict the potency of ES cell clones for germ-line competency.

  16. Flight Test Results of VDL-3, 1090ES, and UAT Datalinks for Weather Information Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James

    2006-01-01

    This presentation describes final test results for the Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) program at the NASA Glenn Research Center on flight testing of the 1090 Extended Squitter (1090ES), VDL Mode 3, and Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) data links as a medium for weather data exchange. It presents an architectural description of the use of 1090ES to meet the program objectives of sending turbulence information, the use of VDL Mode 3 to send graphical weather images, and the use of UAT for transmitting weather sensor data. This presentation provides a high level definition of the changes made to both avionics and ground-based receivers as well as the ground infrastructure used to support flight testing and future implementation. Summary of results from flight tests of these datalinks will also be presented.

  17. Live-Cell Chromosome Dynamics and Outcome of X Chromosome Pairing Events during ES Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Masui, Osamu; Bonnet, Isabelle; Le Baccon, Patricia; Brito, Isabel; Pollex, Tim; Murphy, Niall; Hupé, Philippe; Barillot, Emmanuel; Belmont, Andrew S.; Heard, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Summary Random X inactivation represents a paradigm for monoallelic gene regulation during early ES cell differentiation. In mice, the choice of X chromosome to inactivate in XX cells is ensured by monoallelic regulation of Xist RNA via its antisense transcription unit Tsix/Xite. Homologous pairing events have been proposed to underlie asymmetric Tsix expression, but direct evidence has been lacking owing to their dynamic and transient nature. Here we investigate the live-cell dynamics and outcome of Tsix pairing in differentiating mouse ES cells. We find an overall increase in genome dynamics including the Xics during early differentiation. During pairing, however, Xic loci show markedly reduced movements. Upon separation, Tsix expression becomes transiently monoallelic, providing a window of opportunity for monoallelic Xist upregulation. Our findings reveal the spatiotemporal choreography of the X chromosomes during early differentiation and indicate a direct role for pairing in facilitating symmetry-breaking and monoallelic regulation of Xist during random X inactivation. PMID:21529716

  18. Actinide cross sections from the reaction of sup 13 C with sup 254 Es sup g

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, K.J.; Lougheed, R.W.; Dougan, R.J.; Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Summerer, K.; Hahn, R.L.; Aarle, J.v.; Bethune, G.R. )

    1990-01-01

    We have measured cross sections for the formation of actinide transfer products in the reaction of 72-MeV {sup 13}C projectiles with {sup 254}Es{sup {ital g}} targets. The pattern of nuclide yields is similar to those observed in the reactions of heavier ions with {sup 254}Es{sup {ital g}}. We have constructed the primary element yields from these results and show that the total cross section for transfer reactions is 58 mb. The total reaction cross section is about 300 mb. Lawrencium isotopes are formed with larger cross sections than are consistent with the trends of the transfer-product distributions; we explain this in terms of massive transfer, and model the lawrencium yields with an evaporation code.

  19. Ultratraces of carotenes in tomato purées: HPLC-TLS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luterotti, S.; Marković, K.; Franko, M.; Bicanic, D.; Vahčić, N.; Doka, O.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was designed to provide information about (i) the profile of carotene pigments and (ii) trace quantities of lycopene and β-carotene left in tomato purées. The ultrasensitive method comprising HPLC and thermal lens spectrometric (TLS) detection enabled us to detect as low as 0.3 and 1.1 ng ml-1 lycopene and β-carotene in purée extracts, respectively. Total concentration of β-carotene and lycopene (varying from 3 to 170 ng g-1) in the examined tomato purées may serve as an indicator of the carotene-specific antioxidative capacity of these products. Although conventional spectrophotometry can be used to rapidly assess the quality of products derived from tomatoes, a highly sensitive and selective method such as HPLC-TLS is needed for reliable analyses of samples such as, for example, those subjected to inappropriate storage and/or handling.

  20. Optical and Near-UV Observations of the Transiting Extrasolar Planet TrES-4b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Carter-Thaxton; Turner, J.; Carleton, T.; Crawford, B.; Guvenen, B.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Small, L.; Towner, A. P.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; Henz, T.

    2013-01-01

    Using the Steward Observatory 61” Kuiper Telescope, The University of Arizona Astronomy Club conducted photometric observations of the transiting extrasolar planet TrES-4b as part of the Exoplanet Observation Project. Observations were made in the Bessell U, Harris B, and Harris R filters. Initial observations were made in 2009, with follow up observations in 2011. Basic data reduction and photometry was done using IRAF and determination of transit parameters was done using Transit Analysis Package (TAP) and JKTEBOP transit modeling code. We present an updated planetary mass, radius, density, surface gravity, Safronov number, equilibrium temperature, orbital distance, and orbital inclination for TrES-4b. In addition, we also searched for asymmetries between the near-UV and optical light curves. This project, started in spring 2009, has introduced many undergraduate students to research and given them valuable experience with data reduction and observation techniques.

  1. Cloning mice and ES cells by nuclear transfer from somatic stem cells and fully differentiated cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongde

    2011-01-01

    Cloning animals by nuclear transfer (NT) has been successful in several mammalian species. In addition to cloning live animals (reproductive cloning), this technique has also been used in several species to establish cloned embryonic stem (ntES) cell lines from somatic cells. It is the latter application of this technique that has been heralded as being the potential means to produce isogenic embryonic stem cells from patients for cell therapy (therapeutic cloning). These two types of cloning differ only in the steps after cloned embryos are produced: for reproductive cloning the cloned embryos are transferred to surrogate mothers to allow them to develop to full term and for therapeutic cloning the cloned embryos are used to derive ntES cells. In this chapter, a detailed NT protocol in mouse by using somatic stem cells (neuron and skin stem cells) and fully differentiated somatic cells (cumulus cells and fibroblast cells) as nuclear donors is described.

  2. DETECTION OF PLANETARY EMISSION FROM THE EXOPLANET TrES-2 USING SPITZER/IRAC

    SciTech Connect

    O'Donovan, Francis T.; Charbonneau, David; Knutson, Heather A.; Harrington, Joseph; Madhusudhan, N.; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake

    2010-02-20

    We present here the results of our observations of TrES-2 using the Infrared Array Camera on Spitzer. We monitored this transiting system during two secondary eclipses, when the planetary emission is blocked by the star. The resulting decrease in flux is 0.127% +- 0.021%, 0.230% +- 0.024%, 0.199% +- 0.054%, and 0.359% +- 0.060% at 3.6 {mu}m, 4.5 {mu}m, 5.8 {mu}m, and 8.0 {mu}m, respectively. We show that three of these flux contrasts are well fit by a blackbody spectrum with T{sub eff} = 1500 K, as well as by a more detailed model spectrum of a planetary atmosphere. The observed planet-to-star flux ratios in all four IRAC channels can be explained by models with and without a thermal inversion in the atmosphere of TrES-2, although with different atmospheric chemistry. Based on the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, the chemical composition of the inversion model seems more plausible, making it a more favorable scenario. TrES-2 also falls in the category of highly irradiated planets which have been theoretically predicted to exhibit thermal inversions. However, more observations at infrared and visible wavelengths would be needed to confirm a thermal inversion in this system. Furthermore, we find that the times of the secondary eclipses are consistent with previously published times of transit and the expectation from a circular orbit. This implies that TrES-2 most likely has a circular orbit, and thus does not obtain additional thermal energy from tidal dissipation of a non-zero orbital eccentricity, a proposed explanation for the large radius of this planet.

  3. CHANG-ES V: NUCLEAR OUTFLOW IN A VIRGO CLUSTER SPIRAL AFTER A TIDAL DISRUPTION EVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Judith A.; Henriksen, Richard N.; Wiegert, Theresa; Krause, Marita; Wang, Q. Daniel; Murphy, Eric J.; Heald, George; Perlman, Eric E-mail: henriksn@astro.queensu.ca E-mail: mkrause@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de E-mail: emurphy@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: eperlman@fit.edu

    2015-08-20

    We have observed the Virgo Cluster spiral galaxy, NGC 4845, at 1.6 and 6 GHz using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, as part of the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies—an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). The source consists of a bright unresolved core with a surrounding weak central disk (1.8 kpc diameter). The core is variable over the 6 month timescale of the CHANG-ES data and has increased by a factor of ≈6 since 1995. The wide bandwidths of CHANG-ES have allowed us to determine the spectral evolution of this core, which peaks between 1.6 and 6 GHz (it is a Gigahertz-peaked spectrum source). We show that the spectral turnover is dominated by synchrotron self-absorption and that the spectral evolution can be explained by adiabatic expansion (outflow), likely in the form of a jet or cone. The CHANG-ES observations serendipitously overlap in time with the hard X-ray light curve obtained by Nikolajuk and Walter (2013), which they interpret as due to a tidal disruption event (TDE) of a super-Jupiter mass object around a 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙} black hole. We outline a standard jet model, provide an explanation for the observed circular polarization, and quantitatively suggest a link between the peak radio and peak X-ray emission via inverse Compton upscattering of the photons emitted by the relativistic electrons. We predict that it should be possible to resolve a young radio jet via VLBI as a result of this nearby TDE.

  4. Detection of Planetary Emission from the Exoplanet TrES-2 Using Spitzer/IRAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, Francis T.; Charbonneau, David; Harrington, Joseph; Madhusudhan, N.; Seager, Sara; Deming, Drake; Knutson, Heather A.

    2010-01-01

    We present here the results of our observations of TrES-2 using the Infrared Array Camera on Spitzer. We monitored this transiting system during two secondary eclipses, when the planetary emission is blocked by the star. The resulting decrease in flux is 0.127% +/- 0.021%, 0.230% +/- 0.024%, 0.199% +/- 0.054%, and 0.359% +/- 0.060% at 3.6 microns, 4.5 microns, 5.8 microns, and 8.0 microns, respectively. We show that three of these flux contrasts are well fit by a blackbody spectrum with T(sub eff) = 1500 K, as well as by a more detailed model spectrum of a planetary atmosphere. The observed planet-to-star flux ratios in all four lRAC channels can be explained by models with and without a thermal inversion in the atmosphere of TrES-2, although with different atmospheric chemistry. Based on the assumption of thermochemical equilibrium, the chemical composition of the inversion model seems more plausible, making it a more favorable scenario. TrES-2 also falls in the category of highly irradiated planets which have been theoretically predicted to exhibit thermal inversions. However, more observations at infrared and visible wavelengths would be needed to confirm a thermal inversion in this system. Furthermore, we find that the times of the secondary eclipses are consistent with previously published times of transit and the expectation from a circular orbit. This implies that TrES-2 most likely has a circular orbit, and thus does not obtain additional thermal energy from tidal dissipation of a non-zero orbital eccentricity, a proposed explanation for the large radius of this planet. Key words: eclipses - infrared: stars - planetary systems - stars: individual (OSC 03549-02811) - techniques: photometric

  5. La grossesse chez les hémodialysées chroniques

    PubMed Central

    Doukkali, Bouchra; Bahadi, Abdelaali; Rafik, Hicham; Kabbaj, Driss; Benyahia, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    La survenue d'une grossesse en hémodialyse chronique (HDC) est rare, mais depuis la description du premier cas par Confortini en 1971, plusieurs observations ont été rapportées. L'hémodialyse a considérablement amélioré la fertilité de ces patientes. Nous rapportons l'expérience de douze grossesses survenues entre 1999 et 2014, chez douze patientes d’âge médian 34 ans (22-44), en hémodialyse (HD) depuis 40 mois (3-72), l’âge gestationnel moyen de diagnostic est de 16 semaines d'aménorrhée, la grossesse était compliquée dans 50% des cas par un hydramnios. Le terme moyen est de 35 semaine d'aménorrhée (SA) et l'accouchement a été réalisé dans 90% des grossesses par voie basse. Le poids moyen des nouveau-nés est de 1800g. De telles grossesses sont à haut risque du fait de la fréquence des complications. Elles devraient être contrôlées par les équipes multidisciplinaires, et la consultation prénatal ne devrait pas être négligée. L'objectif de ce travail est de rapporter notre expérience concernant la survenue d'une grossesse chez les patientes dialysées et de la confronter aux données de la littérature. PMID:26113944

  6. CHANG-ES V: Nuclear Outflow in a Virgo Cluster Spiral after a Tidal Disruption Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Judith A.; Henriksen, Richard N.; Krause, Marita; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa; Murphy, Eric J.; Heald, George; Perlman, Eric

    2015-08-01

    We have observed the Virgo Cluster spiral galaxy, NGC 4845, at 1.6 and 6 GHz using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, as part of the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies—an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). The source consists of a bright unresolved core with a surrounding weak central disk (1.8 kpc diameter). The core is variable over the 6 month timescale of the CHANG-ES data and has increased by a factor of ≈6 since 1995. The wide bandwidths of CHANG-ES have allowed us to determine the spectral evolution of this core, which peaks between 1.6 and 6 GHz (it is a Gigahertz-peaked spectrum source). We show that the spectral turnover is dominated by synchrotron self-absorption and that the spectral evolution can be explained by adiabatic expansion (outflow), likely in the form of a jet or cone. The CHANG-ES observations serendipitously overlap in time with the hard X-ray light curve obtained by Nikolajuk & Walter (2013), which they interpret as due to a tidal disruption event (TDE) of a super-Jupiter mass object around a 105 M⊙ black hole. We outline a standard jet model, provide an explanation for the observed circular polarization, and quantitatively suggest a link between the peak radio and peak X-ray emission via inverse Compton upscattering of the photons emitted by the relativistic electrons. We predict that it should be possible to resolve a young radio jet via VLBI as a result of this nearby TDE.

  7. Reducing the time complexity of the derandomized evolution strategy with covariance matrix adaptation (CMA-ES).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nikolaus; Müller, Sibylle D; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel evolutionary optimization strategy based on the derandomized evolution strategy with covariance matrix adaptation (CMA-ES). This new approach is intended to reduce the number of generations required for convergence to the optimum. Reducing the number of generations, i.e., the time complexity of the algorithm, is important if a large population size is desired: (1) to reduce the effect of noise; (2) to improve global search properties; and (3) to implement the algorithm on (highly) parallel machines. Our method results in a highly parallel algorithm which scales favorably with large numbers of processors. This is accomplished by efficiently incorporating the available information from a large population, thus significantly reducing the number of generations needed to adapt the covariance matrix. The original version of the CMA-ES was designed to reliably adapt the covariance matrix in small populations but it cannot exploit large populations efficiently. Our modifications scale up the efficiency to population sizes of up to 10n, where n is the problem dimension. This method has been applied to a large number of test problems, demonstrating that in many cases the CMA-ES can be advanced from quadratic to linear time complexity.

  8. Detection of orbital parameter changes in the TrES-2 exoplanet?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mislis, D.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2009-06-01

    We report a possible change in the orbit parameters of the TrES-2 exoplanet. With a period of 2.470621 days, the TrES-2 exoplanet exhibits almost “grazing” transits 110.4 min duration as measured in 2006 by Holman and collaborators. We observed two transits of TrES-2 in 2008 using the 1.2 m Oskar-Lühning telescope (OLT) of Hamburg observatory employing CCD photometry in an i-band and a near to R-band filter. A careful lightcurve analysis including a re-analysis of the 2006 observations shows that the current transit duration has shortened since 2006 by ≈3.16 min. Although the new observations were taken in a different filter we argue that the observed change in transit duration time cannot be attributed to the treatment of limb darkening. If we assume the stellar and planetary radii to be constant, a change in orbit inclination is the most likely cause of this change in transit duration. Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/500/L45

  9. Study of the decay of /sup 254/Es and /sup 250/Bk

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Yu.S.; Kovantsev, V.N.; Elesin, A.A.; Timofeev, G.A.

    1988-09-01

    The emission spectra of /sup 254/Es and /sup 250/Bk have been studied by the methods of semiconductor alpha, gamma, and x-ray spectrometry. The results of the determination of the intensities of the gamma rays of /sup 254/Es at 63, 85, 290, and 385 keV have been presented: 1.6 /plus minus/ 0.4, 0.16 /plus minus/ 0.7, 0.3 /plus minus/ 0.1, and 0.4 /plus minus/ 0.1%, respectively. The ratio of the intensities of the gamma rays of /sup 250/Bk at 988.96 keV and at 1028.58 and 1031.76 keV has been calculated and found to be equal to 1.113 /plus minus/ 0.0037. The intensities of the x-rays of /sup 250/Bk of the L/sub 3/, L/sub /alpha//, L/sub /beta//, and L/sub /gamma// series form a 6:87:100:21 ratio. The half periods have been determined: /sup 254/Es, 266 /plus minus/ 4 days; /sup 250/Bk, 186.2 /plus minus/ 1.1 min.

  10. Testing small molecule analogues of the Acanthocheilonema viteae immunomodulator ES-62 against clinically relevant allergens.

    PubMed

    Janicova, L; Rzepecka, J; Rodgers, D T; Doonan, J; Bell, K S; Lumb, F E; Suckling, C J; Harnett, M M; Harnett, W

    2016-06-01

    ES-62 is a glycoprotein secreted by the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae that protects against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway hyper-responsiveness in mice by virtue of covalently attached anti-inflammatory phosphorylcholine (PC) residues. We have recently generated a library of small molecule analogues (SMAs) of ES-62 based around its active PC moiety as a starting point in novel drug development for asthma and identified two compounds - termed 11a and 12b - that mirror ES-62's protective effects. In this study, we have moved away from OVA, a model allergen, to test the SMAs against two clinically relevant allergens - house dust mite (HDM) and cockroach allergen (CR) extract. We show that both SMAs offer some protection against development of lung allergic responses to CR, in particular reducing eosinophil infiltration, whereas only SMA 12b is effective in protecting against eosinophil-dependent HDM-induced allergy. These data therefore suggest that helminth molecule-induced protection against model allergens may not necessarily translate to clinically relevant allergens. Nevertheless, in this study, we have managed to demonstrate that it is possible to produce synthetic drug-like molecules based on a parasitic worm product that show therapeutic potential with respect to asthma resulting from known triggers in humans.

  11. The HadGEM2-ES implementation of CMIP5 centennial simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C. D.; Hughes, JK; Bellouin, N; Hardimann, SC; Jones, GS; Knight, J; Liddicoat, S; O'Connor, FM; Andres, Robert Joseph; Bell, C; Boo, K-O; Bozzo, A; Butchart, N; Cadule, P; Corbin, KD; Doutriaux-Boucher, M; Friedlingstein, P; Gornall, J; Gray, L; Halloran, PR; Hurtt, G; Ingram, WJ; Lamarque, J-F; Law, RM; Meinshausen, M; Osprey, S; Palin, E J; Parsons Chini, L; Raddatz, T; Sanderson, M G; Sellar, A A; Schurer, A; Valdes, P; Wood, N; Woodward, S; Yoshioka, M; Zerroukat, M

    2011-01-01

    The scientific understanding of the Earth s climate system, including the central question of how the climate system is likely to respond to human-induced perturbations, is comprehensively captured in GCMs and Earth System Models (ESM). Diagnosing the simulated climate response, and comparing responses across different models, is crucially dependent on transparent assumptions of how the GCM/ESM has been driven especially because the implementation can involve subjective decisions and may differ between modelling groups performing the same experiment. This paper outlines the climate forcings and setup of the Met Office Hadley Centre ESM, HadGEM2-ES for the CMIP5 set of centennial experiments. We document the prescribed greenhouse gas concentrations, aerosol precursors, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone assumptions, as well as implementation of land-use change and natural forcings for the HadGEM2-ES historical and future experiments following the Representative Concentration Pathways. In addition, we provide details of how HadGEM2-ES ensemble members were initialised from the control run and how the palaeoclimate and AMIP experiments, as well as the emissiondriven RCP experiments were performed.

  12. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  13. Assessment of human thermal perception in the hot-humid climate of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndetto, Emmanuel L.; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, is a typical African city along the Indian Ocean coast, and therefore an important urban area to examine human thermal perception in the hot-humid tropical climate. Earlier research on human bioclimate at Dar es Salaam indicated that heat stress prevails during the hot season from October to March, peaking between December and February, particularly the early afternoons. In order to assess the human thermal perception and adaptation, two popular places, one at an urban park and another at a beach environment, were selected and questionnaire surveys were conducted in August-September 2013 and January 2014, concurrently with local micro-meteorological measurements at survey locations. The thermal conditions were quantified in terms of the thermal index of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the micro-scale climate model RayMan. The thermal comfort range of human thermal comfort and the local thermal adaptive capacity were determined in respect to the thermal index by binning thermal sensation votes. The thermal comfort range was found to be well above that in temperate climates at about 23-31 °C of PET. The study could significantly contribute to urban planning in Dar es Salaam and other coastal cities in the tropics.

  14. Fates of donor and recipient mitochondrial DNA during generation of interspecies SCNT-derived human ES-like cells.

    PubMed

    Sha, Hong-ying; Chen, Jing-quan; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Peng-yue; Wang, Pu; Chen, Lu-ping; Cheng, Guo-xiang; Zhu, Jian-hong

    2009-12-01

    To investigate nuclear donor and cytoplast recipient mitochondria fate and their effects on generation of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT)-derived human embryonic stem (ES)-like cells, iSCNT embryos were reconstructed between enucleated goat oocytes and human neural stem cells (hNSCs). A total of 10.74% cleaved embryos (13/121) developed to blastocyst stage. One typical primary ES-like (tpES-like) colony and two nontypical primary ES-like (non-tpES-like) colonies designated as non-tpES-like cell-1 and non-tpES-like cell-2, respectively, were obtained from the inner cell masses of iSCNT blastocysts. The tpES-like cells expressed ESC markers. Both human and goat mtDNA could be detected in the embryos at 2-8-, 16-32-cell, and blastocyst stages, and in tpES-like colony and two non-tpES-like colonies. Human mtDNA copies per cell from embryos at two- to eight-cell stage to the three colonies maintain almost its original level, whereas 2.88 x 10(5) goat mtDNA copies per oocyte decreased to 10.8 copies per tpES-like cell, 493 copies per non-tpES-like cell-1, and 77.6 copies per non-tpES-like cell-2, resulting in 43.75% (8.4/19.2), 1.24% (6.2/499), and 14.63% (13.3/90.9) mtDNA content in tpES-like cell, non-tpES-like cell-1, and non-tpES-like cell-2 was that of nuclear donor, respectively. Human-specific Tfam and Polg mRNA could be detected in cells of the three colonies. However, tpES-like colony failed to be passaged. The mRNA level of CoxIV encoded by nuclear donor in tpES-like cell was higher than that in non-tpES-like cell, but significantly lower than that of human ESC, suggesting proper nuclear-cytoplasmic communication would not be established in tpES-like cells. Thus, the data suggest that (1) goat oocytes could reprogram human neural stem cells (hNSCs) into embryonic state and further support the inner cell mass (ICM) of iSCNT blastocyst to form tpES-like colony; (2) nuclear donor mtDNA could be replicated and maintain its original level during

  15. The peculiar high-mass X-ray binary 1ES 1210-646

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, N.; Landi, R.; Sguera, V.; Capitanio, F.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Malizia, A.; Palazzi, E.

    2010-02-01

    Using data collected with the BeppoSAX, INTEGRAL and Swift satellites, we report and discuss the results of a study on the X-ray emission properties of the X-ray source 1ES 1210-646, recently classified as a high-mass X-ray binary through optical spectroscopy. This is the first in-depth analysis of the X-ray spectral characteristics of this source. We found that the flux of 1ES 1210-646 varies by a factor of ~3 on a timescale of hundreds of seconds and by a factor of at least 10 among observations acquired over a time span of several months. The X-ray spectrum of 1ES 1210-646 is described using a simple powerlaw shape or, in the case of INTEGRAL data, with a blackbody plus powerlaw model. Spectral variability is found in connection with different flux levels of the source. A strong and transient iron emission line with an energy of ~6.7 keV and an equivalent width of ~1.6 keV is detected when the source is found at an intermediate flux level. The line strength seems to be tied to the orbital motion of the accreting object, as this feature is only apparent at the periastron. Although the X-ray spectral description we find for the 1ES 1210-646 emission is quite atypical for a high-mass X-ray binary, the multiwavelegth information available for this object leads us to confirm this classification. The results presented here allow us instead to definitely rule out the possibility that 1ES 1210-646 is a (magnetic) cataclysmic variable as proposed previously and, in a broader sense, a white dwarf nature for the accretor is disfavoured. X-ray spectroscopic data actually suggest a neutron star with a low magnetic field as the accreting object in this system. Partly based on X-ray observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA.

  16. Building trust and confidence in laboratory ES and H policy and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, J.

    2000-08-01

    This report describes a successful pilot event among LANL employees that can see as a model for employee involvement and community input. The conference was designed to begin building trust and confidence in Laboratory policy and practices in the area of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H). It represents a concrete step toward fostering better relationships among Lab employees and creating a new, innovative approach to communication that can also be used to build trust in the larger community. Based on the proven methods of the National Issues Forums and the Jefferson Center Citizen Jury Process, this conference enabled management to learn more about the thoughts and advice of LANL employees, During the course of the day, a random sample of Lab employees representing the LANL workforce learned about issues of health, safety and the environment, and some of the options available to increase trustworthiness in these areas. These Employee Advisors then discussed the options at some length and presented recommendations to senior Lab managers in the role of Decision Makers. At the end of the day, the participants offered their reflections and discussed what they learned during the conference, and Decision Makers responded to what they heard. The most common view expressed by the Employee Advisors was that a bottom-up approach was necessary to develop more relevant ES and H policies. They were unanimous in their desire for more employee inclusion into the decision making process. All Employee Advisors were in support of a Lab wide survey to determine employee concerns about ES and H issues. After listening to the deliberation, the Decision Makers responded with several commitments. The most significant was the pledge to meet with Employee Advisors by the end of February to discuss the status of their recommendations on ES and H policy and practices. The ensuing follow-up meeting explored employee concerns in greater depth resulting in forward-looking action steps

  17. [High-intensity chemotherapy versus palliative chemotherapy in patients over 60 years with acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Medrano-Contreras, Jesús; Talavera-Piña, Juan Osvaldo; Guerrero-Rivera, Susana; Gutiérrez-Espíndola, Guillermo Rodolfo; Gómez-Cortés, Cynthia; Pérez-Rocha, Juan Fernando; Terreros-Muñoz, Eduardo; Meillón-García, Luis Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el tratamiento con quimioterapia intensa (QTI) en pacientes con leucemia mieloblástica (LMA) mayores de 60 años es controversial. En el presente estudio se evaluó la remisión completa y la supervivencia global de pacientes con LMA mayores de 60 años, tratados con QTI o quimioterapia paliativa. Métodos: los pacientes con adecuada función orgánica y ECOG ≤ 2 recibieron QTI a base de citarabina por cinco o siete días más un antracíclico por tres días y terapia de soporte. En caso de lograr remisión completa de la leucemia recibieron uno o dos ciclos de consolidación con citarabina. El tratamiento paliativo consistió en medidas de soporte o quimioterapia oral o intravenosa en dosis bajas. Resultados: del grupo de QTI siete pacientes alcanzaron remisión completa, comparados con uno del grupo de quimioterapia paliativa. La supervivencia global fue de 13.25 meses para los pacientes con QTI y de 3.35 meses para los pacientes de quimioterapia paliativa (p < 0.05). Conclusión: es posible que los pacientes con LMA mayores de 60 años de edad se beneficien de recibir QTI, comparada con la quimioterapia paliativa.

  18. A Spitzer five-band analysis of the Jupiter-sized planet TrES-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Lust, Nate B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Bowman, M. Oliver; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2014-12-10

    With an equilibrium temperature of 1200 K, TrES-1 is one of the coolest hot Jupiters observed by Spitzer. It was also the first planet discovered by any transit survey and one of the first exoplanets from which thermal emission was directly observed. We analyzed all Spitzer eclipse and transit data for TrES-1 and obtained its eclipse depths and brightness temperatures in the 3.6 μm (0.083% ± 0.024%, 1270 ± 110 K), 4.5 μm (0.094% ± 0.024%, 1126 ± 90 K), 5.8 μm (0.162% ± 0.042%, 1205 ± 130 K), 8.0 μm (0.213% ± 0.042%, 1190 ± 130 K), and 16 μm (0.33% ± 0.12%, 1270 ± 310 K) bands. The eclipse depths can be explained, within 1σ errors, by a standard atmospheric model with solar abundance composition in chemical equilibrium, with or without a thermal inversion. The combined analysis of the transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity ephemerides gives an eccentricity of e=0.033{sub −0.031}{sup +0.015}, consistent with a circular orbit. Since TrES-1's eclipses have low signal-to-noise ratios, we implemented optimal photometry and differential-evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms in our Photometry for Orbits, Eclipses, and Transits pipeline. Benefits include higher photometric precision and ∼10 times faster MCMC convergence, with better exploration of the phase space and no manual parameter tuning.

  19. ES4LUCC: A GIS-tool for remotely monitoring landscape dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Battistini, Alessandro; Catani, Filippo

    2012-12-01

    Given the potential impacts of land cover changes on surface processes, accurate mapping of landscape dynamics is a crucial task in environmental monitoring. The use of commercial software for remote sensing of landscape changes requires appropriate expertise in sensor technology and computing resources that are not always available to decision makers. This paper presents the development of an experimental prototype of a lightweight and user-friendly GIS tool - ES4LUCC - a semiautomatic software for change detection and classification of land use/cover. The tool is based on image processing techniques applied on multi-temporal remotely sensed spectral and surface model data. The GIS-based tiling approach allows to non-specialists of remote sensing to manage high-dimensional data even from low performance computing platforms. The paper synthesizes the implemented digital image processing that form the basis of ES4LUCC, including data correction, classification and change detection, map refinements. It also describes the software architecture, the main IDL modules and the integration with GIS through a tight coupling approach and.dll calling functions. The main modelling process is controlled through a powerful GUI developed as part of the ArcMap component of ESRI ArcGIS. The software is tested by using bi-temporal color-infrared ADS40 and Light detection and ranging data acquired on a 80-km transect of the Marecchia river (Italy). The outputs of ES4LUCC give an understanding of the natural- and human-induced surface processes, such as urban planning, agricultural and forest practices, fluvial dynamics and slope instability. The model provides reliable maps (90.77% overall classification accuracy) that represent useful layers for environmental landscape management.

  20. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luciani, Giulia; Sappa, Giuseppe; Cella, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    They are presented the results of a groundwater modeling study on the Coastal Aquifer of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). Dar es Salaam is one of the fastest-growing coastal cities in Sub-Saharan Africa, with with more than 4 million of inhabitants and a population growth rate of about 8 per cent per year. The city faces periodic water shortages, due to the lack of an adequate water supply network. These two factors have determined, in the last ten years, an increasing demand of groundwater exploitation, carried on by quite a number of private wells, which have been drilled to satisfy human demand. A steady-state three dimensional groundwater model has been set up by the MODFLOW code, and calibrated with the UCODE code for inverse modeling. The aim of the model was to carry out a characterization of groundwater flow system in the Dar es Salaam Coastal Plain. The inputs applied to the model included net recharge rate, calculated from time series of precipitation data (1961-2012), estimations of average groundwater extraction, and estimations of groundwater recharge, coming from zones, outside the area under study. Parametrization of the hydraulic conductivities was realized referring to the main geological features of the study area, based on available literature data and information. Boundary conditions were assigned based on hydrogeological boundaries. The conceptual model was defined in subsequent steps, which added some hydrogeological features and excluded other ones. Calibration was performed with UCODE 2014, using 76 measures of hydraulic head, taken in 2012 referred to the same season. Data were weighted on the basis of the expected errors. Sensitivity analysis of data was performed during calibration, and permitted to identify which parameters were possible to be estimated, and which data could support parameters estimation. Calibration was evaluated based on statistical index, maps of error distribution and test of independence of residuals. Further model

  1. ON THE APPARENT ORBITAL INCLINATION CHANGE OF THE EXTRASOLAR TRANSITING PLANET TrES-2b

    SciTech Connect

    Scuderi, Louis J.; Dittmann, Jason A.; Males, Jared R.; Green, Elizabeth M.; Close, Laird M.

    2010-05-01

    On 2009 June 15 UT the transit of TrES-2b was detected using the University of Arizona's 1.55 m Kuiper Telescope with 2.0-2.5 millimag rms accuracy in the I band. We find a central transit time of T{sub c} = 2454997.76286 {+-} 0.00035 HJD, an orbital period of P = 2.4706127 {+-} 0.0000009 days, and an inclination angle of i = 83.{sup 0}92 {+-} 0{sup 0}.05, which is consistent with our re-fit of the original I-band light curve of O'Donovan et al. where we find i = 83.{sup 0}84 {+-} 0{sup 0}.05. We calculate an insignificant inclination change of {Delta}i = -0.{sup 0}08 {+-} 0{sup 0}.07 over the last three years, and as such, our observations rule out, at the {approx}11{sigma} level, the apparent change of orbital inclination to i{sub predicted} = 83.{sup 0}35 {+-} 0{sup 0}.1 as predicted by Mislis and Schmitt and Mislis et al. for our epoch. Moreover, our analysis of a recently published Kepler Space Telescope light curve for TrES-2b finds an inclination of i = 83.{sup 0}91 {+-} 0.{sup 0}03 for a similar epoch. These Kepler results definitively rule out change in i as a function of time. Indeed, we detect no significant changes in any of the orbital parameters of TrES-2b.

  2. Multiwavelength Observations of the Very High Energy Blazar 1ES 2344+514

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Colin, P.; Dickherber, R.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L. F.; Furniss, A.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Toner, J. A.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

    2011-09-01

    Multiwavelength observations of the high-frequency-peaked blazar 1ES 2344+514 were performed from 2007 October to 2008 January. The campaign represents the first contemporaneous data on the object at very high energy (VHE, E >100 GeV) γ-ray, X-ray, and UV energies. Observations with VERITAS in VHE γ-rays yield a strong detection of 20σ with 633 excess events in a total exposure of 18.1 hr live time. A strong VHE γ-ray flare on 2007 December 7 is measured at F(>300 GeV) = (6.76 ± 0.62) × 10-11 photons cm-2 s-1, corresponding to 48% of the Crab Nebula flux. Excluding this flaring episode, nightly variability at lower fluxes is observed with a time-averaged mean of F(>300 GeV) = (1.06 ± 0.09) × 10-11 photons cm-2 s-1 (7.6% of the Crab Nebula flux). The differential photon spectrum between 390 GeV and 8.3 TeV for the time-averaged observations excluding 2007 December 7 is well described by a power law with a photon index of Γ = 2.78 ± 0.09stat ± 0.15syst. On the flaring night of 2007 December 7 the measured VHE γ-ray photon index was Γ = 2.43 ± 0.22stat ± 0.15syst. Over the full period of VERITAS observations contemporaneous X-ray and UV data were taken with Swift and RXTE. The measured 2-10 keV flux ranged by a factor of ~7 during the campaign. On 2007 December 8 the highest ever observed X-ray flux from 1ES 2344+514 was measured by Swift X-ray Telescope at a flux of F(2-10 keV) = (6.28 ± 0.31) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1. Evidence for a correlation between the X-ray flux and VHE γ-ray flux on nightly timescales is indicated with a Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.60 ± 0.11. Contemporaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 1ES 2344+514 are presented for two distinct flux states. A one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model describes both SEDs using parameters consistent with previous SSC modeling of 1ES 2344+514 from non-contemporaneous observations.

  3. Another Very Strong X-ray Flare in 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, Bidzina

    2016-10-01

    The nearby TeV-detected HBL source 1ES 1959+650 (z=0.047) has been observed five times by X-ray Telescope onboard the Swift satellite (Swift-XRT) in the framework of our Target of Opportunity (ToO) requests of different urgencies (ToO Request Number: 8544, 8614, 8623; see https://www.swift.psu.edu/secure/toop/summary.php) which revealed an onset of the third very strong X-ray flare during the last 1 year period.

  4. Department of Energy Nanoscale Science Research Centers: Approach to Nanomaterial ES&H

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-05-12

    The following non-mandatory guidance is intended for the Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs) funded by the Basic Energy Sciences program office under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. It describes practices thought appropriate to the management of environmental, safety and health (ES&H) concerns associated with laboratory-scale operations involving the design, synthesis, or characterization of engineered nanomaterials, In general, it is intended to apply to precursors, intermediates, and wastes used during, or resulting from synthesizing such nanomaterials. In general, it is not intended to apply to materials for which an occupational exposure limit has been established.

  5. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE VERY HIGH ENERGY BLAZAR 1ES 2344+514

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Fegan, S. J.; Aune, T.; Furniss, A.; Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Cannon, A.; Ciupik, L.; Fortson, L. F.; Cogan, P.; Colin, P.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Gall, D.; Fortin, P.

    2011-09-10

    Multiwavelength observations of the high-frequency-peaked blazar 1ES 2344+514 were performed from 2007 October to 2008 January. The campaign represents the first contemporaneous data on the object at very high energy (VHE, E >100 GeV) {gamma}-ray, X-ray, and UV energies. Observations with VERITAS in VHE {gamma}-rays yield a strong detection of 20{sigma} with 633 excess events in a total exposure of 18.1 hr live time. A strong VHE {gamma}-ray flare on 2007 December 7 is measured at F(>300 GeV) = (6.76 {+-} 0.62) x 10{sup -11} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, corresponding to 48% of the Crab Nebula flux. Excluding this flaring episode, nightly variability at lower fluxes is observed with a time-averaged mean of F(>300 GeV) = (1.06 {+-} 0.09) x 10{sup -11} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (7.6% of the Crab Nebula flux). The differential photon spectrum between 390 GeV and 8.3 TeV for the time-averaged observations excluding 2007 December 7 is well described by a power law with a photon index of {Gamma} = 2.78 {+-} 0.09{sub stat} {+-} 0.15{sub syst}. On the flaring night of 2007 December 7 the measured VHE {gamma}-ray photon index was {Gamma} = 2.43 {+-} 0.22{sub stat} {+-} 0.15{sub syst}. Over the full period of VERITAS observations contemporaneous X-ray and UV data were taken with Swift and RXTE. The measured 2-10 keV flux ranged by a factor of {approx}7 during the campaign. On 2007 December 8 the highest ever observed X-ray flux from 1ES 2344+514 was measured by Swift X-ray Telescope at a flux of F(2-10 keV) = (6.28 {+-} 0.31) x 10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Evidence for a correlation between the X-ray flux and VHE {gamma}-ray flux on nightly timescales is indicated with a Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.60 {+-} 0.11. Contemporaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 1ES 2344+514 are presented for two distinct flux states. A one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model describes both SEDs using parameters consistent with previous SSC modeling of 1ES

  6. Hard synchrotron BL lacs: The case of 1ES 1101-232

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Anna; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Tagliaferri, Gainpiero; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Caccianiga, Alessandro

    2001-12-01

    The bright X-ray selected BL Lac object 1ES1101-232 shows a flat X-ray spectrum, making it detectable with high statistics over the wide BeppoSAX energy range. We have observed it in two different epochs with BeppoSAX, and found a variation of the flux of about 30% that can be explained by a change in the spectral index above the synchrotron peak. We present here the data and infer limits on the strength of the magnetic field based on models of emission for High-frequency peaked BL Lacs. .

  7. Dispositifs opto-électropiques à commande par coordonnées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smovge, A. K.

    1994-06-01

    The approach has been explained theoretically and experimentally considering analog coordinate-controlled optoelectronic devices as an alternative to custom potentiometers and variable resistors, whose potentially unreliable element, a wiping electromechanical contact, is eliminated through the use of an optoelectronic conversion principle. The new designs have been proposed and requirements for discrete-continuous photoresistor structure have been determined by using both simple numeric and analytical models for a realization of the coordinate dependence of the output voltage and internal resistance with predetermined accuracy. The new type of optoelectronic coordinate-controlled delay line of millisecond-range pulsed signals have been proposed as well as the design of two-dimensional sensor of displacements. The new method for upgradding the noise immunity, based on the use of the photoconductivity response time dependence from the illuminance have been proposed. Une direction de recherches a été justifiée théoriquement et expérimentalement. Cette étude considère les dipositifs opto-électroniques à commande par coordonnées comme une alternative aux potentiomètres classiques dont l'élément défaillant éventuel, à savoir le contact électrique mobile de frottement, est supprimé par l'emploi d'une méthode de conversion optoélectronique. La nouvelle construction a été proposée et les exigences concernant la structure photorésistance discret-continu ont été déterminées par l'emploi des deux méthodes de calcul numérique et analytique. De nouvelles structures du dispositif de retard des signaux impulsionnels dans la gamme des millisecondes avec une durée de retard réglable à commande par coordonnées aussi bien que du vidéocapteur positionnel bidimensionnel sont proposées. Une nouvelle méthode de l'augmentation de sensibilité de ce vidéocapteur aux obstacles optiques, basée sur la dépendance du temps de la photoréponse du niveau d

  8. Multiple mechanisms of uranium immobilization by Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.

    PubMed

    Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Boyanov, Maxim I; Peyton, Brent M; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin; Apel, William A; Sani, Rajesh K; Dohnalkova, Alice; Kemner, Kenneth M; Borch, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Removal of hexavalent uranium (U(VI)) from aqueous solution was studied using a Gram-positive facultative anaerobe, Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6, under anaerobic, non-growth conditions in bicarbonate and PIPES buffers. Inorganic phosphate was released by cells during the experiments providing ligands for formation of insoluble U(VI) phosphates. Phosphate release was most probably the result of anaerobic hydrolysis of intracellular polyphosphates accumulated by ES6 during aerobic growth. Microbial reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was also observed. However, the relative magnitudes of U(VI) removal by abiotic (phosphate-based) precipitation and microbial reduction depended on the buffer chemistry. In bicarbonate buffer, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy showed that U in the solid phase was present primarily as a non-uraninite U(IV) phase, whereas in PIPES buffer, U precipitates consisted primarily of U(VI)-phosphate. In both bicarbonate and PIPES buffer, net release of cellular phosphate was measured to be lower than that observed in U-free controls suggesting simultaneous precipitation of U and PO₄³⁻. In PIPES, U(VI) phosphates formed a significant portion of U precipitates and mass balance estimates of U and P along with XAFS data corroborate this hypothesis. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of samples from PIPES treatments indeed showed both extracellular and intracellular accumulation of U solids with nanometer sized lath structures that contained U and P. In bicarbonate, however, more phosphate was removed than required to stoichiometrically balance the U(VI)/U(IV) fraction determined by XAFS, suggesting that U(IV) precipitated together with phosphate in this system. When anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), a known electron shuttle, was added to the experimental reactors, the dominant removal mechanism in both buffers was reduction to a non-uraninite U(IV) phase. Uranium

  9. Opacités nodulaires diffuses et calcifiées

    PubMed Central

    Jabri, Hasna; Bopaka, Régis Gothard; Lakhdar, Nawal; Moubachir, Houda; Khattabi, Wiam El; Afif, Hicham

    2016-01-01

    L’adénocarcinome pulmonaire est difficile à évoquer d’emblée devant les données anamnestiques et même radiologiques. Nous rapportons une observation d’une femme présentant une dyspnée avec la radiographie une opacité micronodulaire disséminée, confluente dans les deux champs pulmonaires avec des calcifications par endroit. L’histologie à travers les biopsies transbronchiques a permis de poser le diagnostic. Le pronostic était sombre par le décès de la patiente. PMID:27795800

  10. An In Vitro ES Cell-Based Clock Recapitulation Assay Model Identifies CK2α as an Endogenous Clock Regulator

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Junko; Wada, Masashi; Tsuchiya, Yoshiki; Minami, Yoichi; Watanabe, Hitomi; Kondoh, Gen; Takeda, Junji; Inokawa, Hitoshi; Horie, Kyoji

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported emergence and disappearance of circadian molecular oscillations during differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and reprogramming of differentiated cells, respectively. Here we present a robust and stringent in vitro circadian clock formation assay that recapitulates in vivo circadian phenotypes. This assay system first confirmed that a mutant ES cell line lacking Casein Kinase I delta (CKIδ) induced ∼3 hours longer period-length of circadian rhythm than the wild type, which was compatible with recently reported results using CKIδ null mice. In addition, this assay system also revealed that a Casein Kinase 2 alpha subunit (CK2α) homozygous mutant ES cell line developed significantly longer (about 2.5 hours) periods of circadian clock oscillations after in vitro or in vivo differentiation. Moreover, revertant ES cell lines in which mutagenic vector sequences were deleted showed nearly wild type periods after differentiation, indicating that the abnormal circadian period of the mutant ES cell line originated from the mutation in the CK2α gene. Since CK2α deficient mice are embryonic lethal, this in vitro assay system represents the genetic evidence showing an essential role of CK2α in the mammalian circadian clock. This assay was successfully applied for the phenotype analysis of homozygous mutant ES cells, demonstrating that an ES cell-based in vitro assay is available for circadian genetic screening. PMID:23840637

  11. Body-Art Practices Among Undergraduate Medical University Students in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chacha, Chacha Emmanuel; Kazaura, Method R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Body-art practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. Although substantial data are available in developed countries, little has been documented about body-art practices in developing countries. Objective: To determine the magnitude, types and reasons for practicing body-art practices among undergraduate medical University students in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducteed among undergraduate University students in Dar es Salaam involving 536 respondents from two Universities. We used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data. Analyses were based on summary measures and bivariate analyses. Results: While 7.5% of undergraduate students reported having tattoos, 20% reported having body puncturing or piercing. Body piercing is reported more among female university undergraduate students than their male counterparts. Reported main reasons for undergoing body-art include “a mark of beauty,” 24%, “just wanted one,” 18% and “a mark of femininity or masculinity,” 17%. The majority (98%) of students were aware that unsafe body-art practices may lead to contracting HIV and more than half (52%) reported awareness of the risk of Hepatitis B infection. Conclusions: Despite high awareness of the potential risks involved in unsafe body arts that include tattoo and piercing, these practices are increasing among adolescents and young adults. There is need to have educational and counseling efforts so as to minimize associated health risks. PMID:25814729

  12. ANALYSIS OF KEPLER'S SHORT-CADENCE PHOTOMETRY FOR TrES-2b

    SciTech Connect

    Kipping, David; Bakos, Gaspar

    2011-05-20

    We present an analysis of 18 short-cadence (SC) transit light curves of TrES-2b using quarter 0 (Q0) and quarter 1 (Q1) from the Kepler Mission. The photometry is of unprecedented precision, 237 ppm minute{sup -1}, allowing for the most accurate determination of the transit parameters yet obtained for this system. Global fits of the transit photometry, radial velocities, and known transit times are used to obtain a self-consistent set of refined parameters for this system, including updated stellar and planetary parameters. Special attention is paid to fitting for limb darkening and eccentricity. We place an upper limit on the occultation depth to be <72.9 ppm to 3{sigma} confidence, indicating TrES-2b has the lowest determined geometric albedo for an exoplanet, of A{sub g} < 0.146. We also produce a transit timing analysis using Kepler's SC data and demonstrate exceptional timing precision at the level of a few seconds for each transit event. With 18 fully sampled transits at such high precision, we are able to produce stringent constraints on the presence of perturbing planets, Trojans, and extrasolar moons. We introduce the novel use of control data to identify phasing effects. We also exclude the previously proposed hypotheses of short-period transit time variation and additional transits but find that the hypothesis of long-term inclination change is neither supported nor refuted by our analysis.

  13. Characterisation activities of new NIR to VLWIR detectors from Selex ES Ltd at the UK ATC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezawada, Naidu; Atkinson, David; Shorrocks, Nick; Hipwood, Les; Weller, Harald; Bryson, Ian; Jackson, Malcolm; Davis, Ray P.; Barnes, Keith; Baker, Ian

    2014-07-01

    The UKATC has undertaken to test and evaluate new infrared detectors being developed at Selex ES Ltd, Southampton in the UK for astronomy and space applications. Current programmes include: the evaluation of large format (1280×1024), near-infrared detectors for astronomy, the characterisation of shortwave infrared detectors (up to 2.5μm) for satellite-based earth observation, long wavelength (8 to 11μm) and very long wavelength (10 to 14.5μm cut-off) devices for cosmos applications. Future programmes include the evaluation of large format, avalanche photodiode arrays for photon-level sensing and high speed applications. Custom test facilities are being setup in order to drive and characterise the detectors at the ATC under conditions representative of the applications. In this paper the test facilities will be described along with the associated challenges to evaluate the performance of these detectors. The paper also includes an overview of the Selex ES detectors, including the ROICs and the MOVPE HgCdTe arrays, and will present the latest results from the characterisation program.

  14. Genome-wide nucleosome specificity and function of chromatin remodellers in ES cells

    PubMed Central

    de Dieuleveult, Maud; Yen, Kuangyu; Hmitou, Isabelle; Depaux, Arnaud; Boussouar, Fayçal; Dargham, Daria Bou; Jounier, Sylvie; Humbertclaude, Hélène; Ribierre, Florence; Baulard, Céline; Farrell, Nina P.; Park, Bongsoo; Keime, Céline; Carrière, Lucie; Berlivet, Soizick; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Werner, Michel; Deleuze, Jean-François; Olaso, Robert; Aude, Jean-Christophe; Chantalat, Sophie; Pugh, B. Franklin; Gérard, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Summary ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers allow access to DNA for transcription factors and the general transcription machinery, but whether mammalian chromatin remodellers1–3 target specific nucleosomes to regulate transcription is unclear. Here, we present genome-wide remodeller-nucleosome interaction profiles for Chd1, Chd2, Chd4, Chd6, Chd8, Chd9, Brg1 and Ep400 in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These remodellers bind one or both full nucleosomes that flank MNase-defined nucleosome-free promoter regions (NFRs), where they separate divergent transcription. Surprisingly, large CpG-rich NFRs that extend downstream of annotated transcriptional start sites (TSSs) are nevertheless chromatinized with non-nucleosomal or subnucleosomal histone variants (H3.3 and H2A.Z) and modifications (H3K4me3 and H3K27ac). RNA polymerase (pol) II therefore navigates hundreds of bp of altered chromatin in the sense direction before encountering an MNase-resistant nucleosome at the 3′ end of the NFR. Transcriptome analysis upon remodeller depletion reveals reciprocal mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by remodellers. Whereas at active genes individual remodellers play either positive or negative roles via altering nucleosome stability, at polycomb-enriched bivalent genes the same remodellers act in an opposite manner. These findings indicate that remodellers target specific nucleosomes at the edge of NFRs, where they regulate ES cell transcriptional programs. PMID:26814966

  15. Genome-wide nucleosome specificity and function of chromatin remodellers in ES cells.

    PubMed

    de Dieuleveult, Maud; Yen, Kuangyu; Hmitou, Isabelle; Depaux, Arnaud; Boussouar, Fayçal; Bou Dargham, Daria; Jounier, Sylvie; Humbertclaude, Hélène; Ribierre, Florence; Baulard, Céline; Farrell, Nina P; Park, Bongsoo; Keime, Céline; Carrière, Lucie; Berlivet, Soizick; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Werner, Michel; Deleuze, Jean-François; Olaso, Robert; Aude, Jean-Christophe; Chantalat, Sophie; Pugh, B Franklin; Gérard, Matthieu

    2016-02-04

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers allow access to DNA for transcription factors and the general transcription machinery, but whether mammalian chromatin remodellers target specific nucleosomes to regulate transcription is unclear. Here we present genome-wide remodeller-nucleosome interaction profiles for the chromatin remodellers Chd1, Chd2, Chd4, Chd6, Chd8, Chd9, Brg1 and Ep400 in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These remodellers bind one or both full nucleosomes that flank micrococcal nuclease (MNase)-defined nucleosome-free promoter regions (NFRs), where they separate divergent transcription. Surprisingly, large CpG-rich NFRs that extend downstream of annotated transcriptional start sites are nevertheless bound by non-nucleosomal or subnucleosomal histone variants (H3.3 and H2A.Z) and marked by H3K4me3 and H3K27ac modifications. RNA polymerase II therefore navigates hundreds of base pairs of altered chromatin in the sense direction before encountering an MNase-resistant nucleosome at the 3' end of the NFR. Transcriptome analysis after remodeller depletion reveals reciprocal mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by remodellers. Whereas at active genes individual remodellers have either positive or negative roles via altering nucleosome stability, at polycomb-enriched bivalent genes the same remodellers act in an opposite manner. These findings indicate that remodellers target specific nucleosomes at the edge of NFRs, where they regulate ES cell transcriptional programs.

  16. Casualty Risk Assessment Controlled Re-Entry of EPS - Ariane 5ES - ATV Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, M.-H.; Laine, N.; Aussilhou, C.

    2012-01-01

    To fulfil its mission of compliance check to the French Space Operations Act, CNES has developed ELECTRA© tool in order to estimate casualty risk induced by a space activity (like rocket launch, controlled or un-controlled re-entry on Earth of a space object). This article describes the application of such a tool for the EPS controlled re-entry during the second Ariane 5E/S flight (Johannes Kepler mission has been launched in February 2011). EPS is the Ariane 5E/S upper composite which is de-orbited from a 260 km circular orbit after its main mission (release of the Automated Transfer Vehicle - ATV). After a brief description of the launcher, the ATV-mission and a description of all the failure cases taken into account in the mission design (which leads to "back-up scenarios" into the flight software program), the article will describe the steps which lead to the casualty risk assessment (in case of failure) with ELECTRA©. In particular, the presence on board of two propulsive means of de-orbiting (main engine of EPS, and 4 ACS longitudinal nozzles in case of main engine failure or exhaustion) leads to a low remaining casualty risk.

  17. The use of social media among adolescents in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Constanze; Kleeb, Matthis; Mbelwa, Alice; Ahorlu, Collins

    2014-05-01

    Social media form part of the rapid worldwide digital development that is re-shaping the life of many young people. While the use of social media by youths is increasingly researched in the North, studies about youth in the South are missing. It therefore remains unclear how social media can be included in interventions that aim at informing young people in many countries of the global South about sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents findings of a mixed-methods study of young people's user behaviour on the internet and specifically of social media as a platform for sexual health promotion in Tanzania. The study used questionnaires with 60 adolescents and in-depth interviews with eight students aged 15 to 19 years in Dar es Salaam, and in Mtwara, Southern Tanzania. Findings show that youth in Dar es Salaam and Mtwara access the internet mainly through mobile phones. Facebook is by far the most popular internet site. Adolescents highlighted their interest in reproductive and sexual health messages and updates being delivered through humorous posts, links and clips, as well as by youth role models like music stars and actors that are entertaining and reflect up-to-date trends of modern youth culture.

  18. Detection and characterization of side population in Ewing's sarcoma SK-ES-1 cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Min; Zhang, Rui; Yan, Ming; Ye, Zhengxu; Liang, Wei; Luo, Zhuojing

    2010-01-01

    Dye exclusion is a valuable technique to isolate cancer stem cells (CSCs) based on an ability of stem cell to efflux fluorescent DNA-binding dye, especially for tumors without unique surface markers. It has been proven that side population (SP) cells that exclude Hoechst 33342 dye are enriched with stem-like cells in several cancer cell lines. In this study, we isolated and characterized SP cells from human Ewing's sarcoma cell line SK-ES-1 in vitro. SP cells were detected in SK-ES-1 and comprised 1.2% of total cell population. Only SP cells had the capacity to regenerate both SP and non-SP cells. The proliferation rates were similar between SP and non-SP cells. However, the clonogenicity and invasiveness of SP cells were significantly higher than that of non-SP cells. Further characterization of this SP phenotype presented other properties. SP cells exhibited increased multi-drug resistance and the ATP binding cassette protein (ABC) transporters were up-regulated in SP population. These findings suggest that SP cells derived from Ewing's sarcoma play the critical role in tumor metastasis and recurrence and might be an ideal target for clinical therapy.

  19. Markov propagation of allosteric effects in biomolecular systems: application to GroEL–GroES

    PubMed Central

    Chennubhotla, Chakra; Bahar, Ivet

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach for elucidating the potential pathways of allosteric communication in biomolecular systems. The methodology, based on Markov propagation of ‘information' across the structure, permits us to partition the network of interactions into soft clusters distinguished by their coherent stochastics. Probabilistic participation of residues in these clusters defines the communication patterns inherent to the network architecture. Application to bacterial chaperonin complex GroEL–GroES, an allostery-driven structure, identifies residues engaged in intra- and inter-subunit communication, including those acting as hubs and messengers. A number of residues are distinguished by their high potentials to transmit allosteric signals, including Pro33 and Thr90 at the nucleotide-binding site and Glu461 and Arg197 mediating inter- and intra-ring communication, respectively. We propose two most likely pathways of signal transmission, between nucleotide- and GroES-binding sites across the cis and trans rings, which involve several conserved residues. A striking observation is the opposite direction of information flow within cis and trans rings, consistent with negative inter-ring cooperativity. Comparison with collective modes deduced from normal mode analysis reveals the propensity of global hinge regions to act as messengers in the transmission of allosteric signals. PMID:16820777

  20. Expresiones de afecto de madres bilingües, Bilingual mothers' expressions of affect

    PubMed Central

    Shiro, Martha

    2015-01-01

    En la interacción de 10 madres bilingües con sus hijos de 30 meses se analiza la expresión de afectividad en L1 y en L2. Se identificaron las expresiones de emoción, volición y actitud epistémica en 30 interacciones espontáneas: i. 10 madres (español L1) hablando en L1; ii. 10 madres (español L1) hablando en inglés L2; y iii. 10 madres (inglés L1) hablando en L1. Los resultados sugieren que los usos de L2 difieren de los de L1 (inglés o español): la expresión de volición y actitud epistémica se asemeja al inglés L1, mientras que la expresión de las emociones se acerca al español L1. Estos hallazgos permiten explicar los usos del lenguaje expresivo de los bilingües y ayudan a determinar sus efectos en el desarrollo del lenguaje PMID:25844004

  1. Discovery of very high energy gamma rays from 1ES 1440+122

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Böttcher, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Nelson, T.; Nieto, D.; de Bhróithe, A. O'Faoláin; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Sweeney, K.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2016-09-01

    The BL Lacertae object 1ES 1440+122 was observed in the energy range from 85 GeV to 30 TeV by the VERITAS array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The observations, taken between 2008 May and 2010 June and totalling 53 h, resulted in the discovery of γ-ray emission from the blazar, which has a redshift z = 0.163. 1ES 1440+122 is detected at a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations above the background with an integral flux of (2.8 ± 0.7stat ± 0.8sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 (1.2 per cent of the Crab Nebula's flux) above 200 GeV. The measured spectrum is described well by a power law from 0.2 to 1.3 TeV with a photon index of 3.1 ± 0.4stat ± 0.2sys. Quasi-simultaneous multiwavelength data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (0.3-300 GeV) and the Swift X-ray Telescope (0.2-10 keV) are additionally used to model the properties of the emission region. A synchrotron self-Compton model produces a good representation of the multiwavelength data. Adding an external-Compton or a hadronic component also adequately describes the data.

  2. VERITAS and multiwavelength observations of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 1741+196

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Flinders, A.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Huetten, M.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Brien, S.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pelassa, V.; Petrashyk, A.; Petry, D.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Ratliff, G.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Reynolds, K.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2016-07-01

    We present results from multiwavelength observations of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 1741 + 196, including results in the very high energy γ-ray regime using the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The VERITAS time-averaged spectrum, measured above 180 GeV, is well modelled by a power law with a spectral index of 2.7 ± 0.7stat ± 0.2syst. The integral flux above 180 GeV is (3.9 ± 0.8stat ± 1.0syst) × 10-8 m-2 s-1, corresponding to 1.6 per cent of the Crab nebula flux on average. The multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of the source suggests that 1ES 1741+196 is an extreme-high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object. The observations analysed in this paper extend over a period of six years, during which time no strong flares were observed in any band. This analysis is therefore one of the few characterizations of a blazar in a non-flaring state.

  3. CHANG-ES - VIII. Uncovering hidden AGN activity in radio polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Judith A.; Schmidt, Philip; Damas-Segovia, A.; Beck, Rainer; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N.; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Rand, Richard J.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa; Kamieneski, Patrick; Paré, Dylan; Sullivan, Kendall

    2017-01-01

    We report on C-band (5-7 GHz) observations of the galaxy, NGC 2992, from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies - an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) sample. This galaxy displays an embedded nuclear double-lobed radio morphology within its spiral disc, as revealed in linearly polarized emission but not in total intensity emission. The radio lobes are kpc-sized, similar to what has been observed in the past for other Seyfert galaxies, and show ordered magnetic fields. NGC 2992 has shown previous evidence for AGN-related activity, but not the linearly polarized radio features that we present here. We draw attention to this galaxy as the first clear example (and prototype) of bipolar radio outflow that is revealed in linearly polarized emission only. Such polarization observations, which are unobscured by dust, provide a new tool for uncovering hidden weak active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity which may otherwise be masked by brighter unpolarized emission within which it is embedded. The radio lobes observed in NGC 2992 are interacting with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM) and offer new opportunities to investigate the interactions between nuclear outflows and the ISM in nearby galaxies. We also compare the radio emission with a new CHANDRA X-ray image of this galaxy. A new CHANG-ES image of NGC 3079 is also briefly shown as another example as to how much more obvious radio lobes appear in linear polarization as opposed to total intensity.

  4. [A case report of Ewing's sarcoma with a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/pPNET) in the abdominal cavity].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Chida, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Kenji; Yamao, Yoko; Shiotuka, Kaori; Ritsuno, Hideaki; Awabuchi, Satoshi; Akoshima, Hiromichi; Sugimura, Mikako; Noguchi, Kenji; Tanabe, Nobukazu; Iwabuchi, Masahiro; Mano, Yutaka; Tadokoro, Keiichi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi

    2009-10-01

    In this report, we present a rare case of Ewing's sarcoma with a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/pPNET) arising from the abdominal cavity in a 20-year-old woman. The patient complained of upper abdominal pain. Radiological imaging showed a 15-cm mass penetrating to the proxymal jejunum in the upper abdominal cavity and peritoneal disseminations. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that the tumor was ES/pPNET. Although the patient underwent radiation therapy, she died of the disease two months after diagnosis. ES/pPNET in the abdominal cavity is extremely rare and our case showed aggressive behavior and an unfortunate outcome.

  5. Historique en grandes enjambées de la thermodynamique de l'équilibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertz, J.

    2004-12-01

    La Thermodynamique, une science totalement nouvelle au XIXème siècle, a germé en France en contrepoint des idées du siècle des Lumières, dans le milieu particulier des anciens élèves de l’Ecole Polytechnique, officiers supérieurs formés pour l’armée républicaine ou napoléonienne, mais qui ne trouvaient plus leur place dans l’armée de la Restauration. Ils se convertissaient en ingénieurs civils des métiers industriels en pleine expansion, comme le développement de la machine à vapeur ou des chemins de fer. La plupart d’entre eux, plutôt libre-penseurs, adhéraient aux idées scientistes du « positivisme », véhiculées dans les Loges de la Franc-Maçonnerie du Grand Orient de France et plus particulièrement dans les cercles Saint-Simoniens, premiers adeptes du socialisme industriel. C’est ainsi que naquit en 1824, dans le cerveau subtil mais brouillon de Sadi Carnot toute la vision illuminée de cette science nouvelle, incompréhensible pour ses contemporains. Elle ressuscita en 1834 sous la plume d’un Emile Clapeyron qui avait pris conscience de l’immensité de l’œuvre de Sadi Carnot. Mais le rappel de Clapeyron demeura également sans écho pendant dix années. Le réveil de la Thermodynamique se fera désormais hors de France par des hommes de grande pratique religieuse et généralement protestants. C’est ainsi que William Thomson en Ecosse et Rudolph Clausius, venu de Prusse, achevèrent l’œuvre de leurs deux prédécesseurs et que la Thermodynamique mécano-thermique fut définitivement établie en 1864. La thermodynamique chimique peut être attribuée à un seul génie mathématicien, Josiah Willard Gibbs qui travaillait tout seul au Yale College de New-Haven, dans le Connecticut, et rédigea sa nouvelle théorie entre 1875 et 1878. Enfin l’interprétation statistique du second principe sera l’œuvre en 1877 d’un Autrichien, Ludwig Boltzmann, homme génial mais fragile qui eut le temps d’insuffler ses idées

  6. Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other

  7. 77 FR 42831 - Professional Transportation, Inc.-Asset Acquisition-CUSA ES, LLC and CUSA CSS, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Professional Transportation, Inc.--Asset Acquisition--CUSA ES, LLC and CUSA CSS, LLC AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Correction...

  8. Nuées ardentes of 22 November 1994 at Merapi volcano, Java, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abdurachman, E.K.; Bourdier, J.-L.; Voight, B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuées ardentes associated with dome collapse on 22 November 1994, at Merapi volcano traveled to the south–southwest as far as 6.5 km, and collectively accumulated roughly 2.5–3 million cubic meters of deposits. The damaged area comprises 9.5 km2 and is covered by two nuée ardente facies, a conventional “Merapi-type”, valley-fill block-and-ash flow facies and a pyroclastic surge facies. The proximal deposits reflect the accumulation of dozens of nuées ardentes, with many subsidiary flow units. The distal deposits are more simply organized, as only a few individual events reached to distances >3.5 km. The stratigraphic relationships north of Turgo hill indicate that the surge deposits are a facies of particularly mobile nuées ardentes that also deposited channeled block-and-ash flow facies. They further suggest that the surge facies beyond the channel margins correlate laterally with a finer-grained sublayer locally developed at the base of the block-and-ash flow facies. Eyewitness reports suggest that the emplacement of the block-and-ash flow facies in the distal part of the Boyong river may have followed, by a short time interval, the destruction and deposition of the surge facies at Turgo village. The stratigraphy is in accord with the eyewitness reports. The surge facies was emplaced by a dilute surge current, detached from the same dome-collapse nuée ardente that, as a separate flow unit, subsequently emplaced the distal block-and-ash deposit in the Boyong valley. The detachment occurred at higher elevations, likely at or above the slope break at about 2000 m elevation. This flow separation enabled the surge current to shortcut over the landscape and to emplace its deposit even as the block-and-ash flow continued its tortuous southward movement in the Boyong channel. Dome-collapse nuée ardente activity formed the bulk of the eruption, which was accompanied by virtually no significant vertical summit explosive activity.

  9. Sexual behaviour among youths at high risk for HIV-1 infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwakagile, D; Mmari, E; Makwaya, C; Mbwana, J; Biberfeld, G; Mhalu, F; Sandstrom, E

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate sex specific sexual behaviour in youths visiting a youth clinic for sexual and reproductive health in Dar es Saalam. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of youths between 10 and 24 years of age attending the youth health clinic in Dar es Saalam. The clinical investigation included testing for syphilis and HIV-1 antibodies Results: 1423 youths attended the clinic between September 1997 and August 1998. The study population comprised 213 (53.5%) males and 185 (46.5%) females. 97 (24.4%) were below 20 years. The mean age at coitarche was 16.5 and 17.0 years of age for males and females, respectively. The coitarche was involuntary in 15 females (8.6%). 49.5% males reported more than five lifetime partners compared with 14.1% for females (p<0.0001). Males reported recent partners to be 2.5 years younger, while females reported them to be 5.0 years older. No contraceptive use was reported by 29.7% of the males and 40.3% of females. 52.7% females had been pregnant and 26 (14.1%) reported induced abortions. Genital discharge was found in 69.5% and 73.9% and GUD in 36.6% and 27.1% of males and females respectively. 12 males (5.9%) and 43 females (24.6%) were found to be HIV-1 infected. 13.8% of the females with only one lifetime partner were HIV-1 infected compared with 40.9% with more than five partners (p = 0.028). Conclusions: Many youths in Dar es Salaam engage in sexual behaviours that put them at risk of unwanted pregnancies and STIs including HIV infection. Female youths were more likely to contract HIV infection than males. In African urban areas youth oriented clinics can have a pivotal role in HIV/STI prevention and control Key Words: youth; sexual behaviour; HIV PMID:11463924

  10. Development of laboratory control samples for the ICP-ES determination of nutrient elements in rat tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolnik, Karen A.; Rader, Jeanne I.; Gaston, Cynthia M.; Fricke, Fred L.

    Laboratory control samples have been prepared from rabbit bones and duodenum and from bovine kidney and spleen for use in quality control and development of methodology for the inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES) determination of 9 elements in weanling rat tissues. Analysis by ICP-ES following wet acid digestion was used to characterize these control samples with respect to mineral content and homogeneity. Results of the investigation of alternative pretreatment techniques are included.

  11. Multi-Color Microvariability in HBLs: 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, W. L.; Carini, M. T.

    2003-12-01

    BL Lac objects are the most extreme members of the class of objects known as AGN. The defining characteristics of BL Lac objects are large amplitude continuum variations at all wavelengths, a featureless optical spectrum, and large amplitude, highly variable polarization. BL Lacs can be divided into subclasses, based on the peak of the synchrotron portion of their SED. In the HBL sub class, this peak occurs in the UV/X-ray wavelength range. We present the results of a study of the color dependency of microvariability(variations on timescales of minutes to hours) for the HBL 1ES 1959+650, using the Bell Observatory 0.6m telescope and the 1.3m Robotically Controlled Telescope. This research was funded via the Kentucky Space Grant Consortium, the Kentucky NSF EPSCoR program, the Kentucky NASA/EPSCoR program and the Applied Research and Technology Program at Western Kentucky University.

  12. POSSIBLE TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS OF THE TrES-3 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Ing-Guey; Wu, Yu-Ting; Chien, Ping; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chen, Hong-Yu; Hu, Juei-Hwa; Yeh, Li-Chin; Thakur, Parijat; Sun Zhao; Ji Jianghui

    2013-03-15

    Five newly observed transit light curves of the TrES-3 planetary system are presented. Together with other light-curve data from the literature, 23 transit light curves in total, which cover an overall timescale of 911 epochs, have been analyzed through a standard procedure. From these observational data, the system's orbital parameters are determined and possible transit timing variations (TTVs) are investigated. Given that a null TTV produces a fit with reduced {chi}{sup 2} = 1.52, our results agree with previous work, that TTVs might not exist in these data. However, a one-frequency oscillating TTV model, giving a fit with a reduced {chi}{sup 2} = 0.93, does possess a statistically higher probability. It is thus concluded that future observations and dynamical simulations for this planetary system will be very important.

  13. Urban mosquitoes, situational publics, and the pursuit of interspecies separation in Dar es Salaam

    PubMed Central

    KELLY, ANN H.; LEZAUN, JAVIER

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in anthropology points to the recognition of multispecies entanglements as the grounds for a more ethical politics. In this article, we examine efforts to control mosquitoes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as an example of the laborious tasks of disentanglement that characterize public health interventions. The mosquito surveillance and larval elimination practices of an urban malaria control program offer an opportunity to observe how efforts to create distance between species relate to the physical and civic textures of the city. Seen in the particular context of the contemporary African metropolis, the work of public health appears less a matter of control than a commitment to constant urban maintenance and political mobilization. PMID:25429167

  14. ES12; The 24th Annual Workshop on Recent Developments in Electronic Structure Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Holzwarth, Natalie; Thonhauser, Timo; Salam, Akbar

    2012-06-29

    ES12: The 24th Annual Workshop on Recent Developments in Electronic Structure Theory was held June 5-8, 2012 at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, NC 27109. The program consisted of 24 oral presentations, 70 posters, and 2 panel discussions. The attendance of the Workshop was comparable to or larger than previous workshops and participation was impressively diverse. The 136 participants came from all over the world and included undergraduate students, graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and senior scientists. The general assessment of the Workshop was extremely positive in terms of the high level of scientific presentations and discussions, and in terms of the schedule, accommodations, and affordability of the meeting.

  15. Systematic repression of transcription factors reveals limited patterns of gene expression changes in ES cells

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Akira; Sharov, Alexei A.; Piao, Yulan; Amano, Misa; Amano, Tomokazu; Hoang, Hien G.; Binder, Bernard Y.; Tapnio, Richard; Bassey, Uwem; Malinou, Justin N.; Correa-Cerro, Lina S.; Yu, Hong; Xin, Li; Meyers, Emily; Zalzman, Michal; Nakatake, Yuhki; Stagg, Carole; Sharova, Lioudmila; Qian, Yong; Dudekula, Dawood; Sheer, Sarah; Cadet, Jean S.; Hirata, Tetsuya; Yang, Hsih-Te; Goldberg, Ilya; Evans, Michele K.; Longo, Dan L.; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S. H.

    2013-01-01

    Networks of transcription factors (TFs) are thought to determine and maintain the identity of cells. Here we systematically repressed each of 100 TFs with shRNA and carried out global gene expression profiling in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Unexpectedly, only the repression of a handful of TFs significantly affected transcriptomes, which changed in two directions/trajectories: one trajectory by the repression of either Pou5f1 or Sox2; the other trajectory by the repression of either Esrrb, Sall4, Nanog, or Tcfap4. The data suggest that the trajectories of gene expression change are already preconfigured by the gene regulatory network and roughly correspond to extraembryonic and embryonic fates of cell differentiation, respectively. These data also indicate the robustness of the pluripotency gene network, as the transient repression of most TFs did not alter the transcriptomes. PMID:23462645

  16. Climate change induced risk analysis of Dar es Salaam city (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topa, Maria Elena; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Johns, Regina; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Kweka, Clara; Magina, Fredrick; Mangula, Alpha; Mbuya, Elinorata; Uhinga, Guido; Kassenga, Gabriel; Kyessi, Alphonce; Shemdoe, Riziki; Kombe, Wilbard

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. The main objective of CLUVA is to develop context-centered methods and knowledge to be applied to African cities to assess vulnerabilities and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks. The project estimates the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale and downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate specific threats to selected African test cities. These are mainly from floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, and desertification. The project evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. The multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will present preliminary findings for the Dar es Salaam case study. Dar es Salaam, which is Tanzania's largest coastal city, is exposed to floods, coastal erosion, droughts and heat waves, and highly vulnerable to impacts as a result of ineffective urban planning (about 70% unplanned settlements), poverty and lack of basic infrastructure (e.g. lack of or poor quality storm water drainage systems). Climate change could exacerbate the current situation increasing hazard-exposure alongside the impacts of development pressures which act to increase urban vulnerability for example because of informal (unregulated) urbanization. The CLUVA research team - composed of climate and environmental scientists, risk management experts, urban planners and social scientists from both European and African institutions - has

  17. ?`Es necesario calcular detalladamente funciones de partición atómicas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, L. A.; Merlo, D. C.

    Basándonos en extensos y precisos cómputos de funciones de partición realizados por nosotros para distintos átomos, se muestra que en el cálculo u obtención de ciertas magnitudes (notablemente la presión electrónica, la abundancia de un elemento deducida a partir de un estado fuertemente ionizado, etc.) el error porcentual que se comete es pequeño (inferior a 1 %) si se adopta, como valor de la función de partición, el peso estadístico del término correspondiente al estado fundamental del átomo. Esta notable simplificación acelera el cálculo, por ejemplo, de un modelo de atmósfera estelar, sin disminuir la precisión de los resultados.

  18. Possible Transit Timing Variations of the TrES-3 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ing-Guey; Yeh, Li-Chin; Thakur, Parijat; Wu, Yu-Ting; Chien, Ping; Lin, Yi-Ling; Chen, Hong-Yu; Hu, Juei-Hwa; Sun, Zhao; Ji, Jianghui

    2013-03-01

    Five newly observed transit light curves of the TrES-3 planetary system are presented. Together with other light-curve data from the literature, 23 transit light curves in total, which cover an overall timescale of 911 epochs, have been analyzed through a standard procedure. From these observational data, the system's orbital parameters are determined and possible transit timing variations (TTVs) are investigated. Given that a null TTV produces a fit with reduced χ2 = 1.52, our results agree with previous work, that TTVs might not exist in these data. However, a one-frequency oscillating TTV model, giving a fit with a reduced χ2 = 0.93, does possess a statistically higher probability. It is thus concluded that future observations and dynamical simulations for this planetary system will be very important.

  19. Final report: ES11: The 23rd Annual Workshop on Electronic Structure Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    2011-08-31

    ES11: the 23rd Annual Workshop on Electronic Structure Methods was held from June 6-9, 2011 at the University of Pennsylvania. The local organizing committee (see Section II) led by PI Andrew M. Rappe supervised the organization of the conference, before, during, and after the meeting itself. The national organizing committee set the technical program of talks, and provided support and advice in various ways. The conference was well-attended (see Section III). An important feature of this conference was a series of panel discussions (see Section IV) to discuss the field of electronic structure and to set new directions. The technical program was of extraordinarily high quality (see Section V). The host institution, the University of Pennsylvania, provided a supportive environment for this meeting (see Section VI).

  20. Increasing X-Ray Brightness of HBL Source 1ES 1727+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, Bidzina

    2017-02-01

    The nearby TeV-detected HBL object 1ES 1727+502 (1Zw 187, z=0.055) has been targeted 111 times by X-ray Telescope (XRT) onboard Swift since 2010 April 2. During this monitoring, the 0.3-10 keV count rate varied by a factor of 17.4 (see http://www.swift.psu.edu/monitoring/source.php?source=QSOB1727+502) and showed a prolonged X-ray flaring activity during 2015 March - 2016 February, revealed mainly via the Target of Opportunity observations performed in the framework of our request of different urgencies (Request Number 6571, 6606, 6717, 6809, 6927, 7322, 7355, 7379, 7390, 7404, 7430, 7441, 7516, 7565; see Kapanadze et al. 2015, Atel #8224, #7342).

  1. Outreach with Team eS Through Science Festivals and Interactive Art Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoho, Amanda; Starkman, Glenn

    2014-03-01

    The Team eS project aims to acclimate (pre)teens to scientific concepts subtly, with fun, accessible, and engaging art and activities hosted at public community festivals, online at a dedicated website, and using social media. Our festivals will be centered around an interactive art installation inspired by a scientific concept. We hope to provide a positive experience inspired by science that these teens can reflect upon when encountering similar concepts in the future, especially in settings like a classroom where fear and anxiety can cloud interest or performance. We want to empower teens to not feel lost or out of the loop - we want to remove the fear of facing science.

  2. Study of delayed fission of the isotopes of Bk, Es, and Md

    SciTech Connect

    Gangrskii, Y.P.; Miller, M.B.; Mikhailov, L.V.; Kharisov, I.F.

    1980-02-01

    We have measured the probabilities of delayed fission in electron capture for the nuclei /sup 240,242/Bk, /sup 244,246,248/Es, and /sup 248,250/Md. The data are analyzed by means of analytical expressions obtained in the work which explicitly relate the probability of delayed fission (in electron capture or ..beta../sup -/ decay) to the parameters of a two-humped fission barrier. As a result of the analysis the fission barriers are evaluated for the corresponding daughter nuclei: the isotopes of Cm, Cf, and Fm. According to the estimates the height of the fission barrier for the group of nuclei investigated is close to the value 6 MeV and does not decrease appreciably with increase of the Z of the nucleus or with removal from the ..beta..-stability band.

  3. Improving Stellar and Planetary Parameters of Transiting Planet Systems: The Case of TrES-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, Alessandro; Torres, Guillermo; Charbonneau, David; Latham, David W.; Holman, Matthew J.; Winn, Joshua N.; Laird, John B.; O'Donovan, Francis T.

    2007-08-01

    We report on a spectroscopic determination of the atmospheric parameters and chemical abundance of the parent star of the recently discovered transiting planet TrES-2. A detailed LTE analysis of a set of Fe I and Fe II lines from our Keck spectra yields Teff=5850+/-50 K, logg=4.4+/-0.1, and [Fe/H]=-0.15+/-0.10. Several independent checks (e.g., additional spectroscopy, line-depth ratios) confirm the reliability of our spectroscopic Teff estimate. The mass and radius of the star, needed to determine the properties of the planet, are traditionally inferred by comparison with stellar evolution models using Teff and some measure of the stellar luminosity, such as the spectroscopic surface gravity. We apply here a new method in which we use instead of logg the normalized separation a/R* (related to the stellar density), directly measurabele from the light curves of transiting planets with much greater precision. With the a/R* value from the light-curve analysis of Holman and coworkers and our Teff estimate, we obtain M*=0.980+/-0.062 Msolar and R*=1.000+0.036-0.033 Rsolar, and an evolutionary age of 5.1+2.7-2.3 Gyr, in good agreement with other constraints (Ca II H and K line cores, lithium abundance, and rotation). The new stellar parameters yield improved values for the planetary mass and radius of Mp=1.198+/-0.053 MJ and Rp=1.220+0.045-0.042 RJ, confirming that TrES-2 is the most massive among the currently known nearby (d<~300 pc) transiting hot Jupiters. The surface gravity of the planet, loggp=3.299+/-0.016, can be derived independently of the knowledge of the stellar parameters (i.e., directly from observations), and with a very high precision rivaling that of the best known double-lined eclipsing binaries.

  4. Observation of X-Ray Variability in the BL Lac Object 1ES1959+65

    SciTech Connect

    Giebels, Berrie

    2002-02-07

    This paper reports X-ray spectral observations of a relatively nearby (z = 0.048) BL Lacertae (BL Lac) object 1ES1959+65, which is a potential TeV emitter. The observations include 31 short pointings made by the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) Experiment on board the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS), and 17 pointings by the PCA on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Most of these observations were spaced by less than 1 day. 1ES1959+65 was detected by the ARGOS USA detector in the range 1-16 keV, and by the PCA in the 2-16 keV range but at different times. During the closely spaced RXTE observations beginning on 2000 July 28, an ending of one flare and a start of another are visible, associated with spectral changes, where the photon index XBL-type blazar, with the X-ray emission likely to originate via the synchrotron process. The USA observations reveal another flare that peaked on 2000 November 14 and doubled the flux within a few days, again associated with spectral changes of the same form. The spectral variability correlated with the flux and timing characteristics of this object that are similar to those of other nearby BL Lacs, and suggest relativistic beaming with a Doppler factor {delta} {ge} 1.6 and magnetic fields of the order of a few mG. We also suggest that the steady component of the X-ray emission--present in this object as well as in other XBLs--may be due to the large-scale relativistic jet (such as measured by Chandra in many radio-loud AGN), but pointing very closely to our line of sight.

  5. Last glacial maximum constraints on the Earth System model HadGEM2-ES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopcroft, Peter O.; Valdes, Paul J.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the response of the atmospheric and land surface components of the CMIP5/AR5 Earth System model HadGEM2-ES to pre-industrial (PI: AD 1860) and last glacial maximum (LGM: 21 kyr) boundary conditions. HadGEM2-ES comprises atmosphere, ocean and sea-ice components which are interactively coupled to representations of the carbon cycle, aerosols including mineral dust and tropospheric chemistry. In this study, we focus on the atmosphere-only model HadGEM2-A coupled to terrestrial carbon cycle and aerosol models. This configuration is forced with monthly sea surface temperature and sea-ice fields from equivalent coupled simulations with an older version of the Hadley Centre model, HadCM3. HadGEM2-A simulates extreme cooling over northern continents and nearly complete die back of vegetation in Asia, giving a poor representation of the LGM environment compared with reconstructions of surface temperatures and biome distributions. The model also performs significantly worse for the LGM in comparison with its precursor AR4 model HadCM3M2. Detailed analysis shows that the major factor behind the vegetation die off in HadGEM2-A is a subtle change to the temperature dependence of leaf mortality within the phenology model of HadGEM2. This impacts on both snow-vegetation albedo and vegetation dynamics. A new set of parameters is tested for both the pre-industrial and LGM, showing much improved coverage of vegetation in both time periods, including an improved representation of the needle-leaf forest coverage in Siberia for the pre-industrial. The new parameters and the resulting changes in global vegetation distribution strongly impact the simulated loading of mineral dust, an important aerosol for the LGM. The climate response in an abrupt 4× pre-industrial CO2 simulation is also analysed and shows modest regional impacts on surface temperatures across the Boreal zone.

  6. Ethanol and Methanol Can Improve Huperzine A Production from Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin-Mei; Wang, Zhang-Qian; Shu, Shao-Hua; Wang, Wen-Juan; Xu, Hai-Jie; Ahn, Young-Joon; Wang, Mo; Hu, Xuebo

    2013-01-01

    Huperzine A (HupA) is a plant alkaloid that is of great interest as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. However, the current production of HupA from plants in large quantity is unsustainable because the plant resource is scarce and the content of HupA in plants is extremely low. Surprisingly, this compound was recently found to be produced by various endophytic fungi, which are much more controllable than the plants due to simpler genetics and ease of manipulation. However, it might be due to the innate properties of endophytic symbiosis, that production of this chemical in large quantity from endophytes has not yet been put into practice. Endophytic Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ES026 was previously isolated from a HupA producing plant and the fungi also proved to produce HupA. In this study, various fermentation conditions were tried to optimize the production of HupA from C. gloeosporioides ES026. Optimization of these parameters resulted in a 25.58% increase in HupA yield. Potato extracts supplemented with glucose or sucrose but not maltose facilitated HupA producing from the fungi. A final concentration of 0.5–2% ethanol stimulated the growth of fungi while methanol with the same treatment slightly inhibited the growth. However, both methanol and ethanol greatly increased the HupA production with the highest yield of HupA (51.89% increment) coming from ethanol treatment. Further analysis showed that both ethanol and methanol were strong inducers of HupA production, while ethanol was partially used as a carbon source during fermentation. It was noticed that the color of that ethanol treated mycelia gradually became dark while methanol treated ones stayed grey during fermentation. The present study sheds light on the importance of optimizing the fermentation process, which, combined with effective inducers, maximizes production of chemicals of important economic interest from endophytic fungi. PMID:23613930

  7. Effects of Sheng-Mai injection on the PRPP synthetase activity in BFU-es and CFU-es from bone marrows of mice with benzene-induced aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, L P; Liu, J F; Lu, Y Q

    2001-08-10

    160 Kunming mice were divided at random into 3 groups. Group 1: normal control (40 mice). Group 2: aplastic anemia (AA) control (60 mice); benzene inhalation was carried out for 2.5 months and sterilized normal saline was injected i.p. for another 6 weeks. Group 3: treated AA (60 mice); benzene was administered by inhalation in a similar manner, Sheng-Mai Injection (SMI) was administered i.p. for 6 weeks after the AA models were established. SMI is a famous Chinese traditional prescription of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (0.1 g/ml), Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl (0.312 g/ml) and Fructus Schisandrae (0.158 g/ml). Activities of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase in BFU-Es and CFU-Es were estimated by ion pair reversed phase HPLC (IPrHPLC). Accompanying the sharp drop in counts of erythroid progenitor cells, the PRPP synthetase activity in CFU-Es of AA mice was reduced significantly (P<0.01), whereas there were no remarkable changes of this enzyme activity in their BFU-Es compared with the control group. Both the counts of erythroid progenitor cells and PRPP synthetase activity in CFU-Es returned nearly to normal levels following treatment with SMI of mice in Group 3 (P<0.01). Our results suggest that the attenuation of PRPP synthetase activity in peripheral erythrocytes of AA patients may originate from the weakening of activity of this enzyme in CFU-Es from their bone marrow. The impairment of PRPP formation would explain ATP depletion and disorders of energy metabolism in AA erythrocytes. SMI can distinctly increase the reduced quantity of erythroid progenitor cells and promote rapid restoration of PRPP synthetase activity in CFU-Es of AA mice.

  8. GroEL-GroES assisted folding of multiple recombinant proteins simultaneously over-expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Megha; Chaudhuri, Tapan K

    2015-07-01

    Folding of aggregation prone recombinant proteins through co-expression of chaperonin GroEL and GroES has been a popular practice in the effort to optimize preparation of functional protein in Escherichia coli. Considering the demand for functional recombinant protein products, it is desirable to apply the chaperone assisted protein folding strategy for enhancing the yield of properly folded protein. Toward the same direction, it is also worth attempting folding of multiple recombinant proteins simultaneously over-expressed in E. coli through the assistance of co-expressed GroEL-ES. The genesis of this thinking was originated from the fact that cellular GroEL and GroES assist in the folding of several endogenous proteins expressed in the bacterial cell. Here we present the experimental findings from our study on co-expressed GroEL-GroES assisted folding of simultaneously over-expressed proteins maltodextrin glucosidase (MalZ) and yeast mitochondrial aconitase (mAco). Both proteins mentioned here are relatively larger and aggregation prone, mostly form inclusion bodies, and undergo GroEL-ES assisted folding in E. coli cells during over-expression. It has been reported that the relative yield of properly folded functional forms of MalZ and mAco with the exogenous GroEL-ES assistance were comparable with the results when these proteins were overexpressed alone. This observation is quite promising and highlights the fact that GroEL and GroES can assist in the folding of multiple substrate proteins simultaneously when over-expressed in E. coli. This method might be a potential tool for enhanced production of multiple functional recombinant proteins simultaneously in E. coli.

  9. Investigation of dynamic behind the seasonal variations of Es and sporadic Na layer near the turbopause of aurora free zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, T.; Sojka, J. J.; Criddle, N.; Cai, X.; Rice, D.

    2013-12-01

    The dearth of experimental observations, as well as dynamics study, near the turbopause (100-120 km) is the culprit for the mystery of this critical layer in the lower thermosphere. The sporadic E layer (Es) and the sporadic Na layer, occurring within this region, provide unique tracers for such topic. It is believed that the downward transporting of Es, which is full with metal ions (such as Na+), enriches the Na reservoir in the lower E region that causes the occurrence of sporadic Na layer within. In this paper, a statistic study show strong positive correlation between Es and sporadic Na layer above 100 km, measured by Utah State University Na lidar at Logan, Utah and CADI (ionosonde) at Bear Lake Observatory nearby. Both of these two turbopause features indicate strong seasonal variation with peak occurrence rate in the summer and minimum during the winter. To explain the dynamics behind the variations in the aurora free zone, HAMMONIA model produced monthly zonal wind climatology and Climatological Tidal Model of the Thermospehre (CTMT) are joining together to reproduce the hourly zonal wind variation within the turbopause, along with the temperature prediction from the two models. Using the well accepted wind shear theory of the Es formation, we conclude that such seasonal behaviors of Es and sporadic Na layer are due to large negative zonal wind shear driven by tidal wave peaking near the turbopause during summer time in the early evening.

  10. DISCOVERY OF VARIABILITY IN THE VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMISSION OF 1ES 1218+304 WITH VERITAS

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boltuch, D.; Boettcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Fortson, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Finnegan, G.; Furniss, A.

    2010-02-01

    We present results from an intensive VERITAS monitoring campaign of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1218+304 in 2008/2009. Although 1ES 1218+304 was detected previously by MAGIC and VERITAS at a persistent level of {approx}6% of the Crab Nebula flux, the new VERITAS data reveal a prominent flare reaching {approx}20% of the Crab. While very high energy (VHE) flares are quite common in many nearby blazars, the case of 1ES 1218+304 (redshift z = 0.182) is particularly interesting since it belongs to a group of blazars that exhibit unusually hard VHE spectra considering their redshifts. When correcting the measured spectra for absorption by the extragalactic background light, 1ES 1218+304 and a number of other blazars are found to have differential photon indices {gamma}{<=} 1.5. The difficulty in modeling these hard spectral energy distributions in blazar jets has led to a range of theoretical {gamma}-ray emission scenarios, one of which is strongly constrained by these new VERITAS observations. We consider the implications of the observed light curve of 1ES 1218+304, which shows day scale flux variations, for shock acceleration scenarios in relativistic jets, and in particular for the viability of kiloparsec-scale jet emission scenarios.

  11. Hanford Site Environment Safety and Health (ES and H) FY 1999 and FY 2000 Execution Commitment Summary

    SciTech Connect

    REEP, I.E.

    1999-12-01

    All sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex prepare this report annually for the DOE Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the previous and current year's Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) execution commitments and the S&H resources that support these activities. The fiscal year (FY) 1999 and 2000 information (Sieracki 1999) and data contained in the ''Hanford Site Environment, Safety and Health Fiscal Year 2001 Budget-Risk Management Summary'' (RL 1999) were the basis for preparing this report. Fiscal year 2000 finding of Office of Environmental Management (EM) and Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE) activities is based on the President's budget of $1,065.1 million and $28.0 million, plus $2.7 million carryover finding, respectively, as of October 31, 1999. Any funding changes as a result of the Congressional appropriation process will be reflected in the Fiscal Year 2002 ES&H Budget-Risk Management Summary to be issued in May 2000. This report provides the end-of-year status of FY 1999 ES&H execution commitments, including actual S&H expenditures, and describes planned FY 2000 ES&H execution commitments and the S&H resources needed to support those activities. This requirement is included in the ES&H ''Guidance for FY200l Budget Formulations and Execution'' (DOE 1999).

  12. Co-existence of intact stemness and priming of neural differentiation programs in mES cells lacking Trim71

    PubMed Central

    Mitschka, Sibylle; Ulas, Thomas; Goller, Tobias; Schneider, Karin; Egert, Angela; Mertens, Jérôme; Brüstle, Oliver; Schorle, Hubert; Beyer, Marc; Klee, Kathrin; Xue, Jia; Günther, Patrick; Bassler, Kevin; Schultze, Joachim L.; Kolanus, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory networks for differentiation and pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells have long been suggested to be mutually exclusive. However, with the identification of many new components of these networks ranging from epigenetic, transcriptional, and translational to even post-translational mechanisms, the cellular states of pluripotency and early differentiation might not be strictly bi-modal, but differentiating stem cells appear to go through phases of simultaneous expression of stemness and differentiation genes. Translational regulators such as RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and micro RNAs (miRNAs) might be prime candidates for guiding a cell from pluripotency to differentiation. Using Trim71, one of two members of the Tripartite motif (Trim) protein family with RNA binding activity expressed in murine ES cells, we demonstrate that Trim71 is not involved in regulatory networks of pluripotency but regulates neural differentiation. Loss of Trim71 in mES cells leaves stemness and self-maintenance of these cells intact, but many genes required for neural development are up-regulated at the same time. Concordantly, Trim71−/− mES show increased neural marker expression following treatment with retinoic acid. Our findings strongly suggest that Trim71 keeps priming steps of differentiation in check, which do not pre-require a loss of the pluripotency network in ES cells. PMID:26057209

  13. Denatured proteins facilitate the formation of the football-shaped GroEL-(GroES)2 complex.

    PubMed

    Sameshima, Tomoya; Iizuka, Ryo; Ueno, Taro; Funatsu, Takashi

    2010-03-29

    Controversy exists over whether the chaperonin GroEL forms a GroEL-(GroES)2 complex (football-shaped complex) during its reaction cycle. We have revealed previously the existence of the football-shaped complex in the chaperonin reaction cycle using a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) assay [Sameshima, Ueno, Iizuka, Ishii, Terada, Okabe and Funatsu (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 23765-23773]. Although denatured proteins alter the ATPase activity of GroEL and the dynamics of the GroEL-GroES interaction, the effect of denatured proteins on the formation of the football-shaped complex has not been characterized. In the present study, a FRET assay was used to demonstrate that denatured proteins facilitate the formation of the football-shaped complex. The presence of denatured proteins was also found to increase the rate of association of GroES to the trans-ring of GroEL. Furthermore, denatured proteins decrease the inhibitory influence of ADP on ATP-induced association of GroES to the trans-ring of GroEL. From these findings we conclude that denatured proteins facilitate the dissociation of ADP from the trans-ring of GroEL and the concomitant association of ATP and the second GroES.

  14. An Epididymis-Specific Secretory Protein HongrES1 Critically Regulates Sperm Capacitation and Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuchuan; Zheng, Min; Shi, Qixian; Zhang, Li; Zhen, Wei; Chen, Wenying; Zhang, Yonglian

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian sperm capacitation is an essential prerequisite to fertilizion. Although progress had been made in understanding the physiology and biochemistry of capacitation, little is known about the potential roles of epididymal proteins during this process. Here we report that HongrES1, a new member of the SERPIN (serine proteinase inhibitor) family exclusively expressed in the rat cauda epididymis and up-regulated by androgen, is secreted into the lumen and covers the sperm head. Co-culture of caudal sperms with HongrES1 antibody in vitro resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of capacitated spermatozoa. Furthermore, the percentage of capacitated spermatozoa clearly increased in rats when HongrES1 was down-regulated by RNAi in vivo. Remarkably, knockdown of HongrES1 in vivo led to reduced fertility accompanied with deformed appearance of fetuses and pups. These results identify HongrES1 as a novel and critical molecule in the regulation of sperm capacitation and male fertility. PMID:19116669

  15. SYSTEM PARAMETERS, TRANSIT TIMES, AND SECONDARY ECLIPSE CONSTRAINTS OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEMS HAT-P-4, TrES-2, TrES-3, and WASP-3 FROM THE NASA EPOXI MISSION OF OPPORTUNITY

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ballard, Sarah; Charbonneau, David; Holman, Matthew J.; Deming, Drake; Barry, Richard K.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Hewagama, Tilak; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Seager, Sara; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Hampton, Don L.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2011-01-10

    As part of the NASA EPOXI Mission of Opportunity, we observed seven known transiting extrasolar planet systems in order to construct time series photometry of extremely high phase coverage and precision. Here we present the results for four 'hot-Jupiter systems' with near-solar stars-HAT-P-4, TrES-3, TrES-2, and WASP-3. We observe 10 transits of HAT-P-4, estimating the planet radius R{sub p} = 1.332 {+-} 0.052 R{sub Jup}, the stellar radius R{sub *} = 1.602 {+-} 0.061 R{sub sun}, the inclination i = 89.67 {+-} 0.30 deg, and the transit duration from first to fourth contact {tau} = 255.6 {+-} 1.9 minutes. For TrES-3, we observe seven transits and find R{sub p} = 1.320 {+-} 0.057 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 0.817 {+-} 0.022 R{sub sun}, i = 81.99 {+-} 0.30 deg, and {tau} = 81.9 {+-} 1.1 minutes. We also note a long-term variability in the TrES-3 light curve, which may be due to star spots. We observe nine transits of TrES-2 and find R{sub p} = 1.169 {+-} 0.034 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 0.940 {+-} 0.026 R{sub sun}, i = 84.15 {+-} 0.16 deg, and {tau} = 107.3 {+-} 1.1 minutes. Finally, we observe eight transits of WASP-3, finding R{sub p} = 1.385 {+-} 0.060 R{sub Jup}, R{sub *} = 1.354 {+-} 0.056 R{sub sun}, i = 84.22 {+-} 0.81 deg, and {tau} = 167.3 {+-} 1.3 minutes. We present refined orbital periods and times of transit for each target. We state 95% confidence upper limits on the secondary eclipse depths in our broadband visible bandpass centered on 650 nm. These limits are 0.073% for HAT-P-4, 0.062% for TrES-3, 0.16% for TrES-2, and 0.11% for WASP-3. We combine the TrES-3 secondary eclipse information with the existing published data and confirm that the atmosphere likely does not have a temperature inversion.

  16. A new view on the radiocontinuum emission in NGC 3079 from CHANG-ES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Sotomayor-Beltran, Carlos; Irwin, Judith; van Vliet Wiegert, Theresa; Chang-Es

    2015-01-01

    First results from a new radiocontinuum study of the edge-on galaxy NGC 3079 will be presented. This study is based on data from CHANG-ES (Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies - an EVLA Survey, PI Judith Irwin) which has observed 34 edge-on spiral galaxies with the JVLA in two frequency bands (L- and C-band) and in three array configurations (D, C, B). For the study presented here we have analyzed L- and C-band observations in the D and C-configurations, respectively.The detection of extended polarized signal was possible with the help of the rotation measure (RM) synthesis technique. This method in its simplest form takes advantage of the multi-channel capability of the JVLA by avoiding bandwidth depolarization and hence recovering the polarized signal along the line-of-sight of the galaxy. The analysis reveals large scale magnetic fields perpendicular to the disc on the northern side of the target, resembling the X-shaped field patterns found in other edge-on spiral galaxies. In the very center both sides of the well known nuclear outflow bubble show up in our maps which reach an unprecedented quality.

  17. In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, J.R.; Stoots, P.R.

    1990-06-01

    In 1987, the Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established within EG G Idaho, Inc., the prime contractor at INEL. Following the Environmental Restoration guidelines of the Buried Waste Program, the In Situ Vitrification Program is participating in a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for permanent disposal of INEL waste, in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This study was requested and is being funded by the Office of Technology Development of the Idaho Operations Office of DOE (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an in situ vitrification (ISV) scoping study on the treatability of mixed low-level and mixed transuranic-contaminated waste is being performed to determine the applicability of ISV to remediation of waste at SDA. In examination of the ISV process for applicability to SDA waste, this In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan identifies the following: sampling and analysis strategy; sampling procedures; methods to conduct analyses; equipment; and procedures to ensure data quality. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Heredity, development and evolution: the unmodern synthesis of E.S. Russell.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Maurizio

    2013-09-01

    In 1930, while R.A. Fisher, J.B.S. Haldane, E.B. Ford and S.G. Wright were laying the foundations of what a decade later J.S. Huxley dubbed "Modern Synthesis", E.S. Russell published a groundbreaking work, The Interpretation of Development and Heredity. In this book Russell not only condemned Mendelian genetics and neo-Darwinism, but also proposed an alternative synthesis unifying heredity, development, and evolution. The book did not represent the work of a mind operating in isolation. Rather, it was a synthetic work connecting ideas and doctrines of many influential scientists working in Europe and the USA. Through the analysis of archival documents and rarely or never mentioned sources, this article provides an unconventional picture of Russell's theoretical biology. It will be shown that Russell was an international celebrity; he was at the centre of a large network of scholars who shared his ideas and insights. He was one of several biologists arguing for a different synthesis; a synthesis perhaps less visible, less institutionalised, and less 'modern', nevertheless with its influential advocates and international support. Finally, this study shows that Russell's synthesis was not rooted in the classic pantheon of towering figures in the history of biology, i.e. Darwin, Wallace, and Mendel, but was based on the teachings of Kant, Goethe, Cuvier, von Baer, and Müller.

  19. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF 1ES 1959+650 IN A LOW FLUX STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Boettcher, M.; Bouvier, A.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; and others

    2013-09-20

    We report on the VERITAS observations of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 in the period 2007-2011. This source is detected at TeV energies by VERITAS at 16.4 standard deviation ({sigma}) significance in 7.6 hr of observation in a low flux state. A multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) is constructed from contemporaneous data from VERITAS, Fermi-LAT, RXTE PCA, and Swift UVOT. Swift XRT data is not included in the SED due to a lack of simultaneous observations with VERITAS. In contrast to the orphan {gamma}-ray flare exhibited by this source in 2002, the X-ray flux of the source is found to vary by an order of magnitude, while other energy regimes exhibit less variable emission. A quasi-equilibrium synchrotron self-Compton model with an additional external radiation field is used to describe three SEDs corresponding to the lowest, highest, and average X-ray states. The variation in the X-ray spectrum is modeled by changing the electron injection spectral index, with minor adjustments of the kinetic luminosity in electrons. This scenario produces small-scale flux variability of the order of {approx}< 2 in the high energy (E > 1 MeV) and very high energy (E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray regimes, which is corroborated by the Fermi-LAT, VERITAS, and Whipple 10 m telescope light curves.

  20. An ES-Like Pluripotent State in FGF-Dependent Murine iPS cells

    PubMed Central

    Ungaro, Federica; Prigione, Alessandro; Chen, Hsu-Hsin; Welling, Maaike; Eijpe, Maureen; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Tesar, Paul; Adjaye, James; Geijsen, Niels; Broccoli, Vania

    2010-01-01

    Recent data demonstrates that stem cells can exist in two morphologically, molecularly and functionally distinct pluripotent states; a naïve LIF-dependent pluripotent state which is represented by murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and an FGF-dependent primed pluripotent state represented by murine and rat epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). We find that derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) under EpiSC culture conditions yields FGF-dependent iPSCs from hereon called FGF-iPSCs) which, unexpectedly, display naïve ES-like/ICM properties. FGF-iPSCs display X-chromosome activation, multi-lineage differentiation, teratoma competence and chimera contribution in vivo. Our findings suggest that in 129 and Bl6 mouse strains, iPSCs can dominantly adopt a naive pluripotent state regardless of culture growth factor conditions. Characterization of the key molecular signalling pathways revealed FGF-iPSCs to depend on the Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways, while signalling through the JAK-STAT pathway is not required for FGF-iPS cell maintenance. Our findings suggest that in 129 and Bl6 mouse strains, iPSCs can dominantly adopt a naive pluripotent state regardless of culture growth factor conditions. PMID:21209851

  1. Strategy of Making Hand Washing a Routine Habit: Principles of 5Es and 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Kandel, N; Lamichane, J

    2016-01-01

    Regular hand washing habit has potential to reduce morbidity and mortality due to diseases and improves child development and reduces absenteeism of children, teachers and workforce. Improving hand washing behavior is more cost effective than improving clean water and sanitation infrastructure. There are numbers of initiatives and interventions in place, which have gained momentum with key messages of a call to action with increasing investment in schools, engaging policy makers and demonstration them with evidence. However, change in behavior as a routine habit has not reached to an optimum level and requires institutionalizing hand washing practices in schools, from schools and by schools and develop it as a curriculum. Therefore, we are purposing principles of 5Es and 3Rs - a strategy to make hand washing a routine habit. These 5E principles are: i) Embedding in a system, ii) Enabling Environment, iii) Eliminating Friction, iv) Encouraging all, and v) Establishing intervention and 3Rs are practicing them Religiously, Routinely and Repeatedly. Numbers of interventions have well demonstrated that hand hygiene educational interventions can help maintaining good practices. Finally, if schools and community start doing today, we can observe behavioral change practices for hand washing as a routine habit by at least 10 years after.

  2. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Marion W.; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:25734790

  3. Water quality of a coastal lagoon (ES, Brazil): abiotic aspects, cytogenetic damage, and phytoplankton dynamics.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ian Drumond; Silva, Nayara Heloisa Vieira Fraga; da Costa Souza, Iara; de Oliveira, Larissa Bassani; Rocha, Lívia Dorsch; Morozesk, Mariana; Bonomo, Marina Marques; de Almeida Pereira, Thaís; Dias, Mauro Cesar; de Oliveira Fernandes, Valéria; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie

    2017-03-14

    Assessment of water resources requires interdisciplinary studies that include multiple ecosystem aspects. This study evaluated the water quality of Juara Lagoon (ES, Brazil) based on physical and chemical variables, cytogenetic responses in Allium cepa and phytoplankton dynamics. Three sampling sites were defined and water samples were collected during two sampling periods. Analyses such as determination of photic zone, conductivity, and concentrations of nutrients and metals were conducted as well as cytotoxic, mutagenic, and genotoxic potentials using A. cepa test. The main attributes of phytoplankton community, such as total richness, total density, density by class, dominance, and diversity, were also evaluated. Results have revealed that Juara Lagoon has signs of artificial eutrophication at two sampling sites due to high levels of total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen. Cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic potentials were detected as well as high concentrations of Fe and Mn. Furthermore, 165 phytoplankton taxa were recorded, with highest richness in Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae classes. In addition, Cyanophyceae presented as the highest density class. A. cepa test and phytoplankton community evaluation indicated that the ecological quality of Juara Lagoon is compromised.

  4. Observations of recent flares of the blazar 1ES1959+650 with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuyang; Santander, Marcos; VERITAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) is a an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes that carries out an extensive observation program of the gamma-ray sky at energies above 0.1 TeV. Blazars, active galactic nuclei powered by supermassive black holes, are gamma-ray sources of major interest. The relativistic jets they emit are among the most energetic phenomena in the universe and constitute a significant amount of study in high energy astrophysics. In particular, the blazar 1ES 1959+650 (z=0.048) has garnered special attention due to its emission of an ``orphan'' flare in 2002. An orphan flare is an extremely bright emission in gamma rays that is not coupled to X-rays. This phenomenon is incompatible with our current model of gamma-ray production, the self-synchrotron Compton (SSC) process. This study aims to characterize recent TeV flares of this source by analyzing the time variability of its light curve and spectrum and comparing these findings to observations made in other wavelengths. We hope to determine if these recent flares have also been orphan in nature, put an upper limit on the size of the emission region, and understand the nature of the gamma-ray emission in the source.

  5. COST Action ES1206: GNSS for Severe Weather and Climate (GNSS4SWEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Guerova, Guergana; Dousa, Jan; Dick, Galina; de Haan, Siebren; Pottiaux, Eric; Bock, Olivier; Pacione, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have revolutionised positioning, navigation, and timing, becoming a common part of our everyday life. Aside from these well-known civilian and commercial applications, GNSS is now an established atmospheric observing system which can accurately sense water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60-70% of atmospheric warming. Severe weather forecasting is challenging, in part due to the high temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric water vapour. Water vapour is under-sampled in the current meteorological and climate observing systems, obtaining and exploiting more high-quality humidity observations is essential to weather forecasting and climate monitoring. The new COST Action, ES1206, will address new and improved capabilities from developments in both the GNSS and meteorological communities. For the first time, the synergy of the three GNSS systems (GPS, GLONASS and Galileo) will be used to develop new, advanced tropospheric products, exploiting the full potential of multi-GNSS water vapour estimates on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from real-time monitoring and forecasting of severe weather, to climate research. In addition the Action will promote the use of meteorological data in GNSS positioning, navigation, and timing services and stimulate knowledge transfer and data sharing throughout Europe.

  6. Gaia and WEAVE/WxES: Supporting the PLATO Exoplanet Hunter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, N. A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper briefly describes the powerful linkages between the Gaia and PLATO missions and the potential for WEAVE in the study of exoplanet populations, for instance through the proposed WxES survey. Gaia successfully launched in December 2013, and over the course of its nominal five year mission will discover, via their astrometric signatures, upwards of 20 000 massive Jupiter sized long period planets at distances out to several hundred parsecs around all star types. In addition Gaia will discover up to a thousand short period hot Jupiters around M stars. PLATO, to launch in 2024, will through precision photometry, observe in detail some million host stars, and will detect, via the transit technique, planets down to Earth masses. PLATO will observe two fields of over 2 000 square degrees for 2-3 years each. At least one of these will be in the northern hemisphere. WEAVE has the potential to provide detailed chemical characterization of the host stars of the Gaia and PLATO exoplanet systems. This will enable insights into, for instance, metallicity of the host star correlations against both massive exoplanets (perhaps confirming current relationships), and lower mass exoplanets. We note how the rapid exploitation of such a potential WEAVE survey could be achieved, utilizing the WEAVE processing systems being developed at the IoA, Cambridge, coupled with efficient interfaces to both Gaia and PLATO data products, that are also being generated at the IoA.

  7. THE BROADBAND INFRARED EMISSION SPECTRUM OF THE EXOPLANET TrES-3

    SciTech Connect

    Fressin, Francois; Knutson, Heather A.; Charbonneau, David; O'Donovan, Francis T.; Burrows, Adam; Spiegel, David; Deming, Drake; Mandushev, Georgi

    2010-03-01

    We use the Spitzer Space Telescope to estimate the dayside thermal emission of the exoplanet TrES-3 integrated in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m bandpasses of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) instrument. We observe two secondary eclipses and find relative eclipse depths of 0.00346 +- 0.00035, 0.00372 +- 0.00054, 0.00449 +- 0.00097, and 0.00475 +- 0.00046, respectively, in the four IRAC bandpasses. We combine our results with the earlier K-band measurement of De Mooij et al., and compare them with models of the planetary emission. We find that the planet does not require the presence of an inversion layer in the high atmosphere. This is the first very strongly irradiated planet that does not have a temperature inversion, which indicates that stellar or planetary characteristics other than temperature have an important impact on temperature inversion. De Mooij and Snellen also detected a possible slight offset in the timing of the secondary eclipse in the K band. However, based on our four Spitzer channels, we place a 3sigma upper limit of |ecos(omega)| < 0.0056, where e is the planet's orbital eccentricity and omega is the longitude of the periastron. This result strongly indicates that the orbit is circular, as expected from tidal circularization theory.

  8. CHANG-ES. VII. Magnetic Outflows from the Virgo Cluster Galaxy NGC 4388

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damas-Segovia, A.; Beck, R.; Vollmer, B.; Wiegert, T.; Krause, M.; Irwin, J.; Weżgowiec, M.; Li, J.; Dettmar, R.-J.; English, J.; Wang, Q. D.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effects of ram pressure on the ordered magnetic field of a galaxy hosting a radio halo and strong nuclear outflows. New radio images in total and polarized intensity of the edge-on Virgo galaxy NGC 4388 were obtained within the CHANG-ES EVLA project. The unprecedented noise level reached allows us to detect striking new features of the ordered magnetic field. The nuclear outflow extends far into the halo to about 5 kpc from the center and is spatially correlated with the {{H}}α and X-ray emission. For the first time, the southern outflow is detected. Above and below both spiral arms we find extended blobs of polarized emission with an ordered field oriented perpendicular to the disk. The synchrotron lifetime of the cosmic-ray electrons (CREs) in these regions yields a mean outflow velocity of 270+/- 70 {km} {{{s}}}-1, in agreement with a galactic wind scenario. The observed symmetry of the polarized halo features in NGC 4388 excludes a compression of the halo gas by the ram pressure of the intracluster medium (ICM). The assumption of equilibrium between the halo pressure and the ICM ram pressure yields an estimate of the ICM density that is consistent with both the ICM density derived from X-ray observations and the recent Planck Sunyaev-Zel’dovich measurements. The detection of a faint radio halo around cluster galaxies could thus be used for an estimate of ICM ram pressure.

  9. Hepatitis B virus markers in the population of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Haukenes, G; Shao, J F; Mbena, E; Rustad, S

    1987-09-01

    A total of 542 serum samples from healthy adults (medical students and medical staff, blood donors and pregnant women) residing in or near the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were examined for markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Of these samples, 95 (17.5%) were not found to contain any HBV marker when examined by enzyme-linked immunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). HBsAg was demonstrated in 52 (9.6%) samples of which 7 (13.5%) were positive for hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) and 17 (32.7%) were positive for anti-HBc IgM. None of 9 HBsAg positive pregnant women were carriers of HBeAg. These results show that hepatitis B infection is very common in this country. The relatively low prevalence of HBeAg among HBsAg carriers may indicate that transmission of hepatitis B at birth is not of major importance.

  10. Pit latrine emptying behavior and demand for sanitation services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Marion W; Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-02-27

    Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like 'flooding out'. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed.

  11. Folding of newly translated membrane protein CCR5 is assisted by the chaperonin GroEL-GroES

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Haixia; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jiqiang; Ren, Hao; Huang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro folding of newly translated human CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), which belongs to the physiologically important family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), has been studied in a cell-free system supplemented with the surfactant Brij-35. The freshly synthesized CCR5 can spontaneously fold into its biologically active state but only slowly and inefficiently. However, on addition of the GroEL-GroES molecular chaperone system, the folding of the nascent CCR5 was significantly enhanced, as was the structural stability and functional expression of the soluble form of CCR5. The chaperonin GroEL was partially effective on its own, but for maximum efficiency both the GroEL and its GroES lid were necessary. These results are direct evidence for chaperone-assisted membrane protein folding and therefore demonstrate that GroEL-GroES may be implicated in the folding of membrane proteins. PMID:26585937

  12. Folding of newly translated membrane protein CCR5 is assisted by the chaperonin GroEL-GroES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Haixia; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jiqiang; Ren, Hao; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-01

    The in vitro folding of newly translated human CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), which belongs to the physiologically important family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), has been studied in a cell-free system supplemented with the surfactant Brij-35. The freshly synthesized CCR5 can spontaneously fold into its biologically active state but only slowly and inefficiently. However, on addition of the GroEL-GroES molecular chaperone system, the folding of the nascent CCR5 was significantly enhanced, as was the structural stability and functional expression of the soluble form of CCR5. The chaperonin GroEL was partially effective on its own, but for maximum efficiency both the GroEL and its GroES lid were necessary. These results are direct evidence for chaperone-assisted membrane protein folding and therefore demonstrate that GroEL-GroES may be implicated in the folding of membrane proteins.

  13. Folding of newly translated membrane protein CCR5 is assisted by the chaperonin GroEL-GroES.

    PubMed

    Chi, Haixia; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jiqiang; Ren, Hao; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-20

    The in vitro folding of newly translated human CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), which belongs to the physiologically important family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), has been studied in a cell-free system supplemented with the surfactant Brij-35. The freshly synthesized CCR5 can spontaneously fold into its biologically active state but only slowly and inefficiently. However, on addition of the GroEL-GroES molecular chaperone system, the folding of the nascent CCR5 was significantly enhanced, as was the structural stability and functional expression of the soluble form of CCR5. The chaperonin GroEL was partially effective on its own, but for maximum efficiency both the GroEL and its GroES lid were necessary. These results are direct evidence for chaperone-assisted membrane protein folding and therefore demonstrate that GroEL-GroES may be implicated in the folding of membrane proteins.

  14. Polymorphisms of the enzyme systems galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) and esterase D (EsD) in the province of Cádiz, southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Gamero-Lucas, J J; Romero, J L; Vizcaya, M A; Arufe, M I

    1991-05-01

    Galactose-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) and esterase D (EsD) phenotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing in ultrathin-layer polyacrylamide gel (PAGIF) for 406 healthy subjects randomly chosen and residing in the province of Cádiz, in Southern Spain. The following gene frequencies were observed: for GALT, GALT1 = 0.952 970 3 and GALT2 = 0.047 029 71; for EsD, EsD1 = 0.895 320 2, EsD2 = 0.094 827 59, and EsD5 = 0.009 852 21.

  15. X-ray variability and prediction of TeV emission in the HBL 1ES 1101-232

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, A.; Tavecchio, F.; Caccianiga, A.; Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2000-05-01

    1ES 1101-232 is a bright BL Lac of the High frequency peak class. We present here the results of two BeppoSAX observations in which the source has shown a variation of about 30% in flux with a corresponding spectral variability. We interpret the overall spectral energy distribution in terms of an homogeneous SSC model and, by using also the TeV upper limit from a short Mark 6 pointing, derive constraints on the physical parameters of the source, in particular on the magnetic field strength. The overall Spectral Energy Distribution makes 1ES 1101-232 a very promising candidate for TeV detection.

  16. COST Action ES1401 TIDES: a European network on TIme DEpendent Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Using the full-length records of seismic events and background ambient noise, today seismology is going beyond still-life snapshots of the interior of the Earth, and look into time-dependent changes of its properties. Data availability has grown dramatically with the expansion of seismographic networks and data centers, so as to enable much more detailed and accurate analyses. COST Action ES1401 TIDES (TIme DEpendent Seismology; http://tides-cost.eu) aims at structuring the EU seismological community to enable development of data-intensive, time-dependent techniques for monitoring Earth active processes (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, glacial earthquakes) as well as oil/gas reservoirs. The main structure of TIDES is organised around working groups on: Workflow integration of data and computing resources; Seismic interferometry and ambient noise; Forward problems and High-performance computing applications; Seismic tomography, full waveform inversion and uncertainties; Applications in the natural environment and industry. TIDES is an open network of European laboratories with complementary skills, and is organising a series of events - workshops and advanced training schools - as well as supporting short-duration scientific stays. The first advanced training school was held in Bertinoro (Italy) on June 2015, with attendance of about 100 participants from 20 European countries, was devoted to how to manage and model seismic data with modern tools. The next school, devoted to ambient noise, will be held in 2016 Portugal: the program will be announced at the time of this conference. TIDES will strengthen Europe's role in a critical field for natural hazards and natural resource management.

  17. Salud es Vida: a Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for Rural Latina Immigrant Women.

    PubMed

    Luque, John S; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Alfonso, Moya L; Suazo, Norma; Rebing, Laura; Ferris, Daron G

    2016-01-12

    This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of Salud es Vida-a promotora-led, Spanish language educational group session on cervical cancer screening (Pap tests)-self-efficacy (belief in ability to schedule and complete a Pap test), and knowledge among immigrant Hispanic/Latina women from farmworker backgrounds. These women are disproportionately burdened with cervical cancer, with mortality rates significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. The two-arm, quasi-experimental study was conducted in four rural counties of Southeast Georgia in 2014-2015. Hispanic/Latina immigrant women aged 21-65 years and overdue for a Pap test were included as intervention (N = 38) and control (N = 52) group participants. The intervention was developed in partnership with a group of promotoras to create the toolkit of materials which includes a curriculum guide, a brochure, a flipchart, a short animated video, and in-class activities. Twelve (32 %) intervention group participants received the Pap test compared to 10 (19 %) control group participants (p = 0.178). The intervention group scored significantly higher on both cervical cancer knowledge recall and retention than the control group (p < 0.001). While there was no statistically significant difference in cervical cancer screening self-efficacy scores between the group participants, both groups scored higher at follow-up, adjusting for the baseline scores. The group intervention approach was associated with increased cervical cancer knowledge but not uptake of Pap test. More intensive interventions using patient navigation approaches or promotoras who actively follow participants or conducting one-on-one rather than group sessions may be needed to achieve improved screening outcomes with this population.

  18. Ionized Gas in E/S0 Galaxies with Dust Lanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funes, Jose G.; J., S.; Finkelman, I.; Borsch, N.; Vaisanen, P.; Kniazev, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from an ongoing program to study the properties of dust and ionized gas in E/S0 galaxies with dust lanes. Our observational program comprises of H-alpha and broad-band images obtained with the SAAO 1.9m, the VATT 1.8m and the 1m telescope on WO. A detailed analysis of 30 galaxies shows the presence of a diffusely distributed ionized gas component in most objects. The extended gas morphology is typically smooth and closely follows the dust structure, with a clear correlation between the mass of both components. The dust content in each galaxy is estimated by measuring the extinction by the extragalactic dust in the dark lanes. The derived extinction law is used to correct the measured colors for intrinsic dust extinction and the data are fitted with a stellar population synthesis model. We find that the line-emission and colors of most objects are consistent with the presence of an “old” stellar population ( 10 Gyr) and a small fraction of a “young” population ( 10- 100 Myr). The younger stellar population may have formed at a later stage of the evolution of the galaxy through either a merger event or a secondary star-formation burst. Strong evidence for the external origin of the ISM is provided by the apparent inclination of the dust and ionized gas disks with respect to the galactic plane in a large fraction of our sample galaxies. Further spectroscopic observations will be obtained to study the gaseous disks dynamics and to characterize the underlying stellar populations for evidence of multiple phases of star formation and assembly history.

  19. Environmental Specimen Bank in Ehime University (es-BANK), Japan for global monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-08-01

    During the last 40 years, The Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University collected a variety of environmental and biological material comprising about 1000 species and 100,000 samples from many developing and developed countries and also open seas and oceans all over the world. They were categorically archived, catalogued and stocked in our Environment Specimen Bank (es-BANK) facility equipped with a -25 degrees C cold room. We have already exchanged specimens with many scientific institutions and are also eager to widen our collaboration with other specimen banks. In our survey using the air, water, wildlife and human samples, we found that the major emission sources for the industrial chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are in the developed nations while those of organochlorine (OC) pesticides like dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), etc. are located in developing countries. However, significant emission of modern environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) also seems to occur predominantly in countries with high economic growth rates. Apart from the modern incinerators and other industrial installations in developed nations, the compounds, like dioxins and related compounds (DRCs), were also found to be released in significant levels from the municipal solid waste dumping sites of developing countries. By evaluating the distribution patterns of various persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in our studies, we could conclude that DRCs and DDTs are regional contaminants, while PCBs, PBDEs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) are global contaminants. We also found that the pollution by PBDEs has been increasing in the last two decades while that of the legacy OCs has been decreasing.

  20. Further developments of 8μm pitch MCT pixels at Finmeccanica (formerly Selex ES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeckells, David; McEwen, R. Kennedy; Bains, Sudesh; Herbert, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Finmeccanica (formerly Selex ES) introduced high performance mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) infrared detectors on an 8μm pitch in 2015 with their SuperHawk device which builds on standard production processes already used for the manufacture of 24μm, 20μm, 16μm and 12μm pitch devices. The flexibility of the proprietary Finmeccanica designed diode structure, used in conjunction with the mature production Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) MCT growth process at Finmeccanica, enables fine control of diode electrical and optical structure including free choice of cut-off wavelength. The mesa pixel design inherently provides major system performance benefits by reducing blurring mechanisms, including optical scattering, inter-pixel cross-talk and carrier diffusion, to negligible levels. The SuperHawk detector has demonstrated unrivalled MTF and NETD performance, even when operating at temperatures in excess of 120K. The SuperHawk Integrated Detector Cooler Assembly (IDCA) benefits from recent dewar developments at Finmeccanica, which have improved thermal efficiencies while maintaining mechanical integrity over a wide range of applications, enabling use of smaller cryo-coolers to reduce system SWAP-C. Performance and qualification results are presented together with example imagery. SuperHawk provides an easy high resolution upgrade for systems currently based on standard definition 16μm and 15μm infrared detector formats. The paper also addresses further work to increase the operating temperature of the established 8μm process, exploiting High Operating Temperature (HOT) MCT at Finmeccanica, as well as options for LWIR variants of the SuperHawk device.

  1. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  2. Skinning the goat and pulling the load: transactional sex among youth in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Maganja, R K; Maman, S; Groves, A; Mbwambo, J K

    2007-09-01

    Transactional sex has been associated with risk of HIV infection in a number of studies throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Urban young women are economically vulnerable and at heightened risk of HIV infection in Tanzania; yet there are few studies that have explored relationship dynamics, including transactional sex, in this setting. This paper sheds light on the broader context of sexual relationships among youth at risk for HIV, how transactional sex plays out in these relationships, and how the transactional nature of relationships affects women's risk for HIV. We conducted 60 in depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions with young men and women, 16-24 years old, in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. These data guided the development of a community based HIV and violence prevention intervention for young men. Youth described the exchange of sex for money or other material goods in all types of sexual relationships. While the exchange was explicit in casual relationships, young women voiced material and monetary expectations from their committed partners as well. Young men described their pursuit of multiple partners as sexually motivated, while women sought multiple partners for economic reasons. Young men were aware of the expectations of material support from partners, and acknowledged that their ability to provide for a partner affected both the longevity and exclusivity of their relationships. Youth described a deep mistrust of the motivations and commitment of their sexual partners. Furthermore, young women's financial dependence on men impacted their ability to negotiate safe sexual behaviors in both casual and committed relationships. Programs designed to reduce HIV risk among Tanzanian youth need to take into account the transactional component of sexual relationships and how such exchanges differ according to partner type.

  3. Lessons from helminth infections: ES-62 highlights new interventional approaches in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pineda, M A; Al-Riyami, L; Harnett, W; Harnett, M M

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic worms are able to survive in their mammalian host for many years due to their ability to manipulate the immune response by secreting immunomodulatory products. It is increasingly clear that, reflecting the anti-inflammatory actions of such worm-derived immunomodulators, there is an inverse correlation between helminth infection and autoimmune diseases in the developing world. As the decrease in helminth infections due to increased sanitation has correlated with an alarming increase in prevalence of such disorders in industrialized countries, this ‘hygiene hypothesis’ has led to the proposal that worms and their secreted products offer a novel platform for the development of safe and effective strategies for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. In this study we review the anti-inflammatory effects of one such immunomodulator, ES-62 on innate and adaptive immune responses and the mechanisms it exploits to afford protection in the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As its core mechanism involves targeting of interleukin (IL)-17 responses, which despite being pathogenic in RA are important for combating infection, we discuss how its selective targeting of IL-17 production by T helper type 17 (Th17) and γδ T cells, while leaving that of CD49b+ natural killer (NK and NK T) cells intact, reflects the ability of helminths to modulate the immune system without immunocompromising the host. Exploiting helminth immunomodulatory mechanisms therefore offers the potential for safer therapies than current biologicals, such as ‘IL-17 blockers’, that are not able to discriminate sources of IL-17 and hence present adverse effects that limit their therapeutic potential. PMID:24666108

  4. Investigating broadband variability of the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Hughes, Z.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nelson, T.; Nieto, D.; de Bhróithe, A. O'Faoláin; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sadun, A.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Sheidaei, F.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Theiling, M.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, and B.; Böttcher, M.; Fumagalli, M.

    2014-12-03

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959 650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift UVOT, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters required to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.

  5. Investigating broadband variability of the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650

    DOE PAGES

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; ...

    2014-12-03

    We summarize broadband observations of the TeV-emitting blazar 1ES 1959 650, including optical R-band observations by the robotic telescopes Super-LOTIS and iTelescope, UV observations by Swift UVOT, X-ray observations by the Swift X-ray Telescope, high-energy gamma-ray observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope, and very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations by VERITAS above 315 GeV, all taken between 2012 April 17 and 2012 June 1 (MJD 56034 and 56079). The contemporaneous variability of the broadband spectral energy distribution is explored in the context of a simple synchrotron self Compton (SSC) model. In the SSC emission scenario, we find that the parameters requiredmore » to represent the high state are significantly different than those in the low state. Motivated by possible evidence of gas in the vicinity of the blazar, we also investigate a reflected emission model to describe the observed variability pattern. This model assumes that the non-thermal emission from the jet is reflected by a nearby cloud of gas, allowing the reflected emission to re-enter the blob and produce an elevated gamma-ray state with no simultaneous elevated synchrotron flux. The model applied here, although not required to explain the observed variability pattern, represents one possible scenario which can describe the observations. As applied to an elevated VHE state of 66% of the Crab Nebula flux, observed on a single night during the observation period, the reflected emission scenario does not support a purely leptonic non-thermal emission mechanism. The reflected model does, however, predict a reflected photon field with sufficient energy to enable elevated gamma-ray emission via pion production with protons of energies between 10 and 100 TeV.« less

  6. INTegrating Ice core, MArine, and TErrestrial records (COST Action ES0907)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoek, Wim; Rasmussen, Sune; Renssen, Hans; Hajdas, Irka; Brauer, Achim; Blockley, Simon; Svensson, Anders; Moreno, Ana; Roche, Didier; Valdes, Paul; Birks, Hilary; Solveig Seidenkrantz, Marit; Evelpidou, Niki

    2013-04-01

    The objective of INTIMATE is to reconstruct past abrupt and extreme climate changes over the period 60,000 to 8000 years ago, by facilitating INTegration of Ice core, MArine, and TErrestrial palaeoclimate records and using the combined data in climate models to better understand the mechanisms and impact of change, thereby reducing the uncertainty of future prediction. The project is organized in four working groups: WG-1 Dating and Chronological Modelling A reliable chronological framework is the basis of all studies of the past climate. WG1 is dedicated to developing and improving dating methods over the last 60,000 years and bringing scientists together to develop a coherent dating framework in which records can be compared at unprecedented detail. WG-2 Quantification of Past Climate The aim of WG-2 is to collect and quantify information of past climate from e.g. ice cores, tree rings, corals, stalagmites, and marine and lake sediments in order to draw a detailed picture of the highly variable climate evolution in the North Atlantic region. WG-3 Modelling Mechanisms of Past Change Our ability to forecast the rates and magnitudes of future change depends on numerical models. By using combined ice core, terrestrial, and marine data sets as targets, WG-3 will optimize methodologies to evaluate model simulations and make data-model comparisons. WG-4 Climate Impacts The aim of WG-4 is to gain insights into the impacts of past climatic changes on animal and human populations and the ecosystems of which they are part. WG-4 will quantify the magnitudes and rates of population, species, and ecosystem responses to climate events of different magnitudes in space and through time. The INTIMATE network and the workshops and meetings are open to all interested scientists. INTIMATE also supports research exchange visits. More information can be found at http://cost-es0907.geoenvi.org/

  7. Classification of methods in transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) and evolving strategy from historical approaches to contemporary innovations

    PubMed Central

    Guleyupoglu, Berkan; Schestatsky, Pedro; Edwards, Dylan; Fregni, Felipe; Bikson, Marom

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) encompasses all methods of non-invasive current application to the brain used in research and clinical practice. We present the first comprehensive and technical review, explaining the evolution of tES in both terminology and dosage over the past 100 years of research to present day. Current transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation (tPCS) approaches such as Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) descended from Electrosleep (ES) through Cranial Electro-stimulation Therapy (CET), Transcerebral Electrotherapy (TCET), and NeuroElectric Therapy (NET) while others like Transcutaneous Cranial Electrical Stimulation (TCES) descended from Electroanesthesia (EA) through Limoge, and Interferential Stimulation. Prior to a contemporary resurgence in interest, variations of trans-cranial Direct Current Stimulation were explored intermittently, including Polarizing current, Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS), and Transcranial Micropolarization. The development of these approaches alongside Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and pharmacological developments are considered. Both the roots and unique features of contemporary approaches such as transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) and transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) are discussed. Trends and incremental developments in electrode montage and waveform spanning decades are presented leading to the present day. Commercial devices, seminal conferences, and regulatory decisions are noted. We conclude with six rules on how increasing medical and technological sophistication may now be leveraged for broader success and adoption of tES. PMID:23954780

  8. Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Robin Gerlach; Erin K. Field; Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel; Al B. Cunningham

    2011-09-01

    Microbially reduced iron minerals can reductively transform a variety of contaminants including heavy metals, radionuclides, chlorinated aliphatics, and nitroaromatics. A number of Cellulomonas spp. strains, including strain ES6, isolated from aquifer samples obtained at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington, have been shown to be capable of reducing Cr(VI), TNT, natural organic matter, and soluble ferric iron [Fe(III)]. This research investigated the ability of Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to reduce solid phase and dissolved Fe(III) utilizing different carbon sources and various electron shuttling compounds. Results suggest that Fe(III) reduction by and growth of strain ES6 was dependent upon the type of electron donor, the form of iron present, and the presence of synthetic or natural organic matter, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) or humic substances. This research suggests that Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 could play a significant role in metal reduction in the Hanford subsurface and that the choice of carbon source and organic matter addition can allow for independent control of growth and iron reduction activity.

  9. The Effectiveness of Texas Teacher Certification Programs as Evidenced through Pass Rates on TExES PPR 160 Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouse, Scarlet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between alternative certification pathways, specifically those offered through a university-based, post baccalaureate certification program and a regional education service center certification program. A quantitative research design was implemented and archived scores on the TExES PPR…

  10. Measuring Students' Emotions in the Early Years: The Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Elementary School (AEQ-ES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Pekrun, Reinhard; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Reiss, Kristina; Murayama, Kou

    2012-01-01

    This article reports about the development and validation of a measurement instrument assessing elementary school students' achievement emotions (Achievement Emotions Questionnaire-Elementary School, AEQ-ES). Specifically, the instrument assesses students' enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom pertaining to three types of academic settings (i.e.,…

  11. 76 FR 31860 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III Test Dummy, ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 572 RIN 2127-AK64 Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III Test Dummy, ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... rule published on June 16, 2008, concerning a 50th percentile adult male side crash test dummy...

  12. 75 FR 5931 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III Test Dummy, ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 572 RIN 2127-AK64 Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III Test Dummy, ES-2re Side Impact Crash Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... final rule that had adopted specifications and qualification requirements for a new crash test...

  13. Intimate Partner Violence and the Association with HIV Risk Behaviors among Young Men in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maman, Suzanne; Yamanis, Thespina; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Watt, Melissa; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the association between gender-based violence and HIV from the perspective and experiences of women. The purpose of this study is to examine these associations from the perspective of young men living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A community-based sample of 951 men were interviewed, of whom 360 had sex in the past 6…

  14. Caractérisation de jonctions ultra-minces réalisées par dopage laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrien, G.; Sarnet, T.; Débarre, D.; Hernandez, M.; Zahorski, D.; Venturini, J.; Laviron, C.; Semeria, M. N.; Boulmer, J.

    2003-06-01

    Cette étude concerne les techniques de recuit laser (LTP) et de dopage laser direct (GILD) de jonctions ultra-minces, nécessaires à la fabrication des composants microélectroniques du futur (générations CMOS sub 0,1 μm). Des jonctions de 20 à 80 nm sont réalisées à l'aide d'un laser à excimères. Le procédé est suivi en temps réel grâce à l'analyse de la réflectivité transitoire à 675 nm. L'évolution de l'activation des dopants est ensuite caractérisée par spectroscopie IR (FTIR). Les résultats obtenus permettent de caractériser les jonctions en termes d'épaisseur dopées, concentration et résistivité. Une comparaison avec des caractérisations classiques (mesures électriques de résistivité, profils SIMS) permet de valider ces mesures et de mettre en évidence l'intérêt des techniques optiques pour la caractérisation in-situ et ex-situ des couches minces dopées réalisées par laser.

  15. 77 FR 38884 - Professional Transportation, Inc.-Asset Acquisition-CUSA ES, LLC and CUSA CSS, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... CSS, LLC AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of Finance Application. SUMMARY... CSS, LLC (MC-522544) (collectively, Coach America Subsidiaries). On June 5, 2012, Michael Yusim, an... debtors CUSA ES, LLC and CUSA CSS, LLC free and clear of liens, claims, and encumbrances, and (2)...

  16. ATMOSPHERE AND SPECTRAL MODELS OF THE KEPLER-FIELD PLANETS HAT-P-7b AND TrES-2

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, David S.; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.ed

    2010-10-10

    We develop atmosphere models of two of the three Kepler-field planets that were known prior to the start of the Kepler mission (HAT-P-7b and TrES-2). We find that published Kepler and Spitzer data for HAT-P-7b appear to require an extremely hot upper atmosphere on the dayside, with a strong thermal inversion and little day-night redistribution. The Spitzer data for TrES-2 suggest a mild thermal inversion with moderate day-night redistribution. We examine the effect of nonequilibrium chemistry on TrES-2 model atmospheres and find that methane levels must be adjusted by extreme amounts in order to cause even mild changes in atmospheric structure and emergent spectra. Our best-fit models to the Spitzer data for TrES-2 lead us to predict a low secondary eclipse planet-star flux ratio ({approx}<2 x 10{sup -5}) in the Kepler bandpass, which is consistent with what very recent observations have found. Finally, we consider how the Kepler-band optical flux from a hot exoplanet depends on the strength of a possible extra optical absorber in the upper atmosphere. We find that the optical flux is not monotonic in optical opacity, and the non-monotonicity is greater for brighter, hotter stars.

  17. Classification of methods in transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) and evolving strategy from historical approaches to contemporary innovations.

    PubMed

    Guleyupoglu, Berkan; Schestatsky, Pedro; Edwards, Dylan; Fregni, Felipe; Bikson, Marom

    2013-10-15

    Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) encompasses all methods of non-invasive current application to the brain used in research and clinical practice. We present the first comprehensive and technical review, explaining the evolution of tES in both terminology and dosage over the past 100 years of research to present day. Current transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation (tPCS) approaches such as Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) descended from Electrosleep (ES) through Cranial Electro-stimulation Therapy (CET), Transcerebral Electrotherapy (TCET), and NeuroElectric Therapy (NET) while others like Transcutaneous Cranial Electrical Stimulation (TCES) descended from Electroanesthesia (EA) through Limoge, and Interferential Stimulation. Prior to a contemporary resurgence in interest, variations of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation were explored intermittently, including Polarizing current, Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS), and Transcranial Micropolarization. The development of these approaches alongside Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and pharmacological developments are considered. Both the roots and unique features of contemporary approaches such as transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) and transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) are discussed. Trends and incremental developments in electrode montage and waveform spanning decades are presented leading to the present day. Commercial devices, seminal conferences, and regulatory decisions are noted. We conclude with six rules on how increasing medical and technological sophistication may now be leveraged for broader success and adoption of tES.

  18. National and Global: A History of Scholars' Experiences with Research at the University of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania (1961-Present)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Amy J.

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, I draw on research carried out at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Tanzania in 2008 to examine Tanzanian academics' experience with research throughout the history of this institution. This dissertation is designed as an historical case study and investigates how economic and political changes in Tanzania's…

  19. Provision of Vocational Skills Education to Orphans: Lessons from Orphanage Centres in Dar es Salaam City, Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meli, Benjamin Mbeba

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilises data from a study that investigated the efficacy of vocational skills training provided to orphans from three orphanages in Temeke District, Dar es Salaam. The three orphanage centres that were studied are Kurasini National Children Home, Saudia and Don Bosco Vocational Centre. The sample comprised of 45 orphans, an official…

  20. Angular distribution of {alpha} particles from oriented {sup 253,254}Es and {sup 255}Fm nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Severijns, N.; Golovko, V.V.; Kraev, I.S.; Phalet, T.; Belyaev, A.A.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Noga, V.I.; Erzinkyan, A.L.; Parfenova, V.P.; Eversheim, P.-D.; Herzog, P.; Tramm, C.; Filimonov, V.T.; Toporov, Yu.G.; Zotov, E.; Gurevich, G.M.; Rusakov, A.V.; Vyachin, V.N.; Zakoucky, D.

    2005-04-01

    The anisotropy in the angular distribution of {alpha} particles from oriented {sup 253,254}Es and {sup 255}Fm nuclei, which are among the strongest deformed {alpha} emitters, was measured. Large {alpha} anisotropies have been observed for all three nuclei. The results are compared with calculations based on {alpha}-particle tunneling through a deformed Coulomb barrier.

  1. Transit Timing Variations of TrES-2: a combined analysis of ground- and space-based photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raetz, St.; Ginski, Ch.; Mugrauer, M.; Berndt, A.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Adam, Ch.; Raetz, M.; Roell, T.; Seeliger, M.; Maciejewski, G.; Marka, C.; Vanko, M.; Bukowiecki, L.; Errmann, R.; Kitze, M.; Ohlert, J.; Pribulla, T.; Schmidt, J. G.; Sebastian, D.; Tetzlaff, N.; Hohle, M. M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2013-07-01

    TrES-2 is one of the few exoplanets, which offer the matchless possibility to combine long-term ground-based observations with continuous satellite data. TrES-2 is a target of our "Transit Timing Variations @ YETI" (TTV@YETI) project which is dedicated to detect and characterize signals of transit timing variations. We observed 43 ground-based light curves of 30 individual transit events of TrES-2. We used seven 0.2 - 2.2m telescopes located at five observatories in Germany and Spain. In addition, we analyzed 16 quarters (Q0-Q15) of observational data from NASA's space telescope Kepler including 424 individual transit events. The continuous monitoring of Kepler allows to determine the system parameters of each of the 424 transits and search for possible changes of these quantities. Here we present a first indication of an increasing stellar activity of the TrES-2 host star and provide new limits on possible transit timing variations.

  2. LSWS linked with the low-latitude Es and its implications for the growth of the R-T instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, L. M.

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive investigation of spread F irregularities over the Indian sector has been carried out using VHF radar and ionosonde observations. Two different categories of spread F observations, one where the onset of the range spread F (RSF) was concurrent with the peak h'F (category 1) and another where the RSF onset happened ~90 min after the peak h'F time (category 2), are presented. RSF in category 2 was preceded by the presence of oblique echoes in ionograms, indicating the irregularity genesis westward of Sriharikota. The average peak h'F in category 1 was ~30 km higher than that in category 2 indicating the presence of standing large-scale wave structure (LSWS). Occurrence of the blanketing Es during 19:30 to 20:30 Indian Standard Time in category 1 (category 2) was 0% (>50%). Model computation is also carried out to further substantiate the observational results. Model computation indicates that zonal variation of low-latitude Es can generate zonal modulation in the F layer height rise. It is found that the modulation of the F layer height, linked with the low-latitude Es, assists the equatorial spread F onset by modifying both the growth rate of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability and also its efficiency. A predominant presence of low-latitude Es has been observed, but the increase in the F layer height and the R-T instability growth in the evening hours will maximize with complete absence of low-latitude Es. A new mechanism for the generation of LSWS and its implications on R-T instability is discussed.

  3. Purification and characterization of AsES protein: a subtilisin secreted by Acremonium strictum is a novel plant defense elicitor.

    PubMed

    Chalfoun, Nadia R; Grellet-Bournonville, Carlos F; Martínez-Zamora, Martín G; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Díaz-Ricci, Juan C

    2013-05-17

    In this work, the purification and characterization of an extracellular elicitor protein, designated AsES, produced by an avirulent isolate of the strawberry pathogen Acremonium strictum, are reported. The defense eliciting activity present in culture filtrates was recovered and purified by ultrafiltration (cutoff, 30 kDa), anionic exchange (Q-Sepharose, pH 7.5), and hydrophobic interaction (phenyl-Sepharose) chromatographies. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of the purified active fraction revealed a single spot of 34 kDa and pI 8.8. HPLC (C2/C18) and MS/MS analysis confirmed purification to homogeneity. Foliar spray with AsES provided a total systemic protection against anthracnose disease in strawberry, accompanied by the expression of defense-related genes (i.e. PR1 and Chi2-1). Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (e.g. H2O2 and O2(˙)) and callose was also observed in Arabidopsis. By using degenerate primers designed from the partial amino acid sequences and rapid amplification reactions of cDNA ends, the complete AsES-coding cDNA of 1167 nucleotides was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant identity with fungal serine proteinases of the subtilisin family, indicating that AsES is synthesized as a larger precursor containing a 15-residue secretory signal peptide and a 90-residue peptidase inhibitor I9 domain in addition to the 283-residue mature protein. AsES exhibited proteolytic activity in vitro, and its resistance eliciting activity was eliminated when inhibited with PMSF, suggesting that its proteolytic activity is required to induce the defense response. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a fungal subtilisin that shows eliciting activity in plants. This finding could contribute to develop disease biocontrol strategies in plants by activating its innate immunity.

  4. Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Environmental Safety Health (ES and H) FY 2000 and FY 2001 Execution Commitment Summary

    SciTech Connect

    REEP, I.E.

    2000-12-01

    All sites in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex prepare this report annually for the DOE Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH). The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the previous and current year's Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) execution commitments and the Safety and Health (S&H) resources that support these activities. The fiscal year (FY) 2000 and 2001 information and data contained in the Richland Operations Environment, Safefy and Health Fiscal Year 2002 Budget-Risk Management Summary (RL 2000a) were the basis for preparing this report. Fiscal year 2001 activities are based on the President's Amended Congressional Budget Request of $689.6 million for funding Ofice of Environmental Management (EM) $44.0 million for Fast Flux Test Facility standby less $7.0 million in anticipated DOE, Headquarters holdbacks for Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology (NE); and $55.3 million for Safeguards and Security (SAS). Any funding changes as a result of the Congressional appropriation process will be reflected in the Fiscal Year 2003 ES&H Budget-Risk Management Summary to be issued in May 2001. This report provides the end-of-year status of FY 2000 ES&H execution commitments, including actual S&H expenditures, and describes planned FY 2001 ES&H execution commitments and the S&H resources needed to support those activities. This requirement is included in the ES&H guidance contained in the FY 2002 Field Budget Call (DOE 2000).

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CHANG-ES. IV. VLA D-configuration observations (Wiegert+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, T.; Irwin, J.; Miskolczi, A.; Schmidt, P.; Mora, S. C.; Damas-Segovia, A.; Stein, Y.; English, J.; Rand, R. J.; Santistevan, I.; Walterbos, R.; Krause, M.; Beck, R.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Kepley, A.; Wezgowiec, M.; Wang, Q. D.; Heald, G.; Li, J.; MacGregor, S.; Johnson, M.; Strong, A. W.; Desouza, A.; Porter, T. A.

    2016-04-01

    This is the fourth paper in the series "Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies, an EVLA Survey" (CHANG-ES). With CHANG-ES, we have observed 35 nearby edge-on galaxies in the radio continuum in L- and C-bands (centered at approximately 1.5 and 6GHz, respectively), in three array configurations (B, C, D; in the B configuration only L-band was observed) of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (hereafter VLA). We refer to Table1 of Irwin et al. (2012AJ....144...43I; Paper I) for details of the galaxy sample. Two other papers, Irwin et al. (2012AJ....144...44I; Paper II) and Irwin et al. (2013AJ....146..164I; Paper III), present the detailed results of CHANG-ES observations of NGC 4631 and UGC 10288, respectively. In this, the fourth CHANG-ES paper, we present all observations that were carried out in the shortest baseline array configuration, D. The data products (including intensity maps, spectral index maps, and polarization maps) are part of our Data Release 1, located at http://www.queensu.ca/changes. Of the 405hr that were awarded for the entire CHANG-ES project, 65hr were set apart for the D-configuration observations in two frequency bands, L and C. The observations were divided up into 13 scheduling blocks. The bulk of the data were observed during 2011 December. Two scheduling blocks were reobserved in 2013 March. The details of the observations are presented in Table1. (5 data files).

  6. Brugia pahangi: immunization with early L3 ES alters parasite migration, and reduces microfilaremia and lymphatic lesion formation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Zipperer, Ginger R; Arumugam, Sridhar; Chirgwin, Sharon R; Coleman, Sharon U; Shakya, Krishna P; Klei, Thomas R

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that intradermally (ID) injected Brugia pahangi L3 s migrate through various tissues and into the lymphatics of gerbils in a distinct pattern. Excretory/secretory products (ES) produced at the time of invasion of B. pahangi are likely to be important in this early migration phase of the parasite life cycle in their rodent host. Hence, early L3 ES was collected from 24h in vitro cultures of B. pahangi L3 larvae and used in immunization experiments to investigate the effect of immunity to early L3 ES on worm migration, survival and development of B. pahangi. Immunization of gerbils with ES in RIBI adjuvant produced antibodies to numerous ES proteins eliciting a strong humoral response to ES and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay using anti-ES serum recognized the ES proteins on the surface of B. pahangi L3 larvae. Following ES immunization, gerbils were challenged either ID or intraperitoneally (IP) with 100 L3 s of B. pahangi and euthanized at 3 or 106 days post inoculation (DPI). Immunization with early ES slowed the migration of ID inoculated L3 at 3 DPI and significantly altered the locations of adult worms at 106 DPI. Immunization did not induce protection in any treatment group. However, immunized animals had significantly fewer microfilariae per female worm suggesting the antigens in ES are important in microfilariae development or survival in the host. The number of lymphatic granulomas was also significantly reduced in ES immunized animals. It is important to note that microfilariae serve as a nidus in these granulomas. Our results shows immunization with early Brugia malayi L3 ES alters the worm migration, affects circulating microfilarial numbers and reduces lymphatic granulomas associated with B. pahangi infection in gerbils.

  7. SCIDIP-ES - A science data e-infrastructure for preservation of earth science data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, Andrew; Glaves, Helen; Marelli, Fulvio; Albani, Mirko; Tona, Calogera; Marketakis, Yannis; Tzitzikas, Yannis; Guarino, Raffaele; Giaretta, David; Di Giammatteo, Ugo

    2013-04-01

    The capability for long term preservation of earth science data is a key requirement to support on-going research and collaboration within and between many earth science disciplines. A number of critically important current research directions (e.g. understanding climate change, and ensuring sustainability of natural resources) rely on the preservation of data often collected over several decades in a form in which it can be accessed and used easily. In many branches of the earth sciences the capture of key observational data may be difficult or impossible to repeat. For example, a specific geological exposure or subsurface borehole may be only temporarily available, and deriving earth observation data from a particular satellite mission is clearly often a unique opportunity. At the same time such unrepeatable observations may be a critical input to environmental, economic and political decision making. Another key driver for strategic long term data preservation is that key research challenges (such as those described above) frequently require cross disciplinary research utilising raw and interpreted data from a number of earth science disciplines. Effective data preservation strategies can support this requirement for interoperability, and thereby stimulate scientific innovation. The SCIDIP-ES project (EC FP7 grant agreement no. 283401) seeks to address these and other data preservation challenges by developing a Europe wide e-infrastructure for long term data preservation comprising appropriate software tools and infrastructure services to enable and promote long term preservation of earth science data. Because we define preservation in terms of continued usability of the digitally encoded information, the generic infrastructure services will allow a wide variety of data to be made usable by researchers from many different domains. This approach will enable the cost for long-term usability across disciplines to be shared supporting the creation of strong

  8. Factors associated with different patterns of nonadherence to HIV care in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Poles, Gabriela; Li, Michelle; Siril, Hellen; Mhalu, Aisa; Hawkins, Claudia; Kaaya, Sylvia; Aris, Eric; Chalamilla, Guerino; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2014-01-01

    Health system responsiveness (HSR), a measure of patient health care experience, may influence adherence to HIV/AIDS care and be an important predictor of outcomes. We studied the relationship between HSR, patient factors, and visit nonadherence in 16 President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-supported HIV/AIDS clinics in Dar es Salaam. An HSR survey was administered in 2009, and all clinic visits 1 year following the interviews were analyzed for 720 patients on antiretrovirals (ARVs). Definitions of visit nonadherence were (1) low visit constancy ([VC], no visit in ≥1 quarter), (2) gaps in care (>60 days between visits), (3) no visit in last quarter (VLQ). The relationships between factors were analyzed using multivariate analysis with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported. Few patients were nonadherent using VLQ (14%) and VC (28%). Gaps in care were more common (49.6%) and associated with younger age (AOR: 3.86 [2.02-7.40]), no explanation of side effects (AOR: 2.21 [1.49-3.28]), and shorter antiretroviral therapy (ART) duration (0-3 months AOR: 1.49 [1.09-2.03]; 3-6 months AOR: 2.44 [1.40-4.25]). No VLQ was associated with younger age (AOR: 3.40 [1.63-7.07]), poor health care worker (HCW) communication (AOR: 4.83 [1.39-16.78]), and less time on ART (0-3 months AOR: 5.04 [2.47-10.30]; 3-6 months AOR: 3.09 [1.72-5.57]). Younger age, poor HCW communication, and shorter ART duration also predicted lower VC, as did higher patient-HCW ratios. The rates of visit nonadherence differed based on the definitions used. Younger age, shorter time on ART, and poor HCW communication predicted lower adherence regardless of the definition. More work is needed to understand the relationship between HSR, patient factors, and different patterns of visit nonadherence and their impact on ART outcomes.

  9. Gender differences in diet and nutrition among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Abioye, Ajibola I; Isanaka, Sheila; Liu, Enju; Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Noor, Ramadhani A; Spiegelman, Donna; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected males have poor treatment outcomes after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared to HIV-infected women. Dietary factors might mediate the association between sex and disease progression. However, the gender difference in diet among HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to examine differences in dietary intake among HIV-infected men and women. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of dietary questionnaire data from 2038 adults initiating ART in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to assess whether nutrient adequacy differed by sex. We dichotomized participants' nutrient intakes by whether recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) were met and estimated the relative risk (RR) of meeting RDAs in males using binomial regression models. We also estimated the mean difference in intake of foods and food groups by gender. We found poorer dietary practices among men compared to women. Males were less likely to meet the RDAs for micronutrients critical for slowing disease progression among HIV patients: niacin (RR = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.55), riboflavin (RR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.91), vitamin C (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.00), and zinc (RR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.24). Intake of thiamine, pantothenate, vitamins B6, B12, and E did not vary by gender. Males were less likely to eat cereals (mean difference [servings per day] = -0.21, 95% CI: -0.44 to 0.001) and vegetables (mean difference = -0.47, 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.07) in their diet, but more likely to have meat (mean difference = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.21). We conclude that male HIV patients have poorer dietary practices than females, and this may contribute to faster progression of the disease in males.

  10. Teaching a new dog old tricks: the synergy of ISO 14000, NEPA, and integrated ES{ampersand}H management

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, C.H.

    1997-03-01

    For more than twenty-five years, federal agencies have wrestled with (and even learned from) the planning and decision making processes of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Accordingly, agencies have developed established processes for environmental planning, impact assessment,and environmental-based decision making. Agencies are now faced with an opportunity to align existing environmental planning systems developed under NEPA with those of ISO 14001, the new international standard for environmental management systems. Through experience gained with NEPA, agencies may have an opportunity to assist the private sector through sharing of lessons learned in identification and mitigation of environmental aspects and impacts. However, agencies should also learn from the private sector how integrated environmental management includes integrating environment, safety, and health (ES&H) considerations in such away as to add direct value to the business. In times of continued and increasing federal agency downsizing, the government can streamline ES&H management planning by integrating ES&H values with business goals. The first synergy of NEPA and ISO 14001 is the identification and assessment of environmental impacts. Under IS0 14001,an organization must identify the `environmental aspects of its activities, products or services`. This is similar to the approach taken in NEPA where agencies must evaluate significant environmental impacts of its actions. The second synergy is the reduction and mitigation of the impacts. IS0 14001 requires a commitment to prevention of pollution and the NEPA process integrates pollution prevention with environmental planning. IS0 14001 requires checking and corrective action to monitor and measure progress toward environmental goals. NEPA applies mitigation measures to avoid or mitigate potential impacts. Because agencies have been conducting NEPA impact assessment for more than twenty-five years, this body of impact assessment

  11. Croissance et forme de l'hyphe modelées par une instabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelcé, P.

    2004-07-01

    We propose a theory of growth and form of hyphae in analogy with dendritic growth, the basic ingredients for the organization of the hyphal tip being the vesicles used for the growth and the proton pumps at the origin of membrane potential. The uniform growth may be unstable, favoring the formation of vesicle clusters separated with a characteristic distance essentially determined by the dependance of the proton current with the internal pH and the membrane potential, the ionic current entering the more depolarized sites of the membrane where the aggregates form. This model is well adapted to the hyphoïd curve model [CITE], since it allows to propose an organization of the hyphal tip coupling proton currents and vesicle motions. One can determine the aggregation rate of a Spitzenkörper N as a function of the symport current and thus the external concentration of the co-transported substance, as well as a length scale λ ≈ d √τ / χ1/4 which can be associated to the current loop size. These first results are in good agreement with experimental results, suggesting that the coupling between vesicles and ionic channels is an essential mechanism of the morphogenesis of these organisms. Nous proposons une théorie de la croissance et de la forme de l'hyphe en analogie avec la croissance dendritique, les ingrédients de base de l'organisation de la pointe de l'hyphe étant des vésicules utilisées pour la croissance ainsi que des pompes à proton à l'origine du potentiel de membrane. La croissance uniforme peut être instable, favorisant la formation d'agrégats de vésicules distants d'une distance caractéristique essentiellement déterminée par la dépendance du courant de proton avec le pH interne et le potentiel de membrane, le courant ionique entrant aux lieux les plus dépolarisés de la membrane où se trouvent justement les agrégats. Ce modèle s'adapte très bien à celui de la courbe hyphoïde [CITE] puisqu'il permet de proposer une organisation de

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of KIFC1-like kinesin gene (es-KIFC1) in the testis of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Hui; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2010-10-01

    KIFC1 is essential for acrosome biogenesis and nuclear reshaping during the spermiogenesis of mammals. To explore its functions during the same process in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, we have cloned and sequenced the cDNA of a mammalian KIFC1 homologue (termed es-KIFC1) from the total RNA of the testis. The 2340bp es-KIFC1 cDNA contained a 102bp 5' untranslated region, a 117bp 3' untranslated region and a 2121bp open reading frame. The putative es-KIFC1 protein owns the divergent tail domain, stalk domain and conserved carboxyl motor domain. Protein alignment demonstrated that es-KIFC1 had 36.9%, 37.3%, 36.6%, 37.6%, and 37.5% identity with its homologues in chicken, human, mouse, zebrafish and African clawed frog, respectively. The phylogenetic tree revealed that es-KIFC1 is more related to vertebrate KIFC1 than invertebrate (NCD). Tissue expression analysis showed the presence of es-KIFC1 in the testis, hepatopancreas, gill, muscle and heart. In situ hybridization showed that the es-KIFC1 mRNA was localized in the proacrosomal vesicle and the periphery of the nuclear membrane in early and middle spermatids. In late spermatids and spermatozoa, es-KIFC1 was expressed in the acrosomal tubule and the band between the acrosome and the nucleus. Therefore, es-KIFC1 probably performs critical functions in the spermiogenesis of E.sinensis.

  13. Recombinant Haemonchus contortus 24 kDa excretory/secretory protein (rHcES-24) modulate the immune functions of goat PBMCs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Li, Baojie; Ehsan, Muhammad; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhenchao; Wang, Yujian; Hasan, Muhammad Waqqas; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2016-12-20

    A 24 kDa protein is one of the important components in Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm) excretory/secretory products (HcESPs), which was shown to have important antigenic function. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory effects of this proteinon host cell. In the present study gene encoding 24kDa excretory/secretory protein (HcES-24) was cloned. The recombinant protein of HcES-24 (rHcES-24) was expressed in a histidine-tagged fusion protein soluble form in Escherichia coli. Binding activity of rHcES-24 to goat PBMCs was confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and its immunomudulatory effect on cytokine secretion, cell proliferation, cell migration and nitric oxide production were observed by co-incubation of rHcES-24. IFA results revealed that rHcES-24 could bind to the PBMCs. The interaction of rHcES-24 increased the production of IL4, IL10, IL17 and cell migration in dose dependent manner. However, rHcES-24 treatment significantly suppressed the production of IFNγ, proliferation of the PBMC and Nitric oxide (NO) production. Our findings showed that the rHcES-24 played important regulatory effects on the goat PBMCs.

  14. The development and application of k0-standardization method of neutron activation analysis at Es-Salam research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghem, L.; Ramdhane, M.; Khaled, S.; Akhal, T.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years the k0-NAA method has been applied and developed at the 15 MW Es-Salam research reactor, which includes: (1) the detection efficiency calibration of γ-spectrometer used in k0-NAA, (2) the determination of reactor neutron spectrum parameters such as α and f factors in the irradiation channel, and (3) the validation of the developed k0-NAA procedure by analysing SRM, namely AIEA-Soil7 and CRM, namely IGGE-GSV4. The analysis results obtained by k0-NAA with 27 elements of Soil-7 standard and 14 elements of GSV-4 standard were compared with certified values. The analysis results showed that the deviations between experimental and certified values were mostly less than 10%. The k0-NAA procedure established at Es-Salam research reactor has been regarded as a reliable standardization method of NAA and as available for practical applications.

  15. Inference of gene regulation via miRNAs during ES cell differentiation using MiRaGE method.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Taguchi, Y-H; Yasuda, Jun

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a critical regulator of cell growth, differentiation, and development. To identify important miRNAs in a biological process, many bioinformatical tools have been developed. We have developed MiRaGE (MiRNA Ranking by Gene Expression) method to infer the regulation of gene expression by miRNAs from changes of gene expression profiles. The method does not require precedent array normalization. We applied the method to elucidate possibly important miRNAs during embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation to neuronal cells and we infer that certain miRNAs, including miR-200 family, miR-429, miR-302 family, and miR-17-92 cluster members may be important to the maintenance of undifferentiated status in ES cells.

  16. Monitoring of the Tev Blazar 1ES 1101-232 with RXTE and H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puehlhofer, Gerd

    We want to carry out an observation campaign of 10 nights with HESS and RXTE on 1ES 1101-232, the by far most distant object detected in TeV gamma-rays. HESS is a second generation TeV Cherenkov telescope system with a much better sensitivity and lower energy threshold compared to previous instruments. The campaign will be accompanied by observations of various other instruments. Our goals are (a) to measure and understand the temporal evolution of the broad-band spectral energy distribution of Blazars, in order to allow more detailed modeling of radiation processes and particle acceleration in Blazar jets, and (b) to investigate the cosmic Extragalactic Background Light by studying the absorption of TeV gamma-rays, for which 1ES 1101-232 (z=0.186) is an extremely important target.

  17. Les avantages et les risques d’exiger que les chercheurs partagent leurs données

    PubMed Central

    McAlister, Vivian C.; Harvey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Le Comité international des rédacteurs de revues médicales a rendu possibles de nombreuses avancées dans la communication des résultats de recherche médicale qui ont amélioré la qualité de la recherche. Sa proposition de demander aux chercheurs une déclaration sur l’accessibilité de données sousjacentes à partager pourrait faire grandement progresser les connaissances médicales. Le Journal canadien de chirurgie appuie l’initiative et élaborera des mécanismes visant à aider les auteurs à respecter cette nouvelle exigence. PMID:28234611

  18. Rape against women: the magnitude, perpetrators and patterns of disclosure of events in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Muganyizi, Projestine S; Kilewo, Charles; Moshiro, Candida

    2004-12-01

    This cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Dar es Salaam between July and August 2000. The objectives were to establish the magnitude of rape against women, the perpetrators, disclosure of events and other related factors. Among the 1004 women who completed their interviews, 20% said they were ever raped. The known perpetrators were responsible for 92% of the most recent events. Whereas 34% of events were disclosed for non-legal purposes, only 10% were disclosed to the police. Repeated rape and patterns of disclosure were significantly associated with existing social relationships with the perpetrator. The results indicate that rape against women is a serious public health problem in Dar es Salaam commonly involving people who are close to the victims.

  19. Dynamic transcription programs during ES cell differentiation towards mesoderm in serum versus serum-freeBMP4 culture

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Stephen J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Burke, Les J; Gongora, M Milena; Grimmond, Sean M; Perkins, Andrew C

    2007-01-01

    Background Expression profiling of embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation in the presence of serum has been performed previously. It remains unclear if transcriptional activation is dependent on complex growth factor mixtures in serum or whether this process is intrinsic to ES cells once the stem cell program has been inactivated. The aims of this study were to determine the transcriptional programs associated with the stem cell state and to characterize mesoderm differentiation between serum and serum-free culture. Results ES cells were differentiated as embryoid bodies in 10% FBS or serum-free media containing BMP4 (2 ng/ml), and expression profiled using 47 K Illumina(R) Sentrix arrays. Statistical methods were employed to define gene sets characteristic of stem cell, epiblast and primitive streak programs. Although the initial differentiation profile was similar between the two culture conditions, cardiac gene expression was inhibited in serum whereas blood gene expression was enhanced. Also, expression of many members of the Kruppel-like factor (KLF) family of transcription factors changed dramatically during the first few days of differentiation. KLF2 and KLF4 co-localized with OCT4 in a sub-nuclear compartment of ES cells, dynamic changes in KLF-DNA binding activities occurred upon differentiation, and strong bio-informatic evidence for direct regulation of many stem cell genes by KLFs was found. Conclusion Down regulation of stem cell genes and activation of epiblast/primitive streak genes is similar in serum and defined media, but subsequent mesoderm differentiation is strongly influenced by the composition of the media. In addition, KLF family members are likely to be important regulators of many stem cell genes. PMID:17925037

  20. Characteristics and geographic distribution of HIV-positive women diagnosed with cervical cancer in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lovgren, Kathleen; Soliman, Amr S; Ngoma, Twalib; Kahesa, Crispin; Meza, Jane

    2016-10-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading incident cancer and the main cause of cancer-related mortality among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, HIV-infected women are at a higher risk of developing cervical cancer than HIV-negative women. The purpose of this study was to distinguish differences in characteristics of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with cervical cancer in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The HIV status of cervical cancer patients diagnosed and/or treated at Ocean Road Cancer Institute in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, during the period 2007-2011 was abstracted from the medical records. Additional abstracted information included patient's name, age, place of residence, occupation, education, marital status, age at marriage, gravidity, and screening clinic visit results. Ocean Road Cancer Institute patients came from two sources: the screening clinic followed by treatment clinic or the treatment clinic without prior screening. HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients were compared regarding the above-listed clinical and epidemiologic factors. Multivariable analysis was also performed to assess the risk factors associated with cervical cancer treatment without prior screening at Ocean Road Cancer Institute. HIV-positive cervical cancer patients tended to be younger, with higher education and lower parity. Patients screened for cervical cancer prior to treatment were more likely to be HIV-positive (OR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.36, 3.21), less likely to have higher disease stages (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.94), and less likely to reside outside of Dar es Salaam (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.65). Screening for cervical cancer at Ocean Road Cancer Institute is utilised by more HIV-positive patients from Dar es Salaam. Future studies should focus on identifying the reasons for lower utilisation of screening by HIV-negative patients and patients from other distant rural regions in Tanzania.

  1. Can manipulation of differentiation conditions eliminate proliferative cells from a population of ES cell-derived forebrain cells?

    PubMed Central

    Precious, Sophie V.; Kelly, Claire M.; Allen, Nicholas D.; Rosser, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is preliminary evidence that implantation of primary fetal striatal cells provides functional benefit in patients with Huntington's disease, a neurodegenerative condition resulting in loss of medium-sized spiny neurons (MSN) of the striatum. Scarcity of primary fetal tissue means it is important to identify a renewable source of cells from which to derive donor MSNs. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, which predominantly default to telencephalic-like precursors in chemically defined medium (CDM), offer a potentially inexhaustible supply of cells capable of generating the desired neurons. Using an ES cell line, with the forebrain marker FoxG1 tagged to the LacZ reporter, we assessed effects of known developmental factors on the yield of forebrain-like precursor cells in CDM suspension culture. Addition of FGF2, but not DKK1, increased the proportion of FoxG1-expressing cells at day 8 of neural induction. Oct4 was expressed at day 8, but was undetectable by day 16. Differentiation of day 16 precursors generated GABA-expressing neurons, with few DARPP32 positive MSNs. Transplantation of day 8 precursor cells into quinolinic acid-lesioned striata resulted in generation of teratomas. However, transplantation of day 16 precursors yielded grafts expressing neuronal markers including NeuN, calbindin and parvalbumin, but no DARPP32 6 weeks post-transplantation. Manipulation of fate of ES cells requires optimization of both concentration and timing of addition of factors to culture systems to generate the desired phenotypes. Furthermore, we highlight the value of increasing the precursor phase of ES cell suspension culture when directing differentiation toward forebrain fate, so as to dramatically reduce the risk of teratoma formation. PMID:27606335

  2. Neutrino Emission in the Hadronic Synchrotron Mirror Model: The "Orphan" Flare from 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimer, A.; Boettcher, M.; Postnikov, S.

    2005-01-01

    A challenge to standard leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models is the so-called orphan TeV flares, i.e., enhanced very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission without any contemporaneous X-ray flaring activity, that have recently been observed in TeV blazars (e.g., 1ES 1959+650). In order to explain the orphan TeV flare of 1 ES 1959+650 observed in 2002 June, the so-called hadronic synchrotron mirror model has been developed. Here relativistic protons are proposed to exist in the jet and interact with reflected electron synchrotron radiation of the precursor SSC flare. If the reflector is located in the cloud region, time shifts of several days are possible between the precursor and the orphan flare. The external photons, blue-shifted in the comoving jet frame, are able to excite the Delta(1232) resonance when interacting with protons of Lorentz factors gamma(sub p) approx. 10(exp 3)-10(exp 4). The decay products of this resonance include charged pions, which, on decay, give rise to neutrino production during the orphan flare. In this paper we calculate the expected neutrino emission for the 2002 June 4 orphan TeV flare of 1ES 1959+650. We compare our results with the recent observations of AMANDA-II of a neutrino event in spatial and temporal coincidence with the orphan flare of this blazar. We find that the expected neutrino signal from the hadronic synchrotron mirror model is insufficient to explain the claimed neutrino signal from the direction of 1ES 1959+650.

  3. Proliferation assay of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells exposed to atmospheric-pressure plasmas at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Taichi; Ando, Ayumi; Hirano, Kazumi; Ogura, Chika; Kanazawa, Tatsuya; Ikeguchi, Masamichi; Seki, Atsushi; Nishihara, Shoko; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Proliferation assays of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells have been performed with cell culture media exposed to atmospheric-pressure plasmas (APPs), which generate reactive species in the media at room temperature. It is found that serum in cell culture media functions as a scavenger of highly reactive species and tends to protect cells in the media against cellular damage. On the other hand, if serum is not present in a cell culture medium when it is exposed to APP, the medium becomes cytotoxic and cannot be detoxified by serum added afterwards. Plasma-induced cytotoxic media hinder proliferation of mouse ES cells and may even cause cell death. It is also shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy that organic compounds in cell culture media are in general not significantly modified by plasma exposure. These results indicate that if there is no serum in media when they are exposed to APPs, highly reactive species (such as OH radicals) generated in the media by the APP exposure are immediately converted to less reactive species (such as H2O2), which can no longer readily react with serum that is added to the medium after plasma exposure. This study has clearly shown that it is these less reactive species, rather than highly reactive species, that make the medium cytotoxic to mouse ES cells.

  4. nES GEMMA Analysis of Lectins and Their Interactions with Glycoproteins - Separation, Detection, and Sampling of Noncovalent Biospecific Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Nicole Y.; Weiss, Victor U.; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand biological events, lectin-glycoprotein interactions are of interest. The possibility to gather more information than the mere positive or negative response for interactions brought mass spectrometry into the center of many research fields. The presented work shows the potential of a nano-electrospray gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analyzer (nES GEMMA) to detect weak, noncovalent, biospecific interactions besides still unbound glycoproteins and unreacted lectins without prior liquid phase separation. First results for Sambucus nigra agglutinin, concanavalin A, and wheat germ agglutinin and their retained noncovalent interactions with glycoproteins in the gas phase are presented. Electrophoretic mobility diameters (EMDs) were obtained by nES GEMMA for all interaction partners correlating very well with molecular masses determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) of the individual molecules. Moreover, EMDs measured for the lectin-glycoprotein complexes were in good accordance with theoretically calculated mass values. Special focus was laid on complex formation for different lectin concentrations and binding specificities to evaluate the method with respect to results obtained in the liquid phase. The latter was addressed by capillary electrophoresis on-a-chip (CE-on-a-chip). Of exceptional interest was the fact that the formed complexes could be sampled according to their size onto nitrocellulose membranes after gas-phase separation. Subsequent immunological investigation further proved that the collected complex actually retained its native structure throughout nES GEMMA analysis and sampling.

  5. On the nature of radar backscatter and 250 MHz scintillation linked with an intense daytime Es patch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, A. K.; Chaitanya, P. Pavan; Bhattacharyya, A.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we present and analyze the Gadanki radar observations of an unusual event of daytime radar echoes from the E region, which spread over a range of 105-150 km and displayed a “U shape” in the range-time SNR map. The U shape echoing structure was an added feature to the commonly observed lower E region echoes with slowly descending features and 150 km echoes with range migration displaying a forenoon descent and afternoon ascent. Distinctly different Doppler velocities were observed in the two arms of the U shape structure with velocities increasing with height and surprisingly exceeding the Doppler velocities of the 150 km echoes. The Doppler spectra display features very similar to those observed below 100 km indicating turbulence as the underlying process. A collocated ionosonde observed unusually strong sporadic E (Es) activity with maximum reflected/scattered frequency (ftEs) reaching 16 MHz in close correspondence with the U shape structure. During the same duration, a collocated 250.6 MHz scintillation receiver revealed scintillation activity, not observed before from Gadanki. The unusual radar observations, strong Es activity, and daytime scintillation are first of its kind from Gadanki. Detailed analysis suggests that the U shape radar echoes extending to 150 km range were due to the sidelobe detection of the E region irregularities with special features that were also responsible for the daytime scintillation. The genesis and implication of the irregularities are discussed.

  6. nES GEMMA Analysis of Lectins and Their Interactions with Glycoproteins - Separation, Detection, and Sampling of Noncovalent Biospecific Complexes.

    PubMed

    Engel, Nicole Y; Weiss, Victor U; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand biological events, lectin-glycoprotein interactions are of interest. The possibility to gather more information than the mere positive or negative response for interactions brought mass spectrometry into the center of many research fields. The presented work shows the potential of a nano-electrospray gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analyzer (nES GEMMA) to detect weak, noncovalent, biospecific interactions besides still unbound glycoproteins and unreacted lectins without prior liquid phase separation. First results for Sambucus nigra agglutinin, concanavalin A, and wheat germ agglutinin and their retained noncovalent interactions with glycoproteins in the gas phase are presented. Electrophoretic mobility diameters (EMDs) were obtained by nES GEMMA for all interaction partners correlating very well with molecular masses determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) of the individual molecules. Moreover, EMDs measured for the lectin-glycoprotein complexes were in good accordance with theoretically calculated mass values. Special focus was laid on complex formation for different lectin concentrations and binding specificities to evaluate the method with respect to results obtained in the liquid phase. The latter was addressed by capillary electrophoresis on-a-chip (CE-on-a-chip). Of exceptional interest was the fact that the formed complexes could be sampled according to their size onto nitrocellulose membranes after gas-phase separation. Subsequent immunological investigation further proved that the collected complex actually retained its native structure throughout nES GEMMA analysis and sampling. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  7. Teaching a new dog old tricks: The synergy of ISO 14000, NEPA, and integrated ES and H management

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, C.H.

    1997-08-01

    For more than twenty-five years, federal agencies have wrestled with (and even learned from) the planning and decision-making processes of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Accordingly, agencies have developed established processes for environmental planning, impact assessment, and environmental-based decision making. Agencies are now faced with an opportunity to align existing environmental planning systems developed under NEPA with those of ISO 14001, the new international standard for environmental management systems. Through experience gained with NEPA, agencies may have an opportunity to assist the private sector through sharing of lessons learned in identification and mitigation of environmental aspects and impacts. However, agencies should also learn from the private sector how integrated environmental management includes integrating environment, safety, and health (ES and H) considerations in such a way as to add direct value to the business. In times of continued and increasing federal agency downsizing, the government can streamline ES and H management planning by integrating ES and H values with business goals.

  8. beta. -delayed fission from /sup 256/Es/sup m/ and the level scheme of /sup 256/Fm

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, H.L.; Gregorich, K.E.; Henderson, R.A.; Lee, D.M.; Hoffman, D.C.; Bunker, M.E.; Fowler, M.M.; Lysaght, P.; Starner, J.W.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; and others

    1989-05-01

    The 7.6-h isotope /sup 256/Es/sup m/ was produced from a 2.5-..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ target of /sup 254/Es by the (t,p) reaction. The reaction products were separated radiochemically, and the decay properties of /sup 256/Es/sup m/ were determined via ..beta..-..gamma.., ..gamma..-..gamma.., and ..beta..-fission correlation techniques. From these measurements we were able to assign 57 ..gamma.. rays to 26 levels in the daughter /sup 256/Fm. An isomeric level was observed at 1425 keV and assigned a spin and parity of 7/sup -/. This level has a t/sub 1/2/ of (70 +- 5) ns and we observed two ..beta..-delayed fissions with delay times in the proper time range to be associated with fission from this level. This gives a ..beta..-delayed fission probability of 2 x 10/sup -5/ for this level and a partial fission half-life of 0.8/sub -0.7//sup +8.8/ ms at the 95% confidence level.

  9. Annuaire du bureau des Longitudes : guide de données astronomiques 2012 pour l'observation du ciel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Institut de Mécanique Céleste Et de Calcul Des Ephémérides (Imcce); Bureau Des Longitudes (Bdl)

    2011-07-01

    Destiné aux astronomes, professionnels ou amateurs, cet ouvrage se décompose de la façon suivante : Les trois premiers chapitres de cet ouvrage contiennent : les données sur les différents calendriers et leur concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les différentes échelles de temps, les dates de décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine parues au Journal Officiel depuis 1916 ; des notions nécessaires à la compréhension et à l'emploi des éphémérides contenues dans l'ouvrage. Les chapitres suivant fournissent des éphémérides astronomiques : les positions du Soleil et de la Lune ; les positions des planètes et de leurs satellites ; les positions des astéroïdes et des comètes ; les explications et des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel, une liste de constellations et les positions et occultations des étoiles ; des données sur les éclipses de Soleil et de Lune et sur les phénomènes astronomiques ; la liste des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus.

  10. Biofidelity evaluation of WorldSID and ES-2re under side impact conditions with and without airbag.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taewung; Shaw, Greg; Lessley, David; Park, Gwansik; Crandall, Jeff; Svendsen, Andy; Whitcomb, Bryant; Ayyagari, Murthy; Mishra, Prashast; Markusic, Craig

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the biofidelity of the WorldSID and the ES-2re under whole-body side impact conditions with and without a side airbag using the biomechanical cadaveric response data generated from 4.3m/s whole-body side impact tests. Impact forces, spinal kinematics, and chest deflections were considered in the biofidelity evaluation. Average responses and response corridors of PMHS were created using a time-alignment technique to reduce variability of the PMHS responses while maintaining the sum of the time shifts to be zero for each response. Biofidelity of the two dummies was compared using a correlation and analysis (CORA) method. The WorldSID demonstrated better biofidelity than the ES-2re in terms of CORA ratings in the conditions with airbag (0.53 vs. 0.46) and without an airbag (0.57 vs. 0.49). Lastly, the kinematic analysis of the two dummies indicated an overly compliant shoulder response of the WorldSID and excessive forward rotation of the ES-2re relative to the PMHS.

  11. Klf6/copeb is required for hepatic outgrowth in zebrafish and for hepatocyte specification in mouse ES cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao; Monson, Christopher; Gao, Chuan; Gouon-Evans, Valerie; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Sadler, Kirsten C.; Friedman, Scott L

    2010-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 6 (Klf6; copeb in zebrafish) is a zinc-finger transcription factor and tumor suppressor gene. Klf6−/− mice have defects in hematopoiesis and angiogenesis and do not form a liver. However, the vascular abnormalities in Klf6−/− mice obfuscate its role in liver development since these two processes are linked in mammals. We utilized zebrafish and mouse ES cells to investigate the role of copeb in endoderm specification and hepatogenesis separate from its function in angiogenesis. During zebrafish development, copeb expression is enriched in digestive organs. Morpholino knockdown of copeb blocks expansion of the liver, pancreas and intestine, but does not affect their specification, differentiation or the vascularization of the liver. Decreased hepatocyte proliferation in copeb morphants is accompanied by upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor, cdkn1a, a Copeb transcriptional target. A cell autonomous role for Klf6 in endoderm and hepatic development was investigated by manipulating Klf6 expression in mouse ES cells driven to differentiate along the hepatic lineage. Expression of the endoderm markers Hnf3β, Gata4, Sox17, and CxCr4 is not induced in Klf6−/− cells but is upregulated in ES cells over-expressing Klf6. Collectively, these findings indicate that copeb/Klf6 is essential for the development of endoderm-derived organs. PMID:20430021

  12. Simultaneous determination of selected endocrine disrupter compounds in wastewater samples in ultra trace levels using HPLC-ES-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Komesli, Okan Tarık; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Bayören, Ceren; Gökçay, Celal Ferdi

    2012-08-01

    An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of six selected endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs: diltiazem, progesterone, benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), estrone, carbamazepine (Cbz), acetaminophen) was developed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ES-MS/MS). All of the parameters for HPLC and ES-MS/MS systems including mobile phase composition, flow rate, and sample injection volume were optimized to obtain not only the best separation of species interested but also low detection limits. Reverse phase chromatography coupled to ES-MS/MS was used for the separation and detection of EDCs. Formic acid (0.10% ) and 5.0 mM ammonium formate were selected as mobile phase composition in gradient elution. Detection limits for diltiazem, progesterone, BBP, estrone, Cbz, and acetaminophen were found to be 0.13, 0.12, 0.04, 0.13, 0.12, and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. Influent and effluents from three different wastewater treatment plants located in Ankara, i.e., rotating flat-sheet membrane unit, pilot type flat-sheet membrane unit located at METU Campus and samples from Ankara central wastewater treatment plant were analyzed for their EDCs contents under the optimum conditions.

  13. Le groupe de recherches transfusionnelles d’Afrique francophone: bilan des cinq premières années

    PubMed Central

    Tagny, Claude Tayou; Murphy, Edward L.; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Les travaux de recherches sur la sécurité transfusionnelle en Afrique sub-saharienne sont peu nombreux, souvent limités à des initiatives locales avec des conclusions difficilement représentatives de cette région. Le Groupe de recherches transfusionnelles en Afrique sub-saharienne francophone a été créé en mai 2007 avec pour objectif de développer des stratégies globales d’amélioration de la sécurité transfusionnelle mais adaptables à la situation de chaque pays. Les activités du Groupe à ce jour ont porté essentiellement sur l’obtention de données épidémiologiques et de laboratoire sur la transfusion sanguine et à proposer des stratégies de sécurité transfusionnelle dans le domaine des infections transmissibles par la transfusion. Pour mener à bien ces activités de recherche, le Groupe travaille en étroite collaboration avec les Centres nationaux de transfusion sanguine (CNTS), les Centres régionaux de transfusion sanguine (CRTS), les banques de sang hospitalières (BSH) et les postes de collecte de sang. Pour les 5 premières années, quatre priorités de recherche ont été identifiées: (i) des études descriptives sur les caractéristiques des donneurs de sang et des centres de transfusion; (ii) une estimation du risque résiduel post-transfusionnel des principales infections virales transmissibles par la transfusion; (iii) une analyse des stratégies de sélection médicale des donneurs de sang; et (iv) une description des stratégies de dépistage des ITT et une description du système d’assurance qualité externe existant. Durant cette période, sept projets ont été mis en œuvre au niveau national et publiés et cinq études multicentriques ont été réalisées et publiées. La présente étude rapporte les principales observations et recommandations de ces études. PMID:24360798

  14. The AgroEcoSystem (AgES) response-function model simulates layered soil water dynamics in semi-arid Colorado: sensitivity and calibration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation of vertical soil hydrology is a critical component of simulating even more complex soil water dynamics in space and time, including land-atmosphere and subsurface interactions. The AgroEcoSystem (AgES) model is defined here as a single land unit implementation of the full AgES-W (Watershe...

  15. A component-based, integrated spatially distributed hydrologic/water quality model: AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) overview and application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) is a modular, Java-based spatially distributed model which implements hydrologic/water quality simulation components. The AgES-W model was previously evaluated for streamflow and recently has been enhanced with the addition of nitrogen (N) and sediment modeling compo...

  16. ArgoEcoSystem-watershed (AgES-W) model evaluation for streamflow and nitrogen/sediment dynamics on a midwest agricultural watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AgroEcoSystem-Watershed (AgES-W) is a modular, Java-based spatially distributed model which implements hydrologic/water quality simulation components under the Object Modeling System Version 3 (OMS3). The AgES-W model was previously evaluated for streamflow and recently has been enhanced with the ad...

  17. From the worm to the pill, the parasitic worm product ES-62 raises new horizons in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M A; Eason, R J; Harnett, M M; Harnett, W

    2015-04-01

    Evidence from human studies suggests that parasitic worm infection can protect humans against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and this idea is strengthened by data generated in model systems. Although therapeutic use of parasitic worms is currently being explored, there are obvious benefits in pursuing drug development through identification and isolation of the 'active ingredients'. ES-62 is a secreted glycoprotein of the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, which we have found to protect against the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. ES-62 activity is dependent on the inflammatory phenotype of the local environment and protection arises via inhibition of Th17- and γδT cell-dependent IL-17 production. At the same time, NK and NK T cell IL-17 production is left intact, and such selectivity suggests that ES-62 might make a particularly attractive therapeutic for RA. However, as a potentially immunogenic protein, ES-62 is unsuitable for development as a drug. Nevertheless, ES-62 activity is dependent on covalently attached phosphorylcholine (PC) residues and we have therefore produced a library of PC-based drug-like ES-62 small-molecule analogues (SMAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Screening this library, we have found an ES-62 SMA that mirrors ES-62 in protecting against CIA and by the same IL-17-dependent mechanism of action.

  18. Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) and NeuroImaging: the state-of-the-art, new insights and prospects in basic and clinical neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Herring, Jim Don; McGonigle, David

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) of the brain has attracted an increased interest in recent years. Yet, despite remarkable research efforts to date, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of tES' effects are still incompletely understood. This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the state-of-the-art in studies combining tES and neuroimaging, while introducing most recent insights and outlining future prospects related to this new and rapidly growing field. The findings reported here combine methodological advancements with insights into the underlying mechanisms of tES itself. At the same time, they also point to the many caveats and specific challenges associated with such studies, which can arise from both technical and biological sources. Besides promising to advance basic neuroscience, combined tES and neuroimaging studies may also substantially change previous conceptions about the methods of action of electric or magnetic stimulation on the brain.

  19. Influence of Carbon Sources and Electron Shuttles on Ferric Iron Reduction by Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    SciTech Connect

    Erin K. Field; Robin Gerlach; Sridhar Viamajala; Laura K. Jennings; Alfred B. Cunningham; Brent M. Peyton; William A. Apel

    2011-09-01

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), to trivalent chromium, Cr(III), can be an important aspect of remediation processes at Department of Energy (DOE) and other contaminated sites. Cellulomonas species are found at several Cr(VI) contaminated and uncontaminated locations at the DOE site in Hanford, Washington. Members of this genus have demonstrated the ability to effectively reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) fermentatively and therefore play a potential role in hexavalent chromium remediation at this site. Batch studies were conducted with Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6 to assess the influence of various carbon sources, iron minerals, and electron shuttling compounds on Cr(VI) reduction. These chemical species are likely to be present in these terrestrial environments during in situ bioremediation. Results indicated that there were a number of interactions between these compounds that influenced Cr(VI) reduction rates. The type of carbon source as well as the type of electron shuttle present influenced Cr(VI) reduction rates. When an electron shuttle, such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), was present in the system, reduction rates increased significantly. Biologically reduced AQDS (AHDS) reduced Cr(VI) almost instantaneously. The presence of iron minerals and their concentrations did not significantly influence Cr(VI) reduction rates. However, strain ES6 or AQDS could directly reduce surface-associated Fe(III) to Fe(II) which was capable of reducing Cr(VI) at a near instantaneous rate. These results suggest the rate limiting step in these systems is the transfer of electrons from strain ES6 to the intermediate or terminal electron acceptor whether that is Cr(VI), Fe(III), or AQDS.

  20. Completely ES cell-derived mice produced by tetraploid complementation using inner cell mass (ICM) deficient blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Wen, Duancheng; Saiz, Nestor; Rosenwaks, Zev; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Rafii, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Tetraploid complementation is often used to produce mice from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by injection of diploid (2n) ESCs into tetraploid (4n) blastocysts (ESC-derived mice). This method has also been adapted to mouse cloning and the derivation of mice from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s) of the tetraploid complementation remains largely unclear. Whether this approach can give rise to completely ES cell-derived mice is an open question, and has not yet been unambiguously proven. Here, we show that mouse tetraploid blastocysts can be classified into two groups, according to the presence or absence of an inner cell mass (ICM). We designate these as type a (presence of ICM at blastocyst stage) or type b (absence of ICM). ESC lines were readily derived from type a blastocysts, suggesting that these embryos retain a pluripotent epiblast compartment; whereas the type b blastocysts possessed very low potential to give rise to ESC lines, suggesting that they had lost the pluripotent epiblast. When the type a blastocysts were used for tetraploid complementation, some of the resulting mice were found to be 2n/4n chimeric; whereas when type b blastocysts were used as hosts, the resulting mice are all completely ES cell-derived, with the newborn pups displaying a high frequency of abdominal hernias. Our results demonstrate that completely ES cell-derived mice can be produced using ICM-deficient 4n blastocysts, and provide evidence that the exclusion of tetraploid cells from the fetus in 2n/4n chimeras can largely be attributed to the formation of ICM-deficient blastocysts.

  1. Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ogoma, Sheila B; Kannady, Khadija; Sikulu, Maggy; Chaki, Prosper P; Govella, Nicodem J; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Killeen, Gerry F

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission in Africa occurs predominantly inside houses where the primary vectors prefer to feed. Human preference and investment in blocking of specific entry points for mosquitoes into houses was evaluated and compared with known entry point preferences of the mosquitoes themselves. Methods Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to estimate usage levels of available options for house proofing against mosquito entry, namely window screens, ceilings and blocking of eaves. These surveys also enabled evaluation of household expenditure on screens and ceilings and the motivation behind their installation. Results Over three quarters (82.8%) of the 579 houses surveyed in Dar es Salaam had window screens, while almost half (48.9%) had ceilings. Prevention of mosquito entry was cited as a reason for installation of window screens and ceilings by 91.4% (394/431) and 55.7% (127/228) of respondents, respectively, but prevention of malaria was rarely cited (4.3%, 22/508). The median cost of window screens was between US $ 21-30 while that of ceilings was between US $301-400. The market value of insecticide-treated nets, window screening and ceilings currently in use in the city was estimated as 2, 5 and 42 million US$. More than three quarters of the respondents that lacked them said it was too expensive to install ceilings (82.2%) or window screens (75.5%). Conclusion High coverage and spending on screens and ceilings implies that these techniques are highly acceptable and excellent uptake can be achieved in urban settings like Dar es Salaam. Effective models for promotion and subsidization should be developed and evaluated, particularly for installation of ceilings that prevent entry via the eaves, which are the most important entry point for mosquitoes that cause malaria, a variety of neglected tropical diseases and the nuisance which motivates uptake. PMID:19785779

  2. Transit timing of TrES-2: a combined analysis of ground- and space-based photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raetz, St.; Maciejewski, G.; Ginski, Ch.; Mugrauer, M.; Berndt, A.; Eisenbeiss, T.; Adam, Ch.; Raetz, M.; Roell, T.; Seeliger, M.; Marka, C.; Vaňko, M.; Bukowiecki, Ł.; Errmann, R.; Kitze, M.; Ohlert, J.; Pribulla, T.; Schmidt, J. G.; Sebastian, D.; Puchalski, D.; Tetzlaff, N.; Hohle, M. M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2014-10-01

    Homogeneous observations and careful analysis of transit light curves can lead to the identification of transit timing variations (TTVs). TrES-2 is one of few exoplanets, which offer the matchless possibility to combine long-term ground-based observations with continuous satellite data. Our research aimed at the search for TTVs that would be indicative of perturbations from additional bodies in the system. We also wanted to refine the system parameters and the orbital elements. We obtained 44 ground-based light curves of 31 individual transit events of TrES-2. Eight 0.2-2.2-m telescopes located at six observatories in Germany, Poland and Spain were used. In addition, we analysed 18 quarters (Q0-Q17) of observational data from NASA's space telescope Kepler including 435 individual transit events and 11 publicly available ground-based light curves. Assuming different limb darkening (LD) laws we performed an analysis for all light curves and redetermined the parameters of the system. We also carried out a joint analysis of the ground- and space-based data. The long observation period of seven years (2007-2013) allowed a very precise redetermination of the transit ephemeris. For a total of 490 transit light curves of TrES-2, the time of transit mid-point was determined. The transit times support neither variations on long time-scale nor on short time-scales. The nearly continuous observations of Kepler show no statistically significant increase or decrease in the orbital inclination i and the transit duration D. Only the transit depth shows a slight increase which could be an indication of an increasing stellar activity. In general, system parameters obtained by us were found to be in agreement with previous studies but are the most precise values to date.

  3. Comparison of isolates and species of Toxocara and Toxascaris by biosynthetic labelling of somatic and ES proteins from infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Page, A P; Richards, D T; Lewis, J W; Omar, H M; Maizels, R M

    1991-12-01

    Infective-stage larvae of three different isolates of Toxocara canis were intrinsically ([35S]methionine) labelled in culture, to determine the presence of similarities or differences in the somatic and ES antigens expressed between larvae derived from different hosts and different geographical regions. Two other closely related ascaridids, Toxascaris leonina which infects cats and dogs, and Toxocara vitulorum (Neoascaris vitulorum) which infects cattle, were also compared to T. canis larvae by this method. Overall comparisons were made by 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, while immunological cross-reactivities between the different species were analysed by radio-immunoprecipitation. Our results show that extensive physicochemical characteristics are shared between T. canis isolates, both from different hosts and different geographical locations. A substantial overlap was revealed when T. canis and T. vitulorum antigens were compared, whereas Toxascaris was found to produce a distinct antigen profile: this result was independent of whether methionine- or Iodogen-labelled products were being considered. Antigen recognition by polyclonal antibodies raised to all three species and to the cat ascaridid Toxocara cati, revealed considerable cross-reactivities. The cross-reactions were especially prominent between the Toxocara species, a fact further substantiated when reactivity of T. canis ES-specific monoclonal antibodies were tested against T. leonina and T. vitulorum antigens. The ES antigens of T. leonina were not recognized by the T. canis monoclonals, whereas the majority of these antibodies precipitated antigens of T. vitulorum. One which did not react with T. vitulorum was monoclonal antibody Tcn 2, indicating its species-specific reactivity and therefore its potential for the specific diagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  4. Impact of Community-Based Larviciding on the Prevalence of Malaria Infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Castro, Marcia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of larval source management is not prioritized by contemporary malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa despite historical success. Larviciding, in particular, could be effective in urban areas where transmission is focal and accessibility to Anopheles breeding habitats is generally easier than in rural settings. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a community-based microbial larviciding intervention to reduce the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania. Methods and Findings Larviciding was implemented in 3 out of 15 targeted wards of Dar es Salaam in 2006 after two years of baseline data collection. This intervention was subsequently scaled up to 9 wards a year later, and to all 15 targeted wards in 2008. Continuous randomized cluster sampling of malaria prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics was carried out during 6 survey rounds (2004–2008), which included both cross-sectional and longitudinal data (N = 64,537). Bayesian random effects logistic regression models were used to quantify the effect of the intervention on malaria prevalence at the individual level. Effect size estimates suggest a significant protective effect of the larviciding intervention. After adjustment for confounders, the odds of individuals living in areas treated with larviciding being infected with malaria were 21% lower (Odds Ratio = 0.79; 95% Credible Intervals: 0.66–0.93) than those who lived in areas not treated. The larviciding intervention was most effective during dry seasons and had synergistic effects with other protective measures such as use of insecticide-treated bed nets and house proofing (i.e., complete ceiling or window screens). Conclusion A large-scale community-based larviciding intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in urban Dar es Salaam. PMID:23977099

  5. Pathologies cutanées vues au laboratoire d'anatomie pathologique à Lomé, Togo

    PubMed Central

    Darre, Tchin; Mouhari-Toure, Abas; Saka, Bayaki; Amouzou, Efoé-ga Yawod Olivier; Dare, Sassil; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Amegbor, Koffi; Pitché, Palokinam; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les affections cutanées restent encore un problème de santé publique dans la majorité des pays en développement. Notre étude s'est fixée comme objectif de déterminer les aspects épidémiologiques et histologiques des dermatoses au Togo. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et transversale portant sur les cas de dermatoses diagnostiquées de 2002 à 2013 (10 ans) au laboratoire d'anatomie pathologique (LAP) du CHU- Sylvanus Olympio. Tous les cas d'examen portant sur un prélèvement de peau (biopsie, exérèse, pièces opératoires) ont été colligés de 2002 à 2013 à partir des données des registres dudit laboratoire. Résultats Au cours de la période d’étude, 1119 (7,6%) des 14720 prélèvements reçus au LAP étaient des prélèvements de peau, ce qui correspond à une fréquence annuelle de 111,9 prélèvements. L’âge moyen des patients dont les prélèvements de peau appartenaient était de 35,4 ans et le sex-ratio (H/F) de 1,39. Au plan histologique, les lésions cutanées étaient reparties en dermatoses non tumorales (390 cas, 34,8%), dermatoses tumorales et pseudo tumorales (607 cas, 54,2%) et des dermatoses de diagnostic incertain (122 cas, 10,9%). La lèpre (95 cas, 8,5%) et le carcinome épidermoïde (134 cas, 11,9%) étaient les types histologiques les plus fréquents. Conclusion Les dermatoses tumorales et pseudo tumorales font plus l'objet de demande d'examen anatomopathologique au Togo, ce qui s'explique par la hantise de tumeurs malignes devant toute dermatose tumorale. L'amélioration du plateau technique du LAP (immunohistochimie, immunofluorescence directe) permettra d'accroitre ses capacités diagnostiques. PMID:26405477

  6. PHOTOMETRICALLY DERIVED MASSES AND RADII OF THE PLANET AND STAR IN THE TrES-2 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Barclay, Thomas; Huber, Daniel; Rowe, Jason F.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Mullally, Fergal; Seader, Shaun E.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Thompson, Susan E.; Barentsen, Geert; Bloemen, Steven; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Ragozzine, Darin

    2012-12-10

    We measure the mass and radius of the star and planet in the TrES-2 system using 2.7 years of observations by the Kepler spacecraft. The light curve shows evidence for ellipsoidal variations and Doppler beaming on a period consistent with the orbital period of the planet with amplitudes of 2.79{sup +0.44}{sub -0.62} and 3.44{sup +0.32}{sub -0.37} parts per million (ppm), respectively, and a difference between the dayside and the nightside planetary flux of 3.41{sup +0.55}{sub -0.82} ppm. We present an asteroseismic analysis of solar-like oscillations on TrES-2A which we use to calculate the stellar mass of 0.94 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Sun} and radius of 0.95 {+-} 0.02 R{sub Sun }. Using these stellar parameters, a transit model fit and the phase-curve variations, we determine the planetary radius of 1.162{sup +0.020}{sub -0.024} R{sub Jup} and derive a mass for TrES-2b from the photometry of 1.44 {+-} 0.21 M{sub Jup}. The ratio of the ellipsoidal variation to the Doppler beaming amplitudes agrees to better than 2{sigma} with theoretical predications, while our measured planet mass and radius agree within 2{sigma} of previously published values based on spectroscopic radial velocity measurements. We measure a geometric albedo of 0.0136{sup +0.0022}{sub -0.0033} and an occultation (secondary eclipse) depth of 6.5{sup +1.7}{sub -1.8} ppm which we combined with the day/night planetary flux ratio to model the atmosphere of TrES-2b. We find that an atmosphere model that contains a temperature inversion is strongly preferred. We hypothesize that the Kepler bandpass probes a significantly greater atmospheric depth on the night side relative to the day side.

  7. Extended Ultraviolet Disks and Ultraviolet-bright Disks in Low-mass E/S0 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Baker, Andrew J.; Laine, Seppo

    2012-01-01

    We have identified 15 extended ultraviolet (XUV) disks in a largely field sample of 38 E/S0 galaxies that have stellar masses primarily below ~4 × 1010 M ⊙ and comparable numbers on the red and blue sequences. We use a new purely quantitative XUV-disk definition designed with reference to the "Type 1" XUV-disk definition found in the literature, requiring UV extension relative to a UV-defined star formation threshold radius. The 39% ± 9% XUV-disk frequency for these E/S0s is roughly twice the ~20% reported for late-type galaxies (although differences in XUV-disk criteria complicate the comparison), possibly indicating that XUV disks are preferentially associated with galaxies experiencing weak or inefficient star formation. Consistent with this interpretation, we find that the XUV disks in our sample do not correlate with enhanced outer-disk star formation as traced by blue optical outer-disk colors. However, UV-Bright (UV-B) disk galaxies with blue UV colors outside their optical 50% light radii do display enhanced optical outer-disk star formation as well as enhanced atomic gas content. UV-B disks occur in our E/S0s with a 42+9 -8% frequency and need not coincide with XUV disks; thus their combined frequency is 61% ± 9%. For both XUV and UV-B disks, UV colors typically imply <1 Gyr ages, and most such disks extend beyond the optical R 25 radius. XUV disks occur over the full sample mass range and on both the red and blue sequences, suggesting an association with galaxy interactions or another similarly general evolutionary process. In contrast, UV-B disks favor the blue sequence and may also prefer low masses, perhaps reflecting the onset of cold-mode gas accretion or another mass-dependent evolutionary process. Virtually all blue E/S0s in the gas-rich regime below stellar mass M t ~ 5 × 109 M ⊙ (the "gas-richness threshold mass") display UV-B disks, supporting the previously suggested association of this population with active disk growth.

  8. EXTENDED ULTRAVIOLET DISKS AND ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT DISKS IN LOW-MASS E/S0 GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Moffett, Amanda J.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Baker, Andrew J.; Laine, Seppo

    2012-01-20

    We have identified 15 extended ultraviolet (XUV) disks in a largely field sample of 38 E/S0 galaxies that have stellar masses primarily below {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and comparable numbers on the red and blue sequences. We use a new purely quantitative XUV-disk definition designed with reference to the 'Type 1' XUV-disk definition found in the literature, requiring UV extension relative to a UV-defined star formation threshold radius. The 39% {+-} 9% XUV-disk frequency for these E/S0s is roughly twice the {approx}20% reported for late-type galaxies (although differences in XUV-disk criteria complicate the comparison), possibly indicating that XUV disks are preferentially associated with galaxies experiencing weak or inefficient star formation. Consistent with this interpretation, we find that the XUV disks in our sample do not correlate with enhanced outer-disk star formation as traced by blue optical outer-disk colors. However, UV-Bright (UV-B) disk galaxies with blue UV colors outside their optical 50% light radii do display enhanced optical outer-disk star formation as well as enhanced atomic gas content. UV-B disks occur in our E/S0s with a 42{sup +9}{sub -8}% frequency and need not coincide with XUV disks; thus their combined frequency is 61% {+-} 9%. For both XUV and UV-B disks, UV colors typically imply <1 Gyr ages, and most such disks extend beyond the optical R{sub 25} radius. XUV disks occur over the full sample mass range and on both the red and blue sequences, suggesting an association with galaxy interactions or another similarly general evolutionary process. In contrast, UV-B disks favor the blue sequence and may also prefer low masses, perhaps reflecting the onset of cold-mode gas accretion or another mass-dependent evolutionary process. Virtually all blue E/S0s in the gas-rich regime below stellar mass M{sub t} {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} (the 'gas-richness threshold mass') display UV-B disks

  9. HD-03/ES: A Herbal Medicine Inhibits Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Secretion in Transfected Human Hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 Cells.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sundaram, R; Gopumadhavan, S; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad S

    2013-01-01

    HD-03/ES is a herbal formulation used for the treatment of hepatitis B. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the antihepatitis B (HBV) activity of this drug has not been studied using in vitro models. The effect of HD-03/ES on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion and its gene expression was studied in transfected human hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 cells. The anti-HBV activity was tested based on the inhibition of HBsAg secretion into the culture media, as detected by HBsAg-specific antibody-mediated enzyme assay (ELISA) at concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000  μ g/mL. The effect of HD-03/ES on HBsAg gene expression was analyzed using semiquantitative multiplex RT-PCR by employing specific primers. The results showed that HD-03/ES suppressed HBsAg production with an IC50 of 380  μ g/mL in PLC/PRF/5 cells for a period of 24 h. HD-03/ES downregulated HBsAg gene expression in PLC/PRF/5 cells. In conclusion, HD-03/ES exhibits strong anti-HBV properties by inhibiting the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen in PLC/PRF/5 cells, and this action is targeted at the transcription level. Thus, HD-03/ES could be beneficial in the treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis B infections.

  10. Sox2 regulatory region 2 sequence works as a DNA nuclear targeting sequence enhancing the efficiency of an exogenous gene expression in ES cells.

    PubMed

    Funabashi, Hisakage; Takatsu, Makoto; Saito, Mikako; Matsuoka, Hideaki

    2010-10-01

    In this report, the effects of two DNA nuclear targeting sequence (DTS) candidates on the gene expression efficiency in ES cells were investigated. Reporter plasmids containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) promoter/enhancer sequence (SV40-DTS), a DTS for various types of cells but not being reported yet for ES cells, and the 81 base pairs of Sox2 regulatory region 2 (SRR2) where two transcriptional factors in ES cells, Oct3/4 and Sox2, are bound (SRR2-DTS), were introduced into cytoplasm in living cells by femtoinjection. The gene expression efficiencies of each plasmid in mouse insulinoma cell line MIN6 cells and mouse ES cells were then evaluated. Plasmids including SV40-DTS and SRR2-DTS exhibited higher gene expression efficiency comparing to plasmids without these DTSs, and thus it was concluded that both sequences work as a DTS in ES cells. In addition, it was suggested that SRR2-DTS works as an ES cell-specific DTS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to confirm the function of DTSs in ES cells.

  11. Isolation of an ES-Derived Cardiovascular Multipotent Cell Population Based on VE-Cadherin Promoter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Maltabe, Violetta A.; Barka, Eleonora; Kontonika, Marianthi; Florou, Dimitra; Kouvara-Pritsouli, Maria; Roumpi, Maria; Agathopoulos, Simeon; Kolettis, Theofilos M.

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic Stem (ES) or induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells are important sources for cardiomyocyte generation, targeted for regenerative therapies. Several in vitro protocols are currently utilized for their differentiation, but the value of cell-based approaches remains unclear. Here, we characterized a cardiovascular progenitor population derived during ES differentiation, after selection based on VE-cadherin promoter (Pvec) activity. ESCs were genetically modified with an episomal vector, allowing the expression of puromycin resistance gene, under Pvec activity. Puromycin-surviving cells displayed cardiac and endothelial progenitor cells characteristics. Expansion and self-renewal of this cardiac and endothelial dual-progenitor population (CEDP) were achieved by Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. CEDPs express early cardiac developmental stage-specific markers but not markers of differentiated cardiomyocytes. Similarly, CEDPs express endothelial markers. However, CEDPs can undergo differentiation predominantly to cTnT+ (~47%) and VE-cadherin+ (~28%) cells. Transplantation of CEDPs in the left heart ventricle of adult rats showed that CEDPs-derived cells survive and differentiate in vivo for at least 14 days after transplantation. A novel, dual-progenitor population was isolated during ESCs differentiation, based on Pvec activity. This lineage can self-renew, permitting its maintenance as a source of cardiovascular progenitor cells and constitutes a useful source for regenerative approaches. PMID:28101109

  12. Kinetic behaviour of Duolite ES 468 in the cosorption of non-ionic surfactant and copper(II).

    PubMed

    Kauspediene, D; Snukiskis, J; Gefeniene, A

    2003-05-30

    Kinetic behaviour of the hydrogen form of Duolite ES 468 polyacrylic acid-functionalised cation exchanger with respect to the sorption of non-ionic surfactant alkylmonoethers (ALM-10) and copper(II) has been investigated; kinetic curves have been obtained, using spectrophotometric determination for ALM-10 and complexometric one for copper(II). Kinetic coefficient (B), intraparticle diffusion coefficient (D; m(2)s(-1)) and overall rate constant (k(o); s(-1)) for non-ionic surfactant and copper(II) depend on the solution composition, pH and the maximum sorption at the equilibrium. On increasing the solution acidity from pH 5 to pH 3 a decrease in both D and the equilibrium sorption for copper(II) although an increase in D for ALM-10 is observed. The action of copper(II) results in an increase in both D for ALM-10 and the maximum sorption at the equilibrium, whereas the action of ALM-10 leads to a decrease in the corresponding parameters for copper(II). Hydrogen form of Duolite ES 468 polyacrylic acid-functionalised cation exchanger is suitable for the simultaneous removal of non-ionic surfactant and copper(II) from waste water.

  13. Bacillus pumilus ES4: candidate plant growth-promoting bacterium to enhance establishment of plants in mine tailings

    PubMed Central

    de-Bashan, Luz E.; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav; Maier, Raina

    2014-01-01

    Three plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Bacillus pumilus ES4, B. pumilus RIZO1, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd) were tested for their ability to enhance plant growth and development of the native Sonoran Desert shrub quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis) and for their effect on the native bacterial community in moderately acidic, high-metal content (AHMT) and in neutral, low metal content natural tailings (NLMT) in controlled greenhouse experiments. Inoculation of quailbush with all three PGPB significantly enhanced plant growth parameters, such as germination, root length, dry weight of shoots and roots, and root/shoot ratio in both types of tailings. The effect of inoculation on the indigenous bacterial community by the most successful PGPB Bacillus pumilus ES4 was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting and root colonization was followed by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Inoculation with this strain significantly changed the bacterial community over a period of 60 days. FISH analysis showed that the preferred site of colonization was the root tips and root elongation area. This study shows that inoculation of native perennial plants with PGPB can be used for developing technologies for phytostabilizing mine tailings. PMID:25009362

  14. Ring1-mediated ubiquitination of H2A restrains poised RNA polymerase II at bivalent genes in mouse ES cells.

    PubMed

    Stock, Julie K; Giadrossi, Sara; Casanova, Miguel; Brookes, Emily; Vidal, Miguel; Koseki, Haruhiko; Brockdorff, Neil; Fisher, Amanda G; Pombo, Ana

    2007-12-01

    Changes in phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAP) are associated with transcription initiation, elongation and termination. Sites of active transcription are generally characterized by hyperphosphorylated RNAP, particularly at Ser 2 residues, whereas inactive or poised genes may lack RNAP or may bind Ser 5-phosphorylated RNAP at promoter proximal regions. Recent studies have demonstrated that silent developmental regulator genes have an unusual histone modification profile in ES cells, being simultaneously marked with Polycomb repressor-mediated histone H3K27 methylation, and marks normally associated with gene activity. Contrary to the prevailing view, we show here that this important subset of developmental regulator genes, termed bivalent genes, assemble RNAP complexes phosphorylated on Ser 5 and are transcribed at low levels. We provide evidence that this poised RNAP configuration is enforced by Polycomb Repressor Complex (PRC)-mediated ubiquitination of H2A, as conditional deletion of Ring1A and Ring1B leads to the sequential loss of ubiquitination of H2A, release of poised RNAP, and subsequent gene de-repression. These observations provide an insight into the molecular mechanisms that allow ES cells to self-renew and yet retain the ability to generate multiple lineage outcomes.

  15. A Wearable EEG-HEG-HRV Multimodal System With Simultaneous Monitoring of tES for Mental Health Management.

    PubMed

    Ha, Unsoo; Lee, Yongsu; Kim, Hyunki; Roh, Taehwan; Bae, Joonsung; Kim, Changhyeon; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2015-12-01

    A multimodal mental management system in the shape of the wearable headband and earplugs is proposed to monitor electroencephalography (EEG), hemoencephalography (HEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) for accurate mental health monitoring. It enables simultaneous transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) together with real-time monitoring. The total weight of the proposed system is less than 200 g. The multi-loop low-noise amplifier (MLLNA) achieves over 130 dB CMRR for EEG sensing and the capacitive correlated-double sampling transimpedance amplifier (CCTIA) has low-noise characteristics for HEG and HRV sensing. Measured three-physiology domains such as neural, vascular and autonomic domain signals are combined with canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and temporal kernel canonical correlation analysis (tkCCA) algorithm to find the neural-vascular-autonomic coupling. It supports highly accurate classification with the 19% maximum improvement with multimodal monitoring. For the multi-channel stimulation functionality, after-effects maximization monitoring and sympathetic nerve disorder monitoring, the stimulator is designed as reconfigurable. The 3.37 × 2.25 mm(2) chip has 2-channel EEG sensor front-end, 2-channel NIRS sensor front-end, NIRS current driver to drive dual-wavelength VCSEL and 6-b DAC current source for tES mode. It dissipates 24 mW with 2 mA stimulation current and 5 mA NIRS driver current.

  16. The Hadronic Origin of the Hard Gamma-Ray Spectrum from Blazar 1ES 1101-232

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Gang; Wang, Jiancheng

    2014-03-01

    The very hard γ-ray spectrum from distant blazars challenges the traditional synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, which may indicate that there is a contribution from an additional high-energy component beyond the SSC emission. In this paper, we study the possible origin of the hard γ-ray spectrum from distant blazars. We develop a model to explain the hard γ-ray spectrum from blazar 1ES 1101-232. In the model, the optical and X-ray radiation would come from the synchrotron radiation of primary electrons and secondary pairs and the GeV emission would be produced by the SSC process, however, the hard γ-ray spectrum would originate from the decay of neutral pion produced through proton-photon interactions with the synchrotron radiation photons within the jet. Our model can explain the observed spectral energy distribution of 1ES 1101-232 well, especially the very hard γ-ray spectrum. However, our model requires a very large proton power to efficiently produce the γ-ray through proton-photon interactions.

  17. The hadronic origin of the hard gamma-ray spectrum from blazar 1ES 1101-232

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Gang; Wang, Jiancheng E-mail: jcwang@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-03-10

    The very hard γ-ray spectrum from distant blazars challenges the traditional synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, which may indicate that there is a contribution from an additional high-energy component beyond the SSC emission. In this paper, we study the possible origin of the hard γ-ray spectrum from distant blazars. We develop a model to explain the hard γ-ray spectrum from blazar 1ES 1101-232. In the model, the optical and X-ray radiation would come from the synchrotron radiation of primary electrons and secondary pairs and the GeV emission would be produced by the SSC process, however, the hard γ-ray spectrum would originate from the decay of neutral pion produced through proton-photon interactions with the synchrotron radiation photons within the jet. Our model can explain the observed spectral energy distribution of 1ES 1101-232 well, especially the very hard γ-ray spectrum. However, our model requires a very large proton power to efficiently produce the γ-ray through proton-photon interactions.

  18. Exploring the association between women's access to economic resources and intimate partner violence in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Seema; Jansen, Henrica Afm; Heise, Lori; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between women's access to economic resources, e.g. employment or access to micro-credit, and experience of intimate partner violence is complex. Empirical evidence documents that in some settings women's employment is associated with higher risk of partner violence but in other settings with lower risk. Evidence also shows that these conflicting associations exist not only between countries but also within different country settings. Using two population-based data sets gathered in 2002 in contrasting Tanzania settings-Dar es Salaam and Mbeya-, we used multivariate logistic regression to examine the relationship between women's access to economic resources and partner violence. Two indicators of economic resources were examined: whether women earned money and whether women owned a business either with someone or exclusively. In Dar es Salaam we found evidence of a higher risk association among women who earned money and who owned a business exclusively by themselves and a lower risk association among women who owned a business with someone. We found no relationship between either indicator of economic resources and partner violence in Mbeya. Other factors were similarly associated with partner violence in both settings and the strongest associations found were related to the respondents' partners: refusal to give money; alcohol use and relationships with other women. The findings support the assertion that women's access to economic resources operate differently in different country settings, thus highlighting the need for targeted prevention efforts that are relevant for the context.

  19. On the Spectral Curvature of VHE Blazar 1ES 1011+496: Effect of Spatial Particle Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Atreyee; Sahayanathan, S.; Acharya, B. S.; Anupama, G. C.; Chitnis, V. R.; Singh, B. B.

    2017-02-01

    A detailed multi-epoch study of the broadband spectral behavior of the very high energy (VHE) source 1ES 1011+496 provides us with valuable information regarding the underlying particle distribution. Simultaneous observations of the source at optical/UV/X-ray/γ-ray during three different epochs, as obtained from Swift-UVOT/Swift-XRT/Fermi-LAT, are supplemented with the information available from the VHE telescope array, HAGAR. The long-term flux variability at the Fermi-LAT energies is clearly found to be lognormal. It is seen that the broadband spectral energy distribution of 1ES 1011+496 can be successfully reproduced by synchrotron and synchrotron self Compton emission models. Notably, the observed curvature in the photon spectrum at X-ray energies demands a smooth transition of the underlying particle distribution from a simple power law to a power law with an exponential cutoff, or a smooth broken power law distribution, which may possibly arise when the escape of the particles from the main emission region is energy dependent. Specifically, if the particle escape rate is related to its energy as {E}0.5, then the observed photon spectrum is consistent with the ones observed during the various epochs.

  20. Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM) VDL-3 and 1090ES Final Test Requirements, Test Plans, and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.; Jirberg, Russ; Frantz, Brian; Kachmar, Brian A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA s Aviation Safety Program was created for the purpose of making a significant reduction in the incidents of weather related aviation accidents by improving situational awareness. The objectives of that program are being met in part through advances in weather sensor technology, and in part through advances in the communications technology that are developed for use in the National Airspace System. It is this latter element, i.e., the improvements in aviation communication technologies, that is the focus of the Weather Information Communications project. This report describes the final flight test results completed under the WINCOMM project at the NASA Glenn Research Center of the 1090 Extended Squitter (1090ES) and VDL Mode 3 (VDL-3) data links as a medium for weather data exchange. It presents the use of 1090ES to meet the program objectives of sending broadcast turbulence information and the use of VDL-3 to send graphical weather images. This report provides the test requirements and test plans, which led to flight tests, as well as final results from flight testing. The reports define the changes made to both avionics and ground-based receivers as well as the ground infrastructure to support implementation of the recommended architecture, with a focus on the issues associated with these changes.

  1. Positions of pluripotency genes and hepatocyte-specific genes in the nucleus before and after mouse ES cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Udagawa, K; Ohyama, T

    2014-03-24

    Spatial positioning of genes in the cell nucleus plays an important role in the regulation of genomic functions. Evidence for changes in gene positioning associated with transcriptional activity has been reported. However, our understanding of this phenomenon is still quite limited. We examined how pluripotency genes and hepatocyte-specific genes behave during the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into hepatocytes, by targeting the loci of the Klf4, Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, Cyp7α1, Pck1, Tat, and Tdo2 genes, and using three-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. We found that each gene has a distinctly inherent localization profile in the ES cell nucleus. During differentiation, the Klf4, Nanog, Oct4, Cyp7α1, Pck1, and Tat loci shifted toward the nuclear center, while the Sox2 and Tdo2 loci shifted toward the periphery. The Klf4, Nanog, Oct4, and Tdo2 seem to prefer the outer regions, rather than the inner regions, when they are active. We also found that the radial positioning of the focused genes in the hepatocyte cell nucleus was highly correlated with the local GC content and the gene density of the surrounding region, but not with gene activity.

  2. Bacillus pumilus ES4: candidate plant growth-promoting bacterium to enhance establishment of plants in mine tailings.

    PubMed

    de-Bashan, Luz E; Hernandez, Juan-Pablo; Bashan, Yoav; Maier, Raina

    2010-12-01

    Three plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Bacillus pumilus ES4, B. pumilus RIZO1, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd) were tested for their ability to enhance plant growth and development of the native Sonoran Desert shrub quailbush (Atriplex lentiformis) and for their effect on the native bacterial community in moderately acidic, high-metal content (AHMT) and in neutral, low metal content natural tailings (NLMT) in controlled greenhouse experiments. Inoculation of quailbush with all three PGPB significantly enhanced plant growth parameters, such as germination, root length, dry weight of shoots and roots, and root/shoot ratio in both types of tailings. The effect of inoculation on the indigenous bacterial community by the most successful PGPB Bacillus pumilus ES4 was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting and root colonization was followed by specific fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Inoculation with this strain significantly changed the bacterial community over a period of 60 days. FISH analysis showed that the preferred site of colonization was the root tips and root elongation area. This study shows that inoculation of native perennial plants with PGPB can be used for developing technologies for phytostabilizing mine tailings.

  3. Métastases cutanées vues au laboratoire d'anatomie pathologique à Lomé, Togo entre 2005 et 2014

    PubMed Central

    Darre, Tchin; Saka, Bayaki; Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Mouhari-Toure, Abas; Amegbor, Koffi; Pitché, Palokinam; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de cette étude était de documenter le profil épidémiologique et histologique des métastases cutanées vues au laboratoire d'anatomie pathologique (LAP) de Lomé. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et transversale portant sur des cas de métastases cutanées observées au LAP du CHU Sylvanus Olympio entre 2005 et 2014. Résultats Au cours de cette période d’étude, nous avons recensé 32 cas de métastases cutanées représentant 3,2% (1005 cas) de l'ensemble des cas de métastases enregistrées au LAP. L’âge moyen des patients atteints de ces métastases cutanées était de 42,6 ans et le sex-ratio (F/H) de 2,2. Sur le plan macroscopique, ces métastases étaient nodulaires dans 15 cas, bourgeonnantes dans 12 cas, ulcéré dans 3 cas et ulcéro-bourgeonnant dans 2 cas. Les types histologiques étaient représentés par les adénocarcinomes (19 cas, 59,4%), les carcinomes épidermoïdes (8 cas, 25%), la maladie de Paget (3 cas, 9,4%), le carcinome à petites cellules du type neuroendocrine (un cas, 3,1%) et le mélanome (un cas, 3,1%). Selon le degré de différenciation, les métastases cutanées étaient bien différenciées dans 14 cas (56%). Les principales localisations de ces métastases cutanées étaient le thorax (11 cas, 34,4%) suivi de l'abdomen (10 cas, 31,3%). Les cancers primitifs étaient surtout d'origine mammaire (14 cas, 43,7%). Conclusion Cette étude montre que les métastases cutanées sont relativement rares et les tumeurs malignes d'origine mammaire sont les tumeurs primitives prédominantes. Avec un pourcentage élevé des formes peu différenciées et celles indifférenciées, l'amélioration du plateau technique du LAP (immunohistochimie) permettra d'accroitre ses capacités diagnostiques. PMID:27047627

  4. Highly efficient biallelic genome editing of human ES/iPS cells using a CRISPR/Cas9 or TALEN system.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kazuo; Igai, Keisuke; Hagihara, Yasuko; Hashimoto, Rina; Hanawa, Morifumi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Tachibana, Masashi; Sakurai, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Takashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-21

    Genome editing research of human ES/iPS cells has been accelerated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) technologies. However, the efficiency of biallelic genetic engineering in transcriptionally inactive genes is still low, unlike that in transcriptionally active genes. To enhance the biallelic homologous recombination efficiency in human ES/iPS cells, we performed screenings of accessorial genes and compounds. We found that RAD51 overexpression and valproic acid treatment enhanced biallelic-targeting efficiency in human ES/iPS cells regardless of the transcriptional activity of the targeted locus. Importantly, RAD51 overexpression and valproic acid treatment synergistically increased the biallelic homologous recombination efficiency. Our findings would facilitate genome editing study using human ES/iPS cells.

  5. 1ES 1113+432: Luminous, soft X-ray outburst from a nearby cataclysmic variable (AR Ursae Majoris)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remillard, R. A.; Schachter, J. F.; Silber, A. D.; Slane, P.

    1994-01-01

    A remarkable X-ray transient from the Einstein Slew Survey, 1 ES 1113+432, is identified with a nearby, short-period cataclysmic variable. Wenzel (1993) has confirmed that the optical counterpart is the variable star, AR UMa (cataloged as 'semiregular'), erroneously reported 5.7 min southeast of the true position. One of the Einstein slew observations recorded a flux of 43 IPC counts/s, which is an order of magnitude above the flux observed from the brightest cataclysmic variables in other X-ray surveys. The outburst spectrum is extremely 'soft,' with an implied blackbody temperature of approximately 22 eV. The optical counterpart (V = 16.5) exhibits a strong UV component, TiO bands from an M star, and broadened Balmer emission lines. Optical states as bright as V approx. 13 were found on photographs from the Harvard Plate Library, confirming outburst behavior in the optical counterpart. The historical photographic record suggests that 1ES 1113+432 remains in a low-accretion state most of the time. Both of the soft X-ray spectrum and the transitions between high and low-accretion states are suggestive of the AM Her (magnetic) subclass. Photometric observations in the I band show 0.18 mag modulations at a period of 0.966 hr. These are interpreted as ellipsiodal variations in the secondary star for a binary period of 1.932 hr, which is near the lower boundary of the 'period gap' in the histogram, of orbital periods of accreting white dwarfs. Thus 1ES 1113+432 provides the rare opportunity to study a secondary star in a cataclysmic binary that has evolved through the period gap. The optical spectral features from the secondary imply a spectral type of approximately M6 and a distance of approximately 88 pc. The peak luminosity in the soft X-ray component (unabsorbed) is then estimated to be 3 X 10(exp 33) ergs/s, assuming emission from a blackbody slab with a temperature of 22 eV. While this luminosity is higher than previous measures of the soft X-ray component, it

  6. The New York Head-A precise standardized volume conductor model for EEG source localization and tES targeting.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C; Haufe, Stefan

    2016-10-15

    In source localization of electroencephalograpic (EEG) signals, as well as in targeted transcranial electric current stimulation (tES), a volume conductor model is required to describe the flow of electric currents in the head. Boundary element models (BEM) can be readily computed to represent major tissue compartments, but cannot encode detailed anatomical information within compartments. Finite element models (FEM) can capture more tissue types and intricate anatomical structures, but with the higher precision also comes the need for semi-automated segmentation, and a higher computational cost. In either case, adjusting to the individual human anatomy requires costly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thus head modeling is often based on the anatomy of an 'arbitrary' individual (e.g. Colin27). Additionally, existing reference models for the human head often do not include the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), and their field of view excludes portions of the head and neck-two factors that demonstrably affect current-flow patterns. Here we present a highly detailed FEM, which we call ICBM-NY, or "New York Head". It is based on the ICBM152 anatomical template (a non-linear average of the MRI of 152 adult human brains) defined in MNI coordinates, for which we extended the field of view to the neck and performed a detailed segmentation of six tissue types (scalp, skull, CSF, gray matter, white matter, air cavities) at 0.5mm(3) resolution. The model was solved for 231 electrode locations. To evaluate its performance, additional FEMs and BEMs were constructed for four individual subjects. Each of the four individual FEMs (regarded as the 'ground truth') is compared to its BEM counterpart, the ICBM-NY, a BEM of the ICBM anatomy, an 'individualized' BEM of the ICBM anatomy warped to the individual head surface, and FEMs of the other individuals. Performance is measured in terms of EEG source localization and tES targeting errors. Results show that the ICBM-NY outperforms

  7. Insights into the emission of the blazar 1ES 1011+496 through unprecedented broadband observations during 2011 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Arcaro, C.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Di Pierro, F.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Knoetig, M. L.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vogler, P.; Will, M.; Zanin, R.; Buson, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Hovatta, T.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lister, M. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mundell, C.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Rastorgueva-Foi, E.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Tammi, J.; Sanchez, D. A.; Tornikoski, M.; Savolainen, T.; Steele, I.

    2016-06-01

    Context. 1ES 1011+496 (z = 0.212) was discovered in very high-energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) γ rays with MAGIC in 2007. The absence of simultaneous data at lower energies led to an incomplete characterization of the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). Aims: We study the source properties and the emission mechanisms, probing whether a simple one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario is able to explain the observed broadband spectrum. Methods: We analyzed data in the range from VHE to radio data from 2011 and 2012 collected by MAGIC, Fermi-LAT, Swift, KVA, OVRO, and Metsähovi in addition to optical polarimetry data and radio maps from the Liverpool Telescope and MOJAVE. Results: The VHE spectrum was fit with a simple power law with a photon index of 3.69 ± 0.22 and a flux above 150 GeV of (1.46 ± 0.16) × 10-11 ph cm-2 s-1. The source 1ES 1011+496 was found to be in a generally quiescent state at all observed wavelengths, showing only moderate variability from radio to X-rays. A low degree of polarization of less than 10% was measured in optical, while some bright features polarized up to 60% were observed in the radio jet. A similar trend in the rotation of the electric vector position angle was found in optical and radio. The radio maps indicated a superluminal motion of 1.8 ± 0.4 c, which is the highest speed statistically significant measured so far in a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac. Conclusions: For the first time, the high-energy bump in the broadband SED of 1ES 1011+496 could be fully characterized from 0.1 GeV to 1 TeV, which permitted a more reliable interpretation within the one-zone SSC scenario. The polarimetry data suggest that at least part of the optical emission has its origin in some of the bright radio features, while the low polarization in optical might be due to the contribution of parts of the radio jet with different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the optical emission.

  8. The simultaneous low state spectral energy distribution of 1ES 2344+514 from radio to very high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jankowski, F.; Kadenius, V.; Klepser, S.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Masbou, J.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Pilia, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Longo, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Pittori, C.; Vercellone, S.; AGILE Team; Bastieri, D.; Sbarra, C.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Nestoras, I.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Sievers, A.; Zensus, J. A.; F-GAMMA program; Antonyuk, K. A.; Baumgartner, W.; Berduygin, A.; Carini, M.; Cook, K.; Gehrels, N.; Kadler, M.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Krauss, F.; Krimm, H. A.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lister, M. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Pasanen, M.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Sainio, J.; Shakhovskoy, D. N.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Tornikoski, M.; Tueller, J.; Weidinger, M.; Wilms, J.

    2013-08-01

    Context. BL Lacertae objects are variable at all energy bands on time scales down to minutes. To construct and interpret their spectral energy distribution (SED), simultaneous broad-band observations are mandatory. Up to now, the number of objects studied during such campaigns is very limited and biased towards high flux states. Aims: We present the results of a dedicated multi-wavelength study of the high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae (HBL) object and known TeV emitter 1ES 2344+514 by means of a pre-organised campaign. Methods: The observations were conducted during simultaneous visibility windows of MAGIC and AGILE in late 2008. The measurements were complemented by Metsähovi, RATAN-600, KVA+Tuorla, Swift and VLBA pointings. Additional coverage was provided by the ongoing long-term F-GAMMA and MOJAVE programs, the OVRO 40-m and CrAO telescopes as well as the Fermi satellite. The obtained SEDs are modelled using a one-zone as well as a self-consistent two-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. Results: 1ES 2344+514 was found at very low flux states in both X-rays and very high energy gamma rays. Variability was detected in the low frequency radio and X-ray bands only, where for the latter a small flare was observed. The X-ray flare was possibly caused by shock acceleration characterised by similar cooling and acceleration time scales. MOJAVE VLBA monitoring reveals a static jet whose components are stable over time scales of eleven years, contrary to previous findings. There appears to be no significant correlation between the 15 GHz and R-band monitoring light curves. The observations presented here constitute the first multi-wavelength campaign on 1ES 2344+514 from radio to VHE energies and one of the few simultaneous SEDs during low activity states. The quasi-simultaneous Fermi-LAT data poses some challenges for SED modelling, but in general the SEDs are described well by both applied models. The resulting parameters are typical for TeV emitting HBLs

  9. Primary Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) of the penis: a report of an extraordinarily unusual site and a literature review of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Brimo, Fadi; Zeizafoun, Nebras

    2013-02-01

    Ewing's sarcomas/primitive neuroectodermal tumors (ES/PNETs) arise from a multipotent progenitor cell and are considered to be of neuroectodermal derivation. Most tumors commonly arise in the skeletal system, which are the classic ES/PNET and occasionally occur in the soft tissue of extraskeletal sites, which are named extraskeletal Ewing's sarcomas (EES/PNET). This study reports a case of a 28-year-old man with primary EES/PNET of the penis.

  10. c-Yes tyrosine kinase is a potent suppressor of ES cell differentiation and antagonizes the actions of its closest phylogenetic relative, c-Src.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiong; Meyn, Malcolm A; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2014-01-17

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage embryo and are characterized by self-renewal and pluripotency. Previous work has shown that Src-family tyrosine kinases display dynamic expression and activity changes during ES cell differentiation, suggesting distinct functions in the control of developmental fate. Here we used ES cells to test the hypothesis that c-Src and its closest phylogenetic relative, c-Yes, act in biological opposition despite their strong homology. Unlike c-Src, enforced expression of active c-Yes blocked ES cell differentiation to embryoid bodies by maintaining pluripotency gene expression. To explore the interplay of c-Src and c-Yes in ES cell differentiation, we engineered c-Src and c-Yes mutants that are resistant to A-419259, a potent pyrrolopyrimidine inhibitor of the Src kinase family. Previous studies have shown that A-419259 treatment blocks all Src-family kinase activity in ES cells, preventing differentiation while maintaining pluripotency. Expression of inhibitor-resistant c-Src but not c-Yes rescued the A-419259 differentiation block, resulting in a cell population with properties of both primitive ectoderm and endoderm. Remarkably, when inhibitor-resistant c-Src and c-Yes were expressed together in ES cells, c-Yes activity suppressed c-Src-mediated differentiation. These studies show that even closely related kinases such as c-Src and c-Yes have unique and opposing functions in the same cell type. Selective agonists or inhibitors of c-Src versus c-Yes activity may allow more precise pharmacological manipulation of ES cell fate and have broader applications in other biological systems that express multiple Src family members such as tumor cells.

  11. [The life of Maurice Virenque (1888-1946). From "Gueules Cassées" to cervicofacial facelift].

    PubMed

    Vrebos, J; Dupuis, C C

    1998-04-01

    When going through the biography and bibliography of M. Virenque, one realizes that he was an outstanding maxillo-facial surgeon, who developed his knowledge mainly during the two world wars 1914-1918 and 1939-1945 and gave exceptional care to soldiers with severe face and skull injuries, the so-called "Gueules Cassées". Nevertheless, he did not disregard the importance of aesthetic surgery born between the two wars. Due to his large experience in maxillo-facial surgery and his broad knowledge of the anatomy of the face, he occupies a special place among the forerunners of facelifts by stressing on the importance of plication of the deep aponeurotic layers of the face, thus allowing the elaboration of a modified approach to the problems of the aging face.

  12. The Risk of Dengue Virus Transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an Epidemic Period of 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Mweya, Clement N.; Rumisha, Susan F.; Tungu, Patrick K.; Stanley, Grades; Makange, Mariam R.; Misinzo, Gerald; De Nardo, Pasquale; Vairo, Francesco; Oriyo, Ndekya M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014 dengue outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, there is no comprehensive data on the risk of transmission of dengue in the country. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during the 2014 epidemic. Methodology/Principal Findings This cross-sectional study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during the dengue outbreak of 2014. The study involved Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke districts. Adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. In each household compound, water-holding containers were examined for mosquito larvae and pupae. Dengue virus infection of mosquitoes was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Partial amplification and sequencing of dengue virus genome in infected mosquitoes was performed. A total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes were collected. Over half (59.9%) of the adult mosquitoes were collected in Kinondoni. Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2% of the mosquitoes of which 90.6% were from Kinondoni. Of a total of 796 houses inspected, 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. Kinondoni had the largest proportion of water-holding containers (57.7%), followed by Temeke (31.4%) and Ilala (23.4%). The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house index of 18.1% in Ilala, 25.5% in Temeke and 35.3% in Kinondoni. The respective container indices were 77.4%, 65.2% and 80.2%. Of the reared larvae and pupae, 5,250 adult mosquitoes emerged, of which 61.9% were Ae. aegypti. Overall, 27 (8.18) of the 330 pools of Ae. aegypti were positive for dengue virus. On average, the overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) indicates pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes (95%CI = 5.72–12

  13. Establishment of an ES cell-derived murine megakaryocytic cell line, MKD1, with features of primary megakaryocyte progenitors.

    PubMed

    Chagraoui, Hedia; Porcher, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Because of the scarcity of megakaryocytes in hematopoietic tissues, studying megakaryopoiesis heavily relies on the availability of appropriate cellular models. Here, we report the establishment of a new mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived megakaryocytic cell line, MKD1. The cells are factor-dependent, their cell surface immunophenotype and gene expression profile closely resemble that of primary megakaryocyte progenitors (MkPs) and they further differentiate along the megakaryocyte lineage upon valproic acid treatment. At a functional level, we show that ablation of SCL expression, a transcription factor critical for MkP maturation, leads to gene expression alterations similar to that observed in primary, Scl-excised MkPs. Moreover, the cell line is amenable to biochemical and transcriptional analyses, as we report for GpVI, a direct target of SCL. Thus, the MKD1 cell line offers a pertinent experimental model to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying MkP biology and more broadly megakaryopoiesis.

  14. Use of the ES-D3 cell differentiation assay, combined with the BeWo transport model, to predict relative in vivo developmental toxicity of antifungal compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Hequn; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Louisse, Jochem; Blok, Martine; Wang, Xinyi; Snijders, Linda; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the applicability of the ES-D3 cell differentiation assay combined with the in vitro BeWo transport model to predict the relative in vivo developmental toxicity potencies. To this purpose, the in vitro developmental toxicity of five antifungal compounds was investigated by characterizing their inhibitory effect on the differentiation of ES-D3 cells into cardiomyocytes. The BeWo transport model, consisting of BeWo b30 cells grown on transwell inserts and mimicking the placental barrier, was used to determine the relative placental transport velocity. The ES-D3 cell differentiation data were first compared to benchmark doses (BMDs) for in vivo developmental toxicity as derived from data reported in the literature. Correlation between the benchmark concentration for 50% effect (BMCd50) values, obtained in the ES-D3 cell differentiation assay, with in vivo BMD10 values showed a reasonable correlation (R(2)=0.57). When the ES-D3 cell differentiation data were combined with the relative transport rates obtained from the BeWo model, the correlation with the in vivo data increased (R(2)=0.95). In conclusion, we show that the ES-D3 cell differentiation assay is able to better predict the in vivo developmental toxicity ranking of antifungal compounds when combined with the BeWo transport model, than as a stand-alone assay.

  15. The Escherichia coli heat shock proteins GroEL and GroES modulate the folding of the beta-lactamase precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Laminet, A A; Ziegelhoffer, T; Georgopoulos, C; Plückthun, A

    1990-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems in biochemistry is the role of accessory proteins in the process of protein folding. The Escherichia coli heat shock protein complex GroEL/ES has been suggested to be a 'chaperonin' and be involved in both oligomer assembly as well as protein transport through the membrane. We show here that the folding of the purified precursor of beta-lactamase is inhibited by purified GroEL or the GroEL/ES complex with a stoichiometry of one particle per molecule of pre-beta-lactamase. Purified GroES alone has no effect on folding. After Mg2+ ATP addition folding resumes and the yield of active enzyme is higher than in the absence of GroEL or GroEL/ES. Unexpectedly, GroEL or GroEL/ES, when added to folded pre-beta-lactamase, lead to an apparent net 'unfolding', probably to a collapsed state of the protein, which can be reversed by the addition of Mg2+ ATP. The reversible and Mg2+ ATP-dependent association of GroEL/ES with non-native proteins might explain its postulated role in both protein transport and oligomer assembly. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2192863

  16. P. falciparum cpn20 Is a Bona Fide Co-Chaperonin That Can Replace GroES in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Vitlin Gruber, Anna; Nisemblat, Shahar; Zizelski, Gal; Parnas, Avital; Dzikowski, Ron; Azem, Abdussalam; Weiss, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    Human malaria is among the most ubiquitous and destructive tropical, parasitic diseases in the world today. The causative agent, Plasmodium falciparum, contains an unusual, essential organelle known as the apicoplast. Inhibition of this degenerate chloroplast results in second generation death of the parasite and is the mechanism by which antibiotics function in treating malaria. In order to better understand the biochemistry of this organelle, we have cloned a putative, 20 kDa, co-chaperonin protein, Pf-cpn20, which localizes to the apicoplast. Although this protein is homologous to the cpn20 that is found in plant chloroplasts, its ability to function as a co-chaperonin was questioned in the past. In the present study, we carried out a structural analysis of Pf-cpn20 using circular dichroism and analytical ultracentrifugation and then used two different approaches to investigate the ability of this protein to function as a co-chaperonin. In the first approach, we purified recombinant Pf-cpn20 and tested its ability to act as a co-chaperonin for GroEL in vitro, while in the second, we examined the ability of Pf-cpn20 to complement an E. coli depletion of the essential bacterial co-chaperonin GroES. Our results demonstrate that Pf-cpn20 is fully functional as a co-chaperonin in vitro. Moreover, the parasitic co-chaperonin is able to replace GroES in E. coli at both normal and heat-shock temperatures. Thus, Pf-cpn20 functions as a co-chaperonin in chaperonin-mediated protein folding. The ability of the malarial protein to function in E. coli suggests that this simple system can be used as a tool for further analyses of Pf-cpn20 and perhaps other chaperone proteins from P. falciparum. PMID:23326533

  17. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE AGN 1ES 0414+009 WITH VERITAS, FERMI-LAT, SWIFT-XRT, AND MDM

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Boettcher, M.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; and others

    2012-08-20

    We present observations of the BL Lac object 1ES 0414+009 in the >200 GeV gamma-ray band by the VERITAS array of Cherenkov telescopes. 1ES 0414+009 was observed by VERITAS between 2008 January and 2011 February, resulting in 56.2 hr of good quality pointed observations. These observations resulted in a detection of 822 events from the source corresponding to a statistical significance of 6.4 standard deviations (6.4{sigma}) above the background. The source flux, showing no evidence for variability, is measured as (5.2 {+-} 1.1{sub stat} {+-} 2.6{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 200 GeV, equivalent to approximately 2% of the Crab Nebula flux above this energy. The differential photon spectrum from 230 GeV to 850 GeV is well fit by a power law with a photon index of {Gamma} = 3.4 {+-} 0.5{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys} and a flux normalization of (1.6 {+-} 0.3{sub stat} {+-} 0.8{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at 300 GeV. We also present multiwavelength results taken in the optical (MDM), x-ray (Swift-XRT), and GeV (Fermi-LAT) bands and use these results to construct a broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). Modeling of this SED indicates that homogenous one-zone leptonic scenarios are not adequate to describe emission from the system, with a lepto-hadronic model providing a better fit to the data.

  18. Multiwavelength Observations of the AGN 1ES 0414+009 with Veritas, Fermi-LAT, Swift-XRT, and MDM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boettcher, M.; Bouvier, A.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Perkins, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of the BL Lac object 1ES 0414+009 in the greater than 200 GeV gamma-ray band by the VERITAS array of Cherenkov telescopes. 1ES 0414+009 was observed by VERITAS between January 2008 and February 2011, resulting in 56.2 hours of good quality pointed observations. These observations resulted in a detection of 822 events from the source corresponding to a statistical significance of 6.4 standard deviations (6.4 sigma) above the background. The source flux, showing no evidence for variability, is measured as (5.2 plus or minus 1.1(sub stat) plus or minus 2.6(sub sys) x 10(exp 12) photons per square centimeter per second above 200 GeV, equivalent to approximately 2% of the Crab Nebula flux above this energy. The differential photon spectrum from 230 GeV to 850 GeV is well fit by a power law with an photon index of TAU = 3.4 plus or minus 0.5(sub stat) plus or minus 0.3(sub sys) and a flux normalization of (1.6 plus or minus 0.3(sub stat) plus or minus 0.8(sub sys) x 10(exp -11) photons per square centimeter per second at 300 GeV. We also present multiwavelength results taken in the optical (MDM), X-ray (Swift-XRT), and GeV (Fermi-LAT) bands and use these results to construct a broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). Modeling of this SED indicates that homogenous one-zone leptonic scenarios are not adequate to describe emission from the system, with a lepto-hadronic model providing a better fit to the data.

  19. Responsiveness of genes to manipulation of transcription factors in ES cells is associated with histone modifications and tissue specificity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In addition to determining static states of gene expression (high vs. low), it is important to characterize their dynamic status. For example, genes with H3K27me3 chromatin marks are not only suppressed but also poised for activation. However, the responsiveness of genes to perturbations has never been studied systematically. To distinguish gene responses to specific factors from responsiveness in general, it is necessary to analyze gene expression profiles of cells responding to a large variety of disturbances, and such databases did not exist before. Results We estimated the responsiveness of all genes in mouse ES cells using our recently published database on expression change after controlled induction of 53 transcription factors (TFs) and other genes. Responsive genes (N = 4746), which were readily upregulated or downregulated depending on the kind of perturbation, mostly have regulatory functions and a propensity to become tissue-specific upon differentiation. Tissue-specific expression was evaluated on the basis of published (GNF) and our new data for 15 organs and tissues. Non-responsive genes (N = 9562), which did not change their expression much following any perturbation, were enriched in housekeeping functions. We found that TF-responsiveness in ES cells is the best predictor known for tissue-specificity in gene expression. Among genes with CpG islands, high responsiveness is associated with H3K27me3 chromatin marks, and low responsiveness is associated with H3K36me3 chromatin, stronger tri-methylation of H3K4, binding of E2F1, and GABP binding motifs in promoters. Conclusions We thus propose the responsiveness of expression to perturbations as a new way to define the dynamic status of genes, which brings new insights into mechanisms of regulation of gene expression and tissue specificity. PMID:21306619

  20. Two-dimensional Langevin modeling of fission dynamics of the excited compound nuclei 188Pt, 227Pa and 251Es

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslamizadeh, H.

    2016-02-01

    A stochastic approach based on one- and two-dimensional Langevin equations is applied to calculate the pre-scission neutron multiplicity, fission probability, anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution, fission cross section and the evaporation cross section for the compound nuclei 188Pt, 227Pa and 251Es in an intermediate range of excitation energies. The chaos weighted wall and window friction formula are used in the Langevin equations. The elongation parameter, c, is used as the first dimension and projection of the total spin of the compound nucleus onto the symmetry axis, K, considered as the second dimension in Langevin dynamical calculations. A constant dissipation coefficient of K, γK = 0.077(MeV zs)-1/2, is used in two-dimensional calculations to reproduce the above mentioned experimental data. Comparison of the theoretical results of the pre-scission neutron multiplicity, fission probability, fission cross section and the evaporation cross section with the experimental data shows that the results of two-dimensional calculations are in better agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, it is shown that the two-dimensional Langevin equations together with a dissipation coefficient of K, γK = 0.077(MeV zs)-1/2, can satisfactorily reproduce the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution for the heavy compound nucleus 251Es. However, a larger value of γK = 0.250(MeV zs)-1/2 is needed to reproduce the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distribution for the lighter compound nucleus 227Pa.

  1. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and concomitant presence of other micro-organisms in urine of pregnant women in Dar es Salaam -- Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mtimavalye, L A; Runyoro, D E; Massawe, F N; Mhalu, F S; Kanyawana, J Z

    1983-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of significant bacteriuria in pregnancy in Dar es Salaam as well as attempt to find out whether bacteriuria has any effects on the mother and baby. Of 1007 pregnant women studied for asymptomatic bacteriuria, a significant bacteriuria rate of 6.3% was revealed. Escherichia coli was the predominant organism, making up 47.6% of the total organisms isolated. Schistosoma hematobium was present in 8.7%, T. vaginalis in 14%, yeast cells were found in the urine of 9.1% and the microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti were found in 1 specimen. 66.2% had no abnormality in their urine. It is recommended on the basis of this study that all women found to have significant bacteriuria in 1 cultured urine sample should be treated. There was a significant relationship noted between significant bacteriuria and the passing of S. hematobium in the urine. There was also a significant correlation between the presence of T. vaginalis and yeast cells in the urine. On the basis of laboratory sensitivity studies it was also found that the antimicrobial agents of choice for treating urinary tract infections in Dar es Salaam where E. coli and Klebsiella erogenes are the predominant organisms are nitrofurantoin, nalidixic acid and co-trimoxazole. The socioeconomic status of the bacteriuric and control group was divided into 4 groups according to take home pay; results show no significant increase of bacteriuria in any of the groups. It was not possible to follow up the effects of the presence of micro-organisms in urine during pregnancy because once a woman was found to have a positive culture she was treated.

  2. A TRANSIT TIMING ANALYSIS OF NINE RISE LIGHT CURVES OF THE EXOPLANET SYSTEM TrES-3

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, N. P.; Pollacco, D.; Simpson, E. K.; Barros, S.; Joshi, Y. C.; Todd, I.; Keenan, F. P.; Skillen, I.; Benn, C.; Christian, D.; Hrudkova, M.; Steele, I. A.

    2009-08-01

    We present nine newly observed transits of TrES-3, taken as part of a transit timing program using the RISE instrument on the Liverpool Telescope. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine the planet-star radius ratio and inclination of the system, which were found to be R{sub p} /R {sub *} = 0.1664{sup +0.0011} {sub -0.0018} and i = 81.73{sup +0.13} {sub -0.04}, respectively, consistent with previous results. The central transit times and uncertainties were also calculated, using a residual-permutation algorithm as an independent check on the errors. A re-analysis of eight previously published TrES-3 light curves was conducted to determine the transit times and uncertainties using consistent techniques. Whilst the transit times were not found to be in agreement with a linear ephemeris, giving {chi}{sup 2} = 35.07 for 15 degrees of freedom, we interpret this to be the result of systematics in the light curves rather than a real transit timing variation. This is because the light curves that show the largest deviation from a constant period either have relatively little out-of-transit coverage or have clear systematics. A new ephemeris was calculated using the transit times and was found to be T{sub c} (0) = 2454632.62610 {+-} 0.00006 HJD and P = 1.3061864 {+-} 0.0000005 days. The transit times were then used to place upper mass limits as a function of the period ratio of a potential perturbing planet, showing that our data are sufficiently sensitive to have probed sub-Earth mass planets in both interior and exterior 2:1 resonances, assuming that the additional planet is in an initially circular orbit.

  3. E/S0 GALAXIES ON THE BLUE COLOR-STELLAR MASS SEQUENCE AT z = 0: FADING MERGERS OR FUTURE SPIRALS?

    SciTech Connect

    Kannappan, Sheila J.; Guie, Jocelly M.; Baker, Andrew J. E-mail: jocelly@mail.utexas.edu

    2009-08-15

    We identify a population of morphologically defined E/S0 galaxies lying on the locus of late-type galaxies in color-stellar mass space - the 'blue sequence' -at the present epoch. Using three samples (from the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey or NFGS, a merged HyperLeda/Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog, and the NYU Value-Added Galaxy Catalog), we analyze blue-sequence E/S0s with stellar masses {approx}>10{sup 8} M {sub sun}, arguing that individual objects may be evolving either up toward the red sequence or down into the blue sequence. Blue-sequence E/S0 galaxies become more common with decreasing stellar mass, comprising {approx}<2% of E/S0s near the 'shutdown mass' M{sub s} {approx} 1-2 x 10{sup 11} M {sub sun}, increasing to {approx}>5% near the 'bimodality mass' M{sub b} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 10} M {sub sun}, and sharply rising to {approx}> 20%-30% below the 'threshold mass' M{sub t} {approx} 4-6 x 10{sup 9} M {sub sun}, down to our completeness analysis limit at {approx}10{sup 9} M {sub sun}. The strong emergence of blue-sequence E/S0s below M{sub t} coincides with a previously reported global increase in mean atomic gas fractions below M{sub t} for galaxies of all types on both sequences, suggesting that the availability of cold gas may be basic to blue-sequence E/S0s' existence. Environmental analysis reveals that many sub-M{sub b} blue-sequence E/S0s reside in low-to-intermediate density environments. Thus, the bulk of the population we analyze appears distinct from the generally lower-mass cluster dE population; S0 morphologies with a range of bulge sizes are typical. In mass-radius and mass-{sigma} scaling relations, blue-sequence E/S0s are more similar to red-sequence E/S0s than to late-type galaxies, but they represent a transitional class. While some of them, especially in the high-mass range from M{sub b} to M{sub s} , resemble major-merger remnants that will likely fade onto the red sequence, most blue-sequence E/S0s below M{sub b

  4. The 2 Es

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroog, Heidi; Hess, Kristin King; Ruiz-Primo, Maria Araceli

    2016-01-01

    What are the characteristics of formal formative assessments that are both effective in improving student learning and an efficient use of a teacher's time and efforts? That's the question that the authors explore in this article drawing on a five-year research study. First, formal formative assessment is defined as being planned in advance,…

  5. Es Weihnachtet Sehr.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Irene; Fineberg, Bernard

    A collection of Christmas projects that can be adapted to different levels of German study are presented. The text is in German, except for the overview which is in English. It is advised that the teacher be well acquainted with the craft items to be presented to the students. The language of the classroom should be German to provide a total…

  6. Une recension des écrits concernant la réalité psychoaffective des femmes ayant une vulvodynie : Difficultés rencontrées et stratégies développées

    PubMed Central

    Cantin-Drouin, Maude; Damant, Dominique; Turcotte, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : Au cours des trois dernières décennies, une attention grandissante a été portée à l’étude du syndrome de vulvodynie, soit un inconfort vulvaire chronique inexpliqué, éprouvé en l’absence de pathologie précisée. En plus d’avoir des répercussions physiques, l’expérience de la vulvodynie comporte une dimension psychosociale. OBJECTIF : Cet article vise à faire une recension des écrits sur la réalité psychoaffective des femmes qui éprouvent une vulvodynie. MÉTHODE : Une recherche documentaire basée sur une exploration systématique de textes présentant des résultats de recherche et recensés dans les principales banques de données en sciences sociales, dont Dissertation Abstracts, Current Contents et PsycINFO, a été réalisée. RÉSULTATS : Cette recension des écrits révèle, malgré la présence de certains résultats divergents, que les femmes ayant une vulvodynie affrontent souvent des difficultés identitaires et psychologiques, qui sont influencées notamment par les normes sociales de sexualité et de féminité. Pour composer avec ces difficultés, les femmes développent différentes stratégies visant à diminuer le stress occasionné par la douleur et à améliorer leur bien-être psychologique. CONCLUSION : Les difficultés relationnelles et psychologiques vécues par les femmes ayant une vulvodynie ne découlent pas seulement de la douleur physique, mais aussi du sens qu’elles lui accordent, souvent influencé par les discours sociaux sur l’hétérosexualité et la féminité. Il importe donc d’intervenir auprès des femmes en tenant compte de l’influence du contexte social tout en poursuivant le développement des connaissances sur les aspects psychosociaux de cette expérience. PMID:18592063

  7. Analysis of environment, safety, and health (ES{ampersand}H) management systems for Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Programs (DP) facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Neglia, A. V., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary analysis and comparison of various environment, safety, and health (ES&H) management systems required of, or suggested for use by, the Departrnent of Energy Defense Programs` sites. The summary analysis is provided by means of a comparison matrix, a set of Vean diagrams that highlights the focus of the systems, and an `End Gate` filter diagram that integrates the three Vean diagrams. It is intended that this paper will act as a starting point for implementing a particular system or in establishing a comprehensive site-wide integrated ES&H management system. Obviously, the source documents for each system would need to be reviewed to assure proper implementation of a particular system. The matrix compares nine ES&H management systems against a list of elements generated by identifying the unique elements of all the systems. To simplify the matrix, the elements are listed by means of a brief title. An explanation of the matrix elements is provided in Attachment 2 entitled, `Description of System Elements.` The elements are categorized under the Total Quality Management (TQM) `Plan, Do, Check, Act` framework with the added category of `Policy`. (The TQM concept is explained in the `DOE Quality Management implementation Guidelines,` July 1997 (DOE/QM- 0008)). The matrix provides a series of columns and rows to compare the unique elements found in each of the management systems. A `V` is marked if the element is explicitly identified as part of the particular ES&H management system. An `X` is marked if the element is not found in the particular ES&H management system, or if it is considered to be inadequately addressed. A `?` is marked if incorporation of the element is not clear. Attachment I provides additional background information which explains the justification for the marks in the matrix cells. Through the Vean diagrams and the `End Gate` filter in Section 3, the paper attempts to pictorially display the focus of

  8. Lignes directrices sur la prise en charge en soins primaires des céphalées chez l’adulte

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Werner J.; Findlay, Ted; Moga, Carmen; Scott, N. Ann; Harstall, Christa; Taenzer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Accroître l’utilisation d’approches éclairées par des données probantes pour diagnostiquer, investiguer et traiter en soins primaires les céphalées des patients. Qualité des données Une recherche documentaire exhaustive a été effectuée pour trouver des lignes directrices et des révisions systématiques publiées entre janvier 2000 et mai 2011. La grille d’évaluation de la qualité des recommandations pour la pratique clinique AGREE a servi à l’analyse critique des lignes directrices. Les 6 guides de pratique clinique de la plus grande qualité ont servi de base dans le processus d’adaptation. Message principal Un groupe d’élaboration multidisciplinaire de professionnels des soins primaires ont formulé 91 recommandations précises à l’aide d’un processus consensuel. Les recommandations portent sur le diagnostic, l’investigation et la prise en charge de la migraine, de la céphalée de tension, de la céphalée due à une surmédication et de la céphalée vasculaire de Horton. Conclusion Un guide de pratique clinique adapté au contexte des soins de santé au Canada a été produit en suivant un processus d’adaptation de lignes directrices dans le but d’aider les professionnels de toutes les disciplines des soins primaires à dispenser des soins éclairés par des données probantes aux patients souffrant de céphalées.

  9. Epidémiologie et facteurs de risque des anomalies de fermeture du tube neural: données marocaines

    PubMed Central

    Radouani, Mohammed Amine; Chahid, Naima; Benmiloud, Loubna; Elammari, Laila; Lahlou, Khalid; Barkat, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Les anomalies de fermeture du tube neural sont des défauts congénitaux de la formation du système nerveux central. L'incidence varie entre 3 et 40 cas pour 10000 dans le monde. Il existe des facteurs de risque de survenue de cette affection. La prévention reste un élément important dans la prise en charge. L'objectif de ceete étude est d’étudier les paramètres sociodémographiques, maternels, obstétricaux et néonatals des anomalies de fermeture du tube neural et analyser les facteurs de risque responsables dans notre contexte. Méthodes Etude prospective cas-témoin sur 4 ans. Ont été recrutés tous les cas portant une malformation du tube neural isolée ou associée à d'autres malformations. Les données maternelles, obstétricales et néonatales ont été enregistrées. L'analyse statistique était réalisée par le biais d'un logiciel de statistiques SPSS version 17.0 pour Windows. Résultats Soixante huit cas ont été inclus. Quatre-vingts cinq pour cent des malformations étaient isolées. L'anencéphalie était l'anomalie la plus retrouvée (67%). L’âge maternel moyen était 31,03±7,50 ans. La consanguinité parentale était notée dans 9 cas. Un niveau socio-économique bas et un non suivi des grossesses ont été rapportés dans 29% des cas. L’étude a retrouvé des antécédents de mort-nés et de morts néonatales dans 4% des cas. La consommation de Fenugrec était significativement associée aux malformations du tube neural et a été retrouvée dans 8 cas contre 1 cas dans le groupe sain. La voie haute d'accouchement était utilisée dans 29% des cas. L’âge gestationnel moyen était de 35,55±4,16 semaines d'aménorrhée. Il n'y avait pas de prédominance de sexe. On avait noté une relation significative entre les malformations du tube neural et l'avènement d'une asphyxie périnatale, 15 cas présentaient un apgar à 0 à la première minute et 12 cas un apgar inférieur à 7 à la cinquième minute. Conclusion

  10. Urban morphological determinants of temperature regulating ecosystem services in African cities: the case of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Urban green structure provides important regulating ecosystem services, such as temperature and flood regulation, and thus, has the potential to increase the resilience of African cities to climate change. Green structures within urban areas are not only limited to discrete units associated with recreational parks, agricultural areas and open spaces: they also exist within zones which have other primary functions, such as church yards, along transport routes, and within residential areas. Differing characteristics of urban areas can be conceptualised and subsequently mapped through the idea of urban morphology types. Urban morphology types are classifications which combine facets of urban form and function. When mapped, UMT units provide biophysically relevant meso-scale geographical zones which can be used as the basis for understanding climate-related impacts and adaptations. For example, they support the assessment of urban temperature patterns and the temperature regulating services provided by urban green structures. There are some examples of the use of UMTs for assessing regulating ecosystem services in European cities but little similar knowledge is available in an African context. This paper outlines the concept of urban morphology types (UMTs) and how they were applied to African case study cities (Cavan et al., 2012). It then presents the methods used to understand temperature regulating ecosystem services across an example African case study city, including (i) a GIS-based assessment of urban green structures, and (ii) applying an energy balance model to estimate current and future surface temperatures under climate change projections. The assessment is carried out for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Existing evidence suggests increases in both mean and extreme temperatures in the city. Historical analysis of the number of hot days per year suggests a rise from a maximum of 47 days per year in the period 1961-87 to 72 days per year in 2003-2011 (Giugni et al

  11. A qualitative study of perceived risk for HIV transmission among police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding people’s views about HIV transmission by investigating a specific population may help to design effective HIV prevention strategies. In addition, knowing the inherent sexual practices of such a population, as well as the risky circumstances that may facilitate HIV transmission, is crucial for the said strategies to become effective. In this article, we report how police officers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, perceived the problem of HIV and AIDS in their local context, particularly in relation to unsafe sexual practices. The study was done with the view to recommending ways by which HIV transmission could be minimised within the police force. Methods The study was conducted among members of the police force in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted, with a total of 66 participants who were mixed in terms of age, gender, and marital status. Some of these were caregivers to patients with AIDS. Data were analysed using the interpretive description approach. Results The participants believed that both individual sexual behaviour and work-related circumstances were sources of HIV infection. They also admitted that they were being tempted to engage in risky sexual practices because of the institutional rules that prohibit officers from getting married during their training and for three years after. Nevertheless, as members of the Police Force, they stressed the fact that the risky sexual behaviour that exposes them to HIV is not limited to the force; it is rather a common problem that is faced by the general population. However, they complained, the nature of their job exposes them to road accident victims, subjecting them further to possible infection, especially when they have to handle these road accident casualties without proper protective gear. Conclusion Individual sexual behaviour and job-related circumstances are worth investigating if proper advice is to be given to the police regarding HIV

  12. CONTINUUM HALOS IN NEARBY GALAXIES: AN EVLA SURVEY (CHANG-ES). II. FIRST RESULTS ON NGC 4631

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Judith; Henriksen, Richard N.; Beck, Rainer; Krause, Marita; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Schmidt, Philip; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Miskolczi, Arpad; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Oosterloo, Tom; Johnson, Megan; Li, Jiang-Tao; Murphy, E. J.; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene E-mail: henriksn@astro.queensu.ca E-mail: rbeck@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de E-mail: cmora@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de; and others

    2012-08-15

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array or EVLA) with observations in two bands centered at 1.5 and 6 GHz in a variety of array configurations with full polarization. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). These first results are based on C-array test observations in both observing bands of the well-known radio halo galaxy, NGC 4631. In this paper, we outline the observations and the data reduction steps that are required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data), we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, rather than fits across widely separated frequencies as has been done in the past and is also the highest spatial resolution spectral index map yet presented for this galaxy. The average spectral index in the disk is {alpha}-bar{sub 1.5GHz} = -0.84 {+-} 0.05 indicating that the emission is largely non-thermal, but a small global thermal contribution is sufficient to explain a positive curvature term in the spectral index over the band. Two specific star-forming regions have spectral indices that are consistent with thermal emission. Polarization results (uncorrected for

  13. Spectral sampling tools for vegetation biophysical parameters and flux measurements in Europe: the European ES0903 COST Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescovo, L.

    2010-12-01

    The estimate of carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems and the prediction of the global change impact on the ecosystem carbon balance are becoming urgent needs required by international agreements. To support the development of this knowledge, a deep insight into processes that regulate carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is fundamental. Flux towers remain a primary tool for understanding ecosystem carbon fluxes within the global flux networks. International initiatives such as SpecNet are developing to fill the temporal and spatial gap between ecosystem measurements and remote sensing by means of scale-appropriate optical measurements. In this framework, a new EU COST Action project has started in Europe. Up to now, 16 countries are participating to the Action. The COST Action project is open to researchers from European Cost Countries, but also from Near-Neighbour and non-COST countries can participate to the Action and, in some cases, can obtain some specific national funding (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina). According to the highlighted scientific questions, the objectives of ES0903 are i) to analyse the state of the art of the optical sampling research in Europe, ii) to standardize tools and methods in the optical sampling measurements, iii) to focus on the fluxes and biomass estimation problems as an input to the technological world for development of new sensors and iv) to involve the scientific instruments industries in designing and testing a common multi-band reflectance sensor for ground optical measurements in the European flux network. Thanks to the Action, the use of standardised protocols will be encouraged within a spectral measurements network, across site comparisons will be enabled and the use of new instruments and sensors will be promoted and tested. Some of the most common issues of the proximal sampling research, performed at ecosystem level, are: i)methods, protocols and

  14. Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of

  15. Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies: An EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). II. First Results on NGC 4631

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Judith; Beck, Rainer; Benjamin, R. A.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N.; Johnson, Megan; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Miskolczi, Arpad; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Murphy, E. J.; Oosterloo, Tom; Porter, Troy A.; Rand, Richard J.; Saikia, D. J.; Schmidt, Philip; Strong, A. W.; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q. Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2012-08-01

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies—an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array or EVLA) with observations in two bands centered at 1.5 and 6 GHz in a variety of array configurations with full polarization. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). These first results are based on C-array test observations in both observing bands of the well-known radio halo galaxy, NGC 4631. In this paper, we outline the observations and the data reduction steps that are required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data), we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 μJy beam-1 at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, rather than fits across widely separated frequencies as has been done in the past and is also the highest spatial resolution spectral index map yet presented for this galaxy. The average spectral index in the disk is \\bar{\\alpha }_{1.5 \\,GHz} =-0.84+/- 0.05 indicating that the emission is largely non-thermal, but a small global thermal contribution is sufficient to explain a positive curvature term in the spectral index over the band. Two specific star-forming regions have spectral indices that are consistent with thermal emission. Polarization results (uncorrected for internal

  16. Risk Factors of Loss to Follow up Among HIV Positive Pediatric Patients in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    MCCORMICK, Nora M.; LI, Nan; SANDO, David; MUYA, Aisa; MANJI, Karim P.; KISENGE, Rodrick; DUGGAN, Christopher; CHALAMILLA, Guerino; FAWZI, Wafaie W.; SPIEGELMAN, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for loss to follow up (LTFU) in an HIV-infected pediatric population in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania between 2004 and 2011. Design Longitudinal analysis of 6236 HIV-infected children. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 6236 pediatric patients enrolled in care and treatment in Dar es Salaam from October 2004 to September 2011. LTFU was defined as missing a clinic visit for >90 days for patients on ART and for >180 days for patients in care and monitoring. The relationship of baseline and time-varying characteristics to risk of LTFU was examined using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results 2130 children (34%) were LTFU over a median follow up of 16.7 months (IQR, 3.4–36.9). Factors independently associated with a higher risk of LTFU were age 2 years (RR=1.59, 95% CI 1.40–1.80), diarrhea at enrollment (RR=1.20, 95% CI 1.03–1.41), a low mid-upper arm circumference for age (RR=1.20, CI 1.05–1.37), eating protein 3 times a week (RR=1.39, 95% CI 1.05–1.90), taking cotrimoxazole (RR=1.39, 95% CI 1.06–1.81), initiating onto antiretrovirals (RR=1.37, 95% CI 1.17–1.61), receiving treatment at a hospital instead of a local facility (RR=1.39, 95% CI 1.06–1.41), and starting treatment in 2006 or later (RR=1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16). Conclusions Health workers should be aware of pediatric patients who are at greatest risk of LTFU, such as younger and undernourished patients, so that they can proactively counsel families about the importance of visit adherence. Findings support decentralization of HIV care to local facilities as opposed to hospitals. PMID:26247894

  17. Does Personalized Water and Hand Quality Information Affect Attitudes, Behavior, and Health in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J.; Pickering, A.; Horak, H.; Boehm, A.

    2008-12-01

    Tanzania (TZ) has one of the highest rates of child mortality due to enteric disease in the world. NGOs and local agencies have introduced numerous technologies (e.g., chlorine tablets, borewells) to increase the quantity and quality of water in Dar es Salaam, the capital of Tanzania, in hopes of reducing morbidity and mortality of waterborne disease. The objective of the present study is to determine if providing personalized information about water quality and hand surface quality, as determined by concentrations of enterococci and E. coli, results in improved health and water quality in households. A cohort study was completed in June-September 2008 in 3 communities ranging from urban to per-urban in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania to achieve our objective. The study consisted of 4 cohorts that were visited 4 times over the 3 month study. One cohort received no information about water and hand quality until the end of the summer, while the other groups received either just information on hand surface quality, just information on water quality, and information on both hand surface and water quality after the first (baseline) household visit. We report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli in water sources (surface waters and bore wells), water stored in households, and environmental waters were children and adults swim and bathe. In addition, we report concentrations of enterococci and E. coli on hands of caregivers and children in households. Preliminary results of surveys on health and perceptions of water quality and illness from the households are provided. Ongoing work will integrate the microbiological and sociological data sets to determine if personalized information interventions resulted in changes in health, water quality in the household, or perceptions of water quality, quantity and relation to human health. Future work will analyze DNA samples from hands and water for human-specific Bacteroides bacteria which are only present in human feces. Our study

  18. Generation of functional platelets from human embryonic stem cells in vitro via ES-sacs, VEGF-promoted structures that concentrate hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Naoya; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Usui, Joichi; Tsukui, Hiroko; Sawaguchi, Akira; Hiroyama, Takashi; Eto, Koji; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2008-06-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) could potentially represent an alternative source for blood transfusion therapies and a promising tool for studying the ontogeny of hematopoiesis. When we cultured hESCs on either C3H10T1/2 or OP-9 cells to facilitate hematopoiesis, we found that exogenous administration of vascular endothelial growth factor promoted the emergence of sac-like structures, which we named embryonic stem cell-derived sacs (ES-sacs). These ES-sacs consisted of multiple cysts demarcated by cellular monolayers that retained some of the properties of endothelial cells. The spherical cells inside ES-sacs expressed primarily CD34, along with VE-cadherin, CD31, CD41a, and CD45, and were able to form hematopoietic colonies in semisolid culture and to differentiate into mature megakaryocytes by day 24 in the presence of thrombopoietin. Apparently, ES-sacs provide a suitable environment for hematopoietic progenitors. Relatively large numbers of mature megakaryocytes could be induced from the hematopoietic progenitors within ES-sacs, which were then able to release platelets that displayed integrin alpha IIb beta 3 activation and spreading in response to ADP or thrombin. This novel protocol thus provides a means of generating platelets from hESCs, which could serve as the basis for efficient production of platelets for clinical transfusion and studies of thrombopoiesis.

  19. The Dnmt3b splice variant is specifically expressed in in vitro-manipulated blastocysts and their derivative ES cells.

    PubMed

    Horii, Takuro; Suetake, Isao; Yanagisawa, Eikichi; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Nagao, Yasumitsu; Imai, Hiroshi; Tajima, Shoji; Hatada, Izuho

    2011-10-01

    Manipulation of preimplantation embryos in vitro, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), in vitro culture (IVC), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and other assisted reproduction technologies (ART), has contributed to the development of infertility treatment and new animal reproduction methods. However, such embryos often exhibit abnormal DNA methylation patterns in imprinted genes and centromeric satellite repeats. These DNA methylation patterns are established and maintained by three DNA methyltransferases: Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. Dnmt3b is responsible for the creation of methylation patterns during the early stage of embryogenesis and consists of many alternative splice variants that affect methylation activity; nevertheless, the roles of these variants have not yet been identified. In this study, we found an alternatively spliced variant of Dnmt3b lacking exon 6 (Dnmt3bΔ6) that is specific to mouse IVC embryos. Dnmt3bΔ6 also showed prominent expression in embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from in vitro manipulated embryos. Interestingly, IVC blastocysts were hypomethylated in centromeric satellite repeat regions that could be susceptible to methylation by Dnmt3b. In vitro methylation activity assays showed that Dnmt3bΔ6 had lower activity than normal Dnmt3b. Our findings suggest that Dnmt3bΔ6 could induce a hypomethylation status especially in in vitro manipulated embryos.

  20. Sequential dome-collapse nuées ardentes analyzed from broadband seismic data, Merapi Volcano, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodscholl, A.; Kirbani, S.B.; Voight, B.

    2000-01-01

    The broadband data were evaluated using the assumption that avalanches with the same source areas and descent paths exhibit a linear relation between source volume and recorded seismic-amplitude envelope area. A result of the analysis is the determination of the volume of selected individual events. From the field surveys, the total volume of the collapsed dome lava is 2.6 Mm3. Discounting the volumetric influence of rockfalls, the average size of the 44 nuées ardentes is therefore about 60,000 m3. The largest collapse event at 10:54 is estimated to involve 260,000 m3, based on an analysis of the seismicity. The remaining 23 phase I events averaged 60,000 m3, with the total volume of all phase I events accounting for 63% of the unstable dome. The 20 phase II events comprised 37% of the total volume and averaged 47,000 m3. The methods described here can be put to practical use in real-time monitoring situations. Broadband data were essential in this study primarily because of the wide dynamic range.

  1. [Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) breeding sites in native bromeliads in Vitória City, ES].

    PubMed

    Varejão, José Benedito Malta; Santos, Claudiney Biral dos; Rezende, Helder Ricas; Bevilacqua, Luiz Carlos; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2005-01-01

    Some insects that are vectors of human diseases have accompanied man in his migrations throughout the world and breed exclusively in the proximity of human dwellings. The mosquito Aedes aegypti has been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Brazil and its presence also constitutes a serious risk for future outbreaks of urban yellow fever. The failure of campaigns to eradicate this species justifies the search for alternative breeding sites, which may be beyond the reach of present control measures. In this study the occurrence of Aedes aegypti breeding sites in native bromeliads on rocky slopes was investigated in five areas of Vitória, capital of the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo, ES. Water contained in the bromeliads was collected with the aid of a suction apparatus to search for culicid larvae. The degree of infestation of buildings in adjacent urban areas was evaluated simultaneously. Culicid larvae were found in bromeliads in four of the five areas investigated, Aedes aegypti being present in two areas. The presence of breeding sites in bromeliads was not related to indices of infestation of buildings in adjacent areas. Further studies are necessary to define whether breeding sites in bromeliads constitute primary foci of Aedes aegypti, or are a consequence of high infestation levels in urban areas.

  2. Habitat characterization and spatial distribution of Anopheles sp. mosquito larvae in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) during an extended dry period

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Michael A; Mtasiwa, Deo; Kiama, Michael; Premji, Zul; Tanner, Marcel; Killeen, Gerry F; Lengeler, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Introduction By 2030, more than 50% of the African population will live in urban areas. Controlling malaria reduces the disease burden and further improves economic development. As a complement to treated nets and prompt access to treatment, measures targeted against the larval stage of Anopheles sp. mosquitoes are a promising strategy for urban areas. However, a precise knowledge of the geographic location and potentially of ecological characteristics of breeding sites is of major importance for such interventions. Methods In total 151 km2 of central Dar es Salaam, the biggest city of Tanzania, were systematically searched for open mosquito breeding sites. Ecologic parameters, mosquito larvae density and geographic location were recorded for each site. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the key ecological factors explaining the different densities of mosquito larvae. Results A total of 405 potential open breeding sites were examined. Large drains, swamps and puddles were associated with no or low Anopheles sp. larvae density. The probability of Anopheles sp. larvae to be present was reduced when water was identified as "turbid". Small breeding sites were more commonly colonized by Anopheles sp. larvae. Further, Anopheles gambiae s.l. larvae were found in highly organically polluted habitats. Conclusions Clear ecological characteristics of the breeding requirements of Anopheles sp. larvae could not be identified in this setting. Hence, every stagnant open water body, including very polluted ones, have to be considered as potential malaria vector breeding sites. PMID:15649333

  3. Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Amy J.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  4. Analysis of dynamic changes in retinoid-induced transcription and epigenetic profiles of murine Hox clusters in ES cells

    PubMed Central

    De Kumar, Bony; Parrish, Mark E.; Slaughter, Brian D.; Unruh, Jay R.; Gogol, Madelaine; Seidel, Christopher; Paulson, Ariel; Li, Hua; Gaudenz, Karin; Peak, Allison; McDowell, William; Fleharty, Brian; Ahn, Youngwook; Lin, Chengqi; Smith, Edwin; Shilatifard, Ali; Krumlauf, Robb

    2015-01-01

    The clustered Hox genes, which are highly conserved across metazoans, encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors that provide a blueprint for segmental identity along the body axis. Recent studies have underscored that in addition to encoding Hox genes, the homeotic clusters contain key noncoding RNA genes that play a central role in development. In this study, we have taken advantage of genome-wide approaches to provide a detailed analysis of retinoic acid (RA)-induced transcriptional and epigenetic changes within the homeotic clusters of mouse embryonic stem cells. Although there is a general colinear response, our analyses suggest a lack of strict colinearity for several genes in the HoxA and HoxB clusters. We have identified transcribed novel noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and their cis-regulatory elements that function in response to RA and demonstrated that the expression of these ncRNAs from both strands represent some of the most rapidly induced transcripts in ES cells. Finally, we have provided dynamic analyses of chromatin modifications for the coding and noncoding genes expressed upon activation and suggest that active transcription can occur in the presence of chromatin modifications and machineries associated with repressed transcription state over the clusters. Overall, our data provide a resource for a better understanding of the dynamic nature of the coding and noncoding transcripts and their associated chromatin marks in the regulation of homeotic gene transcription during development. PMID:26025802

  5. Suppression of Eis and expression of Wag31 and GroES in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytosol under anaerobic culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Vineet K; Singh, Kavita; Sinha, Sudhir

    2014-08-01

    A major impediment in chemotherapy of Tuberculosis (TB) is the persistence of M. tuberculosis in a latent or dormant state, possibly perpetuated by paucity of oxygen within the lung granuloma. Proteome analysis of the anaerobically persisting microbe could therefore provide novel targets for drugs against latent TB infection (LTBI). An Indian clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis was cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions following Wayne's hypoxia model and its cytosolic proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Peptide mass fingerprinting of 32 differentially expressed spots using MALDI TOF-TOF MS-MS resulted in identification of 23 proteins. Under the anaerobic culture conditions, expression of 12 of these proteins was highly suppressed (>2 fold reduction in spot volumes), with 4 of them (GrpE, CanB, MoxR1 and Eis) appearing as completely suppressed since corresponding spots were not detectable in the anaerobic sample. On the other hand, 4 proteins were highly expressed, with two of them (Wag31 and GroES) being uniquely expressed under anaerobic conditions. Suppression of Eis could make the anaerobically persisting bacilli susceptible to the aminoglycoside antibiotics which are known to be acetylated and inactivated by Eis. Although all 4 overexpressed proteins can be considered as putative drug targets for LTBI, Wag31 appears particularly interesting in view of its role in the cell wall biogenesis.

  6. Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and "sugar-daddies" in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents.

    PubMed

    Silberschmidt, M; Rasch, V

    2001-06-01

    Adolescent girls' early sexual activity, early pregnancy, induced abortions and the increase in HIV infections have become major concerns in Sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts, though, to understand their sexual behaviour and to prevent reproductive health problems are almost non-existent. Adolescent girls are normally seen as victims and easy preys of (often older and married) men's sexual exploitation. This article, which is based on a qualitative study of 51 adolescent girls who had just had an illegal abortion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, reveals that these girls are not only victims but also willing preys and active social agents engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to get material benefits they expose themselves to serious health risks, including induced abortion - without realising their own vulnerability. In our study, one out of four girls had more than one partner at the time they became pregnant, and many counted on an illegally induced abortion if they got pregnant. Even if adolescents are now allowed free access to family planning information, education and services, our study shows that this remains in the realm of theory rather than practice. Moreover, most adolescent girls are not aware about their right to such services. The paper concludes that the vulnerability of adolescent girls increases without the recognition that sexuality education and contraceptive services do not constitute a licence to practice illicit sex - but rather a means to create more mature and responsible attitudes and to increase sexual and reproductive health.

  7. Les fistules œsotrachéales congénitales isolées à propos de 2 cas

    PubMed Central

    El Biache, Imad; Lechqar, Maryem; Rami, Mohammed; Bouabdallah, Youssef

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent 2 cas de fistules oesotrachéales isolées sans atrésie de l'oesophage, colligés au service de chirurgie pédiatrique au CHU Hassan II de Fès au Maroc entre 2008 et 2013. Il s'agit d'une anomalie rare représentée par un fin canal ascendant entre l'oesophage et la face postérieure de la trachée, à la hauteur du défilé cervico-thoracique. Elle se manifeste cliniquement par une symptomatologie respiratoire parfois digestive. Le diagnostic a été confirmé par le transit oesophagien dans les 2 cas et a permis aussi de déterminer le siège de la fistule. Le traitement était chirurgical, il a permis de supprimer la communication anormale entre l'oesophage et la trachée par un abord cervical avec interposition musculaire dans les 2 cas. Les suites post-opératoires et l’évolution à long terme étaient simples. Le but de ce travail est d'exposer les différents moyens diagnostique et thérapeutique. PMID:25328600

  8. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-associated tuberculosis in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: strain predominance, clustering, and polyclonal disease.

    PubMed

    Adams, Lisa V; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Arbeit, Robert D; Soini, Hanna; Mtei, Lillian; Matee, Mecky; Bakari, Muhammad; Lahey, Timothy; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Shashkina, Elena; Kurepina, Natalia; Driscoll, Jeffrey R; Pallangyo, Kisali; Horsburgh, C Robert; von Reyn, C Fordham

    2012-08-01

    Molecular typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be used to elucidate the epidemiology of tuberculosis, including the rates of clustering, the frequency of polyclonal disease, and the distribution of genotypic families. We performed IS6110 typing and spoligotyping on M. tuberculosis strains isolated from HIV-infected subjects at baseline or during follow-up in the DarDar Trial in Tanzania and on selected community isolates. Clustering occurred in 203 (74%) of 275 subjects: 124 (80%) of 155 HIV-infected subjects with baseline isolates, 56 (69%) of 81 HIV-infected subjects with endpoint isolates, and 23 (59%) of 39 community controls. Overall, 113 (41%) subjects had an isolate representing the East Indian "GD" family. The rate of clustering was similar among vaccine and placebo recipients and among subjects with or without cellular immune responses to mycobacterial antigens. Polyclonal disease was detected in 6 (43%) of 14 patients with multiple specimens typed. Most cases of HIV-associated tuberculosis among subjects from this study in Dar es Salaam resulted from recently acquired infection. Polyclonal infection was detected and isolates representing the East Indian GD strain family were the most common.

  9. [Consumption to feed of resident adult population in rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Edilaine Oliveira; da Rocha, Emersom Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    It is a transverse study where a questionnaire of alimentary frequency was applied (QAF) in 150 adults resident of the rural area of the city of Ibatiba (ES, Brazil). QAF classified the alimentary consumption as: habitual (>4 times in the week), not habitual (<4 times in the week) and rarely (1 time a month), with objective of correlating the alimentary consumption with the chronic-degenerative diseases. The results evidenced a habitual consumption of rice, breads, stalk, bean, cow milk, animal fat, margarine, sugar and coffee, and a non habitual consumption of cake, potato, cookies, manioc, sweet potato, chayote, carrot, beet, pumpkin, juice of fruits, banana, orange, guava, mango and tangerine. It can be concluded that the feeding habit presented by the studied population it can come to increase in a medium or long period the prevalence and occurrences of chronic-degenerative diseases as hypertension, diabetes, obesity and coronary diseases. The alimentary consumption of this population needs concern, because when compared with the national patterns, it is observed some inadequacies, and it is known that this picture comes to every day causing damages the public health.

  10. Capture-recapture analysis of East Coast fever in smallholder dairy herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of and case fatality rate due to East Coast fever (ECF) were estimated in 1402 dairy cattle in 87 small herds in the Dar es Salaam region of Tanzania, from January 2003 to January 2005 using a capture-recapture method. Information on clinical cases and deaths due to ECF were obtained from farm records and from a questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey conducted between July 2003 and March 2005 as part of longitudinal studies of bovine mastitis in these herds. The number of clinical cases identified was 567 (from farm records) and 496 (from the questionnaire), and the number of deaths recorded were 305 (from farm records) and 251 (from the questionnaire). In all, 450 clinical cases and 191 deaths due to ECF were identified from the two sources, giving an observed prevalence of 32% (CI(95%) 30-35%) and observed case fatality rate of 42% (CI(95%) 38-47%). Following application of the capture-recapture method, the estimated number of clinical cases and deaths was 625 (CI(95%) 617-633) and 401 (CI(95%) 384-418), respectively. The respective prevalence and case fatality rates were 45% (CI(95%) 41-48%) and 64% (CI(95%) 60-68%). The estimates obtained using the capture-recapture method are higher than those identified by traditional cross-sectional studies conducted in the same study area, and probably provide a more accurate epidemiological picture of ECF in this region of Tanzania.

  11. The German Environmental Survey 1990/92 (GerES II): sources of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Krause, C; Seifert, B; Ullrich, D

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the second German Environmental Survey carried out in the Western part of Germany in 1990/91 (GerES IIa) 113 adults aged 25-69 years were selected at random from the total study population of about 2500 to investigate personal exposure to about 70 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each subject wore a diffusive badge-type sampler for 1 week. The VOCs determined included alkanes, aromatics, aliphatic halocarbons, terpenes, and oxygen-containing compounds. Multivariate regression analysis was carried out to determine and quantify the major sources of personal exposure to various VOCs. In this paper, results are given for benzene, and C8- and C9-aromatics. Being subject to environmental tobacco smoke was found to be the most important determinant of benzene exposure, but automobile-related activities such as driving a car or refuelling, were also associated with significantly increased levels of benzene. The major determinant of C8- and C9-aromatics concentrations was occupational exposure. Emissions from paints, lacquers, newspapers, magazines and print-works were also important contributors to C8-aromatics exposure. Renovation, painting and smoking were associated with a significant increase of the exposure to C9-aromatics.

  12. Thousands of Novel Transcripts Identified in Mouse Cerebrum, Testis, and ES Cells Based on ribo-minus RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanfei; Zhao, Yuhui; Cui, Peng; Lin, Qiang; Ding, Feng; Xin, Chengqi; Tan, Xinyu; Song, Shuhui; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

    2011-01-01

    The high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies provide an excellent opportunity for the detection of less-abundance transcripts that may not be identifiable by previously available techniques. Here, we report a discovery of thousands of novel transcripts (mostly non-coding RNAs) that are expressed in mouse cerebrum, testis, and embryonic stem (ES) cells, through an in-depth analysis of rmRNA-seq data. These transcripts show significant associations with transcriptional start and elongation signals. At the upstream of these transcripts we observed significant enrichment of histone marks (histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation, H3K4me3), RNAPII binding sites, and cap analysis of gene expression tags that mark transcriptional start sites. Along the length of these transcripts, we also observed enrichment of histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3). Moreover, these transcripts show strong purifying selection in their genomic loci, exonic sequences, and promoter regions, implying functional constraints on the evolution of these transcripts. These results define a collection of novel transcripts in the mouse genome and indicate their potential functions in the mouse tissues and cells. PMID:22303387

  13. Sexual motivation, sexual transactions and sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thanh C.; Nyoni, Joyce E.; Ross, Michael W.; Mbwambo, Jessie; Markham, Christine M.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the associations between sexual motivation and sexual risk behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) is critical for developing effective HIV prevention interventions. To examine these associations, we employed data from a survey of 200 MSM in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, recruited through respondent driven sampling. Results showed that 44.5% of surveyed participants most often looked for love/affection when having sex, and 36.5% most often looked for money. Money-motivated MSM were more likely to identify themselves as bisexual, more likely to have anal sex, and had significantly higher numbers of partners of both sexes. Those who most often looked for love/affection were less likely to ask for condom use, to actually use a condom, and to use lubrication in anal sex. MSM with different sexual motivations had dissimilar sexual risk behaviors. Tailored health interventions for each group to reduce these sexual risks for STIs/HIV prevention are needed. PMID:24890184

  14. [Practice in situations of legal abortion from the perspective of health professionals at Fernando Magalhães public hospital].

    PubMed

    Farias, Rejane Santos; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele

    2012-07-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze perceptions of health professionals at Fernando Magalhães Public Hospital regarding situations involving the practice of legal abortion. With this in mind, we sought to characterize the professionals interviewed, understand the qualifying process for assistance of women requiring abortion and identify the perceptions of the professionals regarding the practice of legal abortion. The quantitative and qualitative approach in terms of methodology was adopted. The instruments used were analysis of institutional documentation and semi-structured interviews based on a script with informed consent. The results of this research revealed: the inappropriate use of the right to conscientious objection by health professionals; the existence of difficulties faced by professionals in construction of a posture that ensures access to legally sanctioned abortion; and the interference of ethical and religious values as an important element in professional attitudes that discourage the practice of legal abortion. Measures for the ongoing education of professionals and the monitoring of actions applied to technical norms are recommended.

  15. Identification de lois constitutives et de lois de frottement adaptées aux grandes vitesses de sollicitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalverny, O.; Capéraa, S.; Pantalé, O.; Sattouf, C.

    2002-12-01

    Cet article présente une méthodologie d'identification de lois constitutives et de lois de contact adaptées aux matériaux métalliques sous chargement dynamique à grande vitesse de déformation. Les essais sont effectués à partir de montages expérimentaux adaptés à un lanceur à gaz permettant d'obtenir une vitesse de projectile de l'ordre de 350m/s pour une masse totale de 30gr. Le premier essai consiste en un impact de Taylor correspondant à un chargement mécanique de type compression. Le second essai de type “extrusion conique" permet la détermination des lois de frottement à grande vitesse. La procédure générale d'identification des lois de comportement à partir d'essais dynamiques se fait au moyen d'une analyse post-mortem des échantillons et de la corrélation entre ces résultats expérimentaux et un modèle numérique des essais. Pour les deux cas précédemment cités, nous présentons la configuration optimale d'essai ainsi que les résultats obtenus à partir d'un algorithme d'optimisation de type Levenberg-Marquard.

  16. From “ES-like” cells to induced pluripotent stem cells: A historical perspective in domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Sehwon; Piedrahita, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide great potential as cell sources for gene editing to generate genetically modified animals, as well as in the field of regenerative medicine. Stable, long-term ESCs have been established in laboratory mouse and rat, however, isolation of true pluripotent ESCs in domesticated animals such as pigs and dogs have been less successful. Initially, domesticated animal pluripotent cell lines were referred to as “ES-like” cells due to similar morphological characteristics to mouse ESCs but accompanied by a limited ability to proliferate in vitro in an undifferentiated state. That is, they shared some but not all the characteristics of true ESCs. More recently, advances in reprogramming using exogenous transcription factors, combined with the utilization of small chemical inhibitors of key biochemical pathways, have led to the isolation of induced pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we provide a historical perspective of the isolation of various types of pluripotent stem cells in domesticated animals. In addition, we summarize the latest progress and limitations in the derivation and application of induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:24274415

  17. THE TRANSIT LIGHT-CURVE PROJECT. XIV. CONFIRMATION OF ANOMALOUS RADII FOR THE EXOPLANETS TrES-4b, HAT-P-3b, AND WASP-12b

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Tucker; Ingemyr, Mikael; Winn, Joshua N.; Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Holman, Matthew J.; Esquerdo, Gil; Everett, Mark

    2011-06-15

    We present transit photometry of three exoplanets, TrES-4b, HAT-P-3b, and WASP-12b, allowing for refined estimates of the systems' parameters. TrES-4b and WASP-12b were confirmed to be 'bloated' planets, with radii of 1.706 {+-} 0.056R{sub Jup} and 1.736 {+-} 0.092R{sub Jup}, respectively. These planets are too large to be explained with standard models of gas giant planets. In contrast, HAT-P-3b has a radius of 0.827 {+-} 0.055R{sub Jup}, smaller than a pure hydrogen-helium planet and indicative of a highly metal-enriched composition. Analyses of the transit timings revealed no significant departures from strict periodicity. For TrES-4, our relatively recent observations allow for improvement in the orbital ephemerides, which is useful for planning future observations.

  18. Trajet de soins des personnes âgées à Bobo-Dioulasso, au Burkina Faso: une enquête transversale

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Hervé; Berthé, Abdramane; Konaté, Blahima; Drabo, Maxime koiné; Tou, Fatoumata; Somda, Désiré; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Introduction En Afrique, il y n'a pas encore une maitrise du trajet de soins des personnes âgées pour construire des modèles de soins adaptés afin d'améliorer leur prise en charge. L'objectif de cette étude était de décrire le trajet de soins des personnes âgées à Bobo-Dioulasso. Méthodes Nous avons réalisé une étude transversale à prédominance qualitative avec des personnes âgées vivant dans les ménages dans la ville de Bobo-Dioulasso de septembre à novembre 2012. Nous avons sélectionné 30 personnes âgées de manière raisonnée dans 22 secteurs. Des entretiens qualitatifs ont été réalisés. Le recours aux soins formels, informels et mixtes a été analysé. Résultats Le trajet de soins des personnes âgées à Bobo-Dioulasso était à prédominance mixte: elles utilisaient à la fois pour le même épisode de maladie les services publics et privés l'automédication à domicile, la médecine traditionnelle, l'utilisation des médicaments du marche informel de la rue. Les premiers recours aux soins étaient à l'initiative des personnes âgées elles-mêmes. Les recours aux soins formels étaient largement utilisés par les personnes âgées qui avaient un revenu de pension. Conclusion Devant la complexité de la prise en charge des personnes âgées présentant plusieurs pathologies et ayant différents recours des soins il y a une nécessité d'orienter le système d'offre de soins vers une coordination dite « collective ». PMID:26097632

  19. Development of a bio-analytical strategy for characterization of vaccine particles combining SEC and nanoES GEMMA

    PubMed Central

    Havlik, Marlene; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Friedbacher, Gernot; Messner, Paul; Winkler, Wolfgang; Perez-Burgos, Laura; Tauer, Christa; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used methods for size and shape analysis of bionanoparticles found in vaccines like X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy are very time-consuming and cost-intensive. The nano-electrospray (nanoES) gas-phase electrophoretic mobility macromolecular analyzer (GEMMA), belonging to the group of ion mobility spectrometers, was used for size determination of vaccine virus particles because it requires less analysis time and investment (no vacuum system). Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of viral vaccines and production intermediates turned out to be a good purification/isolation method prior to GEMMA, TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy) investigations, as well as providing a GEMMA analysis-compatible buffer. Column materials and different elution buffers were tested for optimal vaccine particle yield. We used a Superdex 200 column with a 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer. In addition, SEC allowed the removal of process-related impurities from the virions of interest. A sample concentrating step or a detergent addition step was also investigated. As a final step of our strategy SEC-purified or untreated vaccine-nanoparticles were further analyzed: (a) by immunological detection with a specific polyclonal antibody (dot blot) to verify the biological functionality, (b) by GEMMA to provide the size of the particles at atmospheric pressure and (c) by AFM and (d) TEM to obtain both size and shape information. The mean diameter of inactivated tick-borne encephalitis virions (i.e. vaccine particles) determined by GEMMA measurement was 46.6 ± 0.5 nm, in contrast to AFM and TEM images providing diameters of about 58 ± 4 and 52 ± 5 nm, respectively. PMID:24473104

  20. Knowledge of mosquitos in relation to public and domestic control activities in the cities of Dar es Salaam and Tanga.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, C.; Masamu, E. T.; Kiama, M. G.; Keto, A. J.; Kinenekejo, M.; Ichimori, K.; Lines, J.

    1995-01-01

    A study of community awareness of mosquitos and related subjects in the residential areas of two Tanzanian cities (Dar es Salaam and Tanga) showed that residents were well aware of mosquitos. Almost all claimed to use some form of domestic mosquito control product for their personal protection, and many spend a significant portion of the household income on this. The problems of nuisance-biting and malaria transmission are usually not separated and are considered to be the result of poor environmental hygiene, for which both residents and local authorities are responsible. Although Culex mosquitos are not a primary target of the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP), the persistence of nuisance-biting has made residents sceptical and dissatisfied with insecticide spraying. The residents' priorities are evidently not the same as those of the health authorities, yet mutual cooperation is essential. In order to maintain community support, campaigns aimed at malaria vectors should consider the need for additional measures to control Culex mosquitos, such as those now being tried by the UMCP. Mosquito breeding sites are non-specifically associated with rubbish and standing water of all kinds, and so the actions that the community considers necessary for mosquito source reduction tend to be poorly targeted. Residents do not recognize that some sources produce malaria mosquitos while others produce nuisance mosquitos. The environmental anti-mosquito measures currently promoted by health education and other forms of propaganda are also poorly targeted. While some of them are directed at important Culex breeding sites, others are aimed at sites of little importance for mosquitos of any kind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7704932

  1. LONG-TERM OPTICAL POLARIZATION VARIABILITY OF THE TeV BLAZAR 1ES 1959+650

    SciTech Connect

    Sorcia, Marco; Benitez, Erika; Cabrera, Jose I.; Hiriart, David; Lopez, Jose M.; Mujica, Raul; Heidt, Jochen; Mommert, Michael; Agudo, Ivan; Nilsson, Kari

    2013-06-01

    A detailed analysis of the optical polarimetric variability of the TeV blazar 1ES 1959+650 from 2007 October 18 to 2011 May 5 is presented. The source showed maximum and minimum brightness states in the R band of 14.08 {+-} 0.03 mag and 15.20 {+-} 0.03 mag, respectively, with a maximum variation of 1.12 mag, and a maximum polarization degree of P = (12.2 {+-} 0.7)%, with a maximum variation of 10.7%. From 2009 August to November, a correlation between the optical R-band flux and the degree of linear polarization was found with a correlation coefficient r {sub pol} = 0.984 {+-} 0.025. The source presented a preferential position angle of optical polarization of {approx}153 Degree-Sign , with variations of 10 Degree-Sign -50 Degree-Sign , which is in agreement with the projected position angle of the parsec-scale jet found at 43 GHz. From the Stokes parameters we infer the existence of two optically thin synchrotron components that contribute to the polarized flux. One of them is stable with a constant polarization degree of 4%. Assuming a stationary shock for the variable component, we estimated some parameters associated with the physics of the relativistic jet: the magnetic field, B {approx} 0.06 G, the Doppler factor, {delta}{sub 0} {approx} 23, the viewing angle, {Phi} {approx} 2. Degree-Sign 4, and the size of the emission region r{sub b} {approx} 5.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm. Our study is consistent with the spine-sheath model of explaining the polarimetric variability displayed by this source during our monitoring.

  2. Antennes imprimées multicouches : choix des fonctions de base dans la méthode des moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennegueouche, J.; Damiano, J. P.; Papiernik, A.

    1993-03-01

    We present a theoretical method applied to the analysis of multilayered printed antennas with disc radiating elements, fed by coaxial probe. The method is based on a reaction integral equation solved in the spectral domain using the method of moments (Galerkin's method). The choice of the basis functions is crucial. We study the theoretical ponderation of these functions in a wide frequency band is done to yield more precise numerical results with a reduced computational time. Finally, it shows better agreement with the experimental data. Nous présentons une méthode théorique pour l'étude des antennes imprimées multicouches à éléments rayonnants de forme circulaire, alimentés par sonde coaxiale. La méthode est basée sur une équation intégrale de réaction, résolue dans le domaine spectral, à l'aide d'une méthode des moments (méthode de Galerkin). L'objectif est d'obtenir les caractéristiques radioélectriques de l'antenne : impédance d'entrée, diagrainme de rayonnement, gain, etc. Le choix des fonctions de base est un critère important. Nous avons réalisé une étude théorique de la pondération de ces fonctions sur une large bande de fréquence, d'où des résultats théoriques plus précis, un temps de calcul réduit et un accord théorie-expérience meilleur.

  3. Development of a bio-analytical strategy for characterization of vaccine particles combining SEC and nanoES GEMMA.

    PubMed

    Havlik, Marlene; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Friedbacher, Gernot; Messner, Paul; Winkler, Wolfgang; Perez-Burgos, Laura; Tauer, Christa; Allmaier, Günter

    2014-03-21

    Commonly used methods for size and shape analysis of bionanoparticles found in vaccines like X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy are very time-consuming and cost-intensive. The nano-electrospray (nanoES) gas-phase electrophoretic mobility macromolecular analyzer (GEMMA), belonging to the group of ion mobility spectrometers, was used for size determination of vaccine virus particles because it requires less analysis time and investment (no vacuum system). Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) of viral vaccines and production intermediates turned out to be a good purification/isolation method prior to GEMMA, TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy) investigations, as well as providing a GEMMA analysis-compatible buffer. Column materials and different elution buffers were tested for optimal vaccine particle yield. We used a Superdex 200 column with a 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer. In addition, SEC allowed the removal of process-related impurities from the virions of interest. A sample concentrating step or a detergent addition step was also investigated. As a final step of our strategy SEC-purified or untreated vaccine-nanoparticles were further analyzed: (a) by immunological detection with a specific polyclonal antibody (dot blot) to verify the biological functionality, (b) by GEMMA to provide the size of the particles at atmospheric pressure and (c) by AFM and (d) TEM to obtain both size and shape information. The mean diameter of inactivated tick-borne encephalitis virions (i.e. vaccine particles) determined by GEMMA measurement was 46.6 ± 0.5 nm, in contrast to AFM and TEM images providing diameters of about 58 ± 4 and 52 ± 5 nm, respectively.

  4. Integrative framework for identification of key cell identity genes uncovers determinants of ES cell identity and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cinghu, Senthilkumar; Yellaboina, Sailu; Freudenberg, Johannes M; Ghosh, Swati; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Oldfield, Andrew J; Lackford, Brad L; Zaykin, Dmitri V; Hu, Guang; Jothi, Raja

    2014-04-22

    Identification of genes associated with specific biological phenotypes is a fundamental step toward understanding the molecular basis underlying development and pathogenesis. Although RNAi-based high-throughput screens are routinely used for this task, false discovery and sensitivity remain a challenge. Here we describe a computational framework for systematic integration of published gene expression data to identify genes defining a phenotype of interest. We applied our approach to rank-order all genes based on their likelihood of determining ES cell (ESC) identity. RNAi-mediated loss-of-function experiments on top-ranked genes unearthed many novel determinants of ESC identity, thus validating the derived gene ranks to serve as a rich and valuable resource for those working to uncover novel ESC regulators. Underscoring the value of our gene ranks, functional studies of our top-hit Nucleolin (Ncl), abundant in stem and cancer cells, revealed Ncl's essential role in the maintenance of ESC homeostasis by shielding against differentiation-inducing redox imbalance-induced oxidative stress. Notably, we report a conceptually novel mechanism involving a Nucleolin-dependent Nanog-p53 bistable switch regulating the homeostatic balance between self-renewal and differentiation in ESCs. Our findings connect the dots on a previously unknown regulatory circuitry involving genes associated with traits in both ESCs and cancer and might have profound implications for understanding cell fate decisions in cancer stem cells. The proposed computational framework, by helping to prioritize and preselect candidate genes for tests using complex and expensive genetic screens, provides a powerful yet inexpensive means for identification of key cell identity genes.

  5. Sampling Migrants from their Social Networks: The Demography and Social Organization of Chinese Migrants in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Merli, M. Giovanna; Verdery, Ashton; Mouw, Ted; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The streams of Chinese migration to Africa are growing in tandem with rising Chinese investments and trade flows in and to the African continent. In spite of the high profile of this phenomenon in the media, there are few rich and broad descriptions of Chinese communities in Africa. Reasons for this include the rarity of official statistics on foreign-born populations in African censuses, the absence of predefined sampling frames required to draw representative samples with conventional survey methods and difficulties to reach certain segments of this population. Here, we use a novel network-based approach, Network Sampling with Memory, which overcomes the challenges of sampling ‘hidden’ populations in the absence of a sampling frame, to recruit a sample of recent Chinese immigrants in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and collect information on the demographic characteristics, migration histories and social ties of members of this sample. These data reveal a heterogeneous Chinese community composed of “state-led” migrants who come to Africa to work on projects undertaken by large Chinese state-owned enterprises and “independent” migrants who come on their own accord to engage in various types of business ventures. They offer a rich description of the demographic profile and social organization of this community, highlight key differences between the two categories of migrants and map the structure of the social ties linking them. We highlight needs for future research on inter-group differences in individual motivations for migration, economic activities, migration outcomes, expectations about future residence in Africa, social integration and relations with local communities. PMID:27746912

  6. Sampling Migrants from their Social Networks: The Demography and Social Organization of Chinese Migrants in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Merli, M Giovanna; Verdery, Ashton; Mouw, Ted; Li, Jing

    2016-07-01

    The streams of Chinese migration to Africa are growing in tandem with rising Chinese investments and trade flows in and to the African continent. In spite of the high profile of this phenomenon in the media, there are few rich and broad descriptions of Chinese communities in Africa. Reasons for this include the rarity of official statistics on foreign-born populations in African censuses, the absence of predefined sampling frames required to draw representative samples with conventional survey methods and difficulties to reach certain segments of this population. Here, we use a novel network-based approach, Network Sampling with Memory, which overcomes the challenges of sampling 'hidden' populations in the absence of a sampling frame, to recruit a sample of recent Chinese immigrants in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and collect information on the demographic characteristics, migration histories and social ties of members of this sample. These data reveal a heterogeneous Chinese community composed of "state-led" migrants who come to Africa to work on projects undertaken by large Chinese state-owned enterprises and "independent" migrants who come on their own accord to engage in various types of business ventures. They offer a rich description of the demographic profile and social organization of this community, highlight key differences between the two categories of migrants and map the structure of the social ties linking them. We highlight needs for future research on inter-group differences in individual motivations for migration, economic activities, migration outcomes, expectations about future residence in Africa, social integration and relations with local communities.

  7. Ventos em supergigantes B[e] das nuvens de Magalhães e da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, F. X.; Pilling, D. A.; Pereira, C. B.; Fernandes, M. B.

    2003-08-01

    As Supergigantes B[e] apresentam as seguintes características: (i) alta luminosidade; (ii) espectro típico de estrelas de tipo B; (iii) linhas permitidas e proibidas em emissão de metais de baixa ionização, especialmente FeII; (iv) linhas de Balmer, e por vêzes também dos ions HeI e FeII, com perfis tipo P Cygni indicativos de altas taxas de perda de massa. Atualmente estamos desenvolvendo um projeto que visa comparar as propriedades fisicas (principalmente e v¥) dos ventos destes objetos nas Nuvens de Magalhães e na Galaxia. O objetivo é estudar a influência da metalicidade. No presente painel apresentamos uma determinação das velocidades terminais de 11 estrelas, sendo 4 na GNM (Hen S111, 66, R126 e Hen S93), 4 na PNM (Hen S18, S23, S65 e R4) e 3 na Galaxia (CPD-529243, MWC 300 e GG Car). Nossos dados são espectros de alta resolução obtidos no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo FEROS. Para determinar as velocidades terminais usamos as linhas Hd e HeI 3888 Å cujas componentes em absorção costumam estar livres de "blends" e estruturas. Nossos resultados sugerem que as velocidades de expansão na GNM são maiores (ainda que apenas ligeiramente) do que aquelas da PNM, como esperado. No entanto, os objetos da Galaxia não parecem seguir a mesma tendência.

  8. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Spain using regional cutoff points for waist circumference: the di@bet.es study.

    PubMed

    Marcuello, Clara; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L; Fuentes, Manuel; Runkle, Isabelle; Rubio, Miguel A; Montañez, Carmen; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; Bordiu, Elena; Goday, Albert; Bosch-Comas, Anna; Carmena, Rafael; Casamitjana, Roser; Castaño, Luis; Castell, Conxa; Catalá, Miguel; Delgado, Elias; Franch, Josep; Gaztambide, Sonia; Girbés, Juan; Gomis, Ramon; Urrutia, Ines; López-Alba, Alfonso; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; Menéndez, Eldelmiro; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Ortega, Emilio; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Valdés, Sergio; Vázquez, Jose A; Vendrell, Joan

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Spain using specific cutoff points for waist circumference (WC) (>94.5 cm for men and >89.5 cm for women) and evaluating the influence of several socio-demographic and economic factors. Data on MetS were obtained from a national study of 4,727 subjects from 18 to 90 years of age, conducted in Spain between 2009 and 2010 (The di@bet.es study). MetS was defined applying the new Harmonized definition (evaluating the use of abdominal obesity (AO) as a obligatory criterion for MetS or not) as well as with other widely used criteria. Results were then compared with data from previous studies. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the influence of different social factors. The age-standardized MetS prevalence was 38.37 % (CI 35.74-40.99) in men and 29.62 % (CI 27.56-31.69) in women, when AO was required as a diagnostic criterion; 42.13 % (CI 39.37-44.89) and 32.31 % (CI 30.15-34.47) in men and women, respectively, if AO was not considered mandatory. Prevalence of MetS increased with age (p < 0.001 for trend). Women with a lower educational level were more likely to have MetS (OR 4.4; 95 % CI: 2.84-6.7) as compared with those with a higher educational level. Subjects with MetS had a worse physical quality of life. The combination of AO, hypertension and carbohydrate alterations was the most common MetS' pattern. A high prevalence of MetS was detected in the Spanish population especially in men, the elderly and women with a low educational level.

  9. Urban biowaste for solid fuel production: waste suitability assessment and experimental carbonization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lohri, Christian Riuji; Faraji, Adam; Ephata, Elia; Rajabu, Hassan Mtoro; Zurbrügg, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The poor state of solid waste management in Dar es Salaam (DSM), Tanzania, the large fraction of organic waste generated and a high charcoal consumption by city residents has triggered this research on carbonization of municipal biowaste. Char produced by the thermochemical conversion method of slow pyrolysis can be briquetted and used as cooking fuel alternative to wood-based charcoal. To explore the potential of biowaste carbonization in DSM, the most suitable organic wastes were selected and pyrolyzed in a simple, externally heated carbonization system developed as part of this study. A Multi-Criteria Analysis framework allowed to assess prevailing biowaste types regarding availability and accessibility, and respective suitability in terms of physical-chemical properties. The assessment, using data from a survey and lab analysis, revealed the following biowaste types with highest overall potential for char production in DSM: packaging grass/leaves (PG) used for transportation of fruit and vegetables to the markets, wood waste (WW) from wood workshops, and cardboard (CB) waste. Best practice carbonization of these biowastes in the pyrolyzer showed satisfactory char yields (PG: 38.7%; WW: 36.2%; CB: 35.7% on dry basis). Proximate composition (including volatile, fixed carbon and ash content) and heating value (PG: 20.1 MJ kg(-1); WW: 29.4 MJ kg(-1); CB: 26.7 MJ kg(-1)) of the produced char also compare well with literature data. The energy and emission-related aspects of the system still require further research and optimizations to allow financially viable and safe operation.

  10. Common structural features of toxic intermediates from α-synuclein and GroES fibrillogenesis detected using cryogenic coherent X-ray diffraction imaging.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Hiroshi; Usugi, Sayaka; Kobayashi, Mana; Fukui, Naoya; Lee, Seki; Hongo, Kunihiro; Mizobata, Tomohiro; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Masaki, Yu; Kobayashi, Amane; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Nakasako, Masayoshi; Takayama, Yuki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kawata, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    The aggregation and deposition of α-synuclein (αSyn) in neuronal cells is correlated to pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Although the mechanism of αSyn aggregation and fibril formation has been studied extensively, the structural hallmarks that are directly responsible for toxicity toward cells are still under debate. Here, we have compared the structural characteristics of the toxic intermediate molecular species of αSyn and similar toxic species of another protein, GroES, using coherent X-ray diffraction analysis. Using coherent X-ray free electron laser pulses of SACLA, we analysed αSyn and GroES fibril intermediate species and characterized various aggregate structures. Unlike previous studies where an annular oligomeric form of αSyn was identified, particle reconstruction from scattering traces suggested that the specific forms of the toxic particles were varied, with the sizes of the particles falling within a specific range. We did however discover a common structural feature in both αSyn and GroES samples; the edges of the detected particles were nearly parallel and produced a characteristic diffraction pattern in the diffraction experiments. The presence of parallel-edged particles in toxic intermediates of αSyn and GroES fibrillogenesis pointed towards a plausible common molecular interface that leads to the formation of mature fibrils.

  11. The parasitic worm-derived immunomodulator, ES-62 and its drug-like small molecule analogues exhibit therapeutic potential in a model of chronic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Coltherd, J. C.; Rodgers, D. T.; Lawrie, R. E.; Al-Riyami, L.; Suckling, C. J.; Harnett, W.; Harnett, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic asthma is associated with persistent lung inflammation and long-term remodelling of the airways that have proved refractory to conventional treatments such as steroids, despite their efficacy in controlling acute airway contraction and bronchial inflammation. As its recent dramatic increase in industrialised countries has not been mirrored in developing regions, it has been suggested that helminth infection may protect humans against developing asthma. Consistent with this, ES-62, an immunomodulator secreted by the parasitic worm Acanthocheilonema viteae, can prevent pathology associated with chronic asthma (cellular infiltration of the lungs, particularly neutrophils and mast cells, mucus hyper-production and airway thickening) in an experimental mouse model. Importantly, ES-62 can act even after airway remodelling has been established, arresting pathogenesis and ameliorating the inflammatory flares resulting from repeated exposure to allergen that are a debilitating feature of severe chronic asthma. Moreover, two chemical analogues of ES-62, 11a and 12b mimic its therapeutic actions in restoring levels of regulatory B cells and suppressing neutrophil and mast cell responses. These studies therefore provide a platform for developing ES-62-based drugs, with compounds 11a and 12b representing the first step in the development of a novel class of drugs to combat the hitherto intractable disorder of chronic asthma. PMID:26763929

  12. 30 CFR 206.53 - How do I determine value for oil that I or my affiliate do(es) not sell under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I determine value for oil that I or my affiliate do(es) not sell under an arm's-length contract? 206.53 Section 206.53 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil §...

  13. [German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). First results].

    PubMed

    Schulz, C; Wolf, U; Becker, K; Conrad, A; Hünken, A; Lüdecke, A; Müssig-Zufika, M; Riedel, S; Seiffert, I; Seiwert, M; Kolossa-Gehring, M

    2007-01-01

    The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) is the environment-related module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) of the Robert Koch Institute and the fourth GerES of the Federal Environment Agency. The main objective of GerESs is to analyse and document the extent, distribution and determinants of exposure to environmental pollutants of the German general population. GerES IV was performed from 2003 to 2006. A total of 1.790 children aged 3-14 years from 150 sampling locations participated in GerES IV. Samples of blood, urine, tap water, house dust and indoor air were analysed. Hearing tests, measurements of traffic noise and interviews to get exposure-related information were conducted. First results indicate a clear decrease of the exposure to arsenic, lead and mercury. Cotinine concentrations in urine can be used to classify the exposure of children to environmental tobacco smoke. The examination of the tap water used in the subjects' households indicates that in some households the guideline values of the German Drinking Water Ordinance were not always met. This is the case for nickel, copper and lead which are used as pipe material for domestic plumbing.

  14. Cloning, expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the co-chaperonin XoGroES from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Doan, Thanh Thi Ngoc; Natarajan, Sampath; Song, Na-Hyun; Kim, Jisun; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Kim, Seung-hwan; Viet, Pham Tan; Kim, Jeong-Gu; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Kang, Lin-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial blight (BB), a devastating disease caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), causes serious production losses of rice in Asian countries. Protein misfolding may interfere with the function of proteins in all living cells and must be prevented to avoid cellular disaster. All cells naturally contain molecular chaperones that assist the unfolded proteins in folding into the native structure. One of the well characterized chaperone complexes is GroEL-GroES. GroEL, which consists of two chambers, captures misfolded proteins and refolds them. GroES is a co-chaperonin protein that assists the GroEL protein as a lid that temporarily closes the chamber during the folding process. Xoo4289, the GroES gene from Xoo, was cloned and expressed for X-ray crystallographic study. The purified protein (XoGroES) was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and a crystal diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the hexagonal space group P6(1), with unit-cell parameters a=64.4, c=36.5 Å. The crystal contains a single molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a corresponding VM of 2.05 Å3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 39.9%.

  15. Importance of the C-terminal histidine residues of Helicobacter pylori GroES for Toll-like receptor 4 binding and interleukin-8 cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haur; Su, Yu-Lin; Huang, Bo-Shih; Hsieh, Feng-Tse; Chang, Ya-Hui; Tzeng, Shiou-Ru; Hsu, Chun-Hua; Huang, Po-Tsang; Lou, Kuo-Long; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Chow, Lu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as gastric cancer. GroES of H. pylori (HpGroES) was previously identified as a gastric cancer-associated virulence factor. Our group showed that HpGroES induces interleukin-8 (IL-8) cytokine release via a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent mechanism and domain B of the protein is crucial for interactions with TLR4. In the present study, we investigated the importance of the histidine residues in domain B. To this end, a series of point mutants were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding proteins purified. Interestingly, H96, H104 and H115 were not essential, whereas H100, H102, H108, H113 and H118 were crucial for IL-8 production and TLR4 interactions in KATO-III cells. These residues were involved in nickel binding. Four of five residues, H102, H108, H113 and H118 induced certain conformation changes in extended domain B structure, which is essential for interactions with TLR4 and consequent IL-8 production. We conclude that interactions of nickel ions with histidine residues in domain B help to maintain the conformation of the C-terminal region to conserve the integrity of the HpGroES structure and modulate IL-8 release. PMID:27869178

  16. Factors Contributing to the Accumulation of Primary Teacher's Debts to the Government of Tanzania: A Case Study for Dar Es Salaam Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kombo, Ibun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the study which was conducted to determine factors contributing to the accumulation of primary school teacher's debts to the Government of Tanzania, a case study of Dar es Salaam Region in its three municipalities namely, Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke. Data was obtained through sampling method which also helped to…

  17. Extended evaluation on the ES-D3 cell differentiation assay combined with the BeWo transport model, to predict relative developmental toxicity of triazole compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Hequn; Flick, Burkhard; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Louisse, Jochem; Schneider, Steffen; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2016-05-01

    The mouse embryonic stem D3 (ES-D3) cell differentiation assay is based on the morphometric measurement of cardiomyocyte differentiation and is a promising tool to detect developmental toxicity of compounds. The BeWo transport model, consisting of BeWo b30 cells grown on transwell inserts and mimicking the placental barrier, is useful to determine relative placental transport velocities of compounds. We have previously demonstrated the usefulness of the ES-D3 cell differentiation assay in combination with the in vitro BeWo transport model to predict the relative in vivo developmental toxicity potencies of a set of reference azole compounds. To further evaluate this combined in vitro toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic approach, we combined ES-D3 cell differentiation data of six novel triazoles with relative transport rates obtained from the BeWo model and compared the obtained ranking to the developmental toxicity ranking as derived from in vivo data. The data show that the combined in vitro approach provided a correct prediction for in vivo developmental toxicity, whereas the ES-D3 cell differentiation assay as stand-alone did not. In conclusion, we have validated the combined in vitro approach for developmental toxicity, which we have previously developed with a set of reference azoles, for a set of six novel triazoles. We suggest that this combined model, which takes both toxicodynamic and toxicokinetic aspects into account, should be further validated for other chemical classes of developmental toxicants.

  18. Effect of grapefruit seed extract on thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during sous-vide processing of two marinated Mexican meat entrées

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    D and z values of Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200 and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples, inoculated with L.monoc...

  19. 30 CFR 1206.53 - How do I determine value for oil that I or my affiliate do(es) not sell under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I determine value for oil that I or my affiliate do(es) not sell under an arm's-length contract? 1206.53 Section 1206.53 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT...

  20. Deformation and seismic precursors to dome-collapse and fountain-collapse nuées ardentes at Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia, 1994-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voight, B.; Young, K.D.; Hidayat, D.; ,; Purbawinata, M.A.; Ratdomopurbo, A.; ,; ,; Sayudi, D.S.; LaHusen, R.; Marso, J.; Murray, T.L.; Dejean, M.; Iguchi, M.; Ishihara, K.

    2000-01-01

    Following the eruption of January 1992, episodes of lava dome growth accompanied by generation of dome-collapse nuées ardentes occurred in 1994–1998. In addition, nuées ardentes were generated by fountain-collapse in January 1997, and the 1998 events also suggest an explosive component. Significant tilt and seismic precursors on varying time scales preceded these events. Deformation about the summit has been detected by electronic tiltmeters since November 1992, with inflation corresponding generally to lava dome growth, and deflation (or decreased inflation) corresponding to loss of dome mass. Strong short-term (days to weeks) accelerations in tilt rate and seismicity occurred prior to the major nuées ardentes episodes, apart from those of 22 November 1994 which were preceded by steadily increasing tilt for over 200 days but lacked short-term precursors. Because of the combination of populated hazardous areas and the lack of an issued warning, about 100 casualties occurred in 1994. In contrast, the strong precursors in 1997 and 1998 provided advance warning to observatory scientists, enabled the stepped raising of alert levels, and aided hazard management. As a result of these factors, but also the fortunate fact that the large nuées ardentes did not quite descend into populated areas, no casualties occurred. The nuée ardente episode of 1994 is interpreted as purely due to gravitational collapse, whereas those of 1997 and 1998 were influenced by gas-pressurization of the lava dome.

  1. The helminth product, ES-62 modulates dendritic cell responses by inducing the selective autophagolysosomal degradation of TLR-transducers, as exemplified by PKCδ

    PubMed Central

    Eason, Russell J.; Bell, Kara S.; Marshall, Fraser A.; Rodgers, David T.; Pineda, Miguel A.; Steiger, Christina N.; Al-Riyami, Lamyaa; Harnett, William; Harnett, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that ES-62, a phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing glycoprotein secreted by the parasitic filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae targets dendritic cell (DC) responses, specifically by suppressing TLR4 signalling to inhibit Th1/Th17-driven inflammation. We have now investigated the molecular mechanisms underpinning such immunomodulation and show here that ES-62-mediated downregulation of protein kinase C-δ (PKC-δ), a TLR4-associated signalling mediator required for full activation of LPS-driven pro-inflammatory responses, is associated with induction of a low level of autophagic flux, as evidenced by upregulation and trafficking of p62 and LC3 and their consequent autophagolysosomal degradation. By contrast, the classical TLR4 ligand LPS, strongly upregulates p62 and LC3 expression but under such canonical TLR4 signalling this upregulation appears to reflect a block in autophagic flux, with these elements predominantly degraded in a proteasomal manner. These data are consistent with autophagic flux acting to homeostatically suppress proinflammatory DC responses and indeed, blocking of PKC-δ degradation by the autophagolysosomal inhibitors, E64d plus pepstatin A, results in abrogation of the ES-62-mediated suppression of LPS-driven release of IL-6, IL-12p70 and TNF-α by DCs. Thus, by harnessing this homeostatic regulatory mechanism, ES-62 can protect against aberrant inflammation, either to promote parasite survival or serendipitously, exhibit therapeutic potential in inflammatory disease. PMID:27869138

  2. ES[S]PRIT--An Internet-Based Programme for the Prevention and Early Intervention of Eating Disorders in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Stephanie; Moessner, Markus; Wolf, Markus; Haug, Severin; Kordy, Hans

    2009-01-01

    New communication technologies offer novel possibilities for the prevention of mental illness, in which geographical and psychosocial distances often hamper help-seeking. This paper introduces ES[S]PRIT, an Internet-based eating disorders (ED) prevention programme for university students. The programme follows a stepped-care approach combining…

  3. Overexpression of EsMcsu1 from the halophytic plant Eutrema salsugineum promotes abscisic acid biosynthesis and increases drought resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Ma, Z Y; Zhu, L; Guo, J S; Zhu, J; Wang, J F

    2015-12-17

    The stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays pivotal roles in plants' adaptive responses to adverse environments. Molybdenum cofactor sulfurases influence aldehyde oxidase activity and ABA biosynthesis. In this study, we isolated a novel EsMcsu1 gene encoding a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase from Eutrema salsugineum. EsMcus1 transcriptional patterns varied between organs, and its expression was significantly upregulated by abiotic stress or ABA treatment. Alfalfa plants that overexpressed EsMcsu1 had a higher ABA content than wild-type (WT) plants under drought stress conditions. Furthermore, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ion leakage, and malondialdehyde were lower in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants after drought treatment, suggesting that the transgenic plants experienced less ROS-mediated damage. However, the expression of several stress-responsive genes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmolyte (proline and total soluble sugar) levels in the transgenic plants were higher than those in the WT plants after drought treatment. Therefore, EsMcsu1 overexpression improved drought tolerance in alfalfa plants by activating a series of ABA-mediated stress responses.

  4. β-Amyrin synthase (EsBAS) and β-amyrin 28-oxidase (CYP716A244) in oleanane-type triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Eleutherococcus senticosus.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hye-Jeong; Han, Jung Yeon; Hwang, Hwan-Su; Choi, Yong Eui

    2017-03-01

    Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) is a woody medical shrub belonging to the Araliaceae family. E. senticosus contains various types of saponins, including oleanane, noroleanane, lupane, and 3,4-secolupane types, depending on the aglycone structure. Oleanane-type triterpenes are the major saponin components in E. senticosus. Two enzymes (β-amyrin synthase and β-amyrin 28-oxidase) are essential for oleanane-type saponin biosynthesis from 2,3-oxidosqualene. In the present study, two full-length cDNAs encoding EsBAS and CYP716A244 were isolated based on transcriptomics analysis of plant leaves. Both β-amyrin synthase (EsBAS) and β-amyrin 28-oxidase (CYP716A244), isolated from E. senticosus, were functionally characterised. β-amyrin production was confirmed by heterologous expression of the EsBAS gene in yeast and tobacco. Oleanolic acid production was confirmed by co-expression of both EsBAS and CYP716A244 in engineered yeast and transgenic tobacco.

  5. Overview of the study design, participation and field work of the German Environmental Survey on Children 2003-2006 (GerES IV).

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christine; Seiwert, Margarete; Babisch, Wolfgang; Becker, Kerstin; Conrad, André; Szewzyk, Regine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2012-07-01

    The German Federal Environment Agency carried out its fourth German Environmental Survey (GerES IV), which is the first survey on children only and the environment-related module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (German acronym: KiGGS), conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI). The German Environmental Surveys are nationwide population studies conducted to determine the exposure to environmental pollutants, to explore exposure pathways and to identify sub-groups with higher exposure. GerES IV was conducted on randomly selected 1790 children aged 3-14 years from the cross-sectional sample of KiGGS. The participants of GerES IV lived in 150 sampling locations all over Germany. Field work was carried out from May 2003 to May 2006. The response rate in GerES IV was 77.3%. Due to the fact that participation in GerES IV was limited to children that had previously participated in the KiGGS study, the total response rate in GerES IV resulted in 52.6%. Response rates did neither differ significantly between West and East Germany, nor between different community sizes, age groups and gender. The basic study programme included blood samples, morning urine, tap water and house dust as well as comprehensive questionnaire-based interviews. In addition, subgroups were studied with regard to "noise, hearing capacity and stress hormones", "chemical contamination of indoor air" and "biogenic indoor contamination". A key element of the field work in GerES IV was a home visit to carry out interviews, conduct measurements and collect samples. An exception was blood sampling which was carried out within KiGGS. The quality of field work, data collection, evaluation, and chemical, biological and physical analyses was successfully evaluated by internal and external quality assurance. This comprehensive overview aims at giving other research groups the opportunity to compare different study designs or to adapt their own design to get

  6. SEARCH 8Es: A novel point of care ultrasound protocol for patients with chest pain, dyspnea or symptomatic hypotension in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jung Hwan; Jeon, Jin; Toh, Hong-Chuen; Noble, Vicki Elizabeth; Kim, Jun Su; Kim, Young Sik; Do, Han Ho; Ha, Young Rock

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate a problem-oriented focused torso bedside ultrasound protocol termed “Sonographic Evaluation of Aetiology for Respiratory difficulty, Chest pain, and/or Hypotension” (SEARCH 8Es) for its ability to narrow differential diagnoses and increase physicians’ diagnostic confidence, and its diagnostic accuracy, for patients presenting with dyspnea, chest pain, or symptomatic hypotension. Methods This single-center prospective observational study was conducted over 12 months in an emergency department and included 308 patients (184 men and 124 women; mean age, 67.7 ± 19.1 years) with emergent cardiopulmonary symptoms. The paired t-test was used to compare the number of differential diagnoses and physician’s level of confidence before and after SEARCH 8Es. The overall accuracy of the SEARCH 8Es protocol in differentiating 13 diagnostic entities was evaluated based on concordance (kappa coefficient) with the diagnosis made by the inpatient specialists. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated. Results SEARCH 8Es narrows the number of differential diagnoses (2.5 ± 1.5 vs. 1.4 ± 0.7; p < 0.001) and improves physicians’ diagnostic confidence (2.8 ± 0.8 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9; p < 0.001) significantly. The overall kappa coefficient value was 0.870 (p < 0.001), with the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value at 90.9%, 99.0%, 89.7%, and 99.0%, respectively. Conclusion The SEARCH 8Es protocol helps emergency physicians to narrow the differential diagnoses, increase diagnostic confidence and provide accurate assessment of patients with dyspnea, chest pain, or symptomatic hypotension. PMID:28355246

  7. Live cell imaging of the nascent inactive X chromosome during the early differentiation process of naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guyochin, Aurélia; Maenner, Sylvain; Chu, Erin Tsi-Jia; Hentati, Asma; Attia, Mikael; Avner, Philip; Clerc, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Random X-chromosome inactivation ensures dosage compensation in mammals through the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes present in each female cell. Silencing is initiated in the differentiating epiblast of the mouse female embryos through coating of the nascent inactive X chromosome by the non-coding RNA Xist, which subsequently recruits the Polycomb Complex PRC2 leading to histone H3-K27 methylation. Here we examined in mouse ES cells the early steps of the transition from naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells as a model for inducing X chromosome inactivation in vitro. We show that these conditions efficiently induce random XCI. Importantly, in a transient phase of this differentiation pathway, both X chromosomes are coated with Xist RNA in up to 15% of the XX cells. In an attempt to determine the dynamics of this process, we designed a strategy aimed at visualizing the nascent inactive X-chromosome in live cells. We generated transgenic female XX ES cells expressing the PRC2 component Ezh2 fused to the fluorescent protein Venus. The fluorescent fusion protein was expressed at sub-physiological levels and located in nuclei of ES cells. Upon differentiation of ES cell towards epiblast stem cell fate, Venus-fluorescent territories appearing in interphase nuclei were identified as nascent inactive X chromosomes by their association with Xist RNA. Imaging of Ezh2-Venus for up to 24 hours during the differentiation process showed survival of some cells with two fluorescent domains and a surprising dynamics of the fluorescent territories across cell division and in the course of the differentiation process. Our data reveal a strategy for visualizing the nascent inactive X chromosome and suggests the possibility for a large plasticity of the nascent inactive X chromosome.

  8. Detection of TeV gamma-rays from the BL Lac 1ES 1959+650 in its low states and during a major outburst in 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A.; Beilicke, M.; Bernlöhr, K.; Börst, H.-G.; Bojahr, H.; Bolz, O.; Coarasa, T.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Denninghoff, S.; Fonseca, M. V.; Girma, M.; Götting, N.; Heinzelmann, G.; Hermann, G.; Heusler, A.; Hofmann, W.; Horns, D.; Jung, I.; Kankanyan, R.; Kestel, M.; Kohnle, A.; Konopelko, A.; Kornmeyer, H.; Kranich, D.; Lampeitl, H.; Lopez, M.; Lorenz, E.; Lucarelli, F.; Mang, O.; Meyer, H.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Ona-Wilhelmi, E.; Panter, M.; Plyasheshnikov, A.; Pühlhofer, G.; de los Reyes, R.; Rhode, W.; Ripken, J.; Robrade, J.; Rowell, G.; Sahakian, V.; Samorski, M.; Schilling, M.; Siems, M.; Sobzynska, D.; Stamm, W.; Tluczykont, M.; Vitale, V.; Völk, H. J.; Wiedner, C. A.; Wittek, W.

    2003-07-01

    TeV gamma -rays from the BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 have been measured during the years 2000 and 2001 with a significance of 5.2 sigma at a value of 5.3% of the Crab flux and in May 2002 during strong outbursts with >23 sigma at a flux level of up to 2.2 Crab, making 1ES 1959+650 the TeV Blazar with the third best event statistics. The deep observation of 197.4 h has been performed with the HEGRA stereoscopic system of 5 imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT system). 1ES 1959+650 is located at a redshift of z = 0.047, providing an intermediate distance between the nearby Blazars Mkn 421 and Mkn 501, and the much more distant object H1426+428. This makes 1ES 1959+650 an important member of the class of TeV Blazars in view of the absorption of TeV photons by the diffuse extragalactic background radiation (DEBRA). The differential energy spectrum of 1ES 1959+650 during the flares can be fitted by a power law with a spectral index of 2.83 +/- 0.14stat +/- 0.08_sys} or by a power law with an exponential cut-off at (4.2+0.8-0.6 stat +/- 0.9sys) TeV and a spectral index of 1.83 +/- 0.15stat +/- 0.08sys. The low state differential energy spectrum obtained with lower statistics can be described by a pure power law with a spectral index of 3.18 +/- 0.17stat +/- 0.08sys. Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/L9

  9. High Prevalence of Faecal Carriage of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae among Children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Tellevik, Marit G.; Blomberg, Bjørn; Kommedal, Øyvind; Maselle, Samuel Y.; Langeland, Nina; Moyo, Sabrina J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria is a potential risk for transmission and infection. Little is known about faecal carriage of antibiotic resistance in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and to identify risk factors for carriage among young children in Tanzania. Methodology/Principal Findings From August 2010 to July 2011, children below 2 years of age were recruited in Dar es Salaam, including healthy community children (n = 250) and children hospitalized due to diarrhoea (n = 250) or other diseases (n = 103). ChromID ESBL agar and ChromID CARBA SMART agar were used for screening. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method. ESBL genotypes were identified by Real-Time PCR and sequencing. The overall prevalence of ESBL carriage was 34.3% (207/ 603). The prevalence of ESBL carriage was significantly higher among hospitalized children (50.4%), compared to community children (11.6%; P < 0.001; OR = 7.75; 95% CI: 4.99–12.03). We found high prevalence of Multidrug-resistance (94%) among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates. No resistance to carbapenems was detected. For the majority of isolates (94.7%) we detected a blaCTX-M-15-like gene. In addition, the plasmid mediated AmpC beta-lactamase CMY-2 was detected for the first time in Tanzania. ESBL prevalence was significantly higher among HIV positive (89.7%) than HIV negative (16.9%) children (P = 0.001; OR = 9.99; 95% CI: 2.52–39.57). Use of antibiotics during the past 14 days and age below 1 year was also associated with ESBL carriage. Conclusions/Significance We report a high rate of faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae among children below 2 years of age in Tanzania, particularly those with HIV-infection. Resistance to a majority of the available antimicrobials commonly used for children in Tanzania leaves few treatment options for infections when

  10. Etude critique de la prise en charge de 159 personnes âgées en consultation de psychiatrie

    PubMed Central

    Ben Thabet, Jihène; Ammar, Yousra; Charfi, Nada; Zouari, Lobna; Zouari, Nasreddine; Gaha, Lotfi; Maalej, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le phénomène de vieillissement des populations est associé à une augmentation de la prévalence de la morbidité liée à l’âge. La prescription des psychotropes chez le sujet âgé est de plus en plus fréquente dans les institutions, les doses sont de plus en plus élevées, avec un recours fréquent à une poly pharmacothérapie. Nous nous sommes proposé de décrire les conduites thérapeutiques chez le sujet âgé consultant en psychiatrie, en vue de les confronter aux dernières recommandations en la matière. Méthodes L’étude était de type rétrospectif et descriptif. Elle a concerné les sujets âgés d'au moins 60 ans ayant consulté pour la première fois en psychiatrie, au CHU Hédi Chaker à Sfax, en 2010 ou 2011. Résultats Nous avons colligé 159 dossiers. L’âge moyen était de 73 ans. La démence et les troubles de l'humeur étaient les diagnostics les plus fréquents. Sur le plan thérapeutique, une poly thérapie faite d'au moins deux psychotropes de familles différentes a été prescrite pour 55,9%. Chez 60.3% des sujets, le traitement a été prescrit d'emblée à dose complète. Aucun dossier ne faisait état d'une prise en charge psychothérapeutique. Conclusion La prise en charge des malades de notre étude n’était pas conforme aux recommandations, notamment en matière d'association médicamenteuse, de progression des doses et d'association de la psychothérapie à la pharmacothérapie. L'information des médecins et leur sensibilisation aux particularités du sujet âgé contribuerait à optimiser les soins qui leur sont prodigués, y compris en psychiatrie. PMID:25120873

  11. Placental Pathology Associated with Household Air Pollution in a Cohort of Pregnant Women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Blair J.; Matechi, Emmanuel; Kishashu, Yahya; Fawzi, Wafaie; Premji, Zul; Coull, Brent A.; Hauser, Russ; Ezzati, Majid; Roberts, Drucilla J.

    2016-01-01

    women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Environ Health Perspect 125:134–140; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP256 PMID:27286442

  12. The SCIDIP-ES project - towards an international collaboration strategy for long term preservation of earth science data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, Andrew; Glaves, Helen; Marelli, Fulvio; Albani, Mirko; Tona, Calogera; Marketakis, Yannis; Tzitzikas, Yannis; Guarino, Raffaele; Giaretta, David; Di Giammatteo, Ugo

    2013-04-01

    The capability for long term preservation of earth science data is a key requirement to support on-going research and collaboration within and between many earth science disciplines. A number of critically important current research directions (e.g. understanding climate change, and ensuring sustainability of natural resources) rely on the preservation of data often collected over several decades in a form in which it can be accessed and used easily. Another key driver for strategic long term data preservation is that key research challenges (such as those described above) frequently require cross disciplinary research utilising raw and interpreted data from a number of earth science disciplines. Effective data preservation strategies can support this requirement for interoperability and collaboration, and thereby stimulate scientific innovation. The SCIDIP-ES project (EC FP7 grant agreement no. 283401) seeks to address these and other data preservation challenges by developing a Europe wide infrastructure for long term data preservation comprising appropriate software tools and infrastructure services to enable and promote long term preservation of earth science data. Because we define preservation in terms of continued usability of the digitally encoded information, the generic infrastructure services will allow a wide variety of data to be made usable by researchers from many different domains. This approach promotes international collaboration between researchers and will enable the cost for long-term usability across disciplines to be shared supporting the creation of strong business cases for the long term support of that data. This paper will describe our progress to date, including the results of community engagement and user consultation exercises designed to specify and scope the required tools and services. Our user engagement methodology, ensuring that we are capturing the views of a representative sample of institutional users, will be described. Key

  13. Community-based environmental management for malaria control: evidence from a small-scale intervention in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marcia C; Tsuruta, Atsuko; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sixbert

    2009-01-01

    Background Historically, environmental management has brought important achievements in malaria control and overall improvements of health conditions. Currently, however, implementation is often considered not to be cost-effective. A community-based environmental management for malaria control was conducted in Dar es Salaam between 2005 and 2007. After community sensitization, two drains were cleaned followed by maintenance. This paper assessed the impact of the intervention on community awareness, prevalence of malaria infection, and Anopheles larval presence in drains. Methods A survey was conducted in neighbourhoods adjacent to cleaned drains; for comparison, neighbourhoods adjacent to two drains treated with larvicides and two drains under no intervention were also surveyed. Data routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Programme were also used. Diverse impacts were evaluated through comparison of means, odds ratios (OR), logistic regression, and time trends calculated by moving averages. Results Individual awareness of health risks and intervention goals were significantly higher among sensitized neighbourhoods. A reduction in the odds of malaria infection during the post-cleaning period in intervention neighbourhoods was observed when compared to the pre-cleaning period (OR = 0.12, 95% CI 0.05–0.3, p < 0.001). During the post-cleaning period, a higher risk of infection (OR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.4, p = 0.0069) was observed in neighbourhoods under no intervention compared to intervention ones. Eighteen months after the initial cleaning, one of the drains was still clean due to continued maintenance efforts (it contained no waste materials and the water was flowing at normal velocity). A three-month moving average of the percentage of water habitats in that drain containing pupae and/or Anopheles larvae indicated a decline in larval density. In the other drain, lack of proper resources and local commitment limited success. Conclusion Although

  14. Generating trust: Programmatic strategies to reach women who inject drugs with harm reduction services in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Zamudio-Haas, Sophia; Mahenge, Bathsheba; Saleem, Haneefa; Mbwambo, Jessie; Lambdin, Barrot H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Strong evidence supports the effectiveness of methadone-assisted therapy (MAT) to treat opioid dependence, reduce the risk of HIV transmission, and improve HIV related health outcomes among people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence reaches 71% in women who inject drugs (WWID) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; creating an urgent need for access to MAT. Despite the availability and potential benefits of treatment, few women have enrolled in services. This formative research sought to identify programmatic strategies to increase women’s participation in outreach and their subsequent enrollment in MAT. Methods We conducted twenty-five, in-depth interviews with patients and their providers at a MAT clinic. Open-ended interviews explored enrollment experiences, with a focus on contextual barriers and facilitators unique to women. Ethnographic observations of harm reduction education at outreach sites and the MAT clinic enriched interview data. Trust/mistrust emerged as an overarching theme cross cutting patient and provider accounts of the connective process to enroll PWID in the methadone program. We explore trust and mistrust in relationship to the interrelated themes of family loss, social isolation, vehement discrimination and motivation for treatment. Results Narratives delineated both the generation of mistrust against PWID and the generation of mistrust in PWID against outsiders and medical institutions. In order to enroll PWID in treatment, community base organizations engaged outreach strategies to overcome mistrust and connect eligible patients to care, which varied in their success at recruiting women and men. Greater discrimination against WWID pushed them into hiding, away from outreach teams that focus on outdoor areas where men who inject drugs congregate. Building trust through multiple encounters and making a personal connection facilitated entry into care for women. Only PWID were eligible for MAT, due to resource constraints and the higher

  15. Le silicium nanoporeux: microstructuration diélectrique et application aux structures photoniques avancées

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrand, P.

    2002-03-01

    érale au moyen d'une structuration verticale de l'indice, et nous étudions le guidage au moyen de deux types de structures, exploitant soit à un guidage conventionnel par réflexion totale interne, soit à un guidage par réflexion de Bragg. À cette occasion nous proposons une méthode numérique, basée sur le formalisme des matrices de transfert, permettant de calculer l'atténuation de la puissance transportée dans le plan. Par la suite, nous mettons à profit le procédé holographique de structuration d'indice démontré par des travaux antérieurs et étudions son influence sur la lumière guidée. La transmission, mesurée en lumière blanche sur un guide multimode révèle de multiples bandes interdites que nous interprétons en termes de couplages diagonaux et non diagonaux. La confrontation des mesures avec une modélisation par la méthode des modes couplés nous permet d'établir une carte d'indice de notre structure. Il apparaît une biréfringence marquée dans les régions insolées par le procédé holographique, caractérisées par une diminution deux fois plus importante de l'indice extraordinaire (Δ n =-0{,}4) que de l'indice ordinaire (Δ n =-0{,}22). Avec une période de 450 nm, ces valeurs de contraste sont encourageantes, bien que la modulation d'indice ne soit présente que sur une profondeur effective de l'ordre de 0,5 μm.

  16. Parg deficiency confers radio-sensitization through enhanced cell death in mouse ES cells exposed to various forms of ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Hidenori; Fujimori, Hiroaki; Gunji, Akemi; Maeda, Daisuke; Hirai, Takahisa; Poetsch, Anna R; Harada, Hiromi; Yoshida, Tomoko; Sasai, Keisuke; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Masutani, Mitsuko

    2013-05-24

    Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (Parg) is the main enzyme involved in poly(ADP-ribose) degradation. Here, the effects of Parg deficiency on sensitivity to low and high linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation were investigated in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Mouse Parg(-/-) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 deficient (Parp-1(-/-)) ES cells were used and responses to low and high LET radiation were assessed by clonogenic survival and biochemical and biological analysis methods. Parg(-/-) cells were more sensitive to γ-irradiation than Parp-1(-/-) cells. Transient accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) was enhanced in Parg(-/-) cells. Augmented levels of phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) from early phase were observed in Parg(-/-) ES cells. The induction level of p53 phophorylation at ser18 was similar in wild-type and Parp-1(-/-) cells and apoptotic cell death process was mainly observed in the both genotypes. These results suggested that the enhanced sensitivity of Parg(-/-) ES cells to γ-irradiation involved defective repair of DNA double strand breaks. The effects of Parg and Parp-1 deficiency on the ES cell response to carbon-ion irradiation (LET13 and 70 keV/μm) and Fe-ion irradiation (200 keV/μm) were also examined. Parg(-/-) cells were more sensitive to LET 70 keV/μm carbon-ion irradiation than Parp-1(-/-) cells. Enhanced apoptotic cell death also accompanied augmented levels of γ-H2AX in a biphasic manner peaked at 1 and 24h. The induction level of p53 phophorylation at ser18 was not different between wild-type and Parg(-/-) cells. The augmented level of poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation was noted after carbon-ion irradiation compared to γ-irradiation even in the wild-type cells. An enhanced poly(ADP-ribose) accumulation was further observed in Parg(-/-) cells. Both Parg(-/-) cells and Parp-1(-/-) cells did not show sensitization to Fe-ion irradiation. Parg deficiency sensitizes mouse ES cells to a wide therapeutic range of LET radiation through the effects on

  17. Association between an inflammatory-nutritional index and nutritional status in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Alberici Pastore, Carla; Paiva Orlandi, Silvana; González, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La caquexia es un síndrome multifactorial caracterizada por la pérdida de peso corporal, grasa y músculo, el aumento de la morbilidad y la mortalidad. El uso de un índice de la contabilidad para los dos niveles de albúmina sérica y la proteína C reactiva podría hacer que la identificación temprana de la caquexia más fácil. Objetivo: Evaluar la variación de una índice inflamatorio- nutricional en relación con el estado nutricional en pacientes con cáncer. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo incluyendo pacientes con cáncer gastrointestinal y los pulmones de un servicio de la quimioterapia pública en Brasil. La albumina y la proteína C reactiva fueron medidos y el estado nutricional se definió por la Evaluación Global Subjetiva. Los análisis estadísticos se realizaron utilizando Stata 9.2(TM). Resultados: Un total de 74 pacientes fueron evaluados, el 58,1% de ellos fueron hombres y el promedio de 63,4 ± 11,9 2013s de edad. Cáncer gastrointestinal era el tipo más frecuente (71,6%). Sólo el 13,7% de los pacientes estaban bien nutridos y el 21,9% estaban gravemente desnutridos. Proteína C reactiva aumentaron significativamente de acuerdo a la declinación del estado nutricional (p=0,03). Cuando la albúmina de los pacientes con inflamación sistémica se evaluó, no hubo variación significativa en relación al estado nutricional (p=0,06). El índice inflamatorio-nutricional varió significativamente en relación al estado nutricional independiente de la inflamación sistémica (p=0,02). Conclusiones: El índice inflamatorio-nutricional puede ser una manera adyuvante para la evaluación nutricional bioquímica y seguimiento en los pacientes con cáncer y la inflamación sistémica.

  18. Observations of 1ES 1101-232 with H.E.S.S. and at lower frequencies: A hard spectrum blazar and constraints on the extragalactic background light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pühlhofer, Gerd; Benbow, Wystan; Costamante, Luigi; Sol, Helene; Boisson, Catherine; Emmanoulopoulos, Dimitrios; Wagner, Stefan; Horns, Dieter; Giebels, Berrie

    VHE observations of the distant (z=0.186) blazar 1ES 1101-232 with H.E.S.S. are used to constrain the extragalactic background light (EBL) in the optical to near infrared band. As the EBL traces the galaxy formation history of the universe, galaxy evolution models can therefore be tested with the data. In order to measure the EBL absorption effect on a blazar spectrum, we assume that usual constraints on the hardness of the intrinsic blazar spectrum are not violated. We present an update of the VHE spectrum obtained with H.E.S.S. and the multifrequency data that were taken simultaneously with the H.E.S.S. measurements. The data verify that the broadband characteristics of 1ES 1101-232 are similar to those of other, more nearby blazars, and strengthen the assumptions that were used to derive the EBL upper limit.

  19. Parg deficiency confers radio-sensitization through enhanced cell death in mouse ES cells exposed to various forms of ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, Hidenori; Fujimori, Hiroaki; Gunji, Akemi; Maeda, Daisuke; Hirai, Takahisa; Poetsch, Anna R.; Harada, Hiromi; Yoshida, Tomoko; Sasai, Keisuke; Okayasu, Ryuichi; Masutani, Mitsuko

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •Parg{sup −/−} ES cells were more sensitive to γ-irradiation than Parp-1{sup −/−} ES cells. •Parg{sup −/−} cells were more sensitive to carbon-ion irradiation than Parp-1{sup −/−} cells. •Parg{sup −/−} cells showed defects in DSB repair after carbon-ion irradiation. •PAR accumulation was enhanced after carbon-ion irradiation compared to γ-irradiation. -- Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (Parg) is the main enzyme involved in poly(ADP-ribose) degradation. Here, the effects of Parg deficiency on sensitivity to low and high linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation were investigated in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Mouse Parg{sup −/−} and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 deficient (Parp-1{sup −/−}) ES cells were used and responses to low and high LET radiation were assessed by clonogenic survival and biochemical and biological analysis methods. Parg{sup −/−} cells were more sensitive to γ-irradiation than Parp-1{sup −/−} cells. Transient accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) was enhanced in Parg{sup −/−} cells. Augmented levels of phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) from early phase were observed in Parg{sup −/−} ES cells. The induction level of p53 phophorylation at ser18 was similar in wild-type and Parp-1{sup −/−} cells and apoptotic cell death process was mainly observed in the both genotypes. These results suggested that the enhanced sensitivity of Parg{sup −/−} ES cells to γ-irradiation involved defective repair of DNA double strand breaks. The effects of Parg and Parp-1 deficiency on the ES cell response to carbon-ion irradiation (LET13 and 70 keV/μm) and Fe-ion irradiation (200 keV/μm) were also examined. Parg{sup −/−} cells were more sensitive to LET 70 keV/μm carbon-ion irradiation than Parp-1{sup −/−} cells. Enhanced apoptotic cell death also accompanied augmented levels of γ-H2AX in a biphasic manner peaked at 1 and 24 h. The induction level of p53 phophorylation at ser18 was

  20. Current clinical efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum infections in urban Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Z.; Makwaya, C.; Minjas, J. N.

    1999-01-01

    Reported is the use of a 14-day WHO protocol, which takes into account the clinical, parasitological and haematological responses to antimalarial drugs, to determine the efficacy of chloroquine in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in young children (n = 200) in urban Dar es Salaam. Chloroquine failure was found in 43% of the children. Of these, 12.5% were considered to be early treatment failures and were given a single dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Fever subsided in all children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and there were no parasitological failures. In addition, children treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of early treatment failure with chloroquine had better haematological recovery than the chloroquine-sensitive group. It is concluded that chloroquine can no longer be considered an effective therapy for P. falciparum malaria in young children in Dar es Salaam. PMID:10534897

  1. On the role of vertical electron density gradients in the generation of type II irregularities associated with blanketing ES (ESb) during counter equatorial electrojet events: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devasia, C. V.; Jyoti, N.; Subbarao, K. S. V.; Tiwari, Diwakar; Reddi, C. Raghava; Sridharan, R.

    2004-06-01

    The characteristics of different types of Sporadic E (ES) layers and the associated plasma density irregularities over the magnetic equator have been studied in a campaign mode using VHF backscatter radar, digital ionosonde, and ground magnetometer data from Trivandrum (dip latitude 0.5°N, geographic latitude 8.5°N, geographic longitude 77°E), India. The presence of blanketing type ES (ESb) in the ionograms with varying intensity and duration were observed in association with afternoon Counter Equatorial Electrojet (CEEJ) events. ESb was associated with intense backscatter returns and with either very low zonal electric field and/or with distortions present in the altitude profile of the drift velocity of the type II irregularities. The results of the coordinated study indicate the possible role of vertical electron density gradients in ESb layers in addition to providing evidence for the local winds to be responsible for the vertical gradients themselves.

  2. Modeling antimicrobial activity of lipopeptides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ES-2 against Shewanella putrefaciens in shrimp meat using a response surface method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanming; Sun, Lijun; Wang, Yaling; Lei, Xiaoling; Xu, Defeng

    2012-10-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ES-2 can produce antimicrobial lipopeptides, including surfactin and fengycin. In this study, the model of antimicrobial activity against Shewanella putrefaciens in shrimp meat by antimicrobial lipopeptides from B. amyloliquefaciens ES-2 was researched by response surface methodology. The results showed that S. putrefaciens had high sensitivity to antimicrobial lipopeptides, which had a MIC of 0.6 mg/ml. A quadratic mathematical model representative of the action of antimicrobial lipopeptides on S. putrefaciens in shrimp meat was developed as a function of concentration, time, and temperature. A reduction of S. putrefaciens cells of over 2 log cycles could be realized when the temperature was below 5.4°C, the time was over 6 h, and the concentration of the lipopeptides was over 0.3 mg/g.

  3. Monitoring temporal and spatial trends of legacy and emerging contaminants in marine environment: results from the environmental specimen bank (es-BANK) of Ehime University, Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Ramu, Karri

    2012-07-01

    The Environmental Specimen Bank (es-BANK) for Global Monitoring at the Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, Japan has more than four decades of practical experience in specimen banking. Over the years, es-BANK has archived specimens representing a wide range of environmental matrices, i.e. fishes, reptiles, birds, aquatic mammals, terrestrial mammals, human, soils, and sediments. The samples have been collected as part of the various monitoring programs conducted worldwide. The current review is a summary of selected studies conducted at the Center for Marine Environmental Studies, on temporal and spatial trends of legacy and emerging contaminants in the marine environment. One of the major conclusions drawn from the studies is that environmental problems are no more regional issues and, thus, environmental specimen banking should not be limited to national boundaries, but should have a global outlook.

  4. Anti-inflammatory Potentials of Excretory/Secretory (ES) and Somatic Products of Marshallagia marshalli on Allergic Airway Inflammation in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    SHIRVAN, Sima PARANDE; BORJI, Hassan; MOVASSAGHI, Ahmadreza; KHAKZAD, Mohammadreza; FARZIN, Hamidreza; MALEKI, Mohsen; HAGHPARAST, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Inverse relationship between helminths infection and immune-mediated diseases has inspired researchers to investigate therapeutic potential of helminths in allergic asthma. Helminth unique ability to induce immunoregulatory responses has already been documented in several experimental studies. This study was designed to investigate whether excretory/secretory (ES) and somatic products of Marshallagia marshalli modulate the development of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in a mouse model. Methods: This study was carried out at the laboratories of Immunology and Parasitology of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran during spring and summer 2015. Allergic airway inflammation was induced in mice by intraperitoneal (IP) injection with ovalbumin (OVA). The effects of ES and somatic products of M. marshalli were analyzed by inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), pathological changes and IgE response. Results: Treatment with ES and somatic products of M. marshalli decreased cellular infiltration into BALF when they were administered during sensitization with allergen. Pathological changes were decreased in helminth-treated group, as demonstrated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell hyperplasia, epithelial lesion and smooth muscle hypertrophy. However, no significant differences were observed in IgE serum levels, cytokines and eosinophil counts between different groups. Conclusion: This study provides new insights into anti-inflammatory effects of ES and somatic products of M. marshalli, during the development of non-eosinophilic model of asthma. Further study is necessary to characterize immunomodulatory molecules derived from M. marshalli as a candidate for the treatment of airway inflammation. PMID:28127363

  5. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  8. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5375 - Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis-[[[[(sub-sti-tut-ed)] amino]-alkyl-phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-boxy-lic acid, ethyl es-ter, bis- amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-az-o] (ge-ner-ic name). (a) Chemical substance...-lic acid, ethyl ester, bis- -amino]-alkyl-phenyl]-azo] (PMN P-87-304) is subject to reporting under... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ni-tro-thio-phene-car-boxy-lic...

  10. The trace of a substantial assembly of massive E-S0 galaxies at 0.8 < z < 1.5 in galaxy number counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Mercedes; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen

    2015-08-01

    K-band galaxy number counts (GNCs) exhibit a slope change at K ˜ 17.5 mag not present in optical bands. To unveil the nature of this feature, we have derived the contribution of different galaxy types to the total K-band GNCs at 0.3 < z < 1.5 by redshift bins and compared the results with expectations from several galaxy evolutionary models. We show that the slope change is caused by a sudden swap of the galaxy population that numerically dominates the total GNCs (from quiescent E-S0's at K < 17.5 mag to blue star-forming discs at fainter magnitudes), and that it is associated with a flattening of the contribution of the E-S0's at 0.6 < z < 1 to the total GNCs. We confirm previous studies showing that models in which the bulk of massive E-S0's have evolved passively since z > 2 cannot predict the slope change, whereas those imposing a relatively late assembly on them (z < 1.5) can reproduce it. The K-band GNCs by redshift bins and morphological types point to a progressively definitive build-up of ˜50 per cent of this galaxy population at 0.8 < z < 1.5, which can be explained only through the major mergers reported by observations. We conclude that the slope change in total K-band GNCs is a vestige of the definitive assembly of a substantial fraction of present-day massive E-S0's at 0.8 < z < 1.5.

  11. Alternative methods for evaluating corrosion deterioration on existing USTs prior to upgrading with cathodic protection as defined in ASTM standard practice ES40-94

    SciTech Connect

    Bushman, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    In November, 1994 ASTM approved the issuance of Emergency Standard ES40-94 defining new means for evaluating the corrosion condition of existing USTs. This paper presents the background information which lead to the formation of a committee which undertook the development of the new standard, general descriptions of each of the methodologies provided, information on the standard approval process and an outline of the continuing work effort to reissue the standard with minor editorial modifications as a regular ASTM standard.

  12. Prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and assessment of sanitary conditions of pig slaughter slabs in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel

    2011-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish the prevalence of extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections and to assess the pig slaughter slab sanitary conditions in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. A total of 24 privately owned pig slaughter slabs were assessed. All slaughter slabs were sub-standard; wrongly located, poorly designed and constructed and lacked most basic requirements for a slaughter house. Because of inadequate slaughtering, disposal and cleaning facilities, the slaughter slabs were under unhygienic condition with questionable safety, soundness and wholesomeness of the pork produced. Routine meat inspection procedures were used to detect extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections. Of the 731 examined pigs; 8.1%, 5.9% and 0.4% were infected with ascariosis, porcine cysticercosis and hydatidosis, respectively. It was noted that almost all slaughter pigs in Dar es Salaam originated from different regions. Based on the region of origin, the status of porcine cysticercosis was 8.2% for Dodoma (n = 98), 8.2% for Manyara (n = 260) and 6.9% for Mbeya (n = 116). This study disclosed the unhygienic sanitary condition prevailing in Dar es Salaam pig slaughter slabs and recommends that strategies should be devised to improve the situation. Porcine ascariosis and cysticercosis were widely prevalent and caused economic losses due to condemnations. Because of their zoonotic nature, the observed extra-intestinal porcine helminth infections in pig pose a public health risk among consumers. Thus, there is a need to introduce appropriate control measures of parasitic infections in pigs.

  13. Defining Minimum Essential Factors to Derive Highly Pure Human Endothelial Cells from iPS/ES Cells in an Animal Substance-Free System

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Ting; I.-Shing Yu; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Shih, Chien-Yu; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Su, Ih-Jen; Chiang, Po-Min

    2015-01-01

    It is desirable to obtain unlimited supplies of endothelial cells for research and therapeutics. However, current methods of deriving endothelial cells from humans suffer from issues, such as limited supplies, contamination from animal substances, and lengthy/complicated procedures. In this article we developed a way to differentiate human iPS and ES cells to highly pure endothelial cells in 5 days. The chemically defined system is robust, easy to perform, and free of animal substances. Using the system, we verified that combined TGFβ and canonical Wnt agonists are essential and sufficient for iPS/ES cell-to-mesoderm transition. Besides, VEGF-KDR signaling alone is required for endothelial formation at high density while supplementation with FGF allows for colonial endothelial differentiation. Finally, anti-adsorptive agents could enrich the endothelial output by allowing selective attachment of the endothelial precursors. The system was validated to work on multiple iPS/ES cells lines to produce endothelial cells capable of forming capillary-like structures in vitro and integrating into host vasculature in vivo. In sum, the simple yet robust differentiation system permits the unlimited supply of human endothelial cells. The defined and animal substance-free nature of the system is compatible with clinical applications and characterization of endothelial differentiation in an unbiased manner. PMID:25864432

  14. Urban schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiases in young school children in Dar es Salaam and Tanga, Tanzania, after a decade of anthelminthic intervention.

    PubMed

    Mwakitalu, Mbutolwe E; Malecela, Mwele N; Mosha, Franklin W; Simonsen, Paul E

    2014-05-01

    Rapid urbanization in resource poor countries often results in expansion of unplanned settlements with overcrowding and inadequate sanitation. These conditions potentially support transmission of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths (STH), but knowledge on the occurrence, transmission and control of these infections in urban settings is limited. The present study assessed the status of urinary schistosomiasis and STH across two different-sized cities in Tanzania - Dar es Salaam and Tanga - after a decade of anthelminthic intervention. Primary school children were examined for parasite eggs in urine and stool. Questionnaires were administered to the children, and observations were made on the urban environments. The burden of urinary schistosomiasis and STH was found to be low in both cities (overall 1.2% in Dar es Salaam and 0.3% in Tanga for urinary schistosomiasis; overall <1% in Dar es Salaam and 1-2% in Tanga for each STH infection), and the identified cases showed no clear pattern of spatial distribution. The findings indicated that a marked decrease in prevalence of these infections had occurred in the two cities during recent years. The observed promising developments appeared to have been accomplished by implementation of drug based intervention programs, in combination with environmental change (fewer snail habitats) and generally improved levels of hygiene. Continued efforts, including anthelminthic treatment and health education, are important to maintain these positive achievements.

  15. Defining minimum essential factors to derive highly pure human endothelial cells from iPS/ES cells in an animal substance-free system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Ting; I-Shing Yu; Tsai, Kuen-Jer; Shih, Chien-Yu; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Su, Ih-Jen; Chiang, Po-Min

    2015-04-13

    It is desirable to obtain unlimited supplies of endothelial cells for research and therapeutics. However, current methods of deriving endothelial cells from humans suffer from issues, such as limited supplies, contamination from animal substances, and lengthy/complicated procedures. In this article we developed a way to differentiate human iPS and ES cells to highly pure endothelial cells in 5 days. The chemically defined system is robust, easy to perform, and free of animal substances. Using the system, we verified that combined TGFβ and canonical Wnt agonists are essential and sufficient for iPS/ES cell-to-mesoderm transition. Besides, VEGF-KDR signaling alone is required for endothelial formation at high density while supplementation with FGF allows for colonial endothelial differentiation. Finally, anti-adsorptive agents could enrich the endothelial output by allowing selective attachment of the endothelial precursors. The system was validated to work on multiple iPS/ES cells lines to produce endothelial cells capable of forming capillary-like structures in vitro and integrating into host vasculature in vivo. In sum, the simple yet robust differentiation system permits the unlimited supply of human endothelial cells. The defined and animal substance-free nature of the system is compatible with clinical applications and characterization of endothelial differentiation in an unbiased manner.

  16. A process-based evaluation of dust-emitting winds in the CMIP5 simulation of HadGEM2-ES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Stephanie; Knippertz, Peter; Woodward, Stephanie; Martin, Gill M.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Ross, Andrew N.; Heinold, Bernd; Schepanski, Kerstin; Birch, Cathryn E.; Tegen, Ina

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of dust aerosol in the Earth system, state-of-the-art models show a large variety for North African dust emission. This study presents a systematic evaluation of dust emitting-winds in 30 years of the historical model simulation with the UK Met Office Earth-system model HadGEM2-ES for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. Isolating the effect of winds on dust emission and using an automated detection for nocturnal low-level jets (NLLJs) allow an in-depth evaluation of the model performance for dust emission from a meteorological perspective. The findings highlight that NLLJs are a key driver for dust emission in HadGEM2-ES in terms of occurrence frequency and strength. The annually and spatially averaged occurrence frequency of NLLJs is similar in HadGEM2-ES and ERA-Interim from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Compared to ERA-Interim, a stronger pressure ridge over northern Africa in winter and the southward displaced heat low in summer result in differences in location and strength of NLLJs. Particularly the larger geostrophic winds associated with the stronger ridge have a strengthening effect on NLLJs over parts of West Africa in winter. Stronger NLLJs in summer may rather result from an artificially increased mixing coefficient under stable stratification that is weaker in HadGEM2-ES. NLLJs in the Bodélé Depression are affected by stronger synoptic-scale pressure gradients in HadGEM2-ES. Wintertime geostrophic winds can even be so strong that the associated vertical wind shear prevents the formation of NLLJs. These results call for further model improvements in the synoptic-scale dynamics and the physical parametrization of the nocturnal stable boundary layer to better represent dust-emitting processes in the atmospheric model. The new approach could be used for identifying systematic behavior in other models with respect to meteorological processes for dust emission. This would help to improve dust

  17. Aspects épidémiologiques des fractures de membres liées à l'exercice de la fonction militaire au Togo

    PubMed Central

    Akpoto, Yao Messanvi; Abalo, Anani; Gnandi-pio, Faré; Sonhaye, Lantam; Tchaou, Mazamaesso; Sama, Hamza Doles; Assenouwe, Sarakawabalo; Lamboni, Damessane; Amavi, Kossigan Adodossi; Adam, Saliou; Kpelao, Essossinam; Tengue, Kodjo; Songne-Gnamkoulamba, Badjona

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude était de déterminer la fréquence des fractures de membres liées à l'exercice de la fonction militaire au sein des Forces de Défense et de Sécurité en milieu africain en vue de ressortir l'impact des différentes circonstances de survenue. Nous avons entrepris une étude rétrospective descriptive allant du 1er janvier 2004 au 31 décembre 2013. Elle a concerné les agents des forces de défense et de sécurité traités pour des fractures de membres au cours de cette période. Sept cent quatre (704) cas de fractures de membres ont été dénombrés. L’âge moyen des patients était de 30,57 ans avec des extrêmes de 19 et 55 ans. La prédominance masculine était nette (95,71%). L'Armée de Terre (51,05%) et la Gendarmerie Nationale (38,86%) étaient les plus représentées. Les hommes du rang étaient majoritaires (43,08%), suivis des sous-officiers (32,59%). La fréquence annuelle des fractures de membres en rapport avec la profession militaire était de 63 cas. Les fractures de jambe étaient les lésions les plus recensées (32,96%). Les Formations et les stages militaires ont été les circonstances de survenue les plus rencontrées (42,60%), suivies des accidents de la circulation (39,43%). La perte des journées de service liée à ces lésions était estimée à 14009 jours par an. Les fractures de jambes occupent le premier rang des fractures de membres en rapport avec l'exercice de la profession militaire. Les formations-stages militaires et les accidents de la voie publique en sont les deux grandes circonstances de survenue. PMID:27081434

  18. Identification and Characterization of MtoA: a Decaheme c-Type Cytochrome of the Neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing Bacterium Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Zheming; Belchik, Sara M.; Edwards, Marcus; Liu, Chongxuan; Kennedy, David W.; Merkley, Eric D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Butt, Julea N.; Richardson, David; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Shi, Liang

    2012-02-08

    The Gram-negative bacterium Sideroxydans lithotrophicus ES-1 (ES-1) grows on FeCO{sub 3} or FeS at oxic-anoxic interfaces at circumneutral pH, and the ES-1-mediated Fe(II) oxidation occurs extracellularly. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ES-1's ability to oxidize Fe(II) remain unknown. Survey of the ES-1 genome for the genes known for microbial extracellular Fe(II) oxidation revealed that it contained a three-gene cluster encoding an MtrA homologue, an MtrB homologue and a CymA homologue. The homologues of MtrA, MtrB and/or CymA were previously shown to be involved in extracellular Fe(II) oxidation by Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 and in extracellular Fe(III) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (MR-1). To distinguish them from those found in MR-1, the identified homologues were named MtoAB and CymA{sub ES-1}, respectively. The gene for MtoA was cloned, and cloned mtoA partially complemented an MR-1 mutant without MtrA in ferrihydrite reduction. Following overexpression in MR-1 cells, recombinant MtoA was purified. Characterization of purified MtoA showed that it was a decaheme c-type cytochrome and oxidized soluble Fe(II). Oxidation of Fe(II) by MtoA was pH- and Fe(II)-complexing ligand-dependent. Under conditions tested, MtoA oxidized Fe(II) at pH ranging from 7-9, and optimal oxidation occurred at pH 9, possibly because of the attendant net increase of [Fe(OH){sup +}] at higher pH. MtoA oxidized Fe(II) complexed with different ligands at different rates. The reaction rates followed the order Fe(II)Cl2 > Fe(II)-citrate > Fe(III)-NTA > Fe(II)-EDTA with the second-order rate constants ranging from 5.5 x 10{sup -3} {micro}M{sup -1}s{sup -1} for oxidation of Fe(II)Cl{sub 2} to 1.0 x 10{sup -3} {micro}M{sup -1}s{sup -1} for oxidation of Fe(II)-EDTA. Thermodynamic modeling shows that redox reaction rate differences for the different Fe(II)-complexes correlated with estimated reaction-free energies. Collectively, these results suggest that MtoA is a

  19. ES2, a gene deleted in DiGeorge syndrome, encodes a nuclear protein and is expressed during early mouse development, where it shares an expression domain with a Goosecoid-like gene.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, E A; Harvey, E L; Scambler, P J; Baldini, A

    1998-04-01

    ES2 is a gene deleted in DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) and velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) which has homologs in species as distant as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila . The function of ES2 is unknown, and the predicted protein sequence does not contain motifs which suggest a particular role in the developmental defects present in DGS and VCFS. Here we show that the mouse homolog, Es2 , is transcribed in two forms resulting from the use of alternative polyadenylation signals. Structural analysis programs predict that the Es2 -encoded peptide has a coiled-coil domain, and transfection experiments with an Es2 -green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct show that the peptide is recruited into the nucleus. Es2 is highly expressed during mouse embryogenesis from E7 onwards. In situ hybridization with an RNA probe revealed that the gene is widely expressed; however, relatively higher expression was detected in the nervous system, with a particularly high area of expression in a sub-region of the pons. The Es2 expression domain in the pons is shared with a Goosecoid-like gene ( Gscl) which is located upstream of Es2 , and raises the possibility that the two genes share regulatory elements and/or interact in this region of the developing brain. This finding suggests that different genes in the deleted region may be functionally related and might explain the occurrence of the characteristic phenotype in patients with non-overlapping genetic lesions.

  20. The intracellular distribution of the ES cell totipotent markers OCT4 and Sox2 in adult stem cells differs dramatically according to commercial antibody used.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Patricia A

    2009-04-01

    To characterize ES cells, researchers have at their disposal a list of pluripotent markers, such as OCT4. In their quest to determine if adult stem cell populations, such as MSCs and ASCs, are pluripotent, several groups have begun to report the expression of these markers in these cells. Consistent with this, human ASCs (hASCs) are shown in this study to express a plethora of ES pluripotent markers at the gene and protein level, including OCT4, Sox2, and Nanog. When intracellular distribution is examined in hASCs, both OCT4 and Sox2 are expressed within the nuclei of hASCs, consistent with their expression patterns in ES cells. However, a significant amount of expression can be noted within the hASC cytoplasm and a complete absence of nuclear expression is observed for Nanog. Recent descriptions of OCT4 transcript variants may explain the cytoplasmic expression of OCT4 in hASCs and consistent with this, hASCs do express both the OCT4A and 4B transcript variants at the gene level. However, discrepancies arise when these three pluripotent markers are studied at the protein level. Specifically, distinct differences in intracellular expression patterns were noted for OCT4, Sox2, and Nanog from commercial antibody to commercial antibody. These antibody discrepancies persisted when hMSCs and rat ASCs and MSCs were examined. Therefore, confirming the expression of OCT4, Sox2, and Nanog in adult stem cells with today's commercial antibodies must be carefully considered before the designation of pluripotent can be granted.

  1. NEAR-INFRARED THERMAL EMISSION FROM THE HOT JUPITER TrES-2b: GROUND-BASED DETECTION OF THE SECONDARY ECLIPSE

    SciTech Connect

    Croll, Bryce; Jayawardhana, Ray; Albert, Loic; Lafreniere, David; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2010-07-10

    We present near-infrared Ks-band photometry bracketing the secondary eclipse of the hot Jupiter TrES-2b using the Wide-field Infrared Camera on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We detect its thermal emission with an eclipse depth of 0.062{sup +0.013}{sub -0.011}% (5{sigma}). Our best-fit secondary eclipse is consistent with a circular orbit (a 3{sigma} upper limit on the eccentricity, e, and argument or periastron, {omega}, of |e cos {omega}| < 0.0090), in agreement with mid-infrared detections of the secondary eclipse of this planet. A secondary eclipse of this depth corresponds to a dayside Ks-band brightness temperature of T{sub B} = 1636{sup +79}{sub -88} K. Our thermal emission measurement, when combined with the thermal emission measurements using Spitzer/IRAC from O'Donovan and collaborators, suggests that this planet exhibits relatively efficient dayside to nightside redistribution of heat and a near isothermal dayside atmospheric temperature structure, whose spectrum is well approximated by a blackbody. It is unclear if the atmosphere of TrES-2b requires a temperature inversion; if it does it is likely due to chemical species other than TiO/VO as the atmosphere of TrES-2b is too cool to allow TiO/VO to remain in gaseous form. Our secondary eclipse has the smallest depth of any detected from the ground, at around 2 {mu}m, to date.

  2. Extreme blazars studied with Fermi-lat and Suzaku: 1ES 0347–121 and blazar candidate HESS J1943+213

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Y. T.; Stawarz, Ł.; Finke, J.; Cheung, C. C.; Dermer, C. D.; Kataoka, J.; Bamba, A.; Dubus, G.; Fukazawa, Y.; Thompson, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    We report on our study of high-energy properties of two peculiar TeV emitters: the 'extreme blazar' 1ES 0347–121 and the 'extreme blazar candidate' HESS J1943+213 located near the Galactic plane. Both objects are characterized by quiescent synchrotron emission with flat spectra extending up to the hard X-ray range, and both were reported to be missing GeV counterparts in the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) two-year Source Catalog. We analyze a 4.5 yr accumulation of the Fermi-LAT data, resulting in the detection of 1ES 0347–121 in the GeV band, as well as in improved upper limits for HESS J1943+213. We also present the analysis results of newly acquired Suzaku data for HESS J1943+213. The X-ray spectrum is well represented by a single power law extending up to 25 keV with photon index 2.00 ± 0.02 and a moderate absorption in excess of the Galactic value, which is in agreement with previous X-ray observations. No short-term X-ray variability was found over the 80 ks duration of the Suzaku exposure. Under the blazar hypothesis, we modeled the spectral energy distributions of 1ES 0347–121 and HESS J1943+213, and we derived constraints on the intergalactic magnetic field strength and source energetics. We conclude that although the classification of HESS J1943+213 has not yet been determined, the blazar hypothesis remains the most plausible option since, in particular, the broadband spectra of the two analyzed sources along with the source model parameters closely resemble each other, and the newly available Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey data for HESS J1943+213 are consistent with the presence of an elliptical host at the distance of approximately ∼600 Mpc.

  3. The Trace of the Assembly of Massive E-S0 Galaxies at 0.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, M.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.

    2016-10-01

    K-band galaxy number counts (GNCs) exhibit a slope change at K˜ 17.5 mag not present in optical bands. To unveil the nature of this feature we have derived the contribution of different galaxy types to the total K-band GNCs at 0.3E-S0s at K< 17.5 mag to blue star-forming disks at fainter magnitudes). Models in which the bulk of massive E-S0s were formed at high redshifts (z>2) and evolved passively since then cannot predict the slope change, whereas models that impose a late definitive assembly for them (at z<1.5) can reproduce it. We conclude that the slope change in total K-band GNCs is thus nothing other than a vestige of the definitive assembly of a substantial fraction (˜ 50%) of present-day massive E-S0s at 0.8

  4. The Importance of Drains for the Larval Development of Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria Vectors in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Marcia C.; Kanamori, Shogo; Kannady, Khadija; Mkude, Sigsbert; Killeen, Gerry F.; Fillinger, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Background Dar es Salaam has an extensive drain network, mostly with inadequate water flow, blocked by waste, causing flooding after rainfall. The presence of Anopheles and Culex larvae is common, which is likely to impact the transmission of lymphatic filariasis and malaria by the resulting adult mosquito populations. However, the importance of drains as larval habitats remains unknown. Methodology Data on mosquito larval habitats routinely collected by the Urban Malaria Control Program (UMCP) and a special drain survey conducted in 2006 were used to obtain a typology of habitats. Focusing on drains, logistic regression was used to evaluate potential factors impacting the presence of mosquito larvae. Spatial variation in the proportion of habitats that contained larvae was assessed through the local Moran's I indicator of spatial association. Principal Findings More than 70% of larval habitats in Dar es Salaam were human-made. Aquatic habitats associated with agriculture had the highest proportion of Anopheles larvae presence and the second highest of Culex larvae presence. However, the majority of aquatic habitats were drains (42%), and therefore, 43% (1,364/3,149) of all culicine and 33% (320/976) of all anopheline positive habitats were drains. Compared with drains where water was flowing at normal velocity, the odds of finding Anopheles and Culex larvae were 8.8 and 6.3 (p<0.001) times larger, respectively, in drains with stagnant water. There was a positive association between vegetation and the presence of mosquito larvae (p<0.001). The proportion of habitats with mosquito larvae was spatially correlated. Conclusion Restoring and maintaining drains in Dar es Salaam has the potential to eliminate more than 40% of all potential mosquito larval habitats that are currently treated with larvicides by the UMCP. The importance of human-made larval habitats for both lymphatic filariasis and malaria vectors underscores the need for a synergy between on-going control

  5. Détention provisoire des jeunes femmes accusées d'avortement clandestin ou d'infanticide au Sénégal

    PubMed Central

    Soumah, Mohamed Maniboliot; Pemba, Liliane Flore

    2012-01-01

    Introduction L'activité sexuelle chez les jeunes les expose à un accroissement du risque de contracter des grossesses non désirées. Le recours à l'avortement clandestin avec son corollaire de complications peut entrainer le décès de la jeune femme. Avortement et infanticide sont interdits et sanctionnés par la loi sénégalaise. Comment ces jeunes femmes vivent-elles leur détention? Existe-il des alternatives à la détention pour éviter leur désocialisation? Méthodes Cette étude rétrospective portait sur la maison d'arrêt des femmes de Dakar située à Liberté 6, un quartier de Dakar. Nous avons procédé à des entretiens avec des femmes détenues à la maison d'arrêt des femmes de Dakar et suspectées d'infanticide ou d'avortement clandestin. Résultats Les femmes de notre échantillon ont une moyenne d’âge inférieure à 25 ans avec parmi elles une fille mineure de 16 ans. Nous avons trouvé 18,51% de femmes suspectées d'infanticide ou d'avortement. Dans notre étude 50% des femmes sont originaires de la périphérie et de la banlieue de Dakar et presque 44% proviennent des autres régions du pays. La durée moyenne de détention provisoire est de neuf mois. Conclusion Malgré leur qualification distincte dans le code pénal: l'infanticide est un crime et l'avortement un délit, les femmes suspectées d'avoir commis ces actes sont soumises à de longues détentions préventives. PMID:22937189

  6. Software tools and e-infrastructure services to support the long term preservation of earth science data - new functionality from the SCIDIP-ES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddick, Andrew; Glaves, Helen; Crompton, Shirley; Giaretta, David; Ritchie, Brian; Pepler, Sam; De Smet, Wim; Marelli, Fulvio; Mantovani, Pier-Luca

    2014-05-01

    The ability to preserve earth science data for the long-term is a key requirement to support on-going research and collaboration within and between earth science disciplines. A number of critically important current research initiatives (e.g. understanding climate change or ensuring sustainability of natural resources) typically rely on the continuous availability of data collected over several decades in a form which can be easily accessed and used by scientists. In many earth science disciplines the capture of key observational data may be difficult or even impossible to repeat. For example, a specific geological exposure or subsurface borehole may be only temporarily available, and earth observation data derived from a particular satellite mission is often unique. Another key driver for long-term data preservation is that the grand challenges of the kind described above frequently involve cross-disciplinary research utilising raw and interpreted data from a number of related earth science disciplines. Adopting effective data preservation strategies supports this requirement for interoperability as well as ensuring long term usability of earth science data, and has the added potential for stimulating innovative earth science research. The EU-funded SCIDIP-ES project seeks to address these challenges by developing a Europe-wide e-infrastructure for long-term data preservation by providing appropriate software tools and infrastructure services to enable and promote long-term preservation of earth science data. This poster will describe the current status of this e-infrastructure and outline the integration of the prototype SCIDIP-ES software components into the existing systems used by earth science archives and data providers. These prototypes utilise a system architecture which stores preservation information in a standardised OAIS-compliant way, and connects and adds value to existing earth science archives. A SCIDIP-ES test-bed has been implemented by the

  7. Les leishmanioses cutanées à Leishmania major et à Leishmania tropica au Maroc: aspects épidémio-cliniques comparatifs de 268 cas

    PubMed Central

    Chiheb, Soumia; Slaoui, Widad; Mouttaqui, Tarik; Riyad, Meriem; Benchikhi, Hakima

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Depuis 1995, le Maroc a connu une réactivation des foyers de leishmanioses cutanées (LC) à L. major et une nouvelle répartition géographique des foyers à L. tropica. Le but de cette étude est de comparer les aspects épidémio-cliniques associés aux LC potentiellement dûes à L. major et à L. tropica. Méthodes Une étude rétrospective a colligé 268 cas de LC au service de dermatologie du CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca entre Janvier 1995 et Septembre 2010. Les données étaient analysées par Epi info version 3.5.1. Le test X2 était appliqué (Différence significative = p< 0,05). Résultats Deux cent soixante-huit cas de LC ont été colligés, dont 160 femmes et 108 hommes. Ils ont été répartis en 123 patients originaires des foyers à L.major et 145 patients originaires des foyers à L. tropica. L'aspect ulcéronodulaire, ulcérovégétant ou végétant était retrouvé dans 58 cas (47,2%) des cas de LC à L. major versus 24 cas (16,7%) dans la L.C à L. tropica. L'aspect papulonodulaire était retrouvé dans 84 cas (58%) de LC à L. tropica contre 41 cas (33,3%) de LC à L. major. Conclusion Dans la LC à L. major, l'atteinte des membres et les aspects cliniques végétant ou ulcéro-végétant restent toujours prédominants. Dans la L.C à L. tropica, l'atteinte papulonodulaire unique du visage reste prédominante mais des formes ulcéronodulaires, végétantes ou ulcérovégétantes existent également dans les foyers récents à L. tropica, prêtant à confusion cliniquement avec des LC à L. major. PMID:25810796

  8. Caractérisation de la flore bactérienne des péritonites communautaires opérées au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Sanou, Mahamoudou; Ky, Armand; Ouangre, Edgard; Bisseye, Cyrille; Sanou, Adama; Nagalo, Bolni Marius; Sanou, Drissa; Simporé, Jacques; Sangare, Lassana; Traore, Rasmata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La péritonite communautaire est une urgence chirurgicale récurrente chez l'adulte qui constitue une préoccupation majeure pour le chirurgien et l'anesthésiste-réanimateur dans sa prise en charge. L'objectif de cette étude était d’établir non seulement le profil bactériologique des péritoniques communautaires opérées dans le service de chirurgie générale et digestive du CHU-YO mais aussi d’évaluer la sensibilité aux antibiotiques des souches bactériennes isolées à partir de ces dernières. Méthodes Cent six (106) patients ont été recrutés dans cette étude et des prélèvements bactériologiques préopératoires ont été effectués dont 63 se sont révélés positifs. Résultats Sur les 63 prélèvements positifs, 78 germes ont été isolés soit une moyenne de 1,2 germe par échantillon. Escherichia coli été le germe le plus fréquemment isolé (33,3%), suivi des anaérobies (11,5%), Streptococcus sp (9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (6,4%) et Staphylococcus sp (5,1%). Les antibiotiques les plus efficaces sur les bactéries identifiées dans les péritonites communautaires étaient respectivement l'imipenème (100%), la colistine (100%), la céftriaxone (100%), et la ciprofloxacine (65,4%) Conclusion Le profil de sensibilité des bactéries identifiées dans les principales péritonites communautaires aux antibiotiques montre une augmentation inquiétante du nombre de souches résistantes, notamment à l'association amoxicilline/acide clavulanique PMID:25360201

  9. Les manifestations cutanées chez les patients hémodialysés chroniques dans un pays en voie de développement

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Gérard; Korsaga-Somé, Nina; Fomena, Dorisse Fernade Yongué; Nagalo, Yacouba; Karambiri, Adama Roger; Bassolet, Alban; Kafando, Hyacinthe; Traoré, Adama; Lengani, Adama

    2016-01-01

    Le but de cette étude était deconnaître les affections cutanées les plus fréquentes chez les patients hémodialysés chroniques du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo (CHU-YO) de Ouagadougou. L’étude, de type transversal descriptif, menée du 15 Septembre au 31 Décembre 2014, s'estdéroulée au CHU-YO. Elle concernait les patients qui avaient au moins trois mois d'ancienneté en hémodialyse chronique. La fréquence des séances d'hémodialyse était d'une tous les cinq jours. Le seuil de signification des tests statistiques était défini pour une probabilité p ≤ 0,05. Quatre-vingt-quinze patients (61,1% d'hommes et 38,9% de femmes), de moyenne d’âge 42,1 ans participaient à l’étude. La durée moyenne en hémodialyse était de 31,9 mois. Le taux de réalisation des analyses biologiques variait de 7,4 à 85,3%. Quatre-vingt patients (85,3%) avaient au moins une manifestation cutanée. La xérose cutanée (67,4%), le prurit (45,3%), et l'hyperpigmentation (23,2%) étaient les plus fréquentes des manifestations cutanées pouvant être spécifiques de l'hémodialyse. L'hypomélanose en gouttes (11,6%), le prurigo (11,6%) et la folliculite (8,4%) étaient les principales manifestations cutanées non spécifiques. L'atteinte cutanée était fréquente mais ne semblait pas liée à l'ancienneté en hémodialyse. Les mauvaises conditions d'hémodialyse et l'environnement sec et chaud à Ouagadougou, ont pu favoriser ces atteintes, en particulier la xérose et le prurit. Une meilleure subvention des soins de santé contribuerait à réduire la prévalence des maladies cutanées et à améliorer la qualité de vie de nos patients hémodialysés chroniques. PMID:27642449

  10. Pacific Tracker 2 - expert system (PacTrac2-ES) behavioural assessment and intervention tool for the Pacific Kids DASH for Health (PacDASH) study.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio; McGlone, Katalina; Renda, Gloria; Jung, Noah; Matsunaga, Masako; Karanja, Njeri

    2013-10-01

    The Pacific Tracker (PacTrac) is a computer program designed to analyse food intakes of individuals from the Pacific Region. PacTrac's original output included servings of daily intake of food groups according to the United States Food Guide Pyramid, nutrient intake recommendations, and a comparison to other national nutrition recommendations. PacTrac was made available for public use through the Hawaii Foods website (hawaiifoods.hawaii.edu). PacTrac2 is an updated and expanded version of PacTrac that uses the United States MyPyramid/MyPlate food groups in household units of daily intake, rather than servings. In addition, the PacTrac2 includes a physical activity analysis tool which quantifies minutes of physical activities and their intensities based on energy estimates from the compendium of physical activity and research on children. An Expert System (ES) - a computerised decision tree to guide behaviour change - was developed using information on self-efficacy and stage of readiness to change, and the fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity information from PacTrac2. The ES produces reports for the child, the parent/guardian, and the child's physician with child-specific strategies, targeted behavioural information, and feedback tailored to the child. PacTrac2-ES was designed for the Pacific Kids DASH for Health (PacDASH) intervention study, conducted in the Kaiser Permanente health care system in Hawaii. The intervention is based on the child's self-efficacy and stage of readiness to change intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity, with a goal of maintaining body weight to prevent obesity. The intervention is complemented with stage-based mailers addressing the environment for physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake and newsletters that address related behaviours (sedentary activity and a DASH eating approach). This project is the first to expand the PacTrac to contain children's foods and physical activities from the Pacific

  11. CHANG-ES. III. UGC 10288—An edge-on galaxy with a background double-lobed radio source

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Judith; Krause, Marita; Beck, Rainer; English, Jayanne; Murphy, Eric; Wiegert, Theresa; Heald, George; Walterbos, Rene; Rand, Richard J.; Porter, Troy E-mail: mkrause@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de E-mail: jayanne_english@umanitoba.ca E-mail: twiegert@astro.queensu.ca E-mail: rwalterb@nmsu.edu E-mail: tporter@stanford.edu

    2013-12-01

    This third paper in the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies—an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) series shows the first results from our regular data taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. The edge-on galaxy, UGC 10288, has been observed in the B, C, and D configurations at L band (1.5 GHz) and in the C and D configurations at C band (6 GHz) in all polarization products. We show the first spatially resolved images of this galaxy in these bands, the first polarization images, and the first composed image at an intermediate frequency (4.1 GHz) which has been formed from a combination of all data sets. A surprising new result is the presence of a strong, polarized, double-lobed extragalactic radio source (CHANG-ES A) almost immediately behind the galaxy and perpendicular to its disk. The core of CHANG-ES A has an optical counterpart (SDSS J161423.28–001211.8) at a photometric redshift of z {sub phot} = 0.39; the southern radio lobe is behind the disk of UGC 10288 and the northern lobe is behind the halo region. This background ''probe'' has allowed us to do a preliminary Faraday rotation analysis of the foreground galaxy, putting limits on the regular magnetic field and electron density in the halo of UGC 10288 in regions in which there is no direct detection of a radio continuum halo. We have revised the flux densities of the two sources individually as well as the star formation rate (SFR) for UGC 10288. The SFR is low (0.4-0.5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) and the galaxy has a high thermal fraction (44% at 6 GHz), as estimated using both the thermal and non-thermal SFR calibrations of Murphy et al. UGC 10288 would have fallen well below the CHANG-ES flux density cutoff, had it been considered without the brighter contribution of the background source. UGC 10288 shows discrete high-latitude radio continuum features, but it does not have a global radio continuum halo (exponential scale heights are typically ≈1 kpc averaged over regions with and without extensions

  12. Fermi LAT detection of increasing GeV gamma-ray activity from the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed increasing gamma-ray emission from a source positionally consistent with the very-high energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 (also known as TXS 1959+650 and 3FGL J2000.0+6509, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS 218, 23) with radio coordinates (J2000) R.A.: 299.999384 deg, Dec.: 65.148514 deg (Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13). This source has a redshift z=0.047 (Schachter et al. 1993, ApJ, 412, 541).

  13. Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS detection of increasing gamma-ray activity from the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buson, S.; Magill, J. D.; Dorner, D.; Biland, A.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mukherjee, R.

    2016-04-01

    The Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS collaborations report the detection of enhanced gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the very-high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 (a.k.a 3FGL J2000.0+6509, in the 3rd LAT source catalog, 3FGL, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS 218, 23) with radio coordinates (J2000) R.A.: 299.999384 deg, Dec.: 65.148514 deg (Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13). This source has a redshift z=0.047 (Schachter et al. 1993, ApJ, 412, 541).

  14. Prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes infectées par le VIH à Parakou au Bénin

    PubMed Central

    Dovonou, Comlan Albert; Amidou, Salimanou Ariyoh; Kpangon, Amadohoué Arsène; Traoré, Yacoubou Adam; Godjedo, Togbemabou Primous Martial; Satondji, Assongba Joseph; Wachinou, Ablo Prudence; Issa-Djibril, Fatioulaye Mahamadi; Fourn, Léonard; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Gandaho, Prosper

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La co-infection avec l'hépatite B est l'un des défis majeurs de la prise en charge du VIH depuis l'amélioration de l'accès aux antirétroviraux en Afrique. La présente étude visait à estimer la prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH à Parakou et décrire les facteurs associés. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale menée de Mai 2011 à Juin 2012 dans le service de Médecine du CHU de Parakou. Ont été inclus tous les adultes séropositifs au VIH vus en consultation ou hospitalisés. Les données ont été collectées par interviews et dépouillement de dossiers médicaux. L'antigène HBs a été recherché par un test rapide et l'ALAT a été dosé. L'analyse des données a été faite avec le logiciel EpiInfo 3.5.1. Les proportions ont été comparées grâce au test de Chi-deux ou au test de Fisher au seuil de significativité de 5%. Un modèle de régression logistique multivariable a permis d'expliquer la prévalence de l'hépatite B. Résultats Sur les 744 sujets inclus on a dénombré 555 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 35,5 + 10,1 ans. La prévalence de l'hépatite B a été estimée à 16,9% (IC95: 14,3%-19,9%). Cette prévalence était plus élevée chez les sujets originaires du Borgou/Alibori et ceux au stade 4 de l'OMS. Conclusion La prévalence de la co-infection VIH/VHB au CHU Parakou est élevée. Le dispositif national de prise en charge et de prévention de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH doit être renforcé. PMID:26097629

  15. The use of non-invasive procedures described in ASTM ES40-94 for evaluating the suitability of an UST for upgrading with cathodic protection

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper outlines field procedures and data analysis requirements for the use of non-invasive procedures to evaluate the suitability of tanks for upgrading with cathodic protection. The non-invasive evaluation procedure is one of the three alternative means of assessing USTs, and there are specific procedures described for each of the assessment procedures which are detailed in ES40-94. The UST owner/operator and corrosion engineer should recognize that there are accept/reject guidelines in the standard, and that many existing underground storage tanks will not be found suitable for upgrading.

  16. EsDREB2B, a novel truncated DREB2-type transcription factor in the desert legume Eremosparton songoricum, enhances tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in yeast and transgenic tobacco

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dehydration-Responsive Element-Binding Protein2 (DREB2) is a transcriptional factor which regulates the expression of several stress-inducible genes. DREB2-type proteins are particularly important in plant responses to drought, salt and heat. DREB2 genes have been identified and characterized in a variety of plants, and DREB2 genes are promising candidate genes for the improvement of stress tolerance in plants. However, little is known about these genes in plants adapted to water-limiting environments. Results In this study, we describe the characterization of EsDREB2B, a novel DREB2B gene identified from the desert plant Eremosparton songoricum. Phylogenetic analysis and motif prediction indicate that EsDREB2B encodes a truncated DREB2 polypeptide that belongs to a legume-specific DREB2 group. In E. songoricum, EsDREB2B transcript accumulation was induced by a variety of abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, cold, heat, heavy metal, mechanical wounding, oxidative stress and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Consistent with the predicted role as a transcription factor, EsDREB2B was targeted to the nucleus of onion epidermal cells and exhibited transactivation activity of a GAL4-containing reporter gene in yeast. In transgenic yeast, overexpression of EsDREB2B increased tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Our findings indicate that EsDREB2B can enhance stress tolerance in other plant species. Heterologous expression of EsDREB2B in tobacco showed improved tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses, and the transgenic plants exhibited no reduction in foliar growth. We observed that EsDREB2B is a functional DREB2-orthologue able to influence the physiological and biochemical response of transgenic tobacco to stress. Conclusions Based upon these findings, EsDREB2B encodes an abiotic stress-inducible, transcription factor which confers abiotic stress-tolerance in yeast and transgenic tobacco. PMID:24506952

  17. Nano electrospray gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis (nES GEMMA) of liposomes: applicability of the technique for nano vesicle batch control

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Victor U.; Urey, Carlos; Gondikas, Andreas; Golesne, Monika; Friedbacher, Gernot; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo; Andersson, Roland; Marko-Varga, György; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Liposomes are biodegradable nanoparticle vesicles consisting of a lipid bilayer encapsulating an aqueous core. Entrapped cargo material is shielded from the extra-vesicular medium and sustained release of encapsulated material can be achieved. However, application of liposomes as nano-carriers demands their characterization concerning size and size distribution, particle-number concentration, occurrence of vesicle building blocks in solution and determination of the resulting vesicle encapsulation capacity. These questions can be targeted via gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis (GEMMA) based on a nano electrospray (nES) charge-reduction source. This instrument separates single-charged nanoparticles in the gas-phase according to size in a high-laminar sheath-flow by means of an orthogonal, tunable electric field. nES GEMMA analysis enables to confirm liposome integrity after passage through the instrument (in combination with atomic force microscopy) as well as to exclude vesicle aggregation. Additionally, nanoparticle diameters at peak apexes and size distribution data are obtained. Differences of hydrodynamic and dry particle diameter values, as well as the effect of number- and mass-based concentration data analysis on obtained liposome diameters are shown. Furthermore, the repeatability of liposome preparation is studied, especially upon incorporation of PEGylated lipids in the bilayer. Finally, the instruments applicability to monitor mechanical stress applied to vesicles is demonstrated. PMID:27549027

  18. Nano electrospray gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis (nES GEMMA) of liposomes: applicability of the technique for nano vesicle batch control.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Victor U; Urey, Carlos; Gondikas, Andreas; Golesne, Monika; Friedbacher, Gernot; von der Kammer, Frank; Hofmann, Thilo; Andersson, Roland; Marko-Varga, György; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter

    2016-10-17

    Liposomes are biodegradable nanoparticle vesicles consisting of a lipid bilayer encapsulating an aqueous core. Entrapped cargo material is shielded from the extra-vesicular medium and sustained release of encapsulated material can be achieved. However, application of liposomes as nano-carriers demands their characterization concerning size and size distribution, particle-number concentration, occurrence of vesicle building blocks in solution and determination of the resulting vesicle encapsulation capacity. These questions can be targeted via gas-phase electrophoretic mobility molecular analysis (GEMMA) based on a nano electrospray (nES) charge-reduction source. This instrument separates single-charged nanoparticles in the gas-phase according to size in a high-laminar sheath-flow by means of an orthogonal, tunable electric field. nES GEMMA analysis enables to confirm liposome integrity after passage through the instrument (in combination with atomic force microscopy) as well as to exclude vesicle aggregation. Additionally, nanoparticle diameters at peak apexes and size distribution data are obtained. Differences of hydrodynamic and dry particle diameter values, as well as the effect of number- and mass-based concentration data analysis on obtained liposome diameters are shown. Furthermore, the repeatability of liposome preparation is studied, especially upon incorporation of PEGylated lipids in the bilayer. Finally, the instruments applicability to monitor mechanical stress applied to vesicles is demonstrated.

  19. Nécroses cutanées multiples et extensives révélant un syndrome des anticorps anti phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    El Amraoui, Mohamed; Bounnyit, Hafsae; Zemmez, Youssef; Bouhamidi, Ahmed; Hassam, Baderdine; Senouci, Karima

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome des anticorps anti phospholipides (SAPL) est un état de thrombophilie acquise, du à l'action des auto-anticorps dirigés contre les phospholipides et/ou leurs cofacteurs. Il peut être primitif ou associé à diverses maladies, dont le lupus érythémateux systémique (LES), dont il représente un facteur potentiel de gravité. Nous rapportant un cas de multiples nécroses cutanées chez une jeune fille ayant révélé un SAPL dans le cadre d'un LES. Les lésions dermatologiques au cours du SAPL sont fréquentes, polymorphes parfois inaugurales et peuvent constituer le seul élément clinique du syndrome. Cependant, les nécroses cutanées sont rares, leur traitement repose sur les anticoagulants et les soins locaux appropriés. L'évolution ultérieure imprévisible et le pronostic réservé justifient un suivi rigoureux au long cours et une étroite collaboration entre le dermatologue et l’interniste. PMID:28250880

  20. Prospects of heavy and superheavy element production via inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions - from 238U+238U to18O+254Es

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schädel, Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Multi-nucleon transfer reactions, frequently termed deep-inelastic, between heavy-ion projectiles and actinide targets provide prospects to synthesize unknown isotopes of heavy actinides and superheavy elements with neutron numbers beyond present limits. The 238U on 238U reaction, which revealed essential aspects of those nuclear reactions leading to surviving heavy nuclides, mainly produced in 3n and 4n evaporation channels, is discussed in detail. Positions and widths of isotope distributions are compared. It is shown, as a general rule, that cross sections peak at irradiation energies about 10% above the Coulomb barrier. Heavy target nuclei are essential for maximizing cross sections. Experimental results from the 238U on 248Cm reaction, including empirical extrapolations, are compared with theoretical model calculations predicting relatively high cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei. Experiments to test the validity of such predictions are proposed. Comparisons between rather symmetric heavy-ion reactions like 238U on 248Cm (or heavier targets up to 254Es) with very asymmetric ones like 18O on 254Es reveal that the ones with 238U as a projectile have the highest potential in the superheavy element region while the latter ones can be advantageous for the synthesis of heavy actinide isotopes. Concepts for highly efficient recoil separators designed for transfer products are presented.

  1. Transiting Primary Eclipse Photometric Follow-up Observations and Transit Timing Variations Studies of WASP-43 b and TrES-3 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z.; Ji, J. H.; Dong, Y.

    2016-11-01

    Two photometric follow-up observations for transiting primary eclipse of WASP-43 b and four for TrES-3 b are performed using the Xuyi Near-Earth Object Survey Telescope. After differential photometry and light curve analysis, physical parameters of the two systems are obtained and are in good match with the literatures. Combining with transit data from many literatures, the residuals (O-C) of observations of both systems transits are fitted with the linear and quadratic terms. With the linear fitting, the periods and transit timing variations (TTVs) of the planets are obtained, and no obvious periodic TTV signal is found in either system after analysis. The maximum mass of perturbing planet located at 1:2 mean motion resonance (MMR) of WASP-43 b and TrES-3 b are estimated to be 1.826 and 1.504 Earth mass, respectively. By quadratic fitting, it is confirmed that WASP-43 b may have long-term TTV which means an orbital decay. The decay rate is shown to be dot{P} =(-0.005248 ± 0.001714) s\\cdotyr^{-1}, and is compared with the previous results. Based on this, the lower limit of the stellar tidal quality parameter of WASP-43 is calculated to be Q'_{*} ≥ 1.5×10^5, and the remaining lifetime of the planets of both systems is presented for different Q'_{*} values accordingly.

  2. Fission of /sup 255,256/Es, /sup 255en-dash257/Fm, and /sup 258/Md at moderate excitation energies

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, H.C.; Hoffman, D.C.; van der Plicht, J.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Cheifetz, E.; Dupzyk, R.J.; Lougheed, R.W.

    1984-08-01

    The fission of /sup 255,256/Es, /sup 255en-dash257/Fm, and /sup 258/Md has been studied in the excitation energy range from threshold to 25 MeV. A target of /sup 254/Es was used in the direct reaction studies; (d,pf), (t,pf), (/sup 3/He,df), (/sup 3/He,pf), and in the compound induced fission reactions formed with p, d, t, and ..cap alpha.. particle projectiles. Coincident fission fragment energies were recorded along with (in the direct reaction studies) the outgoing light charged particle. The mass and kinetic energy distributions were studied as a function of nuclear excitation energy. The observed bulk properties were consistent with established systematics in that they exhibited an asymmetric mass distribution and a phenomenologically consistent total kinetic energy. However, the systems demonstrated a fission decay mode which we ascribe to high energy symmetric fission decay. This component, though somewhat arbitrary in its definition, showed a general decrease in yield as a function of increasing nuclear excitation energy. This observed rapid change in fission properties between ''normal'' and high energy symmetric fission probably points to the important observable consequences that can occur from small variations in the potential energy surface.

  3. Photometry and Spectroscopy of ES Aql, SV Sge, and Z UMi, Cool Stars with Variability of the R Coronae Borealis Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbush, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    UBVR c I c photometric measurements are made of three cool stars with R Coronae Borealis type variability, ES Aql, SV Sge, and Z UMi. During their visual light minima ES Aql and Z UMi manifested brightness and color behavior typical of this type of variability: a decrease or increase in the color indices as the brightness decreases and an increase as the normal state is recovered. The molecular spectrum of Z UMi during the second half of the minimum with an weakness by about 4m was already normal, but the Na I D doublet lines were still filled with emission. High resolution profiles of the Na I D lines for SV Sge reveal a systematic shift to -10 km/s and an extended blue wing, which can be regarded as a consequence of a constant outflow of matter from the star's atmosphere that has not led to minima in the visual brightness even over a time of 9 years. Identification of the interstellar Na I D lines in the high resolution spectra has made it possible to verify the known color excess E(B-V) for Z UMi at a level 0m.02 ± 0m.11 and substantially reduce its value to 0m.03 for SV Sge. For the latter star this also opens up the possibility of a substantially lower absolute magnitude, M V ≤ 2m, than assumed previously.

  4. Formes hémorragiques de Dengue observées dans le service des maladies infectieuses du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Boushab, Boushab Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    La dengue est une arbovirose ré émergente dans les pays tropicaux. Sa forme hémorragique peut s'accompagner d'une défaillance circulatoire pouvant conduire à un choc hypovolémique, souvent fatal. Nous rapportons une série de trois cas de formes hémorragiques de dengue observées dans le service des maladies infectieuses du CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou dont l'objectif est de décrire les caractéristiques épidémiologiques cliniques et évolutives. Les cas étaient des jeunes de sexe féminin dont l’âge variait entre 27 ans et 43 ans, résidant dans la ville de Ouagadougou. Malgré de multiples transfusions de concentrées plaquettaires et un traitement symptomatique, nous déplorons un cas de décès. Le développement d'antiviraux et la mise au point de nouveaux vaccins constituent une lueur d'espoir pour prévenir la létalité due à cette maladie. PMID:27303584

  5. Genes Involved in Yellow Pigmentation of Cronobacter sakazakii ES5 and Influence of Pigmentation on Persistence and Growth under Environmental Stress▿

    PubMed Central

    Johler, Sophia; Stephan, Roger; Hartmann, Isabel; Kuehner, Kirsten A.; Lehner, Angelika

    2010-01-01

    Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic food-borne pathogens that are responsible for rare but highly fatal cases of meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates. While the operon responsible for yellow pigmentation in Cronobacter sakazakii strain ES5 was described recently, the involvement of additional genes in pigment expression and the influence of pigmentation on the fitness of Cronobacter spp. have not been investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify further genes involved in pigment expression in Cronobacter sakazakii ES5 and to assess the influence of pigmentation on growth and persistence under conditions of environmental stress. A knockout library was created using random transposon mutagenesis. The screening of 9,500 mutants for decreased pigment production identified 30 colorless mutants. The mapping of transposon insertion sites revealed insertions in not only the carotenoid operon but also in various other genes involved in signal transduction, inorganic ions, and energy metabolism. To determine the effect of pigmentation on fitness, colorless mutants (ΔcrtE, ΔcrtX, and ΔcrtY) were compared to the yellow wild type using growth and inactivation experiments, a macrophage assay, and a phenotype array. Among other findings, the colorless mutants grew at significantly increased rates under osmotic stress compared to that of the yellow wild type while showing increased susceptibility to desiccation. Moreover, ΔcrtE and ΔcrtY exhibited increased sensitivity to UVB irradiation. PMID:20038705

  6. Étude par diffraction des rayons X des vernis rouges des sigillées du sud de la Gaule. Les ateliers de la Graufesenque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendier, L.; Sciau, Ph.; Dooryhee, E.

    2002-07-01

    La Graufesenque (Millau, Aveyron) 1^rst and 2^nd, centuries AC Sigillata red slips have been studied by x-ray diffraction at ESRF and on a conventional diffractometer. Although x-ray diffraction is a non-destructive characterisation technique adapted to surface study, it has not been used so mutch for Sigillata slip characterisation. The poor quality of the slip surface can be an explanation. In this work we demonstrate that it is possible to get good quality diffraction diagrams on 20-120 AC Sigillata slips. The results confirm the productions homogeneity and the hypothesis about a non-local clay used for the slips. On a counterpart, the late (second half of 2^nd century AC) Sigillata study needs because of their crackled surface a high quality beam, which can only be accessible on a synchrotron installation. These productions seems to be more heterogeneous: some Sigillata present similar diffraction diagrams for the slip and ceramic body (same clay?), some others present results similar to the precedent production period ones. Les vernis rouges de poteries sigillées (I^er et II^e siècles) de la Graufesenque (Millau, Aveyron) ont été étudiés par diffraction des rayons X à la fois à l'ESRF et sur une installation classique de laboratoire. Bien que la diffraction des rayons X soit une technique adaptée à l'étude des surfaces, cette technique a jusqu'à présent assez peu servi dans l'examen de ces objets. Ceci peut en partie s'expliquer par le mauvais état de surface de certains vernis. Dans ce travail, nous montrons que moyennant quelques précautions, il est possible d'obtenir sur une installation classique de bons diffractogranunes des vernis des sigillées datés entre 20 et 120 ap. J.C. Les résultats confirment l'homogénéité de ces productions et l'hypothèse selon laquelle ces vernis n'ont pas été fabriqués à partir des argiles locales du jurassique environnant le site. Par contre, l'étude des sigillées tardives de la deuxième moitié du

  7. Photometric Observations of the low mass Eclipsing Binaries GU Boo and TrES-Her0-07621 from Mount Laguna Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfield, P. A.; Huk, L.; Garcia, D.; Downum, C.; Etzel, P. B.; Orosz, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Low mass double-lined eclipsing binaries are of general interest because precise masses and radii can be derived for the component stars, and these data can in turn be used to test evolutionary models on the lower main sequence. The low mass double-lined eclipsing binaries GU Boo and TrES-Her0-07621 were observed in several bandpasses from the Mount Laguna Observatory (MLO) 2005 May - June with the goal of obtaining precise light curves that can be used to derive accurate radii. Lopez-Morales & Ribas (2005) present light curves of GU Boo covering both eclipses and radial velocity curves for each component and derive component masses and radii accurate to 1.3% and 2.3%, respectively. Their light curves were not symmetric about the primary eclipse, and Lopez-Morales & Ribas modelled the asymmetry using two dark spots on the primary. Our light curves of GU Boo from MLO show only a slight asymmetry, which indicates the spotted region is much smaller. The radii we derive for the component stars are consistent with the measurements of Lopez-Morales & Ribas, showing that the presence of large star spots did not lead to any systematic errors in the derived radii. TrES-Her0-07621 was discovered by the Trans-Atlantic Exoplanet Survey (TrES, e.g. Alonso et al. 2004). Creevey et al. (2005) obtained radial velocity curves for both components and derive component masses and radii accurate to 0.6% and 13%, respectively. The radii are poorly constrained since the light curve presented in Creevey et al. is somewhat noisy. Our light curves from MLO have a high signal-to-noise ratio, but unfortunately only cover the secondary eclipse. We see evidence of a sinusoidal variation in the out-of-eclipse phases (also noted by Creevey et al.). More observations will be needed to cover the primary eclipse and to establish the nature of the out-of-eclipse variation.

  8. Effect of Grapefruit Seed Extract on Thermal Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes during Sous-Vide Processing of Two Marinated Mexican Meat Entrées.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin; Peña-Ramos, E Aida; Juneja, Vijay K; Camou, Juan Pedro; Cumplido-Barbeitia, German

    2016-07-01

    D- and z-values for Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for two Mexican meat entrées: pork meat marinated in tomatillo (green tomato) sauce (PTS) and beef marinated in a red chili sauce (BRCS), with addition of 0, 200, and 800 ppm of grapefruit seed extract (GSE). Meat samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes were packaged in sterile bags, immersed in a water bath, and held at 55, 57.5, 60, and 62.5°C for different periods of time. Depending upon the temperature, D-values at 0 ppm of GSE ranged from 26.19 to 2.03 min in BRCS and 26.41 to 0.8 min in PTS. Adding 800 ppm of GSE to BRCS thermally treated at 55 and 62.5°C significantly decreased inactivation time by 35%. A reduction in time of 25.9, 10.6, and 40.1% at 55, 57.5, and 60°C, respectively, was observed in PTS with 800 ppm of GSE. The z-values of L. monocytogenes were not significantly affected by GSE addition; average z-values were 7.25 and 5.09°C for BRCS and PTS, respectively. Estimated thermal lethality for a 7-D log reduction of L. monocytogenes under commercial-size sous-vide conditions at a reference temperature of 55°C was reached at 78 and 71 min for BRCS without and with 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. For PTS, 7-D reduction was attained at 69 and 61 min without and with addition of 800 ppm of GSE, respectively. Supplementing both Mexican meat entrées (BRCS and PTS) with 800 ppm of GSE rendered L. monocytogenes cells more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. The results of this study will assist the retail food industry in designing acceptance limits on critical control points pertaining to cooking regimes to effectively eliminate L. monocytogenes in BRCS and PTS sous-vide processed Mexican meat entrées.

  9. Induction of heat shock proteins DnaK, GroEL, and GroES by salt stress in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed Central

    Kilstrup, M; Jacobsen, S; Hammer, K; Vogensen, F K

    1997-01-01

    The bacterium Lactococcus lactis has become a model organism in studies of growth physiology and membrane transport, as a result of its simple fermentative metabolism. It is also used as a model for studying the importance of specific genes and functions during life in excess nutrients, by comparison of prototrophic wild-type strains and auxotrophic domesticated (dairy) strains. In a study of the capacity of domesticated strains to perform directed responses toward various stress conditions, we have analyzed the heat and salt stress response in the established L. lactis subsp. cremoris laboratory strain MG1363, which was originally derived from a dairy strain. After two-dimensional separation of proteins, the DnaK, GroEL, and GroES heat shock proteins, the HrcA (Orf1) heat shock repressor, and the glycolytic enzymes pyruvate kinase, glyceral-dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglycerate kinase were identified by a combination of Western blotting and direct N-terminal amino acid sequencing of proteins from the gels. Of 400 to 500 visible proteins, 17 were induced more than twofold during heat stress. Two classes of heat stress proteins were identified from their temporal induction pattern. The fast-induced proteins (including DnaK) showed an abruptly increased rate of synthesis during the first 10 min, declining to intermediate levels after 15 min. GroEL and GroES, which also belong to this group, maintained a high rate of synthesis after 15 min. The class of slowly induced proteins exhibited a gradual increase in the rate of synthesis after the onset of stress. Unlike other organisms, all salt stress-induced proteins in L. lactis were also subjected to heat stress induction. DnaK, GroEL, and GroES showed similar temporal patterns of induction during salt stress, resembling the timing during heat stress although at a lower induction level. These data indicate an overlap between the heat shock and salt stress responses in L. lactis. PMID:9143115

  10. Evolutionary paths among different red galaxy types at 0.3 < z < 1.5 and the build-up of massive E-S0's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Jesús; Prieto, Mercedes; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen; Balcells, Marc; Cristóbal-Hornillos, David; Erwin, Peter; Abreu, David; Domínguez-Palmero, Lilian; Hempel, Angela; López-Sanjuan, Carlos; Guzmán, Rafael; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Barro, Guillermo; Zamorano, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    Some recent observations seem to disagree with hierarchical theories of galaxy formation on the role of major mergers in a late build-up of massive early-type galaxies. We re-address this question by analysing the morphology, structural distortion level, and star formation enhancement of a sample of massive galaxies (M* > 5 × 1010M⊙) lying on the Red Sequence and its surroundings at 0.3 < z < 1.5. We have used an initial sample of ~1800 sources with Ks < 20.5 mag over an area ~155 arcmin2 on the Groth Strip, combining data from the Rainbow Extragalactic Database and the GOYA Survey. Red galaxy classes that can be directly associated to intermediate stages of major mergers and to their final products have been defined. For the first time we report observationally the existence of a dominant evolutionary path among massive red galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.5, consisting in the conversion of irregular disks into irregular spheroids, and of these ones into regular spheroids. This result points to: 1) the massive red regular galaxies at low redshifts derive from the irregular ones populating the Red Sequence and its neighbourhood at earlier epochs up to z ~ 1.5; 2) the progenitors of the bulk of present-day massive red regular galaxies have been blue disks that have migrated to the Red Sequence majoritarily through major mergers at 0.6 < z < 1.2 (these mergers thus starting at z ~ 1.5); 3) the formation of E-S0's that end up with M* > 1011M⊙ at z = 0 through gas-rich major mergers has frozen since z ~ 0.6. Our results support that major mergers have played the dominant role in the definitive build-up of present-day E-S0's with M* > 1011M⊙ at 0.6 < z < 1.2, in good agreement with the hierarchical scenario proposed in the Eliche-Moral et al. (2010a) model (see also Eliche-Moral et al. 2010b). This study is published in Prieto et al. (2012). Supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICINN) under projects AYA2009-10368, AYA2006-12955, AYA2010-21887-C04

  11. Accouchées avec statut sérologique VIH inconnu à Lubumbashi, RD Congo: proportion et déterminants

    PubMed Central

    Nkoy, Albert Mwembo-Tambwe A; Kayamba, Prosper Kalenga Muenze; Donnen, Philippe; Mukalenge, Faustin Chenge; Humblet, Perrine; Dramaix, Michèle; Buekens, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Beaucoup d'enfants vivant avec le VIH ont été infectés par leurs mères. Pour prévenir la transmission verticale les femmes doivent d'abord connaître leur statut sérologique VIH.L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la proportion de statut VIH inconnu à la naissance et d'identifier les facteurs associés. Méthodes C'est une étude transversale réalisée dans 10 structures sanitaires de Lubumbashi de Juin à Septembre 2010. La taille de l’échantillon était de 602 accouchées. Les statistiques descriptives usuelles et la régression logistique ont été utilisées. Résultats Parmi les accouchées, 52,5% ignoraient leur statut sérologique. Parmi elles, 62,9% accepteraient de faire le test VIH à la maternité. La proportion des femmes avec un statut sérologique VIH inconnu était significativement plus élevée chez celles qui n'avaient pas suivi de CPN (Odds Ratio ajusté (ORa) = 5,8; Intervalle de Confiance (IC) 95%: 1,7-19,8); chez celles qui avaient un bas niveau d'instruction (ORa = 1,5; IC 95%: 1,1-2,1) et chez celles qui ne savaient pas que la transmission verticale du VIH pouvaient se faire au moment de l'accouchement (ORa = 1,5; IC 95%: 1,0-2,4). Conclusion La proportion de femmes qui accouchent sans connaître leur statut sérologique au VIH est encore importante, malgré le fait que le dépistage du VIH soit proposé lors des CPN. Dans les zones à haute séroprévalence de VIH, aucune femme ne devrait accoucher sans être dépistée au VIH. Ce serait une opportunité manquée. PMID:22891083

  12. Region-specific deflection responses of WorldSID and ES2-re devices in pure lateral and oblique side impacts.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A; Brasel, Karen

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine region-specific deflection responses of the WorldSID and ES2 -re devices under pure lateral and oblique side impact loading. A modular, anthropometry-specific load wall was used. It consisted of the Shoulder, Thorax, Abdomen, superior Pelvis, and inferior Pelvis plates, termed the STAPP load wall design. The two devices were positioned upright on the platform of a bench seat, and sled tests were conducted at 3.4, 6.7, and 7.5 m/s. Two chestbands were used on each dummy at the thoracic and abdominal regions. Internal sensors were also used. Effective peak deflections were obtained from the chestband contours. Based on the preselected lateral-most point/location on the pretest contour, "internal sensor-type" peak deflections were also obtained using chestband contours. In addition, peak deflection data were obtained from internal sensor records. In oblique tests, the mean "IR-TRACC-type" peak deflections in the WorldSID device were 40 to 80% of effective peak deflections, whereas the mean "potentiometer-type" peak deflections in the ES2-device were 7 to 50%. The WorldSID device appears to better mimic region -specific responses to oblique loading than the ES2-re device, likely due to the differences in its des ign of the thoracic and abdominal regions. While the lateral -most point corresponding to the current 1D IR-TRACC location was found to replicate the pure lateral response, it was found to be less than optimal to track oblique loading. Although a laterally positioned sensor provides lower peak deflections in oblique loading, the addition of an angle-measuring sensor should allow modulating the translational metric for this mode. From this perspective, it may be worthwhile to use a 2D IR-TRACC or an optical sensor to verify these findings without chestband measures. Such an analysis has the potential to modify thoracic and abdominal injury criteria to account for obliqueness.

  13. Evaluation of the hygienic quality and associated public health hazards of raw milk marketed by smallholder dairy producers in the Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, F M; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Kapaga, A M

    2006-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine three parameters of the quality of the raw milk marketed by milk selling points (MSPs) in Dar es Salaam region. Total bacterial count (TBC) was used as an indicator of the microbial quality of the milk; antimicrobial residues were determined; and the California mastitis test (CMT) was used to screen for milk somatic cells as an indication of the mastitis level in the cows that provided the milk. Moreover, a water sample at each MSP was taken for bacteriological culturing. Finally, a questionnaire survey was conducted with the milk sellers at the MSPs to identify risk factors for poor milk hygiene. A total of 128 milk samples and corresponding water samples were collected from randomly selected milk selling points in Dar es Salaam region. The mean TBC was (8.2 +/- 1.9) x 10(6) cfu/ml, and major bacterial isolates from the milk samples were Escherichia coli (6.3%), Bacillus cereus (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.3%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (6.3%), Enterobacter aerogenes (5.6%) and Enterococcus faecalis (4.7%). In most cases, the organisms identified in milk corresponded to those isolated from the corresponding water samples. Of milk samples, 79.0% were positive to the CMT and 7.0% were positive for antimicrobial residues. TBC was normalized by log-transformation, and the possible predictors of TBC were identified by fitting two linear regression models. In a random effect model, water microbial quality, frequency of cleaning the milk containers, frequency of milk supply, milk storage time and the type of containers, and mixing of fresh and previous milk were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the mean log TBC. In a fixed effect model, in addition to these indicators, water shortage, water source and the refrigerator condition were significantly (p < or = 0.01) associated with log TBC. It was concluded that the milk sold in Dar es Salaam region is of poor quality and is of public health significance.

  14. Trace metal pollution and its influence on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Rumisha, Cyrus; Elskens, Marc; Leermakers, Martine; Kochzius, Marc

    2012-03-01

    The influence of trace metal pollution on the community structure of soft bottom molluscs was investigated in intertidal areas of the Dar es Salaam coast. Significant enrichment of As, Mn, Mo, Sb, and Zn in sediments was recorded. Redundancy analysis indicated that trace metal pollution contributed 68% of the variation in community structure. Monte Carlo permutation test showed that As and Sb contributed significantly to variation in species composition. T-value biplots and van Dobben circles showed that the gastropods Acteon fortis, Assiminea ovata, and Littoraria aberrans, were negatively affected by As and Sb, while the bivalve Semele radiata and the gastropod Conus litteratus were only negatively affected by As. Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Mo and Zn occurred in the bivalve Mactra ovalina and the gastropod Polinices mammilla. This calls for regular monitoring and management measures.

  15. NEARLY PERIODIC FLUCTUATIONS IN THE LONG-TERM X-RAY LIGHT CURVES OF THE BLAZARS AO 0235+164 AND 1ES 2321+419

    SciTech Connect

    Rani, Bindu; Gupta, Alok C.; Wiita, Paul J. E-mail: acgupta30@gmail.com

    2009-05-10

    We have performed a structure function analysis of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor data to search for variability in 24 blazars using data trains that each exceed 12 yr. Although 20 of them show nominal periods through this technique, the great majority of these 'periods' are clearly related to yearly variations arising from the instrument. Nonetheless, an apparently real periodic component of about 17 days was detected for the blazar AO 0235+164 and it was confirmed by discrete correlation function and periodogram analyses. For 1ES 2321+419, a component of variability with a near periodicity of about 420 days was detected by all of these methods. We discuss several possible explanations for these nearly periodic components and conclude that they most likely arise from the intersections of a shock propagating down a relativistic jet that possesses a helical structure.

  16. The CDS information hub. On-line services and links at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, F.; Egret, D.; Bienaymé, O.; Bonnarel, F.; Dubois, P.; Fernique, P.; Jasniewicz, G.; Lesteven, S.; Monier, R.; Ochsenbein, F.; Wenger, M.

    2000-04-01

    The Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS) provides homogeneous access to heterogeneous information of various origins: information about astronomical objects in Simbad; catalogs and observation logs in VizieR and in the catalogue service; reference images and overlays in Aladin; nomenclature in the Dictionary of Nomenclature; Yellow Page services; the AstroGLU resource discovery tool; mirror copies of other reference services; and documentation. With the implementation of links between the CDS services, and with other on-line reference information, CDS has become a major hub in the rapidly evolving world of information retrieval in astronomy, developing efficient tools to help astronomers to navigate in the world-wide ``Virtual Observatory'' under construction, from data in the observatory archives to results published in journals. The WWW interface to the CDS services is available at: http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F; Mdachi, S J M; Streck, Georg; Brack, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was foun