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Sample records for quinolone antibacterial drug

  1. Antibacterial action of quinolones: from target to network.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guyue; Hao, Haihong; Dai, Menghong; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2013-08-01

    Quinolones are widely used broad-spectrum antibacterials with incomplete elucidated mechanism of action. Here, molecular basis for the antibacterial action of quinolones, from target to network, is fully discussed and updated. Quinolones trap DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV to form reversible drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes, resulting in bacteriostasis. Cell death arises from chromosome fragmentation in protein synthesis-dependent or -independent pathways according to distinguished quinolone structures. In the former pathway, irreversible oxidative DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species kills bacteria eventually. Toxin-antitoxin mazEF is triggered as an additional lethal action. Bacteria survive and develop resistance by SOS and other stress responses. Enlarged knowledges of quinolone actions and bacterial response will provide new targets for drug design and approaches to prevent bacterial resistance.

  2. The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Abdul; Badshah, Syed Lal; Muska, Mairman; Ahmad, Nasir; Khan, Khalid

    2016-03-28

    Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites--the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical use. Among others, substitution of piperazine or methylpiperazine, pyrrolidinyl and piperidinyl rings also yields effective analogues. A total of twenty six analogues are reported in this review. The targets of quinolones are two bacterial enzymes of the class II topoisomerase family, namely gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Quinolones increase the concentration of drug-enzyme-DNA cleavage complexes and convert them into cellular toxins; as a result they are bactericidal. High bioavailability, relative low toxicity and favorable pharmacokinetics have resulted in the clinical success of fluoroquinolones and quinolones. Due to these superior properties, quinolones have been extensively utilized and this increased usage has resulted in some quinolone-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteria become resistant to quinolones by three mechanisms: (1) mutation in the target site (gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV) of quinolones; (2) plasmid-mediated resistance; and (3) chromosome-mediated quinolone resistance. In plasmid-mediated resistance, the efflux of quinolones is increased along with a decrease in the interaction of the drug with gyrase (topoisomerase IV). In the case of chromosome

  3. The quinolone family: from antibacterial to anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Sissi, Claudia; Palumbo, Manlio

    2003-11-01

    The present review focuses on the structural modifications responsible for the transformation of an antibacterial into an anticancer agent. Indeed, a distinctive feature of drugs based on the quinolone structure is their remarkable ability to target different type II topoisomerase enzymes. In particular, some congeners of this drug family display high activity not only against bacterial topoisomerases, but also against eukaryotic topoisomerases and are toxic to cultured mammalian cells and in vivo tumor models. Hence, these cytotoxic quinolones represent an exploitable source of new anticancer agents, which might also help addressing side-toxicity and resistance phenomena. Their ability to bind metal ion co-factors represents an additional means of modulating their pharmacological response(s). Moreover, quinolones link antibacterial and anticancer chemotherapy together and provide an opportunity to clarify drug mechanism across divergent species.

  4. New uses for old drugs: attempts to convert quinolone antibacterials into potential anticancer agents containing ruthenium.

    PubMed

    Kljun, Jakob; Bratsos, Ioannis; Alessio, Enzo; Psomas, George; Repnik, Urška; Butinar, Miha; Turk, Boris; Turel, Iztok

    2013-08-05

    Continuing the study of the physicochemical and biological properties of ruthenium-quinolone adducts, four novel complexes with the general formula [Ru([9]aneS3)(dmso-κS)(quinolonato-κ(2)O,O)](PF6), containing the quinolones levofloxacin (1), nalidixic acid (2), oxolinic acid (3), and cinoxacin (4), were prepared and characterized in solid state as well as in solution. Contrary to their organoruthenium analogues, these complexes are generally relatively stable in aqueous solution as substitution of the dimethylsulfoxide (dmso) ligand is slow and not quantitative, and a minor release of the quinolonato ligand is observed only in the case of 4. The complexes bind to serum proteins displaying relatively high binding constants. DNA binding was studied using UV-vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and performing viscosity measurements of CT DNA solutions in the presence of complexes 1-4. These experiments show that the ruthenium complexes interact with DNA via intercalation. Possible electrostatic interactions occur in the case of compound 4, which also shows the most pronounced rate of hydrolysis. Compounds 2 and 4 also exhibit a weak inhibition of cathepsins B and S, which are involved in the progression of a number of diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, complex 2 displayed moderate cytotoxicity when tested on the HeLa cell line.

  5. Antiviral properties of quinolone-based drugs.

    PubMed

    Richter, Sara; Parolin, Cristina; Palumbo, Manlio; Palù, Giorgio

    2004-06-01

    Quinolones represent an important class of broad-spectrum antibacterials, the main structural features of which are a 1,4 dihydro-4-oxo-quinolinyl moiety bearing an essential carboxyl group at position 3. Quinolones inhibit prokaryotic type II topoisomerases, namely DNA gyrase and, in a few cases, topoisomerase IV, through direct binding to the bacterial chromosome. Based on the hypothesis that these drugs could also bind to the viral nucleic acids or nucleoprotein-complexes, several quinolone derivatives were tested for their antiviral activity. Indeed, antibacterial fluoroquinolones were shown to be effective against vaccinia virus and papovaviruses; these preliminary results prompted the synthesis of modified quinolones to optimize antiviral action and improve selectivity index. The introduction of an aryl group at the piperazine moiety of the fluoroquinolone shifted the activity from antibacterial to antiviral, with a specific action against HIV. The antiviral activity seemed to be related to an inhibitory effect at the transcriptional level, and further evidence suggested a mechanism of action mediated by inhibition of Tat functions. Substitution of the fluorine at position 6 with an amine group to give aryl-piperazinyl-6-amino-quinolones improved the activity and selectivity against HIV-1: the most potent compound of this series was shown to inhibit virus replication through interference with Tat-TAR interaction. A comprehensive SAR investigation was performed based on additional chemical intervention to the quinolone template moiety, such as the introduction of nucleoside derivative functions. The information gained so far will be useful for future rational drug design aimed at developing new compounds with optimized antiviral activity.

  6. Type II topoisomerases as targets for quinolone antibacterials: turning Dr. Jekyll into Mr. Hyde.

    PubMed

    Anderson, V E; Osheroff, N

    2001-03-01

    Quinolones are a very important family of antibacterial agents that are widely prescribed for the treatment of infections in humans. Although the founding members of this drug class had little clinical impact, successive generations include the most active and broad spectrum oral antibacterials currently in use. In contrast to most other anti-infective drugs, quinolones do not kill bacteria by inhibiting a critical cellular process. Rather, they corrupt the activities of two essential enzymes, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, and induce them to kill cells by generating high levels of double-stranded DNA breaks. A second unique aspect of quinolones is their differential ability to target these two enzymes in different bacteria. Depending upon the bacterial species and quinolone employed, either DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV serves as the primary cytotoxic target of drug action. While this unusual feature initially stymied development of quinolones with high activity against Gram-positive bacteria, it ultimately opened new vistas for the clinical use of this drug class. In addition to the antibacterial quinolones, specific members of this drug family display high activity against eukaryotic type II topoisomerases, as well as cultured mammalian cells and in vivo tumor models. These antineoplastic quinolones represent a potentially important source of new anticancer agents and provide an opportunity to examine drug mechanism across divergent species. Because of the clinical importance of quinolones, this review will discuss the mechanistic basis for drug efficacy and interactions between these compounds and their topoisomerase targets.

  7. Nickel-quinolones interaction. Part 1 - Nickel(II) complexes with the antibacterial drug sparfloxacin: structure and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Skyrianou, Kalliopi C; Efthimiadou, Eleni K; Psycharis, Vassilis; Terzis, Aris; Kessissoglou, Dimitris P; Psomas, George

    2009-12-01

    The mononuclear nickel(II) complexes with the third-generation quinolone antibacterial agent sparfloxacin in the absence or presence of nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligands (1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized. The experimental data suggest that sparfloxacin acts as deprotonated bidentate ligand coordinated to Ni(II) ion through the ketone and carboxylato oxygens. The crystal structure of (1,10-phenanthroline)bis(sparfloxacinato) nickel(II), 2 has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes recorded in dmso solution and in 1/2 dmso/buffer (containing 150 mM NaCl and 15 mM trisodium citrate at pH 7.0) solution have shown that in the presence of CT DNA they can bind to CT DNA by the intercalative binding mode. UV study of the interaction of the complexes with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) has shown that the complexes can bind to CT DNA and 2 exhibits the highest binding constant to CT DNA. Competitive study with ethidium bromide (EB) has shown that the complexes can displace the DNA-bound EB indicating that they bind to DNA in strong competition with EB for the intercalative binding site. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested on three different microorganisms and has revealed that the inhibition provided by the complexes is slightly decreased in comparison to free sparfloxacin. The complexes exhibit good binding propensity to human and bovine serum albumin proteins having relatively high binding constant values.

  8. Structure and biological properties of the copper(II) complex with the quinolone antibacterial drug N-propyl-norfloxacin and 2,2'-bipyridine.

    PubMed

    Efthimiadou, Eleni K; Thomadaki, Hellinida; Sanakis, Yiannis; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Katsaros, Nikos; Scorilas, Andreas; Karaliota, Alexandra; Psomas, George

    2007-01-01

    The neutral mononuclear copper complex with the quinolone antibacterial drug N-propyl-protected norfloxacin, Hpr-norfloxacin, in the presence of the nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligand 2,2'-bipyridine has been prepared and characterized. The crystal structure of (chloro)(2,2'-bipyridine)(pr-norfloxacinato)copper(II), 1, has been determined and refined with X-ray crystallography. X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (=EPR) spectroscopy at liquid helium temperatures from powdered samples indicates the presence of dimeric units in consistency with the crystal structure. In aqueous solutions of 1 the EPR behavior indicates mixture of dimeric and monomeric species. The antimicrobial activity of the complex has been tested on three different microorganisms and the best inhibition (MIC=0.25mugmL(-1)) has been exhibited against Escherichia coli. The study of the interaction of the complex with calf-thymus DNA has been performed with diverse spectroscopic techniques and has shown that complex 1 is bound to calf-thymus DNA by the intercalative mode. Potential anticancer cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of complex 1 on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 and human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cell lines have been investigated. Complex 1 shows an increased antiproliferative and necrotic effect on both HL-60 and K562 human leukemia cells in comparison to the free pr-norfloxacin.

  9. [The history of the development and changes of quinolone antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hisashi; Hayakawa, Isao; Akimoto, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    The quinolones, especially the new quinolones (the 6-fluoroquinolones), are the synthetic antibacterial agents to rival the Beta-lactam and the macrolide antibacterials for impact in clinical usage in the antibacterial therapeutic field. They have a broad antibacterial spectrum of activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative and mycobacterial pathogens as well as anaerobes. Further, they show good-to-moderate oral absorption and tissue penetration with favorable pharmacokinetics in humans resulting in high clinical efficacy in the treatment of many kinds of infections. They also exhibit excellent safety profiles as well as those of oral Beta-lactam antibiotics. The bacterial effects of quinolones inhibit the function of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. The history of the development of the quinolones originated from nalidixic acid (NA), developed in 1962. In addition, the breakthrough in the drug design for the scaffold and the basic side chains have allowed improvements to be made to the first new quinolone, norfloxacin (NFLX), patented in 1978. Although currently more than 10,000 compounds have been already synthesized in the world, only two percent of them were developed and tested in clinical studies. Furthermore, out of all these compounds, only twenty have been successfully launched into the market. In this paper, the history of the development and changes of the quinolones are described from the first quinolone, NA, via, the first new quinolone (6-fluorinated quinolone) NFLX, to the latest extended-spectrum quinolone antibacterial agents against multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. NA has only modest activity against Gram-negative bacteria and low oral absorption, therefore a suitable candidate for treatment of systemic infections (UTIs) is required. Since the original discovery of NA, a series of quinolones, which are referred to as the old quinolones, have been developed leading to the first new quinolone, NFLX, with moderate improvements

  10. Origins of the Quinolone Class of Antibacterials: An Expanded "Discovery Story".

    PubMed

    Bisacchi, Gregory S

    2015-06-25

    Published descriptions of the specific lines of research leading to the discovery of therapeutically important medicines, especially major new class medicines, have long provided value to the biopharmaceutical community as models of success, often influencing the strategies and methods of subsequent drug research. Quinolone antibacterials represent one of medicine's most important classes of anti-infective agents; yet in contrast to many other classes of anti-infectives, astonishingly few details concerning the origin of the class or the rationale leading to the selection of the first clinical agent, nalidixic acid, were ever published by the discoverers. Moreover, earlier disclosures of an independent discovery of the quinolone class of antibacterials have been almost entirely overlooked by the scientific literature. This review brings together all the available information from primary literature sources relating to both discoveries and provides for the first time a much fuller, if still partially speculative, story of the earliest years of this important class of drugs.

  11. Mechanisms of drug resistance: quinolone resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, David C.; Jacoby, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Quinolone antimicrobials are synthetic and widely used in clinical medicine. Resistance emerged with clinical use and became common in some bacterial pathogens. Mechanisms of resistance include two categories of mutation and acquisition of resistance-conferring genes. Resistance mutations in one or both of the two drug target enzymes, DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV, are commonly in a localized domain of the GyrA and ParE subunits of the respective enzymes and reduce drug binding to the enzyme-DNA complex. Other resistance mutations occur in regulatory genes that control the expression of native efflux pumps localized in the bacterial membrane(s). These pumps have broad substrate profiles that include quinolones as well as other antimicrobials, disinfectants, and dyes. Mutations of both types can accumulate with selection pressure and produce highly resistant strains. Resistance genes acquired on plasmids can confer low-level resistance that promotes the selection of mutational high-level resistance. Plasmid-encoded resistance is due to Qnr proteins that protect the target enzymes from quinolone action, one mutant aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme that also modifies certain quinolones, and mobile efflux pumps. Plasmids with these mechanisms often encode additional antimicrobial resistances and can transfer multidrug resistance that includes quinolones. Thus, the bacterial quinolone resistance armamentarium is large. PMID:26190223

  12. Mechanisms of drug resistance: quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Hooper, David C; Jacoby, George A

    2015-09-01

    Quinolone antimicrobials are synthetic and widely used in clinical medicine. Resistance emerged with clinical use and became common in some bacterial pathogens. Mechanisms of resistance include two categories of mutation and acquisition of resistance-conferring genes. Resistance mutations in one or both of the two drug target enzymes, DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV, are commonly in a localized domain of the GyrA and ParE subunits of the respective enzymes and reduce drug binding to the enzyme-DNA complex. Other resistance mutations occur in regulatory genes that control the expression of native efflux pumps localized in the bacterial membrane(s). These pumps have broad substrate profiles that include quinolones as well as other antimicrobials, disinfectants, and dyes. Mutations of both types can accumulate with selection pressure and produce highly resistant strains. Resistance genes acquired on plasmids can confer low-level resistance that promotes the selection of mutational high-level resistance. Plasmid-encoded resistance is due to Qnr proteins that protect the target enzymes from quinolone action, one mutant aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme that also modifies certain quinolones, and mobile efflux pumps. Plasmids with these mechanisms often encode additional antimicrobial resistances and can transfer multidrug resistance that includes quinolones. Thus, the bacterial quinolone resistance armamentarium is large.

  13. A "Double-Edged" Scaffold: Antitumor Power within the Antibacterial Quinolone.

    PubMed

    Bisacchi, Gregory S; Hale, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1980s, reports emerged describing experimental antibacterial quinolones having significant potency against eukaryotic Type II topoisomerases (topo II) and showing cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines. As a result, several pharmaceutical companies initiated quinolone anticancer programs to explore the potential of this class in comparison to conventional human topo II inhibiting antitumor drugs such as doxorubicin and etoposide. In this review, we present a modern re-evaluation of the anticancer potential of the quinolone class in the context of today's predominantly pathway-based (rather than cytotoxicity-based) oncology drug R&D environment. The quinolone eukaryotic SAR is comprehensively discussed, contrasted with the corresponding prokaryotic data, and merged with recent structural biology information which is now beginning to help explain the basis for that SAR. Quinolone topo II inhibitors appear to be much less susceptible to efflux-mediated resistance, a current limitation of therapy with conventional agents. Recent advances in the biological understanding of human topo II isoforms suggest that significant progress might now be made in overcoming two other treatment-limiting disadvantages of conventional topo II inhibitors, namely cardiotoxicity and drug-induced secondary leukemias. We propose that quinolone class topo II inhibitors could have a useful future therapeutic role due to the continued need for effective topo II drugs in many cancer treatment settings, and due to the recent biological and structural advances which can now provide, for the first time, specific guidance for the design of a new class of inhibitors potentially superior to existing agents.

  14. A “Double-Edged” Scaffold: Antitumor Power within the 
Antibacterial Quinolone

    PubMed Central

    Bisacchi, Gregory S.; Hale, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    In the late 1980s, reports emerged describing experimental antibacterial quinolones having significant potency against eukaryotic Type II topoisomerases (topo II) and showing cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines. As a result, several pharmaceutical companies initiated quinolone anticancer programs to explore the potential of this class in comparison to conventional human topo II inhibiting antitumor drugs such as doxorubicin and etoposide. In this review, we present a modern re-evaluation of the anticancer potential of the quinolone class in the context of today’s predominantly pathway-based (rather than cytotoxicity-based) oncology drug R&D environment. The quinolone eukaryotic SAR is comprehensively discussed, contrasted with the corresponding prokaryotic data, and merged with recent structural biology information which is now beginning to help explain the basis for that SAR. Quinolone topo II inhibitors appear to be much less susceptible to efflux-mediated resistance, a current limitation of therapy with conventional agents. Recent advances in the biological understanding of human topo II isoforms suggest that significant progress might now be made in overcoming two other treatment-limiting disadvantages of conventional topo II inhibitors, namely cardiotoxicity and drug-induced secondary leukemias. We propose that quinolone class topo II inhibitors could have a useful future therapeutic role due to the continued need for effective topo II drugs in many cancer treatment settings, and due to the recent biological and structural advances which can now provide, for the first time, specific guidance for the design of a new class of inhibitors potentially superior to existing agents. PMID:26695512

  15. Overcoming target-mediated quinolone resistance in topoisomerase IV by introducing metal-ion-independent drug-enzyme interactions.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Katie J; Schwanz, Heidi A; Li, Gangqin; McPherson, Sylvia A; Turnbough, Charles L; Kerns, Robert J; Osheroff, Neil

    2013-12-20

    Quinolones, which target gyrase and topoisomerase IV, are the most widely prescribed antibacterials worldwide. Unfortunately, their use is threatened by the increasing prevalence of target-mediated drug resistance. Greater than 90% of mutations that confer quinolone resistance act by disrupting enzyme-drug interactions coordinated by a critical water-metal ion bridge. Quinazolinediones are quinolone-like drugs but lack the skeletal features necessary to support the bridge interaction. These compounds are of clinical interest, however, because they retain activity against the most common quinolone resistance mutations. We utilized a chemical biology approach to determine how quinazolinediones overcome quinolone resistance in Bacillus anthracis topoisomerase IV. Quinazolinediones that retain activity against quinolone-resistant topoisomerase IV do so primarily by establishing novel interactions through the C7 substituent, rather than the drug skeleton. Because some quinolones are highly active against human topoisomerase IIα, we also determined how clinically relevant quinolones discriminate between the bacterial and human enzymes. Clinically relevant quinolones display poor activity against topoisomerase IIα because the human enzyme cannot support drug interactions mediated by the water-metal ion bridge. However, the inclusion of substituents that allow quinazolinediones to overcome topoisomerase IV-mediated quinolone resistance can cause cross-reactivity against topoisomerase IIα. Therefore, a major challenge in designing drugs that overcome quinolone resistance lies in the ability to identify substituents that mediate strong interactions with the bacterial, but not the human, enzymes. On the basis of our understanding of quinolone-enzyme interactions, we have identified three compounds that display high activity against quinolone-resistant B. anthracis topoisomerase IV but low activity against human topoisomerase IIα.

  16. On an aspect of calculated molecular descriptors in QSAR studies of quinolone antibacterials.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Payel; Thanadath, Megha; Bagchi, Manish C

    2006-08-01

    The re-emergence of tuberculosis infections, which are resistant to conventional drug therapy, has steadily risen in the last decade and as a result of that, fluoroquinolone drugs are being used as the second line of action. But there is hardly any study to examine specific structure activity relationships of quinolone antibacterials against mycobacteria. In this paper, an attempt has been made to establish a quantitative structure activity relationship modeling for a series of quinolone compounds against Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Due to lack of sufficient physicochemical data for the anti-mycobacterial compounds, it becomes very difficult to develop predictive methods based on experimental data. The present paper is an effort for the development of QSARs from the standpoint of physicochemical, constitutional, geometrical, electrostatic and topological indices. Molecular descriptors have been calculated solely from the chemical structure of N-1, C-7 and 8 substituted quinolone compounds and ridge regression models have been developed which can explain a better structure-activity relationship. Consideration of an intermolecular similarity analysis approach that led to a successful computer program development in PERL language has been used for comparing the influence of various molecular descriptors in different data subsets. The comparison of relative effectiveness of the calculated descriptors in our ridge regression model gives rise to some interesting results.

  17. Determination of the primary target of a quinolone drug and the effect of quinolone resistance-conferring mutations by measuring quinolone sensitivity based on its mode of action.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Emily S; Hiasa, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    We used an assay to measure quinolone sensitivity as a shift in the position of the cleavage-religation equilibrium. This assay was found to be useful in identifying the primary target of a quinolone drug and assessing the effect of quinolone resistance-conferring mutations.

  18. Moxifloxacin (Bay 12-8039): a new methoxy quinolone antibacterial.

    PubMed

    MacGowan, A P

    1999-02-01

    Moxifloxacin (Bay 12-8039) is a new 8 methoxy quinolone antibacterial. The MIC90 values are < or = 0.25 mg/l for Streptococcus pneumoniae (irrespective of penicillin susceptibility), Haemophilus influenzae (beta-lactamase positive or negative), Morexella catarrhalis, Bordetella pertussis, Legionella sp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Clamydia pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, beta-haemolytic streptococci (macrolide-sensitive or -resistant), Listeria sp., most Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. menigitidis, Pasteurella spp., Vibrio spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica. For Mycobacterium intracellularae, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), ciprofloxacin-resistant S. aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Providencia sp., Serratia sp., P. aeruginosa and other non-fermentive Gram-negative rods, MIC90s are in the range 0.5-4 mg/l. For anaerobic bacteria species, MIC90s are also in the range 0.25-4 mg/l. Moxifloxacin is bactericidal at concentrations 2- to 4-fold higher than the MIC and is rapidly bactericidal against most common pathogen groups at concentrations achieved in serum with a 400 mg dose that is between 0.5-4 mg/l. There is a post-antibiotic effect against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Resistant mutants are at present difficult to select in the laboratory but in general, moxifloxacin has poorer activity against strains resistant to ciprofloxacin compared to those which are susceptible. Animal and laboratory pharmacodynamic models indicate that the MIC and area under the serum concentration time curve predict outcome. Various animal models mainly of respiratory tract infection indicate equivalent or superior results compared to existing or other developmental agents. Human pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers indicate linear pharmacokinetics over the dose range 50-800 mg/day. A single dose of 400 mg produces a maximum serum concentration of 2.5-4.5 mg/l, half-life of 11-15 h

  19. Microbial transformations of antimicrobial quinolones and related drugs.

    PubMed

    Parshikov, Igor A; Sutherland, John B

    2012-12-01

    The quinolones are an important group of synthetic antimicrobial drugs used for treating bacterial diseases of humans and animals. Microorganisms transform antimicrobial quinolones (including fluoroquinolones) and the pharmacologically related naphthyridones, pyranoacridones, and cinnolones to a variety of metabolites. The biotransformation processes involve hydroxylation of methyl groups; hydroxylation of aliphatic and aromatic rings; oxidation of alcohols and amines; reduction of carboxyl groups; removal of methyl, carboxyl, fluoro, and cyano groups; addition of formyl, acetyl, nitrosyl, and cyclopentenone groups; and cleavage of aliphatic and aromatic rings. Most of these reactions greatly reduce or eliminate the antimicrobial activity of the quinolones.

  20. Determination of lipophilicity of two quinolone antibacterials, ciprofloxacin and grepafloxacin, in the protonation equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Sakai, Shigeko; Tauchi, Yoshihiko; Deguchi, Yoshiharu; Chen, Jimin; Zhang, Ruhua; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare protonation equilibrium and lipophilicity of two quinolone antibacterials, grepafloxacin (GPFX) and ciprofloxacin (CPFX), in order to give an insight into effects on the physicochemical properties by slight structural motifs. The protonation equilibrium was investigated by a spectrophotometry. Macro- and micro-dissociation constants were simultaneously determined, based on nonlinear regression analysis using the MULTI program, and then microspecies distribution could be described accordingly. Zwitterionic microspecies predominated at isoelectrical point (pI) for both drugs, and the concentration ratio of neutral to zwitterionic forms was near 4-fold greater for GPFX than that for CPFX. The apparent partition coefficient (D(O/B,pH)) versus pH profiles had the shape of a parabolic curve in an n-octanol/buffer system, and reached the maximum around pI for both, respectively. Moreover, two introduced methyl groups in GPFX increased not only intrinsic lipophilicity but also neutral microspecies fraction relative to CPFX, and D(O/B,pH) of GPFX was consequently far higher than that of CPFX. The results emphasized that there were significant differences in protonation equilibrium and lipophilicity between GPFX and CPFX, which conduced to explaining their different behavior in terms of antibacterial activities and pharmacokinetics.

  1. Design and biological evaluation of novel quinolone-based metronidazole derivatives as potent Cu(2+) mediated DNA-targeting antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Kumar, Kannekanti Vijaya; Geng, Rong-Xia; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2015-09-01

    A series of novel quinolone-based metronidazole derivatives as new type of antimicrobial agents were developed and characterized. Most of them gave good antibacterial activity towards the Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Noticeably, quinolone derivative 3i exhibited low MIC value of 0.25 μg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which was even superior to reference drugs Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Clinafloxacin. The further research revealed that compound 3i could intercalate into P. aeruginosa DNA through copper ion bridge to form a steady 3i-Cu(2+)-DNA ternary complex which might further block DNA replication to exert the powerful bioactivities.

  2. Assessment of the antibacterial activity of galangin against 4-quinolone resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cushnie, T P T; Lamb, A J

    2006-02-01

    The flavonol galangin is present in numerous plants and is a major constituent of Helichrysum aureonitens, a perennial herb used by South African indigenes to treat infection. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of galangin was assessed against 17 strains of 4-quinolone resistant S. aureus using an agar dilution assay. It was determined that the flavonol had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of approximately 50 microg/ml against 16 of these strains, including those which exhibited 250- and 500-fold increases in norfloxacin resistance. The remaining one strain, which possessed an amino acid alteration in the GrlB subunit of topoisomerase IV, had increased susceptibility to galangin. Control strains of 4-quinolone sensitive S. aureus were also found to have MICs of 50 microg/ml. The topoisomerase IV enzyme may therefore be implicated in the antibacterial mechanism of action of galangin. Clearly however, there is no cross-resistance between galangin and the 4-quinolones, and the flavonol therefore warrants further investigation as an antibacterial agent.

  3. Quinolone-based drugs against Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium spp.

    PubMed

    Anquetin, Guillaume; Greiner, Jacques; Vierling, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    Owing to the rapid emergence of multi-resistant strains of Plasmodium spp. (the causative agents of malaria) and the limitations of drugs used against Toxoplasma gondii (an important opportunistic pathogen associated with AIDS and congenital birth defects), the discovery of new therapeutical targets and the development of new drugs are needed. The presence of the prokaryotic-like organelle in apicomplexan parasites (i.e. plastids), which comprise these major human pathogens, may represent a unique target for antibiotics against these protozoa. Quinolones which are known to be highly potent against bacteria were also found to specifically disrupt these parasites. They inhibit DNA replication by interacting with two essential bacterial type II topoisomerases, DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. There are some clues that quinolones act on plastids with a similar mechanism of action. After a brief presentation of plasmodium and toxoplasma dedicated to their life cycle, the chemotherapies presently used in clinics to fight against these protozoa and the potential new targets and drugs, we will focus our attention on their plastid which is one of these promising new targets. Then, we will present the various drugs and generations of quinolones, the leading molecules, and their inhibitory effects against these parasites together with their pharmacological properties that have been established from in vitro and in vivo studies. We will also discuss their possible mode of action.

  4. Design, synthesis, antibacterial evaluation and docking study of novel 2-hydroxy-3-(nitroimidazolyl)-propyl-derived quinolone.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Xing, Junhao; Cheng, Haibo; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Jinpei; Zhang, Huibin

    2015-01-01

    A novel series of 2-hydroxy-3-(nitroimidazolyl)-propyl-derived quinolones 6a-o were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity. Most of the target compounds exhibited potent activity against Gram-positive strains. Among them, moxifloxacin analog 6n displayed the most potent activity against Gram-positive strains including S. epidermidis (MIC = 0.06 μg/mL), MSSE (MIC = 0.125 μg/mL), MRSE (MIC = 0.03 μg/mL), S. aureus (MIC = 0.125 μg/mL), MSSA (MIC = 0.125 μg/mL), (MIC = 2 μg/mL). Its activity against MRSA was eightfold more potent than reference drug gatifloxacin. Finally, docking study of the target compound 6n revealed that the binding model of quinolone nucleus was similar to that of gatifloxacin and the 2-hydroxy-3-(nitroimidazolyl)-propyl group formed two additional hydrogen bonds.

  5. Mechanism of quinolone action and resistance.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Katie J; Kerns, Robert J; Osheroff, Neil

    2014-03-18

    Quinolones are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of antibacterials in the world and are used to treat a variety of bacterial infections in humans. Because of the wide use (and overuse) of these drugs, the number of quinolone-resistant bacterial strains has been growing steadily since the 1990s. As is the case with other antibacterial agents, the rise in quinolone resistance threatens the clinical utility of this important drug class. Quinolones act by converting their targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV, into toxic enzymes that fragment the bacterial chromosome. This review describes the development of the quinolones as antibacterials, the structure and function of gyrase and topoisomerase IV, and the mechanistic basis for quinolone action against their enzyme targets. It will then discuss the following three mechanisms that decrease the sensitivity of bacterial cells to quinolones. Target-mediated resistance is the most common and clinically significant form of resistance. It is caused by specific mutations in gyrase and topoisomerase IV that weaken interactions between quinolones and these enzymes. Plasmid-mediated resistance results from extrachromosomal elements that encode proteins that disrupt quinolone-enzyme interactions, alter drug metabolism, or increase quinolone efflux. Chromosome-mediated resistance results from the underexpression of porins or the overexpression of cellular efflux pumps, both of which decrease cellular concentrations of quinolones. Finally, this review will discuss recent advancements in our understanding of how quinolones interact with gyrase and topoisomerase IV and how mutations in these enzymes cause resistance. These last findings suggest approaches to designing new drugs that display improved activity against resistant strains.

  6. Drug interactions with Bacillus anthracis topoisomerase IV: biochemical basis for quinolone action and resistance.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Katie J; McPherson, Sylvia A; Wang, Pengfei; Kerns, Robert J; Graves, David E; Turnbough, Charles L; Osheroff, Neil

    2012-01-10

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is considered a serious threat as a bioweapon. The drugs most commonly used to treat anthrax are quinolones, which act by increasing the levels of DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IV and gyrase. Quinolone resistance most often is associated with specific serine mutations in these enzymes. Therefore, to determine the basis for quinolone action and resistance, we characterized wild-type B. anthracis topoisomerase IV, the GrlA(S81F) and GrlA(S81Y) quinolone-resistant mutants, and the effects of quinolones and a related quinazolinedione on these enzymes. Ser81 is believed to anchor a water-Mg(2+) bridge that coordinates quinolones to the enzyme through the C3/C4 keto acid. Consistent with this hypothesized bridge, ciprofloxacin required increased Mg(2+) concentrations to support DNA cleavage by GrlA(S81F) topoisomerase IV. The three enzymes displayed similar catalytic activities in the absence of drugs. However, the resistance mutations decreased the affinity of topoisomerase IV for ciprofloxacin and other quinolones, diminished quinolone-induced inhibition of DNA religation, and reduced the stability of the enzyme-quinolone-DNA ternary complex. Wild-type DNA cleavage levels were generated by mutant enzymes at high quinolone concentrations, suggesting that increased drug potency could overcome resistance. 8-Methyl-quinazoline-2,4-dione, which lacks the quinolone keto acid (and presumably does not require the water-Mg(2+) bridge to mediate protein interactions), was more potent than quinolones against wild-type topoisomerase IV and was equally efficacious. Moreover, it maintained high potency and efficacy against the mutant enzymes, effectively inhibited DNA religation, and formed stable ternary complexes. Our findings provide an underlying biochemical basis for the ability of quinazolinediones to overcome clinically relevant quinolone resistance mutations in bacterial type II topoisomerases.

  7. DNA topoisomerases and their poisoning by anticancer and antibacterial drugs.

    PubMed

    Pommier, Yves; Leo, Elisabetta; Zhang, HongLiang; Marchand, Christophe

    2010-05-28

    DNA topoisomerases are the targets of important anticancer and antibacterial drugs. Camptothecins and novel noncamptothecins in clinical development (indenoisoquinolines and ARC-111) target eukaryotic type IB topoisomerases (Top1), whereas human type IIA topoisomerases (Top2alpha and Top2beta) are the targets of the widely used anticancer agents etoposide, anthracyclines (doxorubicin, daunorubicin), and mitoxantrone. Bacterial type II topoisomerases (gyrase and Topo IV) are the targets of quinolones and aminocoumarin antibiotics. This review focuses on the molecular and biochemical characteristics of topoisomerases and their inhibitors. We also discuss the common mechanism of action of topoisomerase poisons by interfacial inhibition and trapping of topoisomerase cleavage complexes.

  8. [Effect of pazufloxacin mesilate, a new quinolone antibacterial agent, for intravenous use on QT interval].

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Hitoshi; Morita, Yukie; Shiotani, Norio; Mizuo, Midori; Komae, Norihisa

    2004-08-01

    The potential for QT interval prolongation of pazufloxacin mesilate (PZFX mesilate), a new quinolone antibacterial agent for intravenous use, was investigated by in vitro and in vivo electrophysiology studies. Following results were obtained. In vitro electrophysiology study using guinea pig papillary muscles: PZFX mesilate (30-300 microM) had no effects on resting membrane potential (RMP), action potential amplitude (APA) and action potential duration (APD). Reference quinolones, sparfloxacin (3-30 microM) and moxifloxacin (10-100 microM), had no effects on RMP and APA, but significantly prolonged APD at more than 3 and 10 microM, respectively, while ciprofloxacin (10-100 microM) had no effect on each parameter. In vivo electrophysiology study using anesthetized dogs: PZFX mesilate had no effects on electrocardiograph parameter (PR interval, QRS interval, QT interval and QTc) after intravenous administration of 3-30 mg/kg. These results suggest that PZFX mesilate has low potential for QT interval prolongation.

  9. Mechanism of Quinolone Action and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Quinolones are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of antibacterials in the world and are used to treat a variety of bacterial infections in humans. Because of the wide use (and overuse) of these drugs, the number of quinolone-resistant bacterial strains has been growing steadily since the 1990s. As is the case with other antibacterial agents, the rise in quinolone resistance threatens the clinical utility of this important drug class. Quinolones act by converting their targets, gyrase and topoisomerase IV, into toxic enzymes that fragment the bacterial chromosome. This review describes the development of the quinolones as antibacterials, the structure and function of gyrase and topoisomerase IV, and the mechanistic basis for quinolone action against their enzyme targets. It will then discuss the following three mechanisms that decrease the sensitivity of bacterial cells to quinolones. Target-mediated resistance is the most common and clinically significant form of resistance. It is caused by specific mutations in gyrase and topoisomerase IV that weaken interactions between quinolones and these enzymes. Plasmid-mediated resistance results from extrachromosomal elements that encode proteins that disrupt quinolone–enzyme interactions, alter drug metabolism, or increase quinolone efflux. Chromosome-mediated resistance results from the underexpression of porins or the overexpression of cellular efflux pumps, both of which decrease cellular concentrations of quinolones. Finally, this review will discuss recent advancements in our understanding of how quinolones interact with gyrase and topoisomerase IV and how mutations in these enzymes cause resistance. These last findings suggest approaches to designing new drugs that display improved activity against resistant strains. PMID:24576155

  10. Nonclassical biological activities of quinolone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abeer; Daneshtalab, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Quinolones are considered as a big family of multi-faceted drugs; their chemical synthesis is flexible and can be easily adapted to prepare new congeners with rationally devised structures. This is shown by the description of many thousands of derivatives in the literature. Scientists could accurately describe their QSAR, which is essential for effective drug design. This also gave them the chance to discover new and unprecedented activities, which makes quinolones an endless source of hope and enables further development of new clinically useful drugs. Quinolones are among the most common frameworks present in the bioactive molecules that have dominated the market for more than four decades. Since 1962, 4(1H)-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives are widely used as antibacterial agents. Quinolones have a broad and potent spectrum of activity and are also used as second-line drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB). Recently, quinolones have been reported to display "nonclassical" biological activities, such as antitumor, anti-HIV-1 integrase, anti-HCV-NS3 helicase and -NS5B-polymerase activities. The present review focuses on the structural modifications responsible for the transformation of an antibacterial into an anticancer agent and/or an antiviral agent. Indeed, quinolones' antimicrobial action is distinguishable among antibacterial agents, because they target different type II topoisomerase enzymes. Many derivatives of this family show high activity against bacterial topoisomerases and eukaryotic topoisomerases, and are also toxic to cultured mammalian cells and in vivo tumor models. Moreover, quinolones have shown antiviral activity against HIV and HCV viruses. In this context the quinolones family of drugs seem to link three different biological activities (antibacterial, anticancer, and the antiviral profiles) and the review will also provide an insight into the different mechanisms responsible for these activities among different species.

  11. Structure-activity relationship in the oxazolidinone-quinolone hybrid series: influence of the central spacer on the antibacterial activity and the mode of action.

    PubMed

    Hubschwerlen, Christian; Specklin, Jean-Luc; Baeschlin, Daniel K; Borer, Yves; Haefeli, Sascha; Sigwalt, Christine; Schroeder, Susanne; Locher, Hans H

    2003-12-01

    Oxazolidinone-quinolone hybrids, which combine the pharmacophores of a quinolone and an oxazolidinone, were synthesised and shown to be active against a variety of susceptible and resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The nature of the spacer greatly influences the antibacterial activity by directing the mode of action, that is quinolone- and/or oxazolidinone-like activity. The best compounds in this series have a balanced dual mode of action and overcome all types of resistance, including resistance to quinolones and linezolid, in clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogens.

  12. Physicochemical Studies and Anticancer Potency of Ruthenium η-p-Cymene Complexes Containing Antibacterial Quinolones.

    PubMed

    Kljun, Jakob; Bytzek, Anna K; Kandioller, Wolfgang; Bartel, Caroline; Jakupec, Michael A; Hartinger, Christian G; Keppler, Bernhard K; Turel, Iztok

    2011-05-09

    With the aim of exploring the anticancer properties of organometallic compounds with bioactive ligands, Ru(arene) compounds of the antibacterial quinolones nalidixic acid (2) and cinoxacin (3) were synthesized, and their physicochemical properties were compared to those of chlorido(η(6)-p-cymene)(ofloxacinato-κ(2)O,O)ruthenium(II) (1). All compounds undergo a rapid ligand exchange reaction from chlorido to aqua species. 2 and 3 are significantly more stable than 1 and undergo minor conversion to an unreactive [(cym)Ru(μ-OH)(3)Ru(cym)](+) species (cym = η(6)-p-cymene). In the presence of human serum albumin 1-3 form adducts with this transport protein within 20 min of incubation. With guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-GMP; as a simple model for reactions with DNA) very rapid reactions yielding adducts via its N7 atom were observed, illustrating that DNA is a possible target for this compound class. A moderate capacity of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation in vitro was observed for 1 in CH1 ovarian cancer cells, whereas 2 and 3 turned out to be inactive.

  13. Metal complexes with the quinolone antibacterial agent N-propyl-norfloxacin: synthesis, structure and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Efthimiadou, Eleni K; Psomas, George; Sanakis, Yiannis; Katsaros, Nikos; Karaliota, Alexandra

    2007-03-01

    Nine new metal complexes of the quinolone antibacterial agent N-propyl-norfloxacin, pr-norfloxacin, with VO(2+), Mn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), MoO(2)(2+), Cd(2+) and UO(2)(2+) have been prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques while molecular mechanics calculations for Fe(3+), VO(2+) and MoO(2)(2+) complexes have been performed. In all complexes, pr-norfloxacin acts as a bidentate deprotonated ligand bound to the metal through the pyridone and one carboxylate oxygen atoms. All complexes are six-coordinate with slightly distorted octahedral geometry. For the complex VO(N-propyl-norfloxacinato)(2)(H(2)O) the axial position, trans to the vanadyl oxygen, is occupied by one pyridone oxygen atom. The investigation of the interaction of the complexes with calf-thymus DNA has been performed with diverse spectroscopic techniques and has shown that the complexes can be bound to calf-thymus DNA resulting to a B-->A DNA transition. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested on three different microorganisms. The complexes show equal or decreased biological activity in comparison to the free pr-norfloxacin except UO(2)(pr-norf)(2) which shows better inhibition against S. aureus.

  14. DNA Gyrase Is the Target for the Quinolone Drug Ciprofloxacin in Arabidopsis thaliana*

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Roberts, Katherine M.; Mitchenall, Lesley A.; Wall, Melisa K.; Leroux, Julie; Mylne, Joshua S.; Maxwell, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains four genes that were originally annotated as potentially encoding DNA gyrase: ATGYRA, ATGYRB1, ATGYRB2, and ATGYRB3. Although we subsequently showed that ATGYRB3 does not encode a gyrase subunit, the other three genes potentially encode subunits of a plant gyrase. We also showed evidence for the existence of supercoiling activity in A. thaliana and that the plant is sensitive to quinolone and aminocoumarin antibiotics, compounds that target DNA gyrase in bacteria. However, it was not possible at that time to show whether the A. thaliana genes encoded an active gyrase enzyme, nor whether that enzyme is indeed the target for the quinolone and aminocoumarin antibiotics. Here we show that an A. thaliana mutant resistant to the quinolone drug ciprofloxacin has a point mutation in ATGYRA. Moreover we show that, as in bacteria, the quinolone-sensitive (wild-type) allele is dominant to the resistant gene. Further we have heterologously expressed ATGYRA and ATGYRB2 in a baculovirus expression system and shown supercoiling activity of the partially purified enzyme. Expression/purification of the quinolone-resistant A. thaliana gyrase yields active enzyme that is resistant to ciprofloxacin. Taken together these experiments now show unequivocally that A. thaliana encodes an organelle-targeted DNA gyrase that is the target of the quinolone drug ciprofloxacin; this has important consequences for plant physiology and the development of herbicides. PMID:26663076

  15. Recent advances in the discovery and development of quinolones and analogs as antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Xia, Y; Yang, Z Y; Morris-Natschke, S L; Lee, K H

    1999-03-01

    Compounds that interact with DNA or microtubules by multiple mechanisms and cause diverse cytotoxic lesions are potential targets for anticancer drug development. Accordingly, a relatively new approach to the rational design of antitumor agents is based on the quinolone class of antibacterials. Their mechanism of antibacterial action involves inhibition of DNA gyrase, and numerous new quinolones do exhibit antitumor activity. Thus, these new quinolone structures display a novel mode of action for the quinolone class as antitumor agents. The potential for quinolones to be used as topoisomerase II inhibitors, as well as antimitotic agents, is reviewed with a focus on recent discoveries and development of antitumor quinolones, especially related work in the author's laboratory.

  16. Interaction of N-methyl-2-alkenyl-4-quinolones with ATP-dependent MurE ligase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: antibacterial activity, molecular docking and inhibition kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Juan David; Wube, Abraham; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; Gupta, Antima; Hüfner, Antje; Basavannacharya, Chandrakala; Rahman, Md. Mukhleshur; Thomaschitz, Christina; Bauer, Rudolf; McHugh, Timothy Daniel; Nobeli, Irene; Prieto, Jose M.; Gibbons, Simon; Bucar, Franz; Bhakta, Sanjib

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the antibacterial activity and MurE inhibition of a set of N-methyl-2-alkenyl-4-quinolones found to inhibit the growth of fast-growing mycobacteria. Methods Using the spot culture growth inhibition assay, MICs were determined for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155. MICs were determined for Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium phlei, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using microplate dilution assays. Inhibition of M. tuberculosis MurE ligase activity was determined both by colorimetric and HPLC methods. Computational modelling and binding prediction of the quinolones in the MurE structure was performed using Glide. Kinetic experiments were conducted for understanding possible competitive relations of the quinolones with the endogenous substrates of MurE ligase. Results The novel synthetic N-methyl-2-alkenyl-4-quinolones were found to be growth inhibitors of M. tuberculosis and rapid-growing mycobacteria as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus, while showing no inhibition for E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The quinolones were found to be inhibitory to MurE ligase of M. tuberculosis in the micromolar range (IC50 ∼40–200 μM) when assayed either spectroscopically or by HPLC. Computational docking of the quinolones on the published M. tuberculosis MurE crystal structure suggested that the uracil recognition site is a probable binding site for the quinolones. Conclusions N-methyl-2-alkenyl-4-quinolones are inhibitors of mycobacterial and staphylococcal growth, and show MurE ligase inhibition. Therefore, they are considered as a starting point for the development of increased affinity MurE activity disruptors. PMID:21622974

  17. Newer Antibacterial Drugs for a New Century

    PubMed Central

    Devasahayam, Gina; Scheld, W. Michael; Hoffman, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    Antibacterial drug discovery and development has slowed considerably in recent years with novel classes discovered decades ago and regulatory approvals tougher to get. This article describes newer classes of antibacterial drugs introduced or approved after year 2000, their mechanisms of action/ resistance, improved analogs, spectrum of activity and clinical trials. It also discusses new compounds in development with novel mechanisms of action as well as novel unexploited bacterial targets and strategies which may pave the way for combating drug resistance and emerging pathogens in the 21st century. PMID:20053150

  18. Topoisomerase IV-quinolone interactions are mediated through a water-metal ion bridge: mechanistic basis of quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Katie J; McPherson, Sylvia A; Turnbough, Charles L; Kerns, Robert J; Osheroff, Neil

    2013-04-01

    Although quinolones are the most commonly prescribed antibacterials, their use is threatened by an increasing prevalence of resistance. The most common causes of quinolone resistance are mutations of a specific serine or acidic residue in the A subunit of gyrase or topoisomerase IV. These amino acids are proposed to serve as a critical enzyme-quinolone interaction site by anchoring a water-metal ion bridge that coordinates drug binding. To probe the role of the proposed water-metal ion bridge, we characterized wild-type, GrlA(E85K), GrlA(S81F/E85K), GrlA(E85A), GrlA(S81F/E85A) and GrlA(S81F) Bacillus anthracis topoisomerase IV, their sensitivity to quinolones and related drugs and their use of metal ions. Mutations increased the Mg(2+) concentration required to produce maximal quinolone-induced DNA cleavage and restricted the divalent metal ions that could support quinolone activity. Individual mutation of Ser81 or Glu85 partially disrupted bridge function, whereas simultaneous mutation of both residues abrogated protein-quinolone interactions. Results provide functional evidence for the existence of the water-metal ion bridge, confirm that the serine and glutamic acid residues anchor the bridge, demonstrate that the bridge is the primary conduit for interactions between clinically relevant quinolones and topoisomerase IV and provide a likely mechanism for the most common causes of quinolone resistance.

  19. Antibacterial Cleaning Products and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Bonnie; Levy, Stuart B.; Della-Latta, Phyllis; Lin, Susan X.; Larson, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether household use of antibacterial cleaning and hygiene products is an emerging risk factor for carriage of antimicrobial drug–resistant bacteria on hands of household members. Households (N = 224) were randomized to use of antibacterial or nonantibacterial cleaning and hygiene products for 1 year. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of antibacterial product use in homes. Antibacterial product use did not lead to a significant increase in antimicrobial drug resistance after 1 year (odds ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 0.74–2.41), nor did it have an effect on bacterial susceptibility to triclosan. However, more extensive and longer term use of triclosan might provide a suitable environment for emergence of resistant species. Further research on this issue is needed. PMID:16318697

  20. [Altered gut bacterial flora and organic acids in feces of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation with quinolone-based antibacterial prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Shotaro; Hagiwara, Shotaro; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Morotomi, Masami; Ishizuka, Naoki; Miwa, Akiyoshi; O Yoshida, Takato

    2010-06-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity and various infections are serious problems associated with high-dose chemotherapy. Antibacterial chemoprophylaxis reduces the incidence of gram-negative bacterial infection; however, it may affect the normal intestinal flora and induce drug resistance in organisms. We evaluated the chronological changes in fecal bacteria and organic acids in 6 patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation with quinolone-based chemoprophylaxis. All patients developed grade 2-3 diarrhea. Four patients developed grade 3 febrile neutropenia. The total count of obligatory anaerobic bacteria was significantly decreased on Day 7, but total facultative anaerobic bacterial count did not change throughout transplantation. However, Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were decreased on Day 7 and Staphylococcus was increased after transplantation. Total organic acid concentration and short-chain fatty acids were decreased on Day 7. The bacterial flora and organic acids in the gut were significantly altered in patients who underwent autologous stem cell transplantation with quinolonebased chemoprophylaxis. These changes may contribute to gastrointestinal toxicity and infections.

  1. Synthesis and antibacterial evaluation of a new series of N-Alkyl-2-alkynyl/(E)-alkenyl-4-(1H)-quinolones.

    PubMed

    Wube, Abraham; Guzman, Juan-David; Hüfner, Antje; Hochfellner, Christina; Blunder, Martina; Bauer, Rudolf; Gibbons, Simon; Bhakta, Sanjib; Bucar, Franz

    2012-07-09

    To gain further insight into the structural requirements of the aliphatic group at position 2 for their antimycobacterial activity, some N-alkyl-4-(1H)-quinolones bearing position 2 alkynyls with various chain length and triple bond positions were prepared and tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against rapidly-growing strains of mycobacteria, the vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, EMRSA-15 and -16. The compounds were also evaluated for inhibition of ATP-dependent MurE ligase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The lowest MIC value of 0.5 mg/L (1.2-1.5 µM) was found against M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis. These compounds displayed no or only weak toxicity to the human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 at 100 µM concentration. The quinolone derivatives exhibited pronounced activity against the epidemic MRSA strains (EMRSA-15 and -16) with MIC values of 2-128 mg/L (5.3-364.7 µM), and M. bovis BCG with an MIC value of 25 mg/L (66.0-77.4 µM). In addition, the compounds inhibited the MurE ligase of M. tuberculosis with moderate to weak activity showing IC50 values of 200-774 µM. The increased selectivity towards mycobacterial bacilli with reference to MRC-5 cells observed for 2-alkynyl quinolones compared to their corresponding 2-alkenyl analogues serves to highlight the mycobacterial specific effect of the triple bond. Exploration of a terminal bromine atom at the side chain of N-alkyl-2-(E)-alkenyl-4-(1H)-quinolones showed improved antimycobacterial activity whereas a cyclopropyl residue at N-1 was suggested to be detrimental to antibacterial activity.

  2. Synthesis and Antibacterial Evaluation of a New Series of N-Alkyl-2-alkynyl/(E)-alkenyl-4-(1H)-quinolones

    PubMed Central

    Wube, Abraham; Guzman, Juan-David; Hüfner, Antje; Hochfellner, Christina; Blunder, Martina; Bauer, Rudolf; Gibbons, Simon; Bhakta, Sanjib; Bucar, Franz

    2012-01-01

    To gain further insight into the structural requirements of the aliphatic group at position 2 for their antimycobacterial activity, some N-alkyl-4-(1H)-quinolones bearing position 2 alkynyls with various chain length and triple bond positions were prepared and tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against rapidly-growing strains of mycobacteria, the vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, EMRSA-15 and -16. The compounds were also evaluated for inhibition of ATP-dependent MurE ligase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The lowest MIC value of 0.5 mg/L (1.2-1.5 μM) was found against M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis. These compounds displayed no or only weak toxicity to the human lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5 at 100 μM concentration. The quinolone derivatives exhibited pronounced activity against the epidemic MRSA strains (EMRSA-15 and -16) with MIC values of 2-128 mg/L (5.3-364.7 μM), and M. bovis BCG with an MIC value of 25 mg/L (66.0-77.4 μM). In addition, the compounds inhibited the MurE ligase of M. tuberculosis with moderate to weak activity showing IC50 values of 200-774 μM. The increased selectivity towards mycobacterial bacilli with reference to MRC-5 cells observed for 2-alkynyl quinolones compared to their corresponding 2-alkenyl analogues serves to highlight the mycobacterial specific effect of the triple bond. Exploration of a terminal bromine atom at the side chain of N-alkyl-2-(E)-alkenyl-4-(1H)-quinolones showed improved antimycobacterial activity whereas a cyclopropyl residue at N-1 was suggested to be detrimental to antibacterial activity. PMID:22777190

  3. 75 FR 33317 - Antibacterial Resistance and Diagnostic Device and Drug Development Research for Bacterial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antibacterial Resistance and Diagnostic Device and Drug... resistance, rapid diagnostic device development for bacterial diseases, and antibacterial drug development. The workshop will address antibacterial drug resistance, mechanisms of resistance, epidemiology...

  4. Mechanism of action of and resistance to quinolones.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, Anna; Madurga, Sergi; Giralt, Ernest; Vila, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are an important class of wide-spectrum antibacterial agents. The first quinolone described was nalidixic acid, which showed a narrow spectrum of activity. The evolution of quinolones to more potent molecules was based on changes at positions 1, 6, 7 and 8 of the chemical structure of nalidixic acid. Quinolones inhibit DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV activities, two enzymes essential for bacteria viability. The acquisition of quinolone resistance is frequently related to (i) chromosomal mutations such as those in the genes encoding the A and B subunits of the protein targets (gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE), or mutations causing reduced drug accumulation, either by a decreased uptake or by an increased efflux, and (ii) quinolone resistance genes associated with plasmids have been also described, i.e. the qnr gene that encodes a pentapeptide, which blocks the action of quinolones on the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV; the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene that encodes an acetylase that modifies the amino group of the piperazin ring of the fluoroquinolones and efflux pump encoded by the qepA gene that decreases intracellular drug levels. These plasmid-mediated mechanisms of resistance confer low levels of resistance but provide a favourable background in which selection of additional chromosomally encoded quinolone resistance mechanisms can occur.

  5. Quinoline and quinolones: promising scaffolds for future antimycobacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sandeep; Kaur, Gurpuneet; Mangla, Veenu; Gupta, Manish K

    2015-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major health concern worldwide. The increasing incidences of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) necessitate the development of new anti-TB drugs acting via novel mode of action. The search of newer drugs for TB led to the identification of several quinoline-based antimycobacterial agents against both the drug-sensitive and MDR-TB. These agents have been designed by substituting quinoline scaffold with diverse chemical functionalities as well as by modifying quinoline/quinolone-based antibacterial drugs. Several of quinoline/quinolone derivatives displayed excellent antimycobacterial activity and were found free of cytotoxicity. This review highlights the critical aspects of design and structure-activity relationship of quinoline- and quinolone-based antimycobacterial agents.

  6. Antibacterial drug discovery in the resistance era.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric D; Wright, Gerard D

    2016-01-21

    The looming antibiotic-resistance crisis has penetrated the consciousness of clinicians, researchers, policymakers, politicians and the public at large. The evolution and widespread distribution of antibiotic-resistance elements in bacterial pathogens has made diseases that were once easily treatable deadly again. Unfortunately, accompanying the rise in global resistance is a failure in antibacterial drug discovery. Lessons from the history of antibiotic discovery and fresh understanding of antibiotic action and the cell biology of microorganisms have the potential to deliver twenty-first century medicines that are able to control infection in the resistance era.

  7. Monitoring quinolone antibacterial residues in bovine tissues: extraction with hot water and liquid chromatography coupled to a single- or triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Bogialli, Sara; D'Ascenzo, Giuseppe; Di Corcia, Antonio; Innocenti, Giorgiana; Laganà, Aldo; Pacchiarotta, Tiziana

    2007-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive procedure for determining residues of seven quinolone antibacterials in bovine muscle, kidney and liver is presented. The method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique with hot water as extractant followed by liquid chromatography/single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). After dispersing tissue samples on hydrazine sulfate treated sand, target compounds were eluted from the MSPD column by passing through it 4 mL of water heated at 100 degrees C. After pH adjustment and filtration, 200 and 5 microL of the aqueous extracts were respectively injected into the LC/MS and LC/MS/MS instruments. With the former instrument, MS data were acquired in the three-ion selected ion monitoring mode, while MS/MS data acquisition was performed in the multi-reaction monitoring mode by selecting two precursor ion to product ion transitions for each target compound. Hot water appeared to be an efficient extracting medium, since absolute recoveries of the analytes were 84-102%. Using norfloxacin (a quinolone not used in veterinary medicine) as surrogate internal standard, the accuracy of the method at three concentration levels equal to 0.5, 1 and 1.5 times the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the european union was 88-109% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) not higher than 7%. The use of LC/MS/MS allowed detection and quantification of the analytes in any tissue considered to be performed at concentrations by far lower than half of their MRLs. Vice versa, the single-quadrupole MS arrangement, while succeeding in monitoring quinolones in muscle tissue at the 0.5 MRL level, showed to be not sufficiently selective for unambiguous identification of some quinolones in kidney and liver.

  8. UV-Vis Spectrophotometrical and Analytical Methodology for the Determination of Singlet Oxygen in New Antibacterials Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Zoltan, Tamara; Vargas, Franklin; Izzo, Carla

    2007-01-01

    We have determined and quantified spectrophotometrically the capacity of producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) as 1O2 during the photolysis with UV-A light of 5 new synthesized naphthyl ester derivates of well-known quinolone antibacterials (nalidixic acid (1), cinoxacin (2), norfloxacin (3), ciprofloxacin (4) and enoxacin (5)). The ability of the naphthyl ester derivatives (6–10) to generate singlet oxygen were detecting and for the first time quantified by the histidine assay, a sensitive, fast and inexpensive method. The following tendency of generation of singlet oxygen was observed: compounds 7 > 10 > 6 > 8 > 9 >> parent drugs 1–5. PMID:19662185

  9. Genotypic diversity of multidrug-, quinolone- and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Disratthakit, Areeya; Meada, Shinji; Prammananan, Therdsak; Thaipisuttikul, Iyarit; Doi, Norio; Chaiprasert, Angkana

    2015-06-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), which includes multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), quinolone-resistant (QR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), is a serious threat to TB control. We aimed to characterize the genotypic diversity of drug-resistant TB clinical isolates collected in Thailand to establish whether the emergence of drug-resistant TB is attributable to transmitted resistance or acquired resistance. We constructed the first molecular phylogeny of MDR-TB (n=95), QR-TB (n=69) and XDR-TB (n=28) in Thailand based on spoligotyping and proposed 24-locus multilocus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Clustering analysis was performed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. Spoligotyping identified the Beijing strain (SIT1) as the most predominant genotype (n=139; 72.4%). The discriminatory power of 0.9235 Hunter-Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI) with the 15-locus variable-number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units typing was improved to a 0.9574 HGDI with proposed 24-locus MLVA, thereby resulting in the subdivision of a large cluster of Beijing strains (SIT1) into 17 subclusters. We identified the spread of drug-resistant TB clones caused by three different MLVA types in the Beijing strain (SIT1) and a specific clone of XDR-TB caused by a rare genotype, the Manu-ancestor strain (SIT523). Overall, 49.5% of all isolates were clustered. These findings suggest that a remarkable transmission of drug-resistant TB occurred in Thailand. The remaining 50% of drug-resistant TB isolates were unique genotypes, which may have arisen from the individual acquisition of drug resistance. Our results suggest that transmitted and acquired resistance have played an equal role in the emergence of drug-resistant TB. Further characterization of whole genome sequences of clonal strains could help to elucidate the mycobacterial genetic factors relevant for drug resistance, transmissibility and virulence.

  10. Postgenomic strategies in antibacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike; Sass, Peter

    2010-10-01

    During the last decade the field of antibacterial drug discovery has changed in many aspects including bacterial organisms of primary interest, discovery strategies applied and pharmaceutical companies involved. Target-based high-throughput screening had been disappointingly unsuccessful for antibiotic research. Understanding of this lack of success has increased substantially and the lessons learned refer to characteristics of targets, screening libraries and screening strategies. The 'genomics' approach was replaced by a diverse array of discovery strategies, for example, searching for new natural product leads among previously abandoned compounds or new microbial sources, screening for synthetic inhibitors by targeted approaches including structure-based design and analyses of focused libraries and designing resistance-breaking properties into antibiotics of established classes. Furthermore, alternative treatment options are being pursued including anti-virulence strategies and immunotherapeutic approaches. This article summarizes the lessons learned from the genomics era and describes discovery strategies resulting from that knowledge.

  11. Nanofibers based antibacterial drug design, delivery and applications.

    PubMed

    Ulubayram, Kezban; Calamak, Semih; Shahbazi, Reza; Eroglu, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, etc. are the main obstacle in healing processes. Conventional antibacterial administration routes can be listed as oral, intravenous/intramuscular, topical and inhalation. These kinds of drug administrations are faced with critical vital issues such as; more rapid delivery of the drug than intended which can result in bacterial resistance, dose related systemic toxicity, tissue irritation and finally delayed healing process that need to be tackled. Recently, studies have been focused on new drug delivery systems, overcoming resistance and toxicological problems and finally localizing the molecules at the site of action in a proper dose. In this regard, many nanotechnological approaches such as nanoparticulate therapeutic systems have been developed to address accompanying problems mentioned above. Among them, drug loaded electrospun nanofibers propose main advantages like controlled drug delivery, high drug loading capacity, high encapsulation efficiency, simultaneous delivery of multiple drugs, ease of production and cost effectiveness for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. Therefore, some particular attention has been devoted to the design of electrospun nanofibers as promising antibacterial drug carrier systems. A variety of antibacterials e.g., biocides, antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts, triclosan, metallic nanoparticles (silver, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide) and antibacterial polymers (chitosan, polyethyleneimine, etc.) have been impregnated by various techniques into nanofibers that exhibit strong antibacterial activity in standard assays. This review highlights the design and delivery of antibacterial drug loaded nanofibers with particular focus on their function in the fields of drug delivery, wound healing, tissue engineering, cosmetics and other biomedical applications.

  12. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni DNA gyrase as the target of quinolones.

    PubMed

    Changkwanyeun, Ruchirada; Usui, Masaru; Kongsoi, Siriporn; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Kim, Hyun; Suthienkul, Orasa; Changkaew, Kanjana; Nakajima, Chie; Tamura, Yutaka; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Quinolones have long been used as the first-line treatment for Campylobacter infections. However, an increased resistance to quinolones has raised public health concerns. The development of new quinolone-based antibiotics with high activity is critical for effective, as DNA gyrase, the target of quinolones, is an essential enzyme for bacterial growth in several mechanisms. The evaluation of antibiotic activity against Campylobacter jejuni largely relies on drug susceptibility tests, which require at least 2 days to produce results. Thus, an in vitro method for studying the activity of quinolones against the C. jejuni DNA gyrase is preferred. To identify potent quinolones, we investigated the interaction of C. jejuni DNA gyrase with a number of quinolones using recombinant subunits. The combination of purified subunits exhibited DNA supercoiling activity in an ATP dependent manner. Drug concentrations that inhibit DNA supercoiling by 50% (IC50s) of 10 different quinolones were estimated to range from 0.4 (sitafloxacin) to >100 μg/mL (nalidixic acid). Sitafloxacin showed the highest inhibitory activity, and the analysis of the quinolone structure-activity relationship demonstrated that a fluorine atom at R-6 might play the important role in the inhibitory activity against C. jejuni gyrase. Measured quinolone IC50s correlated well with minimum inhibitory concentrations (R = 0.9943). These suggest that the in vitro supercoiling inhibition assay on purified recombinant C. jejuni DNA gyrase is a useful and predictive technique to monitor the antibacterial potency of quinolones. And furthermore, these data suggested that sitafloxacin might be a good candidate for clinical trials on campylobacteriosis.

  13. The antibacterial paradox: essential drugs, effectiveness, and cost.

    PubMed Central

    Fasehun, F.

    1999-01-01

    The concept proposed by WHO of an essential drugs list that should comprise drugs corresponding to the health needs of the majority of the people has been embraced by countries, which have adapted it to their needs. In this study, the essential antibacterial drug lists of 16 countries chosen from the six WHO regions are reviewed. Most of these countries include 73% of WHO-recommended essential antibacterials on their lists. However, most are lacking reserve antibacterials, and even some main list antibacterials, which are essential when empirical therapy fails in cases of bacterial resistance. Many factors that may be responsible for the lack of selection of these drugs, not least cost considerations, are discussed. PMID:10212510

  14. Analysis of eukaryotic topoisomerase II cleavage sites in the presence of the quinolone CP-115,953 reveals drug-dependent and -independent recognition elements.

    PubMed

    Spitzner, J R; Chung, I K; Gootz, T D; McGuirk, P R; Muller, M T

    1995-08-01

    The quinolone derivative CP-115,953 [6,8-difluoro-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-cyclopropyl-4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid] has been shown to induce eukaryotic topoisomerase II-mediated breaks in DNA, producing cleavage patterns that are distinct from those induced by the anticancer drugs amsacrine, etoposide, and teniposide. High levels of the quinolone have been found to inhibit topoisomerase II activity via an interaction with the enzyme and not by DNA unwinding. Topoisomerase II cleavage sites were analyzed on nine DNA fragments, and 85 quinolone-induced sites were sequenced, as well as 86 amsacrine and 134 teniposide sites. A consensus sequence was derived for the quinolone sites that is different from those reported for other drugs; however, because topoisomerase II cleavage sites are double-stranded but not palindromic, different consensus sequences are not easily compared. For this reason, a new, double-stranded, consensus sequence method, the "unique-base analysis," was developed; this was applied to the quinolone sites as well as six other large sets of topoisomerase II sites determined in the absence or presence of drugs. For each of the seven sets of sites, conserved bases were found in the 16-base region spanning positions -6 to +10, relative to the enzyme cleavage site (DNA breakage between -1 and +1). The conserved bases were virtually identical in the regions flanking the cleavage site for all seven data sets. In contrast, the base preferences identified proximal to the cleavage sites were unique to the drug tested. These observations suggest that the selection of cleavage sites by topoisomerase II involves both enzyme-dependent and drug-dependent recognition elements. The single most preferred base in the quinolone sites was a cytosine at -1; the same preference was found with teniposide, and 60 of the 85 quinolone sites co-localized with teniposide sites.

  15. Novel antibacterial compounds and their drug targets - successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Polski, Andrzej; Sobótka-Polska, Karolina; Pachuta-Stec, Anna; Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena; Pitucha, Monika

    2016-12-12

    Infectious diseases are one of the most important and urgent health problems in the world. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) statistics, infectious and parasitic diseases are a cause of about 16% of all deaths worldwide and over 40% of deaths in Africa. A considerable progress that has been made during last hundred years in the fight against infectious diseases, in particular bacterial infections, can be attributed mainly to three factors: (1) the general improvement of living conditions, in particular sanitation; (2) development of vaccines and (3) development of efficient antibacterial drugs. Although considerable progress in reduction of the number of cases of bacterial infections, especially in lethal cases, has been made, continued cases and outbreaks of these diseases persist, which is caused by different contributing factors. Indeed, during last sixty years antibacterial drugs were used against various infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens with an undoubtable success. The most fruitful period for antibiotic development lasted from 40's to 60's of the last century and resulted in the majority of antibiotics currently on the market, which were obtained by screening actinomycetes derived from soil. Although the market for antibacterial drugs is nowadays greater than 25 billion US dollars per year, novel antibacterial drugs are still demanded due to developed resistance of many pathogenic bacteria against current antibiotics. In last five years one can observe a dramatic increase in cases of resistant bacteria strains (eg. Klebsiella pneumoniae and E. coli) which are responsible for difficult to treat pneumonia and infections of urinary tract. The development of resistant bacteria strains is a side effect of antibiotic application for treatment: the infections become untreatable as a result of the existence of antibiotic-tolerant persisters. In this review, we discuss the challenges in antibacterial drug discovery, including the

  16. Targeted drug-carrying bacteriophages as antibacterial nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Yacoby, Iftach; Bar, Hagit; Benhar, Itai

    2007-06-01

    While the resistance of bacteria to traditional antibiotics is a major public health concern, the use of extremely potent antibacterial agents is limited by their lack of selectivity. As in cancer therapy, antibacterial targeted therapy could provide an opportunity to reintroduce toxic substances to the antibacterial arsenal. A desirable targeted antibacterial agent should combine binding specificity, a large drug payload per binding event, and a programmed drug release mechanism. Recently, we presented a novel application of filamentous bacteriophages as targeted drug carriers that could partially inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This partial success was due to limitations of drug-loading capacity that resulted from the hydrophobicity of the drug. Here we present a novel drug conjugation chemistry which is based on connecting hydrophobic drugs to the phage via aminoglycoside antibiotics that serve as solubility-enhancing branched linkers. This new formulation allowed a significantly larger drug-carrying capacity of the phages, resulting in a drastic improvement in their performance as targeted drug-carrying nanoparticles. As an example for a potential systemic use for potent agents that are limited for topical use, we present antibody-targeted phage nanoparticles that carry a large payload of the hemolytic antibiotic chloramphenicol connected through the aminoglycoside neomycin. We demonstrate complete growth inhibition toward the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli with an improvement in potency by a factor of approximately 20,000 compared to the free drug.

  17. Kinetics and quantification of antibacterial effects of beta-lactams, macrolides, and quinolones against gram-positive and gram-negative RTI pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schaper, K-J; Schubert, S; Dalhoff, A

    2005-12-01

    Traditionally, the in vitro activity of antibacterial agents is characterized by their minimal inhibitory concentrations. However, these endpoints are, by nature, discrete and do not provide information on time-dependent killing of the bacteria during the incubation period. Nevertheless, the pharmacodynamic characteristics of antibacterial agents are almost always defined by correlating a static endpoint describing the antibacterial activity of an agent with the pharmacokinetics, describing the time-dependent fluctuation of drug concentrations. This approach is basically a contradiction in itself. Therefore, it would be more logical to correlate pharmacokinetics to in vitro parameters describing the time- and concentration-dependent antibacterial action of an agent. Thus, experimental methods and mathematical models quantifying the decrease in growth rate of a bacterial population due to the action of an antibacterial agent as a function of time and drug concentration have been applied to quantitate their pharmacodynamics. The effect of nine antibacterial agents representing drug classes of penicillins, cephalosporins, penems, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones were mathematically analyzed by using three different but related models. The kill rate, maximal kill, the 50%-effective concentration (EC50), the Hill coefficient, and concentrations and times needed to obtain a 1,000-fold decrease of the initial number of viable counts were calculated. Both the phenotypic description of the time-kill curves and these five parameters mirror the bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity of all nine agents studied as a function of time and concentration. Therefore, it would be more logical to correlate a parameter quantifying the kinetics of antibacterial in vitro activity with the pharmacokinetics of the drug, thus, replacing static endpoints like minimal inhibitory concentrations.

  18. Residues of antibacterial drugs in honey from the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Baggio, A; Gallina, A; Benetti, C; Mutinelli, F

    2009-01-01

    Antibacterial drugs are used worldwide for the control of American and, less often, European foulbrood. Their administration is mostly uncontrolled and applied without approved protocols and instructions for use as well as precautionary recommendations. Consequently, this practice is responsible for the contamination of beehive products and contributes to the problem of food safety. According to this situation, 4672 analyses were carried out on 5303 honeys collected from 2001 to 2007. These samples were investigated for antibacterial residues of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and tylosin. Honeys were classified according to their origin: imported honey and honey from the Italian market. In the last group (only for samples collected from 2001 to 2004), another type of honey was distinguished: that of local honey. A total of 6.3% of all samples were positive for the antibacterial drugs analysed; in particular, 6.8% of imported honeys and 6.1% of honeys on the Italian market. Only 1.7% of local honey had antibacterial residues. These results are indicative of a rather frequent presence of antibacterial drug residues in both Italian and imported honeys. Furthermore, the data showed that among the active substances analysed, sulphonamides are the most used antibacterial substance followed by tetracyclines, streptomycin, tylosin, and chloramphenicol. Finally, a continuous monitoring programme is needed, accompanied by an education programme to beekeepers on proper hive management.

  19. Possible interaction of quinolone antibiotics with peptide transporter 1 in oral absorption of peptide-mimetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Kamioka, Hiroki; Kanagawa, Masahiko; Hatano, Yasuko; Idota, Yoko; Yano, Kentaro; Morimoto, Kaori; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated whether quinolone antibiotics inhibit the PEPT1-mediated uptake of its substrates. Among the quinolones examined, lomefloxacin, moxifloxacin (MFLX) and purlifloxacin significantly inhibited the uptake of PEPT1 substrate phenylalanine-Ψ(CN-S)-alanine (Phe-Ψ-Ala) in HeLa/PEPT1 cells to 31.6 ± 1.3%, 27.6 ± 2.9%, 36.8 ± 2.2% and 32.6 ± 1.4%, respectively. Further examination showed that MFLX was an uncompetitive inhibitor, with an IC50 value of 4.29 ± 1.29 mm. In addition, MFLX significantly decreased the cephalexin and valacyclovir uptake in HeLa/PEPT1 cells. In an in vivo study in rats, the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of orally administered Phe-Ψ-Ala was significantly decreased in the presence of MFLX (171 ± 1 ng/ml) compared with that in its absence (244 ± 9 ng/ml). The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of orally administered Phe-Ψ-Ala in the presence of MFLX (338 ± 50 ng/ml · h) tended to decrease compared with that in its absence (399 ± 75 ng/ml · h). The oral bioavailability of Phe-Ψ-Ala in the presence and absence of MFLX was 41.7 ± 6.2% and 49.2 ± 9.2%, respectively. The results indicate that administration of quinolone antibiotics concomitantly with PEPT1 substrate drugs may potentially result in drug-drug interaction.

  20. Quinolones in the Search for New Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Batalha, Pedro Netto; Vieira de Souza, Maria Cecília Bastos; Peña-Cabrera, Eduardo; Cruz, David Cruz; da Costa Santos Boechat, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Quinolones have a large bio-dynamicity. Although they are well known as antibacterials, another important activity has been investigated - quinolones are able to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. In view of the great versatility associated with the synthesis of quinolones, many researchers have spent time and resources on the development of new structurally diversified quinolone derivatives with the purpose of finding new possibilities for cancer treatment. In this review some of the most recent advances in the search for new quinolone anticancer agents are highlighted, with focus on naturally occurring substances, bioactive metal complexes, molecular hybrids, photosensitizers and heterocycle condensed quinolones.

  1. Insight into Prodrugs of Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prabodh Chander; Piplani, Mona; Mittal, Monika; Pahwa, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are principal weapons against variety of bacterial infections and exert their antibacterial potential by interfering the activities of bacterial enzymes. As these agents are associated with some limitations, an important approach to overcome these major constraints is to prepare covalent derivatives, i.e. prodrugs. Prodrug design has been employed to improve the limitations of these drugs such as less aqueous solubility, poor absorption and distribution, toxicity, disagreeable taste, poor lipophilicity etc and for improving their pharmacological profile. This paper highlights the utility of various prodrug strategies in optimizing the therapeutic index of these antibacterial agents and their recent patents. Some of their prodrugs being utilized at preclinical and clinical levels have also been discussed. Hence, this paper has been prepared to present the significant findings of various research papers that would be helpful in motivating scientific researchers to forward the research in direction of utilization of prodrugs in clinical therapy.

  2. New natural products as new leads for antibacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dean G; Lister, Troy; May-Dracka, Tricia L

    2014-01-15

    Natural products have been a rich source of antibacterial drugs for many decades, but investments in this area have declined over the past two decades. The purpose of this review article is to provide a recent survey of new natural product classes and the mechanisms by which they work.

  3. Quinolones: review of psychiatric and neurological adverse reactions.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Ana M; Filipe, Augusto

    2011-06-01

    Quinolones are a class of antibacterial agents for the treatment of several infectious diseases (e.g. urinary and respiratory tract infections). They are used worldwide due to their broad spectrum of activity, high bioavailability and good safety profile. The safety profile varies from quinolone to quinolone. The aim of this article was to review the neurological and psychiatric adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of quinolones, using a literature search strategy designed to identify case reports and case series. A literature search using PubMed/MEDLINE (from inception to 31 October 2010) was performed to identify case reports and case series related to quinolone-associated neurological and psychiatric ADRs. The search was conducted in two phases: the first phase was the literature search and in the second phase relevant articles were identified through review of the references of the selected articles. Relevant articles were defined as articles referring to adverse events/reactions associated with the use of any quinolone. Abstracts referring to animal studies, clinical trials and observational studies were excluded. Identified case reports were analysed by age group, sex, active substances, dosage, concomitant medication, ambulatory or hospital-based event and seriousness, after Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA®) coding. From a total of 828 articles, 83 were identified as referring to nervous system and/or psychiatric disorders induced by quinolones. 145 individual case reports were extracted from the 83 articles. 40.7% of the individual case reports belonged to psychiatric disorders only, whereas 46.9% related to neurological disorders only. Eight (5.5%) individual case reports presented both neurological and psychiatric ADRs. Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and pefloxacin were the quinolones with more neurological and psychiatric ADRs reported in the literature. Ciprofloxacin has been extensively used worldwide, which may explain the higher number

  4. The introduction of antibacterial drug pipemidic acid into the POM field: Syntheses, characterization and antitumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Jing-Quan; Li, Xin; Zhou, Ying-Hua; Yan, Peng-Fei; Li, Guang-Ming; Wang, Cheng

    2011-11-01

    Two new compounds based on polyoxometalates (POMs) and the quinolone antibacterial drug pipemidic acid (HPPA), {[Ni(PPA) 2]H 4[SiW 12O 40]}·HPPA·3H 2O ( 1), and {[Zn(PPA) 2] 2H 4[SiW 12O 40]}·3H 2O ( 2), have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by routine technique. Single-crystal X-Ray diffraction analysis shows that compound 1 is constructed by Keggin clusters grafted by binuclear nickel clusters, isolated HPPA and water molecules, while compound 2 consists of Keggin clusters grafted by binuclear zinc clusters and water molecules. Due to the selection of different transition metal (TM) ions, compounds 1 and 2 exhibit different structures and antitumor activities. Compound 1 possesses 0D structure and shows no antitumor activities. However, compound 2 possesses 1D structure and exhibits higher antitumor activities than its parent compound. The results show that introduction of different TM-PPA moieties onto the polyoxoanion surface can affect not only the final structures but also their antitumor activities.

  5. Zinc complexes of the antibacterial drug oxolinic acid: structure and DNA-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Tarushi, Alketa; Psomas, George; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Kessissoglou, Dimitris P

    2009-06-01

    The neutral mononuclear zinc complexes with the quinolone antibacterial drug oxolinic acid in the absence or presence of a nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligand 2,2'-bipyridine or 1,10-phenanthroline have been synthesized and characterized. The experimental data suggest that oxolinic acid is on deprotonated mode acting as a bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ion through the ketone and one carboxylato oxygen atoms. The crystal structures of (chloro)(oxolinato)(2,2'-bipyridine)zinc(II), 2, and bis(oxolinato)(1,10-phenanthroline)zinc(II), 3, have been determined with X-ray crystallography. The biological activity of the complexes has been evaluated by examining their ability to bind to calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) with UV and fluorescence spectroscopies. UV studies of the interaction of the complexes with DNA have shown that they can bind to CT DNA and the DNA-binding constants have been calculated. Competitive studies with ethidium bromide (EB) have shown that complex 3 exhibits the ability to displace the DNA-bound EB indicating that it binds to DNA in strong competition with EB.

  6. Structural basis for the inhibition of RecBCD by Gam and its synergistic antibacterial effect with quinolones

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Martin; Troman, Lucy; Wan Nur Ismah, Wan AK; Chaban, Yuriy; Avison, Matthew B; Dillingham, Mark S; Wigley, Dale B

    2016-01-01

    Our previous paper (Wilkinson et al, 2016) used high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy to solve the structure of the Escherichia coli RecBCD complex, which acts in both the repair of double-stranded DNA breaks and the degradation of bacteriophage DNA. To counteract the latter activity, bacteriophage λ encodes a small protein inhibitor called Gam that binds to RecBCD and inactivates the complex. Here, we show that Gam inhibits RecBCD by competing at the DNA-binding site. The interaction surface is extensive and involves molecular mimicry of the DNA substrate. We also show that expression of Gam in E. coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae increases sensitivity to fluoroquinolones; antibacterials that kill cells by inhibiting topoisomerases and inducing double-stranded DNA breaks. Furthermore, fluoroquinolone-resistance in K. pneumoniae clinical isolates is reversed by expression of Gam. Together, our data explain the synthetic lethality observed between topoisomerase-induced DNA breaks and the RecBCD gene products, suggesting a new co-antibacterial strategy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22963.001 PMID:28009252

  7. Discovery of WQ-3810: Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 7-(3-alkylaminoazetidin-1-yl)fluoro-quinolones as orally active antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kenji; Kuramoto, Yasuhiro; Amano, Hirotaka; Kazamori, Daichi; Yazaki, Akira

    2015-10-20

    Novel 7-(3-alkylaminoazetidin-1-yl)fluoroquinolones were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antibacterial activities and oral absorption rates. Against Gram-negative bacteria, 10a-e, which have various alkyl groups containing different numbers of carbon atoms (C0-C3) at the C-7 alkylaminoazetidine position, showed potent and similar antibacterial activities, whereas the activity of 10f (C4, t-Bu) was significantly lower than those of 10a-e. Conversely, the oral absorption rates of 10a-e in rats increased depending on the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl groups; 10d (C3, n-Pr) and 10e (C3, i-Pr) had high oral absorption rates (>90% at 10 mg/kg). These results demonstrated that the introduction of alkyl groups onto C-7 aminoazetidine is useful for the improvement of the oral absorption rates of these drugs while maintaining their antibacterial activities. As a conclusion, from this series of fluoroquinolones, WQ-3810 (10e), having 3-isopropylaminoazetidine as the C-7 substituent, was identified as an orally active antibacterial agent with a potent in vitro activity.

  8. The evolving role of chemical synthesis in antibacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Wright, Peter M; Seiple, Ian B; Myers, Andrew G

    2014-08-18

    The discovery and implementation of antibiotics in the early twentieth century transformed human health and wellbeing. Chemical synthesis enabled the development of the first antibacterial substances, organoarsenicals and sulfa drugs, but these were soon outshone by a host of more powerful and vastly more complex antibiotics from nature: penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin, among others. These primary defences are now significantly less effective as an unavoidable consequence of rapid evolution of resistance within pathogenic bacteria, made worse by widespread misuse of antibiotics. For decades medicinal chemists replenished the arsenal of antibiotics by semisynthetic and to a lesser degree fully synthetic routes, but economic factors have led to a subsidence of this effort, which places society on the precipice of a disaster. We believe that the strategic application of modern chemical synthesis to antibacterial drug discovery must play a critical role if a crisis of global proportions is to be averted.

  9. The Evolving Role of Chemical Synthesis in Antibacterial Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Peter M.; Seiple, Ian B.; Myers, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and implementation of antibiotics in the early twentieth century transformed human health and wellbeing. Chemical synthesis enabled the development of the first antibacterial substances, organoarsenicals and sulfa drugs, but these were soon outshone by a host of more powerful and vastly more complex antibiotics from nature: penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin, among others. These primary defences are now significantly less effective as an unavoidable consequence of rapid evolution of resistance within pathogenic bacteria, made worse by widespread misuse of antibiotics. For decades medicinal chemists replenished the arsenal of antibiotics by semisynthetic and to a lesser degree fully synthetic routes, but economic factors have led to a subsidence of this effort, which places society on the precipice of a disaster. We believe that the strategic application of modern chemical synthesis to antibacterial drug discovery must play a critical role if a crisis of global proportions is to be averted. PMID:24990531

  10. DNA gyrase, topoisomerase IV, and the 4-quinolones.

    PubMed Central

    Drlica, K; Zhao, X

    1997-01-01

    For many years, DNA gyrase was thought to be responsible both for unlinking replicated daughter chromosomes and for controlling negative superhelical tension in bacterial DNA. However, in 1990 a homolog of gyrase, topoisomerase IV, that had a potent decatenating activity was discovered. It is now clear that topoisomerase IV, rather than gyrase, is responsible for decatenation of interlinked chromosomes. Moreover, topoisomerase IV is a target of the 4-quinolones, antibacterial agents that had previously been thought to target only gyrase. The key event in quinolone action is reversible trapping of gyrase-DNA and topoisomerase IV-DNA complexes. Complex formation with gyrase is followed by a rapid, reversible inhibition of DNA synthesis, cessation of growth, and induction of the SOS response. At higher drug concentrations, cell death occurs as double-strand DNA breaks are released from trapped gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV complexes. Repair of quinolone-induced DNA damage occurs largely via recombination pathways. In many gram-negative bacteria, resistance to moderate levels of quinolone arises from mutation of the gyrase A protein and resistance to high levels of quinolone arises from mutation of a second gyrase and/or topoisomerase IV site. For some gram-positive bacteria, the situation is reversed: primary resistance occurs through changes in topoisomerase IV while gyrase changes give additional resistance. Gyrase is also trapped on DNA by lethal gene products of certain large, low-copy-number plasmids. Thus, quinolone-topoisomerase biology is providing a model for understanding aspects of host-parasite interactions and providing ways to investigate manipulation of the bacterial chromosome by topoisomerases. PMID:9293187

  11. A Review for the Analysis of Antidepressant, Antiepileptic and Quinolone Type Drugs in Pharmaceuticals and Environmental Samples.

    PubMed

    Rani, Susheela; Malik, Ashok Kumar; Kaur, Ramandeep; Kaur, Ripneel

    2016-09-02

    The analysis of drugs in various biological fluids is an important criterion for the determination of the physiological performance of a drug. After sampling of the biological fluid, the next step in the analytical process is sample preparation. Sample preparation is essential for isolation of desired components from complex biological matrices and greatly influences their reliable and accurate determination. The complexity of biological fluids adds to the challenge of direct determination of the drug by chromatographic analysis, therefore demanding a sample preparation step that is often time consuming, tedious and frequently overlooked. However, direct online injection methods offer the advantage of reducing sample preparation steps and enabling effective pre-concentration and clean-up of biological fluids. These procedures can be automated and therefore reduce the requirements for handling potentially infectious biomaterial, improve reproducibility, and minimize sample manipulations and potential contamination. This review is focused on the discovery and development of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC) with different detectors. The drugs covered in this review are antiepileptics, antidepressant (AD), and quinolones. The application of these methods for determination of these drugs in biological, environmental and pharmaceutical samples has also been discussed.

  12. Undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase inhibitors: antibacterial drug leads.

    PubMed

    Sinko, William; Wang, Yang; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Yonghui; Feixas, Ferran; Cox, Courtney L; Mitchell, Douglas A; Oldfield, Eric; McCammon, J Andrew

    2014-07-10

    There is a significant need for new antibiotics due to the rise in drug resistance. Drugs such as methicillin and vancomycin target bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, but methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) have now arisen and are of major concern. Inhibitors acting on new targets in cell wall biosynthesis are thus of particular interest since they might also restore sensitivity to existing drugs, and the cis-prenyl transferase undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS), essential for lipid I, lipid II, and thus, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, is one such target. We used 12 UPPS crystal structures to validate virtual screening models and then assayed 100 virtual hits (from 450,000 compounds) against UPPS from S. aureus and Escherichia coli. The most promising inhibitors (IC50 ∼2 μM, Ki ∼300 nM) had activity against MRSA, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus anthracis, and a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus sp. with MIC or IC50 values in the 0.25-4 μg/mL range. Moreover, one compound (1), a rhodanine with close structural similarity to the commercial diabetes drug epalrestat, exhibited good activity as well as a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.1 with methicillin against the community-acquired MRSA USA300 strain, indicating strong synergism.

  13. Design and synthesis of modified quinolones as antitumoral acridones.

    PubMed

    Tabarrini, O; Cecchetti, V; Fravolini, A; Nocentini, G; Barzi, A; Sabatini, S; Miao, H; Sissi, C

    1999-06-17

    The bacterial topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and the mammalian topoisomerase II represent the cellular targets for quinolone antibacterials and a wide variety of anticancer drugs, respectively. In view of the mechanistic similarities and sequence homologies exhibited by the two enzymes, tentative efforts to selectively shift from an antibacterial to an antitumoral activity was made by synthesizing a series of modified tricyclic quinolones, in which the essential 3-carboxylic function is surrogated by phenolic OH and the classic C-6 fluorine atom is replaced by a NH2 group. The resulting 7-amino-9-acridone derivatives were assayed for their antibacterial as well as cytotoxic activities. No antibacterial activity was found. On the other hand, many derivatives showed significant cytotoxic activity against both HL-60 and P388 leukemias and a wide panel of human and rodent solid tumor cells, derivatives 25 and 26 displaying the best overall antiproliferative activity. Against the LoVo cell line, derivative 25 exhibited higher cytotoxic effects than etoposide.

  14. Topoisomerase as target for antibacterial and anticancer drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, Muthu K; Khilare, Madhavi M; Nikoomanesh, Kiana; Chothe, Aparna S; Jain, Kishor S

    2013-06-01

    DNA topoisomerases comprise a major aspect of basic cellular biology and are molecular targets for a variety of drugs like antibiotics, antibacterials and anticancer drugs. They act by inhibiting the topoisomerase molecule from relegating DNA strands after cleavage and convert the topoisomerases molecule into a DNA damaging agent. Though drugs of various categories acting through different mechanisms are available for the treatment, there are still problems associated with the currently available drugs. Therefore, Structural biologists, Structural chemists and Medicinal chemists all around the world have been identifying, designing, synthesizing and evaluating a variety of novel bioactive molecules targeting topoisomerase. This review summarizes types of topoisomerase and drug treating each class along with their structural requirement and activity. The emphasis has been laid in particular on the new potential heterocyles and the possible treatments as well as the current ongoing research status in the field of topoisomerase as dual targeting.

  15. Preparation, structure and microbial evaluation of metal complexes of the second generation quinolone antibacterial drug lomefloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-09-01

    Lomefloxacinate of Y(III), Zr(IV) and U(VI) were isolated as solids with the general formula; [Y(LFX) 2Cl 2]Cl·12H 2O, [ZrO(LFX) 2Cl]Cl·15H 2O and [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 2·4H 2O. The new synthesized complexes were characterized with physicochemical and diverse spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV-Vis. and 1H NMR spectroscopies) as well as thermal analyses. In these complexes lomefloxacin act as bidentate ligand bound to the metal ions through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylate oxygen. The kinetic parameters of thermogravimetric (TGA) and its differential (DTG), such as entropy of activation, activation energy, enthalpy of activation and Gibbs free energy evaluated by using Coats- Redfern and Horowitz- Metzger equations for free lomefloxacin and three complexes were carried out. The bond stretching force constant and length of the U dbnd O bond for the [UO 2(LFX) 3](NO 3) 2·4H 2O complex were calculated. The antimicrobial activity of lomefloxacin and its metal complexes was tested against different bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species and also against two species of antifungal, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.). The three complexes are of a good action against three bacterial species but the Y(III) complex exhibit excellent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa), when compared to the free lomefloxacin.

  16. Bacterial Transcription as a Target for Antibacterial Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cong; Yang, Xiao; Lewis, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Transcription, the first step of gene expression, is carried out by the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP) and is regulated through interaction with a series of protein transcription factors. RNAP and its associated transcription factors are highly conserved across the bacterial domain and represent excellent targets for broad-spectrum antibacterial agent discovery. Despite the numerous antibiotics on the market, there are only two series currently approved that target transcription. The determination of the three-dimensional structures of RNAP and transcription complexes at high resolution over the last 15 years has led to renewed interest in targeting this essential process for antibiotic development by utilizing rational structure-based approaches. In this review, we describe the inhibition of the bacterial transcription process with respect to structural studies of RNAP, highlight recent progress toward the discovery of novel transcription inhibitors, and suggest additional potential antibacterial targets for rational drug design.

  17. Bacterial Transcription as a Target for Antibacterial Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cong; Yang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Transcription, the first step of gene expression, is carried out by the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP) and is regulated through interaction with a series of protein transcription factors. RNAP and its associated transcription factors are highly conserved across the bacterial domain and represent excellent targets for broad-spectrum antibacterial agent discovery. Despite the numerous antibiotics on the market, there are only two series currently approved that target transcription. The determination of the three-dimensional structures of RNAP and transcription complexes at high resolution over the last 15 years has led to renewed interest in targeting this essential process for antibiotic development by utilizing rational structure-based approaches. In this review, we describe the inhibition of the bacterial transcription process with respect to structural studies of RNAP, highlight recent progress toward the discovery of novel transcription inhibitors, and suggest additional potential antibacterial targets for rational drug design. PMID:26764017

  18. 78 FR 32669 - New Approaches to Antibacterial Drug Development; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... emerging resistance to antibacterial drugs. The purpose of this notice is to request information and...ComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM234907.pdf . IV. Emerging Resistance to Antibacterial Drugs In... issue of emerging drug resistance. The public health need caused by the lack of a robust pipeline...

  19. Characterization of Salmonella Typhimurium DNA gyrase as a target of quinolones.

    PubMed

    Kongsoi, Siriporn; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Suprasert, Apinun; Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Nakajima, Chie; Suthienkul, Orasa; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Quinolones exhibit good antibacterial activity against Salmonella spp. isolates and are often the choice of treatment for life-threatening salmonellosis due to multi-drug resistant strains. To assess the properties of quinolones, we performed an in vitro assay to study the antibacterial activities of quinolones against recombinant DNA gyrase. We expressed the S. Typhimurium DNA gyrase A (GyrA) and B (GyrB) subunits in Escherichia coli. GyrA and GyrB were obtained at high purity (>95%) by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid agarose resin column chromatography as His-tagged 97-kDa and 89-kDa proteins, respectively. Both subunits were shown to reconstitute an ATP-dependent DNA supercoiling activity. Drug concentrations that suppressed DNA supercoiling by 50% (IC50 s) or generated DNA cleavage by 25% (CC25 s) demonstrated that quinolones highly active against S. Typhimurium DNA gyrase share a fluorine atom at C-6. The relationships between the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), IC50 s and CC25 s were assessed by estimating a linear regression between two components. MICs measured against S. Typhimurium NBRC 13245 correlated better with IC50 s (R = 0.9988) than CC25 s (R = 0.9685). These findings suggest that the DNA supercoiling inhibition assay may be a useful screening test to identify quinolones with promising activity against S. Typhimurium. The quinolone structure-activity relationship demonstrated here shows that C-8, the C-7 ring, the C-6 fluorine, and N-1 cyclopropyl substituents are desirable structural features in targeting S. Typhimurium gyrase.

  20. Metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial drug gatifloxacin: Synthesis, structure and biological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.

    2010-08-01

    Three metal complexes of the fourth generation quinolone antimicrobial agent gatifloxacin (GFLX) with Y(ΙΙΙ), Zr(ΙV) and U(VΙ) have been prepared and characterized with physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. In these complexes, gatifloxacin acts as a bidentate deprotonated ligand bound to the metal through the ketone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The complexes are six-coordinated with distorted octahedral geometry. The kinetic parameters for gatifloxacin and the three prepared complexes have been evaluated from TGA curves by using Coats-Redfern (CR) and Horowitz-Metzeger (HM) methods. The calculated bond length and force constant, F(U dbnd O), for the UO 2 bond in uranyl complex are 1.7522 Å and 639.46 N m -1. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes has been tested against microorganisms, three bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and two fungi species, penicillium ( P. rotatum) and trichoderma ( T. sp.), showing that they exhibit higher activity than free ligand.

  1. Repurposing of gallium-based drugs for antibacterial therapy.

    PubMed

    Bonchi, Carlo; Imperi, Francesco; Minandri, Fabrizia; Visca, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    While the occurrence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is vanishing current anti-infective therapies, the antibiotic discovery pipeline is drying up. In the last years, the repurposing of existing drugs for new clinical applications has become a major research area in drug discovery, also in the field of anti-infectives. This review discusses the potential of repurposing previously approved gallium formulations in antibacterial chemotherapy. Gallium has no proven function in biological systems, but it can act as an iron-mimetic in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The activity of gallium mostly relies on its ability to replace iron in redox enzymes, thus impairing their function and ultimately hampering cell growth. Cancer cells and bacteria are preferential gallium targets due to their active metabolism and fast growth. The wealth of knowledge on the pharmacological properties of gallium has opened the door to the repurposing of gallium-based drugs for the treatment of infections sustained by antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and for suppression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. The promising antibacterial activity of gallium both in vitro and in different animal models of infection raises the hope that gallium will confirm its efficacy in clinical trials, and will become a valuable therapeutic option to cure otherwise untreatable bacterial infections.

  2. Accelerating resistance, inadequate antibacterial drug pipelines and international responses.

    PubMed

    Theuretzbacher, Ursula

    2012-04-01

    The pandemic of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens and their continuing spread is beyond dispute. In contrast to the past, today's antibacterial research and development (R&D) pipelines are nearly dry, failing to provide the flow of novel antibiotics required to match the clinical challenges of the multidrug resistance (MDR) crisis. Concerned over the rapidly worsening potential global healthcare crisis caused by MDR bacteria and the lack of robust drug pipelines, several multinational campaigns have issued policy recommendations and have initiated broad discussion with a goal of stimulating the development of novel antibacterial drugs and technologies. These activities have resulted in intensified co-operation between the USA and the EU. The recently announced extensive 'Action plan against the rising threats from antimicrobial resistance' substantially ramps up action within the EU. In recognising the potential crisis caused by MDR and the limited treatment options, the European Commission decided on an unprecedented approach to drive the search for novel antibiotics by integrating the pharmaceutical industry, the research capacities of universities and small companies supported by public funding along with pricing/reimbursement and regulatory bodies. The European Commission has shown leadership and put action plans in place. Only the future will tell whether these initiatives will help curb the impact of the MDR pandemic.

  3. QSAR study on the antibacterial activity of some sulfa drugs: building blockers of Mannich bases.

    PubMed

    Mandloi, Dheeraj; Joshi, Sheela; Khadikar, Padmakar V; Khosla, Navita

    2005-01-17

    Sulfa drugs are building blockers of several types of Mannich bases. Consequently, the antibacterial activities of sulfa drugs are reported in this paper, which will help in explaining and understanding antibacterial activities of Mannich bases. Reported QSAR is carried out using distance-based topological indices and discussed critically on the basis of statistical parameters.

  4. Newer Antibacterials in Therapy and Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Paknikar, Simi S; Narayana, Sarala

    2012-01-01

    In order to deal with the rising problem of antibiotic resistance, newer antibacterials are being discovered and added to existing pool. Since the year 2000, however, only four new classes of antibacterials have been discovered. These include the oxazolidinones, glycolipopeptides, glycolipodepepsipeptide and pleuromutilins. Newer drugs were added to existing classes of antibiotics, such as streptogramins, quinolones, beta-lactam antibiotics, and macrolide-, tetracycline- and trimethoprim-related drugs. Most of the antibacterials are directed against resistant S. aureus infections, with very few against resistant gram-negative infections. The following article reviews the antibacterials approved by the FDA after the year 2000 as well as some of those in clinical trials. Data was obtained through a literature search via Pubmed and google as well as a detailed search of our library database. PMID:23181224

  5. The bactericidal effect on Pseudomonas strains of adriamycin associated with quinolones.

    PubMed

    Castelli, M; Baggio, G; Aresca, P; Bossa, R; Galatulas, I

    1989-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activity of quinolone compounds was assessed on strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical infections. The bactericidal effect of quinolones was high and their respective antibacterial properties with adriamycin remained unimpaired on strains both sensitive and resistant to betalactam and aminoglycoside antibiotics. The cytotoxic effect of the combination of adriamycin and quinolones was determined in cultured P388 leukemia cells: no interference with the cytotoxic activity of adriamycin was observed.

  6. Comparison of Antimicrobial Properties of Nano Quinolone with its Microscale Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behbahani, G. Rezaie; Sadr, M. Hossaini; Nabipour, H.; Behbahani, H. Rezaei; Vahedpour, M.; Barzegar, L.

    2013-06-01

    Nano nalidixic acid was prepared by ultrasonic method in carbon tetrachloride. Nano nalidixic acid (quinolone antibiotic) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antibacterial activities of nano nalidixic acid were tested against microorganisms and compared with the microscale drug. The results show that nano nalidixic acid has good inhibitory properties against two Gram-positive species, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Nano nalidixic acid also showed good antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Nano nalidixic acid can be injected into the human body as a decontaminating agent to prevent the growth of harmful microorganisms more effectively than the micro-sized drug.

  7. Conjugation between quinolone-susceptible bacteria can generate mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region, inducing quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Pitondo-Silva, André; Martins, Vinicius Vicente; Silva, Carolina Fávero da; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2015-02-01

    Quinolones are an important group of antibacterial agents that can inhibit DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV activity. DNA gyrase is responsible for maintaining bacteria in a negatively supercoiled state, being composed of subunits A and B. Topoisomerase IV is a homologue of DNA gyrase and consists of two subunits codified by the parC and parE genes. Mutations in gyrA and gyrB of DNA gyrase may confer resistance to quinolones, and the majority of resistant strains show mutations between positions 67 and 106 of gyrA, a region denoted the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR). The most frequent substitutions occur at positions 83 and 87, but little is known about the mechanisms promoting appearance of mutations in the QRDR. The present study proposes that some mutations in the QRDR could be generated as a result of the natural mechanism of conjugation between bacteria in their natural habitat. This event was observed following conjugation in vitro of two different isolates of quinolone-susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which transferred plasmids of different molecular weights to a recipient strain of Escherichia coli (HB101), also quinolone-susceptible, generating two different transconjugants that presented mutations in DNA gyrase and acquisition of resistance to all quinolones tested.

  8. Quinolones and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs interacting with copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II) and zinc(II): structural features, biological evaluation and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Psomas, George; Kessissoglou, Dimitris P

    2013-05-14

    The structural features of copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II) and zinc(II) complexes with the antimicrobial drugs quinolones and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as ligands are discussed. The binding properties of these complexes to biomolecules (calf-thymus DNA, bovine or human serum albumin) are presented and evaluated. The biological activity (antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiproliferative) of selected complexes is investigated. Further perspectives concerning the synthesis and the biological activity of novel complexes with quinolones or NSAIDs attractive to synthetic chemists, biochemists and/or biologists are presented.

  9. [Quinolones. Nowadays perspectives and mechanisms of resistance].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Hernández, Diego Abelardo; Garza-Mayén, Gilda Sofía; Vázquez-López, Rosalno

    2015-10-01

    Quinolones are a family of synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs whose target is the synthesis of DNA. They directly inhibit DNA replication by interacting with two enzymes; DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. They have been widely used for the treatment of several community and hospital acquired infections, in the food processing industry and in the agricultural field, making the increasing incidence of quinolone resistance a frequent problem associated with constant exposition to diverse microorganisms. Resistance may be achieved by three non-exclusive mechanisms; through chromosomic mutations in the Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, by reducing the intracytoplasmic concentrations of quinolones actively or passively and by Plasmid-Mediated Quinolones-Resistance genes, [Qnr determinant genes of resistance to quinolones, variant gene of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (AAC(6')-Ib-c)] and encoding genes of efflux pumps (qepA and oqxAB)]. The future of quinolones is uncertain, however, meanwhile they continue to be used in an irrational way, increasing resistance to quinolones should remain as an area of primary priority for research.

  10. Labeling requirements for systemic antibacterial drug products intended for human use. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-02-06

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to require that the labeling for all systemic antibacterial drug products (i.e., antibiotics and their synthetic counterparts) intended for human use include certain statements about using antibiotics in a way that will reduce the development of drug-resistant bacterial strains. The final rule reflects a growing concern in FDA and the medical community that unnecessary use of systemic antibacterials has contributed to a dramatic increase in recent years in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacterial infections. The final rule is intended to encourage physicians to prescribe systemic antibacterial drugs only when clinically necessary. The final rule is also intended to encourage physicians to counsel their patients about the proper use of such drugs and the importance of taking them exactly as directed.

  11. 21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert name of antibacterial drug... treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage” section, the labeling must state: To reduce the development of drug-resistant...

  12. 21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert name of antibacterial drug... treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage” section, the labeling must state: To reduce the development of drug-resistant...

  13. 21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert name of antibacterial drug... treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage” section, the labeling must state: To reduce the development of drug-resistant...

  14. 21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert name of antibacterial drug... treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage” section, the labeling must state: To reduce the development of drug-resistant...

  15. 21 CFR 201.24 - Labeling for systemic antibacterial drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of (insert name of antibacterial drug... treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (b) In the “Indications and Usage” section, the labeling must state: To reduce the development of drug-resistant...

  16. Genetic analysis of a pediatric clinical isolate of Moraxella catarrhalis with resistance to macrolides and quinolones.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Satoshi; Sato, Yoshitake; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2015-04-01

    During the surveillance conducted in 2012 by the Drug-resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease, we isolated a strain of Moraxella catarrhalis that demonstrated resistance to both macrolides and quinolones from a male pediatric patient aged 1.5 years who had developed acute bronchitis. Then we evaluated the susceptibility of this strain to different types of antibacterial agents and conducted a genetic analysis. The results of the susceptibility evaluation showed that the MIC values of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and rokitamycin were >64 μg/mL, >64 μg/mL, and 4 μg/mL, respectively; clearly demonstrating resistance to macrolides. The MIC values of the quinolones levofloxacin, tosufloxacin, and garenoxacin were 4 μg/mL, 2 μg/mL, and 1 μg/mL, respectively; indicating decreased susceptibility. The genetic analysis of this strain revealed one mutation in 23s rRNA with a replacement of adenine by thymine at nucleotide position 2330 (A2330T) and another mutation in gyrB at nucleotide position 1481 by replacement of adenine with guanine (A1481G) that caused a substitution of the 494 th asparagine acid by glycine, as being associated with the observed resistance to macrolides and quinolones, respectively. Similar to drug-resistant bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, the prevalence of which has recently increased, the treatment of drug-resistant M. catarrhalis infections is considered difficult due to the development of resistance to different types of antibacterial agents. It is vital to maintain an unwavering focus on the trend toward an increasing number of drug-resistant M. catarrhalis strains and ensure the proper use of each antibacterial agent.

  17. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and/or γ-CA families. In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized in detail. These enzymes were shown to be efficient catalysts for CO2 hydration, with kcat values in the range of (3.4–8.3) × 105 s−1 and kcat/KM values of (4.7–8.5) × 107 M−1·s−1. In vitro inhibition studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates, were also reported for the two β-CAs from this pathogen, LpCA1 and LpCA2. Inorganic anions were millimolar inhibitors, whereas diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid, and phenylarsonic acid were micromolar ones. The best LpCA1 inhibitors were aminobenzolamide and structurally similar sulfonylated aromatic sulfonamides, as well as acetazolamide and ethoxzolamide (KIs in the range of 40.3–90.5 nM). The best LpCA2 inhibitors belonged to the same class of sulfonylated sulfonamides, together with acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dichlorophenamide (KIs in the range of 25.2–88.5 nM). Considering such preliminary results, the two bacterial CAs from this pathogen represent promising yet underexplored targets for obtaining antibacterials devoid of the resistance problems common to most of the clinically used antibiotics, but further studies are needed to validate them in vivo as drug targets. PMID:27322334

  18. Electrospinning polyvinylidene fluoride fibrous membranes containing anti-bacterial drugs used as wound dressing.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Wang, Jingnan; Huang, Peilin; Zeng, Baozhen; Li, Haihong; Cao, Qingyun; Zhang, Shiying; Luo, Zhuo; Deng, David Y B; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhou, Wuyi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesis drug-loaded fibrous membrane scaffolds for potential applications as wound dressing. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) fibrous membranes were loaded with enrofloxacin (Enro) drugs by using an electrospinning process, and their mechanical strength, drug release profile and anti-bacterial properties were evaluated. Enro drug-loaded PVDF membranes exhibited good elasticity, flexibility and excellent mechanical strength. The electrospinning Enro/PVDF membranes showed a burst drug release in the initial 12h, followed by sustained release for the next 3 days, which was an essential property for antibiotic drugs applied for wound healing. The drug-loaded PVDF fibrous membranes displayed excellent anti-bacterial activity toward Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The results suggest that electrospinning PVDF membrane scaffolds loaded with drugs can be used as wound dressing.

  19. Using Chemoinformatics, Bioinformatics, and Bioassay to Predict and Explain the Antibacterial Activity of Nonantibiotic Food and Drug Administration Drugs.

    PubMed

    Kahlous, Nour Aldin; Bawarish, Muhammad Al Mohdi; Sarhan, Muhammad Arabi; Küpper, Manfred; Hasaba, Ali; Rajab, Mazen

    2017-03-27

    Discovering of new and effective antibiotics is a major issue facing scientists today. Luckily, the development of computer science offers new methods to overcome this issue. In this study, a set of computer software was used to predict the antibacterial activity of nonantibiotic Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs, and to explain their action by possible binding to well-known bacterial protein targets, along with testing their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A three-dimensional virtual screening method that relies on chemical and shape similarity was applied using rapid overlay of chemical structures (ROCS) software to select candidate compounds from the FDA-approved drugs database that share similarity with 17 known antibiotics. Then, to check their antibacterial activity, disk diffusion test was applied on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Finally, a protein docking method was applied using HYBRID software to predict the binding of the active candidate to the target receptor of its similar antibiotic. Of the 1,991 drugs that were screened, 34 had been selected and among them 10 drugs showed antibacterial activity, whereby drotaverine and metoclopramide activities were without precedent reports. Furthermore, the docking process predicted that diclofenac, drotaverine, (S)-flurbiprofen, (S)-ibuprofen, and indomethacin could bind to the protein target of their similar antibiotics. Nevertheless, their antibacterial activities are weak compared with those of their similar antibiotics, which can be potentiated further by performing chemical modifications on their structure.

  20. Quinolones: from antibiotics to autoinducers

    PubMed Central

    Heeb, Stephan; Fletcher, Matthew P; Chhabra, Siri Ram; Diggle, Stephen P; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Since quinine was first isolated, animals, plants and microorganisms producing a wide variety of quinolone compounds have been discovered, several of which possess medicinally interesting properties ranging from antiallergenic and anticancer to antimicrobial activities. Over the years, these have served in the development of many synthetic drugs, including the successful fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and related bacteria produce a number of 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolones, some of which exhibit antimicrobial activity. However, quinolones such as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline act as quorum-sensing signal molecules, controlling the expression of many virulence genes as a function of cell population density. Here, we review selectively this extensive family of bicyclic compounds, from natural and synthetic antimicrobials to signalling molecules, with a special emphasis on the biology of P. aeruginosa. In particular, we review their nomenclature and biochemistry, their multiple properties as membrane-interacting compounds, inhibitors of the cytochrome bc1 complex and iron chelators, as well as the regulation of their biosynthesis and their integration into the intricate quorum-sensing regulatory networks governing virulence and secondary metabolite gene expression. PMID:20738404

  1. Quinolones: from antibiotics to autoinducers.

    PubMed

    Heeb, Stephan; Fletcher, Matthew P; Chhabra, Siri Ram; Diggle, Stephen P; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel

    2011-03-01

    Since quinine was first isolated, animals, plants and microorganisms producing a wide variety of quinolone compounds have been discovered, several of which possess medicinally interesting properties ranging from antiallergenic and anticancer to antimicrobial activities. Over the years, these have served in the development of many synthetic drugs, including the successful fluoroquinolone antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and related bacteria produce a number of 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolones, some of which exhibit antimicrobial activity. However, quinolones such as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline act as quorum-sensing signal molecules, controlling the expression of many virulence genes as a function of cell population density. Here, we review selectively this extensive family of bicyclic compounds, from natural and synthetic antimicrobials to signalling molecules, with a special emphasis on the biology of P. aeruginosa. In particular, we review their nomenclature and biochemistry, their multiple properties as membrane-interacting compounds, inhibitors of the cytochrome bc(1) complex and iron chelators, as well as the regulation of their biosynthesis and their integration into the intricate quorum-sensing regulatory networks governing virulence and secondary metabolite gene expression.

  2. Quinolone arthropathy--acute toxicity to immature articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Gough, A W; Kasali, O B; Sigler, R E; Baragi, V

    1992-01-01

    A class effect of quinolone antibacterial agents observed during animal toxicity testing is a specific arthropathy (QAP). Despite the growing list of laboratory animals susceptible to QAP and reports of arthralgia in patients treated with quinolones, the potential for QAP development in humans remains unknown. This review discusses current concepts in the biology of articular cartilage and how these concepts elucidate QAP pathogenesis. Biomechanical forces within synovial joints and toxicokinetic properties of quinolones contribute to QAP induction. Since a limited number of mechanistic pathways exist for acute articular damage, QAP may serve as a research tool to probe the pathobiology of injury to articular cartilage.

  3. Changes in antibacterial activity of triclosan and sulfa drugs due to photochemical transformations.

    PubMed

    Wammer, Kristine H; Lapara, Timothy M; McNeill, Kristopher; Arnold, William A; Swackhamer, Deborah L

    2006-06-01

    Sulfa drugs and triclosan represent two classes of antibacterials that have been found in natural waters and for which photodegradation is anticipated to be a significant loss process. Parent antibacterial compounds and the products of photolysis reactions were compared for three sulfa drugs and triclosan to determine the extent to which photolysis affects their antibacterial potency on Escherichia coli DH5alpha. Sulfathiazole (median effective concentration [EC50] = 20.0 microM), sulfamethoxazole (EC50 = 12.3 microM), and sulfachloropyridazine (EC50 = 6.9 microM) inhibited bacterial growth but did not affect respiratory activity. Photolysis products of these sulfa drugs did not retain any measurable ability to inhibit growth. Triclosan inhibited both the growth (EC50 = 0.24 microM) and respiratory activity of E. coli DH5alpha. Triclosan photolysis products also exhibited no measurable effect on growth or respiratory activity. These experiments indicate that the products of triclosan and sulfa drug photolysis are unlikely to possess antibacterial activity in natural waters. The rapid screening method used for these two classes of compounds will be useful for helping to identify photolabile antibacterial compounds, for which photoproducts could require further investigation.

  4. 76 FR 39883 - Design of Clinical Trials for Systemic Antibacterial Drugs for the Treatment of Acute Otitis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Design of Clinical Trials for Systemic Antibacterial Drugs... workshop regarding the design of Clinical Trials for Systemic Antibacterial Agents for the Treatment of... Georgia Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910, 301-589-0800. Seating is limited and available only on a...

  5. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of oxazolidinone-quinolone hybrids.

    PubMed

    Hubschwerlen, Christian; Specklin, Jean Luc; Sigwalt, Christine; Schroeder, Susanne; Locher, Hans H

    2003-05-15

    Oxazolidinone-quinolone hybrids that combine the pharmacophores of a quinolone and an oxazolidinone were synthesised and shown to be active against a variety of resistant and susceptible Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative organisms. The best compounds in this series overcome all types of resistance in relevant clinical Gram-positive pathogens. The nature of the spacer greatly influences the antibacterial activity. The dual mode of action could be demonstrated for compounds having a piperazinyl spacer. Antibacterial activity was higher at acidic pH.

  6. Antiplasmodial Drugs in the Gas Phase: A CID and DFT Study of Quinolon-4( 1H)-Imine Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim Madeira, Paulo J.; Sitoe, Ana Raquel Fernandes; Gonçalves, Daniel; Rodrigues, Tiago; Guedes, Rita C.; Lopes, Francisca; Moreira, Rui; Bronze, M. Rosário

    2014-09-01

    The gas-phase behavior of 12 quinolon-4( 1H)-imine derivatives with antiplasmodial activity was investigated using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry together with collision induced dissociation and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The most probable protonation site was predicted by calculating the proton affinity (PA) values for each possible protonation site and it was found to be the imine nitrogen for all compounds under study. Fragmentation pathways of the protonated molecules were proposed and the assignment of product ion structures was performed taking into account theoretical calculations. The nature of the quinoline substituent was found to influence the gas-phase behavior of the compounds under study. The data acquired allowed to bracket the proton affinity of the quinolin-4-imine scaffold, which can be a useful starting point to choose appropriate references for determining PA values of this scaffold.

  7. Antiplasmodial drugs in the gas phase: a CID and DFT study of quinolon-4(1H)-imine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Amorim Madeira, Paulo J; Sitoe, Ana Raquel Fernandes; Gonçalves, Daniel; Rodrigues, Tiago; Guedes, Rita C; Lopes, Francisca; Moreira, Rui; Bronze, M Rosário

    2014-09-01

    The gas-phase behavior of 12 quinolon-4(1H)-imine derivatives with antiplasmodial activity was investigated using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry together with collision induced dissociation and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The most probable protonation site was predicted by calculating the proton affinity (PA) values for each possible protonation site and it was found to be the imine nitrogen for all compounds under study. Fragmentation pathways of the protonated molecules were proposed and the assignment of product ion structures was performed taking into account theoretical calculations. The nature of the quinoline substituent was found to influence the gas-phase behavior of the compounds under study. The data acquired allowed to bracket the proton affinity of the quinolin-4-imine scaffold, which can be a useful starting point to choose appropriate references for determining PA values of this scaffold.

  8. Approved Glycopeptide Antibacterial Drugs: Mechanism of Action and Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Daina; Debabov, Dmitri; Hartsell, Theresa L; Cano, Raul J; Adams, Stacy; Schuyler, Jessica A; McMillan, Ronald; Pace, John L

    2016-12-01

    The glycopeptide antimicrobials are a group of natural product and semisynthetic glycosylated peptides that show antibacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms through inhibition of cell-wall synthesis. This is achieved primarily through binding to the d-alanyl-d-alanine terminus of the lipid II bacterial cell-wall precursor, preventing cross-linking of the peptidoglycan layer. Vancomycin is the foundational member of the class, showing both clinical longevity and a still preferential role in the therapy of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and of susceptible Enterococcus spp. Newer lipoglycopeptide derivatives (telavancin, dalbavancin, and oritavancin) were designed in a targeted fashion to increase antibacterial activity, in some cases through secondary mechanisms of action. Resistance to the glycopeptides emerged in delayed fashion and occurs via a spectrum of chromosome- and plasmid-associated elements that lead to structural alteration of the bacterial cell-wall precursor substrates.

  9. [Classification and prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance qnr genes in China--A review].

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; Xu, Hai

    2016-02-04

    Quinolone antibacterial drugs, developing from the treatment of urinary tract infection in early time and now from the treatment of intestinal infection and respiratory infection, have been widely used in clinical, animal husbandry and aquaculture. Bacteria gradually become resistant to them and resistance mechanism is more and more complicated. Quinolone resistance mechanism is mainly divided into chromosome mediated resistance and plasmid mediated resistance, the latter plays an important role in spreading of antibiotic resistance. In 1998, plasmid mediated quinolone resistance mechanism was reported for the first time, namely the qnr gene mediated fluoroquinolone resistance mechanism. qnr genes can spread rapidly in different bacteria, which causes the infection difficult to control, makes the nosocomial infection popular in a wide range. In addition, qnr genes are usually associated with β-lactamase resistance gene. They exist in complex integron and integrate with the other varieties of resistance genes, which narrows the space of clinical medicine choose or drug combinations use to treat related bacterial infection and brings us a serious challenge. In this review, we provide a detailed overview for the historical discovery, classification, the resistance mechanisms of qnr genes, and the prevalence of those genes in China.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activity, SOD mimic and interaction with DNA of drug based copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mohan N.; Dosi, Promise A.; Bhatt, Bhupesh S.; Thakkar, Vasudev R.

    2011-02-01

    Novel metal complexes of the second-generation quinolone antibacterial agent enrofloxacin with copper(II) and neutral bidentate ligands have been prepared and characterized with elemental analysis reflectance, IR and mass spectroscopy. Complexes have been screened for their in-vitro antibacterial activity against two Gram (+ve)Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and three Gram (-ve)Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa organisms using the double dilution technique. The binding of this complex with CT-DNA has been investigated by absorption titration, salt effect and viscosity measurements. Binding constant is ranging from 1.3 × 10 4-3.7 × 10 4. The cleavage ability of complexes has been assessed by gel electrophoresis using pUC19 DNA. The catalytic activity of the copper(II) complexes towards the superoxide anion (O 2rad -) dismutation was assayed by their ability to inhibit the reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT).

  11. 75 FR 73109 - Guidance for Industry on Antibacterial Drug Products: Use of Noninferiority Trials to Support...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... this guidance is to provide information on FDA's current thinking regarding appropriate use of noninferiority (NI) clinical trial designs to evaluate antibacterial drug products. The Agency's thinking in this... Agency's current thinking on this topic. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person...

  12. Dysglycemia associated with quinolones.

    PubMed

    El Ghandour, Sarah; Azar, Sami T

    2015-06-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is well known to be associated with fluctuations of blood glucose levels. This review aims at exploring the association between glycemic fluctuations and antibiotics mainly focusing on quinolones. Quinolones are associated with hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Several mechanism are proposed to explain this causality.

  13. From multiply active natural product to candidate drug? Antibacterial (and other) minor groove binders for DNA.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Colin

    2012-05-01

    Natural products that bind to DNA in the minor groove are valuable templates for drug design. Examples include distamycin, netropsin, duocarmycin and anthramycin. Anticancer and anti-infective drugs feature strongly amongst their derivatives. The structures and activities of chemotypes with various therapeutic actions are discussed in the context of the broader field of therapeutically active minor groove binders. The evolution of a series of exceptionally potent and nontoxic antibacterial compounds is discussed using the general design principle of introducing additional hydrophobicity into the distamycin template to increase the strength of binding to DNA. As well as potent antibacterial compounds, antifungal and antiparasitic compounds with exceptional cellular activity against trypanosomes have been identified. Possible mechanisms of action including gene regulation and topoisomerase inhibition are discussed with the need in mind to understand selective toxicity in the series to support future drug discovery.

  14. Impact of antibacterial drugs on human serum paraoxonase-1 (hPON1) activity: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Söyüt, Hakan; Kaya, Elif Duygu; Beydemir, Şükrü

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro effects of the antibacterial drugs, meropenem trihydrate, piperacillin sodium, and cefoperazone sodium, on the activity of human serum paraoxonase (hPON1). Methods hPON1 was purified from human serum using simple chromatographic methods, including DEAE-Sephadex anion exchange and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration chromatography. Results The three antibacterial drugs decreased in vitro hPON1 activity. Inhibition mechanisms meropenem trihydrate was noncompetitive while piperacillin sodium and cefoperazone sodium were competitive. Conclusions Our results showed that antibacterial drugs significantly inhibit hPON1 activity, both in vitro, with rank order meropenem trihydrate piperacillin sodium cefoperazone sodium in vitro. PMID:25183328

  15. Antibacterial chitosan coating on nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 porous bone scaffold for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Di; Zuo, Yi; Zou, Qin; Zhang, Li; Li, Jidong; Cheng, Lin; Shen, Juan; Li, Yubao

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a new drug-loaded coating scaffold applied in infection therapy during bone regeneration. Chitosan (CS) containing antibacterial berberine was coated on a nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (n-HA/PA66) scaffold to realize bone regeneration together with antimicrobial properties. The porous scaffold was fabricated using the phase-inversion method with a porosity of about 84% and macropore size of 400-600 μm. The morphology, mechanical properties and drug-release behavior were investigated at different ratios of chitosan to berberine. The results show that the elastic modulus and compressive strength of the coated scaffolds were improved to 35.4 MPa and 1.7 MPa, respectively, about 7 times and 3 times higher than the uncoated scaffolds. After a burst release of berberine within the first 3 h in PBS solution, a continuous berberine release can last 150 h, which is highly dependent on the coating concentration and suitable for antibacterial requirement of orthopaedic surgery. The bactericidal test confirms a strong antibiotic effect of the delivery system and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the drug is 0.02 mg/ml. Moreover, in vitro biological evaluation demonstrates that the coating scaffolds act as a good matrix for MG63 adhesion, crawl, growth and proliferation, suggesting that the antibacterial delivery system has no cytotoxicity. We expect the drug-delivery system to have a potential application in bone regeneration or defect repair.

  16. Antibacterial drugs as corrosion inhibitors for bronze surfaces in acidic solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Ileana; Varvara, Simona; Gaina, Luiza; Muresan, Liana Maria

    2014-12-01

    The present study is aiming to investigate the effect of four antibiotics (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline and streptomycin,) belonging to different classes of antibacterial drugs on bronze corrosion in a solution simulating an acid rain (pH 4). Due to their ability to form protective films on the metal surface, the tested antibiotics act as corrosion inhibitors for bronze. The antibiotics were tested at various concentrations in order to determine the optimal concentration range for the best corrosion inhibiting effect. In evaluating the inhibition efficiency, polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, SEM and XPS measurements were used. Moreover, a correlation between the inhibition efficiency of some antibacterial drugs and certain molecular parameters was determined by quantum chemical computations. Parameters like energies EHOMO and ELUMO and HOMO-LUMO energy gap were used for correlation with the corrosion data.

  17. Antitubercular and antibacterial activity of quinonoid natural products against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Dey, Diganta; Ray, Ratnamala; Hazra, Banasri

    2014-07-01

    Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial pathogens represent a major threat to human health. In view of the critical need to augment the current drug regime, we have investigated therapeutic potential of five quinonoids, viz. emodin, diospyrin, plumbagin, menadione and thymoquinone, derived from natural products. The antimicrobial activity of quinonoids was evaluated against a broad panel of multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) strains, rapid growing mycobacteria and other bacterial isolates, some of which were producers of β-lactamase, Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) enzymes, as well as their drug-sensitive ATCC counterparts. All the tested quinones exhibited antimycobacterial and broad spectrum antibacterial activity, particularly against M. tuberculosis (lowest MIC 0.25 µg/mL) and Gram-positive bacteria (lowest MIC <4 µg/mL) of clinical origin. The order of antitubercular activity of the tested quinonoids was plumbagin > emodin ~ menadione ~ thymoquinone > diospyrin, whereas their antibacterial efficacy was plumbagin > menadione ~ thymoquinone > diospyrin > emodin. Furthermore, this is the first evaluation performed on these quinonoids against a broad panel of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive clinical isolates, to the best of our knowledge.

  18. Exploring simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug, as a potential topical antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F N; Hamed, Maha I; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Hedrick, Victoria E; Paul, Lake N; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2015-11-10

    The rapid rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics combined with the decline in discovery of novel antibacterial agents has created a global public health crisis. Repurposing existing drugs presents an alternative strategy to potentially expedite the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The present study demonstrates that simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against important Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative pathogens (once the barrier imposed by the outer membrane was permeabilized). Proteomics and macromolecular synthesis analyses revealed that simvastatin inhibits multiple biosynthetic pathways and cellular processes in bacteria, including selective interference of bacterial protein synthesis. This property appears to assist in simvastatin's ability to suppress production of key MRSA toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin) that impair healing of infected skin wounds. A murine MRSA skin infection experiment confirmed that simvastatin significantly reduces the bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokines in the infected wounds. Additionally, simvastatin exhibits excellent anti-biofilm activity against established staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrates the ability to be combined with topical antimicrobials currently used to treat MRSA skin infections. Collectively the present study lays the foundation for further investigation of repurposing simvastatin as a topical antibacterial agent to treat skin infections.

  19. Exploring simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug, as a potential topical antibacterial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F. N.; Hamed, Maha I.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Hedrick, Victoria E.; Paul, Lake N.; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid rise of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics combined with the decline in discovery of novel antibacterial agents has created a global public health crisis. Repurposing existing drugs presents an alternative strategy to potentially expedite the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs. The present study demonstrates that simvastatin, an antihyperlipidemic drug exhibited broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against important Gram-positive (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and Gram-negative pathogens (once the barrier imposed by the outer membrane was permeabilized). Proteomics and macromolecular synthesis analyses revealed that simvastatin inhibits multiple biosynthetic pathways and cellular processes in bacteria, including selective interference of bacterial protein synthesis. This property appears to assist in simvastatin’s ability to suppress production of key MRSA toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leucocidin) that impair healing of infected skin wounds. A murine MRSA skin infection experiment confirmed that simvastatin significantly reduces the bacterial burden and inflammatory cytokines in the infected wounds. Additionally, simvastatin exhibits excellent anti-biofilm activity against established staphylococcal biofilms and demonstrates the ability to be combined with topical antimicrobials currently used to treat MRSA skin infections. Collectively the present study lays the foundation for further investigation of repurposing simvastatin as a topical antibacterial agent to treat skin infections. PMID:26553420

  20. Structural basis of DNA gyrase inhibition by antibacterial QPT-1, anticancer drug etoposide and moxifloxacin.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pan F; Srikannathasan, Velupillai; Huang, Jianzhong; Cui, Haifeng; Fosberry, Andrew P; Gu, Minghua; Hann, Michael M; Hibbs, Martin; Homes, Paul; Ingraham, Karen; Pizzollo, Jason; Shen, Carol; Shillings, Anthony J; Spitzfaden, Claus E; Tanner, Robert; Theobald, Andrew J; Stavenger, Robert A; Bax, Benjamin D; Gwynn, Michael N

    2015-12-07

    New antibacterials are needed to tackle antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Type IIA topoisomerases (topo2As), the targets of fluoroquinolones, regulate DNA topology by creating transient double-strand DNA breaks. Here we report the first co-crystal structures of the antibacterial QPT-1 and the anticancer drug etoposide with Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase, showing binding at the same sites in the cleaved DNA as the fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin. Unlike moxifloxacin, QPT-1 and etoposide interact with conserved GyrB TOPRIM residues rationalizing why QPT-1 can overcome fluoroquinolone resistance. Our data show etoposide's antibacterial activity is due to DNA gyrase inhibition and suggests other anticancer agents act similarly. Analysis of multiple DNA gyrase co-crystal structures, including asymmetric cleavage complexes, led to a 'pair of swing-doors' hypothesis in which the movement of one DNA segment regulates cleavage and religation of the second DNA duplex. This mechanism can explain QPT-1's bacterial specificity. Structure-based strategies for developing topo2A antibacterials are suggested.

  1. Structural basis of DNA gyrase inhibition by antibacterial QPT-1, anticancer drug etoposide and moxifloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pan F.; Srikannathasan, Velupillai; Huang, Jianzhong; Cui, Haifeng; Fosberry, Andrew P.; Gu, Minghua; Hann, Michael M.; Hibbs, Martin; Homes, Paul; Ingraham, Karen; Pizzollo, Jason; Shen, Carol; Shillings, Anthony J.; Spitzfaden, Claus E.; Tanner, Robert; Theobald, Andrew J.; Stavenger, Robert A.; Bax, Benjamin D.; Gwynn, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    New antibacterials are needed to tackle antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Type IIA topoisomerases (topo2As), the targets of fluoroquinolones, regulate DNA topology by creating transient double-strand DNA breaks. Here we report the first co-crystal structures of the antibacterial QPT-1 and the anticancer drug etoposide with Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase, showing binding at the same sites in the cleaved DNA as the fluoroquinolone moxifloxacin. Unlike moxifloxacin, QPT-1 and etoposide interact with conserved GyrB TOPRIM residues rationalizing why QPT-1 can overcome fluoroquinolone resistance. Our data show etoposide's antibacterial activity is due to DNA gyrase inhibition and suggests other anticancer agents act similarly. Analysis of multiple DNA gyrase co-crystal structures, including asymmetric cleavage complexes, led to a ‘pair of swing-doors' hypothesis in which the movement of one DNA segment regulates cleavage and religation of the second DNA duplex. This mechanism can explain QPT-1's bacterial specificity. Structure-based strategies for developing topo2A antibacterials are suggested. PMID:26640131

  2. Nanomechanics of Drug-target Interactions and Antibacterial Resistance Detection

    PubMed Central

    Ndieyira, Joseph W.; Watari, Moyu; McKendry, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    The cantilever sensor, which acts as a transducer of reactions between model bacterial cell wall matrix immobilized on its surface and antibiotic drugs in solution, has shown considerable potential in biochemical sensing applications with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity1-5. The drug-target interactions generate surface stress, causing the cantilever to bend, and the signal can be analyzed optically when it is illuminated by a laser. The change in surface stress measured with nano-scale precision allows disruptions of the biomechanics of model bacterial cell wall targets to be tracked in real time. Despite offering considerable advantages, multiple cantilever sensor arrays have never been applied in quantifying drug-target binding interactions. Here, we report on the use of silicon multiple cantilever arrays coated with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers mimicking bacterial cell wall matrix to quantitatively study antibiotic binding interactions. To understand the impact of vancomycin on the mechanics of bacterial cell wall structures1,6,7. We developed a new model1 which proposes that cantilever bending can be described by two independent factors; i) namely a chemical factor, which is given by a classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm, from which we calculate the thermodynamic equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and ii) a geometrical factor, essentially a measure of how bacterial peptide receptors are distributed on the cantilever surface. The surface distribution of peptide receptors (p) is used to investigate the dependence of geometry and ligand loading. It is shown that a threshold value of p ~10% is critical to sensing applications. Below which there is no detectable bending signal while above this value, the bending signal increases almost linearly, revealing that stress is a product of a local chemical binding factor and a geometrical factor combined by the mechanical connectivity of reacted regions and provides a new paradigm for design of

  3. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of auranofin against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F. N.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Hedrick, Victoria E.; Paul, Lake N.; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods employed to discover new antibiotics are both a time-consuming and financially-taxing venture. This has led researchers to mine existing libraries of clinical molecules in order to repurpose old drugs for new applications (as antimicrobials). Such an effort led to the discovery of auranofin, a drug initially approved as an anti-rheumatic agent, which also possesses potent antibacterial activity in a clinically achievable range. The present study demonstrates auranofin’s antibacterial activity is a complex process that involves inhibition of multiple biosynthetic pathways including cell wall, DNA, and bacterial protein synthesis. We also confirmed that the lack of activity of auranofin observed against Gram-negative bacteria is due to the permeability barrier conferred by the outer membrane. Auranofin’s ability to suppress bacterial protein synthesis leads to significant reduction in the production of key methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) toxins. Additionally, auranofin is capable of eradicating intracellular MRSA present inside infected macrophage cells. Furthermore, auranofin is efficacious in a mouse model of MRSA systemic infection and significantly reduces the bacterial load in murine organs including the spleen and liver. Collectively, this study provides valuable evidence that auranofin has significant promise to be repurposed as a novel antibacterial for treatment of invasive bacterial infections. PMID:26936660

  4. Novel hybrids of metronidazole and quinolones: synthesis, bioactive evaluation, cytotoxicity, preliminary antimicrobial mechanism and effect of metal ions on their transportation by human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Cui, Sheng-Feng; Peng, Li-Ping; Zhang, Hui-Zhen; Rasheed, Syed; Vijaya Kumar, Kannekanti; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2014-10-30

    A novel series of hybrids of metronidazole and quinolones as antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized. Most prepared compounds exhibited good or even stronger antimicrobial activities in comparison with reference drugs. Furthermore, these highly active metronidazole-quinolone hybrids showed appropriate ranges of pKa, log P and aqueous solubility to pharmacokinetic behaviors and no obvious toxicity to A549 and human hepatocyte LO2 cells. Their competitive interactions with metal ions to HSA revealed that the participation of Mg(2+) ion in compound 7d-HSA association could result in a concentration increase of free compound 7d. Molecular modeling and experimental investigation of compound 7d with DNA suggested that possible antibacterial mechanism might be in relation with multiple binding sites between bioactive molecules and topo IV-DNA complex.

  5. The type III secretion system as a source of novel antibacterial drug targets.

    PubMed

    Kline, Toni; Felise, Heather B; Sanowar, Sarah; Miller, Samuel I

    2012-03-01

    Type III Secretion Systems (T3SSs) are highly organized multi-protein nanomachines which translocate effector proteins from the bacterial cytosol directly into host cells. These systems are required for the pathogenesis of a wide array of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, and thus have attracted attention as potential antibacterial drug targets. A decade of research has enabled the identification of natural products, conventional small molecule drug-like structures, and proteins that inhibit T3SSs. The mechanism(s) of action and molecular target(s) of the majority of these inhibitors remain to be determined. At the same time, structural biology methods are providing an increasingly detailed picture of the functional arrangement of the T3SS component proteins. The confluence of these two research areas may ultimately identify non-classical drug targets and facilitate the development of novel therapeutics.

  6. Ligand and Structure-Based Approaches for the Identification of Peptide Deformylase Inhibitors as Antibacterial Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian; Liang, Li; Zhu, Yasheng; Qiu, Shengzhi; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) is a metalloprotease catalyzing the removal of a formyl group from newly synthesized proteins, which makes it an important antibacterial drug target. Given the importance of PDF inhibitors like actinonin in antibacterial drug discovery, several reported potent PDF inhibitors were used to develop pharmacophore models using the Galahad module of Sybyl 7.1 software. Generated pharmacophore models were composed of two donor atom centers, four acceptor atom centers and two hydrophobic groups. Model-1 was screened against the Zinc database and several compounds were retrieved as hits. Compounds with Qfit values of more than 60 were employed to perform a molecular docking study with the receptor Escherichia coli PDF, then compounds with docking score values of more than 6 were used to predict the in silico pharmacokinetic and toxicity risk via OSIRIS property explorer. Two known PDF inhibitors were also used to perform a molecular docking study with E. coli PDF as reference molecules. The results of the molecular docking study were validated by reproducing the crystal structure of actinonin. Molecular docking and in silico pharmacokinetic and toxicity prediction studies suggested that ZINC08740166 has a relatively high docking score of 7.44 and a drug score of 0.78. PMID:27428963

  7. Perspectives on the development of novel potentially active quinolones against tuberculosis and cancer.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, V; Gomes, C R B; de Souza, M V N; Vasconcelos, T R A

    2012-08-01

    Quinolones and its derivatives comprise an important group of heterocyclic compounds that exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties such as antibacterial, antitumor, antiviral, anti-ischemic, antiparasitic and anxiolytic. Persistent efforts have been made over the years to develop novel congeners with superior biological activities and minimal potential for undesirable side-effects. The present review aims to highlight some recent discoveries on the development of novel quinolone-based compounds with potential antitubercular and anticancer activity.

  8. Quinolone-containing therapies in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Seng-Kee; Tai, Wei-Chen; Lee, Chen-Hsiang; Liang, Chih-Ming; Hu, Tsung-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones, especially levofloxacin, are used in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori worldwide. Many consensus guidelines recommend that the second-line rescue therapy for H. pylori eradication consists of a proton pump inhibitor, a quinolone, and amoxicillin as an option. Unfortunately, quinolone is well associated with a risk of developing bacterial resistance. In this paper, we review quinolone-containing H. pylori eradication regimens and the challenges that influence the efficacy of eradication. It is generally suggested that the use of levofloxacin should be confined to "rescue" therapy only, in order to avoid a further rapid increase in the resistance of H. pylori to quinolone. The impact of quinolone-containing H. pylori eradication regimens on public health issues such as tuberculosis treatment must always be taken into account. Exposure to quinolone is relevant to delays in diagnosing tuberculosis and the development of drug resistance. Extending the duration of treatment to 14 days improves eradication rates by >90%. Tailored therapy to detect fluoroquinolone-resistant strains can be done by culture-based and molecular methods to provide better eradication rates. Molecular methods are achieved by using a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of a gyrA mutation, which is predictive of treatment failure with quinolones-containing triple therapy.

  9. N-Substituted piperazinyl quinolones as potential cytotoxic agents: structure-activity relationships study.

    PubMed

    Foroumadi, Alireza; Emami, Saeed; Rajabalian, Saeed; Badinloo, Marziyeh; Mohammadhosseini, Negar; Shafiee, Abbas

    2009-03-01

    As part of a continuing search for new potential anticancer candidates in the piperazinyl quinolone series, the cytotoxicity evaluation of new N-substituted piperazinyl quinolones was of our interest. The growth inhibitory activities of 12 new compounds, namely N-[2-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl] and N-[2-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)-2-oxyiminoethyl] piperazinyl quinolones 1-12 were determined against six cancer cell lines using MTT colorimetric assay. Preliminary screening showed that most of the new N-[2-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)ethyl]piperazinyl quinolones 4-12 containing (un)substituted oxime moiety showed significant cytotoxic activity and the modification of functionality on ethyl spacer produced a relatively minor change of activity. Thus, in the piperazinyl quinolone series, cytotoxic activity can be positively modulated through the introduction of 2-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)ethyl residue on the piperazine ring. The results revealed that the introduction of 2-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)ethyl moiety on the piperazine ring of quinolone antibacterials (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and enoxacin) changes the biological profile of piperazinyl quinolones from antibacterials to cytotoxic agents.

  10. Improvement of antibacterial activity of some sulfa drugs through linkage to certain phthalazin-1(2H)-one scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hany S; Eldehna, Wagdy M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Elaasser, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Aziz, Marwa M

    2014-10-06

    RAB1 5 is a lead antibacterial agent in which trimethoprim is linked to phthalazine moiety. Similarly, our strategy in this research depends on the interconnection between some sulfa drugs and certain phthalazin-1(2H)-one scaffolds in an attempt to enhance their antibacterial activity. This approach was achieved through the combination of 4-substituted phthalazin-1(2H)-ones 9a, b or 14a, b with sulfanilamide 1a, sulfathiazole 1b or sulfadiazine 1c through amide linkers 6a, b to produce the target compounds 10a-d and 15a-e, respectively. The antibacterial activity of the newly synthesized compounds showed that all tested compounds have antibacterial activity higher than that of their reference sulfa drugs 1a-c. Compound 10c represented the highest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC = 0.39 μmol/mL. Moreover, compound 10d displayed excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium with MIC = 0.39 and 0.78 μmol/mL, respectively.

  11. Studies on genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of antibacterial, antiviral, antimalarial and antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Giovanni; Mattioli, Francesca; Robbiano, Luigi; Martelli, Antonietta

    2012-07-01

    This review provides a compendium of retrievable results of genotoxicity and animal carcinogenicity studies performed of antibacterial, antiviral, antimalarial and antifungal drugs of long-term or intermittent frequent use. Of the 48 drugs considered, 9 (18.75%) do not have retrievable data, whereas the other 39 (81.25%) have at least one genotoxicity or carcinogenicity tests result. Of these 39 drugs, 24 tested positive in at least one genotoxicity assay and 19 in at least one carcinogenicity assay; 14 of them gave a positive response in both at least one genotoxicity assay and at least one carcinogenicity assay. Concerning the predictivity of genetic toxicology findings for the results of long-term carcinogenesis assays, of 23 drugs with both genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data: 2 (8.7%) were neither genotoxic nor carcinogenic, 2 (8.7%) tested positive in at least one genotoxicity assay but were non-carcinogenic, 4 (17.4%) tested negative in genotoxicity assays but were carcinogenic, and 15 (65.2%) gave a positive response in at least one genotoxicity assay and in at least one carcinogenicity assay. Only 18 (37.5%) of the 48 drugs examined had all data required by present guidelines for testing of pharmaceuticals, but a fraction of them (49%) were developed and marketed prior to the present regulatory climate. In the absence of compelling indications, the prescription of the 19 drugs that are animal carcinogens should be avoided.

  12. Investigation of the composition and antibacterial activity of Ukrain™ drug using liquid chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Jesionek, Wioleta; Fornal, Emilia; Majer-Dziedzic, Barbara; Móricz, Ágnes M; Nowicky, Wassil; Choma, Irena M

    2016-01-15

    The greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) has been known for the centuries as a medicinal plant. One of the therapeutic agents based on C. majus is anticancer drug Ukrain™ known as a semi-synthetic C. majus alkaloid derivative. Although there are no doubts about antitumor properties of the drug, there is still controversy about its composition. In this study, Ukrain™ was subjected to TLC and LC-MS/MS analyses to compare it with C. majus alkaloid root extract and to determine its composition. Moreover, microbiological activity of both Ukrain™ and the alkaloid extract were tested against Bacillus subtilis strains using TLC-direct bioautography. Sanguinarine, chelidonine, α-homochelidonie and chelerythrine were found to have antibacterial properties. Besides chelidonine, sanguinarine, chelerythrine, protopine, allocryptopine, homochelidonie, berberine and coptisine reported earlier in literature, the presence of stylopine, norchelidonine, dihydrochelidonine and hydroberberine in Ukrain™ was detected, and here they have been reported for the first time.

  13. Recent contributions of Structure-Based Drug Design to the development of antibacterial compounds

    PubMed Central

    Staker, Bart L.; Buchko, Garry W.; Myler, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    According to a Pew Research study published in February 2015, there are 37 antibacterial programs currently in clinical trials in the United States. Protein structure-based methods for guiding small molecule design were used in at least 34 of these programs. Typically, this occurred at an early stage (drug discovery and/or lead optimization) prior to an Investigational New Drug (IND) application, although sometimes in retrospective studies to rationalize biological activity. Recognizing that structure-based methods are resource-intensive and often require specialized equipment and training, the NIAID has funded two Structural Genomics Centers to determine structures of infectious disease species proteins with the aim of supporting individual investigators’ research programs with structural biology methods. PMID:26458180

  14. Quinolone-based HDAC inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Gopalan; Kilambi, Narasimhan; Rathinasamy, Suresh; Rajendran, Praveen; Narayanan, Shridhar; Rajagopal, Sridharan

    2014-08-01

    HDAC inhibitors emerged as promising drug candidates in combating wide variety of cancers. At present, two of the compounds SAHA and Romidepsin were approved by FDA for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and many are in various clinical phases. A new quinolone cap structure was explored with hydroxamic acid as zinc-binding group (ZBG). The pan HDAC inhibitory and antiproliferative activities against three human cancer cell lines HCT-116 (colon), NCI-H460 (lung) and U251 (glioblastoma) of the compounds (4a-4w) were evaluated. Introduction of heterocyclic amines in CAP region increased the enzyme inhibitory and antiproliferative activities and few of the compounds tested are metabolically stable in both MLM and HLM.

  15. Honeydew honey as a potent antibacterial agent in eradication of multi-drug resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Majtan, Juraj; Majtanova, Lubica; Bohova, Jana; Majtan, Viktor

    2011-04-01

    Multi-drug resistance in nosocomial pathogens is a continually evolving and alarming problem in health care units. Since ancient times, honey has been used successfully for the treatment of a broad spectrum of infections with no risk of resistance development. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of two natural honeys, namely honeydew and manuka, against 20 nosocomial multi-drug resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) isolates from cancer patients. An antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out using the disk diffusion method with 20 antibiotic disks. The antibacterial activity of honey was determined using a broth dilution method. The concentration of honey used in the study was within the range of 3.75% to 25% (w/v). All 20 clinical isolates were multi-drug resistant against 11 to 19 antibiotics. The MICs for honeydew honey ranged from 6.25% to 17.5%, while those for active manuka honey ranged from 7.5% to 22.5%. Honeydew honey had lower MICs than manuka honey against 16 of the tested isolates. This study showed that Slovak honeydew honey has exceptional antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant S. maltophilia isolates and was more efficient than manuka honey (UMF 15+). Honeydew honey with strong antibacterial activity could be used as a potential agent to eradicate multi-drug resistant clinical isolates.

  16. Inactivation of indispensable bacterial proteins by early proteins of bacteriophages: implication in antibacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sau, S; Chattoraj, P; Ganguly, T; Chanda, P K; Mandal, N C

    2008-06-01

    Bacteriophages utilize host bacterial cellular machineries for their own reproduction and completion of life cycles. The early proteins that phage synthesize immediately after the entry of their genomes into bacterial cells participate in inhibiting host macromolecular biosynthesis, initiating phage-specific replication and synthesizing late proteins. Inhibition of synthesis of host macromolecules that eventually leads to cell death is generally performed by the physical and/or chemical modification of indispensable host proteins by early proteins. Interestingly, most modified bacterial proteins were shown to take part actively in phage-specific transcription and replication. Research on phages in last nine decades has demonstrated such lethal early proteins that interact with or chemically modify indispensable host proteins. Among the host proteins inhibited by lethal phage proteins, several are not inhibited by any chemical inhibitor available today. Under the context of widespread dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria in recent years, the information of lethal phage proteins and cognate host proteins could be extremely invaluable as they may lead to the identification of novel antibacterial compounds. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about some early phage proteins, their cognate host proteins and their mechanism of action and also describe how the above interacting proteins had been exploited in antibacterial drug discovery.

  17. Patient and physician attitudes regarding risk and benefit in streamlined development programmes for antibacterial drugs: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Thomas L; Mikita, Stephen; Bloom, Diane; Roberts, Jamie; McCall, Jonathan; Collyar, Deborah; Santiago, Jonas; Tiernan, Rosemary; Toerner, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore patient, caregiver and physician perceptions and attitudes regarding the balance of benefit and risk in using antibacterial drugs developed through streamlined development processes. Design Semistructured focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted to elicit perceptions and attitudes about the use of antibacterial drugs to treat multidrug-resistant infections. Participants were given background information about antibiotic resistance, streamlined drug development programmes and FDA drug approval processes. Audio recordings of focus groups/interviews were reviewed and quotes excerpted and categorised to identify key themes. Participants Two primary stakeholder groups were engaged: one comprising caregivers, healthy persons and patients who had recovered from or were at risk of resistant infection (N=67; 11 focus groups); and one comprising physicians who treat resistant infections (N=23). Results Responses from focus groups/interviews indicated widespread awareness among patients/caregivers and physicians of the seriousness of the problem of antibacterial resistance. Both groups were willing to accept a degree of uncertainty regarding the balance of risk and benefit in a new therapy where a serious unmet need exists, but also expressed a desire for rigorous monitoring and rapid, transparent reporting of safety/effectiveness data. Both groups wanted to ensure that >1 physician had input on whether to treat patients with antibiotics developed through a streamlined process. Some patients/caregivers unfamiliar with exigencies of critical care suggested a relatively large multidisciplinary team, while physicians believed individual expert consultations would be preferable. Both groups agreed that careful oversight and stewardship of antibacterial drugs are needed to ensure patient safety, preserve efficacy and prevent abuse. Conclusions Groups comprising patients/caregivers and physicians were aware of serious issues posed by resistant

  18. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Methods The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Results Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Conclusions Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary. PMID:23569978

  19. Advanced biopolymer-coated drug-releasing titania nanotubes (TNTs) implants with simultaneously enhanced osteoblast adhesion and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Kumeria, Tushar; Mon, Htwe; Aw, Moom Sinn; Gulati, Karan; Santos, Abel; Griesser, Hans J; Losic, Dusan

    2015-06-01

    Here, we report on the development of advanced biopolymer-coated drug-releasing implants based on titanium (Ti) featuring titania nanotubes (TNTs) on its surface. These TNT arrays were fabricated on the Ti surface by electrochemical anodization, followed by the loading and release of a model antibiotic drug, gentamicin. The osteoblastic adhesion and antibacterial properties of these TNT-Ti samples are significantly improved by loading antibacterial payloads inside the nanotubes and modifying their surface with two biopolymer coatings (PLGA and chitosan). The improved osteoblast adhesion and antibacterial properties of these drug-releasing TNT-Ti samples are confirmed by the adhesion and proliferation studies of osteoblasts and model Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis). The adhesion of these cells on TNT-Ti samples is monitored by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopies. Results reveal the ability of these biopolymer-coated drug-releasing TNT-Ti substrates to promote osteoblast adhesion and proliferation, while effectively preventing bacterial colonization by impeding their proliferation and biofilm formation. The proposed approach could overcome inherent problems associated with bacterial infections on Ti-based implants, simultaneously enabling the development of orthopedic implants with enhanced and synergistic antibacterial functionalities and bone cell promotion.

  20. One-pot synthesis of antibacterial chitosan/silver bio-nanocomposite hydrogel beads as drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Yadollahi, Mehdi; Farhoudian, Sana; Namazi, Hassan

    2015-08-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in situ during the formation of physically crosslinked chitosan hydrogel beads using sodium tripolyphosphate as the crosslinker. The aim of the study was to investigate whether these nanocomposite beads have the potential to be used in drug delivery applications. The formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the hydrogels was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies. Furthermore, the antibacterial and swelling properties of the beads were studied. The nanocomposite hydrogels demonstrated good antibacterial effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. AgNPs caused an increase in the swelling capacity of the beads. In vitro drug release test was carried out to prove the effectiveness of this novel type of nanocomposite beads as a controlled drug delivery system. Prolonged and more controlled drug releases were observed for AgNPs containing chitosan beads, which increased by the increase in AgNPs content.

  1. Encapsulation of Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs within Mesoporous Silica and Intracellular Antibacterial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xin; Pethe, Kevin; Kim, Ryangyeo; Ballell, Lluis; Barros, David; Cechetto, Jonathan; Jeon, HeeKyoung; Kim, Kideok; Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major problem in public health. While new effective treatments to combat the disease are currently under development, they tend suffer from poor solubility often resulting in low and/or inconsistent oral bioavailability. Mesoporous materials are here investigated in an in vitro intracellular assay, for the effective delivery of compound PA-824; a poorly soluble bactericidal agent being developed against Tuberculosis (TB). Mesoporous materials enhance the solubility of PA-824; however, this is not translated into a higher antibacterial activity in TB-infected macrophages after 5 days of incubation, where similar values are obtained. The lack of improved activity may be due to insufficient release of the drug from the mesopores in the context of the cellular environment. However, these results show promising data for the use of mesoporous particles in the context of oral delivery with expected improvements in bioavailability.

  2. [New antibacterial agents on the market and in the pipeline].

    PubMed

    Kern, W V

    2015-11-01

    After some years of stagnation there have been several new successful developments in the field of antibacterial agents. Most of these new developments have been in conventional antibacterial classes. New drugs among the beta-lactam agents are methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) active cephalosporins (ceftaroline and ceftobiprole) and new combinations of beta-lactam with beta-lactamase inhibitors (ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, imipenem/relebactam and meropenem/RPX7009). New developments can also be observed among oxazolidinones (tedizolid, radezolid, cadazolid and MRX-I), macrolides/ketolides (modithromycin and solithromycin), aminoglycosides (plazomicin), quinolones (nemonoxacin, delafloxacin and avarofloxacin), tetracyclines (omadacycline and eravacycline) as well as among glycopeptides and lipopeptides (oritavancin, telavancin, dalbavancin and surotomycin). New agents in a very early developmental phase are FabI inhibitors, endolysines, peptidomimetics, lipid A inhibitors, methionyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors and teixobactin.

  3. Photoprocesses in quinolone substituted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyeva, N. Y.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2002-03-01

    In the present work the analysis of the possible ways of energy degradation of electron excited states of 4-methyl-7- hydxyquinolone-2 (Q) and its protolytic species is presented (Figure 1); a ratio of radiative and nonradiative channels of deactivation of energy of electronic excitation is established; constants of photophysical processes (internal and intercrossing conversion), proceeding after act of absorption of light are designed. Study of exited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in quinolones is interesting as a source of information on the relative importance of these processes in the photophysics and photochemistry of such molecular systems.

  4. Chemical structure and pharmacokinetics of novel quinolone agents represented by avarofloxacin, delafloxacin, finafloxacin, zabofloxacin and nemonoxacin.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Bela; Domokos, J; Szabo, D

    2016-05-23

    Quinolones are potent antimicrobial agents with a basic chemical structure of bicyclic ring. Fluorine atom at position C-6 and various substitutions on the basic quinolone structure yielded fluoroquinolones, namely norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin and numerous other agents. The target molecules of quinolones and fluoroquinolones are bacterial gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes. Broad-spectrum and excellent tissue penetration make fluoroquinolones potent agents but their toxic side effects and increasing number of resistant pathogens set limits on their use. This review focuses on recent advances concerning quinolones and fluoroquinolones, we will be summarising chemical structure, mode of action, pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity. We will be describing fluoroquinolones introduced in clinical trials, namely avarofloxacin, delafloxacin, finafloxacin, zabofloxacin and non-fluorinated nemonoxacin. These agents have been proved to have enhanced antibacterial effect even against ciprofloxacin resistant pathogens, and found to be well tolerated in both oral and parenteral administrations. These features are going to make them potential antimicrobial agents in the future.

  5. [The molecular physiological and genetic mechanisms underlying the superb efficacy of quinolones].

    PubMed

    Long, Quan-xin; He, Ying; Xie, Jian-ping

    2012-08-01

    The fluoroquinolones are the most widely used broad-spectrum antibiotics, accounting for 18% of global antibacterial market share. They can kill bacteria rapidly with variety of derivatives available. Different quinolones vary significantly in rate and spectrum of killing, oxygen requirement for metabolism and reliance upon protein synthesis. Further understanding the sophisticated mechanisms of action of this important antibiotic family based on the molecular genetic response of bacteria can facilitate the discovery of better quinolone derivatives. Factors such as SOS response, bacterial toxin-antitoxin system, programmed death, chromosome fragmentation and reactive oxygen have been implicated in the action to some extent. "Two steps characteristic" of quinolones killing is also emphasized, which might inspire future better quinolones modification.

  6. Human-use antibacterial residues in the natural environment of China: implication for ecopharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; He, Bingshu; Hu, Xiamin

    2015-06-01

    Antibacterial residues in the natural environment have been of increasing concern due to their impact on bacteria resistance development and toxicity to natural communities and ultimately to public health. China is a large country with high production and consumption of antibacterials for its population growth and economic development in recent years. In this article, we summarized the current situation of human-use antibacterial pollution in Chinese water (wastewaters, natural and drinking waters) and solid matrices (sludge, sediment, and soil) reported in 33 peer-reviewed papers. We found that, although there are adequate wastewater treatment systems in China, human-use antibacterial residues in the natural environment were reported almost throughout the whole country. Three most frequently prescribed classes of antibacterials in China, including quinolones, macrolides, and β-lactam, were also the predominant classes of residues in Chinese environment, manifested as the high concentration and detection frequency. In view of this alarming situation, we have presented that ecopharmacovigilance (EPV) might be implemented in the antibacterial drug administration of China, as the active participation of the pharmaceutical industry and drug regulatory authorities from the diffuse source of antibacterial pollution. Considering EPV experience of developed countries together with the actual conditions of China, we have identified some approaches that can be taken, including:• Focus on education;• Further strengthening and persevering the antibacterial stewardship strategies and pharmaceutical take-back programs in China;• Designing greener antibacterials with better degradability in the environment;• Implementing environmental risk assessment prior to launch of new drugs;• Strengthening collaboration in EPV-related areas.

  7. Liposomes loaded with bioactive lipids enhance antibacterial innate immunity irrespective of drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Poerio, Noemi; Bugli, Francesca; Taus, Francesco; Santucci, Marilina B.; Rodolfo, Carlo; Cecconi, Francesco; Torelli, Riccardo; Varone, Francesco; Inchingolo, Riccardo; Majo, Fabio; Lucidi, Vincenzina; Mariotti, Sabrina; Nisini, Roberto; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Fraziano, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Phagocytosis is a key mechanism of innate immunity, and promotion of phagosome maturation may represent a therapeutic target to enhance antibacterial host response. Phagosome maturation is favored by the timely and coordinated intervention of lipids and may be altered in infections. Here we used apoptotic body-like liposomes (ABL) to selectively deliver bioactive lipids to innate cells, and then tested their function in models of pathogen-inhibited and host-impaired phagosome maturation. Stimulation of macrophages with ABLs carrying phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) or PI5P increased intracellular killing of BCG, by inducing phagosome acidification and ROS generation. Moreover, ABLs carrying PA or PI5P enhanced ROS-mediated intracellular killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in macrophages expressing a pharmacologically-inhibited or a naturally-mutated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Finally, we show that bronchoalveolar lavage cells from patients with drug-resistant pulmonary infections increased significantly their capacity to kill in vivo acquired bacterial pathogens when ex vivo stimulated with PA- or PI5P-loaded ABLs. Altogether, these results provide the proof of concept of the efficacy of bioactive lipids delivered by ABL to enhance phagosome maturation dependent antimicrobial response, as an additional host-directed strategy aimed at the control of chronic, recurrent or drug-resistant infections. PMID:28345623

  8. [Molecular mechanism of the acquisition of new-quinolone resistance in Mycobacterium leprae and M. tuberculosis and rapid differentiation methods for resistant bacilli].

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Suzuki, Haruka; Matsuoka, Masanori; Matsuba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2011-02-01

    Drugs included in new-quinolone are used for the treatment of leprosy with single lesion. These drugs are also known to be effective drugs for the treatment of multi-drug resistant M. tuberculosis. Recent emergence of new-quinolone resistant M. leprae and M. tuberculosis enforced the urgent elucidation of the mode of emergence of new-quinolone resistant strains. In this review, new-quinolone drugs, their mode of action and mechanism of acquisition of resistance by M. leprae and M. tuberculosis were explained. And rapid differentiation methods for resistant bacilli were also introduced.

  9. Two approaches to form antibacterial surface: Doping with bactericidal element and drug loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhorukova, I. V.; Sheveyko, A. N.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph. V.; Anisimova, N. Y.; Gloushankova, N. A.; Zhitnyak, I. Y.; Benesova, J.; Amler, E.; Shtansky, D. V.

    2015-03-01

    Two approaches (surface doping with bactericidal element and loading of antibiotic into specially formed surface microcontainers) to the fabrication of antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces are described. A network structure with square-shaped blind pores of 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10-3 mm3 for drug loading was obtained by selective laser sintering (SLS). The SLS-fabricated samples were loaded with 0.03, 0.3, 2.4, and 4 mg/cm2 of co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). Ag-doped TiCaPCON films with 0.4, 1.2, and 4.0 at.% of Ag were obtained by co-sputtering of composite TiC0.5-Ca3(PO4)2 and metallic Ag targets. The surface structure of SLS-prepared samples and cross-sectional morphology of TiCaPCON-Ag films were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The through-thickness of Ag distribution in the TiCaPCON-Ag films was obtained by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The kinetics of Ag ion release in normal saline solution was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bacterial activity of the samples was evaluated against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and K. pneum. ozaenae using the agar diffusion test and photometric method by controlling the variation of optical density of the bacterial suspension over time. Cytocompatibility of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films was observed in vitro using chondrocytic and MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The viability and proliferation of chondrocytic cells were determined using the MTS assay and PicoGreen assay tests, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the SLS-fabricated samples loaded with co-amoxiclav was also studied. The obtained results showed that the moderate bacteriostatic effect of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films is mainly manifested in the change of bacterial colony morphology and optical densities of bacteria suspensions. In contrast, the SLS-prepared samples showed a very rapid initial drug release resulting in strong bactericidal effect just from the start of the

  10. Immobilisation of an antibacterial drug to Ti6Al4V components fabricated using selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaithilingam, Jayasheelan; Kilsby, Samuel; Goodridge, Ruth D.; Christie, Steven D. R.; Edmondson, Steve; Hague, Richard J. M.

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial infections from biomedical implants and surgical devices are a major problem in orthopaedic, dental and vascular surgery. Although the sources of contaminations that lead to bacterial infections are known, it is not possible to control or avoid such infections completely. In this study, an approach to immobilise Ciprofloxacin® (an antibacterial drug) to phosphonic acid based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) adsorbed on a selectively laser melted (SLM) Ti6Al4V structure, has been presented. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static water contact angle measurements confirmed the attachment of SAMs and the drug. Results showed that Ciprofloxacin® is highly stable under the oxidative conditions used in this study. In-vitro stability was estimated by immersing the Ciprofloxacin® immobilised substrates in 10 mM of Tris-HCl buffer (pH-7.4) for 42 days. The Tris-HCl buffer was analysed using UV-vis spectrophotometry at 7, 14, 28 and 42 day time intervals to determine the release of the immobilised drug. The drug was observed to release in a sustained manner. 50% of the drug was released after 4 weeks with approximately 40% of the drug remaining after 6 weeks. Antibacterial susceptibility tests revealed that the immobilised drug was therapeutically active upon its release. This study demonstrates the potential to use self-assembled monolayers to modify SLM fabricated surfaces with therapeutics.

  11. Proteomics Evidence for the Activity of the Putative Antibacterial Plant Alkaloid (-)-Roemerine: Mainstreaming Omics-Guided Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Gokgoz, Nilay Budeyri; Akbulut, Berna Sariyar

    2015-08-01

    Discovery of new antibacterials with novel mechanisms is important to counteract the ingenious resistance mechanisms of bacteria. In this connection, omics-guided drug discovery offers a rigorous method in the quest of new antibacterials. (-)-Roemerine is a plant alkaloid that has been reported to possess putative antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typhimurium. The aim of the present study was to characterize the activity of (-)-roemerine in Escherichia coli TB1 using proteomics tools. With (-)-roemerine treatment, we found limited permeability through the outer membrane and repression of transport proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in poor carbon source availability. The shortfall of intracellular carbon sources in turn led to impaired cell growth. The reduction in the abundance of proteins related to translational machinery, amino acid biosynthesis, and metabolism was accompanied by a nutrient-limited state. The latter finding could suggest a metabolic shutdown in E. coli cells. High osmolarity was clearly not one of the reasons of bacterial death by (-)-roemerine. These observations collectively attest to the promise of plant omics and profiling of putative drug candidates using proteomics tools. Omics-guided drug discovery deserves greater attention in mainstream pharmacology so as to better understand the plants' medicinal potentials.

  12. Novel N-2-(Furyl)-2-(chlorobenzyloxyimino) Ethyl Piperazinyl Quinolones: Synthesis, Cytotoxic Evaluation and Structure-Activity Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadhosseini, Negar; Pordeli, Mahboobeh; Safavi, Maliheh; Firoozpour, Loghman; Amin, Fatame; Kabudanian Ardestani, Sussan; Edraki, Najmeh; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Quinolone antibacterials are one of the most important classes of pharmacological agents known as potent inhibitors of bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV that efficiently inhibit DNA replication and transcription by generating several double-stranded DNA break. Some quinolone derivatives demonstrated inhibitory potential against eukaryote topoismarase II and substantial dose-dependent cytotoxic potential against some cancerous cells. In present study, synthesis and cytotoxic activity evaluation of new series of N-pipearzinyl quinolones containing N-2-(furyl-2 or 3-yl)-2-(chlorobenzyloxyimino) ethyl moiety 7a-i have been studied. Reaction of quinolone, with 2-bromo-1-(furan-2 or 3-yl)ethanone-O-substituted chlorobenzyloxime in DMF in presence of NaHCO3 at room temperature, gave the title compounds N-2-(furan-2 or 3-yl)-2-(chlorobenzyloxyiminoethyl) quinolone 7a-i. Synthesized compounds were further evaluated in-vitro against three human breast tumor cell lines. Preliminary screening indicated that compound 7 g demonstrated significant growth inhibitory potential against all evaluated cell lines. The results of structure-activity relationship study exhibited that quinolone derivatives are superior in cytotoxic potential compared to 1, 8-naphthyridone series. Furthermore, ethyl quinolone derivatives were more potent cytotoxic agents comparing with cyclopropyl quinolones. PMID:26664376

  13. [Fluoroquinolones: Non-antibacterial properties].

    PubMed

    Leyva-Ramos, S; Hernández-López, H

    2017-02-01

    Fluoroquinolones are a class of well-established chemotherapeutic agents with a potent biological activity being the structure of 4-quinolone-3-carboxilic acids privileged because it contains different sites for functionalization allowing expand its use in clinical practice for their antifungal, antiviral and anticancer activities. Quinolones structural changes have resulted in a first, second, third and fourth generation of drugs so it is advisable to continue modifying existing structures in new ways to generate compounds with desirable biological and pharmacological properties.

  14. Amino acid substitutions in GyrA affect quinolone susceptibility in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Kongsoi, Siriporn; Changkwanyeun, Ruchirada; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Nakajima, Chie; Changkaew, Kanjana; Suthienkul, Orasa; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of quinolone-resistant Salmonella has become a public health concern. Amino acid substitutions have generally been found within the quinolone resistance-determining region in subunit A of DNA gyrase (GyrA) of Salmonella Typhimurium. However, direct evidence of the contribution of these substitutions to quinolone resistance remains to be shown. To investigate the significance of amino acid substitutions in S. Typhimurium GyrA to quinolone resistance, we expressed recombinant wild-type (WT) and five mutant DNA gyrases in Escherichia coli and characterized them in vitro. WT and mutant DNA gyrases were reconstituted in vitro by mixing recombinant subunits A and B of DNA gyrase. The correlation between the amino acid substitutions and resistance to quinolones ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and sitafloxacin was assessed by quinolone-inhibited supercoiling assays. All mutant DNA gyrases showed reduced susceptibility to all quinolones when compared with WT DNA gyrases. DNA gyrase with a double amino acid substitution in GyrA, serine to phenylalanine at codon 83 and aspartic acid to asparagine at 87 (GyrA-S83F-D87N), exhibited the lowest quinolone susceptibility amongst all mutant DNA gyrases. The effectiveness of sitafloxacin was shown by the low inhibitory concentration required for mutant DNA gyrases, including the DNA gyrase with GyrA-S83F-D87N. We suggest sitafloxacin as a candidate drug for the treatment of salmonellosis caused by ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Typhimurium. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Impact of mutations in DNA gyrase genes on quinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Changkwanyeun, Ruchirada; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kongsoi, Siriporn; Changkaew, Kanjana; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Kim, Hyun; Suthienkul, Orasa; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Amino acid substitutions providing quinolone resistance to Campyloabcter jejuni have been found in the quinolone resistance-determining region of protein DNA gyrase subunit A (GyrA), with the highest frequency at position 86 followed by position 90. In this study, wild-type and mutant recombinant DNA gyrase subunits were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-NTA agarose column chromatography. Soluble 97 kDa GyrA and 87 kDa DNA gyrase subunit B were shown to reconstitute ATP-dependent DNA supercoiling activity. A quinolone-inhibited supercoiling assay demonstrated the roles of Thr86Ile, Thr86Ala, Thr86Lys, Asp90Asn, and Asp90Tyr amino acid substitutions in reducing sensitivity to quinolones. The marked effect of Thr86Ile on all examined quinolones suggested the advantage of this substitution in concordance with recurring isolation of quinolone-resistant C. jejuni. An analysis of the structure-activity relationship showed the importance of the substituent at position 8 in quinolones to overcome the effect of Thr86Ile. Sitafloxacin (SIT), which has a fluorinate cyclopropyl ring at R-1 and a chloride substituent at R-8, a characteristic not found in other quinolones, showed the highest inhibitory activity against all mutant C. jejuni gyrases including ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants. The results suggest SIT as a promising drug for the treatment of campylobacteriosis caused by CIP-resistant C. jejuni. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Antibacterial activity for clinical isolates from pediatric patients of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1: 14) -outcomes of special drug use investigation on antibacterial activity (annual changes)].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Naomi; Okano, Hideyuki; Hara, Terufumi; Yoshida, Pascal

    2013-06-01

    As a special drug use investigation, we monitored and assessed trends in antibacterial activity of clavulanic acid/amoxicillin (1:14) (hereafter, "CVA/AMPC (1:14)") and other antimicrobial agents for clinical isolates from pediatric patients with otitis media or respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections. Against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis isolated and identified from otorrhea, epipharynx and rhinorrhea of pediatric patients with otitis media, the MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) in five years between 2006-2010 were 1 microg/mL for S. pneumoniae and 8 microg/mL for H. influenzae and 0.25-0.5microg/mL for M catarrhalis. The changes of MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) for penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) and beta-lactamase non-producing H. influenzae were two times, and no decrease in drug susceptibility was found in the period of the present investigation. In addition, the MIC changes of other antimicrobial agents for these three organisms were approximately two to four times as well. Against organisms isolated and identified from pus, sputum, pharynx, skin and urine of pediatric patients with respiratory, skin, and urinary tract infections, the MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) in four years between 2008-2011 were 1 microg/mL for S. pneumoniae, < or =0.06microg/mL for penicillin susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) without any change, 0.5-1 microg/mL for penicillin intermediate resistant S. pneumoniae (PISP) with a twofold change and 1 microg/mL for PRSP with no change. The MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) were 2-8 microg/mL for S. aureus with a fourfold change, 2 microg/mL for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus without any change, 4-8 microg/mL for H. influenzae with a twofold change. Against beta-lactamase non-producing H. influenzae, MIC90s of CVA/AMPC (1:14) were 1 microg/mL for beta-lactamase negative ampicillin susceptible (BLNAS), 8 microg/mL for beta-lactamase negative ampicillin resistant (BLNAR), showing no change. Neither

  17. Alkaloids: an overview of their antibacterial, antibiotic-enhancing and antivirulence activities.

    PubMed

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Cushnie, Benjamart; Lamb, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    With reports of pandrug-resistant bacteria causing untreatable infections, the need for new antibacterial therapies is more pressing than ever. Alkaloids are a large and structurally diverse group of compounds that have served as scaffolds for important antibacterial drugs such as metronidazole and the quinolones. In this review, we highlight other alkaloids with development potential. Natural, semisynthetic and synthetic alkaloids of all classes are considered, looking first at those with direct antibacterial activity and those with antibiotic-enhancing activity. Potent examples include CJ-13,136, a novel actinomycete-derived quinolone alkaloid with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.1 ng/mL against Helicobacter pylori, and squalamine, a polyamine alkaloid from the dogfish shark that renders Gram-negative pathogens 16- to >32-fold more susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Where available, information on toxicity, structure-activity relationships, mechanisms of action and in vivo activity is presented. The effects of alkaloids on virulence gene regulatory systems such as quorum sensing and virulence factors such as sortases, adhesins and secretion systems are also described. The synthetic isoquinoline alkaloid virstatin, for example, inhibits the transcriptional regulator ToxT in Vibrio cholerae, preventing expression of cholera toxin and fimbriae and conferring in vivo protection against intestinal colonisation. The review concludes with implications and limitations of the described research and directions for future research.

  18. Antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli recovered from retail chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Arfat Yousaf; Sheikh, Ali Ahmad; Rabbani, Masood; Aslam, Asim; Bibi, Tasra; Liaqat, Fakhra; Muhammad, Javed; Rehmani, Shafqat Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Increasing incidence rate of multiple drug resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) due to extensive uses of antibiotics is a serious challenge to disease treatment. Contaminated retail chicken meat is one of the major sources of spread of multi drug resistant (MDR) E. coli. Current study has been conducted to study the prevalence of MDR E. coli in retail chicken meat samples from Lahore city of Pakistan and it was found that 73.86% of E. coli isolates have MDR pattern. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of six herbs against MDR E. coli phenotypes has revealed that clove and cinnamon have maximum zones of inhibition as compared to other herbal extracts. Mint and coriander gave the intermediate results while garlic and kalonji showed the least antibacterial activity against the MDR E. coli phenotypes using the agar well diffusion technique. Average Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) for clove, mint, cinnamon, coriander, kalonji and garlic extracts were 1.15, 1.38, 0.5, 1.99, 2.41, 8.60 mg/mL respectively using the broth micro dilution method. The results obtained in present study were revealed that crude ethanol extracts of selected herbs have had significant antibacterial activity. Hence they can be used as promising alternatives of antimicrobials against MDR E. coli species and can be used for cooked food preservation.

  19. Identification and Antibacterial Activity of Bacteria Isolated from Marine Sponge Haliclona (Reniera) sp. against Multi-Drug Resistant Human Pathogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhanu Asagabaldan, Meezan; Ayuningrum, D.; Kristiana, R.; Sabdono, A.; Radjasa, O. K.; Trianto, A.

    2017-02-01

    The marine sponge Haliclona (Reniera) sp. was a potential source of natural bioactive compounds. This sponge widely distributed along the coast of Panjang Island, Jepara, Indonesia. The aims of this research were to isolate the associated bacteria with Haliclona (Reniera) sp. and to screen the antibacterial activity against Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Amount five bacteria were isolated using media selective for bacteria. The antibacterial activities of bacteria were performed by overlay methods. The bacteria strain PSP. 39-04 had the best activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterobacter cloaceae. Based on colony morphology and phylogenetic characterization using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, PSP 39-04 was closely related with Chromohalobacter salixigens strain DSM3043.

  20. The quinolones: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Andriole, Vincent T

    2005-07-15

    The quinolone class of antimicrobial agents has generated considerable interest since its discovery >40 years ago. Substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the action of quinolones against pathogenic bacteria, the induction of resistance to quinolones in these organisms, and the potential of each quinolone compound to induce toxicity in treated patients. Here, these key discoveries are reviewed; the present indications approved by regulatory agencies are described in detail, with comments on adverse events caused by quinolones in treated patients; and speculation about the future of the quinolones is proffered, even though their future is difficult to predict, because many factors may affect their clinical usefulness. However, the emergence of bacterial resistance to the quinolones is a major factor that will determine the future clinical effectiveness of these agents, so that intense investigation of mechanisms to either prevent or curtail resistance to quinolones is of prime importance to their future.

  1. Divergent Synthesis of Quinolone Natural Products from Pseudonocardia sp. CL38489

    PubMed Central

    Geddis, Stephen M.; Carro, Laura; Hodgkinson, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Two divergent synthetic routes are reported offering access to four quinolone natural products from Pseudonocardia sp. CL38489. Key steps to the natural products involved a regioselective epoxidation, an intramolecular Buchwald–Hartwig amination and a final acid‐catalysed 1,3‐allylic‐alcohol rearrangement to give two of the natural products in one step. This study completes the synthesis of all eight antibacterial quinolone natural products reported in the family. In addition, this modular strategy enables an improved synthesis towards two natural products previously reported. PMID:28111524

  2. Study of fluorescence characteristics of the charge-transfer reaction of quinolone agents with bromanil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Fang; Xuan, Chun-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A spectrofluorimetric method was discussed for the determination of three antibacterial quinolone derivatives, ofloxacin (OFL), norfloxacin (NOR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) through charge-transfer complexation (CTC) with 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, TBBQ). The method was based on the reaction of these drugs as n-electron donors with the π-acceptor TBBQ. TBBQ was found to react with these drugs to produce a kind of yellow complexes and the fluorescence intensities of the complexes were enhanced by 29-36 times more than those of the corresponding monomers. UV-vis, 1H NMR and XPS techniques were used to study the complexes formed. The various experimental parameters affecting the fluorescence intensity were studied and optimized. Under optimal reaction conditions, the rectilinear calibration graphs were obtained in the concentration range of 0.021-2.42 μg mL -1, 0.017-2.63 μg mL -1 and 0.019-2.14 μg mL -1 for OFL, NOR and CIP, respectively. The methods developed were applied successfully to the determination of the subject drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms with good precision and accuracy compared to official and reported methods as revealed by t- and F-tests.

  3. Comparative in vitro activities of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, and other quinolones against clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Lauderdale, Tsai-Ling; Shiau, Yih-Ru; Lai, Jui-Fen; Chen, Hua-Chien; King, Chi-Hsin R

    2010-03-01

    The in vitro antibacterial activities of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, against 770 clinical isolates were investigated. Nemonoxacin (tested as its malate salt, TG-875649) showed better in vitro activity than ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against different species of staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Haemophilus influenzae. The in vitro activity of TG-875649 was also comparable to or better than that of moxifloxacin against these pathogens, which included ciprofloxacin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and levofloxacin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

  4. Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drug delivery properties on cotton fabric using betamethasone-loaded mesoporous silica particles stabilized with chitosan and silicone softener.

    PubMed

    Hashemikia, Samaneh; Hemmatinejad, Nahid; Ahmadi, Ebrahim; Montazer, Majid

    2016-10-01

    In this study, mesoporous silica particles with a hexagonal structure (SBA-15) were synthesized and modified with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane, and used as a carrier for anti-inflammatory drug, betamethasone sodium phosphate. Drug-loaded silica particles were grafted on the cotton fabric surface using chitosan and polysiloxane reactive softener as a soft and safe fixing agent to develop an antibacterial cotton fabric with drug delivery properties. Cytometry assays revealed that synthesized silica have no cytotoxicity against human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Accordingly, the produced drug-loaded nanostructures can be applied via different routes, such as wound dressing. Drug delivery profile of the treated fabrics were investigated and compared. The drug release rate followed the conventional Higuchi model. The treated cotton fabrics were tested and evaluated using scanning electron microscope images, bending length, air permeability, washing durability and anti-bacterial properties. It was found that the chitosan-/softener-treated fabrics compounded with drug-loaded silica particles have a good drug delivery performance and exhibited a powerful antibacterial activity against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus even after five washing cycles. The produced antibacterial cotton fabric with drug delivery properties could be proposed as a suitable material for many medical and hygienic applications.

  5. Synergic Antibacterial Effect of Curcumin with Ampicillin; Free Drug Solutions in Comparison with SLN Dispersions.

    PubMed

    Alihosseini, Faezeh; Azarmi, Shirzad; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Haghighat, Setareh; Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate benefit of using nanotechnology on increasing of synergic antibacterial effect of natural and chemical antibacterial agents. Methods: At first the MIC and MBC of Curcumin and Ampicillin as selected antibacterial agents was determined, after that Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) of each active ingredients as well as Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization technique. Characterization of prepared SLNs was done, then MIC, MBC and contact killing time were investigated for Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs in comparison with free Curcumin and Ampicillin solutions as well as Ampicillin and Curcumin SLNs. Results: Based on results nanoparticles with the size of 150 nm show much more decreased MIC and MBC when Ampicillin and Curcumin were loaded together on SLNs than solutions in which free Ampicillin and Curcumin were mixed. Conclusion: It seems that using nanotechnology could cause decrease the dosage of antibiotics and risk of having antibiotic resistance bacteria strains.

  6. Synergic Antibacterial Effect of Curcumin with Ampicillin; Free Drug Solutions in Comparison with SLN Dispersions

    PubMed Central

    Alihosseini, Faezeh; Azarmi, Shirzad; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Haghighat, Setareh; Rezayat Sorkhabadi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate benefit of using nanotechnology on increasing of synergic antibacterial effect of natural and chemical antibacterial agents. Methods: At first the MIC and MBC of Curcumin and Ampicillin as selected antibacterial agents was determined, after that Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) of each active ingredients as well as Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs were prepared using high pressure homogenization technique. Characterization of prepared SLNs was done, then MIC, MBC and contact killing time were investigated for Curcumin-Ampicillin loaded SLNs in comparison with free Curcumin and Ampicillin solutions as well as Ampicillin and Curcumin SLNs. Results: Based on results nanoparticles with the size of 150 nm show much more decreased MIC and MBC when Ampicillin and Curcumin were loaded together on SLNs than solutions in which free Ampicillin and Curcumin were mixed. Conclusion: It seems that using nanotechnology could cause decrease the dosage of antibiotics and risk of having antibiotic resistance bacteria strains. PMID:27766232

  7. Recent progress in the development of anti-malarial quinolones.

    PubMed

    Beteck, Richard M; Smit, Frans J; Haynes, Richard K; N'Da, David D

    2014-08-30

    Available anti-malarial tools have over the ten-year period prior to 2012 dramatically reduced the number of fatalities due to malaria from one million to less than six-hundred and thirty thousand. Although fewer people now die from malaria, emerging resistance to the first-line anti-malarial drugs, namely artemisinins in combination with quinolines and arylmethanols, necessitates the urgent development of new anti-malarial drugs to curb the disease. The quinolones are a promising class of compounds, with some demonstrating potent in vitro activity against the malaria parasite. This review summarizes the progress made in the development of potential anti-malarial quinolones since 2008. The efficacy of these compounds against both asexual blood stages and other stages of the malaria parasite, the nature of putative targets, and a comparison of these properties with anti-malarial drugs currently in clinical use, are discussed.

  8. Recurrent mania consequent to quinolones exposure: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Aneja, Jitender; Basu, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are the one of the most commonly used group, of drugs, in general medical and surgical practice. The quinolone antibiotics can lead to a range of adverse neuropsychiatric effects with most of the reports due to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Here, we report an interesting and rarely described psychiatric manifestation of recurrent mania following the use of quinolone antibiotics, and briefly review the available literature. PMID:27453864

  9. Antibacterial activities of Beilschmiedia obscura and six other Cameroonian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapid spread of bacteria expressing multi-drug resistance propels the search for new antibacterial agents. The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts from Beilschmiedia obscura and six other Cameroonian plants against a panel of twenty nine Gram-negative bacteria including Multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Methods The phytochemical investigations of the extracts were carried out according to the standard methods and the liquid micro-dilution assay was used for all antibacterial assays. Results Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids in all studied extracts. Other chemical classes of secondary metabolites such as anthocyanines, anthraquinones flavonoids, saponins, tannins, sterols and triterpenes were selectively detected in the extracts. The extract from the fruits of Beilschmiedia obscura, Pachypodanthium staudtii leaves and Peperomia fernandopoiana (whole plant) displayed the best spectrum of activity with MIC values ranging from 16 to 1024 μg/mL against at least 65% and above of the tested bacteria. The extract from Beilschmiedia obscura was the most active with MIC values below 100 μg/mL against ten of the tested bacteria. This extract also showed MBC values below 1024 μg/mL against 55.17% of the studied microorganisms. Phenylalanine arginine β-naphthylamide (PAβN) significantly modulated the activities of extracts from the leaves and fruits of Pachypodanthium staudtii and Beilschmiedia obscura respectively, by increasing their inhibitory activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae KP55 strain at least four fold. Conclusion The overall results of the present investigation provide information for the possible use of the methanol extracts of the studied plant species, especially B. obscura to fight infectious diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria including MDR phenotypes. PMID:25023038

  10. Putative histidine kinase inhibitors with antibacterial effect against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates identified by in vitro and in silico screens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikova, Nadya; Fulle, Simone; Manso, Ana Sousa; Mechkarska, Milena; Finn, Paul; Conlon, J. Michael; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Wells, Jerry M.; Marina, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Novel antibacterials are urgently needed to address the growing problem of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics. Two-component systems (TCS) are widely used by bacteria to regulate gene expression in response to various environmental stimuli and physiological stress and have been previously proposed as promising antibacterial targets. TCS consist of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and an effector response regulator. The HK component contains a highly conserved ATP-binding site that is considered to be a promising target for broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs. Here, we describe the identification of putative HK autophosphorylation inhibitors following two independent experimental approaches: in vitro fragment-based screen via differential scanning fluorimetry and in silico structure-based screening, each followed up by the exploration of analogue compounds as identified by ligand-based similarity searches. Nine of the tested compounds showed antibacterial effect against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of bacterial pathogens and include three novel scaffolds, which have not been explored so far in other antibacterial compounds. Overall, putative HK autophosphorylation inhibitors were found that together provide a promising starting point for further optimization as antibacterials.

  11. Putative histidine kinase inhibitors with antibacterial effect against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates identified by in vitro and in silico screens

    PubMed Central

    Velikova, Nadya; Fulle, Simone; Manso, Ana Sousa; Mechkarska, Milena; Finn, Paul; Conlon, J. Michael; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Wells, Jerry M.; Marina, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Novel antibacterials are urgently needed to address the growing problem of bacterial resistance to conventional antibiotics. Two-component systems (TCS) are widely used by bacteria to regulate gene expression in response to various environmental stimuli and physiological stress and have been previously proposed as promising antibacterial targets. TCS consist of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and an effector response regulator. The HK component contains a highly conserved ATP-binding site that is considered to be a promising target for broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs. Here, we describe the identification of putative HK autophosphorylation inhibitors following two independent experimental approaches: in vitro fragment-based screen via differential scanning fluorimetry and in silico structure-based screening, each followed up by the exploration of analogue compounds as identified by ligand-based similarity searches. Nine of the tested compounds showed antibacterial effect against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of bacterial pathogens and include three novel scaffolds, which have not been explored so far in other antibacterial compounds. Overall, putative HK autophosphorylation inhibitors were found that together provide a promising starting point for further optimization as antibacterials. PMID:27173778

  12. [Studies on quinolone antibacterials. I. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 7-(2-aminoethoxy)-, 7-(2-aminoethylthio)-, and 7-(2-aminoethylamino)-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo qui noline -3-carboxylic acids and their derivatives].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yagi, N; Yasuda, S; Katoh, H; Itoh, Y

    1990-04-01

    7-(2-Aminoethoxy)-, 7-(2-aminoethylthio)-, and 7-(2-aminoethylamino)-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxoq uin oline-3- carboxylic acids and their derivatives (11a--f, h, j, k, 12a--f, and 13a--f) were synthesized and their antibacterial activities were tested. Among them, compounds (13a, d) having a primary amino group at the terminal position of alkoxy and alkylthio groups were found to have excellent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity comparable to those of ciprofloxacin (5). Structure-activity relationship of these compounds was also stated.

  13. Molecular modeling and bioinformatical analysis of the antibacterial target enzyme MurA from a drug design perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Christian D.; Bachelier, Anke

    2006-10-01

    The enzyme MurA (UDP- N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase) catalyzes the first cytoplasmatic step in the synthesis of murein precursors. This function is of vital relevance for bacteria, and the enzyme therefore represents an important target protein for the development of novel antibacterial compounds. Several X-ray structures of liganded and un-liganded MurA have been published, which may be used for rational drug design. MurA, however, contains a highly flexible surface loop, which is involved in substrate and inhibitor binding. In the available X-ray structures, the conformation of this surface loop varies, depending on the presence or absence of ligands or substrate and probably also on the crystal packing. The uncertainty of the low-energy, or "resting state" conformation of this surface loop hampers the application of rational drug design to this class of enzymes. We have therefore performed an extensive molecular dynamics study of the enzyme in order to identify one or several low-energy conformers. The results indicate that, at least in some of the X-ray structures, the conformation of the flexible surface loop is influenced by crystallographic contacts. Furthermore, three partially helical foldamers of the surface loop are identified which may resemble the resting states of the enzyme or intermediate states that are "traversed" during the substrate binding process. Another, very important aspect for the development of novel antibacterial compounds is the inter- and intra-species variability of the target structure. We present a comparison of MurA sequences from 163 organisms which were analyzed under the aspects of enzyme mechanism, structure and drug design. The results allow us to identify the most promising binding sites for inhibitor interaction, which are present in MurA enzymes of most species and are expected to be insusceptible to resistance-inducing mutations.

  14. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, George A; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Hooper, David C

    2014-10-01

    Three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998. Plasmid genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and qnrVC code for proteins of the pentapeptide repeat family that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from quinolone inhibition. The qnr genes appear to have been acquired from chromosomal genes in aquatic bacteria, are usually associated with mobilizing or transposable elements on plasmids, and are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. The second plasmid-mediated mechanism involves acetylation of quinolones with an appropriate amino nitrogen target by a variant of the common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ib. The third mechanism is enhanced efflux produced by plasmid genes for pumps QepAB and OqxAB. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading. The plasmid-mediated mechanisms provide only low-level resistance that by itself does not exceed the clinical breakpoint for susceptibility but nonetheless facilitates selection of higher-level resistance and makes infection by pathogens containing PMQR harder to treat.

  15. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George A.; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Hooper, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998. Plasmid genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and qnrVC code for proteins of the pentapeptide repeat family that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from quinolone inhibition. The qnr genes appear to have been acquired from chromosomal genes in aquatic bacteria, are usually associated with mobilizing or transposable elements on plasmids, and are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. The second plasmid-mediated mechanism involves acetylation of quinolones with an appropriate amino nitrogen target by a variant of the common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6′)-Ib. The third mechanism is enhanced efflux produced by plasmid genes for pumps QepAB and OqxAB. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading. The plasmid-mediated mechanisms provide only low-level resistance that by itself does not exceed the clinical breakpoint for susceptibility but nonetheless facilitates selection of higher-level resistance and makes infection by pathogens containing PMQR harder to treat. PMID:25584197

  16. In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains.

    PubMed

    Boonyanugomol, Wongwarut; Kraisriwattana, Kairin; Rukseree, Kamolchanok; Boonsam, Kraisorn; Narachai, Panchaporn

    2017-02-02

    In this study, we determined the antibacterial and synergistic activities of the essential oil from Zingiber cassumunar against the extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii strains. The antibacterial and synergistic properties of the essential oil from Z. cassumunar were examined by agar disc diffusion tests. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated by broth microdilution using the resazurin assay. The in vitro time-kill antibacterial kinetics was analyzed using the plate count technique. We found that the essential oil from Z. cassumunar had antibacterial activity against A. baumannii, with MIC and MBC ranging from 7.00 to 9.24mg/ml. The essential oil could completely inhibit A. baumannii at 1h, and coccoid-shaped bacteria were found after treatment. In addition, the essential oil had a synergistic effect when combined with antibiotics, e.g., aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and folate pathway inhibitors. Thus, the essential oil from Z. cassumunar has strong antibacterial and synergistic activities against XDR A. baumannii, which may provide the basis for the development of a new therapy against drug-resistant bacteria.

  17. Evaluating the impact of a novel restricted reimbursement policy for quinolone antibiotics: A time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Publicly-funded drug plans often use prior authorization policies to limit drug prescribing. To guide physician prescribing of a class of antibiotics with broad antimicrobial activity (quinolone antibiotics) in accordance with new prescribing guidelines, Alberta’s provincial health ministry implemented a new mechanism for formulary restriction entitled the optional special authorization (OSA) program. We conducted an observational study to determine the impact of this new formulary restriction policy on antimicrobial prescription rates as well as any clinical consequences. Methods Quinolone antibiotic use, and adherence with quinolone prescribing guidelines, was assessed before and after implementation of the OSA program in patients with common outpatient infections using an administrative data cohort and a chart review cohort, respectively. At the same time this policy was implemented to limit quinolone prescribing, two new quinolone antibiotics were added to the formulary. Using administrative data, we analysed a total of 397,534 unique index visits with regard to overall antibiotic utilization, and through chart review, we analysed 1681 charts of patients with infections of interest to determine the indications for quinolone usage. Results Using segmented regression models adjusting for age, sex and physician enrollment in the OSA program, there was no statistically significant change in the monthly rate of all quinolone use (−3.5 (95% CI −5.5, 1.4) prescriptions per 1000 index visits) following implementation of the OSA program (p = 0.74). There was a significant level change in the rate of quinolone antibiotic use for urinary tract infection (−33.6 (95% CI: -23.8, -43.4) prescriptions and upper respiratory tract infection (−16.1 (95%CI: -11.6, -20.6) prescriptions per 1000 index visits. Among quinolone prescriptions identified on chart review, 42.5% and 58.5% were consistent with formulary guidelines before and after the implementation

  18. In vitro activity of Ozenoxacin against quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    López, Y; Tato, M; Espinal, P; Garcia-Alonso, F; Gargallo-Viola, D; Cantón, R; Vila, J

    2013-12-01

    In vitro activity of ozenoxacin, a novel nonfluorinated topical (L. D. Saravolatz and J. Leggett, Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:1210-1215, 2003) quinolone, was compared with the activities of other quinolones against well-characterized quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Ozenoxacin was 3-fold to 321-fold more active than other quinolones. Ozenoxacin could represent a first-in-class nonfluorinated quinolone for the topical treatment of a broad range of dermatological infections.

  19. MRJP1-containing glycoproteins isolated from honey, a novel antibacterial drug candidate with broad spectrum activity against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin; Lannigan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of extended- spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) is the underlying cause of growing antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria to β-lactam antibiotics. We recently reported the discovery of honey glycoproteins (glps) that exhibited a rapid, concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli that resembled action of cell wall-active β-lactam drugs. Glps showed sequence identity with the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) precursor that harbors three antimicrobial peptides: Jelleins 1, 2, and 4. Here, we used semi-quantitative radial diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay to evaluate susceptibility of a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates to the MRJP1-contaning honey glycoproteins. The MDR bacterial strains comprised three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and five ESBL identified as one Proteus mirabilis, three E. coli, and one E. coli NDM. Their resistance to different classes of antibiotics was confirmed using automated system Vitek 2. MDR isolates differed in their susceptibility to glps with MIC90 values ranging from 4.8 μg/ml against B. subtilis to 14.4 μg/ml against ESBL K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella spp. ESBL and E. coli and up to 33 μg/ml against highly resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Glps isolated from different honeys showed a similar ability to overcome bacterial resistance to β-lactams suggesting that (a) their mode of action is distinct from other classes of β-lactams and that (b) the common glps structure was the lead structure responsible for the activity. The results of the current study together with our previous evidence of a rapid bactericidal activity of glps demonstrate that glps possess suitable characteristics to be considered a novel antibacterial drug candidate.

  20. MRJP1-containing glycoproteins isolated from honey, a novel antibacterial drug candidate with broad spectrum activity against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin; Lannigan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of extended- spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) is the underlying cause of growing antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria to β-lactam antibiotics. We recently reported the discovery of honey glycoproteins (glps) that exhibited a rapid, concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli that resembled action of cell wall-active β-lactam drugs. Glps showed sequence identity with the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) precursor that harbors three antimicrobial peptides: Jelleins 1, 2, and 4. Here, we used semi-quantitative radial diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay to evaluate susceptibility of a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates to the MRJP1-contaning honey glycoproteins. The MDR bacterial strains comprised three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and five ESBL identified as one Proteus mirabilis, three E. coli, and one E. coli NDM. Their resistance to different classes of antibiotics was confirmed using automated system Vitek 2. MDR isolates differed in their susceptibility to glps with MIC90 values ranging from 4.8 μg/ml against B. subtilis to 14.4 μg/ml against ESBL K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella spp. ESBL and E. coli and up to 33 μg/ml against highly resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Glps isolated from different honeys showed a similar ability to overcome bacterial resistance to β-lactams suggesting that (a) their mode of action is distinct from other classes of β-lactams and that (b) the common glps structure was the lead structure responsible for the activity. The results of the current study together with our previous evidence of a rapid bactericidal activity of glps demonstrate that glps possess suitable characteristics to be considered a novel antibacterial drug candidate. PMID:26217333

  1. 4-Quinolone-3-carboxylic acids as cell-permeable inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Ying; Gao, Li-Xin; Jin, Yi; Tang, Chun-Lan; Li, Jing-Ya; Li, Jia; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2014-07-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a negative regulator in the insulin and leptin signaling pathways, and has emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, the essential pharmacophore of charged phosphotyrosine or its mimetic confer low selectivity and poor cell permeability. Starting from our previously reported aryl diketoacid-based PTP1B inhibitors, a drug-like scaffold of 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid was introduced for the first time as a novel surrogate of phosphotyrosine. An optimal combination of hydrophobic groups installed at C-6, N-1 and C-3 positions of the quinolone motif afforded potent PTP1B inhibitors with low micromolar IC50 values. These 4-quinolone-3-carboxylate based PTP1B inhibitors displayed a 2-10 fold selectivity over a panel of PTP's. Furthermore, the bidentate inhibitors of 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acids conjugated with aryl diketoacid or salicylic acid were cell permeable and enhanced insulin signaling in CHO/hIR cells. The kinetic studies and molecular modeling suggest that the 4-quinolone-3-carboxylates act as competitive inhibitors by binding to the PTP1B active site in the WPD loop closed conformation. Taken together, our study shows that the 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives exhibit improved pharmacological properties over previously described PTB1B inhibitors and warrant further preclinical studies.

  2. [Review and categorization of quinolone antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Benes, Jirí

    2005-02-01

    No standard categorization of quinolone antibiotics into generations may be found in either Czech or world literature. The author recommends a categorization into four groups defined according to their spectrum of action and utilization: 1) preparations for the treatment of urinary tract infections; 2) systemically acting quinolones chiefly efficacious against Gram-negative bacteria; 3) so-called respiratory quinolones; and 4) quinolones with a very broad spectrum of action suitable for the treatment of very complicated infections. The author describes the chief characteristics of the most important quinolone antibiotics, including preparations either in their development stage or whose development has been prematurely interrupted because of adverse side-effects. The list includes all preparations that are or were temporarily registered in the Czech Republic.

  3. Structure, antimicrobial activity, DNA- and albumin-binding of manganese(II) complexes with the quinolone antimicrobial agents oxolinic acid and enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Zampakou, Marianthi; Akrivou, Melpomeni; Andreadou, Eleni G; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Psycharis, Vassilis; Pantazaki, Anastasia A; Psomas, George

    2013-04-01

    The reaction of MnCl2 with the quinolone antibacterial drug oxolinic acid (Hoxo) results to the formation of [KMn(oxo)3(MeOH)3]. Interaction of MnCl2 with the quinolone Hoxo or enrofloxacin (Herx) and the N,N'-donor heterocyclic ligand 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) results in the formation of metal complexes with the general formula [Mn(quinolonato)2(phen)]. The crystal structures of [KMn(oxo)3(MeOH)3] and [Mn(erx)2(phen)], exhibiting a 1D polymeric and a mononuclear structure, respectively, have been determined by X-ray crystallography. In these complexes, the deprotonated bidentate quinolonato ligands are coordinated to manganese(II) ion through the pyridone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. All complexes can act as potential antibacterial agents with [Mn(erx)2(phen)] exhibiting the most pronounced antimicrobial activity against five different microorganisms. Interaction of the complexes with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA), studied by UV spectroscopy, has shown that they bind to CT DNA. Competitive study with ethidium bromide (EB) has shown that all complexes can displace the DNA-bound EB indicating their binding to DNA in strong competition with EB. Intercalative binding mode is proposed for the interaction of the complexes with CT DNA and has also been verified by DNA solution viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments suggest that [Mn(erx)2(phen)] binds strongly to supercoiled pDNA and to linearized pDNA possibly by an intercalative manner provoking double-stranded cleavage reflecting in a nuclease-like activity. The complexes exhibit good binding propensity to human or bovine serum albumin protein showing relatively high binding constant values. The binding constants of the complexes towards CT DNA and albumins have been compared to their corresponding zinc(II) and nickel(II) complexes.

  4. Modeling the Overproduction of Ribosomes when Antibacterial Drugs Act on Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maitra, Arijit; Dill, Ken A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria that are subjected to ribosome-inhibiting antibiotic drugs show an interesting behavior: Although the drug slows down cell growth, it also paradoxically increases the cell’s concentration of ribosomes. We combine our earlier nonlinear model of the energy-biomass balance in undrugged Escherichia coli cells with Michaelis-Menten binding of drugs that inactivate ribosomes. Predictions are in good agreement with experiments on ribosomal concentrations and synthesis rates versus drug concentrations and growth rates. The model indicates that the added drug drives the cell to overproduce ribosomes, keeping roughly constant the level of ribosomes producing ribosomal proteins, an important quantity for cell growth. The model also predicts that ribosomal production rates should increase and then decrease with added drug. This model gives insights into the driving forces in cells and suggests new experiments. PMID:26840738

  5. Modeling the Overproduction of Ribosomes when Antibacterial Drugs Act on Cells.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Arijit; Dill, Ken A

    2016-02-02

    Bacteria that are subjected to ribosome-inhibiting antibiotic drugs show an interesting behavior: Although the drug slows down cell growth, it also paradoxically increases the cell's concentration of ribosomes. We combine our earlier nonlinear model of the energy-biomass balance in undrugged Escherichia coli cells with Michaelis-Menten binding of drugs that inactivate ribosomes. Predictions are in good agreement with experiments on ribosomal concentrations and synthesis rates versus drug concentrations and growth rates. The model indicates that the added drug drives the cell to overproduce ribosomes, keeping roughly constant the level of ribosomes producing ribosomal proteins, an important quantity for cell growth. The model also predicts that ribosomal production rates should increase and then decrease with added drug. This model gives insights into the driving forces in cells and suggests new experiments.

  6. Hierarchical nested trial design (HNTD) for demonstrating treatment efficacy of new antibacterial drugs in patient populations with emerging bacterial resistance.

    PubMed

    Huque, Mohammad F; Valappil, Thamban; Soon, Guoxing Greg

    2014-11-10

    In the last decade or so, pharmaceutical drug development activities in the area of new antibacterial drugs for treating serious bacterial diseases have declined, and at the same time, there are worries that the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, especially the increase in drug-resistant Gram-negative infections, limits available treatment options . A recent CDC report, 'Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States', indicates that antimicrobial resistance is one of our most serious health threats. However, recently, new ideas have been proposed to change this situation. An idea proposed in this regard is to conduct randomized clinical trials in which some patients, on the basis of a diagnostic test, may show presence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to the control treatment, whereas remaining patients would show pathogens that are susceptible to the control. The control treatment in such trials can be the standard of care or the best available therapy approved for the disease. Patients in the control arm with resistant pathogens can have the option for rescue therapies if their clinical signs and symptoms worsen. A statistical proposal for such patient populations is to use a hierarchical noninferiority-superiority nested trial design that is informative and allows for treatment-to-control comparisons for the two subpopulations without any statistical penalty. This design can achieve in the same trial dual objectives: (i) to show that the new drug is effective for patients with susceptible pathogens on the basis of a noninferiority test and (ii) to show that it is superior to the control in patients with resistant pathogens. This paper addresses statistical considerations and methods for achieving these two objectives for this design. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Coupling of radiofrequency with magnetic nanoparticles treatment as an alternative physical antibacterial strategy against multiple drug resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh K.; Thorat, Nanasaheb D.; Tandon, Anshula; Kim, Jin-Hahn; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria not only affect human health and but also threatens the safety in hospitals and among communities. However, the emergence of drug resistant bacteria is inevitable due to evolutionary selection as a consequence of indiscriminate antibiotic usage. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel strategy by which pathogenic bacteria can be eliminated without triggering resistance. We propose a novel magnetic nanoparticle-based physical treatment against pathogenic bacteria, which blocks biofilm formation and kills bacteria. In this approach, multiple drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 are trapped to the positively charged magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) by electrostatic interaction. All the trapped bacteria can be completely killed within 30 min owing to the loss of membrane potential and dysfunction of membrane-associated complexes when exposed to the radiofrequency current. These results indicate that MCSNP-based physical treatment can be an alternative antibacterial strategy without leading to antibiotic resistance, and can be used for many purposes including environmental and therapeutic applications.

  8. Coupling of radiofrequency with magnetic nanoparticles treatment as an alternative physical antibacterial strategy against multiple drug resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Akhilesh K.; Thorat, Nanasaheb D.; Tandon, Anshula; Kim, Jin-Hahn; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria not only affect human health and but also threatens the safety in hospitals and among communities. However, the emergence of drug resistant bacteria is inevitable due to evolutionary selection as a consequence of indiscriminate antibiotic usage. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel strategy by which pathogenic bacteria can be eliminated without triggering resistance. We propose a novel magnetic nanoparticle-based physical treatment against pathogenic bacteria, which blocks biofilm formation and kills bacteria. In this approach, multiple drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 and uropathogenic Escherichia coli CFT073 are trapped to the positively charged magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) by electrostatic interaction. All the trapped bacteria can be completely killed within 30 min owing to the loss of membrane potential and dysfunction of membrane-associated complexes when exposed to the radiofrequency current. These results indicate that MCSNP-based physical treatment can be an alternative antibacterial strategy without leading to antibiotic resistance, and can be used for many purposes including environmental and therapeutic applications. PMID:27670157

  9. Investigation of β-lactam antibacterial drugs, β-lactamases, and penicillin-binding proteins with fluorescence polarization and anisotropy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Adam B.

    2016-06-01

    This review covers the uses of fluorescence polarization and anisotropy for the investigation of bacterial penicillin binding proteins (PBPs), which are the targets of β-lactam antibacterial drugs (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams), and of the β-lactamase enzymes that destroy these drugs and help to render bacterial pathogens resistant to them. Fluorescence polarization and anisotropy-based methods for quantitation of β-lactam drugs are also reviewed. A particular emphasis is on methods for quantitative measurement of the interactions of β-lactams and other inhibitors with PBPs and β-lactamases.

  10. Determination of quinolones and fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and sulfonamides in bovine, swine and poultry liver using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Martins, Magda Targa; Barreto, Fabiano; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcelos; Jank, Louise; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Feijó, Tiago Correa; Schapoval, Elfrides Eva Scherman

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterials are widely used in veterinary medicine. Residues of these drugs can remain in food of animal origin, including bovine liver. This paper describes a fast and simple analytical method for the determination of quinolones and fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and sulfonamides in bovine liver samples. Deuterated enrofloxacin, sulfapyridine and demeclocycline were used as internal standards. The homogenised liver samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile. Steps of non-solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up and concentration were used in the presented method. The final extracts were analysed by sensitive and selective detection of all components in a single run using LC-MS/MS. Acceptable recoveries between 66% and 110% were obtained. Good linearity (r(2)) above 0.96, considering three different days, for all drugs was achieved in concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 2.0 × the maximum residue limit (MRL). Intraday precision with coefficient of variation (CV%) (n = 6) lower than 14.7% and inter-day precision lower than 18.8% in agreement with European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC were obtained in concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 MRL. Accuracy was between 86% and 110%. Limits of detection and quantitation, as well as decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ), were also evaluated.

  11. Antibacterial therapy of aspiration pneumonia in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-positive sputum: identification of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Y; Matsuoka, T; Mori, T; Yoshida, S; Ohashi, K; Yoshimura, T; Sugiyama, T

    2016-02-01

    Inappropriate antimicrobial treatment could adversely affect the recovery of patients with aspiration pneumonia. We attempted to identify inappropriate antibacterial treatment and to determine the standard use of anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) drugs in aspiration pneumonia patients with MRSA-positive in sputum. Aspiration pneumonia patients with MRSA-positive sputum treated between January 2013 and May 2013 were included in this study to determine the risk factors for death during hospitalization. The relationship between anti-MRSA medicine use and death during hospitalization was also investigated. More than 10⁷ MRSA colony-forming units in sputum culture, creatinine clearance of less than 30 mL/min, and quinolone use were found to be risk factors for death during hospitalization. The death rate during hospitalization was significantly lower in cases a Geckler classification of 4 or 5 when anti-MRSA treatment was initiated soon after the culture was obtained. Therefore, we concluded that the use of quinolones as antibacterial treatment in aspiration pneumonia patients with MRSA-positive sputum should be avoided and that anti-MRSA treatment should be started in cases with good quality sputum cultures.

  12. Crystal structure of the anti-bacterial sulfonamide drug target dihydropteroate synthase.

    PubMed

    Achari, A; Somers, D O; Champness, J N; Bryant, P K; Rosemond, J; Stammers, D K

    1997-06-01

    Sulfonamides were amongst the first clinically useful antibacterial agents to be discovered. The identification of sulfanilamide as the active component of the dye Prontosil rubrum led to the synthesis of clinically useful analogues. Today sulfamethoxazole (in combination with trimethoprim), is used to treat urinary tract infections caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli and is also a first-line treatment for pneumonia caused by the fungus Pneumocystis carinii, a common condition in AIDS patients. The site of action is the de novo folate biosynthesis enzyme dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) where sulfonamides act as analogues of one of the substrates, para-aminobenzoic acid (pABA). We report here the crystal structure of E.coli DHPS at 2.0 A resolution refined to an R-factor of 0.185. The single domain of 282 residues forms an eight-stranded alpha/beta-barrel. The 7,8-dihydropterin pyrophosphate (DHPPP) substrate binds in a deep cleft in the barrel, whilst sulfanilamide binds closer to the surface. The DHPPP ligand site is highly conserved amongst prokaryotic and eukaryotic DHPSs.

  13. Rhodomyrtone: a new candidate as natural antibacterial drug from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Limsuwan, Surasak; Trip, Erik N; Kouwen, Thijs R H M; Piersma, Sjouke; Hiranrat, Asadhawut; Mahabusarakam, Wilawan; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Kayser, Oliver

    2009-06-01

    Rhodomyrtone [6,8-dihydroxy-2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-7-(3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-9-(2-methylpropyl)-4,9-dihydro-1H-xanthene-1,3(2H)-di-one] from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. displayed significant antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus salivarius. Especially noteworthy was the activity against MRSA with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranging from 0.39 to 0.78 microg/ml. As shown for S. pyogenes, no surviving cells were detected within 5 and 6h after treatment with the compound at 8MBC and 4MBC concentrations, respectively. Rhodomyrtone displays no bacteriolytic activity, as determined by measurement of the optical density at 620 nm. A rhodomyrtone killing test with S. mutans using phase contrast microscopy showed that this compound caused a few morphological changes as the treated cells were slightly changed in color and bigger than the control when they were killed. Taken together, the results support the view that rhodomyrtone has a strong bactericidal activity on gram-positive bacteria, including major pathogens.

  14. Influence of First-Line Antibiotics on the Antibacterial Activities of Acetone Stem Bark Extract of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. against Drug-Resistant Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso O.; Coopoosamy, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of the acetone extract of A. mearnsii and its interactions with antibiotics against some resistant bacterial strains. Methods. The antibacterial susceptibility testing was determined by agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while the checkerboard method was used for the determination of synergy between the antibiotics and the extract. Results. The results showed that the susceptibility of the different bacterial isolates was concentration dependent for the extract and the different antibiotics. With the exception of S. marcescens, the inhibition zones of the extract produced by 20 mg/mL ranged between 18 and 32 mm. While metronidazole did not inhibit any of the bacterial isolates, all the antibiotics and their combinations, except for ciprofloxacin and its combination, did not inhibit Enterococcus faecalis. The antibacterial combinations were more of being antagonistic than of being synergistic in the agar diffusion assay. From the macrobroth dilution, the extract and the antibiotics exerted a varied degree of inhibitory effect on the test organisms. The MIC values of the acetone extract which are in mg/mL are lower than those of the different antibiotics which are in μg/mL. From the checkerboard assay, the antibacterial combinations showed varied degrees of interactions including synergism, additive, indifference, and antagonism interactions. While antagonistic and additive interactions were 14.44%, indifference interaction was 22.22% and synergistic interaction was 37.78% of the antibacterial combinations against the test isolates. While the additivity/indifference interactions indicated no interactions, the antagonistic interaction may be considered as a negative interaction that could result in toxicity and suboptimal bioactivity. Conclusion. The synergistic effects of the herbal-drug combinations may be harnessed for the discovery and development of more rational evidence

  15. Synthesis of novel selenium-containing sulfa drugs and their antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, Sh H

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of 3-[4-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7,9-dimethylpyrido[3',2':4,5]selenolo[3,2-d]pyrimidines, 7-[4-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)phenyl]-7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-3,4-diphenylpyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo [2,3-c]pyridazines and 1-[4-(N-substituted sulfamoyl)phenyl]-1,11-dihydro-11-oxo-4-methylpyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo[2,3-b]quinolines is reported. 4-Amino-N-pyrimidine-2-ylbenzene sulfonamide (a), 4-amino-N-(2,6-dimetnylpyrimidin-4-yl)benzene sulfonamide (b), N-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl] acetamide (c) with N-ethoxymethyleneamino of selenolo pyridine, selenolo pyridazine and selenolo quinoline derivatives respectively were obtained starting from 1-amino-N-substituted sulfanilamides. Spectroscopic data (IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass spectral) confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. Substituted pyrimidines, pyridazines and quinolines were screened for antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Selenolo derivative of N-[(4-aminophenyl)sulfonyl] acetamide (substitutent of sulfacetamide c) showed strong bactericidal effect against all the tested organisms. Selenolo[3,2-d]pyrimidin (substitutent a) showed a good bactericidal effect against Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Compounds Selenolo[2,3-c]pyridazine (substitutent b), Selenolo[2,3-b]quinoline(substitutents c)) exhibited a moderate bactericidal effect against Serratia marcescens. None of the synthesized selenopyridazines has a considerable antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the most active compound - 3-[4-(N-acetyl sulfamoyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7,9-dimethylpyrido[3',2':4,5]selenolo [3,2-d]pyrimidine was 10 mg mL(-1).

  16. Antibacterial drug treatment increases intestinal bile acid absorption via elevated levels of ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter but not organic solute transporter α protein.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Hayashi, Kenjiro; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Yamazoe, Yasushi; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial drug treatment increases the bile acid pool size and hepatic bile acid concentration through the elevation of hepatic bile acid synthesis. However, the involvement of intestinal bile acid absorption in the increased bile acid pool size remains unclear. To determine whether intestinal bile acid absorption contributes to the increased bile acid pool in mice treated with antibacterial drugs, we evaluated the levels of bile acid transporter proteins and the capacity of intestinal bile acid absorption. Ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in ampicillin (ABPC)-treated mice, whereas organic solute transporter α (OSTα) mRNA levels, but not protein levels, significantly decreased in mice. Similar alterations in the expression levels of bile acid transporters were observed in mice treated with bacitracin/neomycin/streptomycin. The capacity for intestinal bile acid absorption was evaluated by an in situ loop method. Increased ileal absorption of taurochenodeoxycholic acid was observed in mice treated with ABPC. These results suggest that intestinal bile acid absorption is elevated in an ASBT-dependent manner in mice treated with antibacterial drugs.

  17. Using SAR and QSAR analysis to model the activity and structure of the quinolone-DNA complex.

    PubMed

    Llorente, B; Leclerc, F; Cedergren, R

    1996-01-01

    A set of 78 quinolone derivatives were used in a structure-activity study to identify structural features correlating with antibacterial activity. Distinct combinations of functional properties were identified for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. 3-D Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies identified specific hydrophobic, topologic and electronic properties of the molecules for both in vitro and in vivo activities. From these results, a three-dimensional model of a DNA-quinolone complex was built using molecular modeling techniques. It was based on the intercalation of quinolone into the double helix of DNA. We conclude that the intercalation model is consistent with most available data on the structure of the quinolone complex. This predicted structure is stabilized by the binding of magnesium ion with the sp2 oxygens present in quinolone, a phosphate and a purine base of the DNA. Substituents R1 and R7 are predicted to make hydrophobic interactions in the major and minor groove of DNA, respectively. R7 could also form hydrogen bonds with amino groups of guanines and the aspartic acid residue at position 87 in DNA gyrase subunit A.

  18. Thermosensitive hydrogel for periodontal application: in vitro drug release, antibacterial activity and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Yousef; Ganji, Fariba

    2016-02-01

    Injectable thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel is an attractive temperature-induced sol-gel solution that is widely used in drug delivery and biomedical applications. In this study, an injectable antimicrobial delivery system for periodontal treatment based on chitosan/gelatin/β-glycerolphosphate solution has been developed. The result of thermal and mechanical evaluations of chitosan/gelatin/β-glycerolphosphate hydrogel showed that adding gelatin to chitosan/β-glycerolphosphate solution significantly decreased gelling time and increased gel strength at 37℃. The antimicrobial agents chosen for release studies were metronidazole with a low molecular weight and vancomycin hydrochloride with a high molecular weight. The initial burst and total in vitro drug release for metronidazole was 13% and 67%, respectively. The initial burst and total drug release for vancomycin hydrochloride was relatively low at 3% and 23%, respectively. The momentary and total percentage of metronidazole accumulated in the phosphate buffer revealed that chitosan/gelatin/β-glycerolphosphate can develop and maintain sustained release of metronidazole in concentrations that are effective for eliminating pathogenic bacteria over time. Cytotoxicity evaluations show that chitosan/gelatin/β-glycerolphosphate thermosensitive hydrogel is a drug carrier with no cytotoxic effects.

  19. Phytochemicals increase the antibacterial activity of antibiotics by acting on a drug efflux pump

    PubMed Central

    Ohene-Agyei, Thelma; Mowla, Rumana; Rahman, Taufiq; Venter, Henrietta

    2014-01-01

    Drug efflux pumps confer resistance upon bacteria to a wide range of antibiotics from various classes. The expression of efflux pumps are also implicated in virulence and biofilm formation. Moreover, organisms can only acquire resistance in the presence of active drug efflux pumps. Therefore, efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) are attractive compounds to reverse multidrug resistance and to prevent the development of resistance in clinically relevant bacterial pathogens. We investigated the potential of pure compounds isolated from plants to act as EPIs. In silico screening was used to predict the bioactivity of plant compounds and to compare that with the known EPI, phe-arg-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Subsequently, promising products have been tested for their ability to inhibit efflux. Plumbagin nordihydroguaretic acid (NDGA) and to a lesser degree shikonin, acted as sensitizers of drug-resistant bacteria to currently used antibiotics and were able to inhibit the efflux pump-mediated removal of substrate from cells. We demonstrated the feasibility of in silico screening to identify compounds that potentiate the action of antibiotics against drug-resistant strains and which might be potentially useful lead compounds for an EPI discovery program. PMID:25224951

  20. Antibacterial effect of mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) leaf extract against antibiotic sensitive and multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Abdul; Asghar, Samra; Naeem, Tahir; Ikram Ullah, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Aneela, Syeda; Hussain, Shabbir

    2013-07-01

    Alternative herbal medicine has been used to treat various infections from centuries. Natural plants contain phytoconstituents having similar chemical properties as of synthetic antibiotics. Typhoid fever is a serious infection and failure of its treatment emerged multi-drug resistant (MDR) bugs of Salmonella typhi. Due to multiple and repeated issues with antibiotics efficacy, it became essential to evaluate biological properties of plants from different geographical origins. Mango leaves have been Reported for various medicinal effects like antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihelminthic, antidiabetic and antiallergic etc. Objective of present study was to investigate anti-typhoid properties of acetone mango leaf extract (AMLE) against antibiotic sensitive and MDR S. typhi isolates. A total of 50 isolates of S. typhi including MDR (n=30) and antibiotic sensitive (n=20) were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC14028) were used as quality control strains. AMLE was prepared and its antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar well diffusion screening method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), by agar dilution technique. Zone of inhibition (mm) of AMLE against MDR and antibiotic sensitive isolates was 18±1.5mm (Mean±S.D). Zone of S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and S. typhimurium (ATCC14028) was 20±1.5mm (Mean±S.D). MIC of AMLE was Reported in range from 10-50 mg/ml. The present study described the inhibitory effects of mango leaves against S. typhi.

  1. Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated from disseminated and localised infections in pre-penicillin era. Auxotypes and antibacterial drug resistances.

    PubMed Central

    Catlin, B W; Reyn, A

    1982-01-01

    Interest in the evolution of gonococcal auxotrophy led to a study of 72 strains isolated between 1935 and 1948 from the urogenital tract (57 patients), the eye (two patients), and from disseminated gonococcal infections (11 patients and probably two others). Two cervical isolates with nutritional requirements for proline, arginine, histidine, and biotin were oxidase-positive, Gram-negative diplococci, but their identity as Neisseria gonorrhoeae was uncertain because they were atypically susceptible to colistin and did not produce acid in glucose media. The N gonorrhoeae strains were highly susceptible to 11 other antibacterial drugs but not to sulphadiazine. Defects of one or more pathways for the biosynthesis of methionine, proline, arginine, threonine, lysine, the branched-chain amino acids, hypoxanthine, and thiamine pyrophosphate were found in 39 of the 70 strains, including four isolated in the presulphanilamide era. Unexpectedly, methionine was required for the growth of 11 (21%) of the 52 Danish strains and for 13 (72%) of 18 strains isolated in the USA. The Danish strains included 28 (54%) that did not require any of the compounds used for differentiating auxotypes, whereas this type was represented by only three (17%) of the USA strains. None of the gonococci required uracil or other pyrimidines. This suggests that the requirements for arginine, hypoxanthine, and uracil commonly found in recent isolates from disseminated gonococcal infections probably evolved treatment with sulphonamide was replaced by penicillin. PMID:6805848

  2. In vitro and in vivo efficacy, toxicity, bio-distribution and resistance selection of a novel antibacterial drug candidate

    PubMed Central

    Brunetti, Jlenia; Falciani, Chiara; Roscia, Giulia; Pollini, Simona; Bindi, Stefano; Scali, Silvia; Arrieta, Unai Cossio; Gómez-Vallejo, Vanessa; Quercini, Leila; Ibba, Elisa; Prato, Marco; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Llop, Jordi; Bracci, Luisa; Pini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    A synthetic antimicrobial peptide was identified as a possible candidate for the development of a new antibacterial drug. The peptide, SET-M33L, showed a MIC90 below 1.5 μM and 3 μM for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. In in vivo models of P. aeruginosa infections, the peptide and its pegylated form (SET-M33L-PEG) enabled a survival percentage of 60–80% in sepsis and lung infections when injected twice i.v. at 5 mg/Kg, and completely healed skin infections when administered topically. Plasma clearance showed different kinetics for SET-M33L and SET-M33L-PEG, the latter having greater persistence two hours after injection. Bio-distribution in organs did not show significant differences in uptake of the two peptides. Unlike colistin, SET-M33L did not select resistant mutants in bacterial cultures and also proved non genotoxic and to have much lower in vivo toxicity than antimicrobial peptides already used in clinical practice. The characterizations reported here are part of a preclinical development plan that should bring the molecule to clinical trial in the next few years. PMID:27169671

  3. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of some Tetrahydro Quinolone Diones and Pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Masoume; Foroughifar, Naser; Mobinikhaledi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    There has been special interest in the chemistry of quinolone and pyrimidine derivatives due to their diverse biological activities such as anticonvulsant, anti-malarial agents, antibacterial, antiviral, cytostatic, antithelemintic, antigenotoxic, anti-cancer agents. These compounds are also used as targeting delayed-type hypersensivity and anti-convulsant agents. As a part of our research works in the synthesis of pyrimidine derivatives containing biological activities, a series of novel pyrano[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives 2 and tetrahydro quinolone dione derivatives 3 were synthesized via reaction of tetrahydrobenzo[b]pyrano derivatives 1 with different reagents in suitable yields. The characterization of these synthesized compounds was established by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data. Furthermore, all compounds were subsequently evaluated for their in-vitro antibacterial activity against three bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (ATTC-25923), Escherichia Coli (ATTC-25922) and Bacillus anthracic (ATTC-25924). PMID:26330864

  4. Biosurfactins production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens R3 and their antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhe; Rong, Yan-Jun; Li, Yang; Tang, Mei-Juan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the anti-Escherichia coli activity of the bioactive substances produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens R3 was examined. A new and cheap medium for production of the anti-E. coli substances which contained 20.0 g L(-1) soybean powder, 20.0 g L(-1) wheat flour, pH 6.0 was developed. A crude surfactant concentration of 0.48 mg mL(-1) was obtained after 27 h of 10-L fermentation, and the diameter of the clear zone on the plate seeded with the pathogenic E. coli 2# was 23.3 mm. A preliminary characterization suggested that the anti-E. coli substances produced by B. amyloliquefaciens R3 were the biosurfactins (F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5) with amino acids (GLLVDLL) and hydroxy fatty acids (of 12-15 carbons in length). It was found that all the strains of the pathogenic E. coli showed resistance to several different antibiotics, suggesting that they were the multi-drug resistance and all the strains of the pathogenic E. coli were sensitive to the biosurfactins, indicating that the biosurfactins produced by B. amyloliquefaciens R3 had a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against the pathogenic E. coli with multi-drug resistant profiles. After the treatment with the purified biosurfactin (F1), the cell membrane of both the whole cells and protoplasts of the E. coli 2# was damaged and the whole cells of the bacterium were broken.

  5. Hippocampal activity in the presence of quinolones and fenbufen in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Dimpfel, W; Spüler, M; Dalhoff, A; Hofmann, W; Schlüter, G

    1991-01-01

    Rare side effects on the central nervous system including dizziness, restlessness, and even very rare convulsions as reported during the course of antibiotic treatment with quinolones were the topic of a well-controlled in vitro approach. The excitability of brain matter was tested by electrically evoking field potentials in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus in vitro. Direct effects of nalidixic acid, enoxacin, pefloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were found to occur as a dose-dependent increase in amplitude of this field potential, which is in line with the view that the quinolones increase excitability. The highest increase was found with enoxacin and nalidixic acid, and the lowest increase was found with ciprofloxacin. In order to keep the potential risk of the antibiotic therapy as low as possible, ciprofloxacin might be the drug of choice of the quinolones. In contrast to the quinolones, which only increased the amplitudes of electrically evoked potentials, fenbufen induced spontaneous firing in the pyramidal cell layer without stimulation in addition to its dose-dependent effects on the amplitudes of the evoked potentials. Threshold doses of the quinolones tested (0.25 microM) increased the amplitudes of evoked potentials in the presence of an otherwise ineffective concentration of fenbufen (1 microM) to different degrees, ranging from 39.2% for ciprofloxacin to 72.6% for enoxacin. PMID:1929256

  6. Activity of quinolone CP-115,955 against bacterial and human type II topoisomerases is mediated by different interactions.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Katie J; Schwanz, Heidi A; Li, Gangqin; Williamson, Benjamin H; McPherson, Sylvia A; Turnbough, Charles L; Kerns, Robert J; Osheroff, Neil

    2015-02-10

    CP-115,955 is a quinolone with a 4-hydroxyphenyl at C7 that displays high activity against both bacterial and human type II topoisomerases. To determine the basis for quinolone cross-reactivity between bacterial and human enzymes, the activity of CP-115,955 and a series of related quinolones and quinazolinediones against Bacillus anthracis topoisomerase IV and human topoisomerase IIα was analyzed. Results indicate that the activity of CP-115,955 against the bacterial and human enzymes is mediated by different interactions. On the basis of the decreased activity of quinazolinediones against wild-type and resistant mutant topoisomerase IV and the low activity of quinolones against resistant mutant enzymes, it appears that the primary interaction of CP-115,955 with the bacterial system is mediated through the C3/C4 keto acid and the water-metal ion bridge. In contrast, the drug interacts with the human enzyme primarily through the C7 4-hydroxyphenyl ring and has no requirement for a substituent at C8 in order to attain high activity. Despite the fact that the human type II enzyme is unable to utilize the water-metal ion bridge, quinolones in the CP-115,955 series display higher activity against topoisomerase IIα in vitro and in cultured human cells than the corresponding quinazolinediones. Thus, quinolones may be a viable platform for the development of novel drugs with anticancer potential.

  7. The Activity of Quinolone CP-115,955 Against Bacterial and Human Type II Topoisomerases Is Mediated by Different Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Aldred, Katie J.; Schwanz, Heidi A.; Li, Gangqin; Williamson, Benjamin H.; McPherson, Sylvia A.; Turnbough, Charles L.; Kerns, Robert J.; Osheroff, Neil

    2015-01-01

    CP-115,955 is a quinolone with a 4-hydroxyphenyl at C7 that displays high activity against both bacterial and human type II topoisomerases. To determine the basis for quinolone cross-reactivity between bacterial and human enzymes, the activity of CP-115,955 and a series of related quinolones and quinazolinediones against Bacillus anthracis topoisomerase IV and human topoisomerase IIα was analyzed. Results indicate that the activity of CP-115,955 against the bacterial and human enzymes is mediated by different interactions. Based on the decreased activity of quinazolinediones against wild-type and resistant mutant topoisomerase IV and the low activity of quinolones against resistant mutant enzymes, it appears that the primary interaction of CP-115,955 with the bacterial system is mediated through the C3/C4 keto acid and the water-metal ion bridge. In contrast, the drug interacts with the human enzyme primarily through the C7 4-hydroxyphenyl ring and has no requirement for a substituent at C8 in order to attain high activity. Despite the fact that the human type II enzyme is unable to utilize the water-metal ion bridge, quinolones in the CP-115,955 series display higher activity against topoisomerase IIα in vitro and in cultured human cells than the corresponding quinazolinediones. Thus, quinolones may be a viable platform for the development of novel drugs with anticancer potential. PMID:25586498

  8. Antibacterial agents: patent highlights January to June 2004.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Oludotun A

    2004-08-01

    This review presents highlights of 32 patents, published between January and June 2004, detailing different classes of antibacterial agents. Disclosures on novel oxazolidinone derivatives with antibacterial activity continue to dominate patent publications in recent years. Novel oxazolidinone derivatives active against linezolid-resistant cocci are reviewed. Patents on beta-lactam antibiotics focused mainly on developing new processes and formulations to improve cost, purity and pharmacokinetic parameters of existing clinical agents. Disclosures on novel potential dual-acting macrolide-quinolone hybrids designed to overcome erythromycin resistance, and new macrolide derivatives with antimycobacterial activity are described. Also presented are novel antibacterial agents, including peptide deformylase and cell-wall inhibitors, and those with undefined mechanisms of action as potential lead compounds, as well as quinolone and quinoline derivatives.

  9. Distribution of Quinolones, Sulfonamides, Tetracyclines in Aquatic Environment and Antibiotic Resistance in Indochina

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Satoru; Hoa, Phan Thi Phuong

    2012-01-01

    Southeast Asia has become the center of rapid industrial development and economic growth. However, this growth has far outpaced investment in public infrastructure, leading to the unregulated release of many pollutants, including wastewater-related contaminants such as antibiotics. Antibiotics are of major concern because they can easily be released into the environment from numerous sources, and can subsequently induce development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Recent studies have shown that for some categories of drugs this source-to-environment antibiotic resistance relationship is more complex. This review summarizes current understanding regarding the presence of quinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines in aquatic environments of Indochina and the prevalence of bacteria resistant to them. Several noteworthy findings are discussed: (1) quinolone contamination and the occurrence of quinolone resistance are not correlated; (2) occurrence of the sul sulfonamide resistance gene varies geographically; and (3) microbial diversity might be related to the rate of oxytetracycline resistance. PMID:22363337

  10. Synthesis of first ever 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid-appended spirooxindole-pyrrolidine derivatives and their biological applications.

    PubMed

    Arasakumar, Thangaraj; Mathusalini, Sadasivam; Ata, Athar; Shankar, Ramasamy; Gopalan, Subashini; Lakshmi, Krishnasamy; Sakthivel, Pandiyarajan; Mohan, Palathurai Subramaniam

    2017-02-01

    A series of 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid-containing spirooxindole-pyrrolidine derivatives was synthesized via multicomponent 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions of azomethine ylides with new (E)-4-oxo-6-(3-phenyl-acryloyl)-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acids in good yields with high regioselectivity. The cycloadducts were characterized by analytical and spectral data including [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], 2D NMR and mass spectroscopy. The structure of one of the compounds (8a) was investigated theoretically by computational techniques. DFT studies support the proposed mechanism for this cycloaddition reaction. Furthermore, antibacterial activities of the new compounds were evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Compounds 8f, 8m and 8p showed potent inhibition activities against selected bacteria. The in vitro cytotoxicity of spirooxindole derivatives (8a-r) was evaluated against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Among the various compounds tested, compound 8f [Formula: see text] showed significant cytotoxic activity compared to the standard drug doxorubicin [Formula: see text].

  11. In vitro and in vivo drug release and antibacterial properties of the novel vancomycin-loaded bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly amino acid scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhidong; Jiang, Dianming; Yan, Ling; Wu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-loaded carriers were developed to fill cavities and locally deliver antibiotics following implantation. However, the most commonly used antibiotic carrier, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), has many disadvantages including that it does not promote bone regeneration or conduction. Vancomycin-loaded bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly amino acid (V-BHA/PAA) was successfully fabricated by a homogeneous method, certified as biosafe and known to promote osteogenesis. To evaluate its drug-release features, the quantity of the vancomycin in the elution was obtained every 2 days after in vitro simulated body fluid immersion. The drug concentration in the elution was determined to obtain the drug-release curve. The in vitro drug release was a three-phase process with two release peaks. Its antibacterial activity was evaluated in vitro using an antibacterial zone assay, antibacterial inhibition, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Scaffolds of V-BHA/PAA were implanted into a rabbit model of chronic osteomyelitis. The antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated in vivo by gross observations, X-ray, and histological and ultrastructural observations. During the first 48 h, the vancomycin release was more rapid, followed by a period of sustained slow release. Use of V-BHA/PAA could achieve relatively long-term vancomycin delivery of 38 days in vitro and 42 days in vivo. V-BHA/PAA showed a significant and consistent bactericidal effect toward both Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the bactericidal effect was stronger than that of vancomycin-loaded polymethyl meth acrylate (V-PMMA). The duration of the antibacterial effect of V-BHA/PAA toward both S. aureus and MRSA exceeded 28 days in vitro, while that of V-PMMA lasted only 14 days. The curative rate for V-BHA/PAA in the chronic osteomyelitis model was 75% for regular S. aureus and 66.67% for MRSA infection, which significantly exceeded

  12. In vitro and in vivo drug release and antibacterial properties of the novel vancomycin-loaded bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly amino acid scaffold.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhidong; Jiang, Dianming; Yan, Ling; Wu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic-loaded carriers were developed to fill cavities and locally deliver antibiotics following implantation. However, the most commonly used antibiotic carrier, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), has many disadvantages including that it does not promote bone regeneration or conduction. Vancomycin-loaded bone-like hydroxyapatite/poly amino acid (V-BHA/PAA) was successfully fabricated by a homogeneous method, certified as biosafe and known to promote osteogenesis. To evaluate its drug-release features, the quantity of the vancomycin in the elution was obtained every 2 days after in vitro simulated body fluid immersion. The drug concentration in the elution was determined to obtain the drug-release curve. The in vitro drug release was a three-phase process with two release peaks. Its antibacterial activity was evaluated in vitro using an antibacterial zone assay, antibacterial inhibition, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. Scaffolds of V-BHA/PAA were implanted into a rabbit model of chronic osteomyelitis. The antibacterial activity of the material was evaluated in vivo by gross observations, X-ray, and histological and ultrastructural observations. During the first 48 h, the vancomycin release was more rapid, followed by a period of sustained slow release. Use of V-BHA/PAA could achieve relatively long-term vancomycin delivery of 38 days in vitro and 42 days in vivo. V-BHA/PAA showed a significant and consistent bactericidal effect toward both Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the bactericidal effect was stronger than that of vancomycin-loaded polymethyl meth acrylate (V-PMMA). The duration of the antibacterial effect of V-BHA/PAA toward both S. aureus and MRSA exceeded 28 days in vitro, while that of V-PMMA lasted only 14 days. The curative rate for V-BHA/PAA in the chronic osteomyelitis model was 75% for regular S. aureus and 66.67% for MRSA infection, which significantly exceeded

  13. Nickel-quinolones interaction. Part 5-Biological evaluation of nickel(II) complexes with first-, second- and third-generation quinolones.

    PubMed

    Skyrianou, Kalliopi C; Perdih, Franc; Papadopoulos, Athanasios N; Turel, Iztok; Kessissoglou, Dimitris P; Psomas, George

    2011-10-01

    The nickel(II) complexes with the quinolone antibacterial agents oxolinic acid, flumequine, enrofloxacin and sparfloxacin in the presence of the N,N'-donor heterocyclic ligand 2,2'-bipyridylamine have been synthesized and characterized. The quinolones act as bidentate ligands coordinated to Ni(II) ion through the pyridone oxygen and a carboxylato oxygen. The crystal structure of [(2,2'-bipyridylamine)bis(sparfloxacinato)nickel(II)] has been determined by X-ray crystallography. UV study of the interaction of the complexes with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) has shown that they bind to CT DNA with [(2,2'-bipyridylamine)bis(flumequinato)nickel(II)] exhibiting the highest binding constant to CT DNA. The cyclic voltammograms of the complexes have shown that in the presence of CT DNA the complexes can bind to CT DNA by the intercalative binding mode which has also been verified by DNA solution viscosity measurements. Competitive study with ethidium bromide (EB) has shown that the complexes can displace the DNA-bound EB indicating that they bind to DNA in strong competition with EB. The complexes exhibit good binding propensity to human or bovine serum albumin protein having relatively high binding constant values. The biological properties of the [Ni(quinolonato)(2)(2,2'-bipyridylamine)] complexes have been evaluated in comparison to the previously reported Ni(II) quinolone complexes [Ni(quinolonato)(2)(H(2)O)(2)], [Ni(quinolonato)(2)(2,2'-bipyridine)] and [Ni(quinolonato)(2)(1,10-phenanthroline)]. The quinolones and their Ni(II) complexes have been tested for their antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. They have been also tested in vitro for their inhibitory activity against soybean lipoxygenase.

  14. Antibacterial activity of grepafloxacin.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, B; Heisig, P

    1997-12-01

    Grepafloxacin has an extremely broad spectrum of activity. Its activity against Gram-positive bacteria exceeds that of currently available quinolones. Grepafloxacin-resistant mutants seem to occur less frequently than ciprofloxacin- or ofloxacin-resistant mutants, and the increase in MIC against the former mutants is less than that of the latter. This applies only to the relative differences (in dilution steps); the absolute values are similar. Grepafloxacin kills Gram-positive bacteria at concentrations little above the MIC. Its pharmacodynamic profile against pneumococci is promising, favouring use of this drug for respiratory tract infections.

  15. Chemiluminescence determination of antibacterial drug trimethoprim by automated sequential injection technique with permanganate and hexametaphosphate as reagents.

    PubMed

    Polásek, Miroslav; Jambor, Michal

    2002-12-06

    Antibacterial drug trimethoprim [2,4-diamino-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)-pyrimidine] (I) was determined in pharmaceutical formulations by using a lab-made PC-controlled SIA analyser linked to conventional HPLC fluorimetric detector equipped with a chemiluminescence module. The chemical principle is the oxidation of I by KMnO(4) in acid medium; the reaction is accompanied by the emission of chemiluminescence, which is enhanced in the presence of hexametaphosphate (HMP). The optimum sequence and the flow parameters and concentrations and volumes of reagents aspirated optimised by a computer-aided simplex method were, 100 mul of 5 mM HMP, 40 mul of a test solution of I, 2 mul of 0.5 M H(2)SO(4) and 20 mul of 1 mM KMnO(4); the luminescing zone was pushed into the detector at a flow rate of 49 mul s(-1). The calibration graph relating the intensity of luminescence to concentration of I was parabolic (r=0.9994) in the range 0.5-100 mug ml(-1) of I with rectilinear part (r=0.9999) in the range 20-100 mug ml(-1) of I; the limit of detection was 0.1 mug ml(-1) of I. The method was used for the assay of Triprim(R) tablets (with nominal content 100 or 200 mg of I) for the active substance as well as for content uniformity tests; the R.S.D. values did not exceed 1% (n=5). The SIA results did not show statistical difference from those obtained by pharmacopoeial acidimetric titration in non-aqueous medium; the excipients such as microcrystalline cellulose, maze starch, povidone, talc, magnesium stearate and gelatin did not interfere.

  16. Study on the interaction between antibacterial drug and bovine serum albumin: A spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, P. N.; Chimatadar, S. A.; Nandibewoor, S. T.

    2009-09-01

    The binding of sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by spectroscopic methods viz., fluorescence, FT-IR and UV-vis absorption techniques. The binding parameters have been evaluated by fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters, Δ H°, Δ S°and Δ G° were observed to be -58.0 kJ mol -1, -111 J K -1 mol -1 and -24 kJ mol -1, respectively. These indicated that the hydrogen bonding and weak van der Waals forces played a major role in the interaction. Based on the Forster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the binding average distance, r, between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (SMZ) was evaluated and found to be 4.12 nm. Spectral results showed the binding of SMZ to BSA induced conformational changes in BSA. The effect of common ions and some of the polymers used in drug delivery for control release was also tested on the binding of SMZ to BSA. The effect of common ions revealed that there is adverse effect on the binding of SMZ to BSA.

  17. Is bacterial fatty acid synthesis a valid target for antibacterial drug discovery?

    PubMed

    Parsons, Joshua B; Rock, Charles O

    2011-10-01

    The emergence of resistance against most current drugs emphasizes the need to develop new approaches to control bacterial pathogens, particularly Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial fatty acid synthesis is one such target that is being actively pursued by several research groups to develop anti-Staphylococcal agents. Recently, the wisdom of this approach has been challenged based on the ability of a Gram-positive bacterium to incorporate extracellular fatty acids and thus circumvent the inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis. The generality of this conclusion has been challenged, and there is enough diversity in the enzymes and regulation of fatty acid synthesis in bacteria to conclude that there is not a single organism that can be considered typical and representative of bacteria as a whole. We are left without a clear resolution to this ongoing debate and await new basic research to define the pathways for fatty acid uptake and that determine the biochemical and genetic mechanisms for the regulation of fatty acid synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. These crucial experiments will determine whether diversity in the control of this important pathway accounts for the apparently different responses of Gram-positive bacteria to the inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis in presence of extracellular fatty acid supplements.

  18. The Synthesis of Quinolone Natural Products from Pseudonocardia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Salvaggio, Flavia; Hodgkinson, James T.; Carro, Laura; Geddis, Stephen M.; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Welch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of four quinolone natural products from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. is reported. The key step involved a sp2–sp3 Suzuki–Miyaura reaction between a common boronic ester lateral chain and various functionalised quinolone cores. The quinolones slowed growth of E. coli and S. aureus by inducing extended lag phases.

  19. Resistance pattern of enterobacteriaceae isolates from urinary tract infections to selected quinolones in Yaoundé

    PubMed Central

    Lyonga, Emilia Enjema; Toukam, Michel; Nkenfou, Celine; Gonsu, Hortense Kamga; Assoumou, Marie-Claire Okomo; Mesembe, Martha Tongo; Eyoh, Agnes Bedie; Ikomey, George Mondinde; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is estimated that 150 million urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur yearly worldwide, resulting in more than 6 billion dollar in direct healthcare cost. The etiology of UTIs is predictable, with Escherichia coli, an Enterobacteriaceae being the principal pathogen. Quinolones are usually the drug of choice. In this study, we report the resistance pattern of Enterobacteriaceae isolates from UTIs to quinolones among in-patients and out-patients at the Yaoundé Reference Hospital in Cameroon. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out for a ten-month period. Consecutive clean-catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from 207 in and out-patients. Identification was done using the Api 20E, and susceptibility testing using the Kirby Bauer's disc diffusion method and the MIC was done using the E-test. Results Out of the 207 isolates, 58(28.0%) were found to be resistant to all the quinolones used in the study. The resistances observed by species were in the order: Enterobacter 4(30.8%); Klebsiella 19(29.7%); Escherichia 25 (29.4%); Proteus 2(11.8%); Serratia 4(25.0%). Quinolone resistance for Escherichia was 42.9% for In-Patients (IP) and 16.3% for Out-Patient (OP) (P-value = 0.006); Klebsiella 35.9% for IP and 20% for OP; Proteus 11.1% for IP and 12.5% for OP; Serratia 18.2% for IP and 40% for OP; Enterobacter 22.2 for IP and 50% for OP. Conclusion High resistance rates to quinolones were observed not only for in-patients but also for out-patients with urinary tract enterobacterial infections. These findings demonstrate the importance of antibiotics susceptibility testing in improving quinolones prescription practices in Cameroon. PMID:26327943

  20. Generation and characterization of quinolone-specific DNA aptamers suitable for water monitoring.

    PubMed

    Reinemann, C; Freiin von Fritsch, U; Rudolph, S; Strehlitz, B

    2016-03-15

    Quinolones are antibiotics that are accredited in human and veterinary medicine but are regularly used in high quantities also in industrial livestock farming. Since these compounds are often only incompletely metabolized, significant amounts contaminate the aquatic environment and negatively impact on a variety of different ecosystems. Although there is increasing awareness of problems caused by pharmaceutical pollution, available methods for the detection and elimination of numerous pharmaceutical residues are currently inefficient or expensive. While this also applies to antibiotics that may lead to multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacteria, aptamer-based technologies potentially offer alternative approaches for sensitive and efficient monitoring of pharmaceutical micropollutants. Using the Capture-SELEX procedure, we here describe the selection of an aptamer pool with enhanced binding qualities for fluoroquinolones, a widely used group of antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine. The selected aptamers were shown to detect various quinolones with high specificity, while specific binding activities to structurally unrelated drugs were not detectable. The quinolone-specific aptamers bound to ofloxacin, one of the most frequently prescribed fluoroquinolone, with high affinity (KD=0.1-56.9 nM). The functionality of quinolone-specific aptamers in real water samples was demonstrated in local tap water and in effluents of sewage plants. Together, our data suggest that these aptamers may be applicable as molecular receptors in biosensors or as catcher molecules in filter systems for improved monitoring and treatment of polluted water.

  1. Antibacterial modification of an injectable, biodegradable, non-cytotoxic block copolymer-based physical gel with body temperature-stimulated sol-gel transition and controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowen; Hu, Huawen; Wang, Wenyi; Lee, Ka I; Gao, Chang; He, Liang; Wang, Yuanfeng; Lai, Chuilin; Fei, Bin; Xin, John H

    2016-07-01

    Biomaterials are being extensively used in various biomedical fields; however, they are readily infected with microorganisms, thus posing a serious threat to the public health care. We herein presented a facile route to the antibacterial modification of an important A-B-A type biomaterial using poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG)- poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-mPEG as a typical model. Inexpensive, commercial bis(2-hydroxyethyl) methylammonium chloride (DMA) was adopted as an antibacterial unit. The effective synthesis of the antibacterial copolymer mPEG-PCL-∼∼∼-PCL-mPEG (where ∼∼∼ denotes the segment with DMA units) was well confirmed by FTIR and (1)H NMR spectra. At an appropriate modification extent, the DMA unit could render the copolymer mPEG-PCL-∼∼∼-PCL-mPEG highly antibacterial, but did not largely alter its fascinating intrinsic properties including the thermosensitivity (e.g., the body temperature-induced sol-gel transition), non-cytotoxicity, and controlled drug release. A detailed study on the sol-gel-sol transition behavior of different copolymers showed that an appropriate extent of modification with DMA retained a sol-gel-sol transition, despite the fact that a too high extent caused a loss of sol-gel-sol transition. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic balance between mPEG and PCL was most likely broken upon a high extent of quaternization due to a large disturbance effect of DMA units at a large quantity (as evidenced by the heavily depressed PCL segment crystallinity), and thus the micelle aggregation mechanism for the gel formation could not work anymore, along with the loss of the thermosensitivity. The work presented here is highly expected to be generalized for synthesis of various block copolymers with immunity to microorganisms. Light may also be shed on understanding the phase transition behavior of various multiblock copolymers.

  2. Conversion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal and Related Alkylhydroxyquinolines by Rhodococcus sp. Strain BG43

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S.; Niewerth, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain, which based on the sequences of its 16S rRNA, gyrB, catA, and qsdA genes, was identified as a Rhodococcus sp. closely related to Rhodococcus erythropolis, was isolated from soil by enrichment on the Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone], a quorum sensing signal employed by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolate, termed Rhodococcus sp. strain BG43, cometabolically degraded PQS and its biosynthetic precursor 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone (HHQ) to anthranilic acid. HHQ degradation was accompanied by transient formation of PQS, and HHQ hydroxylation by cell extracts required NADH, indicating that strain BG43 has a HHQ monooxygenase isofunctional to the biosynthetic enzyme PqsH of P. aeruginosa. The enzymes catalyzing HHQ hydroxylation and PQS degradation were inducible by PQS, suggesting a specific pathway. Remarkably, Rhodococcus sp. BG43 is also capable of transforming 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide to PQS. It thus converts an antibacterial secondary metabolite of P. aeruginosa to a quorum sensing signal molecule. PMID:25239889

  3. Conversion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal and Related Alkylhydroxyquinolines by Rhodococcus sp. Strain BG43.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Niewerth, Heiko; Fetzner, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    A bacterial strain, which based on the sequences of its 16S rRNA, gyrB, catA, and qsdA genes, was identified as a Rhodococcus sp. closely related to Rhodococcus erythropolis, was isolated from soil by enrichment on the Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone], a quorum sensing signal employed by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isolate, termed Rhodococcus sp. strain BG43, cometabolically degraded PQS and its biosynthetic precursor 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone (HHQ) to anthranilic acid. HHQ degradation was accompanied by transient formation of PQS, and HHQ hydroxylation by cell extracts required NADH, indicating that strain BG43 has a HHQ monooxygenase isofunctional to the biosynthetic enzyme PqsH of P. aeruginosa. The enzymes catalyzing HHQ hydroxylation and PQS degradation were inducible by PQS, suggesting a specific pathway. Remarkably, Rhodococcus sp. BG43 is also capable of transforming 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide to PQS. It thus converts an antibacterial secondary metabolite of P. aeruginosa to a quorum sensing signal molecule.

  4. The safety of quinolones in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yefet, Enav; Salim, Raed; Chazan, Bibiana; Akel, Hiba; Romano, Shabtai; Nachum, Zohar

    2014-11-01

    Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are highly efficient antibiotics. However, concerns regarding possible harmful effects have limited their use during pregnancy. Nevertheless, accumulating clinical data suggest that they may be safe during pregnancy. This review aimed to explore the mechanisms of action of the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, which set the stage for concerns regarding possible teratogenic and mutagenic effects; to clarify the clinical dilemmas that brought forth the necessity in reevaluating the use of those medications during pregnancy; and to review the accumulated data regarding their safety during pregnancy in animal models and humans.

  5. Evolution of susceptibilities of Campylobacter spp. to quinolones and macrolides.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, R; Fernández-Baca, V; Díaz, M D; Muñoz, P; Rodríguez-Créixems, M; Bouza, E

    1994-09-01

    Erythromycin, new macrolides, and quinolones are alternatives for the treatment of Campylobacter infections. Concerns related to the emergence of resistance to both groups of drugs have been raised. We studied the evolution of antimicrobial susceptibilities of 275 clinical isolates of microorganisms of the genus Campylobacter isolated in our institution during a 5-year period (1988 to 1992). The microorganisms studied were C. jejuni (n = 230), C. coli (n = 42), and C. fetus (n = 3). The overall resistance rates (determined by the agar dilution method and the recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) were as follows: erythromycin, 2.3%; clarithromycin, 2.3%; azithromycin, 1.9%; ciprofloxacin, 28.5%; norfloxacin, 31%; ofloxacin, 26.3%; and nalidixic acid, 36.8%. The evolution of resistance (percent resistance in 1988 versus percent resistance in 1992) was as follows: erythromycin, 2.6 versus 3.1; clarithromycin, 2.6 versus 3.1; azithromycin, 2.6 versus 3.1; ciprofloxacin, 0 versus 49.5; norfloxacin, 2.6 versus 55.5; ofloxacin, 0 versus 45.6; nalidixic acid, 2.6 versus 56.8. Our data show stable macrolide activity against Campylobacter spp. and the rapid development of quinolone resistance over the last 5 years.

  6. Promoting assembly and bundling of FtsZ as a strategy to inhibit bacterial cell division: a new approach for developing novel antibacterial drugs.

    PubMed

    Beuria, Tushar K; Singh, Parminder; Surolia, Avadhesha; Panda, Dulal

    2009-09-14

    FtsZ plays an essential role in bacterial cell division. We have used the assembly of FtsZ as a screen to find antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. The effects of 81 compounds of 29 different structural scaffolds on FtsZ assembly in vitro were examined using a sedimentation assay. Out of these 81 compounds, OTBA (3-{5-[4-oxo-2-thioxo-3-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-thiazolidin-5-ylidenemethyl]-furan-2-yl}-benzoic acid) was found to promote FtsZ assembly in vitro. OTBA increased the assembly of FtsZ, caused bundling of FtsZ protofilaments, prevented dilution-induced disassembly of FtsZ protofilaments and decreased the GTPase activity in vitro. It bound to FtsZ with an apparent dissociation constant of 15+/-1.5 microM. Furthermore, OTBA inhibited the proliferation of Bacillus subtilis 168 cells with an MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of 2 microM, whereas it exerted minimal effects on mammalian cell proliferation, indicating that it might have a potential use as an antibacterial drug. In the effective proliferation inhibitory concentration range, OTBA induced filamentation in bacteria and also perturbed the formation of the cytokinetic Z-rings in bacteria. However, the agent neither perturbed the membrane structures nor affected the nucleoid segregation in B. subtilis cells. The results suggested that the OTBA inhibited bacterial cytokinesis by perturbing the formation and functioning of the Z-ring via altering FtsZ assembly dynamics. The antibacterial mechanism of action of OTBA is similar to that of the widely used anticancer drug paclitaxel, which inhibits cancer cell proliferation by promoting the assembly of tubulin, a eukaryotic homologue of FtsZ.

  7. Synthesis and biological relationships of 3',6-substituted 2-phenyl-4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives as antimitotic agents.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ya-Yun; Huang, Li-Jiau; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Xiao, Zhiyan; Bastow, Kenneth F; Yamori, Takao; Kuo, Sheng-Chu

    2005-01-03

    As part of a continuing search for potential anticancer drug candidates in the 2-phenyl-4-quinolone series, 3',6-substituted 2-phenyl-4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives and their salts were synthesized and evaluated. Preliminary screening showed that carboxylic acid analogs containing a m-fluoro substituted 2-phenyl group displayed the highest in vitro anticancer activity. Activity decreased significantly if a chlorine or methoxy group replaced the fluorine atom. 3'-Fluoro-6-methoxy-2-phenyl-4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid (68) had the highest in vitro cytotoxic activity among all tested carboxylic acid derivatives and their salts. The mechanism of action may be similar, but not identical, to that of tubulin binding drugs, such as navelbine and taxol. Compound 68 merits further investigation as a novel hydrophilic antimitotic agent.

  8. Nitroimidazoles, Quinolones and Oxazolidinones as Fluorine Bearing Antitubercular Clinical Candidates.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rahul V; Keum, Young-Soo; Park, Se Won

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a leading killer of lives worldwide and the global curse of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is attaining really dangerous levels. Synergistic interaction of HIV and TB is the twin epidemics in resource-limited countries as each potentiate progression of the other. The increasing emergence of MDR-TB and XDR-TB place an immense burden for the treatment of TB with currently available drugs. The situation urgently demands for the discovery of new drugs with novel mode of action and differs in structural features in order to overcome resistance appears in conventional TB therapeutics. The present report covers the discovery of three classes of antituberculosis drugs, Nitroimidazoles, Quinolones and Oxazolidinones, undergoing clinical development with fluorine atom in their structures. Highly electronegative fluorine atom plays a signature role in advancing medicinal innovations as it existence in the drug compounds critically influences metabolic stability and lipophilicity thereby delaying its elimination by the body which results into a long term in vivo efficiency of the drug. Presence of fluorine atom(s) in the drug structures described in this report, has been associated with the several fold increase in the overall potency of the compound as demonstrated since the early discoveries. 6 Fluorinated derivatives from these three classes as pretomanid, delamanid, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, linezolid and sutezolid have been discussed with their antituberculosis effects, mode of action, chemical synthetic routes and results of clinical studies.

  9. Transferable quinolone resistance in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Bin; Wang, Minghua; Ahmed, Sabeena; Park, Chi Hye; LaRocque, Regina C; Faruque, Abu S G; Salam, Mohammed A; Khan, Wasif A; Qadri, Firdausi; Calderwood, Stephen B; Jacoby, George A; Hooper, David C

    2010-02-01

    Ciprofloxacin was introduced for treatment of patients with cholera in Bangladesh because of resistance to other agents, but its utility has been compromised by the decreasing ciprofloxacin susceptibility of Vibrio cholerae over time. We correlated levels of susceptibility and temporal patterns with the occurrence of mutation in gyrA, which encodes a subunit of DNA gyrase, followed by mutation in parC, which encodes a subunit of DNA topoisomerase IV. We found that ciprofloxacin activity was more recently further compromised in strains containing qnrVC3, which encodes a pentapeptide repeat protein of the Qnr subfamily, members of which protect topoisomerases from quinolone action. We show that qnrVC3 confers transferable low-level quinolone resistance and is present within a member of the SXT integrating conjugative element family found commonly on the chromosomes of multidrug-resistant strains of V. cholerae and on the chromosomes of Escherichia coli transconjugants constructed in the laboratory. Thus, progressive increases in quinolone resistance in V. cholerae are linked to cumulative mutations in quinolone targets and most recently to a qnr gene on a mobile multidrug resistance element, resulting in further challenges for the antimicrobial therapy of cholera.

  10. Cytotoxic, antibacterial, DNA interaction and superoxide dismutase like activities of sparfloxacin drug based copper(II) complexes with nitrogen donor ligands.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mohan N; Joshi, Hardik N; Patel, Chintan R

    2013-03-01

    The novel neutral mononuclear copper(II) complexes with fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug, sparfloxacin and nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligand have been synthesized and characterized. An antimicrobial efficiency of the complexes has been tested against five different microorganisms and showed diverse biological activity. The interaction of complex with Herring sperm (HS) DNA was investigated using viscosity titration and absorption titration techniques. The results indicate that the complexes bind to DNA by intercalative mode and have rather high DNA-binding constants. DNA cleavage study showed better cleaving ability of the complexes compare to metal salt and standard drug. All the complexes showed good cytotoxic activity with LC(50) values ranging from 4.89 to 11.94 μg mL(-1). Complexes also exhibit SOD-like activity with their IC(50) values ranging from 0.717 to 1.848 μM.

  11. Cytotoxic, antibacterial, DNA interaction and superoxide dismutase like activities of sparfloxacin drug based copper(II) complexes with nitrogen donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mohan N.; Joshi, Hardik N.; Patel, Chintan R.

    2013-03-01

    The novel neutral mononuclear copper(II) complexes with fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug, sparfloxacin and nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligand have been synthesized and characterized. An antimicrobial efficiency of the complexes has been tested against five different microorganisms and showed diverse biological activity. The interaction of complex with Herring sperm (HS) DNA was investigated using viscosity titration and absorption titration techniques. The results indicate that the complexes bind to DNA by intercalative mode and have rather high DNA-binding constants. DNA cleavage study showed better cleaving ability of the complexes compare to metal salt and standard drug. All the complexes showed good cytotoxic activity with LC50 values ranging from 4.89 to 11.94 μg mL-1. Complexes also exhibit SOD-like activity with their IC50 values ranging from 0.717 to 1.848 μM.

  12. Fluoroquinolone-gyrase-DNA complexes: two modes of drug binding.

    PubMed

    Mustaev, Arkady; Malik, Muhammad; Zhao, Xilin; Kurepina, Natalia; Luan, Gan; Oppegard, Lisa M; Hiasa, Hiroshi; Marks, Kevin R; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Drlica, Karl

    2014-05-02

    DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV control bacterial DNA topology by breaking DNA, passing duplex DNA through the break, and then resealing the break. This process is subject to reversible corruption by fluoroquinolones, antibacterials that form drug-enzyme-DNA complexes in which the DNA is broken. The complexes, called cleaved complexes because of the presence of DNA breaks, have been crystallized and found to have the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring system facing the GyrB/ParE subunits. As expected from x-ray crystallography, a thiol-reactive, C-7-modified chloroacetyl derivative of ciprofloxacin (Cip-AcCl) formed cross-linked cleaved complexes with mutant GyrB-Cys(466) gyrase as evidenced by resistance to reversal by both EDTA and thermal treatments. Surprisingly, cross-linking was also readily seen with complexes formed by mutant GyrA-G81C gyrase, thereby revealing a novel drug-gyrase interaction not observed in crystal structures. The cross-link between fluoroquinolone and GyrA-G81C gyrase correlated with exceptional bacteriostatic activity for Cip-AcCl with a quinolone-resistant GyrA-G81C variant of Escherichia coli and its Mycobacterium smegmatis equivalent (GyrA-G89C). Cip-AcCl-mediated, irreversible inhibition of DNA replication provided further evidence for a GyrA-drug cross-link. Collectively these data establish the existence of interactions between the fluoroquinolone C-7 ring and both GyrA and GyrB. Because the GyrA-Gly(81) and GyrB-Glu(466) residues are far apart (17 Å) in the crystal structure of cleaved complexes, two modes of quinolone binding must exist. The presence of two binding modes raises the possibility that multiple quinolone-enzyme-DNA complexes can form, a discovery that opens new avenues for exploring and exploiting relationships between drug structure and activity with type II DNA topoisomerases.

  13. Quinolone resistance in bacteria: emphasis on plasmid-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Zhi

    2005-06-01

    Bacterial resistance to quinolones/fluoroquinolones has emerged rapidly and such resistance has traditionally been attributed to the chromosomally mediated mechanisms that alter the quinolone targets (i.e. DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV) and/or overproduce multidrug resistance efflux pumps. However, the discovery of the plasmid-borne quinolone resistance determinant, named qnr, has substantially broadened our horizon on the molecular mechanisms of quinolone resistance. Several recent reports of Qnr or its homologues encoded by transferable plasmids in Gram-negative bacteria isolated worldwide highlight the significance of the emerging plasmid-mediated mechanism(s). This also alerts us to the potential rapid dissemination of quinolone resistance determinants. Qnr belongs to the pentapeptide repeat family and protects DNA gyrase from the action of quinolone agents including the newer fluoroquinolones. This protection interplays with chromosomal mechanisms to raise significantly the resistance levels. The qnr-bearing strains generate quinolone-resistant mutants at a much higher frequency than those qnr-free strains. Furthermore, the qnr-plasmids are integron-associated and carry multiple resistance determinants providing resistance to several classes of antimicrobials including beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. The high quinolone resistance rates in Escherichia coli are used to address issues of quinolone resistance, and possible strategies for minimising quinolone resistance are discussed.

  14. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Combined with Ineffective Antibiotics on Drug Resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104.

    PubMed

    McShan, Danielle; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Hua; Ray, Paresh C; Yu, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic antibacterial activity of combined silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with tetracycline (polykeptide), neomycin (aminoglycoside), and penicillin (β-lactam) was tested against the multidrug resistant bacterium Salmonella typhimurium DT104. Dose-dependent inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 growth is observed for tetracycline-AgNPs and neomycin-AgNPs combination with IC50 of 0.07 μg/mL and 0.43 μg/mL, respectively. There is no inhibition by the penicillin-AgNPs combination. These results suggest that the combination of the ineffective tetracycline or neomycin with AgNPs effectively inhibits the growth of this bacterium. The synergistic antibacterial effect is likely due to enhanced bacterial binding by AgNPs assisted by tetracycline or neomycin, but not by penicillin.

  15. CWF-145, a novel synthetic quinolone derivative exerts potent antimitotic activity against human prostate cancer: Rapamycin enhances antimitotic drug-induced apoptosis through the inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chao-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chao; Liu, Liang-Chih; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2016-12-25

    CWF-145, a synthetic 2-phenyl-4-quinolone derivative exerted potent cytotoxicity against prostate cancer. CWF-145 inhibited prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, DU-145 and LNCap. It had a very low IC50 about 200 nM against castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) PC-3. We found that CWF-145 had a similar effect to clinical trial antimitotic agents in cancer cells and normal cells. CWF-145 arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase by binding to the β-tubulin at the colchicine-binding site then disrupted microtubule polymerization. Furthermore, the damaged microtubule affected the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Our data showed that CWF-145 activated Akt and mTOR expression to increase emi1 accumulation and inhibit APC. The increased cyclin B1 and securin arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase. Moreover, we showed that Akt activation markedly increased resistance to microtubule-directed agents, including CWF-145, colchicine, and paclitaxel. Interestingly, rapamycin inhibited Akt-mediated therapeutic resistance, indicating that these effects were dependent on mTOR. Taken together, these observations suggest that activation of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway can promote resistance to chemotherapeutic agents that do not directly target metabolic regulation. These data may provide insight into potentially synergistic combinations of anticancer therapies.

  16. Chemical conjugation of 2-hexadecynoic acid to C5-curcumin enhances its antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sanabria-Ríos, David J; Rivera-Torres, Yaritza; Rosario, Joshua; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Torres-García, Yeireliz; Montano, Nashbly; Ortíz-Soto, Gabriela; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Rodríguez, José W; Carballeira, Néstor M

    2015-11-15

    The first total synthesis of a C5-curcumin-2-hexadecynoic acid (C5-Curc-2-HDA, 6) conjugate was successfully performed. Through a three-step synthetic route, conjugate 6 was obtained in 13% overall yield and tested for antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Our results revealed that 6 was active against eight MRSA strains at MICs that range between 31.3 and 62.5 μg/mL. It was found that the presence of 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA, 4) in conjugate 6 increased 4-8-fold its antibacterial activity against MRSA strains supporting our hypothesis that the chemical connection of 4 to C5-curcumin (2) increases the antibacterial activity of 2 against Gram-positive bacteria. Combinational index (CIn) values that range between 1.6 and 2.3 were obtained when eight MRSA strains were treated with an equimolar mixture of 2 and 4. These results demonstrated that an antagonistic effect is taking place. Finally, it was investigated whether conjugate 6 can affect the replication process of S. aureus, since this compound inhibited the supercoiling activity of the S. aureus DNA gyrase at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 250 μg/mL (IC50=100.2±13.9 μg/mL). Moreover, it was observed that the presence of 4 in conjugate 6 improves the anti-topoisomerase activity of 2 towards S. aureus DNA gyrase, which is in agreement with results obtained from antibacterial susceptibility tests involving MRSA strains.

  17. Molecular identification of marine symbiont bacteria of gastropods from the waters of the Krakal coast Yogyakarta and its potential as a Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) antibacterial agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahry, Muhammad Syaifudien; Pringgenies, Delianis; Trianto, Agus

    2017-01-01

    The resistance of pathogenic bacteria may occur to many types of antibiotics, especially in cases of non-compliance use of antibiotics, which likely to allow the evolution of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Gastropods seas are marine invertebrates informed capable of production of secondary metabolites as antibacterial MDR. The purpose of the study was the isolation and identification of gastropod symbiont bacteria found in the waters of Krakal, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, which has the ability to produce antibacterial compounds against MDR(Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, MRSA (methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus homunis) molecular. Stages of this research began with the isolation of bacteria, bacteria screening for anti-MDR compound, mass culture, and extraction, antibacterial activity test, DNA extraction, amplification by PCR 16S rDNA and sequencing. The results of the study showed that 19 isolates of bacteria were isolated from three species of gastropods namely Littorina scabra, Cypraea moneta and Conus ebraeus. Among them, 4 isolates showed activity against MDR test bacteria (E. coli, E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus and S. homunis). The highest activity was displayed by code LS.G1.8 isolate with the largest inhibition zone 15.47±0.45mm on S. humonis at 250 µg/disk concentration. Isolate CM.G2.1 showed largest inhibition zone, with 21.5±0.07mm on MRSA at 1000 µg/disk concentration and isolate the largest inhibition zone CM.G2.5 14.37±0.81mm on MRSA 14.37±0.81mm at concentrations 1000 µg/disk. The molecular identification of isolates LS.G1.8 has 99% homology with Bacillus subtilis and isolates CM.G2.1 has 99% homology with Bacillus pumillus.

  18. Cytotoxic and antibacterial substances against multi-drug resistant pathogens from marine sponge symbiont: Citrinin, a secondary metabolite of Penicillium sp.

    PubMed Central

    Subramani, Ramesh; Kumar, Rohitesh; Prasad, Pritesh; Aalbersberg, William

    2013-01-01

    Objective To Isolate, purify, characterize, and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the sponge-derived fungus Penicillium sp. FF001 and to elucidate its structure. Methods The fungal strain FF001 with an interesting bioactivity profile was isolated from a marine Fijian sponge Melophlus sp. Based on conidiophores aggregation, conidia development and mycelia morphological characteristics, the isolate FF001 was classically identified as a Penicillium sp. The bioactive compound was identified using various spectral analysis of UV, high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data. Further minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) assay and brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay were also carried out to evaluate the biological properties of the purified compound. Results Bioassay guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract of a static culture of this Penicillium sp. by different chromatographic methods led the isolation of an antibacterial, anticryptococcal and cytotoxic active compound, which was identified as citrinin (1). Further, citrinin (1) is reported for its potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), rifampicin-resistant S. aureus, wild type S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium showed MICs of 3.90, 0.97, 1.95 and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively. Further citrinin (1) displayed significant activity against the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (MIC 3.90 µg/mL), and exhibited cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae LD50 of 96 µg/mL. Conclusions Citrinin (1) is reported from sponge associated Penicillium sp. from this study and for its strong antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant human pathogens including cytotoxicity against brine shrimp larvae, which indicated that sponge associated Penicillium spp. are promising sources of natural bioactive metabolites. PMID:23620853

  19. Optimization of endochin-like quinolones for antimalarial activity

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Rolf; Kelly, Jane X.; Smilkstein, Martin J.; Hinrichs, David; Koop, Dennis R.; Riscoe, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Structural analogs of the antimalarial Endochin were synthesized and screened for antiplasmodial activity against drug sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Structural features have been identified that are associated with improved potency while other features are associated with equipotency against an atovaquone-resistant clinical isolate. Relative to endochin the most active compound ELQ-121 shows ≈ 100-fold improvement in IC50 for inhibition of P. falciparum in vitro and it also exhibits enhanced metabolic stability. A polyethylene glycol carbonate ester prodrug of ELQ-121 demonstrated in vivo efficacy against P. yoelii in mice. This is the first report of an endochin-like quinolone that is efficacious in treating malaria in a mammalian host. PMID:21040724

  20. Detection of quinolones in poultry meat obtained from retail centers in Santiago Province, the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Silfrany, R O; Caba, R E; Solís de Los Santos, F; Hanning, I

    2013-02-01

    In the Dominican Republic, poultry consumption per capita is greater than 34 kg of poultry meat per year. However, antibiotics, specifically the quinolone group, may be overused and can result in residues in the poultry meat. These residues are of concern because consumers may have allergies to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can develop from overuse of antibiotics in production. Little is known concerning this issue specifically for Santiago Province in the Dominican Republic. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence of residual quinolones in poultry meat and determine whether any residues detected were higher than the residue maximum limits (100 μg/kg) established by food industry authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority. A total of 135 samples of chicken breast were taken from different retail meat centers in the nine municipalities of Santiago Province (Santiago, Tamboril, Sabana Iglesia, Villa Bisonó, Puñal, Villa González, Licey, Jánico, and San José De Las Matas) and were analyzed using the Equinox test (Immunotec, Swanton, VT). Of the 135 samples analyzed, 50% from Sabana Iglesia, 20% from Licey, 20% from San Jose De Las Matas, and 6.25% from Santiago contained residues of quinolones higher than the residue maximum limits. No quinolone residues were detected in samples obtained from Janico, Punal, Tamboril, Villa Bisono, or Villa Gonzalez. The results of this investigation suggest that some poultry meat sold for human consumption in Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic contains quinolone residues and may represent a health risk to some consumers.

  1. Quinolone and macrolide resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli: resistance mechanisms and trends in human isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Engberg, J.; Aarestrup, F. M.; Taylor, D. E.; Gerner-Smidt, P.; Nachamkin, I.

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of human Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections has increased markedly in many parts of the world in the last decade as has the number of quinolone-resistant and, to a lesser extent, macrolide-resistant Campylobacter strains causing infections. We review macrolide and quinolone resistance in Campylobacter and track resistance trends in human clinical isolates in relation to use of these agents in food animals. Susceptibility data suggest that erythromycin and other macrolides should remain the drugs of choice in most regions, with systematic surveillance and control measures maintained, but fluoroquinolones may now be of limited use in the empiric treatment of Campylobacter infections in many regions. PMID:11266291

  2. Quinolone-resistant Campylobacter infections: risk factors and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Engberg, Jørgen; Neimann, Jakob; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Aerestrup, Frank Møller; Fussing, Vivian

    2004-06-01

    We integrated data on quinolone and macrolide susceptibility patterns with epidemiologic and typing data from Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli infections in two Danish counties. The mean duration of illness was longer for 86 patients with quinolone-resistant C. jejuni infections (median 13.2 days) than for 381 patients with quinolone-sensitive C. jejuni infections (median 10.3 days, p = 0.001). Foreign travel, eating fresh poultry other than chicken and turkey, and swimming were associated with increased risk for quinolone-resistant C. jejuni infection. Eating fresh chicken (of presumably Danish origin) was associated with a decreased risk. Typing data showed an association between strains from retail food products and broiler chickens and quinolone-sensitive domestically acquired C. jejuni infections. An association between treatment with a fluoroquinolone before stool-specimen collection and having a quinolone-resistant C. jejuni infection was not observed.

  3. Anti-bacterial performance of azithromycin nanoparticles as colloidal drug delivery system against different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Azhdarzadeh, Morteza; Lotfipour, Farzaneh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Mohammadi, Ghobad; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Azithromycin (AZI) is a new macrolide antibiotic with a better activity against intracellular gram negative bacteria in comparison with Erythromycin. The purpose of this research was to prepare AZI nanoparticles (NPs) using PLGA polymer and to compare the effectiveness of prepared nanoparticles with untreated AZI solution. Methods: AZI NPs were prepared by Modified Quasi-Emulsion Solvent Diffusion method. The antibacterial activities of prepared NPs in comparison with AZI solution were assayed against indicator bacteria of Escherichia coli (PTCC 1330), Haemophilus influenzae (PTCC 1623) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PTCC 1240) using agar well diffusion. Inhibition zone diameters (IZD) of nano-formulation were compared to the corresponding untreated AZI. Mean Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of AZI were also determined using serial dilution method in nutrient broth medium. Results: Mean IZD of nano-formulations for all indicator bacteria were significantly higher than that of untreated AZI (P<0.01). The enhanced antibacterial efficacy was more dominant in the gram positive species. The MIC values of NPs against the tested bacteria were reduced 8 times in comparison to those of untreated AZI. Conclusion: These results indicated an improved potency of AZI NPs which could be attributed to the modified surface characteristics as well as increased drug adsorption and uptake. PMID:24312766

  4. Nanoparticle Fullerene (C60) demonstrated stable binding with antibacterial potential towards probable targets of drug resistant Salmonella typhi - a computational perspective and in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Parveen, Asma; Garka, Shruti

    2016-11-23

    Salmonella typhi, a Gram negative bacterium, has become multidrug resistant (MDR) to wide classes of antibacterials which necessitate an alarming precaution. This study focuses on the binding potential and therapeutic insight of Nano-Fullerene C60 towards virulent targets of Salmonella typhi by computational prediction and preliminary in vitro assays. The clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi were collected and antibiotic susceptibility profiles were assessed. The drug targets of pathogen were selected by rigorous literature survey and gene network analysis by various metabolic network resources. Based on this study, 20 targets were screened and the 3D structures of few drug targets were retrieved from PDB and others were computationally predicted. The structures of nanoleads such as Fullerene C60, ZnO and CuO were retrieved from drug databases. The binding potential of these nanoleads towards all selected targets were predicted by molecular docking. The best docked conformations were screened and concept was investigated by preliminary bioassays. This study revealed that most of the isolates of Salmonella typhi were found to be MDR (p < .05). The theoretical models of selected drug targets showed high stereochemical validity. The molecular docking studies suggested that Fullerene C60 showed better binding affinity towards the drug targets when compared to ZnO and CuO. The preliminary in vitro assays suggested that 100 μg/L Fullerene C60 posses significant inhibitory activities and absence of drug resistance to this nanoparticle. This study suggests that Fullerene C60 can be scaled up as probable lead molecules against the major drug targets of MDR Salmonella typhi.

  5. Antibacterial and antibiotic-potentiation activities of the methanol extract of some cameroonian spices against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present work was designed to evaluate the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of eleven selected Cameroonian spices on multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR), and their ability to potentiate the effect of some common antibiotics used in therapy. Results The extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and AG100 strains showed the best activities, with the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64 μg/ml. The extract of Dorstenia psilurus was the most active when tested in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor, phenylalanine Arginine-β- Naphtylamide (PAβN), a synergistic effect being observed in 56.25 % of the tested bacteria when it was combined with Erythromycin (ERY). Conclusion The present work evidently provides information on the role of some Cameroonian spices in the fight against multi-resistant bacteria. PMID:22709668

  6. Joined X-ray, spectroscopic and theoretical study of potential antibacterial cyano group containing fluoroquinolone drugs precursors with the focus on the conformational behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorotíková, Sandra; Kucková, Lenka; Malček, Michal; Plevová, Kristína; Kožíšek, Jozef; Milata, Viktor; Dvoranová, Dana; Bučinský, Lukáš

    2016-12-01

    Conformational behavior of 3-fluorophenylaminoethylene precursors of potential antibacterial fluoroquinolone drugs are investigated by the comparison of obtained experimental X-ray structures, IR vibrational frequencies and UV-vis transitions with B3LYP/6-311++G** theoretical calculations. Theoretical investigations of the conformational behavior are extended for the rotational energy barriers between ZZa-EZa and ZZa-ZEa conformers which are investigated along with the change of bond critical points characteristics and delocalization indices of quantum theory of atoms in molecules (including atomic and formal functional group charges). Subsequently, molecular dynamics simulations are presenting a critical assessment of the dynamics of distinguished dihedral angles which are related to the conformational behavior.

  7. Design, Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Antibacterial Evaluation of Some Novel Flouroquinolone Derivatives as Potent Antibacterial Agent

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mehul M.; Patel, Laxman J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Quinolone moiety is an important class of nitrogen containing heterocycles widely used as key building blocks for medicinal agents. It exhibits a wide spectrum of pharmacophores and has bactericidal, antiviral, antimalarial, and anticancer activities. In view of the reported antimicrobial activity of various fluoroquinolones, the importance of the C-7 substituents is that they exhibit potent antimicrobial activities. Our objective was to synthesize newer quinolone analogues with increasing bulk at C-7 position of the main 6-fluoroquinolone scaffold to produce the target compounds which have potent antimicrobial activity. Methods. A novel series of 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-4-oxo-7-{4-[2-(4-substituted phenyl)-2-(substituted)-ethyl]-1-piperazinyl}-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized. To understand the interaction of binding sites with bacterial protein receptor, the docking study was performed using topoisomerase II DNA gyrase enzymes (PDB ID: 2XCT) by Schrodinger's Maestro program. In vitro antibacterial activity of the synthesized compounds was studied and the MIC value was calculated by the broth dilution method. Results. Among all the synthesized compounds, some compounds showed potent antimicrobial activity. The compound 8g exhibited good antibacterial activity. Conclusion. This investigation identified the potent antibacterial agents against certain infections. PMID:25574496

  8. Palladium(II) complexes as biologically potent metallo-drugs: Synthesis, spectral characterization, DNA interaction studies and antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Kollur Shiva; Kumar, Linganna Shiva; Chandan, Shivamallu; Naveen Kumar, R. M.; Revanasiddappa, Hosakere D.

    2013-04-01

    Four novel mononuclear Pd(II) complexes have been synthesized with the biologically active Schiff base ligands (L1-L4) derived from 3-amino-2-methyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone. The structure of the complexes has been proposed by elemental analysis, molar conductance, IR, 1H NMR, mass, UV-Vis spectrometric and thermal studies. The investigation of interaction of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been performed with absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The nuclease activity was done using pUC19 supercoiled DNA by gel-electrophoresis. All the ligands and their Pd(II) complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial activity by discolor diffusion technique.

  9. Regional variations in quinolone use in France and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Gallini, A; Taboulet, F; Bourrel, R

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate geographic variations in the use of quinolones in France and their associated factors. All reimbursement claims of antimicrobials were collected for 90 % of the French population for the year 2007. Dispensed quantities were then converted into defined daily doses (DDD) and adjusted for the age structure of the national population. Correlations between quinolone use and total antimicrobial use and some morbidity and socio-economic factors were studied using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. On average, 2.05 DDD of quinolones per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) were dispensed in 2007 in France, accounting for 10.2 % of the total antimicrobial consumption in adults. A 40 % variation was observed between the regions with the lowest (1.73 DID) and the highest use (2.44 DID). This variation was more important for anti-pneumococcal quinolones than for quinolones directed against urinary tract infections (coefficients of variation: 26 vs. 6 %). Quinolone use was correlated with some regional socio-economic factors (unemployment, growth domestic product, health expenditures) and physician density, but was independent of the total antimicrobial use. After adjustment for age, large variations in quantitative and qualitative quinolone use were observed across French regions, especially for anti-pneumococcal fluoroquinolones. These results, though not controlled for potential epidemics variations, argue in favour of a possible improvement in quinolone prescribing to be achieved in some regions.

  10. Metal complexes of quinolone antibiotics and their applications: an update.

    PubMed

    Uivarosi, Valentina

    2013-09-11

    Quinolones are synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotics with good oral absorption and excellent bioavailability. Due to the chemical functions found on their nucleus (a carboxylic acid function at the 3-position, and in most cases a basic piperazinyl ring (or another N-heterocycle) at the 7-position, and a carbonyl oxygen atom at the 4-position) quinolones bind metal ions forming complexes in which they can act as bidentate, as unidentate and as bridging ligand, respectively. In the polymeric complexes in solid state, multiple modes of coordination are simultaneously possible. In strongly acidic conditions, quinolone molecules possessing a basic side nucleus are protonated and appear as cations in the ionic complexes. Interaction with metal ions has some important consequences for the solubility, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of quinolones, and is also involved in the mechanism of action of these bactericidal agents. Many metal complexes with equal or enhanced antimicrobial activity compared to the parent quinolones were obtained. New strategies in the design of metal complexes of quinolones have led to compounds with anticancer activity. Analytical applications of complexation with metal ions were oriented toward two main directions: determination of quinolones based on complexation with metal ions or, reversely, determination of metal ions based on complexation with quinolones.

  11. Fluorimetric study of the interaction between human serum albumin and quinolones-terbium complex and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yusheng; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Chongqiu

    2005-10-01

    A highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric method is proposed for determination of human serum albumin (HSA) and some quinolone drugs. Using quinolones-terbium (Tb 3+) complex as a fluorescent probe, in the buffer solution of pH 7.8, HSA can remarkably enhance the fluorescence intensity of the quinolones-Tb 3+ complex at 545 nm and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of Tb 3+ ion is in proportion to the concentration of HSA and quinolone drugs. Optimum conditions for the determination of HSA were also investigated. The linear ranges and limits of detection are 8.0 × 10 -9 to 8.0 × 10 -8 mol L -1, 4.20 × 10 -9 mol L -1 (for HSA); 1.0 × 10 -6 to 4.0 × 10 -6 mol L -1, 1.87 × 10 -8 mol L -1 (for norfloxacin) and 1.0 × 10 -7 to 1.0 × 10 -6 mol L -1, 4.82 × 10 -8 mol L -1 (for enoxacine), respectively. This method is simple, practical and relatively free interference from coexisting substances, as well as much more sensitive than most of the existing assays.

  12. DNA sequence preferences at sites cleaved by human DNA topoisomerase II in response to novel quinolone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Huff, A C; Robinson, R G; Evans, A C; Selander, K N; Wentland, M P; Rake, J B; Coughlin, S A

    1995-04-01

    We have examined the DNA cleavage site specificity of human type II DNA topoisomerase in the presence of each of five novel quinolone derivatives. Each quinolone derivative inhibited the human enzyme, inducing double-strand breaks with a four-base stagger. Break sites generated in response to each derivative had a predominance of C in the 3'-terminal position. Consensus sequences derived for cleavage sites induced by each derivative were strikingly similar, not only at the 3'-terminal position, but also at additional positions on either side of the broken phosphodiester bond. Analysis of these consensus sequences yielded information about possible interactions of specific substituents on the quinolone derivatives with DNA and/or topoisomerase. Comparison of the quinolone-based consensus sequences with those derived for cleavage sites generated by the human type II topoisomerase in the presence of either m-AMSA or VM-26, or in the absence of drug, provided compelling evidence that DNA cleavage sites include two domains: one which interacts with drug and a second, larger domain which interacts with topoisomerase.

  13. Apigenin as an anti-quinolone-resistance antibiotic.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yuh; Baba, Tadashi; Sasaki, Takashi; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported the first 'reverse antibiotic' (RA), nybomycin (NYB), which showed a unique antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains. NYB specifically suppressed the growth of quinolone-resistant S. aureus strains but was not effective against quinolone-susceptible strains. Although NYB was first reported in 1955, little was known about its unique antimicrobial activity because it was before the synthesis of the first quinolone ('old quinolone'), nalidixic acid, in 1962. Following our re-discovery of NYB, we looked for other RAs among natural substances that act on quinolone-resistant bacteria. Commercially available flavones were screened against S. aureus, including quinolone-resistant strains, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were compared using the microbroth dilution method. Some of the flavones screened showed stronger antimicrobial activity against quinolone-resistant strains than against quinolone-susceptible ones. Amongst them, apigenin (API) was the most potent in its RA activity. DNA cleavage assay showed that API inhibited DNA gyrase harbouring the quinolone resistance mutation gyrA(Ser84Leu) but did not inhibit 'wild-type' DNA gyrase that is sensitive to levofloxacin. An API-susceptible S. aureus strain Mu50 was also selected using agar plates containing 20mg/L API. Whole-genome sequencing of selected mutant strains was performed and frequent back-mutations (reverse mutations) were found among API-resistant strains derived from the API-susceptible S. aureus strains. Here we report that API represents another molecular class of natural antibiotic having RA activity against quinolone-resistant bacteria.

  14. Chemoinformatics for rational discovery of safe antibacterial drugs: simultaneous predictions of biological activity against streptococci and toxicological profiles in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Kleandrova, Valeria V; Cordeiro, M N D S

    2013-05-15

    Streptococci are a group of Gram-positive bacteria which are responsible for causing many diverse diseases in humans and other animals worldwide. The high prevalence of resistance of these bacteria to current antibacterial drugs is an alarming problem for the scientific community. The battle against streptococci by using antimicrobial chemotherapies will depend on the design of new chemicals with high inhibitory activity, having also as low toxicity as possible. Multi-target approaches based on quantitative-structure activity relationships (mt-QSAR) have played a very important role, providing a better knowledge about the molecular patterns related with the appearance of different pharmacological profiles including antimicrobial activity. Until now, almost all mt-QSAR models have considered the study of biological activity or toxicity separately. In the present study, we develop by the first time, a unified multitasking (mtk) QSAR model for the simultaneous prediction of anti-streptococci activity and toxic effects against biological models like Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus. The mtk-QSAR model was created by using artificial neural networks (ANN) analysis for the classification of compounds as positive (high biological activity and/or low toxicity) or negative (otherwise) under diverse sets of experimental conditions. Our mtk-QSAR model, correctly classified more than 97% of the cases in the whole database (more than 11,500 cases), serving as a promising tool for the virtual screening of potent and safe anti-streptococci drugs.

  15. Anti-inflammatory drugs interacting with Zn (II) metal ion based on thiocyanate and azide ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic studies, DFT calculations and antibacterial assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiniforoshan, Hossein; Tabrizi, Leila; Hadizade, Morteza; Sabzalian, Mohammad R.; Chermahini, Alireza Najafi; Rezapour, Mehdi

    2014-07-01

    Zinc (II) complexes with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) naproxen (nap) and ibuprofen (ibu) were synthesized in the presence of nitrogen donor ligands (thiocyanate or azide). The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopes. The binding modes of the ligands in complexes were established by means of molecular modeling of the complexes, and calculation of their IR, NMR and absorption spectra at DFT (TDDFT)/B3LYP level were studied. The experimental and calculated data verified monodentate binding through the carboxylic oxygen atoms of anti-inflammatory drugs in the zinc complexes. The calculated 1H, FT-IR and UV-Vis data are in better agreement with the experimental results, and confirm the predicted tetrahedral structures for the Zn (II) complexes. In addition to DFT calculations of complexes, natural bond orbital (NBO) was performed at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Biological studies showed the antibacterial activity of zinc complexes against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

  16. Three-dimensional structures of unligated uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis at 1.4 Å resolution and its complex with an antibacterial drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdulkhakov, A. G.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mironov, A. S.; Betzel, C.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Uridine phosphorylases play an essential role in the cellular metabolism of some antibacterial agents. Acute infectious diseases (bubonic plague, yersiniosis, pseudotuberculosis, etc., caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia) are treated using both sulfanilamide medicines and antibiotics, including trimethoprim. The action of an antibiotic on a bacterial cell is determined primarily by the character of its interactions with cellular components, including those which are not targets (for example, with pyrimidine phosphorylases). This type of interaction should be taken into account in designing drugs. The three-dimensional structure of uridine phosphorylase from the bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) with the free active site was determined for the first time by X-ray crystallography and refined at 1.40 Å resolution (DPI = 0.062 Å; ID PDB: 4OF4). The structure of the complex of YptUPh with the bacteriostatic drug trimethoprim was studied by molecular docking and molecular dynamics methods. The trimethoprim molecule was shown to be buffered by the enzyme YptUPh, resulting in a decrease in the efficiency of the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Yersinia with trimethoprim.

  17. 4-Quinolone alkaloids from Melochia odorata.

    PubMed

    Jadulco, Raquel C; Pond, Christopher D; Van Wagoner, Ryan M; Koch, Michael; Gideon, Osia G; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Piskaut, Pius; Barrows, Louis R

    2014-01-24

    The methanol extract of Melochia odorata yielded three 4-quinolone alkaloids including waltherione A (1) and two new alkaloids, waltherione C (2) and waltherione D (3). Waltheriones A and C showed significant activities in an in vitro anti-HIV cytoprotection assay at concentrations of 56.2 and 0.84 μM and inhibition of HIV P24 formation of more than 50% at 1.7 and 0.95 μM, respectively. The structures of the alkaloids were established by spectroscopic data interpretation.

  18. 4-Quinolone Alkaloids from Melochia odorata

    PubMed Central

    Jadulco, Raquel C.; Pond, Christopher D.; Van Wagoner, Ryan M.; Koch, Michael; Gideon, Osia G.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Barrows, Louis R.

    2014-01-01

    The methanol extract of Melochia odorata yielded three 4-quinolone alkaloids including waltherione A (1) and two new alkaloids, waltherione C (2) and waltherione D (3). Waltheriones A and C showed significant activities in an in vitro anti-HIV cytoprotection assay at concentrations of 56.2 and 0.84 μM, and inhibition of HIV P24 formation of more than 50% at 1.7 and 0.95 μM, respectively. The structures of the alkaloids were established by spectroscopic data interpretation. PMID:24392742

  19. Vibrational spectra study on quinolones antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Yu, Ke; Wang, Sihuan

    2006-09-01

    In order to be able to fully understand and easily identify the quilonoles, we collected IR and Raman spectra of six quinolones, and attempted to assign the attribution of the observed frequencies and their association with specific modes of vibration. According to the structure, the compounds were divided into the groups, and the similarities and differences were further studied by comparing. The result of the study shows that the frequency and intensity are comparable to the corresponding structure. The spectra not only have the commonness but also the individualities.

  20. Pharmacoeconomics of antibacterial treatment.

    PubMed

    Davey, P G; Malek, M M; Parker, S E

    1992-06-01

    Antibacterial drugs account for between 3 and 25% of all prescriptions, between 6 and 21% of the total market value of drugs in a single country, and up to 50% of the drug budget in hospitals. Bacterial infection is widely perceived as disease caused by harmful outside agents which can be isolated and tested to select the best drug for treatment. In fact, the need for any treatment and the pros and cons of different drugs are just as debatable as in any other therapeutic area. Moreover, the bacteria which make up the normal flora of the body fulfil important roles, so that the ecological implications of treatment for the individual and for society should be considered in assessing the costs and consequences of antibacterial treatment. In this review we outline the most important issues relating to the treatment of bacterial infection in the community and in the hospital, contrasting information from developed and developing countries where appropriate. We review the existing literature on economic evaluation, but in general most of the literature deals with containing the costs of antibacterial drugs in hospitals, and there are many gaps in the literature on cost-effectiveness of treatment. Consequently there are still extreme variations in medical practice which present a challenge for future evaluation. As the outcomes of antibacterial treatment are apparent in a few weeks or months, this is an ideal field for testing pharmacoeconomic methodology. The desire to overcome medical practice variation through consensus statements should be avoided. Instead we recommend wider application of decision analysis to acknowledge that choices exist for the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infection and to gather information about the implications of these choices. Much of the existing literature would be improved by a more explicit definition of costs. Direct costs to the health services should be distinguished from non medical costs. Moreover, the analysis should

  1. Antibacterials from the sea.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Chambers C; Fenical, William

    2010-11-08

    The ocean contains a host of macroscopic life in a great microbial soup. Unlike the terrestrial environment, an aqueous environment provides perpetual propinquity and blurs spatial distinctions. Marine organisms are under a persistent threat of infection by resident pathogenic microbes including bacteria, and in response they have engineered complex organic compounds with antibacterial activity from a diverse set of biological precursors. The diluting effect of the ocean drives the construction of potent molecules that are stable to harsh salty conditions. Members of each class of metabolite-ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptides, alkaloids, polyketides, and terpenes-have been shown to exhibit antibacterial activity. The sophistication and diversity of these metabolites points to the ingenuity and flexibility of biosynthetic processes in Nature. Compared with their terrestrial counterparts, antibacterial marine natural products have received much less attention. Thus, a concerted effort to discover new antibacterials from marine sources has the potential to contribute significantly to the treatment of the ever increasing drug-resistant infectious diseases.

  2. Antibacterials from the Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Chambers C.; Fenical, William

    2011-01-01

    The ocean contains a host of macroscopic life in a great microbial soup. Unlike the terrestrial environment, an aqueous environment provides perpetual propinquity and blurs spatial distinctions. Marine organisms are under a persistent threat of infection by resident pathogenic microbes including bacteria, and in response they have engineered complex organic compounds with antibacterial activity from a diverse set of biological precursors. The diluting effect of the ocean drives the construction of potent molecules that are stable to harsh salty conditions. Members of each class of metabolite—ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptides, alkaloids, polyketides, and terpenes—have been shown to exhibit antibacterial activity. The sophistication and diversity of these metabolites points to the ingenuity and flexibility of biosynthetic processes in Nature. Compared with their terrestrial counterparts, antibacterial marine natural products have received much less attention. Thus, a concerted effort to discover new antibacterials from marine sources has the potential to contribute significantly to the treatment of the ever increasing drug-resistant infectious diseases. PMID:20845412

  3. A molecular analysis of quinolone-resistant Haemophilus influenzae: validation of the mutations in Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Hisashi; Shirakura, Tetsuro; Fukuchi, Kunihiko; Takuma, Takahiro; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tanaka, Kazuo; Niki, Yoshihito

    2014-04-01

    The mechanism of quinolone-resistance is considered to be amino acid mutations in the type II topoisomerase. We validated the genetic mechanisms of quinolone resistance in Haemophilus influenzae. We obtained 29 H. influenzae strains from a nationwide surveillance program in Japan (including 11 quinolone-resistant strains [moxifloxacin: MFLX or levofloxacin MIC ≥2 μg/ml]). We analyzed the sequences of the Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions (QRDRs) in GyrA, GyrB, ParC and ParE. Furthermore, we induced resistance in susceptible strains by exposing them to quinolone, and investigated the relationship between mutations in the QRDRs and the MICs. Five amino acid substitutions in GyrA (at Ser84 and Asp88) and ParC (at Gly82, Ser84 and Glu88) were found to be closely related to the MICs. The strains with a MFLX MIC of 0.125-1 and 2-4 μg/ml had one and two mutations, respectively. The strains with a MFLX MIC of ≥8 μg/ml had three or more mutations. The strains with induced resistance with MFLX MICs of 0.5-1 and ≥2 μg/ml also had one and two mutations, respectively. We confirmed that these five mutations strongly contribute to quinolone resistance and found that the degree of resistance is related to the number of the mutations. In addition, the three strains of 18 susceptible strains (16.7%) also had a single mutation. These strains may therefore be in the initial stage of quinolone resistance. Currently, the frequency of quinolone-resistant H. influenzae is still low. However, as has occurred with β-lactams, an increase in quinolone use may lead to more quinolone-resistant strains.

  4. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Enterobacteriaceae: a systematic review with a focus on Mediterranean countries.

    PubMed

    Yanat, B; Rodríguez-Martínez, J-M; Touati, A

    2017-03-01

    Quinolones are a family of synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs. These molecules have been widely prescribed to treat various infectious diseases and have been classified into several generations based on their spectrum of activity. Quinolones inhibit bacterial DNA synthesis by interfering with the action of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Mutations in the genes encoding these targets are the most common mechanisms of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance. Moreover, three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998 and include Qnr proteins, the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ib-cr, and plasmid-mediated efflux pumps QepA and OqxAB. Plasmids with these mechanisms often encode additional antimicrobial resistance (extended spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBLs] and plasmidic AmpC [pAmpC] ß-lactamases) and can transfer multidrug resistance. The PMQR determinants are disseminated in Mediterranean countries with prevalence relatively high depending on the sources and the regions, highlighting the necessity of long-term surveillance for the future monitoring of trends in the occurrence of PMQR genes.

  5. In vitro evaluation of CBR-2092, a novel rifamycin-quinolone hybrid antibiotic: studies of the mode of action in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Gregory T; Bonventre, Eric J; Doyle, Timothy B; Du, Qun; Duncan, Leonard; Morris, Timothy W; Roche, Eric D; Yan, Dalai; Lynch, A Simon

    2008-07-01

    Rifamycins have proven efficacy in the treatment of persistent bacterial infections. However, the frequency with which bacteria develop resistance to rifamycin agents restricts their clinical use to antibiotic combination regimens. In a program directed toward the synthesis of rifamycins with a lower propensity to elicit resistance development, a series of compounds were prepared that covalently combine rifamycin and quinolone pharmacophores to form stable hybrid antibacterial agents. We describe mode-of-action studies with Staphylococcus aureus of CBR-2092, a novel hybrid that combines the rifamycin SV and 4H-4-oxo-quinolizine pharmacophores. In biochemical studies, CBR-2092 exhibited rifampin-like potency as an inhibitor of RNA polymerase, was an equipotent (balanced) inhibitor of DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV, and retained activity against a prevalent quinolone-resistant variant. Macromolecular biosynthesis studies confirmed that CBR-2092 has rifampin-like effects on RNA synthesis in rifampin-susceptible strains and quinolone-like effects on DNA synthesis in rifampin-resistant strains. Studies of mutant strains that exhibited reduced susceptibility to CBR-2092 further substantiated RNA polymerase as the primary cellular target of CBR-2092, with DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV being secondary and tertiary targets, respectively, in strains exhibiting preexisting rifampin resistance. In contrast to quinolone comparator agents, no strains with altered susceptibility to CBR-2092 were found to exhibit changes consistent with altered efflux properties. The combined data indicate that CBR-2092 may have potential utility in monotherapy for the treatment of persistent S. aureus infections.

  6. Morphology, drug release, antibacterial, cell proliferation, and histology studies of chamomile-loaded wound dressing mats based on electrospun nanofibrous poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/polystyrene blends.

    PubMed

    Motealleh, Behrooz; Zahedi, Payam; Rezaeian, Iraj; Moghimi, Morvarid; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Zarandi, Mohammad Amin

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, it has been tried to achieve optimum conditions for electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)/polystyrene (PCL/PS) nanofibrous samples as active wound dressings containing chamomile via D-optimal design approach. In this work, systematic in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out by drug release rate, antibacterial and antifungal evaluations, cell culture, and rat wound model along with histology observation. The optimized samples were prepared under the following electrospinning conditions: PCL/PS ratio (65/35), PCL concentration 9%(w/v), PS concentration 14%(w/v), distance between the syringe needle tip and the collector 15.5 cm, applied voltage 18 kV, and solution flow rate 0.46 mL h(-1) . The FE-SEM micrographs showed electrospun PCL/PS (65/35) nanofibrous sample containing 15% chamomile had a minimum average diameter (∼175 nm) compared to the neat samples (∼268 nm). The drug released resulted in a gradual and high amount of chamomile from the optimized PCL/PS nanofibrous sample (∼70%) in respect to PCL and PS nanofibers after 48 h. This claim was also confirmed by antibacterial and antifungal evaluations in which an inhibitory zone with a diameter of about 7.6 mm was formed. The rat wound model results also indicated that the samples loaded with 15% chamomile extract were remarkably capable to heal the wounds up to 99 ± 0.5% after 14 days post-treatment periods. The adhesion of mesenchymal stem cells and their viability on the optimized samples were confirmed by MTT analysis. Also, the electrospun nanofibrous mats based on PCL/PS (65/35) showed a high efficiency in the wound closure and healing process compared to the reference sample, PCL/PS nanofibers without chamomile. Finally, the histology analysis revealed that the formation of epithelial tissues, the lack of necrosis and collagen fibers accumulation in the dermis tissues for the above optimized samples.

  7. Dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of finishing pigs after ciprofloxacin administration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kang; Xu, Chang-Wen; Zeng, Bo; Xia, Qing-Qing; Zhang, An-Yun; Lei, Chang-Wei; Guan, Zhong-Bin; Cheng, Han; Wang, Hong-Ning

    2014-09-01

    Escherichia coli resistance to quinolones has now become a serious issue in large-scale pig farms of China. It is necessary to study the dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of pigs after antimicrobial administration. Here, we present the hypothesis that the emergence of resistance in pigs requires drug accumulation for 7 days or more. To test this hypothesis, 26 pigs (90 days old, about 30 kg) not fed any antimicrobial after weaning were selected and divided into 2 equal groups: the experimental (EP) group and control (CP) group. Pigs in the EP group were orally treated daily with 5 mg ciprofloxacin/kg of body weight for 30 days, and pigs in the CP group were fed a normal diet. Fresh feces were collected at 16 time points from day 0 to day 61. At each time point, ten E. coli clones were tested for susceptibility to quinolones and mutations of gyrA and parC. The results showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin increased 16-fold compared with the initial MIC (0.5 µg/ml) after ciprofloxacin administration for 3 days and decreased 256-fold compared with the initial MIC (0.5 µg/ml) after ciprofloxacin withdrawal for 26 days. GyrA (S83L, D87N/ D87Y) and parC (S80I) substitutions were observed in all quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) clones with an MIC ≥8 µg/ml. This study provides scientific theoretical guidance for the rational use of antimicrobials and the control of bacterial resistance.

  8. Dynamics of Quinolone Resistance in Fecal Escherichia coli of Finishing Pigs after Ciprofloxacin Administration

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, Kang; XU, Chang-Wen; ZENG, Bo; XIA, Qing-Qing; ZHANG, An-Yun; LEI, Chang-Wei; GUAN, Zhong-Bin; CHENG, Han; WANG, Hong-Ning

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli resistance to quinolones has now become a serious issue in large-scale pig farms of China. It is necessary to study the dynamics of quinolone resistance in fecal Escherichia coli of pigs after antimicrobial administration. Here, we present the hypothesis that the emergence of resistance in pigs requires drug accumulation for 7 days or more. To test this hypothesis, 26 pigs (90 days old, about 30 kg) not fed any antimicrobial after weaning were selected and divided into 2 equal groups: the experimental (EP) group and control (CP) group. Pigs in the EP group were orally treated daily with 5 mg ciprofloxacin/kg of body weight for 30 days, and pigs in the CP group were fed a normal diet. Fresh feces were collected at 16 time points from day 0 to day 61. At each time point, ten E. coli clones were tested for susceptibility to quinolones and mutations of gyrA and parC. The results showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for ciprofloxacin increased 16-fold compared with the initial MIC (0.5 µg/ml) after ciprofloxacin administration for 3 days and decreased 256-fold compared with the initial MIC (0.5 µg/ml) after ciprofloxacin withdrawal for 26 days. GyrA (S83L, D87N/ D87Y) and parC (S80I) substitutions were observed in all quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) clones with an MIC ≥8 µg/ml. This study provides scientific theoretical guidance for the rational use of antimicrobials and the control of bacterial resistance. PMID:24919413

  9. Changes of the Quinolones Resistance to Gram-positive Cocci Isolated during the Past 8 Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiancheng; Chen, Qihui; Yao, Hanxin; Zhou, Qi

    This study was to investigate the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci isolated in the First Bethune Hospital during the past 8 years. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) were 50.8%∼83.3% and 79.4%∼81.5%during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci had increased. Monitoring of the quinolones resistance to gram-positive cocci should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to guide rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  10. Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance: a Multifaceted Threat

    PubMed Central

    Strahilevitz, Jacob; Jacoby, George A.; Hooper, David C.; Robicsek, Ari

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Although plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) was thought not to exist before its discovery in 1998, the past decade has seen an explosion of research characterizing this phenomenon. The best-described form of PMQR is determined by the qnr group of genes. These genes, likely originating in aquatic organisms, code for pentapeptide repeat proteins. These proteins reduce susceptibility to quinolones by protecting the complex of DNA and DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV enzymes from the inhibitory effect of quinolones. Two additional PMQR mechanisms were recently described. aac(6′)-Ib-cr encodes a variant aminoglycoside acetyltransferase with two amino acid alterations allowing it to inactivate ciprofloxacin through the acetylation of its piperazinyl substituent. oqxAB and qepA encode efflux pumps that extrude quinolones. All of these genes determine relatively small increases in the MICs of quinolones, but these changes are sufficient to facilitate the selection of mutants with higher levels of resistance. The contribution of these genes to the emergence of quinolone resistance is being actively investigated. Several factors suggest their importance in this process, including their increasing ubiquity, their association with other resistance elements, and their emergence simultaneous with the expansion of clinical quinolone resistance. Of concern, these genes are not yet being taken into account in resistance screening by clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:19822894

  11. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of AM-1155, a new 6-fluoro-8-methoxy quinolone, in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, M; Uematsu, T; Kosuge, K; Kusajima, H; Ooie, T; Masuda, Y; Ishida, R; Uchida, H

    1995-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of AM-1155, a new 6-fluoro-8-methoxy quinolone, was examined in healthy male volunteers after the oral administration of a single dose of 100, 200, 400, or 600 mg and multiple doses of 300 mg twice daily for 6.5 days (13 total doses). Throughout the whole study period, AM-1155 was well tolerated in every subject. In the single-dose study, the concentrations in serum reached a peak between 1 and 2 h, and the peak concentrations were 0.873, 1.71, 3.35, and 5.41 micrograms/ml at the doses of 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg, respectively. The elimination half-life was 7 to 8 h, independently of the doses. The unchanged drug was excreted mainly in the urine, with 82 to 88% of the doses appearing for 72 h. The fecal recovery of the unchanged drug amounted to 5.7% for 72 h after a single oral administration of a 400-mg dose. Urinary excretion of metabolites was minimal. The serum protein binding was 20%, independently of the concentrations in serum. The concentrations in saliva were approximately 80% of those in serum. The intake of food had no effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters and urinary excretion of AM-1155 except the slight decrease in area under the concentration-time curve. The concurrent administration of probenecid prolonged the elimination half-life, increased the area under the concentration-time curve, and decreased the apparent total body clearance, renal clearance, urinary recovery of unchanged drug, and the excretion ratio (intrinsic renal clearance of AM-1155/creatinine clearance). This indicated that the tubular secretion contributed to the renal excretion of AM-1155. In the multiple-dose study, the concentrations of AM-1155 in serum and urine reached a steady state within 2 to 3 days. The measured concentrations in serum fitted well the simulation curve, which reflected the persistence of linear pharmacokinetics of AM-1155. In conclusion, AM-1155 is expected to be clinically useful because of its potent antibacterial activity and

  12. Orally Bioavailable 6-Chloro-7-methoxy-4(1H)-quinolones Efficacious against Multiple Stages of Plasmodium

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The continued proliferation of malaria throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world has promoted a push for more efficacious treatments to combat the disease. Unfortunately, more recent remedies such as artemisinin combination therapies have been rendered less effective due to developing parasite resistance, and new drugs are required that target the parasite in the liver to support the disease elimination efforts. Research was initiated to revisit antimalarials developed in the 1940s and 1960s that were deemed unsuitable for use as therapeutic agents as a result of poor understanding of both physicochemical properties and parasitology. Structure–activity and structure–property relationship studies were conducted to generate a set of compounds with the general 6-chloro-7-methoxy-2-methyl-4(1H)-quinolone scaffold which were substituted at the 3-position with a variety of phenyl moieties possessing various properties. Extensive physicochemical evaluation of the quinolone series was carried out to downselect the most promising 4(1H)-quinolones, 7, 62, 66, and 67, which possessed low-nanomolar EC50 values against W2 and TM90-C2B as well as improved microsomal stability. Additionally, in vivo Thompson test results using Plasmodium berghei in mice showed that these 4(1H)-quinolones were efficacious for the reduction of parasitemia at >99% after 6 days. PMID:25148516

  13. Orally bioavailable 6-chloro-7-methoxy-4(1H)-quinolones efficacious against multiple stages of Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Cross, R Matthew; Flanigan, David L; Monastyrskyi, Andrii; LaCrue, Alexis N; Sáenz, Fabián E; Maignan, Jordany R; Mutka, Tina S; White, Karen L; Shackleford, David M; Bathurst, Ian; Fronczek, Frank R; Wojtas, Lukasz; Guida, Wayne C; Charman, Susan A; Burrows, Jeremy N; Kyle, Dennis E; Manetsch, Roman

    2014-11-13

    The continued proliferation of malaria throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world has promoted a push for more efficacious treatments to combat the disease. Unfortunately, more recent remedies such as artemisinin combination therapies have been rendered less effective due to developing parasite resistance, and new drugs are required that target the parasite in the liver to support the disease elimination efforts. Research was initiated to revisit antimalarials developed in the 1940s and 1960s that were deemed unsuitable for use as therapeutic agents as a result of poor understanding of both physicochemical properties and parasitology. Structure-activity and structure-property relationship studies were conducted to generate a set of compounds with the general 6-chloro-7-methoxy-2-methyl-4(1H)-quinolone scaffold which were substituted at the 3-position with a variety of phenyl moieties possessing various properties. Extensive physicochemical evaluation of the quinolone series was carried out to downselect the most promising 4(1H)-quinolones, 7, 62, 66, and 67, which possessed low-nanomolar EC50 values against W2 and TM90-C2B as well as improved microsomal stability. Additionally, in vivo Thompson test results using Plasmodium berghei in mice showed that these 4(1H)-quinolones were efficacious for the reduction of parasitemia at >99% after 6 days.

  14. 75 FR 37818 - Issues in the Design and Conduct of Clinical Trials for Antibacterial Drug Development; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    .... Date and Time: The public workshop will be held on August 2, 2010, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. and on..., first-served basis. Contact Persons: Chris Moser or Lori Benner, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research... (see Contact Persons). Persons needing a sign language interpreter or other special...

  15. Importance of confirming data on the in vivo efficacy of novel antibacterial drug regimens against various strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Mary A; Gruppo, Veronica; Woolhiser, Lisa K; Orme, Ian M; Gilliland, Janet C; Lenaerts, Anne J

    2012-02-01

    In preclinical testing of antituberculosis drugs, laboratory-adapted strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are usually used both for in vitro and in vivo studies. However, it is unknown whether the heterogeneity of M. tuberculosis stocks used by various laboratories can result in different outcomes in tests of antituberculosis drug regimens in animal infection models. In head-to-head studies, we investigated whether bactericidal efficacy results in BALB/c mice infected by inhalation with the laboratory-adapted strains H37Rv and Erdman differ from each other and from those obtained with clinical tuberculosis strains. Treatment of mice consisted of dual and triple drug combinations of isoniazid (H), rifampin (R), and pyrazinamide (Z). The results showed that not all strains gave the same in vivo efficacy results for the drug combinations tested. Moreover, the ranking of HRZ and RZ efficacy results was not the same for the two H37Rv strains evaluated. The magnitude of this strain difference also varied between experiments, emphasizing the risk of drawing firm conclusions for human trials based on single animal studies. The results also confirmed that the antagonism seen within the standard HRZ regimen by some investigators appears to be an M. tuberculosis strain-specific phenomenon. In conclusion, the specific identity of M. tuberculosis strain used was found to be an important variable that can change the apparent outcome of in vivo efficacy studies in mice. We highly recommend confirmation of efficacy results in late preclinical testing against a different M. tuberculosis strain than the one used in the initial mouse efficacy study, thereby increasing confidence to advance potent drug regimens to clinical trials.

  16. Challenges of Antibacterial Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Lynn L.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The discovery of novel small-molecule antibacterial drugs has been stalled for many years. The purpose of this review is to underscore and illustrate those scientific problems unique to the discovery and optimization of novel antibacterial agents that have adversely affected the output of the effort. The major challenges fall into two areas: (i) proper target selection, particularly the necessity of pursuing molecular targets that are not prone to rapid resistance development, and (ii) improvement of chemical libraries to overcome limitations of diversity, especially that which is necessary to overcome barriers to bacterial entry and proclivity to be effluxed, especially in Gram-negative organisms. Failure to address these problems has led to a great deal of misdirected effort. PMID:21233508

  17. Antibacterial Applications of Nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Szunerits, Sabine; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-04-12

    Bacterial infectious diseases, sharing clinical characteristics such as chronic inflammation and tissue damage, pose a major threat to human health. The steady increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections adds up to the current problems modern healthcare is facing. The treatment of bacterial infections with multi-resistant germs is very difficult, as the development of new antimicrobial drugs is hardly catching up with the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. These and other considerations have generated an increased interest in the development of viable alternatives to antibiotics. A promising strategy is the use of nanomaterials with antibacterial character and of nanostructures displaying anti-adhesive activity against biofilms. Glycan-modified nanodiamonds (NDs) revealed themselves to be of great promise as useful nanostructures for combating microbial infections. This review summarizes the current efforts in the synthesis of glycan-modified ND particles and evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities.

  18. Antibacterial Applications of Nanodiamonds

    PubMed Central

    Szunerits, Sabine; Barras, Alexandre; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infectious diseases, sharing clinical characteristics such as chronic inflammation and tissue damage, pose a major threat to human health. The steady increase of multidrug-resistant bacteria infections adds up to the current problems modern healthcare is facing. The treatment of bacterial infections with multi-resistant germs is very difficult, as the development of new antimicrobial drugs is hardly catching up with the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. These and other considerations have generated an increased interest in the development of viable alternatives to antibiotics. A promising strategy is the use of nanomaterials with antibacterial character and of nanostructures displaying anti-adhesive activity against biofilms. Glycan-modified nanodiamonds (NDs) revealed themselves to be of great promise as useful nanostructures for combating microbial infections. This review summarizes the current efforts in the synthesis of glycan-modified ND particles and evaluation of their antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. PMID:27077871

  19. Antibacterial activity of novel cationic peptides against clinical isolates of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed F; Hammac, G Kenitra; Guptill, Lynn; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals and has zoonotic potential. Additionally, methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged with resistance to virtually all classes of antimicrobials. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of six synthetic short peptides against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and MRSP isolated from infected dogs. All six peptides demonstrated potent anti-staphylococcal activity regardless of existing resistance phenotype. The most effective peptides were RRIKA (with modified C terminus to increase amphipathicity and hydrophobicity) and WR-12 (α-helical peptide consisting exclusively of arginine and tryptophan) with minimum inhibitory concentration50 (MIC50) of 1 µM and MIC90 of 2 µM. RR (short anti-inflammatory peptide) and IK8 "D isoform" demonstrated good antimicrobial activity with MIC50 of 4 µM and MIC90 of 8 µM. Penetratin and (KFF)3K (two cell penetrating peptides) were the least effective with MIC50 of 8 µM and MIC90 of 16 µM. Killing kinetics revealed a major advantage of peptides over conventional antibiotics, demonstrating potent bactericidal activity within minutes. Studies with propidium iodide and transmission electron microscopy revealed that peptides damaged the bacterial membrane leading to leakage of cytoplasmic contents and consequently, cell death. A potent synergistic increase in the antibacterial effect of the cell penetrating peptide (KFF)3K was noticed when combined with other peptides and with antibiotics. In addition, all peptides displayed synergistic interactions when combined together. Furthermore, peptides demonstrated good therapeutic indices with minimal toxicity toward mammalian cells. Resistance to peptides did not evolve after 10 passages of S. pseudintermedius at sub-inhibitory concentration. However, the MICs of amikacin and

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Novel Cationic Peptides against Clinical Isolates of Multi-Drug Resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from Infected Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mohamed F.; Hammac, G. Kenitra; Guptill, Lynn; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a major cause of skin and soft tissue infections in companion animals and has zoonotic potential. Additionally, methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has emerged with resistance to virtually all classes of antimicrobials. Thus, novel treatment options with new modes of action are required. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of six synthetic short peptides against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible and MRSP isolated from infected dogs. All six peptides demonstrated potent anti-staphylococcal activity regardless of existing resistance phenotype. The most effective peptides were RRIKA (with modified C terminus to increase amphipathicity and hydrophobicity) and WR-12 (α-helical peptide consisting exclusively of arginine and tryptophan) with minimum inhibitory concentration50 (MIC50) of 1 µM and MIC90 of 2 µM. RR (short anti-inflammatory peptide) and IK8 “D isoform” demonstrated good antimicrobial activity with MIC50 of 4 µM and MIC90 of 8 µM. Penetratin and (KFF)3K (two cell penetrating peptides) were the least effective with MIC50 of 8 µM and MIC90 of 16 µM. Killing kinetics revealed a major advantage of peptides over conventional antibiotics, demonstrating potent bactericidal activity within minutes. Studies with propidium iodide and transmission electron microscopy revealed that peptides damaged the bacterial membrane leading to leakage of cytoplasmic contents and consequently, cell death. A potent synergistic increase in the antibacterial effect of the cell penetrating peptide (KFF)3K was noticed when combined with other peptides and with antibiotics. In addition, all peptides displayed synergistic interactions when combined together. Furthermore, peptides demonstrated good therapeutic indices with minimal toxicity toward mammalian cells. Resistance to peptides did not evolve after 10 passages of S. pseudintermedius at sub-inhibitory concentration. However, the MICs of amikacin and

  1. Quinolone co-resistance in ESBL- or AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from an Indian urban aquatic environment and their public health implications.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Priyanka; Kanaujia, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Nambram Somendro; Sharma, Shalu; Kumar, Shakti; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Quinolone and β-lactam antibiotics constitute major mainstay of treatment against infections caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli. Presence of E. coli strains expressing co-resistance to both these antibiotic classes in urban aquatic environments which are consistently being used for various anthropogenic activities represents a serious public health concern. From a heterogeneous collection of 61 E. coli strains isolated from the river Yamuna traversing through the National Capital Territory of Delhi (India), those harboring blaCTX-M-15 (n = 10) or blaCMY-42 (n = 2) were investigated for co-resistance to quinolones and the molecular mechanisms thereof. Resistance was primarily attributed to amino acid substitutions in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of GyrA (S83L ± D87N) and ParC (S80I ± E84K). One of the E. coli strains, viz., IPE, also carried substitutions in GyrB and ParE at positions Ser492→Asn and Ser458→Ala, respectively. The phenotypically susceptible strains nevertheless carried plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene, viz., qnrS, which showed co-transfer to the recipient quinolone-sensitive E. coli J53 along with the genes encoding β-lactamases and led to increase in minimal inhibitory concentrations of quinolone antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this represents first report of molecular characterization of quinolone co-resistance in E. coli harboring genes for ESBLs or AmpC β-lactamases from a natural aquatic environment of India. The study warrants true appreciation of the potential of urban aquatic environments in the emergence and spread of multi-drug resistance and underscores the need to characterize resistance genetic elements vis-à-vis their public health implications, irrespective of apparent phenotypic resistance.

  2. Electrochemical evaluation of antibacterial drugs as environment-friendly inhibitors for corrosion of carbon steel in HCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golestani, Gh.; Shahidi, M.; Ghazanfari, D.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of penicillin G, ampicillin and amoxicillin drugs on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel (ASTM 1015) in 1.0 mol L-1 hydrochloric acid solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise (EN) techniques. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration. The effect of temperature on the rate of corrosion in the absence and presence of these drugs was also studied. Some thermodynamic parameters were computed from the effect of temperature on corrosion and inhibition processes. Adsorption of these inhibitors was found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. There was a case of mixed mode of adsorption here but while penicillin was adsorbed mainly through chemisorption, two other drugs were adsorbed mainly through physisorption. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements indicated that the inhibitors were of mixed type. In addition, this paper suggests that the electrochemical noise (EN) technique under open circuit conditions as the truly noninvasive electrochemical method can be employed for the quantitative evaluation of corrosion inhibition. This was done by using the standard deviation of partial signal (SDPS) for calculation of the amount of noise charges at the particular interval of frequency, thereby obtaining the inhibition efficiency (IE) of an inhibitor. These IE values showed a reasonable agreement with those obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS measurements.

  3. Oxidation of quinolones with peracids (an in situ EPR study).

    PubMed

    Staško, Andrej; Milata, Viktor; Barbieriková, Zuzana; Brezová, Vlasta

    2014-01-01

    4-Oxoquinoline derivatives (quinolones) represent heterocyclic compounds with a variety of biological activities, along with interesting chemical reactivity. The quinolone derivatives possessing secondary amino hydrogen at the nitrogen of the enaminone system are oxidized with 3-chloroperbenzoic acid to nitroxide radicals in the primary step while maintaining their 4-pyridone ring. Otherwise, N-methyl substituted quinolones also form nitroxide radicals coupled with the opening of the 4-pyridone ring in a gradual oxidation of the methyl group via the nitrone-nitroxide spin-adduct cycle. This was confirmed in an analogous oxidation using N,N-dimethylaniline as a model compound. N-Ethyl quinolones in contrast to its N-methyl analog form only one nitroxide radical without a further degradation.

  4. Antibacterial products of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Bekhit, Adnan A; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din

    2015-05-01

    Marine organisms comprising microbes, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates elaborate an impressive array of structurally diverse antimicrobial products ranging from small cyclic compounds to macromolecules such as proteins. Some of these biomolecules originate directly from marine animals while others arise from microbes associated with the animals. It is noteworthy that some of the biomolecules referred to above are structurally unique while others belong to known classes of compounds, peptides, and proteins. Some of the antibacterial agents are more active against Gram-positive bacteria while others have higher effectiveness on Gram-negative bacteria. Some are efficacious against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and against drug-resistant strains as well. The mechanism of antibacterial action of a large number of the chemically identified antibacterial agents, possible synergism with currently used antibiotics, and the issue of possible toxicity on mammalian cells and tissues await elucidation. The structural characteristics pivotal to antibacterial activity have been ascertained in only a few studies. Demonstration of efficacy of the antibacterial agents in animal models of bacterial infection is highly desirable. Structural characterization of the active principles present in aqueous and organic extracts of marine organisms with reportedly antibacterial activity would be desirable.

  5. Structure-activity analysis of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal molecule.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, James; Bowden, Steven D; Galloway, Warren R J D; Spring, David R; Welch, Martin

    2010-07-01

    We synthesized a range of PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone) analogues and tested them for their ability to stimulate MvfR-dependent pqsA transcription, MvfR-independent pyoverdine production, and membrane vesicle production. The structure-activity profile of the PQS analogues was different for each of these phenotypes. Certain inactive PQS analogues were also found to strongly synergize PQS-dependent pyoverdine production.

  6. [Residues of tetracycline and quinolones in wild fish living around a salmon aquaculture center in Chile].

    PubMed

    Fortt Z, Antonia; Cabello C, Felipe; Buschmann R, Alejandro

    2007-02-01

    The presence of residues of tetracycline, quinolones and antiparasitic drugs was investigated in wild fish captured around salmon aquaculture pens in Cochamó, Region X, Chile. Residues of both antibiotics were found in the meta [corrected] of two species of wild fish that are consumed by humans, robalo (Elginops maclovinus) and cabrilla (Sebastes capensis) [corrected] These findings suggest that the antibiotic usage in salmon aquaculture in Chile has nvironmental implications that may affect human and animal health. More studies are needed in Chile to determine the relevance of these findings for human and animal health and the environment to regulate this use of antibiotics.

  7. Antibacterial Effects of Liposomes Containing Phospholipid Cardiolipin and Fluoroquinolone Levofloxacin on Mycobacterium tuberculosis with Extensive Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Gaidukevich, S K; Mikulovich, Yu L; Smirnova, T G; Andreevskaya, S N; Sorokoumova, G M; Chernousova, L N; Selishcheva, A A; Shvets, V I

    2016-03-01

    The effects of liposomes containing phospholipid cardiolipin without antibiotic and loaded with levofloxacin on the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with extensive drug resistance were studied in vitro. Liposomes consisting of cardiolipin alone in a concentration of 335 μM completely suppressed the growth of M. tuberculosis. In order to reduce the minimum inhibitory concentration of cardiolipin, complex liposome preparation consisting of phosphatidylcholin/cholesterol/cardiolipin and loaded with levofloxacin was prepared. Due to this, the cardiolipin concentration was reduced to 33.5 μM (50 μg/ml) and concentration of levofloxacin - to 2 μg/ml.

  8. New cytotoxic quinolone alkaloids from fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Li, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2012-06-01

    Three new quinolone alkaloids, 1-methyl-2-[7-hydroxy-(E)-9-tridecenyl]-4(1H)-quinolone (1), 1-methyl-2-[(Z)-4-nonenyl]-4(1H)-quinolone (2), 1-methyl-2-[(1E,5Z)-1,5-undecadienyl]-4(1H)-quinolone (3) and one new natural product, 1-methyl-2-[(E)-1-undecenyl]-4(1H)-quinolone (4), were isolated from the dried and nearly ripe fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth., along with thirteen known compounds (5-17). In addition, one new artificial product, 1-methyl-2-[7-carbonyl-(E)-9-tridecenyl]-4(1H)-quinolone (1A) was also obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic analyses. The cytotoxic activities of all of the compounds against the human cancer cell lines HL-60, N-87, H-460, and Hep G(2) cells were evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that these alkaloids inhibited cell proliferation with IC(50) values between 14μM and 22μM.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation for evaluation of the efficacy of carbapenems and new quinolones against ESBL-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Shimizu, Chihiro; Kasahara, Mayumi; Okuda, Kazuyuki; Nakata, Chiyo; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Okura, Hiroe; Komatsu, Masaru; Shimakawa, Kouichi; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Ura, Toshiro; Satoh, Kaori; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Wada, Yasunao; Orita, Tamaki; Kofuku, Tomomi; Yamasaki, Katsutoshi; Sakamoto, Masako; Nishio, Hisaaki; Kinoshita, Shohiro; Takahashi, Hakuo

    2009-02-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria are known to be resistant to penicillins, cephalosporins, and monobactams because of their substrate specificity, and these bacteria are sensitive only to a narrow range of antimicrobial agents. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of carbapenems and the new quinolones against ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, using a Monte Carlo simulation based on the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) theory. The time above MIC (TAM, %) served as the PK/PD parameter for carbapenems, with the target level set at 40%. The AUC/MIC served as the PK/PD parameter for the new quinolones, with the target level set at more than 125. In the analysis of drug sensitivity, the MIC50 of all carbapenems other than imipenem was low (0.03 microg/ml), while the MIC50 of the new quinolones was higher (1-2 microg/ml). The probability of achieving the PK/PD target with carba penems after two doses at the usual dose level, as determined by the Monte Carlo simulation, was high for each of the carbapenems tested (99.0% for biapenem, 99.60% for meropenem, and 95.03% for doripenem), except for imipenem. Among the new quinolones, the highest probability of achieving the PK/PD target was obtained with pazufloxacin (42.90%). Thus, the results of the present study have revealed that carbapenems are effective at the regular dose and can be used as the first-choice antibiotics for ESBL-producing E. coli because the resistance ratios for carbapenems are low compared to those of the new quinolones.

  10. Association of mutation patterns in GyrA and ParC genes with quinolone resistance levels in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaoying; Li, Zhen; Wei, Wan; Ma, Chunyan; Song, Xiaomin; Li, Shufen; He, Wenying; Tian, Jianjun; Huo, Xiaoyan

    2015-02-01

    The quinolone resistance of 19 lactic acid bacterial strains belonging to the genera Enterococcus and Lactobacillus isolated from the natural fermented koumiss and yoghurt were investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the quinolone resistance levels and to explore the association of the resistance with the mutation patterns in gyrA and parC genes, as is currently recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Joint Expert Committee in Guidelines for Evaluation of Probiotics in Food for probiotic lactic acid bacteria drug resistance in 2001. The Oxford Cup method and double-tube dilution method were used to determine the quinolone resistance levels of the isolated strains. Generally, all of the 19 strains showed resistance towards norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin when the Oxford cup method was used, whereas the incidence was lower (to norfloxacin 89.5% and to ciprofloxacin 68.4%) when minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoints (CLSI M100-S23) were tested. Furthermore, gene sequencing was conducted on gyrA and parC of topoisomerase II of these isolated strains. The genetic basis for quinolone resistance may be closely related to mutations in gyrA genes as there were 10 mutation sites in amino-acid sequences encoded by gyrA genes in 10 quinolone resistance strains and 14 mutation sites in Enterococcus durans HZ28, whereas no typical mutations were detected in parC genes.

  11. Transport of gemifloxacin, a 4th generation quinolone antibiotic, in the Caco-2 and engineered MDCKII cells, and potential involvement of efflux transporters in the intestinal absorption of the drug.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hyo-Eon; Song, Boran; Kim, Sang-Bum; Shim, Won-Sik; Kim, Dae-Duk; Chong, Saeho; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Chang-Koo

    2013-04-01

    The oral (po) bioavailability of gemifloxacin mesylate in rats and its possible association with efflux transporters was investigated. The apparent permeabilities (Papp) of gemifloxacin across the Caco-2 cell monolayer were 1.20 ± 0.09 × 10(-5) cm/s for apical to basal (absorptive) transport, and 2.13 ± 0.6 × 10(-5) cm/s for basal to apical (secretory) transport for a 5-500 μM concentration range, suggesting the involvement of a carrier-mediated efflux in the secretory transport. The secretory transport in Caco-2 cells was significantly decreased by MRP2 (MK571) and BCRP (Ko143) inhibitors. The secretory transport was distinct in MDCKII/P-gp, MDCKII/MRP2 and MDCKII/BCRP cells, and the affinity was highest for MRP2, followed by BCRP and P-gp. The efflux was significantly decreased by verapamil and Ko143, but not significantly by MK571. The comparative po bioavailability in rats was increased by the preadministration of Ko143 (four-fold), MK571 (two-fold) and verapamil (two-fold). Efflux transporters appeared to significantly limit the bioavailability of gemifloxacin in rats, suggesting their possible contribution to the low bioavailability of the drug in the human (70%).

  12. 5-Hydroxymethyl-oxazolidin-2-one antibacterials. Actelion Pharmaceuticals: WO2008062379.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Oludotun A; Sharaf, Leyla H

    2009-04-01

    The application, WO2008062379, claims chimeric compounds comprising chemically linked 5-hydroxymethyl-oxazolidinone and tetracyclic-quinolone moieties. The claimed compounds are potent expanded-range antibacterial agents against selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which may exhibit dual mode of action as inhibitors of topoisomarases IV and protein synthesis. The structures of the compounds suggest that the linkers are chemically and biochemically stable. This application represents part of recently initiated research efforts at Actelion.

  13. Sequence-motif Detection of NAD(P)-binding Proteins: Discovery of a Unique Antibacterial Drug Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yun Hao; Wu, Chih Yuan; Sargsyan, Karen; Lim, Carmay

    2014-09-01

    Many enzymes use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)) as essential coenzymes. These enzymes often do not share significant sequence identity and cannot be easily detected by sequence homology. Previously, we determined all distinct locally conserved pyrophosphate-binding structures (3d motifs) from NAD(P)-bound protein structures, from which 1d sequence motifs were derived. Here, we aim to establish the precision of these 3d and 1d motifs to annotate NAD(P)-binding proteins. We show that the pyrophosphate-binding 3d motifs are characteristic of NAD(P)-binding proteins, as they are rarely found in nonNAD(P)-binding proteins. Furthermore, several 1d motifs could distinguish between proteins that bind only NAD and those that bind only NADP. They could also distinguish between NAD(P)-binding proteins from nonNAD(P)-binding ones. Interestingly, one of the pyrophosphate-binding 3d and corresponding 1d motifs was found only in enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductases, which are enzymes essential for bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. This unique 3d motif serves as an attractive novel drug target, as it is conserved across many bacterial species and is not found in human proteins.

  14. In vitro antibacterial activity of some antihistaminics belonging to different groups against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    El-Nakeeb, Moustafa A.; Abou-Shleib, Hamida M.; Khalil, Amal M.; Omar, Hoda G.; El-Halfawy, Omar M.

    2011-01-01

    Antihistaminics are widely used for various indications during microbial infection. Hence, this paper investigates the antimicrobial activities of 10 antihistaminics belonging to both old and new generations using multiresistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical isolates. The bacteriostatic activity of antihistaminics was investigated by determining their MIC both by broth and agar dilution techniques against 29 bacterial strains. Azelastine, cyproheptadine, mequitazine and promethazine were the most active among the tested drugs. Diphenhydramine and cetirizine possessed weaker activity whereas doxylamine, fexofenadine and loratadine were inactive even at the highest tested concentration (1 mg/ml). The MIC of meclozine could not be determined as it precipitated with the used culture media. The MBC values of antihistaminics were almost identical to the corresponding MIC values. The bactericidal activity of antihistaminics was also studied by the viable count technique in sterile saline solution. Evident killing effects were exerted by mequitazine, meclozine, azelastine and cyproheptadine. Moreover, the dynamics of bactericidal activity of azelastine were studied by the viable count technique in nutrient broth. This activity was found to be concentration-dependant. This effect was reduced on increasing the inoculum size while it was increased on raising the pH. The post-antimicrobial effect of 100 μg/ml azelastine was also determined and reached up to 3.36 h. PMID:24031715

  15. Electrochemistry of the antibacterial and antifungal drug nitroxoline and its determination in bulk form, pharmaceutical formulation and human blood.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Mohamed M; El-Desoky, Hanaa S; Abdel-Galeil, Mohamed M

    2011-02-01

    Nitroxoline has been reduced at the mercury electrode in buffered solutions (pH 2-11) in two irreversible cathodic steps. The first step was attributed to reduction of -NO(2) group to the hydroxylamine stage and the second one to reduction-saturation of the C=N double bond. DC-polarographic and various adsorptive stripping voltammetric methods were developed for determination of nitroxoline in bulk form. Limits of quantitation of 1.02×10(-6), 3.05×10(-8), 9.01×10(-9), and 9.12×10(-10)M nitroxoline were achieved by means of the developed DC-polarography, differential-pulse-, linear-sweep-, and square-wave-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetric methods, respectively. All these electroanalytical methods were successfully applied for determination of nitroxoline in its Nibiol(®) tablets. While only the developed adsorptive stripping voltammetry methods were successfully applied for determination of the drug in spiked human serum and for pharmacokinetic studies in real human plasma. The analysis was carried out without interference from common excipients and without the necessity for prior extraction or interaction with any reagent during the analysis.

  16. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of the fluoroquinolone WIN 49375 (amifloxacin).

    PubMed Central

    Cornett, J B; Wagner, R B; Dobson, R A; Wentland, M P; Bailey, D M

    1985-01-01

    WIN 49375 (amifloxacin) is a synthetic antibacterial agent of the quinolone class. It is similar in chemical structure to pefloxacin but differs by containing a methylamino, rather than an ethyl, substituent at the 1-N position. The activity of WIN 49375 in vitro was comparable to those of norfloxacin and pefloxacin against Enterobacteriaceae and generally greater than those of tobramycin and cefotaxime. WIN 49375 was more active in vitro than carbenicillin and mezlocillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and showed moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with MICs of less than or equal to 2 micrograms/ml. The in vitro activity of WIN 49375 was not markedly affected by the presence of human serum, the size of the bacterial inoculum, or changes in pH between 6 and 8. Against systemic, gram-negative bacterial infections in mice, WIN 49375 was generally less active than cefotaxime but more active than gentamicin. WIN 49548, the major piperazinyl-N-desmethyl metabolite of WIN 49375, was aa effective as the parent drug against experimental infections in mice when given parenterally. When administered orally, however, this metabolite was less potent than WIN 49375. WIN 49375 was highly active by the oral route, with 50% effective doses within two- to threefold of those obtained with parenteral medication. PMID:3885845

  17. Antibacterial discovery in actinomycetes strains with mutations in RNA polymerase or ribosomal protein S12.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Takeshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Muramatsu, Hideyuki; Murakami, Kana; Tsurumi, Yasuhisa; Kodani, Shinya; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Fujie, Akihiko; Ochi, Kozo

    2009-05-01

    We show that selection of drug-resistant bacterial mutants allows the discovery of antibacterial compounds. Mutant strains of a soil-isolated Streptomyces species that does not produce antibacterials synthesize a previously unknown class of antibacterial, which we name piperidamycin. Overall, 6% of non-Streptomyces actinomycetes species and 43% of Streptomyces species that do not produce antibacterials are activated to produce them. The antibacterial-producing mutants all carried mutations in RNA polymerase and/or the ribosomal protein S12.

  18. [Sample preprocessing method for residual quinolones in honey using immunoaffinity resin].

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshiharu; Kato, Mihoko; Kodaira, Tsukasa; Itoh, Shinji; Terakawa, Mika; Horie, Masakazu; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2009-06-01

    A sample preparation method was developed for determination of quinolones in honey using immunoaffinity resin. For this purpose, an immunoaffinity resin for quinolones was prepared by coupling a quinolone-specific monoclonal antibody to agarose resin. Honey samples diluted with phosphate buffer were reacted with immunoaffinity resin. After the resin was washed, quinolones were eluted with glycine-HCl. Quinolones in the eluate were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. No interfering peak was found on the chromatograms of honey samples. The recoveries of quinolones from samples were over 70% at fortification levels of 20 ng/g (for norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin) and 10 ng/g (for danofloxacin). The quantification limits of quinolones were 2 ng/g. This sample preprocessing method using immunoaffinity resin was found to be effective and suitable for determining residual quinolones in honey.

  19. Novel cajaninstilbene acid derivatives as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Geng, Zhi-Zhong; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Lin, Jing; Huang, Mei-Yan; An, Lin-Kun; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Sun, Ping-Hua; Ye, Wen-Cai; Chen, Wei-Min

    2015-07-15

    Discovery of novel antibacterial agents with new structural scaffolds that combat drug-resistant pathogens is an urgent task. Cajaninstilbene acid, which is isolated from pigeonpea leaves, has shown antibacterial activity. In this study, a series of cajaninstilbene acid derivatives were designed and synthesized. The antibacterial activities of these compounds against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, as well as nine strains of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria are evaluated,and the related structure-activity relationships are discussed. Assays suggest that some of the synthetic cajaninstilbene acid derivatives exhibit potent antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacterial strains and MRSA. Among these compounds, 5b, 5c, 5j and 5k show better antibacterial activity than the positive control compounds. The results of MTT assays illustrate the low cytotoxicity of the active compounds.

  20. Multiresidue determination of quinolone and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in fish and shrimp by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, Guy; Fouquet, Andre; Forsyth, Don; Tittlemier, Sheryl A

    2007-01-01

    A multiresidue method was developed to measure low levels of 8 fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ofloxacin, danofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, desethylene ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, and difloxacin) and 4 quinolones (oxolinic acid, flumequine, nalidixic acid, and piromidic acid). Method detection limits range from 0.1 ng/g for quinolones to 0.4 ng/g for fluoroquinolones. Average recoveries range from 57 to 96%, depending on analyte and commodity; relative standard deviations are all less than 18%. The drugs are extracted from tissues using a mixture of ethanol and 1% acetic acid, diluted in aqueous HCI, and defatted by extraction with hexane. The compounds are further isolated using cation-exchange solid-phase extraction and measured using liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection. The method has been evaluated and applied to the analysis of salmon, trout, and shrimp. Detectable residues were observed in 10 out of 73 samples, at concentrations ranging from 0.28 to 16 ng/g.

  1. Characterisation of novel mutations involved in quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from imported shrimp.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Mohamed; Sung, Kidon; Kweon, Ohgew; Khan, Saeed; Nawaz, Samia; Steele, Roger

    2015-05-01

    Fifty-five nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli strains were isolated from imported shrimp. Purified PCR amplicons of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE from the template DNA of all isolates were sequenced and analysed for point mutations that confer resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of GyrA at positions 68, 83 and 87 and in ParC at positions 80 and 84 as well as in the non-QRDR of GyrA at positions 112, 127, 128 and 154 along with point mutations in parE at position 476 conferred resistance to these antibiotics. Computational modelling and analysis of the different point mutations and their role in the enhanced resistance to these antibiotics indicated that only mutation at codons 83 (Ser→Ile) and 87 (Asp→Asn) played a vital role in increasing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to these drugs compared with other mutations. Ethidium bromide experiments indicated higher efflux pump activities in quinolone-resistant E. coli strains compared with their quinolone-sensitive counterparts. Class 1 integrons measuring 0.7-2.3kb were amplified and sequenced from the template DNA of the isolates. Sequence analysis of the 2.0kb and 1.7kb integrons indicated the presence of resistance determinants for trimethoprim (dfrA12 and dfrA17) and aminoglycosides (aadA2 and aadA5). These results indicate that use of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and other antibiotics in shrimp aquaculture ponds may select E. coli resistant to these antibiotics and that imported shrimp is a reservoir of multiple antibiotic-resistant E. coli.

  2. 4-(1H)-Quinolones and 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-ones prevent the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum to Anopheles freeborni.

    PubMed

    Sáenz, Fabián E; Lacrue, Alexis N; Cross, R Matthew; Maignan, Jordany R; Udenze, Kenneth O; Manetsch, Roman; Kyle, Dennis E

    2013-12-01

    Malaria kills approximately 1 million people a year, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Essential steps in the life cycle of the parasite are the development of gametocytes, as well as the formation of oocysts and sporozoites, in the Anopheles mosquito vector. Preventing transmission of malaria through the mosquito is necessary for the control of the disease; nevertheless, the vast majority of drugs in use act primarily against the blood stages. The study described herein focuses on the assessment of the transmission-blocking activities of potent antierythrocytic stage agents derived from the 4(1H)-quinolone scaffold. In particular, three 3-alkyl- or 3-phenyl-4(1H)-quinolones (P4Qs), one 7-(2-phenoxyethoxy)-4(1H)-quinolone (PEQ), and one 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridin-9(10H)-one (THA) were assessed for their transmission-blocking activity against the mosquito stages of the human malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) and the rodent parasite (P. berghei). Results showed that all of the experimental compounds reduced or prevented the exflagellation of male gametocytes and, more importantly, prevented parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. Additionally, treatment with ICI 56,780 reduced the number of sporozoites that reached the Anopheles salivary glands. These findings suggest that 4(1H)-quinolones, which have activity against the blood stages, can also prevent the transmission of Plasmodium to the mosquito and, hence, are potentially important drug candidates to eradicate malaria.

  3. Prevalence and characterisation of quinolone resistance mechanisms in Salmonella spp.

    PubMed

    Wasyl, Dariusz; Hoszowski, Andrzej; Zając, Magdalena

    2014-07-16

    The study was focused on characterisation of quinolone resistance mechanisms in Salmonella isolated from animals, food, and feed between 2008 and 2011. Testing of Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations revealed 6.4% of 2680 isolates conferring ciprofloxacin resistance. Simultaneously 37.7% and 40.8% were accounted for, respectively, nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin Non Wild-Type populations. Amplification and sequencing of quinolone resistance determining region of topoisomerases genes in 44 isolates identified multiple amino-acid substitutions in gyrA at positions Ser83 (N=22; → Leu, → Phe, → Tyr), Asp87 (N=22; → Asn, → Gly, → Tyr) and parC (Thr57Ser, N=23; Ala141Ser, N=1). No relevant mutations were identified in gyrB and parE. Twelve patterns combining one or two substitutions were related to neither serovar nor ciprofloxacin MIC. In 92 isolates suspected for plasmid mediated quinolone resistance two qnr alleles were found: qnrS1 (or qnrS3; N=50) and qnrB19 (or qnrB10; N=24). Additionally, two isolates with chromosomally encoded mechanisms carried qnrS1 and qnrS2. All tested isolates were negative for qnrA, qnrC, qnrD, qepA, aac(6')-Ib-cr. Both chromosomal and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance determinants were found in several Salmonella serovars and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis was used to assess phylogenetic similarity of selected isolates (N=82). Salmonella Newport was found to accumulate quinolone resistance determinants and the serovar was spreading clonally with either variable gyrA mutations, qnrS1/S3, or qnrB10/B19. Alternatively, various determinants are dispersed among related S. Enteritidis isolates. Antimicrobial selection pressure, multiple resistance determinants and scenarios for their acquisition and spread make extremely difficult to combat quinolone resistance.

  4. The regioselective iodination of quinolines, quinolones, pyridones, pyridines and uracil.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Uttam; Deb, Arghya; Lupton, David W; Maiti, Debabrata

    2015-12-28

    A radical based direct C-H iodination protocol for quinolines, quinolones, pyridones, pyridines, and uracil has been developed. The iodination occurs in a C3 selective manner for quinolines and quinolones. Pyridones and pyridines undergo C3 and C5 iodination, while dimethyl uracil undergoes C5 iodination. Scope of the method was demonstrated through the rapid synthesis of both electron rich as well as electron poor heteroaromatic iodides. The protocol was found to be scalable and general, while a mechanism has been proposed.

  5. Acute toxicity evaluation for quinolone antibiotics and their chlorination disinfection processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wei, Dongbin; Du, Yuguo

    2014-09-01

    Acute toxicity of 21 quinolone antibiotics was monitored using photobacterium Vibrio fischeri assay. The minimum IC20 (inhibitory concentration for 20% luminescence elimination) was obtained at the least 18.86μmol/L for the tested quinolones. A quantitative structure-activity relationship model was established to investigate the possible mechanism for the acute toxicity. The critical physicochemical descriptors, describing σ and π atom electronegativity, implied that the electron transfer might occur between the quinolones and photobacterium V. fischeri. Although the quinolones exhibited limited acute toxicity to photobacterium, toxicity elevation was detected after their chlorination. Hence, chlorination disinfection treatment of quinolone-containing water should be of concerns.

  6. Identification and Characterization of a Type III Polyketide Synthase Involved in Quinolone Alkaloid Biosynthesis from Aegle marmelos Correa*

    PubMed Central

    Resmi, Mohankumar Saraladevi; Verma, Priyanka; Gokhale, Rajesh S.; Soniya, Eppurathu Vasudevan

    2013-01-01

    Quinolone alkaloids, found abundantly in the roots of bael (Aegle marmelos), possess various biological activities and have recently gained attention as potential lead molecules for novel drug designing. Here, we report the characterization of a novel Type III polyketide synthase, quinolone synthase (QNS), from A. marmelos that is involved in the biosynthesis of quinolone alkaloid. Using homology-based structural modeling, we identify two crucial amino acid residues (Ser-132 and Ala-133) at the putative QNS active site. Substitution of Ser-132 to Thr and Ala-133 to Ser apparently constricted the active site cavity resulting in production of naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Measurement of steady-state kinetic parameters demonstrates that the catalytic efficiency of QNS was severalfold higher for larger acyl-coenzymeA substrates as compared with smaller precursors. Our mutagenic studies suggest that this protein might have evolved from an evolutionarily related member of chalcone synthase superfamily by mere substitution of two active site residues. The identification and characterization of QNS offers a promising target for gene manipulation studies toward the production of novel alkaloid scaffolds. PMID:23329842

  7. Adsorption of quinolone, tetracycline, and penicillin antibiotics from aqueous solution using activated carbons: Review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Muthanna J

    2017-03-01

    Antibiotics, an important type of pharmaceutical pollutant, have attracted many researchers to the study of their removal from aqueous solutions. Activated carbon (AC) has been widely used as highly effective adsorbent for antibiotics because of its large specific surface area, high porosity, and favorable pore size distribution. In this article, the adsorption performance of AC towards three major types of antibiotics such as tetracyclines, quinolones, and penicillins were reviewed. According to collected data, maximum adsorption capacities of 1340.8, 638.6, and 570.4mg/g were reported for tetracyclines, quinolones, and penicillins, respectively. The values of 1/n for Freundlich isotherm were less than unity, suggesting that the adsorption was nonlinear and favorable. Adsorption kinetics followed closely the pseudo-second-order model and analysis using the Weber-Morris model revealed that the intra-particle diffusion was not the only rate controlling step. AC adsorption demonstrated superior performance for all selected drugs, thus being efficient technology for treatment of these pollutants.

  8. Genotypic characterization of quinolone resistant-Escherichia coli isolates from retail food in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Nayme, Kaotar; Barguigua, Abouddihaj; Bouchrif, Brahim; Karraouan, Bouchra; El Otmani, Fatima; Elmdaghri, Naima; Zerouali, Khalid; Timinouni, Mohammed

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess the retail food as a possible vehicle for antimicrobial resistant, particularly quinolones resistant and pathogenic Escherichia coli. We determined the prevalence and characteristics of nalidixic acid (Nal) resistant E. coli isolates from diverse retail food samples. In all, 70 (28%) of 250 E. coli isolates studied were Nal-resistant E. coli and 91% of these were multi-drug resistant. Plasmid mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 32 isolates, including aac(6')-Ib-cr (n = 16), qnrS1 (n = 11) and qnrB19 (n = 7). Mutations in gyr A and par C genes were detected among 80% of the isolates, and the isolates showed substitution Ser83-Leu and Asp87-Asn in gyrA and Ser80-Ile in parC. In addition, three different gene cassettes were identified (aadA1, aadA7, aac(3)-Id) in 18%. Virulence-associated genes stx1, eae, sfa, hlyA and stx2 were found in six (8%), three (4%), two (3%), three (4%) and three (4%) isolates, respectively. E. coli isolates of phylogenetic group A were dominant (64%, 45/70). Pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed none epidemiological relationship between these isolates. The results of this work report the higher frequency of Nal-resistant E. coli isolates from Moroccan retail food samples including MDR and pathogenic isolates.

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of levofloxacin core-based derivatives with potent antibacterial activity against resistant Gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoguang; Bao, Yingxia; Zhu, Shaoxuan; Zhang, Xiaona; Lan, Shilong; Wang, Ting

    2015-09-15

    A series of C10 non-basic building block-substituted, levofloxacin core-based derivatives were synthesized in 43-86% yield. The antibacterial activity of these new fluoroquinolones was evaluated using a standard broth microdilution technique. The quinolone (S)-9-fluoro-10-(4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-7-oxo-3,7-dihydro-2H-[1,4]oxazino[2,3,4-ij]quinoline-6-carboxylic acid L-arginine tetrahydrate exhibited superior antibacterial activity against quinolone-susceptible and resistant strains compared with the clinically used fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penicillin, and vancomycin, especially to the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates, and Streptococcus pyogenes.

  10. Longitudinal surveillance of outpatient quinolone antimicrobial use in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K; Finley, Rita; Hutchinson, Jim; Patrick, David M; Weiss, Karl; Conly, John

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Because antimicrobial use is commonly associated with the development of antimicrobial resistance, monitoring the volume and patterns of use of these agents is important. OBJECTIVE: To assess the use of quinolone antimicrobials within Canadian provinces over time. METHODS: Antimicrobial prescribing data collected by IMS Health Canada were acquired from the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance and the Canadian Committee for Antimicrobial Resistance, and were used to calculate two yearly metrics: prescriptions per 1000 inhabitant-days and the mean defined daily doses (DDDs) per prescription. These measures were used to produce linear mixed models to assess differences among provinces and over time, while accounting for repeated measurements. RESULTS: The quinolone class of antimicrobials is used similarly among Canadian provinces. Year-to-year increases in quinolone prescribing occurred from 1995 to 2010, with a levelling off in the latter years. Year-to-year decreases in the DDDs per prescription were found to be significant from 2000 to 2010. DISCUSSION: Although the overall use of antimicrobials differs significantly among Canadian provinces, the use of the quinolone class does not vary at the provincial level. Results suggest that prescribing of ciprofloxacin may be a potential target for antimicrobial stewardship programs; however, decreases in the average DDDs per prescription suggest continued uptake of appropriate treatment guidelines. PMID:24855478

  11. Structure activity relationship of C-2 ether substituted 1,5-naphthyridine analogs of oxabicyclooctane-linked novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors as broad-spectrum antibacterial agents (Part-5).

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheo B; Kaelin, David E; Meinke, Peter T; Wu, Jin; Miesel, Lynn; Tan, Christopher M; Olsen, David B; Lagrutta, Armando; Fukuda, Hideyuki; Kishii, Ryuta; Takei, Masaya; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Takano, Hisashi; Ohata, Kohei; Kurasaki, Haruaki; Nishimura, Akinori; Shibata, Takeshi; Fukuda, Yasumichi

    2015-09-01

    Oxabicyclooctane linked novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs) are new class of recently reported broad-spectrum antibacterial agents. They target bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and bind to a site different than quinolones. They show no cross-resistance to known antibiotics and provide opportunity to combat drug-resistant bacteria. A structure activity relationship of the C-2 substituted ether analogs of 1,5-naphthyridine oxabicyclooctane-linked NBTIs are described. Synthesis and antibacterial activities of a total of 63 analogs have been summarized representing alkyl, cyclo alkyl, fluoro alkyl, hydroxy alkyl, amino alkyl, and carboxyl alkyl ethers. All compounds were tested against three key strains each of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as for hERG binding activities. Many key compounds were also tested for the functional hERG activity. Six compounds were evaluated for efficacy in a murine bacteremia model of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Significant tolerance for the ether substitution (including polar groups such as amino and carboxyl) at C-2 was observed for S. aureus activity however the same was not true for Enterococcus faecium and Gram-negative strains. Reduced clogD generally showed reduced hERG activity and improved in vivo efficacy but was generally associated with decreased overall potency. One of the best compounds was hydroxy propyl ether (16), which mainly retained the potency, spectrum and in vivo efficacy of AM8085 associated with the decreased hERG activity and improved physical property.

  12. Targeting virulence not viability in the search for future antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Heras, Begoña; Scanlon, Martin J; Martin, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    New antibacterials need new approaches to overcome the problem of rapid antibiotic resistance. Here we review the development of potential new antibacterial drugs that do not kill bacteria or inhibit their growth, but combat disease instead by targeting bacterial virulence. PMID:24552512

  13. Antibacterial Silver

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Julia L.; Jarrett, Penelope S.

    1994-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of silver has long been known and has found a variety of applications because its toxicity to human cells is considerably lower than to bacteria. The most widely documented uses are prophylactic treatment of burns and water disinfection. However, the mechanisms by which silver kills cells are not known. Information on resistance mechanisms is apparently contradictory and even the chemistry of Ag+ in such systems is poorly understood. Silver binds to many cellular components, with membrane components probably being more important than nucleic acids. It is difficult to know whether strong binding reflects toxicity or detoxification: some sensitive bacterial strains have been reported as accumulating more silver than the corresponding resistant strain, in others the reverse apparently occurs. In several cases resistance has been shown to be plasmid mediated. The plasmids are reported as difficult to transfer, and can also be difficult to maintain, as we too have found. Attempts to find biochemical differences between resistant and sensitive strains have met with limited success: differences are subtle, such as increased cell surface hydrophobicity in a resistant Escherichia coli. Some of the problems are due to defining conditions in which resistance can be observed. Silver(I) has been shown to bind to components of cell culture media, and the presence of chloride is necessary to demonstrate resistance. The form of silver used must also be considered. This is usually water soluble AgNO3, which readily precipitates as AgCl. The clinically preferred compound is the highly insoluble silver sulfadiazine, which does not cause hypochloraemia in burns. It has been suggested that resistant bacteria are those unable to bind Ag+ more tightly than does chloride. It may be that certain forms of insoluble silver are taken up by cells, as has been found for nickel. Under our experimental conditions, silver complexed by certain ligands is more cytotoxic

  14. Quinolone resistance and ornithine decarboxylation activity in lactose-negative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gomig, Franciane; Galvão, Carolina Weigert; de Freitas, Denis Leandro; Labas, Larissa; Etto, Rafael Mazer; Esmerino, Luiz Antonio; de Lima, Marcelo Andrade; Appel, Marcia Helena; Zanata, Silvio Marques; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Nader, Helena Bonciani; da Silveira, Rafael Bertoni

    2015-01-01

    Quinolones and fluoroquinolones are widely used to treat uropathogenic Escherichia coli infections. Bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials primarily involves mutations in gyrA and parC genes. To date, no studies have examined the potential relationship between biochemical characteristics and quinolone resistance in uropathogenic E. coli strains. The present work analyzed the quinolone sensitivity and biochemical activities of fifty-eight lactose-negative uropathogenic E. coli strains. A high percentage of the isolates (48.3%) was found to be resistant to at least one of the tested quinolones, and DNA sequencing revealed quinolone resistant determining region gyrA and parC mutations in the multi-resistant isolates. Statistical analyses suggested that the lack of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity is correlated with quinolone resistance. Despite the low number of isolates examined, this is the first study correlating these characteristics in lactose-negative E. coli isolates. PMID:26413057

  15. Quinolones potentiate cefazolin-induced seizures in DBA/2 mice.

    PubMed Central

    De Sarro, A; Zappalá, M; Chimirri, A; Grasso, S; De Sarro, G B

    1993-01-01

    The behavioral and convulsant effects of cefazolin, a beta-lactam derivative, were studied after intraperitoneal administration to DBA/2 mice, a strain genetically susceptible to sound-induced seizures, and Swiss mice. DBA/2 mice were more susceptible to seizures induced by cefazolin than were Swiss mice. The proconvulsant effects of some quinolones on seizures evoked by intraperitoneal administration of cefazolin were also evaluated in DBA/2 mice. Our study also demonstrated that the order of proconvulsant activity in our epileptic model was pefloxacin > enoxacin > ofloxacin > rufloxacin > norfloxacin > cinoxacin > ciprofloxacin > nalidixic acid. The relationships between the chemical structures and proconvulsant activities of quinolone derivatives were studied. The relationship between lipophilicity and proconvulsant activity was also investigated. PMID:8395790

  16. Synthesis and anticancer activity of novel curcumin-quinolone hybrids.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Saiharish; Manogaran, Prasath; Gadepalli Narasimha, Krishna Kumari; Kalpattu Kuppusami, Balasubramanian; Mariyappan, Palanivelu; Gopalakrishnan, Anjana; Venkatraman, Ganesh

    2015-09-01

    A number of new curcumin-quinolone hybrids were synthesised from differently substituted 3-formyl-2-quinolones and vanillin and their in vitro cytotoxicity was determined on a panel of representative cell lines (A549, MCF7, SKOV3 and H460) using MTT assay. The most potent compound 14, was analysed for its mode of action using various cell biology experiments. SKOV3 cells treated with compound 14 showed distorted cell morphology under phase contrast imaging and induction of apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin V/PE assay. Further experiments on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell cycle analysis revealed that these hybrids induce apoptosis by ROS generation and arrest cell cycle progression in S and G2/M phase.

  17. Computational methods to identify new antibacterial targets.

    PubMed

    McPhillie, Martin J; Cain, Ricky M; Narramore, Sarah; Fishwick, Colin W G; Simmons, Katie J

    2015-01-01

    The development of resistance to all current antibiotics in the clinic means there is an urgent unmet need for novel antibacterial agents with new modes of action. One of the best ways of finding these is to identify new essential bacterial enzymes to target. The advent of a number of in silico tools has aided classical methods of discovering new antibacterial targets, and these programs are the subject of this review. Many of these tools apply a cheminformatic approach, utilizing the structural information of either ligand or protein, chemogenomic databases, and docking algorithms to identify putative antibacterial targets. Considering the wealth of potential drug targets identified from genomic research, these approaches are perfectly placed to mine this rich resource and complement drug discovery programs.

  18. Quinolones in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Graninger, W; Wenisch, C; Presterl, E

    1994-07-01

    Complicated and recurrent urinary tract infections present intriguing clinical management problems. The underlying conditions in patients with complicated urinary tract infections are anatomical abnormalities of the genitourinary tract, neurologic disorders resulting in urinary stasis, obstruction, instrumentation, surgery, diabeters mellitus, renal transplantation, and renal calculi. In comparative studies the quinolones have been shown to be effective in 7-14-day treatment courses in complicated urinary tract infection. Several comparative trials which compare the fluoroquinolones with beta-lactam antibiotics or cotrimoxazole yielded equal or better results for the quinolones. A cost-saving option is given with some of the fluoroquinolones that can be administered parenterally and orally which enables the patient to be discharged from the hospital earlier. There are few differences in antimicrobial activity between the newer quinolones, but differences in the pharmacokinetic properties are evident. The fluoroquinolones are suitable therapeutics for complicated urinary tract infection, because they offer rapid oral absorption, high tissue concentration, broad activity against most Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms, the possibility of a once-a-day administration, and relatively few side effects.

  19. Potent antitumor activity of quinolone compounds with an unsaturated aminoazabicyclo group at the C-7 position of the quinolone ring.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, H; Mano, E; Hakoda, N; Yoshinari, T; Nakagawa, S; Okura, A

    1996-04-01

    Relationships between the substituents on the quinolone nucleus of 2 and related compounds and their biological activities were studied. 2, 3 and 1 carrying a (1R, 2R, 6R)-2-amino-8-azabicyclo[4.3.0.]non-3-en-8-yl group at the C-7 position increased the rate of formation of DNA-protein complexes in cells, and inhibited the growth of tumor cells more strongly than the compounds with other substituents. The introduction of a fluorine atom or a methoxy group at the 8-position and an amino group at the 5-position increased the activity still further. The three compounds listed were all effective against P388 leukemia in mice. Subcutaneous injection of 2 at 2 mg/kg strongly suppressed the growth of human MX-1 breast cancer cells in nude mice. 1 has various functional groups that increase the cytotoxic potential of quinolone derivatives: a (1R, 2R, 6R)-2-amino-8-azabicyclo[4.3.0.]non-3-en-8-yl moiety at C-7, a cyclopropyl group at the 1-position, fluorine atoms at the 6- and 8-positions, and an amino group at the 5-position of the quinoline carboxylic acid. These data suggest that this series of compounds provide good models for the further design of potent antitumor quinolones.

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Hordijk, Joost; Veldman, Kees; Dierikx, Cindy; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Mevius, Dik

    2012-04-23

    Quinolone resistance is studied and reported increasingly in isolates from humans, food-producing animals and companion animals. Resistance can be caused by chromosomal mutations in topoisomerase genes, plasmid-mediated resistance genes, and active transport through efflux pumps. Cross sectional data on quinolone resistance mechanisms in non-pathogenic bacteria from healthy veal calves is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of quinolone resistance mechanisms in Escherichia coli isolates from veal calves, after more than 20 years of quinolone usage in veal calves. MIC values were determined for all isolates collected as part of a national surveillance program on antimicrobial resistance in commensal bacteria in food-producing animals in The Netherlands. From the strains collected from veal calves in 2007 (n=175) all isolates with ciprofloxacin MIC ≥ 0.125 mg/L (n=25) were selected for this study, and screened for the presence of known quinolone resistance determinants. In this selection only chromosomal mutations in the topoisomerase type II and IV genes were detected. The number of mutations found per isolate correlated with an increasing ciprofloxacin MIC. No plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were found. The contribution of efflux pumps varied from no contribution to a 16-fold increase in susceptibility. No correlation was found with the presence of resistance genes of other antimicrobial classes, even though all quinolone non-wild type isolates were resistant to 3 or more classes of antibiotics other than quinolones. Over twenty years of quinolone usage in veal calves in The Netherlands did not result in a widespread occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance, limiting the transmission of quinolone resistance to clonal distribution.

  1. Analysis of sulfonamides, trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones, quinolones, triphenylmethane dyes and methyltestosterone in fish and shrimp using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Storey, Joseph M; Clark, Susan B; Johnson, Aaron S; Andersen, Wendy C; Turnipseed, Sherri B; Lohne, Jack J; Burger, Robert J; Ayres, Patrick R; Carr, Justin R; Madson, Mark R

    2014-12-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening method is described for the detection and identification of 26 veterinary drugs in fish and other aquaculture products. The analytes include: 13 sulfonamides, trimethoprim, 3 fluoroquinolones, 3 quinolones, 3 triphenylmethane dyes, 2 leuco dye metabolites, and 1 hormone. In this method, tissue is mixed with EDTA-McIlvaine buffer, double-extracted with acetonitrile, p-toluenesulfonic (p-TSA) acid and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (TMPD), and analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Inclusion of p-TSA and TMPD in the extraction procedure was critical for simultaneous analysis of dyes with the other groups of veterinary drugs. The proposed procedure was validated as both a quantitative analysis method and as a semi-quantitative screening method for multiple fish and shrimp matrices. The method was applied to eight types of fish (catfish, eel, pangasius, sablefish, tilapia, swai, salmon, and trout) and shrimp at the appropriate level of concern: 10ng/g for sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and quinolones, 5ng/g for fluoroquinolones, 1ng/g for dyes and their metabolites, and 0.4ng/g for methyltestosterone.

  2. Differential distribution of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in clinical enterobacteria with unusual phenotypes of quinolone susceptibility from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Andres, Patricia; Lucero, Celeste; Soler-Bistué, Alfonso; Guerriero, Leonor; Albornoz, Ezequiel; Tran, Tung; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Galas, Marcelo; Corso, Alejandra; Tolmasky, Marcelo E; Petroni, Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    We studied a collection of 105 clinical enterobacteria with unusual phenotypes of quinolone susceptibility to analyze the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and oqx genes and their implications for quinolone susceptibility. The oqxA and oqxB genes were found in 31/34 (91%) Klebsiella pneumoniae and 1/3 Klebsiella oxytoca isolates. However, the oqxA- and oqxB-harboring isolates lacking other known quinolone resistance determinants showed wide ranges of susceptibility to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Sixty of the 105 isolates (57%) harbored at least one PMQR gene [qnrB19, qnrB10, qnrB2, qnrB1, qnrS1, or aac(6')-Ib-cr)], belong to 8 enterobacterial species, and were disseminated throughout the country, and most of them were categorized as susceptible by the current clinical quinolone susceptibility breakpoints. We developed a disk diffusion-based method to improve the phenotypic detection of aac(6')-Ib-cr. The most common PMQR genes in our collection [qnrB19, qnrB10, and aac(6')-Ib-cr] were differentially distributed among enterobacterial species, and two different epidemiological settings were evident. First, the species associated with community-acquired infections (Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli) mainly harbored qnrB19 (a unique PMQR gene) located in small ColE1-type plasmids that might constitute its natural reservoirs. qnrB19 was not associated with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotype. Second, the species associated with hospital-acquired infections (Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Serratia marcescens) mainly harbored qnrB10 in ISCR1-containing class 1 integrons that may also have aac(6')-Ib-cr as a cassette within the variable region. These two PMQR genes were strongly associated with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotype. Therefore, this differential distribution of PMQR genes is strongly influenced by their linkage or lack of linkage to integrons.

  3. Differential Distribution of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Clinical Enterobacteria with Unusual Phenotypes of Quinolone Susceptibility from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Patricia; Lucero, Celeste; Soler-Bistué, Alfonso; Guerriero, Leonor; Albornoz, Ezequiel; Tran, Tung; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Galas, Marcelo; Corso, Alejandra; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2013-01-01

    We studied a collection of 105 clinical enterobacteria with unusual phenotypes of quinolone susceptibility to analyze the occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and oqx genes and their implications for quinolone susceptibility. The oqxA and oqxB genes were found in 31/34 (91%) Klebsiella pneumoniae and 1/3 Klebsiella oxytoca isolates. However, the oqxA- and oqxB-harboring isolates lacking other known quinolone resistance determinants showed wide ranges of susceptibility to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Sixty of the 105 isolates (57%) harbored at least one PMQR gene [qnrB19, qnrB10, qnrB2, qnrB1, qnrS1, or aac(6′)-Ib-cr)], belong to 8 enterobacterial species, and were disseminated throughout the country, and most of them were categorized as susceptible by the current clinical quinolone susceptibility breakpoints. We developed a disk diffusion-based method to improve the phenotypic detection of aac(6′)-Ib-cr. The most common PMQR genes in our collection [qnrB19, qnrB10, and aac(6′)-Ib-cr] were differentially distributed among enterobacterial species, and two different epidemiological settings were evident. First, the species associated with community-acquired infections (Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli) mainly harbored qnrB19 (a unique PMQR gene) located in small ColE1-type plasmids that might constitute its natural reservoirs. qnrB19 was not associated with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotype. Second, the species associated with hospital-acquired infections (Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Serratia marcescens) mainly harbored qnrB10 in ISCR1-containing class 1 integrons that may also have aac(6′)-Ib-cr as a cassette within the variable region. These two PMQR genes were strongly associated with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotype. Therefore, this differential distribution of PMQR genes is strongly influenced by their linkage or lack of linkage to integrons. PMID:23478955

  4. Effective antibacterials: at what cost? The economics of antibacterial resistance and its control.

    PubMed

    White, Anthony R

    2011-09-01

    The original and successful business model of return on investment being sufficiently attractive to the pharmaceutical industry to encourage development of new antibacterial molecules and related diagnostics has been compromised by increasing development costs and regulatory hurdles, resulting in a decreasing chance of success and financial return. The supply of new effective agents is diminishing along with the number of companies engaged in antibacterial research and development. The BSAC Working Party on The Urgent Need:Regenerating Antibacterial Drug Discovery and Development identified the need to establish, communicate and apply the true health and economic value of antibacterials, along with the adoption of meaningful incentives, as part of the future model for antibacterial development. Robust data are needed on the cost of resistance and ineffective treatment of bacterial infection, along with national and local holistic analyses of the cost-benefit of antibacterials. An understanding of the true health and economic value of antibacterials and the cost of resistance across healthcare systems needs to be generated, communicated and used in order to set a pricing and reimbursement structure that is commensurate with value. The development and economic model of antibacterial use needs to be rebuilt based on this value through dialogue with the various stakeholders, including the pharmaceutical industry, and alternative incentives from 'push' to 'pull' and funding models, such as public/private partnerships, agreed. A research and development model that succeeds in developing and delivering new antibacterial agents that address the health needs of society from start to finish, 'from cradle to grave', must be established.

  5. DNA topoisomerases from pathogenic fungi: targets for the discovery of antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Shen, L L; Baranowski, J; Fostel, J; Montgomery, D A; Lartey, P A

    1992-12-01

    DNA topoisomerases, a class of enzymes that change the topological structure of DNA, have been shown to be the target of many therapeutic agents, including antibacterial agents (quinolones) and anticancer agents. These drugs inhibit the enzyme in a unique way so that the enzyme is converted into a cellular poison. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger are two major opportunistic fungal pathogens. Our results show that these fungi have high levels of both type I and type II topoisomerases (with a minimum of 5 x 10(5) ATP-independent relaxation units and 2 x 10(5) P-4 unknotting units per liter of wild-type C. albicans). The ATP-dependent type II topoisomerase (termed C. albicans topoisomerase II) was purified by approximately 2,000-fold from C. albicans cells by using a simple isolation scheme that consists of three column procedures: hydroxylapatite, phosphocellulose, and heparin-agarose chromatographies. The responses of the Candida and the calf thymus topoisomerase II to some known topoisomerase II inhibitors were measured. Etoposide and 4'-(9-acridinylamino)methanesulfon-m-anisidide, compounds known to inhibit catalysis and to enhance DNA breakage by mammalian topoisomerase II, and A-80198, an etoposide derivative, enhanced cleavage by both enzymes at similar concentrations of these compounds, with the response of the calf thymus topoisomerase II from slightly to fourfold higher in magnitude than the response of the Candida enzyme in the same concentration range. In contrast, A-75272 (a cytotoxic tricyclic quinolone) shows a slightly stronger DNA cleavage enhancement effect with the Candida enzyme than with the mammalian counterpart. The abundance of the enzyme in cells and the different drug responses of the host enzyme and the fungal enzyme suggest that the fungal topoisomerase may serve as a target for the discovery of effective and safe antifungal agents.

  6. The development of FtsZ inhibitors as potential antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Siti; Ma, Shutao

    2012-07-01

    The emergence and prevalence of bacterial resistance has resulted in a clear demand for novel antibacterial drugs. As a tubulin homologue, FtsZ is an essential cell-division protein in prokaryotic organisms and is showing increasing promise as a target for antibacterial drug discovery. This review describes the role of FtsZ in bacterial cytokinesis and various FtsZ inhibitors, with particular focus on their discovery, antibacterial activities, mechanisms of action, synthetic methods, and representative analogues.

  7. Structural signature of Ser83Leu and Asp87Asn mutations in DNA gyrase from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and impact on quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Mehla, Kusum; Ramana, Jayashree

    2016-01-15

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is among the most frequent microorganisms causing traveler's diarrhea (TD). Quinolones are potent antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of TD. Resistance to quinolones is typically caused by substitutions in QRDR region of gyrA subunit of DNA gyrase. The aim of this study was to seek insights into the effect of these substitutions at structural level and their association with observed quinolone resistance. Majority of the ETEC strains have gyrA mutations at amino acid position 83 and 87. To understand the quinolone resistance mechanism at molecular level, we have studied the interaction of wild type and mutant forms of ETEC gyrA with nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin by molecular modeling using Discovery Studio and LeadIt. All the mutants had reduced affinity towards both ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid relative to the wild type due to the mutations introduced in gyrA. Besides Ser83 and Asp87, for nalidixic acid binding Arg91 and His45 residues were observed to be critical while in ciprofloxacin binding Lys42 and Arg91 residues played a significant role. Amino acid substitutions contribute to the emergence of drug resistance in sensitive strains by causing structural alterations leading to reduced affinity of the drug towards receptor. Analysis of the effect of amino acid substitutions at structural level is of utmost importance to establish possible associations between mutations and the diseases. These studies accelerate the identification of pharmaceutical targets for relevant treatments and could also be helpful in guiding the design of further experimental research.

  8. Identification, design and biological evaluation of bisaryl quinolones targeting Plasmodium falciparum type II NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2).

    PubMed

    Pidathala, Chandrakala; Amewu, Richard; Pacorel, Bénédicte; Nixon, Gemma L; Gibbons, Peter; Hong, W David; Leung, Suet C; Berry, Neil G; Sharma, Raman; Stocks, Paul A; Srivastava, Abhishek; Shone, Alison E; Charoensutthivarakul, Sitthivut; Taylor, Lee; Berger, Olivier; Mbekeani, Alison; Hill, Alasdair; Fisher, Nicholas E; Warman, Ashley J; Biagini, Giancarlo A; Ward, Stephen A; O'Neill, Paul M

    2012-03-08

    A program was undertaken to identify hit compounds against NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2), a dehydrogenase of the mitochondrial electron transport chain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfNDH2 has only one known inhibitor, hydroxy-2-dodecyl-4-(1H)-quinolone (HDQ), and this was used along with a range of chemoinformatics methods in the rational selection of 17 000 compounds for high-throughput screening. Twelve distinct chemotypes were identified and briefly examined leading to the selection of the quinolone core as the key target for structure-activity relationship (SAR) development. Extensive structural exploration led to the selection of 2-bisaryl 3-methyl quinolones as a series for further biological evaluation. The lead compound within this series 7-chloro-3-methyl-2-(4-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl)phenyl)quinolin-4(1H)-one (CK-2-68) has antimalarial activity against the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum of 36 nM, is selective for PfNDH2 over other respiratory enzymes (inhibitory IC(50) against PfNDH2 of 16 nM), and demonstrates low cytotoxicity and high metabolic stability in the presence of human liver microsomes. This lead compound and its phosphate pro-drug have potent in vivo antimalarial activity after oral administration, consistent with the target product profile of a drug for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Other quinolones presented (e.g., 6d, 6f, 14e) have the capacity to inhibit both PfNDH2 and P. falciparum cytochrome bc(1), and studies to determine the potential advantage of this dual-targeting effect are in progress.

  9. Identification, Design and Biological Evaluation of Bisaryl Quinolones Targeting Plasmodium falciparum Type II NADH:Quinone Oxidoreductase (PfNDH2)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A program was undertaken to identify hit compounds against NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (PfNDH2), a dehydrogenase of the mitochondrial electron transport chain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PfNDH2 has only one known inhibitor, hydroxy-2-dodecyl-4-(1H)-quinolone (HDQ), and this was used along with a range of chemoinformatics methods in the rational selection of 17 000 compounds for high-throughput screening. Twelve distinct chemotypes were identified and briefly examined leading to the selection of the quinolone core as the key target for structure–activity relationship (SAR) development. Extensive structural exploration led to the selection of 2-bisaryl 3-methyl quinolones as a series for further biological evaluation. The lead compound within this series 7-chloro-3-methyl-2-(4-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyl)phenyl)quinolin-4(1H)-one (CK-2-68) has antimalarial activity against the 3D7 strain of P. falciparum of 36 nM, is selective for PfNDH2 over other respiratory enzymes (inhibitory IC50 against PfNDH2 of 16 nM), and demonstrates low cytotoxicity and high metabolic stability in the presence of human liver microsomes. This lead compound and its phosphate pro-drug have potent in vivo antimalarial activity after oral administration, consistent with the target product profile of a drug for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. Other quinolones presented (e.g., 6d, 6f, 14e) have the capacity to inhibit both PfNDH2 and P. falciparum cytochrome bc1, and studies to determine the potential advantage of this dual-targeting effect are in progress. PMID:22364416

  10. Contribution of topoisomerase IV mutation to quinolone resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yuko; Takei, Masaya; Kishii, Ryuta; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Deguchi, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism of quinolone resistance in Mycoplasma genitalium remains poorly understood due to difficulties with in vitro culture, especially of clinical isolates. In this study, to confirm the association between mutations in topoisomerases and antimicrobial susceptibilities to quinolones, ciprofloxacin-resistant mutant strains were selected using the cultivable type strain ATCC 33530. Sequence analysis revealed that the mutant strains harbored mutations in topoisomerase IV: Gly81Cys in ParC, Pro261Thr in ParC, or Asn466Lys in ParE. The MICs of all quinolones tested against the mutant strains were 2- to 16-fold higher than those against the wild-type strain. No cross-resistance was observed with macrolides or tetracyclines. We determined the inhibitory activities of quinolones against DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in order to investigate the correlation between antimicrobial susceptibility and inhibitory activity against the target enzymes, considered the primary targets of quinolones. Furthermore, using enzymatic analysis, we confirmed that Gly81Cys in the ParC quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) contributed to quinolone resistance. This is the first study to isolate quinolone-resistant mutant strains of M. genitalium harboring substitutions in the parC or parE gene in vitro and to measure the inhibitory activities against the purified topoisomerases of M. genitalium.

  11. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    Armed Forces Ra ioloy Research Institute Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones, and General...Gnotobiological Isolation Russia State Medical University 19990119 114 Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics , Quinolones...effects of antibiotics and probiotics (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus) in mice irradiated with 7 Gy. The effects were studied in normal mice and mice

  12. Progress in antibacterial and antifungal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fromtling, R A

    2000-08-01

    The European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases sponsored the 10th European Congress on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in Stockholm, Sweden, May 28-31, 2000. At the ECMID, well-attended sessions were held which focused on the pathogenesis and therapy of viral, bacterial and fungal diseases. This report focuses on new information on resistance to antibacterial agents, including data from recent surveillance studies, and the in vitro and investigational clinical activity of new antibacterial (moxifloxacin, telithromycin) and antifungal (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, liposomal formulations of amphotericin B, terbinafine and the candins) drugs.

  13. Electrospun antibacterial chitosan-based fibers.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Milena; Manolova, Nevena; Rashkov, Iliya

    2013-07-01

    Chitosan is non-toxic, biocompatible, and biodegradable polysaccharide from renewable resources, known to have inherent antibacterial activity, which is mainly due to its polycationic nature. The combining of all assets of chitosan and its derivatives with the unique properties of electrospun nanofibrous materials is a powerful strategy to prepare new materials that can find variety of biomedical applications. In this article the most recent studies on different approaches for preparation of antibacterial fibrous materials from chitosan and its derivatives such as electrospinning, coating, and electrospinning-electrospraying, loading of drugs or bioactive nanoparticles are summarized.

  14. Antibacterial components of honey.

    PubMed

    Kwakman, Paulus H S; Zaat, Sebastian A J

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of honey has been known since the 19th century. Recently, the potent activity of honey against antibiotic-resistant bacteria has further increased the interest for application of honey, but incomplete knowledge of the antibacterial activity is a major obstacle for clinical applicability. The high sugar concentration, hydrogen peroxide, and the low pH are well-known antibacterial factors in honey and more recently, methylglyoxal and the antimicrobial peptide bee defensin-1 were identified as important antibacterial compounds in honey. The antibacterial activity of honey is highly complex due to the involvement of multiple compounds and due to the large variation in the concentrations of these compounds among honeys. The current review will elaborate on the antibacterial compounds in honey. We discuss the activity of the individual compounds, their contribution to the complex antibacterial activity of honey, a novel approach to identify additional honey antibacterial compounds, and the implications of the novel developments for standardization of honey for medical applications.

  15. [Bacteriophages as antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M; Sharon, Nehama; Inbar, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacteria. They have played an important role in the development of molecular biology and have been used as anti-bacterial agents. Since their independent discovery by Twort and d'Herelle, they have been extensively used to prevent and treat bacterial infections, mainly in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In western countries this method has been sporadically employed on humans and domesticated animals. However, the discovery and widespread use of antibiotics, coupled with doubts about the efficacy of phage therapy, led to an eclipse in the use of phage in medicine. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, especially strains that are multiply resistant, has resulted in a renewed interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One of the possible replacements for antibiotics is the use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents. This brief review aims to describe the history of bacteriophage and early clinical studies on their use in bacterial disease prophylaxis and therapy, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bacteriophage in this regard.

  16. Cytotoxic effects of the quinolone levofloxacin on rabbit meniscus cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linlong; Wu, Yunpeng; Tan, Yang; Fei, Xi; Deng, Yu; Cao, Hong; Chen, Biao; Wang, Hui; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin

    2014-08-01

    Quinolones have been reported to induce adverse effects on articular cartilage, tendons and ligaments. However, the effects of quinolones on menisci have not been revealed. The present study was to test the effects of levofloxacin on meniscus cells in vitro. Rabbit meniscus cells were administrated with different concentrations of levofloxacin (0, 14, 28, 56, 112 and 224 µm) for 24 or 48 h, and cell viability and apoptosis were measured. The mRNA expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, MMP-13, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, TIMP-3, Col1a1, Bcl-2, caspase-3 and inducible nitric oxide were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Active caspase-3 was detected by immunocytochemical assay, while protein expression levels of MMP-3 and MMP-13 were measured by Western blotting assay. After treatment with levofloxacin for 48 h, cell viability was decreased from dose of 28 to 224 µm in a concentration-dependent manner. An increase of apoptotic cells was observed by flow cytometry. Active caspase-3 protein expression level was also increased. The mRNA level of Bcl-2 was decreased and levels of MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-13 in experimental groups were higher than those of controls. The protein levels of MMP-3 and MMP-13 were increased. Moreover, the mRNA levels of TIMP-3 and col1a1 were decreased. A dose-dependent increase of inducible nitric oxide mRNA expression level was also observed. Our results suggested the cytotoxic effects of levofloxacin on meniscus cells through induction of apoptosis and unbalanced MMPs/TIMPs expression. These side effects might result in meniscus extracellular matrix degradation and meniscal lesion. Thus, quinolones should be used cautiously on patients who perform athletic activities or undergo surgical meniscus repair.

  17. Antibacterial activities of multi drug resistant Myroides odoratimimus bacteria isolated from adult flesh flies (Diptera: sarcophagidae) are independent of metallo beta-lactamase gene

    PubMed Central

    Dharne, M.S.; Gupta, A.K.; Rangrez, A.Y.; Ghate, H.V.; Patole, M.S.; Shouche, Y.S.

    2008-01-01

    Flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) are well known cause of myiasis and their gut bacteria have never been studied for antimicrobial activity against bacteria. Antimicrobial studies of Myroides spp. are restricted to nosocomial strains. A Gram-negative bacterium, Myroides sp., was isolated from the gut of adult flesh flies (Sarcophaga sp.) and submitted to evaluation of nutritional parameters using Biolog GN, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, susceptibility to various antimicrobials by disc diffusion method and detection of metallo β-lactamase genes (TUS/MUS). The antagonistic effects were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria isolated from human clinical specimens, environmental samples and insect mid gut. Bacterial species included were Aeromonas hydrophila, A. culicicola, Morganella morganii subsp. sibonii, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Weissella confusa, Escherichia coli, Ochrobactrum sp., Serratia sp., Kestersia sp., Ignatzschineria sp., Bacillus sp. The Myroides sp. strain was resistant to penicillin-G, erythromycin, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, gentamycin, ampicillin, trimethoprim and tobramycin. These strain showed antibacterial action against all bacterial strains except W. confusa, Ignatzschineria sp., A. hydrophila and M. morganii subsp. sibonii. The multidrug resistance of the strain was similar to the resistance of clinical isolates, inhibiting growth of bacteria from clinical, environmental and insect gut samples. The metallo β-lactamase (TUS/MUS) genes were absent, and resistance due to these genes was ruled out, indicating involvement of other secretion machinery. PMID:24031236

  18. Cell-Envelope Remodeling as a Determinant of Phenotypic Antibacterial Tolerance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that lead to phenotypic antibacterial tolerance in bacteria remain poorly understood. We investigate whether changes in NaCl concentration toward physiologically higher values affect antibacterial efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causal agent of human tuberculosis. Indeed, multiclass phenotypic antibacterial tolerance is observed during Mtb growth in physiologic saline. This includes changes in sensitivity to ethionamide, ethambutol, d-cycloserine, several aminoglycosides, and quinolones. By employing organism-wide metabolomic and lipidomic approaches combined with phenotypic tests, we identified a time-dependent biphasic adaptive response after exposure of Mtb to physiological levels of NaCl. A first rapid, extensive, and reversible phase was associated with changes in core and amino acid metabolism. In a second phase, Mtb responded with a substantial remodelling of plasma membrane and outer lipid membrane composition. We demonstrate that phenotypic tolerance at physiological concentrations of NaCl is the result of changes in plasma and outer membrane lipid remodeling and not changes in core metabolism. Altogether, these results indicate that physiologic saline-induced antibacterial tolerance is kinetically coupled to cell envelope changes and demonstrate that metabolic changes and growth arrest are not the cause of phenotypic tolerance observed in Mtb exposed to physiologic concentrations of NaCl. Importantly, this work uncovers a role for bacterial cell envelope remodeling in antibacterial tolerance, alongside well-documented allterations in respiration, metabolism, and growth rate. PMID:27231718

  19. [Investigation of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli strains].

    PubMed

    Aktepe, Orhan Cem; Aşık, Gülşah; Cetinkol, Yeliz; Biçmen, Meral; Gülay, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    Quinolones are widely used antimicrobial agents, particularly for the treatment of infections caused by gram-negative bacilli such as E.coli. As a consequence, quinolone resistance has been increasing among this species in recent years. Bacterial resistance to quinolones usually results from mutations in the chromosomal genes which encode topoisomerases and also the expression of efflux pumps and loss of porines contributed to development of quinolone resistance. However, recent studies have shown that the spread and increase of quinolone resistance may be due to the transfer of plasmid-mediated genes. To date, three groups of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes, namely qnr, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA, have been described. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in E.coli clinical isolates. A total of 112 quinolone-resistant E.coli strains isolated from different clinical specimens (84 urine, 16 blood, 10 wound, 2 bronchoalveolar lavage) of which 78 (69.6%) were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positive, in Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital, Microbiology Laboratory were included in the study. In the isolates, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrC, qepA, and aac(6')-1b-cr plasmid genes were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After aac(6')- 1b determinant was amplified by PCR, all aac(6')-1b positive amplicons were analyzed by digestion with BseGI restriction enzyme to identify aac(6')-1b-cr variant. It was found that, none of the strains horboured qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrC and qepA genes, however, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene aac(6')-1b-cr was found positive in 59.8% (67/112) of the strains. It was notable that 86.6% (58/67) of those isolates were ESBL producers. The rates of quinolone resistance among E.coli isolates infections were high in our region and an increasing trend has been observed in recent years. Our data indicated that the presence of plasmid- mediated resistance genes

  20. 4(1H)-Pyridone and 4(1H)-Quinolone Derivatives as Antimalarials with Erythrocytic, Exoerythrocytic, and Transmission Blocking Activities

    PubMed Central

    Monastyrskyi, Andrii; Kyle, Dennis E.; Manetsch, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of deaths in the world with malaria being responsible for approximately the same amount of deaths as cancer in 2012. Despite the success in malaria prevention and control measures decreasing the disease mortality rate by 45% since 2000, the development of single-dose therapeutics with radical cure potential is required to completely eradicate this deadly condition. Targeting multiple stages of the malaria parasite is becoming a primary requirement for new candidates in antimalarial drug discovery and development. Recently, 4(1H)-pyridone, 4(1H)-quinolone, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridone, and phenoxyethoxy-4(1H)-quinolone chemotypes have been shown to be antimalarials with blood stage activity, liver stage activity, and transmission blocking activity. Advancements in structure-activity relationship and structure-property relationship studies, biological evaluation in vitro and in vivo, as well as pharmacokinetics of the 4(1H)-pyridone and 4(1H)-quinolone chemotypes will be discussed. PMID:25116582

  1. Dynorphin Activates Quorum Sensing Quinolone Signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zaborina, Olga; Lepine, Francois; Xiao, Gaoping; Valuckaite, Vesta; Chen, Yimei; Li, Terry; Ciancio, Mae; Zaborin, Alex; Petroff, Elaine; Turner, Jerrold R; Rahme, Laurence G; Chang, Eugene; Alverdy, John C

    2007-01-01

    There is now substantial evidence that compounds released during host stress directly activate the virulence of certain opportunistic pathogens. Here, we considered that endogenous opioids might function as such compounds, given that they are among the first signals to be released at multiple tissue sites during host stress. We tested the ability of various opioid compounds to enhance the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using pyocyanin production as a biological readout, and demonstrated enhanced virulence when P. aeruginosa was exposed to synthetic (U-50,488) and endogenous (dynorphin) κ-agonists. Using various mutants and reporter strains of P. aeruginosa, we identified involvement of key elements of the quorum sensing circuitry such as the global transcriptional regulator MvfR and the quorum sensing-related quinolone signaling molecules PQS, HHQ, and HQNO that respond to κ-opioids. The in vivo significance of κ-opioid signaling of P. aeruginosa was demonstrated in mice by showing that dynorphin is released from the intestinal mucosa following ischemia/reperfusion injury, activates quinolone signaling in P. aeruginosa, and enhances the virulence of P. aeruginosa against Lactobacillus spp. and Caenorhabditis elegans. Taken together, these data demonstrate that P. aeruginosa can intercept opioid compounds released during host stress and integrate them into core elements of quorum sensing circuitry leading to enhanced virulence. PMID:17367209

  2. Quantifying Pseudomonas aeruginosa quinolones and examining their interactions with lipids.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Gregory C; Schertzer, Jeffrey W; Mashburn-Warren, Lauren; Whiteley, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a quorum sensing molecule termed the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone; PQS) that regulates an array of genes involved in virulence. This chapter addresses four related techniques useful for detecting and quantifying PQS. First, extraction of PQS from complex mixtures (e.g. cell cultures) is described. Separation of PQS from extracts by Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) is used in combination with the natural fluorescence of the molecule for quantification. A second separation technique for the PQS precursor HHQ using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is also described, and this assay exploits the molecule's characteristic absorbance for quantification. A third method for quantification of PQS from simple mixtures (e.g. enzyme assays) using fluorescence is outlined. Finally, a protocol for determining PQS interactions with membrane lipids through Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) is presented. These techniques allow for quantification and characterization of PQS from diverse environments, a prerequisite to understanding the biological functions of QS molecules.

  3. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hajipour, Mohammad J; Fromm, Katharina M; Ashkarran, Ali Akbar; Jimenez de Aberasturi, Dorleta; de Larramendi, Idoia Ruiz; Rojo, Teofilo; Serpooshan, Vahid; Parak, Wolfgang J; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-10-01

    Antibacterial agents are very important in the textile industry, water disinfection, medicine, and food packaging. Organic compounds used for disinfection have some disadvantages, including toxicity to the human body, therefore, the interest in inorganic disinfectants such as metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is increasing. This review focuses on the properties and applications of inorganic nanostructured materials and their surface modifications, with good antimicrobial activity. Such improved antibacterial agents locally destroy bacteria, without being toxic to the surrounding tissue. We also provide an overview of opportunities and risks of using NPs as antibacterial agents. In particular, we discuss the role of different NP materials.

  4. Emergence of quinolone-resistant strains in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from paediatric patients since the approval of oral fluoroquinolones in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Noriko; Ohkusu, Misako; Hoshino, Tadashi; Naito, Sachiko; Takaya, Akiko; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Ishiwada, Naruhiko

    2017-01-31

    Tosufloxacin (TFLX) is a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent. TFLX granules for children were initially released in Japan in 2010 to treat otitis media and pneumonia caused by drug-resistant bacteria, e.g. penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae. The evolution of bacterial resistance since TFLX approval is not known. To clarify the influence of quinolones administered to children since their approval, we examined the resistance mechanism of TFLX-resistant S. pneumoniae isolated from paediatric patients as well as patient clinical characteristics. TFLX-resistant strains (MIC ≥ 2 mg/L) were detected among clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae derived from children (≤15 years old) between 2010 and 2014. These strains were characterised based on quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs), i.e. gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. In addition, the antimicrobial susceptibility, serotype, and multilocus sequence type of strains were determined, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed, and patient clinical characteristics based on medical records were assessed for cases with underling TFLX-resistant strains. Among 1168 S. pneumoniae isolates, two TFLX-resistant strains were detected from respiratory specimens obtained from paediatric patients with frequent exposure to TFLX. Both strains had mutations in the QRDRs of gyrA and parC. One case exhibited gradual changes in the QRDR during the clinical course. This is the first study of quinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae isolated from children, including clinical data, in Japan. These data may help prevent increases in infections of quinolone-resistant S. pneumoniae in children; specifically, the results emphasise the importance of administering fluoroquinolones only in appropriate cases.

  5. Synthesis of halogenated 4-quinolones and evaluation of their antiplasmodial activity.

    PubMed

    Vandekerckhove, Stéphanie; Desmet, Tom; Tran, Hai Giang; de Kock, Carmen; Smith, Peter J; Chibale, Kelly; D'hooghe, Matthias

    2014-02-15

    Treatment of 4-hydroxyquinolines with (2-methyl)allyl bromide in the presence of K2CO3 resulted in the formation of novel N-[(2-methyl)allyl]-4-quinolones through selective N-alkylation. Further reaction of N-(2-methylallyl)-4-quinolones with bromine or N-bromosuccinimide yielded the corresponding 3-bromo-1-(2,3-dibromo-2-methylpropyl)-4-quinolones and 3-bromo-1-(2-methylallyl)-4-quinolones, respectively. Furthermore, a copper-catalyzed C-N coupling of the latter 3-bromo-4-quinolones with (5-chloro)indole afforded novel 3-[(5-chloro)indol-1-yl]-4-quinolone hybrids. Antifungal and antiplasmodial assays of all new 4-quinolones were performed and revealed no antifungal properties but moderate antiplasmodial activities. All 15 compounds displayed micromolar activities against a chloroquine-sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum, and the five most potent compounds also showed micromolar activities against a chloroquine-resistant strain of P. falciparum with IC50-values ranging between 4 and 70 μM.

  6. Antibacterial kaolinite/urea/chlorhexidine nanocomposites: Experiment and molecular modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holešová, Sylva; Valášková, Marta; Hlaváč, Dominik; Madejová, Jana; Samlíková, Magda; Tokarský, Jonáš; Pazdziora, Erich

    2014-06-01

    Clay minerals are commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. The purpose of this study is the preparation and characterization of clay/antibacterial drug hybrids which can be further included in drug delivery systems for treatment oral infections. Novel nanocomposites with antibacterial properties were successfully prepared by ion exchange reaction from two types of kaolinite/urea intercalates and chlorhexidine diacetate. Intercalation compounds of kaolinite were prepared by reaction with solid urea in the absence of solvents (dry method) as well as with urea aqueous solution (wet method). The antibacterial activity of two prepared samples against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by finding the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Antibacterial studies of both samples showed the lowest MIC values (0.01%, w/v) after 1 day against E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus. A slightly worse antibacterial activity was observed against P. aeruginosa (MIC 0.12%, w/v) after 1 day. Since samples showed very good antibacterial activity, especially after 1 day of action, this means that these samples can be used as long-acting antibacterial materials. Prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental data are supported by results of molecular modelling.

  7. Responses of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and bacterial taxa to (fluoro)quinolones-containing manure in arable soil.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenguang; Sun, Yongxue; Ding, Xueyao; Zhang, Yiming; Zhong, Xiaoxia; Liang, Wenfei; Zeng, Zhenling

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the fate of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and the disturbance of soil bacterial communities posed by (fluoro)quinolones (FQNs)-containing manure in arable soil. Representative FQNs (enrofloxacin (ENR), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR)), PMQR genes (qepA, oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS) and bacterial communities in untreated soil, +manure and +manure+FQNs groups were analyzed using culture independent methods. The significantly higher abundance of oqxA, oqxB and aac(6')-Ib-cr, and significantly higher abundance of qnrS in +manure group than those in untreated soil disappeared at day 30 and day 60, respectively. All PMQR genes (oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrS) dissipated 1.5-1.7 times faster in +manure group than those in +manure+FQNs group. The disturbance of soil bacterial communities posed by FQNs-containing manure was also found. The results indicated that significant effects of PMQR genes (oqxA, oqxB, aac(6')-Ib and qnrS) on arable soils introduced by manure disappeared 2 month after manure application. FQNs introduced by manure slowed down the dissipation of PMQR genes. The presence of high FQNs provided a selective advantage for species affiliated to the phylum including Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes while suppressing Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria.

  8. Antibacterials in Household Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... residue-producing ). Common examples of this group are triclosan, triclocarban, and benzalkonium chloride. Did you know that over 1000 commercial products contain triclosan or other biocide agents? Antibacterials in household products ...

  9. [Antibacterial activity of cefpodoxime against clinical isolates in 2000 and 2001].

    PubMed

    Abe, Tomomi; Fukuoka, Takashi; Sato, Yuki; Ito, Kazuyoshi; Sei, Masami

    2002-12-01

    As the post-marketing surveillance of cefpodoxime proxetil (Banan), MICs of cefpodoxime (CPDX, an active form of Banan) against 1090 clinical isolates of 22 species from 15 medical institutions all over Japan from June 2000 to March 2001 were measured using the broth microdilution method approved by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and compared with those of oral cephem antibacterials, cefaclor, cefdinir, cefditoren, and cefcapene. In this study, remarkable change in the activity of CPDX was observed in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae compared with the susceptibility in the studies before Banan was launched. This cause is considered to be the increase in the incidence of the following resistant strains: penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (47.3%), penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP, 15.1%), and beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) H. influenzae (24.0%), which were scarcely isolated in 1989 when Banan was launched. Other tested drugs also exhibited low activity against these resistant strains. However, CPDX showed comparatively good activity with MIC90 of 2 micrograms/mL against PRSP. Against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Moraxella catarrhalis, CPDX also showed comparatively good activity with MIC90 of < or = 4 micrograms/mL, which was almost equal to that in the studies before its marketing. Against quinolones-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae, CPDX showed excellent activity with MIC90 of 0.5 microgram/mL. Against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae except for Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter spp., Proteus vulgaris, and Morganella morganii, CPDX showed good activity. However, in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. Proteus spp., and Providencia spp., there are some high-resistant strains to all tested drugs including CPDX. Against Peptostreptococcus spp., MIC90 of CPDX was 8 micrograms/mL and its MIC range was widely distributed from 0.03 to 32

  10. The Impact of Antibiotic Stewardship Programs in Combating Quinolone Resistance: A Systematic Review and Recommendations for More Efficient Interventions.

    PubMed

    Pitiriga, Vasiliki; Vrioni, Georgia; Saroglou, George; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2017-04-01

    Quinolones are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide. A clear relationship has been demonstrated between excessive quinolone use and the steady increase in the incidence of quinolone-resistant bacterial pathogens, both in hospital and community sites. In addition, exposure to quinolones has been associated with colonization and infection with healthcare-associated pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients. Therefore, the management of quinolone prescribing in hospitals through antibiotic stewardship programs is considered crucial. Although suggestions have been made by previous studies on the positive impact of stewardship programs concerning the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria at hospital level, the association of quinolone-targeted interventions with reduction of quinolone resistance is vague. The purpose of this article was to evaluate the impact of stewardship interventions on quinolone resistance rates and healthcare-associated infections, through a literature review using systematic methods to identify and select the appropriate studies. Recommendations for improvements in quinolone-targeted stewardship programs are also proposed. Efforts in battling quinolone resistance should combine various interventions such as restriction formulary policies, prospective audits with feedback to prescribers, infection prevention and control measures, prompt detection of low-level resistance, educational programs, and guidelines for optimal quinolone usage. However, the effectiveness of such strategies should be assessed by properly designed and conducted clinical trials. Finally, novel approaches in diagnostic stewardship for rapidly detecting bacterial resistance, including PCR-based techniques, mass spectrometry, microarrays, and whole-genome sequencing as well as the prompt investigation on the clonality of quinolone-resistant strains, will strengthen our

  11. Natural product leads for drug discovery: isolation, synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-cyano-5-methoxyindolo[2,3-a]carbazole based ligands as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Songpo; Tipparaju, Suresh K; Pegan, Scott D; Wan, Baojie; Mo, Shunyan; Orjala, Jimmy; Mesecar, Andrew D; Franzblau, Scott G; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2009-10-15

    Indolo[2,3-a]carbazole based inhibitors were synthesized from readily available indigo via a seven-step linear synthetic sequence with a moderate overall yield. The inhibitors were selectively and readily functionalized at the nitrogen on the indole portion of the carbazole unit. The synthesized analogs displayed moderate inhibitory activities toward Bacillus anthracis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, indicating that indolo[2,3-a]carbazoles could serve as promising leads in the development of new drugs to combat anthrax and tuberculosis infections.

  12. Development and in vitro characterization of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres loaded with an antibacterial natural drug for the treatment of long-term bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Reinbold, Jochen; Hierlemann, Teresa; Hinkel, Helena; Müller, Ingrid; Maier, Martin E; Weindl, Tobias; Schlensak, Christian; Wendel, Hans Peter; Krajewski, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers, especially poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), have good biocompatibility and toxicological properties. In combination with active ingredients, a specialized drug delivery system can be generated. The aim of the present study was to develop a drug delivery system consisting of PLGA microspheres loaded with the natural active ingredient totarol, which has several antimicrobial mechanisms. Totarol, isolated from the Podocarpus totara tree, was purified using column chromatography, and the eluate was checked for purity using thin layer chromatography. The spherically shaped microspheres with mean diameters of 147.21±3.45 µm and 131.14±3.69 µm (totarol-loaded and -unloaded microspheres, respectively) were created using the single emulsion evaporation method. Furthermore, the encapsulation efficiency, in a range of 84.72%±6.68% to 92.36%±0.99%, was measured via UV/vis spectroscopy. In a 90-day in vitro drug release study, the release of totarol was investigated by UV/vis spectroscopy as well, showing a release of 53.76%. The toxicity on cells was determined using BJ fibroblasts or Human Embryonic Kidney cells and an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, which showed no influence on the cell growth. The minimal inhibitory concentration was ascertained. A totarol concentration between 64 µg/mL and 128 µg/mL was necessary to inhibit the bacterial growth over a period of 24 hours. Biofilm formation on the surface of totarol-loaded microspheres was determined using transmission electron microscopy. No biofilm formation could be detected, even if the totarol concentration was below the minimal inhibitory concentration. The hemocompatibility investigations on various markers with fresh heparinized blood (1.5 IU/mL) showed that totarol and totarol-loaded microspheres have no influence on different blood parameters. The PLGA microspheres characterized by slow release of totarol and great entrapment efficiency represent

  13. Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Hunter, Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This document contains the third volume of "Today's Delinquent," an annual publication of the National Center for Juvenile Justice. This volume deals with the issue of drugs and includes articles by leading authorities in delinquency and substance abuse who share their views on causes and cures for the drug problem among youth in this country.…

  14. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. β-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), β-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature.

  15. Cobalt Complexes as Antiviral and Antibacterial Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    keratitis, one of the major causes of blindness in industrial nations [9]. Studies using the CTC class of drugs were performed using a rabbit eye model...CTC-96 inhibits membrane fusion events preventing virus entry, CTC-96 inhibited plaque formation by VSV (vesicular stomatitis virus) and VZV...antibacterial properties of cobalt complexes have appeared in the literature, with Co(II) complexes being the most studied , presumably due to their

  16. Regulation of Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wade, Dana S; Calfee, M Worth; Rocha, Edson R; Ling, Elizabeth A; Engstrom, Elana; Coleman, James P; Pesci, Everett C

    2005-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis patients and is a major source of nosocomial infections. This bacterium controls many virulence factors by using two quorum-sensing systems, las and rhl. The las system is composed of the LasR regulator protein and its cell-to-cell signal, N-(3-oxododecanoyl) homoserine lactone, and the rhl system is composed of RhlR and the signal N-butyryl homoserine lactone. A third intercellular signal, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone), also regulates numerous virulence factors. PQS synthesis requires the expression of multiple operons, one of which is pqsABCDE. Previous experiments showed that the transcription of this operon, and therefore PQS production, is negatively regulated by the rhl quorum-sensing system and positively regulated by the las quorum-sensing system and PqsR (also known as MvfR), a LysR-type transcriptional regulator protein. With the use of DNA mobility shift assays and beta-galactosidase reporter fusions, we have studied the regulation of pqsR and its relationship to pqsA, lasR, and rhlR. We show that PqsR binds the promoter of pqsA and that this binding increases dramatically in the presence of PQS, implying that PQS acts as a coinducer for PqsR. We have also mapped the transcriptional start site for pqsR and found that the transcription of pqsR is positively regulated by lasR and negatively regulated by rhlR. These results suggest that a regulatory chain occurs where pqsR is under the control of LasR and RhlR and where PqsR in turn controls pqsABCDE, which is required for the production of PQS.

  17. Structure-Activity Analysis of the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Molecule ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkinson, James; Bowden, Steven D.; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Spring, David R.; Welch, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We synthesized a range of PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone) analogues and tested them for their ability to stimulate MvfR-dependent pqsA transcription, MvfR-independent pyoverdine production, and membrane vesicle production. The structure-activity profile of the PQS analogues was different for each of these phenotypes. Certain inactive PQS analogues were also found to strongly synergize PQS-dependent pyoverdine production. PMID:20494992

  18. Antigiardial activity of novel triazolyl-quinolone-based chalcone derivatives: when oxygen makes the difference

    PubMed Central

    Bahadur, Vijay; Mastronicola, Daniela; Singh, Amit K.; Tiwari, Hemandra K.; Pucillo, Leopoldo P.; Sarti, Paolo; Singh, Brajendra K.; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Giardiasis is a common diarrheal disease worldwide caused by the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis. It is urgent to develop novel drugs to treat giardiasis, due to increasing clinical resistance to the gold standard drug metronidazole (MTZ). New potential antiparasitic compounds are usually tested for their killing efficacy against G. intestinalis under anaerobic conditions, in which MTZ is maximally effective. On the other hand, though commonly regarded as an ‘anaerobic pathogen,’ G. intestinalis is exposed to relatively high O2 levels in vivo, living attached to the mucosa of the proximal small intestine. It is thus important to test the effect of O2 when searching for novel potential antigiardial agents, as outlined in a previous study [Bahadur et al. (2014) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 58, 543]. Here, 45 novel chalcone derivatives with triazolyl-quinolone scaffold were synthesized, purified, and characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy. Efficacy of the compounds against G. intestinalis trophozoites was tested under both anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, and selectivity was assessed in a counter-screen on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. MTZ was used as a positive control in the assays. All the tested compounds proved to be more effective against the parasite in the presence of O2, with the exception of MTZ that was less effective. Under anaerobiosis eighteen compounds were found to be as effective as MTZ or more (up to three to fourfold); the same compounds proved to be up to >100-fold more effective than MTZ under microaerobic conditions. Four of them represent potential candidates for the design of novel antigiardial drugs, being highly selective against Giardia trophozoites. This study further underlines the importance of taking O2 into account when testing novel potential antigiardial compounds. PMID:25904901

  19. Discovery of membrane active benzimidazole quinolones-based topoisomerase inhibitors as potential DNA-binding antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Addla, Dinesh; Ponmani, Jeyakkumar; Wang, Ao; Xie, Dan; Wang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Shao-Lin; Geng, Rong-Xia; Cai, Gui-Xin; Li, Shuo; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2016-03-23

    A series of novel benzimidazole quinolones as potential antimicrobial agents were designed and synthesized. Most of the prepared compounds exhibited good or even stronger antimicrobial activities in comparison with reference drugs. The most potent compound 15m was membrane active and did not trigger the development of resistance in bacteria. It not only inhibited the formation of biofilms but also disrupted the established Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli biofilms. It was able to inhibit the relaxation activity of E. coli topoisomerase IV at 10 μM concentration. Moreover, this compound also showed low toxicity against mammalian cells. Molecular modeling and experimental investigation of compound 15m with DNA suggested that this compound could effectively bind with DNA to form a steady 15m-DNA complex which might further block DNA replication to exert the powerful bioactivities.

  20. Developing Outcomes Assessments as Endpoints for Registrational Clinical Trials of Antibacterial Drugs: 2015 Update From the Biomarkers Consortium of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, George H.; Powers, John H.; Hoffmann, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    One important component in determining the benefits and harms of medical interventions is the use of well-defined and reliable outcome assessments as endpoints in clinical trials. Improving endpoints can better define patient benefits, allowing more accurate assessment of drug efficacy and more informed benefit-vs-risk decisions; another potential plus is facilitating efficient trial design. Since our first report in 2012, 2 Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Biomarkers Consortium Project Teams have continued to develop outcome assessments for potential uses as endpoints in registrational clinical trials of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. In addition, the teams have initiated similar work in the indications of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia. This report provides an update on progress to date in these 4 diseases. PMID:26668337

  1. Interplay between intrinsic and acquired resistance to quinolones in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    García-León, Guillermo; Salgado, Fabiola; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Sánchez, María Blanca; Martínez, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    To analyse whether the mutation-driven resistance-acquisition potential of a given bacterium might be a function of its intrinsic resistome, quinolones were used as selective agents and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was chosen as a bacterial model. S. maltophilia has two elements - SmQnr and SmeDEF - that are important in intrinsic resistance to quinolones. Using a battery of mutants in which either or both of these elements had been removed, the apparent mutation frequency for quinolone resistance and the phenotype of the selected mutants were found to be related to the intrinsic resistome and also depended on the concentration of the selector. Most mutants had phenotypes compatible with the overexpression of multidrug efflux pump(s); SmeDEF overexpression was the most common cause of quinolone resistance. Whole genome sequencing showed that mutations of the SmeRv regulator, which result in the overexpression of the efflux pump SmeVWX, are the cause of quinolone resistance in mutants not overexpressing SmeDEF. These results indicate that the development of mutation-driven antibiotic resistance is highly dependent on the intrinsic resistome, which, at least for synthetic antibiotics such as quinolones, did not develop as a response to the presence of antibiotics in the natural ecosystems in which S. maltophilia evolved.

  2. Genotoxicity of quinolone antibiotics in chlorination disinfection treatment: formation and QSAR simulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wei, Dongbin; Du, Yuguo

    2016-10-01

    Lots of unexpected disinfection by-products were formed during the chlorination disinfection of contaminated water bodies, leading to a potential threat to human health and ecological safety. In this study, SOS/umu assay was used to trace the genotoxicity variation of 20 quinolone compounds during the chlorination disinfection. Furthermore, two- and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship models were developed based on the electronic and hydrophobic properties of the quinolones, which were used to quantify the impact of the different structural features of the compounds on their genotoxicity variation. The results revealed that quinolones bearing hydrophilic substituents with less H-bond donors and negative charge at the 1-position of the quinolone ring exhibited a positive correlation with genotoxicity elevation. More notably, the chlorination of quinolones in both ultrapure water and secondary effluent matrices provided comparable levels of genotoxicity, indicating that our research could potentially be used to evaluate the environmental risk of quinolone antibiotics in chlorination disinfection treatment.

  3. Antibacterial multifilament nylon sutures.

    PubMed

    Singhal, J P; Singh, J; Ray, A R; Singh, H

    1991-01-01

    Multifilament nylon fibers were made antibacterial by dopping with iodine. Nylon fibers were immersed in acetone solution of iodine for 48 hours at room temperature for dopping of iodine. It was observed that iodine uptake by the nylon fibers increased with the increase in concentration of iodine in the solution. Antibacterial activity of these iodine dopped samples was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition. The bacterial species used for this study were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Iodine dopped fibers exhibited good antibacterial activity against these bacterial species. Release of iodine in distilled water is sustained for about 30 days. Antibacterial activity of the fibers decreases with the release of iodine in water. Ultra-violet and visible spectroscopic studies showed that tri-iodide ions were released from the dopped samples in the aqueous medium. These I3- ions might be responsible for the observed antibacterial activity. Fiber shrinks on iodine dopping leading to increase in the denier of the fiber. However effect of iodine dopping on the breaking load of fibers is not significant.

  4. Clay nanotube composites for antibacterial nanostructured coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Christen J.

    A surging demand for the development of new antimicrobial nanomaterials exists due to the frequency of medical device-associated infections and the transfer of pathogens from highly touched objects. Naturally occurring halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) have shown to be ideal particles for polymer reinforcement, time-release drug delivery, nano-reactor synthesis, and as substrate material for nanostructured coatings. This research demonstrates the feasibility of a novel method for coating HNTs with metals for antibacterial applications. The first ever ability to coat HNTs through electrolysis was developed for customizable and multi-functional antibacterial nanoparticle platforms. HNTs were investigated as substrate for the deposition of copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) metal nanoparticles through electrochemical syntheses, and as a platform for nano-structured antibacterial polymer composites. Characterization of interfacial and material properties demonstrated the feasibility of electrolysis as a new efficient and replicable nano-scale surface modification route. Methods of encapsulating HNTs in nanofibers, three-dimensional printer filaments, and multifunctional polymer rubbers were also realized. The nanofabrication methods, nanoparticles, and polymer composites created in this work were novel, scalable, easy-to-replicate, and displayed antibacterial features with tunable properties.

  5. Optical control of antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velema, Willem A.; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Hansen, Mickel J.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial resistance is a major problem in the modern world, stemming in part from the build-up of antibiotics in the environment. Novel molecular approaches that enable an externally triggered increase in antibiotic activity with high spatiotemporal resolution and auto-inactivation are highly desirable. Here we report a responsive, broad-spectrum, antibacterial agent that can be temporally activated with light, whereupon it auto-inactivates on the scale of hours. The use of such a ‘smart’ antibiotic might prevent the build-up of active antimicrobial material in the environment. Reversible optical control over active drug concentration enables us to obtain pharmacodynamic information. Precisely localized control of activity is achieved, allowing the growth of bacteria to be confined to defined patterns, which has potential for the development of treatments that avoid interference with the endogenous microbial population in other parts of the organism.

  6. Screening of quinolone antibiotic residues in chicken meat and beef sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Er, Buket; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Demirhan, Burak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan; Abbasoglu, Ufuk

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to find the effects of quinolone antibiotics in chicken and beef used in Ankara, Turkey. Total number of 127 chicken and 104 beef meat samples were collected randomly from local markets for analysis. Extraction and determination of quinolones were made by ELISA procedure. One hundred eighteen of 231 (51.1%) examined chicken meat and beef samples were found to contain quinolone antibiotic residue. Among the chicken meat and beef samples, 58 (45.7%) of chicken meat samples and 60 (57.7%) of beef meat samples were positive for quinolones, respectively. The mean levels (±SE) of quinolones were found to be 30.81 ± 0.45 µg/kg and 6.64 ± 1.11 µg/kg in chicken and beef samples, respectively. This study indicated that some chicken and beef meat sold in Ankara contains residues of quinolone antibiotics.

  7. Occurrence of (fluoro)quinolones and (fluoro)quinolone resistance in soil receiving swine manure for 11 years.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yonggang; Yu, Wantai; Ma, Qiang; Zhou, Hua

    2015-10-15

    Because of the widespread use of antibiotics in animal breeding, the agricultural application of animal manure can lead to the introduction of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes to the soil and surrounding environment, which may pose a threat to public health. In this study, we investigated the status of (fluoro)quinolone (FQ) residues and FQ resistance levels in soil with and without receiving long-term swine manure. Six FQs (pipemidic acid, lomefloxacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin) were only detected in manured soil, with individual concentrations ranging from below the detection limit to 27.2 μg kg(-1) and increasing with the increase in swine manure application rates. Higher load rates of swine manure yielded a higher number of ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIPr) bacteria after spreading. A total of 24 CIPr bacterial isolates were obtained from the tested soil, which belonged to four phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes) or were related to nine different genera. Only 18 isolates from manured soil were positive for five plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (aac(6')-Ib-cr, qnrD, qepA, oqxA, and oqxB). To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the occurrence of PMQR genes in FQ-resistant bacteria from the soil environment. A similar result was observed for the total DNA from soil, with the exception of aac(6')-Ib being detected in the control sample. The absolute and relative abundances of total PMQR genes also increased with fertilization quantity. Significant correlations were observed between FQ resistance levels and FQ concentrations. These results indicated that the agricultural application of swine manure led to FQ residues and enhanced FQ resistance. This investigation provides baseline data on FQ resistance profiles in soils receiving long-term swine manure.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activities of novel methacrylate polymers containing norfloxacin.

    PubMed

    Dizman, Bekir; Elasri, Mohamed O; Mathias, Lon J

    2005-01-01

    A novel methacrylate monomer containing a quinolone moiety was synthesized and homopolymerized in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by using azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator. The new monomer was copolymerized with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA) in DMF using the same initiator. The monomer, homopolymer, and copolymer were characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), FTIR, (13)C NMR, and (1)H NMR. The antibacterial activities of the monomer as well as polymers were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, which are representative of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. All compounds showed excellent antibacterial activities against these two types of bacteria. The antibacterial activities were determined using the shaking flask method, where 25 mg/mL concentrations of each compound were tested against 10(5) CFU/mL bacteria solutions. The number of viable bacteria was calculated by using the spread plate method, where 100 microL of the incubated antibacterial agent in bacteria solutions were spread on agar plates and the number of viable bacteria was counted after 24 h of incubation period at 37 degrees C.

  9. Antibacterial natural products in medicinal chemistry--exodus or revival?

    PubMed

    von Nussbaum, Franz; Brands, Michael; Hinzen, Berthold; Weigand, Stefan; Häbich, Dieter

    2006-08-04

    To create a drug, nature's blueprints often have to be improved through semisynthesis or total synthesis (chemical postevolution). Selected contributions from industrial and academic groups highlight the arduous but rewarding path from natural products to drugs. Principle modification types for natural products are discussed herein, such as decoration, substitution, and degradation. The biological, chemical, and socioeconomic environments of antibacterial research are dealt with in context. Natural products, many from soil organisms, have provided the majority of lead structures for marketed anti-infectives. Surprisingly, numerous "old" classes of antibacterial natural products have never been intensively explored by medicinal chemists. Nevertheless, research on antibacterial natural products is flagging. Apparently, the "old fashioned" natural products no longer fit into modern drug discovery. The handling of natural products is cumbersome, requiring nonstandardized workflows and extended timelines. Revisiting natural products with modern chemistry and target-finding tools from biology (reversed genomics) is one option for their revival.

  10. Comparison of the antibacterial effect of silver sulfadiazine 1%, mupirocin 2%, Acticoat and octenidine dihydrochloride in a full-thickness rat burn model contaminated with multi drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Selçuk, Caferi Tayyar; Durgun, Mustafa; Ozalp, Burhan; Tekin, Alicem; Tekin, Recep; Akçay, Cemal; Alabalık, Ulaş

    2012-12-01

    In this study, our aim is to compare the efficacy of different topical antibacterial agents in a rat model contaminated with a multi drug resistant (MDR) standard Acinetobacter baumannii strain. The study was carried out on 40 Sprague-Dawley rats of 250-300 g each. For the purposes of this study, the rats were divided into 5 groups, with 8 rats in each group: Group 1 control; Group 2 silver sulfadiazine; Group 3 mupirocin; Group 4 Acticoat group; and Group 5 octenidine dihydrochloride group. Following to the formation of the full-thickness burn areas in rats, the MDR A. baumannii standard strain was inoculated into the burned area. The rats in all the groups were sacrificed at the end of the 10th day and subjected to histopathological and microbiological evaluation. In the histopathological evaluation, the lowest inflammatory cell response and bacterial density in the eschar and muscle tissues were observed in the Acticoat group. While these results were found to be statistically significant compared to the silver sulfadiazine group, only the bacterial density in the muscle tissue was found as significant in comparison to the mupirocin and octenidine groups. In the microbiological evaluation, the lowest growth in the muscle tissue culture among all the groups was observed in the Acticoat group. The growth in the eschar tissue culture was significantly lower in the Acticoat and octenidine groups in comparison to the silver sulfadiazine group. At the end of the study, it has been observed that Acticoat was effective both in eschar and muscle, while octenidine was effective in eschar tissues in a rat burn model contaminated with MDR A. baumannii.

  11. Investigations on the 4-Quinolone-3-carboxylic Acid Motif. 7. Synthesis and Pharmacological Evaluation of 4-Quinolone-3-carboxamides and 4-Hydroxy-2-quinolone-3-carboxamides as High Affinity Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2R) Ligands with Improved Aqueous Solubility.

    PubMed

    Mugnaini, Claudia; Brizzi, Antonella; Ligresti, Alessia; Allarà, Marco; Lamponi, Stefania; Vacondio, Federica; Silva, Claudia; Mor, Marco; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Corelli, Federico

    2016-02-11

    4-Quinolone-3-carboxamide derivatives have long been recognized as potent and selective cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2R) ligands. With the aim to improve their physicochemical properties, basically aqueous solubility, two different approaches were followed, entailing the substitution of the alkyl chain with a basic replacement or scaffold modification to 4-hydroxy-2-quinolone structure. According to the first approach, compound 6d was obtained, showing slightly reduced receptor affinity (K(i) = 60 nM) compared to the lead compound 4 (0.8 nM) but greatly enhanced solubility (400-3400 times depending on the pH of the medium). On the other hand, shifting from 4-quinolone to 4-hydroxy-2-quinolone structure enabled the discovery of a novel class of CB2R ligands, such as 7b and 7c, characterized by K(i) < 1 nM and selectivity index [SI = K(i)(CB1R)/K(i)(CB2R)] > 1300. At pH 7.4, compound 7c resulted by 100-fold more soluble than 4.

  12. Quinolone Resistance in Absence of Selective Pressure: The Experience of a Very Remote Community in the Amazon Forest

    PubMed Central

    Riccobono, Eleonora; Fernandez, Connie; Mantella, Antonia; Magnelli, Donata; Mannini, Dario; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Bartalesi, Filippo; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Quinolones are potent broad-spectrum bactericidal agents increasingly employed also in resource-limited countries. Resistance to quinolones is an increasing problem, known to be strongly associated with quinolone exposure. We report on the emergence of quinolone resistance in a very remote community in the Amazon forest, where quinolones have never been used and quinolone resistance was absent in 2002. Methods The community exhibited a considerable level of geographical isolation, limited contact with the exterior and minimal antibiotic use (not including quinolones). In December 2009, fecal carriage of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli was investigated in 120 of the 140 inhabitants, and in 48 animals reared in the community. All fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were genotyped and characterized for the mechanisms of plasmid- and chromosomal-mediated quinolone resistance. Principal Findings Despite the characteristics of the community remained substantially unchanged during the period 2002–2009, carriage of quinolone-resistant E. coli was found to be common in 2009 both in humans (45% nalidixic acid, 14% ciprofloxacin) and animals (54% nalidixic acid, 23% ciprofloxacin). Ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates of human and animal origin showed multidrug resistance phenotypes, a high level of genetic heterogeneity, and a combination of GyrA (Ser83Leu and Asp87Asn) and ParC (Ser80Ile) substitutions commonly observed in fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates of E. coli. Conclusions Remoteness and absence of antibiotic selective pressure did not protect the community from the remarkable emergence of quinolone resistance in E. coli. Introduction of the resistant strains from antibiotic-exposed settings is the most likely source, while persistence and dissemination in the absence of quinolone exposure is likely mostly related with poor sanitation. Interventions aimed at reducing the spreading of resistant isolates (by improving sanitation and water

  13. Structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) and a C164Q mutant provide templates for antibacterial drug discovery and identify a buried potassium ion and a ligand-binding site that is an artefact of the crystal form

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Bernhard; Lecker, Laura S. M.; Zoltner, Martin; Jaenicke, Elmar; Schnell, Robert; Hunter, William N.; Brenk, Ruth

    2015-07-28

    Three crystal structures of recombinant P. aeruginosa FabF are reported: the apoenzyme, an active-site mutant and a complex with a fragment of a natural product inhibitor. The characterization provides reagents and new information to support antibacterial drug discovery. Bacterial infections remain a serious health concern, in particular causing life-threatening infections of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. The situation is exacerbated by the rise in antibacterial drug resistance, and new treatments are urgently sought. In this endeavour, accurate structures of molecular targets can support early-stage drug discovery. Here, crystal structures, in three distinct forms, of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) are presented. This enzyme, which is involved in fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been validated by genetic and chemical means as an antibiotic target in Gram-positive bacteria and represents a potential target in Gram-negative bacteria. The structures of apo FabF, of a C164Q mutant in which the binding site is altered to resemble the substrate-bound state and of a complex with 3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid are reported. This compound mimics aspects of a known natural product inhibitor, platensimycin, and surprisingly was observed binding outside the active site, interacting with a symmetry-related molecule. An unusual feature is a completely buried potassium-binding site that was identified in all three structures. Comparisons suggest that this may represent a conserved structural feature of FabF relevant to fold stability. The new structures provide templates for structure-based ligand design and, together with the protocols and reagents, may underpin a target-based drug-discovery project for urgently needed antibacterials.

  14. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A. Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-15

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability (R{sub work} = 16.2, R{sub free} = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  15. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability ( R work = 16.2, R free = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from leaf extract of Mimusops elengi, Linn. for enhanced antibacterial activity against multi drug resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Prakash, P; Gnanaprakasam, P; Emmanuel, R; Arokiyaraj, S; Saravanan, M

    2013-08-01

    Green synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles has attracted nowadays and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized from leaf extract of Mimusops elengi, L. at room temperature. Formation of stable AgNPs at 1mM concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO3) typically gave spherical shape particles with diameter range from 55 to 83nm. The kinetic properties of particle formation were proportional to the effect of concentration of AgNO3 solution. In order to identify the compounds responsible for the bioreduction of Ag(+) ion and the stabilization of AgNPs produced, the functional group present in Mimusops elengi, L. leaf extract was investigated using FTIR. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed using the surface plasmon resonance band shown in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The topography and morphology of the particles were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The crystalline nature of nanoparticles was confirmed from the XRD pattern. Furthermore these green synthesized AgNPs were found to show higher antimicrobial efficacy against multi drug resistant clinical isolates.

  17. Rh(III) and Ru(II)-catalyzed site-selective C-H alkynylation of quinolones.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dahye; Hong, Sungwoo

    2015-04-17

    C2- and C5-alkynylated quinolone scaffolds are core structures of numerous biologically active molecules. Utilizing TIPS-EBX as an alkynylating agent, we have developed an efficient and site-selective C5 alkynylation of 4-quinolones that is directed by the weakly coordinating carbonyl group. In addition, Ru(II) catalyzed C2-selective alkynylation was successfully realized via N-pyrimidyl group-directed cross-couplings to access valuable C2-alkynylated 4-quinolones. This strategy provides direct access to the C2 or C5 alkynylated 4-quinolones. Furthermore, the reaction was applied to isoquinolones for C3-selective alkynylation.

  18. The prescription rate of antibacterial agents in dogs in Norway - geographical patterns and trends during the period 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Kvaale, M K; Grave, K; Kristoffersen, A B; Norström, M

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prescription rate and patterns of antibacterial agents in the Norwegian dog population in relation to time and place during 2004-2008. Prescription data were collected from the Norwegian prescription database (NorPD), whereas an estimate of the dog population was obtained from the Norwegian Kennel Club (NKK). Maps of the geographical prescription rate patterns were generated in the software ArcGIS 9.2. This study indicates an increased usage of antibacterial agents in dogs in Norway during the study period in which antibacterial agents for systemic use and especially the combination amoxicillin and clavulanic acid accounted for the major part. Among antibacterial agents defined as critically important for human medicine, an increase was observed in the prescription rate of quinolones. The geographical prescription rate patterns were stable during the study period, which indicated that the identified increase in usage of antimicrobial agents occurred all over the country, but that there were regional differences in the prescribing behaviour. Prescription data from the NorPD of antibacterial agents to dogs can be used as a basis to perform a risk-based sampling approach to detect emerging antimicrobial resistance in the dog population.

  19. Antibacterial activities of grepafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and fleroxacin.

    PubMed

    Barry, A L; Fuchs, P C

    1997-02-01

    Grepafloxacin (OPC-17116) and three other fluoroquinolones were tested against 461 bacterial isolates representing 44 species. Grepafloxacin was superior to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and fleroxacin in its activity against the Gram-positive cocci, including staphylococci, pneumococci and hemolytic streptococci. Attempts to select grepafloxacin-resistant mutants from a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain were unsuccessful, although ciprofloxacin readily selected quinolone-resistant mutants of that strain. Among Gram-negative bacilli other than Escherichia coli, mutants were readily selected by in vitro exposure to either grepafloxacin or ciprofloxacin. All such mutants showed complete cross resistance to six other quinolones. The four study drugs were active against nalidixic acid-susceptible strains belonging to 13 species of the Enterobacteriaceae, but ciprofloxacin was the most potent drug studied. Against Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, grepafloxacin was two- to four-times more active than ciprofloxacin. However, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ciprofloxacin was two- to four-times more potent than grepafloxacin. Grepafloxacin and ciprofloxacin were both found to be bactericidal agents.

  20. Characterization of quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana from chickens in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Zhao, Hongyu; Liu, Yuqi; Zhou, Xuping; Wang, Jinyuan; Liu, Tiantian; Beier, Ross C; Hou, Xiaolin

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the quinolone resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana isolated from chickens in China. A total of 293 Salmonella strains were isolated from chicken farms and slaughterhouses in Shandong province of China, and 130 (44.4%) were characterized as Salmonella enterica Indiana (chicken farms, n=52 strains; slaughter houses, n=78 strains). All isolate serotypes were tested with the Kauffmann-White classification system and examined for susceptibility to the quinolones: nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. The resistance of the Salmonella Indiana strains to nalidixic acid, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were 100, 73.1, 71.2, and 82.7%, and 100, 59.0, 79.5, and 80.2%, respectively. Selected quinolone resistant strains were evaluated for mutations in genes (gyrA, gyrB, parC, and marA) by DNA sequencing. The gyrA mutation was found in all isolates, the parC mutation was only found in some isolates, and the gyrB and marA mutations were not observed. Quinolone resistance was evaluated in the representative isolates by screening for the quinolone resistance determinants, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA, and aac (6 ')-Ib-cr using PCR technology. The quinolone resistance determinants in Salmonella, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, and qepA were negative by PCR, but aac(6 ')-Ib-cr had high detection rates of 90.4 and 96.2% in chicken farms and slaughterhouses, respectively. Salmonella Indiana containing the gyrA mutation was prevalent in farms and slaughterhouses and possessed a high frequency of the quinolone resistance determinant aac(6 ')-Ib-cr. These bacteria may have originated from the same source.

  1. [Role of reactive oxygen species in the bactericidal action of quinolones--inhibitors of DNA gyrase].

    PubMed

    Kotova, V Iu; Mironov, A S; Zavigel'skiĭ, G B

    2014-01-01

    Quinolone antibiotics inhibit DNA gyrase, but the induced degradation of chromosomal DNA is determined by a complex process of joint action quinolones and hydroxyl radical OH'. To quantify the level of stress responses and their time dependence in bacterial cells the induced specific lux-biosensors--the bacterium Escherichia coli, containing hybrid plasmids pColD'::lux; pSoxS'::lux; pKatG'::lux were used in this study. It is shown that quinolones (nalidixic acid, norfloxacin) induce SOS-response and oxidative stress with the formation of superoxide anion O2(-) in E. coli cells. The main parameters of SOS-response and oxidative stress, which depend on the quinolone concentration, are determined. Formation of superoxide anion O2(-) occurs almost simultaneously with the SOS-response. The mutant strain of E. coli sodA sodB, which do not contain active forms of superoxide dismutases SodA and SodB, is characterized by an increased resistance to quinolones as compared to the wild type cells. At high concentrations of quinolones (nalidixic acid-->20 μg/mL; norfloxacin-->500 ng/mL) their bactericidal effect is partially caused by conversion of the superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide H2O2, conducted by superoxide dismutases SodA and SodB, which is followed by the Fenton reaction and the formation of toxic hydroxyl radical OH'. At low concentrations of quinolones (nalidixic acid--<20 μg/mL; norfloxacin--<500 ng/mL), the role of active oxygen species in the antimicrobial effect is practically nonexistent.

  2. Antibacterial activity of antibacterial cutting boards in household kitchens.

    PubMed

    Kounosu, Masayuki; Kaneko, Seiichi

    2007-12-01

    We examined antibacterial cutting boards with antibacterial activity values of either "2" or "4" in compliance with the JIS Z 2801 standard, and compared their findings with those of cutting boards with no antibacterial activity. These cutting boards were used in ten different households, and we measured changes in the viable cell counts of several types of bacteria with the drop plate method. We also identified the detected bacterial flora and measured the minimum antimicrobial concentrations of several commonly used antibacterial agents against the kinds of bacteria identified to determine the expected antibacterial activity of the respective agents. Cutting boards with activity values of both "2" and "4" proved to be antibacterial in actual use, although no correlation between the viable cell counts and the antibacterial activity values was observed. In the kitchen environment, large quantities of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Bacillus were detected, and it was confirmed that common antibacterial agents used in many antibacterial products are effective against these bacterial species. In addition, we measured the minimum antimicrobial concentrations of the agents against lactobacillus, a typical good bacterium, and discovered that this bacterium is less sensitive to these antibacterial agents compared to more common bacteria.

  3. Antibacterial monoclonal antibodies: the next generation?

    PubMed

    DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Sellman, Bret R

    2015-10-01

    There is a clear need for renewed efforts to combat the increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance. While the antibiotic resistance epidemic is due in part to the misuse of antibiotics, even proper empiric antibiotic therapy increases the selective pressure and potential for drug-resistance and spread of resistance mechanisms between bacteria. Antibiotic resistance coupled with the detrimental effects of broad-spectrum antibiotics on the healthy microbiome, have led the field to explore pathogen specific antibacterials such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Medical need along with advances in mAb discovery, engineering, and production have driven significant effort developing mAb-based antibacterials. If successful, they will provide physicians with precision weapons to combat bacterial infections and can help prevent a return to a pre-antibiotic era.

  4. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Weitner, Megan; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics) used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV), thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin), and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy production, and

  5. Structures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) and a C164Q mutant provide templates for antibacterial drug discovery and identify a buried potassium ion and a ligand-binding site that is an artefact of the crystal form.

    PubMed

    Baum, Bernhard; Lecker, Laura S M; Zoltner, Martin; Jaenicke, Elmar; Schnell, Robert; Hunter, William N; Brenk, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial infections remain a serious health concern, in particular causing life-threatening infections of hospitalized and immunocompromised patients. The situation is exacerbated by the rise in antibacterial drug resistance, and new treatments are urgently sought. In this endeavour, accurate structures of molecular targets can support early-stage drug discovery. Here, crystal structures, in three distinct forms, of recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa β-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase II (FabF) are presented. This enzyme, which is involved in fatty-acid biosynthesis, has been validated by genetic and chemical means as an antibiotic target in Gram-positive bacteria and represents a potential target in Gram-negative bacteria. The structures of apo FabF, of a C164Q mutant in which the binding site is altered to resemble the substrate-bound state and of a complex with 3-(benzoylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid are reported. This compound mimics aspects of a known natural product inhibitor, platensimycin, and surprisingly was observed binding outside the active site, interacting with a symmetry-related molecule. An unusual feature is a completely buried potassium-binding site that was identified in all three structures. Comparisons suggest that this may represent a conserved structural feature of FabF relevant to fold stability. The new structures provide templates for structure-based ligand design and, together with the protocols and reagents, may underpin a target-based drug-discovery project for urgently needed antibacterials.

  6. Effect of various storage conditions on the stability of quinolones in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meixia; Wen, Fang; Wang, Hui; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-01

    Research on the storage stability of antibiotic residues in milk is important for method development or validation, milk quality control and risk assessment during screening, confirmation, qualitative or quantitative analysis. This study was conducted using UPLC-MS/MS to determine the stability of six quinolones - ciprofloxacin (CIP), danofloxacin (DAN), enrofloxacin (ENR), sarafloxacin (SAR), difloxacin (DIF) and flumequine (FLU) - in raw milk stored under various conditions to investigate if quinolones degrade during storage of milk, and finally to determine optimal storage conditions for analysis and scientific risk assessment of quinolone residues in raw milk. The storage conditions included different temperatures and durations (4°C for 4, 8, 24 and 48 h; -20°C for 1, 7 and 30 days; -80°C for 1, 7 and 30 days), thawing temperatures (25, 40 and 60°C), freeze-thaw cycles (1-5), and the addition of different preservatives (sodium thiocyanate, sodium azide, potassium dichromate, bronopol and methanal). Most quinolones exhibited high stability at 4°C for up to 24 h, but began to degrade after 48 h. In addition, no degradation of quinolones was seen when milk samples were stored at -20°C for up to 7 days; however, 30 days of storage at -20°C resulted in a small amount of degradation (about 30%). Similar results were seen when samples were stored at -80°C. Moreover, no losses were observed when frozen milk samples were thawed at 25, 40 or 60°C. All the quinolones of interest, except sarafloxacin, were stable when milk samples were thawed at 40°C once and three times, but unstable after five freeze-thaw cycles. Preservatives affected the stability of quinolones, but the effects differed depending on the preservative and quinolone. The results of this study indicate optimum storage protocols for milk samples, so that residue levels reflect those at the time of initial sample analysis, and should improve surveillance programmes for quinolones in raw milk.

  7. Structural requirements of 3-carboxyl-4(1H)-quinolones as potential antimalarials from 2D and 3D QSAR analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiazhong; Li, Shuyan; Bai, Chongliang; Liu, Huanxiang; Gramatica, Paola

    2013-07-01

    Malaria is a fatal tropical and subtropical disease caused by the protozoal species Plasmodium. Many commonly available antimalarial drugs and therapies are becoming ineffective because of the emergence of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, which drives the need for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Recently, a series of 3-carboxyl-4(1H)-quinolone analogs, derived from the famous compound endochin, were reported as promising candidates for orally efficacious antimalarials. In this study, to analyze the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these quinolones and investigate the structural requirements for antimalarial activity, the 2D multiple linear regressions (MLR) method and 3D comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) methods are employed to evolve different QSAR models. All these models give satisfactory results with highly accurate fitting and strong external predictive abilities for chemicals not used in model development. Furthermore, the contour maps from 3D models can provide an intuitive understanding of the key structure features responsible for the antimalarial activities. In conclusion, we summarize the detailed position-specific structural requirements of these derivatives accordingly. All these results are helpful for the rational design of new compounds with higher antimalarial bioactivities.

  8. The evidence for clonal spreading of quinolone resistance with a particular clonal complex of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Kovač, J; Cadež, N; Lušicky, M; Nielsen, E Møller; Ocepek, M; Raspor, P; Možina, S Smole

    2014-12-01

    Campylobacter is the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and it represents a significant public health risk of increasing severity due to its escalating resistance to clinically important quinolone and macrolide antibiotics. As a zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter is transmitted along the food chain and naturally cycles from environmental waters, feedstuff, animals and food to humans. We determined antibiotic resistance profiles, as well as multilocus sequence types and flaA-SVR types for 52 C. jejuni isolated in Slovenia from human, animal, raw and cured chicken meat and water samples. Twenty-eight different sequence types, arranged in ten clonal complexes, three new allele types and five new sequence types were identified, indicating the relatively high diversity in a small group of strains. The assignment of strains from different sources to the same clonal complexes indicates their transmission along the food supply chain. The most prevalent clonal complex was CC21, which was also the genetic group with 95% of quinolone-resistant strains. Based on the genetic relatedness of these quinolone-resistant strains identified by polymerase chain reaction with a mismatch amplification mutation assay and sequencing of the quinolone resistance-determining region of the gyrA gene, we conclude that the high resistance prevalence observed indicates the local clonal spread of quinolone resistance with CC21.

  9. Fluorescence quenching as a tool to investigate quinolone antibiotic interactions with bacterial protein OmpF.

    PubMed

    Neves, Patrícia; Sousa, Isabel; Winterhalter, Mathias; Gameiro, Paula

    2009-02-01

    The outer membrane porin OmpF is an important protein for the uptake of antibiotics through the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria; however, the possible binding sites involved in this uptake are still not recognized. Determination, at the molecular level, of the possible sites of antibiotic interaction is very important, not only to understand their mechanism of action but also to unravel bacterial resistance. Due to the intrinsic OmpF fluorescence, attributed mainly to its tryptophans (Trp(214), Trp(61)), quenching experiments were used to assess the site(s) of interaction of some quinolone antibiotics. OmpF was reconstituted in different organized structures, and the fluorescence quenching results, in the presence of two quenching agents, acrylamide and iodide, certified that acrylamide quenches Trp(61) and iodide Trp(214). Similar data, obtained in presence of the quinolones, revealed distinct behaviors for these antibiotics, with nalidixic acid interacting near Trp(214) and moxifloxacin near Trp(61). These studies, based on straightforward and quick procedures, show the existence of conformational changes in the protein in order to adapt to the different organized structures and to interact with the quinolones. The extent of reorganization of the protein in the presence of the different quinolones allowed an estimate on the sites of protein/quinolone interaction.

  10. Introduction of quinolone resistant Escherichia coli to Swedish broiler population by imported breeding animals.

    PubMed

    Börjesson, Stefan; Guillard, Thomas; Landén, Annica; Bengtsson, Björn; Nilsson, Oskar

    2016-10-15

    During recent years a rapid increase of quinolone resistant Escherichia coli have been noted in the Swedish broiler population, despite the lack of a known selective pressure. The current study wanted to investigate if imported breeding birds could be a source for the quinolone resistant E. coli. The occurrence of quinolone resistant E. coli was investigated, using selective cultivation with nalidixic acid, in grand-parent birds on arrival to Sweden and their progeny. In addition, sampling in hatcheries and empty cleaned poultry houses was performed. Clonality of isolates was investigated using a 10-loci multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). To identify the genetic basis for the resistance isolates were also analysed for occurrence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants and characterization of chromosomal mutations. E. coli resistant to nalidixic acid occurred in grandparent birds imported to Sweden for breeding purposes. Four predominant MLVA types were identified in isolates from grandparent birds, parent birds and broilers. However, resistant E. coli with identical MLVA patterns were also present in hatcheries and poultry houses suggesting that the environment plays a role in the occurrence. Nalidixic acid resistance was due to a mutation in the gyrA gene and no PMQR could be identified. The occurrence of identical clones in all levels of the production pyramid points to that quinolone resistant E. coli can be introduced through imported breeding birds and spread by vertical transmission to all levels of the broiler production pyramid.

  11. Protective effect of Qnr on agents other than quinolones that target DNA gyrase.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, George A; Corcoran, Marian A; Hooper, David C

    2015-11-01

    Qnr is a plasmid-encoded and chromosomally determined protein that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from inhibition by quinolones. Despite its prevalence worldwide and existence prior to the discovery of quinolones, its native function is not known. Other synthetic compounds and natural products also target bacterial topoisomerases. A number were studied as molecular probes to gain insight into how Qnr acts. Qnr blocked inhibition by synthetic compounds with somewhat quinolone-like structure that target the GyrA subunit, such as the 2-pyridone ABT-719, the quinazoline-2,4-dione PD 0305970, and the spiropyrimidinetrione pyrazinyl-alkynyl-tetrahydroquinoline (PAT), indicating that Qnr is not strictly quinolone specific, but Qnr did not protect against GyrA-targeting simocyclinone D8 despite evidence that both simocyclinone D8 and Qnr affect DNA binding to gyrase. Qnr did not affect the activity of tricyclic pyrimidoindole or pyrazolopyridones, synthetic inhibitors of the GyrB subunit, or nonsynthetic GyrB inhibitors, such as coumermycin A1, novobiocin, gyramide A, or microcin B17.Thus, in this set of compounds the protective activity of Qnr was confined to those that, like quinolones, trap gyrase on DNA in cleaved complexes.

  12. Semiempirical MNDO and UV Absorption Studies on Tautomerism of 2-Quinolones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirek, Julian; Syguła, Andrzej

    1982-11-01

    Semiempirical MNDO calculations with geometry optimization were carried out for seven 4-X-2-quinolone tautomers (X = H, CH3, Cl, OCH3, N(CH3)2, COOH, COOCH3). The results show that 2-hydroxyquinolines are less stabilized compared to 2-quinoIones than 2-hydroxypyridines vs. 2-pyridones. The earlier estimated correction applied to these MNDO results suggests that 4-X-2-quinolones have lower chemical binding energies than the corresponding 4-X-2- hydroxyquinolines by ca. 2.1-3.3 kcal/mol. It is additionally shown that the substituent in position 4 does not influence significantly the relative stabilities of the tautomers. The results of the calculations are verified by UV absorption studies of diluted decane solutions of 2-quinolones at ca. 120°. CNDO/S-Cl-1 calculations based on the optimal MNDO geometries were carried out for 4-X-2- quinolone tautomers. The results generally agree well with the experimental data. A disagreement of the data for 4-COOR-2-quinolones is rationalized.

  13. Antibacterial properties and mechanisms of gold-silver nanocages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yulan; Wan, Jiangshan; Miron, Richard J.; Zhao, Yanbin; Zhang, Yufeng

    2016-05-01

    Despite the number of antibiotics used in routine clinical practice, bacterial infections continue to be one of the most important challenges faced in humans. The main concerns arise from the continuing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the difficulties faced with the pharmaceutical development of new antibiotics. Thus, advancements in the avenue of novel antibacterial agents are essential. In this study, gold (Au) was combined with silver (Ag), a well-known antibacterial material, to form silver nanoparticles producing a gold-silver alloy structure with hollow interiors and porous walls (gold-silver nanocage). This novel material was promising in antibacterial applications due to its better biocompatibility than Ag nanoparticles, potential in photothermal effects and drug delivery ability. The gold-silver nanocage was then tested for its antibacterial properties and the mechanism involved leading to its antibacterial properties. This study confirms that this novel gold-silver nanocage has broad-spectrum antibacterial properties exerting its effects through the destruction of the cell membrane, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of cell apoptosis. Therefore, we introduce a novel gold-silver nanocage that serves as a potential nanocarrier for the future delivery of antibiotics.

  14. Lethal action of quinolones against a temperature-sensitive dnaB replication mutant of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xilin; Malik, Muhammad; Chan, Nymph; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Wang, Jian-Ying; Li, Xinying; Drlica, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA replication in an Escherichia coli dnaB-22 mutant failed to block quinolone-mediated lethality. Inhibition of protein synthesis by chloramphenicol inhibited nalidixic acid lethality and, to a lesser extent, ciprofloxacin lethality in both dnaB-22 and wild-type cells. Thus, major features of quinolone-mediated lethality do not depend on ongoing replication.

  15. Metal-free transannulation reaction of indoles with nitrostyrenes: a simple practical synthesis of 3-substituted 2-quinolones.

    PubMed

    Aksenov, Alexander V; Smirnov, Alexander N; Aksenov, Nicolai A; Aksenova, Inna V; Frolova, Liliya V; Kornienko, Alexander; Magedov, Igor V; Rubin, Michael

    2013-10-18

    3-Substituted 2-quinolones are obtained via a novel, metal-free transannulation reaction of 2-substituted indoles with 2-nitroalkenes in polyphosphoric acid. The reaction can be used in conjunction with the Fisher indole synthesis offering a practical three-component heteroannulation methodology to produce 2-quinolones from arylhydrazines, 2-nitroalkenes and acetophenone.

  16. [Investigation of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates from bloodstream infections].

    PubMed

    Buruk, Celal Kurtuluş; Öztel Ocak, Hikmet; Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Aydın, Faruk

    2016-04-01

    One of the treatment options of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. infections which are the most common opportunistic pathogens of gram-negative sepsis is quinolones. Resistance to quinolones which act by disrupting DNA synthesis has been increasing. Horizontal transfer of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes play an important role in the spread of resistance. The data about the prevalence of PMQR genes in our country is quite limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of known PMQR genes namely qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrS, qnrD, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qepA and oqxAB amongst quinolone-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp. strains isolated from blood cultures. One hundred twenty seven E.coli and 66 Klebsiella isolates detected as nalidixic acid- and/or ciprofloxacin-resistant by phenotypical methods, from 193 blood samples of 187 patients admitted to Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Microbiology, Bacteriology Unit of Patient Service Laboratory between January 2012 to August 2013 were included in the study. The presence of PMQR genes were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for the detection of aac(6')-Ib-cr variants PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was used. The positive bands were sequenced using the same primers, and aligned with formerly defined resistance gene sequences, and confirmed. In the study, 56.7% (72/127) of E.coli and 19.7% (13/66) of Klebsiella spp. isolates, with a total of 44% (85/193) of all the isolates were found to be phenotypically resistant to quinolones. Of the 13 resistant Klebsiella isolates, 11 were K.pneumoniae, and two were K.oxytoca. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates showed higher resistance (50/80, 62.5%) to quinolones than the negative ones (35/113, 30.9%). The prevalence of quinolone resistance genes among resistant E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates was determined as qnrA, 1.4% and 15.4%; qnrB, 4

  17. Sonochemical coating of cotton and polyester fabrics with "antibacterial" BSA and casein spheres.

    PubMed

    Shimanovich, Ulyana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Gedanken, Aharon

    2012-01-02

    A novel antibacterial coating for cotton and polyester fabrics has been developed by using drug-loaded proteinaceous microspheres made of bovine serum albumin and casein proteins. The microbubbles were created and anchored onto the fabrics (see figure) in a one-step reaction that lasts 3 min. The sonochemically produced "antibacterial fabrics" have been characterized. The efficiency of the sonochemical process in converting the native proteins into microspheres, encapsulating the drug, and coating the fabric has also been studied.

  18. PqsBC, a Condensing Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal

    PubMed Central

    Drees, Steffen Lorenz; Li, Chan; Prasetya, Fajar; Saleem, Muhammad; Dreveny, Ingrid; Williams, Paul; Hennecke, Ulrich; Emsley, Jonas; Fetzner, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a number of alkylquinolone-type secondary metabolites best known for their antimicrobial effects and involvement in cell-cell communication. In the alkylquinolone biosynthetic pathway, the β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein) synthase III (FabH)-like enzyme PqsBC catalyzes the condensation of octanoyl-coenzyme A and 2-aminobenzoylacetate (2-ABA) to form the signal molecule 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone. PqsBC, a potential drug target, is unique for its heterodimeric arrangement and an active site different from that of canonical FabH-like enzymes. Considering the sequence dissimilarity between the subunits, a key question was how the two subunits are organized with respect to the active site. In this study, the PqsBC structure was determined to a 2 Å resolution, revealing that PqsB and PqsC have a pseudo-2-fold symmetry that unexpectedly mimics the FabH homodimer. PqsC has an active site composed of Cys-129 and His-269, and the surrounding active site cleft is hydrophobic in character and approximately twice the volume of related FabH enzymes that may be a requirement to accommodate the aromatic substrate 2-ABA. From physiological and kinetic studies, we identified 2-aminoacetophenone as a pathway-inherent competitive inhibitor of PqsBC, whose fluorescence properties could be used for in vitro binding studies. In a time-resolved setup, we demonstrated that the catalytic histidine is not involved in acyl-enzyme formation, but contributes to an acylation-dependent increase in affinity for the second substrate 2-ABA. Introduction of Asn into the PqsC active site led to significant activity toward the desamino substrate analog benzoylacetate, suggesting that the substrate 2-ABA itself supplies the asparagine-equivalent amino function that assists in catalysis. PMID:26811339

  19. Discovery, Synthesis, and Optimization of Antimalarial 4(1H)-Quinolone-3-Diarylethers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The historical antimalarial compound endochin served as a structural lead for optimization. Endochin-like quinolones (ELQ) were prepared by a novel chemical route and assessed for in vitro activity against multidrug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and against malaria infections in mice. Here we describe the pathway to discovery of a potent class of orally active antimalarial 4(1H)-quinolone-3-diarylethers. The initial prototype, ELQ-233, exhibited low nanomolar IC50 values against all tested strains including clinical isolates harboring resistance to atovaquone. ELQ-271 represented the next critical step in the iterative optimization process, as it was stable to metabolism and highly effective in vivo. Continued analoging revealed that the substitution pattern on the benzenoid ring of the quinolone core significantly influenced reactivity with the host enzyme. This finding led to the rational design of highly selective ELQs with outstanding oral efficacy against murine malaria that is superior to established antimalarials chloroquine and atovaquone. PMID:24720377

  20. Existing antibacterial vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Natalia; Ravanfar, Parisa; Satyaprakash, Anita; Satyaprakah, Anita; Pillai, Sivaprabha; Creed, Rosella

    2009-01-01

    There are countless bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans. Many of these bacterial infections not only cause significant morbidity and mortality in the human population but also cause a significant economic impact on society. Vaccines allow for reduction and potential eradication of such diseases. This article will review the currently approved antibacterial vaccines, which are vaccines for pertussis, tetanus, diphtheria, meningococcus, pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenza, cholera, typhoid, and anthrax.

  1. Antibacterial drug leads: DNA and enzyme multitargeting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Yang; Li, Kai; Gao, Jian; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Chun-Chi; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Zhang, Yonghui; Guo, Rey-Ting; Oldfield, Eric

    2015-02-12

    We report the results of an investigation of the activity of a series of amidine and bisamidine compounds against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The most active compounds bound to an AT-rich DNA dodecamer (CGCGAATTCGCG)2 and using DSC were found to increase the melting transition by up to 24 °C. Several compounds also inhibited undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS) with IC50 values of 100-500 nM, and we found good correlations (R(2) = 0.89, S. aureus; R(2) = 0.79, E. coli) between experimental and predicted cell growth inhibition by using DNA ΔTm and UPPS IC50 experimental results together with one computed descriptor. We also solved the structures of three bisamidines binding to DNA as well as three UPPS structures. Overall, the results are of general interest in the context of the development of resistance-resistant antibiotics that involve multitargeting.

  2. Bypassing Fluoroquinolone Resistance with Quinazolinediones: Studies of Drug–Gyrase–DNA Complexes Having Implications for Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Widespread fluoroquinolone resistance has drawn attention to quinazolinediones (diones), fluoroquinolone-like topoisomerase poisons that are unaffected by common quinolone-resistance mutations. To better understand differences between quinolones and diones, we examined their impact on the formation of cleaved complexes (drug–topoisomerase–DNA complexes in which the DNA moiety is broken) with gyrase, one of two bacterial targets of the drugs. Formation of cleaved complexes, measured by linearization of a circular DNA substrate, required lower concentrations of quinolone than dione. The reverse reaction, detected as resealing of DNA breaks in cleaved complexes, required higher temperatures and EDTA concentrations for quinolones than diones. The greater stability of quinolone-containing complexes was attributed to the unique ability of the quinolone C3/C4 keto acid to complex with magnesium and form a previously described drug–magnesium–water bridge with GyrA-Ser83 and GyrA-Asp87. A nearby substitution in GyrA (G81C) reduced activity differences between quinolone and dione, indicating that resistance due to this variation derives from perturbation of the magnesium–water bridge. To increase dione activity, we examined a relatively small, flexible C-7-3-(aminomethyl)pyrrolidinyl substituent, which is distal to the bridging C3/C4 keto acid substituent of quinolones. The 3-(aminomethyl)pyrrolidinyl group at position C-7 was capable of forming binding interactions with GyrB-Glu466, as indicated by inspection of crystal structures, computer-aided docking, and measurement of cleaved-complex formation with mutant and wild-type GyrB proteins. Thus, modification of dione C-7 substituents constitutes a strategy for obtaining compounds active against common quinolone-resistant mutants. PMID:25310082

  3. Macrolides vs. quinolones for community-acquired pneumonia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Skalsky, K; Yahav, D; Lador, A; Eliakim-Raz, N; Leibovici, L; Paul, M

    2013-04-01

    The relative efficacy, safety and ecological implications of macrolides vs. quinolones in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are debatable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing any macrolide vs. any quinolone for the treatment of CAP among adult inpatients or outpatients, as monotherapy or both in combination with a beta-lactam. We did not limit inclusion by pneumonia severity, publication status, language or date of publication. The primary outcomes assessed were 30-day all-cause mortality and treatment failure. Two authors independently extracted the data. Fixed effect meta-analysis of risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals was performed. Sixteen trials (4989 patients) fulfilling inclusion criteria were identified, mostly assessing outpatients with mild to moderate CAP. All-cause mortality was not significantly different for macrolides vs. quinolones, RR 1.03 (0.63-1.68, seven trials), with a low event rate (2%). Treatment failure was significantly lower with quinolones, RR 0.78 (0.67-0.91, 16 trials). The definition of failure used in the primary studies was not clearly representative of patients' benefit. Microbiological failure was lower with quinolones, RR 0.63 (0.49-0.81, 13 trials). All adverse events, adverse events requiring discontinuation and any premature antibiotic discontinuation were significantly more frequent with macrolides, mainly on account of gastrointestinal adverse events. Resistance development was not assessed in the trials. Randomized controlled trials show an advantage of quinolones in the treatment of CAP with regard to clinical cure without need for antibiotic modification at end of treatment and gastrointestinal adverse events. The clinical significance of this advantage is unclear.

  4. Improving quinolone use in hospitals by using a bundle of interventions in an interrupted time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Willemsen, Ina; Cooper, Ben; van Buitenen, Carin; Winters, Marjolein; Andriesse, Gunnar; Kluytmans, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of multiple targeted interventions on the level of use of quinolones and the observed rates of resistance to quinolones in Escherichia coli isolates from hospitalized patients. A bundle consisting of four interventions to improve the use of quinolones was implemented. The outcome was measured from the monthly levels of use of intravenous (i.v.) and oral quinolones and the susceptibility patterns for E. coli isolates from hospitalized patients. Statistical analyses were performed using segmented regression analysis and segmented Poisson regression models. Before the bundle was implemented, the annual use of quinolones was 2.7 defined daily doses (DDDs)/100 patient days. After the interventions, in 2007, this was reduced to 1.7 DDDs/100 patient days. The first intervention, a switch from i.v. to oral medication, was associated with a stepwise reduction in i.v. quinolone use of 71 prescribed daily doses (PDDs) per month (95% confidence interval [CI] = 47 to 95 PDDs/month, P < 0.001). Intervention 2, introduction of a new antibiotic guideline and education program, was associated with a stepwise reduction in the overall use of quinolones (reduction, 107 PDDs/month [95% CI = 58 to 156 PDDs/month). Before the interventions the quinolone resistance rate was increasing, on average, by 4.6% (95% CI = 2.6 to 6.1%) per year. This increase leveled off, which was associated with intervention 2 and intervention 4, active monitoring of prescriptions and feedback. Trends in resistance to other antimicrobial agents did not change. This study showed that the hospital-wide use of quinolones can be significantly reduced by an active policy consisting of multiple interventions. There was also a stepwise reduction in the rate of quinolone resistance associated with the bundle of interventions.

  5. Biotic inactivation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quinolone signal molecule.

    PubMed

    Soh, Eliza Ye-Chen; Chhabra, Siri R; Halliday, Nigel; Heeb, Stephan; Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Fetzner, Susanne; Cámara, Miguel; Chan, Kok-Gan; Williams, Paul

    2015-11-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, quorum sensing (QS) regulates the production of secondary metabolites, many of which are antimicrobials that impact on polymicrobial community composition. Consequently, quenching QS modulates the environmental impact of P. aeruginosa. To identify bacteria capable of inactivating the QS signal molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS), a minimal medium containing PQS as the sole carbon source was used to enrich a Malaysian rainforest soil sample. This yielded an Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain (Q19) that inactivated PQS, yielding a new fluorescent compound (I-PQS) confirmed as PQS-derived using deuterated PQS. The I-PQS structure was elucidated using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as 2-heptyl-2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3,4-dione (HHQD). Achromobacter xylosoxidans Q19 oxidized PQS congeners with alkyl chains ranging from C1 to C5 and also N-methyl PQS, yielding the corresponding 2-hydroxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline-3,4-diones, but was unable to inactivate the PQS precursor HHQ. This indicates that the hydroxyl group at position 3 in PQS is essential and that A. xylosoxidans inactivates PQS via a pathway involving the incorporation of oxygen at C2 of the heterocyclic ring. The conversion of PQS to HHQD also occurred on incubation with 12/17 A. xylosoxidans strains recovered from cystic fibrosis patients, with P. aeruginosa and with Arthrobacter, suggesting that formation of hydroxylated PQS may be a common mechanism of inactivation.

  6. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Giovanna Rincon; Radice, Marcela; Sennati, Samantha; Pallecchi, Lucia; Rossolini, Gian María; Gutkind, Gabriel; Conza, Jose Alejandro Di

    2013-01-01

    High quinolone resistance rates were observed among oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria. In the present study, we searched for the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes within the 55 oxyiminocephalosporin-resistant enterobacteria collected in a previous survey. The main PMQR determinants were aac(6')-Ib-cr and qnrB, which had prevalence rates of 42.4% and 33.3%, respectively. The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was more frequently found in CTX-M-15-producing isolates, while qnrB was homogeneously distributed among all CTX-M producers. PMID:24037111

  7. [Susceptibility of clinically-isolated bacteria strains to respiratory quinolones and evaluation of antimicrobial agent efficacy by Monte Carlo simulation].

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Tadashi; Yamada, Yukiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kodama, Mai; Fujitomo, Yumiko; Masaki, Nakanishi; Toshiaki, Komori; Keisuke, Shikata; Fujita, Naohisa

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory quinolones (RQs) are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of a wide variety of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. However, bacterial resistance to quinolones has been on the increase. In this study, we investigated the predicted efficacy of RQs for various strains of 9 bacterial species clinically isolated at our university hospital using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method based on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. In addition, the influence of the patients' renal function on the efficacy of RQs was evaluated. We surveyed antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 9 bacterial species (n = number of strains) [Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 15), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 14), Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 19), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (n = 24), Escherichia coli (n = 35), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 17), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 14), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 31), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 11)] to 4 RQs [garenoxacin (GRNX), levofloxacin (LVFX), sitafloxacin (STFX), and moxifloxacin (MFLX)]. We found that compared with the other RQs, Gram-positive cocci was most resistant to LVFX, and that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC₉₀) values for S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and MSSA were high (2, 16, > 16, and 8 µg/mL, respectively). In regard to Gram-negative rods, the susceptibility of E. coli to RQs was found to be decreased, with the MIC₉₀ values of GRNX, LVFX, STFX, and MFLX being > 16, 16, 1, and 16 µg/mL, respectively. MCS revealed that the target attainment rate of the area under the unbound concentration-time curve divided by the MIC₉₀ (ƒ · AUC/MIC ratio), against S. pneumoniae was 86.9-100%, but against E. coli was low (52.1-66.2%). The ƒ · AUC/MIC target attainment rate of LVFX against S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. agalactiae tended to decrease due to increased creatinine clearance, and that of LVFX and STFX against MSSA also

  8. Prevalence of quinolone resistance mechanisms and associations to minimum inhibitory concentrations in quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from humans and swine in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Lina Maria; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Hasman, Henrik; Guardabassi, Luca; Nielsen, Lene; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-06-01

    Prevalence of quinolone resistance mechanisms and associations to minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nalidixic acid (NAL) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) were investigated in 124 Escherichia coli isolated from humans (n=85) and swine (n=39) in Denmark. The collection included 59 high-level CIP-resistant isolates (MIC >or= 4) from human (n=51) and pig origin (n=8) and 65 low-level CIP-resistant isolates (MIC >or= 0.125) from human (n=34) and pig origin (n=31). Resistance by target modification was screened by PCR amplification and sequencing of the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. QRDR mutations occurred in all except two isolates (98%). All high-level CIP-resistant E. coli had one or two mutations in gyrA in combination with mutations in parC or parE. Mutations in parC and parE were only found in combination with gyrA mutations, and no mutations were observed in gyrB. Efflux pump mechanisms were detected in 10 human (11.8%) and 29 porcine (74.4%) isolates by an efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) agar dilution assay. The aac(6')-Ib-cr gene mediating resistance by enzymatic modification was found in 12 high-level CIP-resistant human isolates. The qnrA and qnrS genes conferring quinolone resistance by target protection were detected in two human low-level CIP-resistant isolates that did not display NAL resistance. As expected, target mutation in QRDRs was the most prevalent mechanism of quinolone resistance. This mechanism was complemented by efflux mechanisms in most porcine isolates. Transferable resistance by target protection or enzymatic modification was less common (10%) and restricted to human isolates.

  9. Antibiotic therapy for inducible AmpC β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacilli: what are the alternatives to carbapenems, quinolones and aminoglycosides?

    PubMed

    Harris, P N A; Ferguson, J K

    2012-10-01

    Some bacteria that possess chromosomally determined AmpC β-lactamases may express these enzymes at a high level following exposure to β-lactams, either by induction or selection for derepressed mutants. This may lead to clinical failure even if an isolate initially tests susceptible in vitro, a phenomenon best characterised by third-generation cephalosporin therapy for Enterobacter bacteraemia or meningitis. Several other Enterobacteriaceae, such as Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, Providencia spp. and Morganella morganii (often termed the 'ESCPM' group), may also express high levels of AmpC. However, the risk of clinical failure with β-lactams that test susceptible in vitro is less clear in these species than for Enterobacter. Laboratories frequently do not report β-lactam or β-lactamase inhibitor combination drug susceptibilities for ESCPM organisms, encouraging alternative therapy with quinolones, aminoglycosides or carbapenems. However, quinolones and carbapenems present problems with selective pressure for multiresistant organisms, and aminoglycosides with potential toxicity. The risk of emergent AmpC-mediated resistance for non-Enterobacter spp. appears rare in clinical studies. Piperacillin/tazobactam may remain effective and may be less selective for AmpC derepressed mutants than cephalosporins. The potential roles for agents such as cefepime or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole are also discussed. Clinical studies that better define optimal treatment for this group of bacteria are required.

  10. Radical cure of experimental babesiosis in immunodeficient mice using a combination of an endochin-like quinolone and atovaquone

    PubMed Central

    Lawres, Lauren A.; Garg, Aprajita; Kumar, Vidya; Bruzual, Igor; Forquer, Isaac P.; Renard, Isaline; Virji, Azan Z.; Boulard, Pierre; Rodriguez, Eduardo X.; Allen, Alexander J.; Pou, Sovitj; Wegmann, Keith W.; Winter, Rolf W.; Nilsen, Aaron; Mao, Jialing; Preston, Douglas A.; Belperron, Alexia A.; Bockenstedt, Linda K.; Hinrichs, David J.; Riscoe, Michael K.; Doggett, J. Stone

    2016-01-01

    Human babesiosis is a tick-borne multisystem disease caused by Babesia species of the apicomplexan phylum. Most clinical cases and fatalities of babesiosis are caused by Babesia microti. Current treatment for human babesiosis consists of two drug combinations, atovaquone + azithromycin or quinine + clindamycin. These treatments are associated with adverse side effects and a significant rate of drug failure. Here, we provide evidence for radical cure of experimental babesiosis in immunodeficient mice using a combination of an endochin-like quinolone (ELQ) prodrug and atovaquone. In vivo efficacy studies in mice using ELQ-271, ELQ-316, and the ELQ-316 prodrug, ELQ-334, demonstrated excellent growth inhibitory activity against the parasite, with potency equal to that of orally administered atovaquone at 10 mg/kg. Analysis of recrudescent parasites after ELQ or atovaquone monotherapy identified genetic substitutions in the Qi or Qo sites, respectively, of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Impressively, a combination of ELQ-334 and atovaquone, at doses as low as 5.0 mg/kg each, resulted in complete clearance of the parasite with no recrudescence up to 122 d after discontinuation of therapy. These results will set the stage for future clinical evaluation of ELQ and atovaquone combination therapy for treatment of human babesiosis. PMID:27270894

  11. EmmdR, a new member of the MATE family of multidrug transporters, extrudes quinolones from Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    He, Gui-Xin; Thorpe, Conner; Walsh, Dennis; Crow, Robert; Chen, Huizhong; Kumar, Sanath; Varela, Manuel F

    2011-10-01

    We cloned a gene, ECL_03329, from the chromosome of Enterobacter cloacae ATCC13047, using a drug-hypersensitive Escherichia coli KAM32 cell as the host. We show here that this gene, designated as emmdR, is responsible for multidrug resistance in E. cloacae. E. coli KAM32 host cells containing the cloned emmdR gene (KAM32/pEMMDR28) showed decreased susceptibilities to benzalkonium chloride, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ethidium bromide, acriflavine, rhodamine6G, and trimethoprim. emmdR-deficient E. cloacae cells (EcΔemmdR) showed increased susceptibilities to several of the antimicrobial agents tested. EmmdR has twelve predicted transmembrane segments and some shared identity with members of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family of transporters. Study of the antimicrobial agent efflux activities revealed that EmmdR is an H+-drug antiporter but not a Na+ driven efflux pump. These results indicate that EmmdR is responsible for multidrug resistance and pumps out quinolones from E. cloacae.

  12. Antibacterial Au nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Songmei; Zuber, Flavia; Brugger, Juergen; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Ren, Qun

    2016-01-01

    We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It was found that all the Au nanostructures, regardless their shapes, exhibited similar excellent antibacterial properties. A comparison of live cells attached to nanotopographic surfaces showed that the number of live S. aureus cells was <1% of that from flat and rough reference surfaces. Our micro/nanofabrication process is a scalable approach based on cost-efficient self-organization and provides potential for further developing functional surfaces to study the behavior of microbes on nanoscale topographies.We present here a technological platform for engineering Au nanotopographies by templated electrodeposition on antibacterial surfaces. Three different types of nanostructures were fabricated: nanopillars, nanorings and nanonuggets. The nanopillars are the basic structures and are 50 nm in diameter and 100 nm in height. Particular arrangement of the nanopillars in various geometries formed nanorings and nanonuggets. Flat surfaces, rough substrate surfaces, and various nanostructured surfaces were compared for their abilities to attach and kill bacterial cells. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterial strain responsible for many infections in health care system, was used as the model bacterial strain. It

  13. Detection of Quinolone-Resistance Mutations In Salmonella Spp. Strains of Epidemic and Poultry Origin

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Roberta Barreiros; Magnani, Marciane; Ferrari, Rafaela Gomes; Kottwitz, Luciana Bill Mikito; Sartori, Daniele; Tognim, Maria Cristina Bronharo; de Oliveira, Tereza Cristina R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations into codons Aspartate-87 (62%) and Serine-83 (38%) in QRDR of gyrA were identified in 105 Salmonella strains resistant to nalidixic acid (94 epidemic and 11 of poultry origin). The results show a high incidence of mutations associated to quinolone resistance but suggest association with others mechanisms of resistance. PMID:24031623

  14. Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance among non-typhi Salmonella enterica isolates, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance mechanisms among non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS) spp. isolates from humans, food animals, and retail meat in the United States in 2007. Fifty-one (2.4%) of human isolates (n=2165), 5 (1.6%) of isolates from animal isolates (n=1915) an...

  15. Quinolone signaling in the cell-to-cell communication system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Pesci, Everett C.; Milbank, Jared B. J.; Pearson, James P.; McKnight, Susan; Kende, Andrew S.; Greenberg, E. Peter; Iglewski, Barbara H.

    1999-01-01

    Numerous species of bacteria use an elegant regulatory mechanism known as quorum sensing to control the expression of specific genes in a cell-density dependent manner. In Gram-negative bacteria, quorum sensing systems function through a cell-to-cell signal molecule (autoinducer) that consists of a homoserine lactone with a fatty acid side chain. Such is the case in the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which contains two quorum sensing systems (las and rhl) that operate via the autoinducers, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone and N-butyryl-l-homoserine lactone. The study of these signal molecules has shown that they bind to and activate transcriptional activator proteins that specifically induce numerous P. aeruginosa virulence genes. We report here that P. aeruginosa produces another signal molecule, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone, which has been designated as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal. It was found that this unique cell-to-cell signal controlled the expression of lasB, which encodes for the major virulence factor, LasB elastase. We also show that the synthesis and bioactivity of Pseudomonas quinolone signal were mediated by the P. aeruginosa las and rhl quorum sensing systems, respectively. The demonstration that 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone can function as an intercellular signal sheds light on the role of secondary metabolites and shows that P. aeruginosa cell-to-cell signaling is not restricted to acyl-homoserine lactones. PMID:10500159

  16. Synthesis of quinolones by nickel-catalyzed cycloaddition via elimination of nitrile.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Kenichiro; Kurahashi, Takuya; Matsubara, Seijiro

    2013-02-15

    Substituted quinolones were efficiently synthesized via the nickel-catalyzed cycloaddition of o-cyanophenylbenzamide derivatives with alkynes. The reaction involves elimination of a nitrile group by cleavage of the two independent aryl-cyano and aryl-carbonyl C-C bonds of the amides.

  17. Quinolone therapy of Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis following irradiation: Comparison of pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin

    SciTech Connect

    Brook, I.; Elliott, T.B.; Ledney, G.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to whole-body irradiation is associated with fatal gram-negative sepsis. The effect of oral therapy with three quinolones, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin, for orally acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infection was tested in B6D2F1 mice exposed to 8.0 Gy whole-body irradiation from bilaterally positioned 60Co sources. A dose of 10(8) organisms was given orally 2 days after irradiation, and therapy was started 1 day later. Quinolones reduced colonization of the ileum with K. pneumoniae: 16 of 28 (57%) untreated mice harbored the organisms, compared to only 12 of 90 (13%) mice treated with quinolones (P less than 0.005). K. pneumoniae was isolated from the livers of 6 of 28 untreated mice, compared to only 1 of 90 treated mice (P less than 0.001). Only 5 of 20 (25%) untreated mice survived for at least 30 days compared with 17 of 20 (85%) mice treated with ofloxacin, 15 of 20 (75%) mice treated with pefloxacin, and 14 of 20 (70%) treated with ciprofloxacin (P less than 0.05). These data illustrate the efficacy of quinolones for oral therapy of orally acquired K. pneumoniae infection in irradiated hosts.

  18. [Determination of 25 quinolones in cosmetics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Zhang, Yi; Tu, Xiaoke; Xie, Liqi; Yue, Zhenfeng; Kang, Haining; Wu, Weidong; Luo, Yao

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 25 quinolones, including danofloxacin mesylate, enrofloxacin, flumequine, oxloinic acid, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin etc in cosmetics using direct extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Cosmetic sample was extracted by acidified acetonitrile, defatted by n-hexane and separated on Poroshell EC-C18 column with gradient elution program using acetonitrile and water (both containing 0. 1% formic acid) as the mobile phases and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS under the positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The interference of matrix was reduced by the matrix-matched calibration standard curve. The method showed good linearities over the range of 1-200 mg/kg for the 25 quinolones with good linear correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.999). The method detection limit of the 25 quinolones was 1.0 mg/kg, and the recoveries of all analytes in lotion, milky and cream cosmetics matrices ranged from 87.4% to 105% at the spiked levels of 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 4.54%-19.7% (n = 6). The results indicated that this method is simple, fast and credible, and suitable for the simultaneous determination of the quinolones in the above three types of cosmetics.

  19. Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Mechanisms of Resistance to Quinolones and β-Lactams in Acinetobacter Genospecies 3

    PubMed Central

    Ribera, A.; Fernández-Cuenca, F.; Beceiro, A.; Bou, G.; Martínez-Martínez, L.; Pascual, A.; Cisneros, J. M.; Rodríguez-Baño, J.; Pachón, J.; Vila, J.

    2004-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined in 15 epidemiologically unrelated clinical isolates of Acinetobacter genospecies 3. Moreover, the mechanisms of resistance to some β-lactam antibiotics may be associated with the presence of a chromosomal cephalosporinase, AmpC, and the resistance to quinolones related to mutations in the gyrA and parC genes. PMID:15047561

  20. Characterization of quinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana from chickens in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to characterize the quinolone resistance of Salmonella Indiana isolated from chickens in China. A total of 130 Salmonella isolates were obtained from chicken farms and slaughterhouses in the Shandong Province of China. All isolate serotypes were tested according to the Kauf...

  1. Activities of garenoxacin against quinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in vitro and in a mouse pneumonia model.

    PubMed

    Azoulay-Dupuis, E; Bédos, J P; Mohler, J; Peytavin, G; Isturiz, R; Moine, P; Rieux, V; Cherbuliez, C; Péchère, J C; Fantin, B; Köhler, T

    2004-03-01

    Garenoxacin is a novel des-F(6) quinolone with enhanced in vitro activities against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. We compared the activity of garenoxacin with that of trovafloxacin (TVA) against Streptococcus pneumoniae, together with their efficacies and their capacities to select for resistant mutants, in a mouse model of acute pneumonia. In vitro, garenoxacin was more potent than TVA against wild-type S. pneumoniae and against a mutant with a single mutation (parC), a mutant with double mutations (gyrA and parC), and a mutant with triple mutations (gyrA, parC, and parE). Swiss mice were infected with 10(5) CFU of virulent, encapsulated S. pneumoniae strain P-4241 or its derived isogenic parC, gyrA, gyrA parC, and efflux mutants and 10(7) CFU of poorly virulent clinical strains carrying a parE mutation or gyrA, parC, and parE mutations. The drugs were administered six times, every 12 h, beginning at either 3 or 18 h postinfection. The pulmonary pharmacokinetic parameters in mice infected with strain P-4241 and treated with garenoxacin or TVA (25 mg/kg of body weight) were as follows: maximum concentration of drug in serum (C(max); 17.3 and 21.2 micro g/ml, respectively), C(max)/MIC ratio (288 and 170, respectively), area under the concentration-time curve (AUC; 48.5 and 250 microg. h/ml, respectively), and AUC/MIC ratio (808 and 2000, respectively). Garenoxacin at 25 and 50 mg/kg was highly effective (survival rates, 85 to 100%) against the wild-type strain and mutants harboring a single mutation. TVA was as effective as garenoxacin against these strains. TVA at 200 mg/kg and garenoxacin at 50 mg/kg were ineffective against the mutant with the parC and gyrA double mutations and the mutant with the gyrA, parC, and parE triple mutations. The efficacy of garenoxacin was reduced only when strains bore several mutations for quinolone resistance.

  2. Characterization of Selective Antibacterial Peptides by Polarity Index

    PubMed Central

    Polanco, C.; Samaniego, J. L.; Buhse, T.; Mosqueira, F. G.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S.; Castanon-Gonzalez, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent decades, antibacterial peptides have occupied a strategic position for pharmaceutical drug applications and became subject of intense research activities since they are used to strengthen the immune system of all living organisms by protecting them from pathogenic bacteria. This work proposes a simple and easy statistical/computational method through a peptide polarity index measure by which an antibacterial peptide subgroup can be efficiently identified, that is, characterized by a high toxicity to bacterial membranes but presents a low toxicity to mammal cells. These peptides also have the feature not to adopt to an alpha-helicoidal structure in aqueous solution. The double-blind test carried out to the whole Antimicrobial Peptide Database (November 2011) showed an accuracy of 90% applying the polarity index method for the identification of such antibacterial peptide groups. PMID:22611416

  3. Recent Development of Benzimidazole-Containing Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Di; Ma, Shutao

    2016-04-05

    Clinically significant antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest challenges of the twenty-first century. However, new antibacterial agents are currently being developed at a much slower pace than our growing need for such drugs. Given their diverse biological activities and clinical applications, many bioactive heterocyclic compounds containing a benzimidazole nucleus have been the focus of interest for many researchers. The benzimidazole nucleus is a structural isostere of naturally occurring nucleotides. This advantage allows benzimidazoles to readily interact with the various biopolymers found in living systems. In view of this situation, much attention has been given to the exploration of benzimidazole-based antibacterial agents, leading to the discovery of many new chemical entities with intriguing profiles. In this minireview we summarize novel benzimidazole derivatives active against various bacterial strains. In particular, we outline the relationship between the structures of variously modified benzimidazoles and their antibacterial activity.

  4. Bacterial cell wall assembly: still an attractive antibacterial target.

    PubMed

    Bugg, Timothy D H; Braddick, Darren; Dowson, Christopher G; Roper, David I

    2011-04-01

    The development of new antibacterial agents to combat worsening antibiotic resistance is still a priority area in anti-infectives research, but in the post-genomic era it has been more difficult than expected to identify new lead compounds from high-throughput screening, and very challenging to obtain antibacterial activity for lead compounds. Bacterial cell-wall peptidoglycan biosynthesis is a well-established target for antibacterial chemotherapy, and recent developments enable the entire biosynthetic pathway to be reconstituted for detailed biochemical study and high-throughput inhibitor screening. This review article discusses recent developments in the availability of peptidoglycan biosynthetic intermediates, the identification of lead compounds for both the earlier cytoplasmic steps and the later lipid-linked steps, and the application of new methods such as structure-based drug design, phage display and surface science.

  5. Microbial screening for quinolones residues in cow milk by bio-optical method.

    PubMed

    Appicciafuoco, Brunella; Dragone, Roberto; Frazzoli, Chiara; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Mantovani, Alberto; Ferrini, Anna Maria

    2015-03-15

    The use of antibiotics on lactating cows should be monitored for the possible risk of milk contamination with residues. Accordingly, Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) are established by the European Commission to guarantee consumers safety. As pointed out by Dec 2002/657/EC, screening is the first step in the strategy for antibiotic residue control, thus playing a key role in the whole control procedure. However, current routine screening methods applied in milk chain still fail to detect residues of quinolones at concentrations of interest. This paper reports the findings of a new bio-optical method for the screening of quinolones residues in bovine milk, based on E. coli ATCC 11303 growth inhibition. The effect of blank and spiked cow milk samples (aliquots equivalents to 0.8%, v/v) is evaluated in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHb) and MHb enriched with MgSO4 2% (MHb-Mg) inoculated with the test strain at the concentration of 10(4)CFU/mL. The presence of quinolones inhibits the cellular growth in MHb, while this effect is neutralized in MHb-Mg allowing both detection and presumptive identification of quinolones. Growth of the test strain is monitored at 37 °C in a Bioscreen C automated system, and Optical Density (OD) at 600 nm is recorded every 10 min after shaking for 10s. Growth curves (OD vs. time) of E. coli ATCC 11303 are assessed in milk samples, with and without quinolones, and their differences in terms of ΔOD (ΔOD600nm=ODMHb-Mg-ODMHb) are calculated. The presence of quinolones is detected by the cellular growth inhibition (OD vs time, none increase in the value OD) and presumptively identified through the increase of the slope of ΔOD600nm curve (ΔOD vs. time), after about 3h of incubation. The detection limit for ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin is at the level of MRL, for marbofloxacin is at 2-fold the MRL whereas for danofloxacin is at 4-fold the MRL. Although the sensitivity of the method could be further improved and the procedure automated, it is a

  6. A series of 2D metal-quinolone complexes: Syntheses, structures, and physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jiang-Hong; Xiao, Dong-Rong; Chen, Hai-Yan; Sun, Dian-Zhen; Yan, Shi-Wei; Wang, Xin; Ye, Zhong-Li; Luo, Qun-Li; Wang, En-Bo

    2013-02-15

    Six novel 2D metal-quinolone complexes, namely [Cd(cfH)(bpdc)]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (1), [M(norfH)(bpdc)]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (M=Cd (2) and Mn (3)), [Mn{sub 2}(cfH)(odpa)(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O (4), [Co{sub 2}(norfH)(bpta)({mu}{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (5) and [Co{sub 3}(saraH){sub 2}(Hbpta){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}]{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O (6) (cfH=ciprofloxacin, norfH=norfloxacin, saraH=sarafloxacin, bpdc=4,4 Prime -biphenyldicarboxylate, odpa=4,4 Prime -oxydiphthalate, bpta=3,3 Prime ,4,4 Prime -biphenyltetracarboxylate) have been synthesized and characterized. Compounds 1-3 consist of 2D arm-shaped layers based on the 1D {l_brace}M(COO){r_brace}{sub n}{sup n+} chains. Compounds 4 and 5 display 2D structures based on tetranuclear manganese or cobalt clusters with (3,6)-connected kgd topology. Compound 6 exhibits a 2D bilayer structure, which represents the first example of metal-quinolone complexes with 2D bilayer structure. By inspection of the structures of 1-6, it is believed that the long aromatic polycarboxylate ligands are important for the formation of 2D metal-quinolone complexes. The magnetic properties of compounds 3-6 was studied, indicating the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of compounds 1-2 are discussed. - Graphical abstract: Six novel 2D metal-quinolone complexes have been prepared by self-assemblies of the quinolones and metal salts in the presence of long aromatic polycarboxylates. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 1-3 consist of novel 2D arm-shaped layers based on the 1D {l_brace}M(COO){r_brace}{sub n}{sup n+} chains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 4 and 5 are two novel 2D layers based on tetranuclear Mn or Co clusters with kgd topology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound 6 is the first example of metal-quinolone complexes with 2D bilayer structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compounds 1-6 represent six unusual

  7. Bioanalysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkyl quinolone signalling molecules in infected mouse tissue using LC-MS/MS; and its application to a pharmacodynamic evaluation of MvfR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Turnpenny, Paul; Padfield, Anthony; Barton, Patrick; Teague, Joanne; Rahme, Laurence G; Pucci, Michael J; Zahler, Robert; Rubio, Aileen

    2017-02-28

    Alkyl quinolone molecules 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ) and 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS) are important quorum sensing signals, which play a mediatory role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. A targeted approach inhibiting the bacterial 'multiple virulence factor regulon' (MvfR) protein complex, offers the possibility to block the synthesis of MvfR-dependant signal molecules. Here, a high throughput bioanalytical method was developed using LC-MS/MS detection for the selective determination of HHQ and PQS in mouse tissue homogenate, over a sensitive range of 1-5000 and 10-5000pg/mL, respectively. Chromatographic peak distortion of the iron chelator PQS was overcome with the applied use of a bidentate chelator mobile phase additive 2-Picolinic acid at 0.2mM concentration, giving an improved separation and response for the analyte, whilst maintaining overall MS system robustness. Following thigh infection with P. aeruginosa strain 2-PA14 in mice, the concentration and time course of HHQ and PQS (4-hydroxy-2-alkyl-quinolone (HAQ) biomarkers) residing in the biophase were evaluated, and exhibited a low level combined with a substantial inter-individual variability. Quantifiable levels could be obtained from approximately 15h post infection, to the study termination at 21-22h. A dose dependant reduction in HAQ tissue concentrations at selected time points were obtained following MvfR inhibitor administration versus drug vehicle (p<0.01, Kruskal-Wallis-one way ANOVA) and meta -analyses of several studies enabled an inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 80nM free drug to be determined. However, due to the experimental limitations a defined time profile for in-vivo HAQ production could not be characterised. Microsomal stability measurements demonstrated a rapid metabolic clearance of both alkyl quinolone biomarkers in the bacterial host, with a hepatic extraction ratio greater than 0.96 (the measurable assay limit). High clearance

  8. Rapid determination of quinolones in cosmetic products by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shao-Ying; Huang, Xi-Hui; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Jin, Quan; Zhu, Guo-Nian

    2014-05-01

    This study developed an improved analytical method for the simultaneous quantification of 13 quinolones in cosmetics by ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with ESI triple quadrupole MS/MS under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The analytes were extracted and purified by using an SPE cartridge. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.03 to 3.02 μg/kg. The precision for determining the quinolones was <19.39%. The proposed method was successfully developed for the determination of quinolones in real cosmetic samples.

  9. Synthesis, molecular docking and biological evaluation of metronidazole derivatives containing piperazine skeleton as potential antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, She-Feng; Yin, Yong; Qiao, Fang; Wu, Xun; Sha, Shao; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2014-04-15

    Metronidazole has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Hereby a series of novel metronidazole derivatives were designed and synthesized based on nitroimidazole scaffold in order to find some more potent antibacterial drugs. For these compounds which were reported for the first time, their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were tested. These compounds showed good antibacterial activities against Gram-positive strains. Compound 4m represented the most potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 with MIC of 0.003 μg/mL and it showed the most potent activity against S. aureus TyrRS with IC50 of 0.0024 μM. Molecular docking of 4m into S. aureus tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase active site were also performed to determine the probable binding mode.

  10. Decay mechanisms of protonated 4-quinolone antibiotics after electrospray ionization and ion activation.

    PubMed

    Kovačević, Borislav; Schorr, Pascal; Qi, Yulin; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed experimental investigation of charge isomers of protonated 4-quinolone antibiotics molecules formed during electrospray ionization (ESI) with proposed dissociation mechanisms after collisional activation. Piperazinyl quinolones have been previously shown to exhibit erratic behavior during tandem MS analyses of biological samples, which originated from varying ratios of two isomeric variants formed during ESI. Here, a combination of ESI-collision-induced dissociation (CID), differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS), high resolution MS, and density functional theory (DFT) was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of isomer formation and their individual dissociation behaviors. The study focused on ciprofloxacin; major findings were confirmed using structurally related 4-quinolones. DFT calculations showed a reversal of basicity for piperazinyl quinolones between liquid and gas phase. We provide an experimental comparison and theoretical treatment of factors influencing the formation ratio of the charge isomers during ESI, including solvent pH, protic/aprotic nature of solvent, and structural effects such as pK a and proton affinity. The actual dissociation mechanisms of the isomers of the protonated molecules were studied by separating the individual isomers via DMS-MS, which allowed type-specific CID spectra to be recorded. Both primary CID reactions of the two charge isomers originated from the same carboxyl group by charge-remote (CO(2) loss) and charge-mediated (H(2)O loss) fragmentation of the piperazinyl quinolones, depending on whether the proton resides on the more basic keto or the piperazinyl group, followed by a number of secondary dissociation reactions. The proposed mechanisms were supported by calculated energies of precursors, transition states, and products for competing pathways.

  11. Cationic polymers and their self-assembly for antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Deka, Smriti Rekha; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Kumar, Pradee

    2015-01-01

    The present article focuses on the amphiphilic cationic polymers as antibacterial agents. These polymers undergo self-assembly in aqueous conditions and impart biological activity by efficiently interacting with the bacterial cell wall, hence, used in preparing chemical disinfectants and biocides. Both cationic charge as well as hydrophobic segments facilitate interactions with the bacterial cell surface and initiate its disruption. The perturbation in transmembrane potential causes leakage of cytosolic contents followed by cell death. Out of two categories of macromolecules, peptide oligomers and cationic polymers, which have extensively been used as antibacterials, we have elaborated on the current advances made in the area of cationic polymer-based (naturally occurring and commonly employed synthetic polymers and their modified analogs) antibacterial agents. The development of polymer-based antibacterials has helped in addressing challenges posed by the drug-resistant bacterial infections. These polymers provide a new platform to combat such infections in the most efficient manner. This review presents concise discussion on the amphiphilic cationic polymers and their modified analogs having low hemolytic activity and excellent antibacterial activity against array of fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms.

  12. Antibacterial polyelectrolyte-coated Mg alloys for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seraz, Md. S.; Asmatulu, R.; Chen, Z.; Ceylan, M.; Mahapatro, A.; Yang, S. Y.

    2014-04-01

    This study deals with two biomedical subjects: corrosion rates of polyelectrolyte-coated magnesium (Mg) alloys, mainly used for biomedical purposes, and antibacterial properties of these alloys. Thin sheets of Mg alloys were coated with cationic polyelectrolyte chitosan (CHI) and anionic polyelectrolyte carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) using a layer-by-layer coating method and then embedded with antibacterial agents under vacuum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to analyze these samples in order to detect their corrosion properties at different conditions. In the electrochemical analysis section, a corrosion rate of 72 mille inches per year was found in a salt solution for the sample coated with a 12 phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer and 9 CHI/CMC multilayers. In the antibacterial tests, gentamicin was used to investigate the effects of the drug embedded with the coated surfaces against the Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. Antibacterial studies were tested using the disk diffusion method. Based on the standard diameter of the zone of inhibition chart, the antibacterial diffusion from the surface strongly inhibited bacterial growth in the regions. The largest recorded diameter of the zone of inhibition was 50 mm for the pre-UV treated and gentamicin-loaded sample, which is more than three times the standard diameter.

  13. Acylated flavonol glycosides from Tagetes minuta with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Shahzadi, Irum; Shah, Mohammad M

    2015-01-01

    Wild marigold (Tagetes minuta), a flowering plant of the family Asteraceae contains compounds of pharmaceutical and nutritional importance especially essential oils and flavonols. Identification, characterization of flavonols and determination of their antibacterial activity were major objectives of the current study. The isolation and purification of flavonols was accomplished using chromatographic techniques while structural elucidation was completed by LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The extracts and purified compounds were tested against various bacterial strains for antibacterial activity. A total of 19 flavonols were isolated from this species. Of these, 17 were of butanol and two of ethyl acetate extracts. Based on the concentration and purity, eight potential flavonols were selected and structurally elucidated. Four flavonols, 6-hydroxyquercetin 7-O-β-(6''-galloylglucopyranoside; 2), 6-hydroxykaempferol 7-O-β-glucopyranoside (5), 6-hydroxykaempferol 7-O-β-(6''-galloylglucopyranoside; 7), 6-hydroxyquercetin 7-O-β-(6''-caffeoylglucopyranoside; 9), were identified for the first time from T. minuta. Butanol and ethyl acetate extracts of flowers and seeds showed significant antibacterial activity against Micrococcus leteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas pikettii. Among the isolated flavonols only 1, 2, and 18 were found to possess significant antibacterial activity against M. luteus. The extracts and purified flavonols from T. minuta can be potential candidates for antibacterial drug discovery and support to ethnopharmacological use.

  14. Multi-targeting exploration of new 2-aminothiazolyl quinolones: Synthesis, antimicrobial evaluation, interaction with DNA, combination with topoisomerase IV and penetrability into cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Avula, Srinivasa Rao; Gao, Wei-Wei; Addla, Dinesh; Tangadanchu, Vijai Kumar Reddy; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Jian-Mei; Zhou, Cheng-He

    2016-11-29

    A series of new potentially multi-targeting antimicrobial 2-aminothiazolyl quinolones were designed, synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, MS and HRMS spectra. Bioactive assay manifested that some of the prepared compounds showed moderate to good antibacterial and antifungal activities. Noticeably, compound 10f could effectively inhibit the growth of B. typhi and MRSA with MIC values of 1 and 8 μg/mL, respectively. Experimental results revealed that compound 10f was membrane-active and had the ability to rapidly kill the tested strains and effectively prevent the development of bacterial resistance. Moreover, this compound also exhibited low toxicity against L929 cells. Molecular docking indicated that compound 10f could bind with topoisomerase IV-DNA complexes through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Quantum chemical studies were also performed on 10f to understand the structural features essential for activity. The preliminary mechanism research suggested that compound 10f could intercalate into calf thymus DNA to form a steady supramolecular complex which might block DNA replication to exert the powerful bioactivities.

  15. Affinity Selection-Mass Spectrometry Identifies a Novel Antibacterial RNA Polymerase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Walker, Scott S; Degen, David; Nickbarg, Elliott; Carr, Donna; Soriano, Aileen; Mandal, Mihir; Painter, Ronald E; Sheth, Payal; Xiao, Li; Sher, Xinwei; Murgolo, Nicholas; Su, Jing; Olsen, David B; Ebright, Richard H; Young, Katherine

    2017-03-31

    The growing prevalence of drug resistant bacteria is a significant global threat to human health. The antibacterial drug rifampin, which functions by inhibiting bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP), is an important part of the antibacterial armamentarium. Here, in order to identify novel inhibitors of bacterial RNAP, we used affinity-selection mass spectrometry to screen a chemical library for compounds that bind to Escherichia coli RNAP. We identified a novel small molecule, MRL-436, that binds to RNAP, inhibits RNAP, and exhibits antibacterial activity. MRL-436 binds to RNAP through a binding site that differs from the rifampin binding site, inhibits rifampin-resistant RNAP derivatives, and exhibits antibacterial activity against rifampin-resistant strains. Isolation of mutants resistant to the antibacterial activity of MRL-436 yields a missense mutation in codon 622 of the rpoC gene encoding the RNAP β' subunit or a null mutation in the rpoZ gene encoding the RNAP ω subunit, confirming that RNAP is the functional cellular target for the antibacterial activity of MRL-436, and indicating that RNAP β' subunit residue 622 and the RNAP ω subunit are required for the antibacterial activity of MRL-436. Similarity between the resistance determinant for MRL-436 and the resistance determinant for the cellular alarmone ppGpp suggests a possible similarity in binding site and/or induced conformational state for MRL-436 and ppGpp.

  16. Synthesis, evaluation and molecular docking studies of amino acid derived N-glycoconjugates as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Baig, Noorullah; Singh, Rajnish Prakash; Chander, Subhash; Jha, Prabhat Nath; Murugesan, Sankaranarayanan; Sah, Ajay K

    2015-12-01

    Six amino acid derived N-glycoconjugates of d-glucose were synthesized, characterized and tested for antibacterial activity against G(+)ve (Bacillus cereus) as well as G(-)ve (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacterial strains. All the tested compounds exhibited moderate to good antibacterial activity against these bacterial strains. The results were compared with the antibacterial activity of standard drug Chloramphenicol, where results of A5 (Tryptophan derived glycoconjugates) against E. coli and A4 (Isoleucine derived glycoconjugates) against K. pneumoniae bacterial strains are comparable with the standard drug molecule. In silico docking studies were also performed in order to understand the mode of action and binding interactions of these molecules. The docking studies revealed that, occupation of compound A5 at the ATP binding site of subunit GyrB (DNA gyrase, PDB ID: 3TTZ) via hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions may be the reason for its significant in vitro antibacterial activity.

  17. The Potential of Systems Biology to Discover Antibacterial Mechanisms of Plant Phenolics

    PubMed Central

    Rempe, Caroline S.; Burris, Kellie P.; Lenaghan, Scott C.; Stewart, C. Neal

    2017-01-01

    Drug resistance of bacterial pathogens is a growing problem that can be addressed through the discovery of compounds with novel mechanisms of antibacterial activity. Natural products, including plant phenolic compounds, are one source of diverse chemical structures that could inhibit bacteria through novel mechanisms. However, evaluating novel antibacterial mechanisms of action can be difficult and is uncommon in assessments of plant phenolic compounds. With systems biology approaches, though, antibacterial mechanisms can be assessed without the bias of target-directed bioassays to enable the discovery of novel mechanism(s) of action against drug resistant microorganisms. This review article summarizes the current knowledge of antibacterial mechanisms of action of plant phenolic compounds and discusses relevant methodology. PMID:28360902

  18. The Potential of Systems Biology to Discover Antibacterial Mechanisms of Plant Phenolics.

    PubMed

    Rempe, Caroline S; Burris, Kellie P; Lenaghan, Scott C; Stewart, C Neal

    2017-01-01

    Drug resistance of bacterial pathogens is a growing problem that can be addressed through the discovery of compounds with novel mechanisms of antibacterial activity. Natural products, including plant phenolic compounds, are one source of diverse chemical structures that could inhibit bacteria through novel mechanisms. However, evaluating novel antibacterial mechanisms of action can be difficult and is uncommon in assessments of plant phenolic compounds. With systems biology approaches, though, antibacterial mechanisms can be assessed without the bias of target-directed bioassays to enable the discovery of novel mechanism(s) of action against drug resistant microorganisms. This review article summarizes the current knowledge of antibacterial mechanisms of action of plant phenolic compounds and discusses relevant methodology.

  19. Novel quinolone substituted thiazolidin-4-ones as anti-inflammatory, anticancer agents: design, synthesis and biological screening.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Sharad Kumar; Jaiswal, Varun; Lohan, Sandeep; Bansal, Sumit; Chaudhary, Anil; Tiwari, Amit; Alex, Angel Treasa; Joesph, Alex

    2013-05-01

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) has been reported to regulate various genes involved in cancer and inflammation. Accordingly, drugs suppressing or inhibiting NF-κB may possess both anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. A library of quinolone substituted thiazolidin-4-ones was docked into the active site of NF-κB and the top-ranked 31 compounds were synthesized and evaluated for anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity. The best-ranked compound 6b showed highest anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. In vitro anticancer studies revealed 1a and 16a as most active compounds against BT-549, HeLa, COLO-205 and ACHN human cancer cell lines. Compounds 1a and 16a exhibited NF-κB dependent anticancer properties and apoptosis mediated cell death. In vivo Ehrlich ascites carcinoma study further confirmed the antitumor activity of 1a and 16a.

  20. Determination of 11 quinolones in bovine milk using immunoaffinity stir bar sorptive microextraction and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Yao, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Linyan; Gong, Jianfang; Li, Liuan; Jin, Tianming; Li, Cun

    2015-10-15

    A sensitive, selective and reproducible immunoaffinity stir bar sorptive microextraction (SBSME) coupled with liquid chromatography-fluorescence method for determination of 11 quinolones (QNs) in bovine milk was developed and validated. It is first report of a broad-specificity monoclonal antibody to QNs that has been immobilized to glass bar for preparation of a re-usable immunoaffinity stir bar. Analytes were extracted by placing stir bar in milk and shaking on a rotary shaker for 30min at 30rpm, followed by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The newly developed method has limits of detection for each QN from 0.05 to 0.1ng/g with intra-day and inter-day precision ranging from 3.2 to 11.9% and from 5.2 to 12.5%, respectively. This allowed us to quantitatively analyze drugs in bovine milk with the advantage of significantly simplified sample preparation. The proposed method was successfully applied to the bovine milk samples analyses with QNs, demonstrating its rare application in animal food safety analysis.

  1. Stereo (C7)-dependent topoisomerase II inhibition and tumor growth suppression by a new quinolone, BO-2367.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, T; Mano, E; Arakawa, H; Kurama, M; Iguchi, T; Nakagawa, S; Tanaka, N; Okura, A

    1993-07-01

    A new antimicrobial quinolone (-)BO-2367, (-)-7-[(1R*, 2R*, 6R*)-2-amino-8-azabicyclo[4.3.0.]-non-3-en-8-yl]-1- cyclopropyl-6,8-difluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid, strongly inhibited both mammalian and bacterial topoisomerase II. The IC50 values of (-)BO-2367 against the DNA relaxation activity of L1210 topoisomerase II and the supercoiling activities of Escherichia coli gyrase and Micrococcus luteus gyrase were 3.8, 0.5, and 1 microM, respectively. This compound enhanced double-stranded DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase II not only with purified enzyme, but also with intact L1210 cells. All these activities of (-)BO-2367 were more than 2-fold stronger than those of VP-16. Intriguingly, (+)BO-2367, which has an enantiomeric substituent at the C7 position of (-)BO-2367, did not affect the activity of the mammalian topoisomerase II, while it inhibited E. coli gyrase. Intraperitoneal injection of (-)BO-2367 at 0.08 mg/kg increased the lifespan of CDF1 female mice bearing ascitic L1210 leukemia by 2.4 times, and subcutaneous injection at 1.25 mg/kg completely inhibited the growth of colon 26 carcinoma implanted subcutaneously. These results suggest that (-)BO-2367 is a potent antitumor agent which targets topoisomerase II. These enantiomers should be a useful tool for studying drug-topoisomerase II interactions.

  2. [Antibiotic susceptibility of blood-borne Streptococcus pneumoniae and efficacy assessment of respiratory quinolones using Monte Carlo simulation].

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Mitsuyama, Junichi; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Asano, Yuko; Sawamura, Haruki; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Teraji, Mayumi; Hashido, Hikonori; Matsukawa, Yoko; Matsubara, Shigenori; Miyabe, Takanori; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2010-02-01

    We analyzed Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from the bloodstream between April 2005 and February 2007. We analyzed isolates of 28 strains from medical facilities in Gifu prefecture to determine antibiotic susceptibility, genotype of penicillin-binding protein (PBP) genes and macrolide resistant genes. We also assessed the efficacy of respiratory quinolones using Monte Carlo simulation. Garenoxacin (GRNX) and moxifloxacin (MFLX) showed the lowest MIC90 value of 0.125 microg/mL, followed by MIC90 of imipenem (IPM) of 0.25 microg/mL and tosufloxacin (TFLX), MIC90 of meropenem (MEPM) and vancomycin (VCM) of 0.5 microg/mL. Twenty-two strains possessed at least one mutation in PBP-encoding genes pbp1a, pbp2x or pbp2b and seven strains possessed all three mutant alleles. Twenty-two strains possessed either of macrolide resistant genes ermB or mefA, and one strain possessed both. On efficacy assessment, we calculated the probability of target attainment for free-drug area under the curve (fAUC)/MIC ratio (fAUC/MIC). GRNX and MFLX showed a probability of 90% or more at fAUC/MIC of 30 and 125, each considered effective against Gram-positive bacteria and suppression of resistance development, furthermore, GRNX showed a probability of 89.7% at fAUC/MIC of 250.

  3. Impact of the E540V amino acid substitution in GyrB of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun; Nakajima, Chie; Yokoyama, Kazumasa; Rahim, Zeaur; Kim, Youn Uck; Oguri, Hiroki; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2011-08-01

    Amino acid substitutions conferring resistance to quinolones in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have generally been found within the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) in the A subunit of DNA gyrase (GyrA) rather than the B subunit of DNA gyrase (GyrB). To clarify the contribution of an amino acid substitution, E540V, in GyrB to quinolone resistance in M. tuberculosis, we expressed recombinant DNA gyrases in Escherichia coli and characterized them in vitro. Wild-type and GyrB-E540V DNA gyrases were reconstituted in vitro by mixing recombinant GyrA and GyrB. Correlation between the amino acid substitution and quinolone resistance was assessed by the ATP-dependent DNA supercoiling assay, quinolone-inhibited supercoiling assay, and DNA cleavage assay. The 50% inhibitory concentrations of eight quinolones against DNA gyrases bearing the E540V amino acid substitution in GyrB were 2.5- to 36-fold higher than those against the wild-type enzyme. Similarly, the 25% maximum DNA cleavage concentrations were 1.5- to 14-fold higher for the E540V gyrase than for the wild-type enzyme. We further demonstrated that the E540V amino acid substitution influenced the interaction between DNA gyrase and the substituent(s) at R-7, R-8, or both in quinolone structures. This is the first detailed study of the contribution of the E540V amino acid substitution in GyrB to quinolone resistance in M. tuberculosis.

  4. Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated in North-East Italy.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, B; Mazzariol, A; Kocsis, E; Koncan, R; Fontana, R; Cornaglia, G

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes in 756 clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae originating from Microbiology Diagnostic Laboratories of North-East Italy. Five point zero two percent of isolates carried a qnr determinant while the aac(6')-Ib-cr determinant was detected in 9·25% of isolates. We also investigated the association between the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance and the beta-lactamase genes, and characterized the plasmids carrying these determinants of resistance.

  5. [Bactericidal activity of sitafloxacin and other new quinolones against antimicrobial resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Intetsu; Kanayama, Akiko; Hasegawa, Miyuki; Kaneko, Akihiro

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a study assess the bactericidal activity of sitafloxacin (STFX) against Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates recovered from respiratory infections including penicillin-resistant (PRSP) isolates, macrolide resistant isolates possessing mefA and ermB resistance genes and quinolone resistance isolates with mutations in gyrA or gyrA and parC. Each isolate tested was grown in hemosupplemented Mueller-Hinton broth and adjusted to approximately 10(5) CFU/ mL. Isolates were than exposed to a Cmax antimicrobial blood level that would be attained with routine antimicrobial administration and an antimicrobial level that would be expected 4 hours post-Cmax (Cmax 4hr). Bactericidal activity was measured for up to 8 hours. Excluding a subset of S. pneumoniae isolates with mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR), all quinolones showed bactericidal activity at Cmax and Cmax 4 hr antimicrobial concentrations for up to 8 hours. Against S. pneumoniae isolates with either gyrA or gyrA and parC mutations, bactericidal activity of STFX was shown for up to 4 to 8 hours following Cmax based on a limit of detection of < 1.3 log CFU/mL. Garenoxacin (GRNX) did not showed bactericidal activity below the limit of detection for up to 8 hours with exposure to Cmax and no bactericidal activity was seen with levofloxacin. When all quinolones tested where adjusted to concentrations corresponding to their MICs, STFX showed the most rapid bactericidal activity against PRSP. This rapid bactericidal activity in PRSP is a key to the effectiveness of STFX. Our findings show that beyond inhibition of bacterial replication by blocking their DNA replication pathway and synthesis of proteins, STFX demonstrated characteristics contributing to greater bactericidal activity compared to GRNX. In conclusion, of the newer quinolones, STFX showed the strongest bactericidal activity against S. pneumoniae isolates with mutations in the QRDR which indicates that it may show the most

  6. Structure of PqsD, a Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal Biosynthetic Enzyme, in Complex with Anthranilate†

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Asim K.; Atanasova, Vesna; Robinson, Howard; Eisenstein, Edward; Coleman, James P.; Pesci, Everett C.; Parsons, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone, is an intercellular alkyl quinolone signaling molecule produced by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Alkyl quinolone signaling is an atypical system that, in P. aeruginosa, controls the expression of numerous virulence factors. PQS is synthesized from the tryptophan pathway intermediate, anthranilate, which is either derived from the kynurenine pathway or from an alkyl quinolone specific anthranilate synthase encoded by phnAB. Anthranilate is converted to PQS by the enzymes encoded by the pqsABCDE operon and pqsH. PqsA forms an activated anthraniloyl-CoA thioester that shuttles anthranilate to the PqsD active site where it is transferred to Cys112 of PqsD. In the only biochemically characterized reaction, a condensation then occurs between anthraniloyl-PqsD and malonyl-CoA or malonyl-ACP, a second PqsD substrate, forming 2,4-dihydroxyquinoline (DHQ). The role PqsD plays in the biosynthesis of other alkyl quinolones, such as PQS, is unclear though it has been reported to be required for their production. No evidence however, exists that DHQ is a PQS precursor. Here we present a structural and biophysical characterization of PqsD that includes several crystal structures of the enzyme including that of the PqsD-anthranilate covalent intermediate and the inactive Cys112Ala active site mutant in complex with anthranilate. The structure reveals that PqsD is structurally similar to the FabH and chalcone synthase families of fatty acid and polyketide synthases. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains a PqsD dimer. The PqsD monomer is composed of two nearly identical ~170 residue αβαβα domains. The structures show anthranilate-liganded Cys112 is positioned deep in the protein interior at the bottom of a ~15 Å long channel while a second anthraniloyl-CoA molecule is waiting in the cleft leading to the protein surface. Cys112, His257, and Asn287 form the FabH-like catalytic triad

  7. Antibacterial resistance: an emerging 'zoonosis'?

    PubMed

    Labro, Marie-Thérèse; Bryskier, Jean-Marie

    2014-12-01

    Antibacterial resistance is a worldwide threat, and concerns have arisen about the involvement of animal commensal and pathogenic bacteria in the maintenance and spread of resistance genes. However, beyond the facts related to the occurrence of resistant microorganisms in food, food-producing animals and companion animals and their transmission to humans, it is important to consider the vast environmental 'resistome', the selective pathways underlying the emergence of antibacterial resistance and how we can prepare answers for tomorrow.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Quinolone Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli from Chinese Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Ogutu, James O.; Gu, Jiarui; Ding, Fengshu; You, Yuhong; Huo, Yan; Zhao, Hong; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenli; Chen, Xiaobei; Fu, Yingmei; Zhang, Fengmin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare quinolone resistance and gyrA mutations in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli from Chinese adults who used quinolone in the preceding month and children without any known history of quinolone administration. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 61 isolates from children and 79 isolates from adults were determined. The mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions in gyrA gene were detected by PCR and DNA sequencing. Fluoroquinolone resistance and types of gyrA mutations in isolates from children and adults were compared and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were detected in the resistance rates of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin between children and adults among isolates of the two species (all P > 0.05). The double mutation Ser83→Leu + Asp87→Asn in the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates occurred in 73.7% isolates from the children and 67.9% from the adults, respectively (P = 0.5444). Children with no known history of quinolone administration were found to carry fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The occurrence of ciprofloxacin resistance and the major types of gyrA mutations in the isolates from the children were similar to those from adults. The results indicate that precautions should be taken on environmental issues resulting from widespread transmission of quinolone resistance. PMID:25756041

  9. Prevalence of quinolone resistance determinants in non-typhoidal Salmonella isolates from human origin in Extremadura, Spain.

    PubMed

    Campos, Maria Jorge; Palomo, Gonzalo; Hormeño, Lorena; Herrera-León, Silvia; Domínguez, Lucas; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Quesada, Alberto

    2014-05-01

    Resistance to the quinolones nalidixic acid (NAL) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) and the occurrence of quinolone resistance determinants have been investigated in 300 non-typhoidal Salmonella from human origin, isolated in the years between 2004 and 2008, in 6 hospitals within Extremadura (Spain). Salmonella Enteritidis was the major serotype found among quinolone-resistant isolates, most of which were clustered by clonal analysis to a single clone, which presented D87 or S83 substitutions in GyrA. Eleven isolates presented the non-classical quinolone resistance phenotype (resistance to CIP and susceptibility to NAL), lacking mutations in the quinolone resistance determinant region of topoisomerase genes. Among them, one Salmonella Typhimurium isolate carried a qnrS1 gene in a low-molecular-weight plasmid, pQnrS1-HLR25, identical to plasmids previously found in the UK, Taiwan, and USA. The occurrence of this genetic element could represent a risk for the horizontal transmission of quinolone resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in the Iberian Peninsula.

  10. Comparative analysis of quinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli from Chinese children and adults.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Ogutu, James O; Gu, Jiarui; Ding, Fengshu; You, Yuhong; Huo, Yan; Zhao, Hong; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenli; Chen, Xiaobei; Fu, Yingmei; Zhang, Fengmin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare quinolone resistance and gyrA mutations in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli from Chinese adults who used quinolone in the preceding month and children without any known history of quinolone administration. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 61 isolates from children and 79 isolates from adults were determined. The mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions in gyrA gene were detected by PCR and DNA sequencing. Fluoroquinolone resistance and types of gyrA mutations in isolates from children and adults were compared and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were detected in the resistance rates of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin between children and adults among isolates of the two species (all P > 0.05). The double mutation Ser83→Leu + Asp87→Asn in the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates occurred in 73.7% isolates from the children and 67.9% from the adults, respectively (P = 0.5444). Children with no known history of quinolone administration were found to carry fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The occurrence of ciprofloxacin resistance and the major types of gyrA mutations in the isolates from the children were similar to those from adults. The results indicate that precautions should be taken on environmental issues resulting from widespread transmission of quinolone resistance.

  11. Genotoxicity of quinolones: substituents contribution and transformation products QSAR evaluation using 2D and 3D models.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Wei, Dongbin; Zhao, Huimin; Du, Yuguo

    2014-01-01

    The genotoxicity of 21 quinolones antibiotics was determined using SOS/umu assay. Some quinolones exhibited high genotoxicity, and the chemical substituent on quinolone ring significantly affected genotoxicity. To establish the relationship between genotoxicity and substituent, a 2D-QSAR model based on quantum chemical parameters was developed. Calculation suggested that both steric and electrostatic properties were correlated well with genotoxicity. Furthermore, the specific effect on three key active sites (1-, 7- and 8-positions) of quinolone ring was investigated using a 3D-QSAR (comparative molecular field analysis, CoMFA) method. From our modeling, the genotoxicity increased when substituents had: (1) big volume and/or positive charge at 1-position; (2) negative charge at 7-position; and (3) small volume and/or negative charge at 8-position. The developed QSAR models were applicable to estimate genotoxicity of quinolones antibiotics and their transformation products. It is noted that some of the transformation products exhibited higher genotoxicity comparing to their precursor (e.g., ciprofloxacin). This study provided an alternative way to understand the molecule genotoxicity of quinolones derivatives, as well as to evaluate their potential environmental risks.

  12. Analysis of quinolone-resistance in commensal and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolates from infants in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Maria J.; Mosquito, S.; Gomes, C.; del Valle, L.J.; Ochoa, T.J.; Ruiz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing problem, particularly in countries where antibiotic use is frequently not controlled. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of the molecular mechanisms of quinolone-resistance in E. coli isolated from faeces of healthy Peruvian children or those presenting diarrhoea. Methods The presence of target mutations, transferable quinolone-resistance mechanisms and the role of Phe-Arg-β-Naphtylamyde inhibitible efflux pumps were studied in 96 Escherichia coli (46 diarrheogenic and 50 non-diarrheogenic) isolates exhibiting resistance or diminished susceptibility to quinolones. Results The most resistant phenotype, NalR and CipR, was most frequently present in isolates of healthy children. The distribution of quinolone resistance mechanisms between diarrheogenic (DEC) and commensal (non DEC) isolates was equitable, although the aac(6′)Ib-cr gene was mainly detected in DEC isolates: 17 (34%) vs non DEC isolates nine (20%). QnrB was present in five (10%) DEC vs three (6%) non DEC isolates. Conclusions Point mutations in gyrA and parC genes play a relevant role in quinolone resistance acquisition and highlight the role of efflux pumps also. This study provides knowledge about the molecular mechanisms involved in quinolone resistance in isolates in a non exposed population under high community antibiotic pressure. PMID:24306130

  13. Antibacterial activities of tellurium nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zong-Hong; Lee, Chia-Hsin; Chang, Hsin-Yun; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2012-05-01

    We prepared four differently shaped Te nanomaterials (NMs) as antibacterial reagents against Escherichia coli. By controlling the concentrations of hydrazine (N(2)H(4)) as reducing agent, NaCl, and temperature, we prepared Te nanowires, nanopencils, nanorices, and nanocubes. These four Te NMs resulted in a live/dead ratio of E. coli cells of less than 0.1, which is smaller than that of Ag nanoparticles. The order of antibacterial activity against E. coli is nanocubes ≈ nanorices > nanopencils ≈ nanowires. This is in good agreement with the concentration order of tellurite (TeO(3)(2-)) ions released from Te NMs in E. coli cells, revealing that TeO(3)(2-) ions account for the antibacterial activity of the four Te NMs. We found that spherical Te nanoparticles (32 nm in diameter) with TeO(3)(2-) ions were formed in the E. coli cells. Compared to Ag nanoparticles that are commonly used as antibacterial reagents, Te NMs have higher antibacterial activity and lower toxicity. Thus, Te NMs hold great practical potential as a new and efficient antibacterial agent.

  14. Plasmid-related quinolone resistance determinants in epidemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus, uropathogenic Escherichia coli, and marine bacteria from an aquaculture area in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aedo, Sandra; Ivanova, Larisa; Tomova, Alexandra; Cabello, Felipe C

    2014-08-01

    Marine bacteria from aquaculture areas with industrial use of quinolones have the potential to pass quinolone resistance genes to animal and human pathogens. The VPA0095 gene, related to the quinolone resistance determinant qnrA, from clinical isolates of epidemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus conferred reduced susceptibility to quinolone after cloning into Escherichia coli K-12 either when acting alone or synergistically with DNA gyrase mutations. In addition, a plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance gene from marine bacteria, aac(6')-Ib-cr, was identical to aac(6')-Ib-cr from urinary tract isolates of E. coli, suggesting a recent flow of this gene between these bacteria isolated from different environments. aac(6')-Ib-cr from E. coli also conferred reduced susceptibility to quinolone and kanamycin when cloned into E. coli K-12.

  15. Assessment of the effectiveness of silver-coated dressing, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%), citric acid (3%), and silver sulfadiazine (1%) for topical antibacterial effects against the multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa infecting full-skin thickness burn wounds on rats.

    PubMed

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Basaran, Ozgur; Aydogan, Cem; Azap, Ozlem Kurt; Karakayali, Feza; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four different topical antimicrobial dressings on a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated full-thickness burn wound rat model. A total of 40 adult male Wistar albino rats were used. The control group (group 1), silver sulfadiazine (1%) group 2, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%) group 3, citric acid (3%) group 4, and silver-coated dressing group 5 were compared to assess the antibacterial effects of a daily application to a 30% full-skin thickness burn wound seeded 10 minutes earlier with 10(8) CFU (colony forming unit)/0.5 mL of a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Five groups (1 control group and 4 treatment groups) were compared. The administration of third-degree burns to all rats was confirmed based on histopathologic data. The tissue cultures from groups 2 and 5 exhibited significant differences compared to those of the other 3 groups, whereas no significant differences were observed between groups 1, 3, and 4. The effectiveness of the treatments was as follows: 1% silver sulfadiazine > silver-coated dressing > 3% citric acid > 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate > control group. Our results supported the efficacy of topical therapy by silver sulfadiazine and silver-coated dressing on infections caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas spp.

  16. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Silver-Coated Dressing, Chlorhexidine Acetate (0.5%), Citric Acid (3%), and Silver Sulfadiazine (1%) for Topical Antibacterial Effects Against the Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infecting Full-Skin Thickness Burn Wounds on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Basaran, Ozgur; Aydogan, Cem; Azap, Ozlem Kurt; Karakayali, Feza; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four different topical antimicrobial dressings on a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated full-thickness burn wound rat model. A total of 40 adult male Wistar albino rats were used. The control group (group 1), silver sulfadiazine (1%) group 2, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%) group 3, citric acid (3%) group 4, and silver-coated dressing group 5 were compared to assess the antibacterial effects of a daily application to a 30% full-skin thickness burn wound seeded 10 minutes earlier with 108 CFU (colony forming unit)/0.5 mL of a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Five groups (1 control group and 4 treatment groups) were compared. The administration of third-degree burns to all rats was confirmed based on histopathologic data. The tissue cultures from groups 2 and 5 exhibited significant differences compared to those of the other 3 groups, whereas no significant differences were observed between groups 1, 3, and 4. The effectiveness of the treatments was as follows: 1% silver sulfadiazine > silver-coated dressing > 3% citric acid > 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate > control group. Our results supported the efficacy of topical therapy by silver sulfadiazine and silver-coated dressing on infections caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas spp. PMID:24229034

  17. Improved microbial screening assay for the detection of quinolone residues in poultry and eggs.

    PubMed

    Pikkemaat, M G; Mulder, P P J; Elferink, J W A; de Cocq, A; Nielen, M W F; van Egmond, H J

    2007-08-01

    An improved microbiological screening assay is reported for the detection of quinolone residues in poultry muscle and eggs. The method was validated using fortified tissue samples and is the first microbial assay to effectively detect enrofloxacin, difloxacin, danofloxacin, as well as flumequine and oxolinic acid, at or below their EU maximum residue limits (MRL). The accuracy of the assay was shown by analysing incurred tissue samples containing residue levels around the MRL. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) quantification of the quinolone concentration in these samples showed that the test plate can be used semi-quantitatively, allowing the definition of an "action level" as an inhibition zone above which a sample can be considered "suspect". The presented assay is a useful improvement or addition to existing screening systems.

  18. Design, synthesis and biological characterization of a new class of osteogenic (1H)-quinolone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Manetti, Fabrizio; Petricci, Elena; Gabrielli, Annalisa; Mann, Andrè; Faure, Hélène; Gorojankina, Tatiana; Brasseur, Laurent; Hoch, Lucile; Ruat, Martial; Taddei, Maurizio

    2016-10-04

    Smoothened (Smo) is the signal transducer of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway and its stimulation is considered a potential powerful tool in regenerative medicine to treat severe tissue injuries. Starting from GSA-10, a recently reported Hh activator acting on Smo, we have designed and synthesized a new class of quinolone-based compounds. Modification and decoration of three different portions of the original scaffold led to compounds able to induce differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal cells into osteoblasts. The submicromolar activity of several of these new quinolones (0.4-0.9 μM) is comparable to or better than that of SAG and purmorphamine, two reference Smo agonists. Structure-activity relationships allow identification of several molecular determinants important for the activity of these compounds.

  19. 4(1H)-Quinolones with liver stage activity against Plasmodium berghei.

    PubMed

    Lacrue, Alexis N; Sáenz, Fabián E; Cross, R Matthew; Udenze, Kenneth O; Monastyrskyi, Andrii; Stein, Steven; Mutka, Tina S; Manetsch, Roman; Kyle, Dennis E

    2013-01-01

    With the exception of primaquine, tafenoquine, and atovaquone, there are very few antimalarials that target liver stage parasites. In this study, a transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasite (1052Cl1; PbGFP-Luc(con)) that expresses luciferase was used to assess the anti-liver stage parasite activity of ICI 56,780, a 7-(2-phenoxyethoxy)-4(1H)-quinolone (PEQ), as well as two 3-phenyl-4(1H)-quinolones (P4Q), P4Q-146 and P4Q-158, by using bioluminescent imaging (BLI). Results showed that all of the compounds were active against liver stage parasites; however, ICI 56,780 and P4Q-158 were the most active, with low nanomolar activity in vitro and causal prophylactic activity in vivo. This potent activity makes these compounds ideal candidates for advancement as novel antimalarials.

  20. Antibacterial butenolides from the Korean tunicate Pseudodistoma antinboja.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weihong; Kim, Hiyoung; Nam, Sang-Jip; Rho, Boon Jo; Kang, Heonjoong

    2012-12-28

    Six new (1, 2, and 5-8) and three known (3, 4, and 9) butenolide metabolites were isolated from the tunicate Pseudodistoma antinboja by activity-guided fractionations. The structures were elucidated by combined NMR and MS spectroscopic methods. These compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, and most of them exhibited moderate to significant activity that selectively targeted Gram-positive strains and did not exhibit cytotoxicity in the MTT assay at 100 μM. Cadiolides 5-9 in particular exhibited significant antibacterial activity that was comparable to or even better than those of marketed drugs such as vancomycin and linezolid against all of the drug-resistant strains tested.

  1. Characterization of antibacterial nanoparticles from the scallop, Ptinopecten yessoensis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi Suk; Park, Jeong Soon; Song, Seong Hwan; Jang, Se Bok

    2007-09-01

    To develop a new drug delivery system, antibacterial 50-900 nm nanoparticles of shell and internal organs from scallops collected off Huksan-Island, Korea, were prepared by dry grind technology respectively. The diameters, identities, and conformations of the scallop shell and internal organ particles were determined with a particle-size analyzer and by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. The antibacterial properties of the nanoparticles from scallop shell were investigated in the absence and the presence of scallop-shell extract. Bacterial growth was reduced with the supernatant of the nanoparticle scallop-shell extract. Also, the nanoparticles from scallop shell were much more effective as a skin softener than was powder. These facts provide us with guidelines for the study of the size-dependent properties of functional materials as well as for further applications to drug delivery systems (DDSs) and cosmetic raw materials.

  2. Pyrazole derivatives as antitumor, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Jia; Zhao, Meng-Yue; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Xin; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2013-11-01

    Within the past years, many researches on the synthesis, structure-activity relationships (SAR), antitumor, antiinflammatory and anti-bacterial activities of the pyrazole derivatives have been reported. Several pyrazole derivatives possess important pharmacological activities and they have been proved useful materials in drug research. Pyrazole derivatives play an important role in antitumor agents because of their good inhibitory activity against BRAF(V600E), EGFR, telomerase, ROS Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Aurora-A kinase. In addition, pyrazole derivatives also show good antiinflammatory and anti-bacterial activities. In this review, the bioactivities of the pyrazole derivatives mentioned above will be summarized in detail. We sincerely hope that increasing knowledge of the SAR and cellular processes underlying the bioactivity of pyrazole derivatives will be beneficial to the rational design of new generation of small molecule drugs.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and serum bactericidal activities of quinolones in combination with clindamycin, metronidazole, and ornidazole.

    PubMed Central

    Boeckh, M; Lode, H; Deppermann, K M; Grineisen, S; Shokry, F; Held, R; Wernicke, K; Koeppe, P; Wagner, J; Krasemann, C

    1990-01-01

    To enhance the antimicrobial spectrum of the quinolones against anaerobic organisms and gram-positive bacteria, we investigated in two studies the parenteral combinations of ciprofloxacin (200 mg) and ofloxacin (200 mg) with metronidazole (500 mg) or clindamycin (600 mg) and the oral combinations of enoxacin (400 mg) and fleroxacin (400 mg) with metronidazole (400 mg), clindamycin (300 mg), or ornidazole (500 mg) (only with fleroxacin). The pharmacokinetics and serum bactericidal activities (SBAs) against 5 aerobic and 2 anaerobic species (total, 58 strains) were determined in two groups of 10 healthy volunteers by using a randomized crossover study design. The additions of metronidazole, clindamycin, and ornidazole did not affect the pharmacokinetics of the quinolones. The combination of clindamycin with ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and, to a lesser extent, fleroxacin resulted in an increase of the SBA against gram-positive strains (mean peak titers): Staphylococcus aureus, ciprofloxacin alone, 1:5.5; ciprofloxacin-clindamycin, 1:19.9; ofloxacin alone, 1:3.6; ofloxacin-clindamycin, 1:17.5; fleroxacin alone, 1:4.3; fleroxacin-clindamycin, 1:8.1; Streptococcus pneumoniae (fleroxacin and enoxacin were not tested), ciprofloxacin alone, 1:2.0; ciprofloxacin-clindamycin, 1:53; ofloxacin alone, 1:2.6; and ofloxacin-clindamycin, 1:49.2. The high SBA of quinolones against gram-negative bacteria was not affected by the combinations; however, relatively low activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa were detected. In general, against anaerobic bacteria, low bactericidal activities were determined in both studies (mean peak titers ranged from 1:2.1 to 1:3.1; mean trough titers range from 1:2.0 to 1:2.9). In clinical settings with severe mixed infections, a parenteral therapy consisting of modern quinolones together with clindamycin or imidazole derivatives seems to be active and offers no obvious interactions. PMID:2088195

  4. Prevalence of Plasmid-Mediated Quinolone Resistance Genes in Clinical Enterobacteria from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Albornoz, Ezequiel; Lucero, Celeste; Romero, Genara; Quiroga, María Paula; Rapoport, Melina; Guerriero, Leonor; Andres, Patricia; Rodriguez, Cecilia; Galas, Marcelo; Centrón, Daniela; Corso, Alejandra; Petroni, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    This first nationwide study was conducted to analyze the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in phenotypically unselected (consecutive) clinical enterobacteria. We studied 1,058 isolates that had been consecutively collected in 66 hospitals of the WHONET-Argentina Resistance Surveillance Network. Overall, 26% of isolates were nonsusceptible to at least one of the three quinolones tested (nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin). The overall prevalence of PMQR genes was 8.1% (4.6% for aac(6')-Ib-cr; 3.9% for qnr genes; and 0.4% for oqxA and oqxB, which were not previously reported in enterobacteria other than Klebsiella spp. from Argentina). The PMQR prevalence was highly variable among the enterobacterial species or when the different genes were considered. The prevalent PMQR genes were located in class 1 integrons [qnrB2, qnrB10, and aac(6')-Ib-cr]; in the ColE1-type plasmid pPAB19-1 or Tn2012-like transposons (qnrB19); and in Tn6238 or bracketed by IS26 and blaOXA-1 [aac(6')-Ib-cr]. The mutations associated with quinolone resistance that were located in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR mutations) of gyrA, parC, and gyrB were also investigated. The occurrence of QRDR mutations was significantly associated with the presence of PMQR genes: At least one QRDR mutation was present in 82% of the PMQR-harboring isolates but in only 23% of those without PMQR genes (p < 0.0001, Fisher's Test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of PMQR genes in consecutive clinical enterobacteria where all the genes currently known have been screened.

  5. Induction of Plasmid-Carried qnrS1 in Escherichia coli by Naturally Occurring Quinolones and Quorum-Sensing Signal Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Yee Gyung; Jacoby, George A.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring quinolone and quinolone-like compounds, such as quinine, 2-hydroxyquinoline, 4-hydroxyquinoline, and 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone, increased expression of qnrS1 in Escherichia coli 2.3- to 11.2-fold, similar to the synthetic quinolone ciprofloxacin. In contrast, chromosomal qnrVS1 of Vibrio splendidus was not induced by these compounds. Molecules associated with quorum sensing, such as N-3-hydroxybutyryl-homoserine lactone (HSL), N-hexanoyl-HSL, and N-3-(oxododecanoyl)-HSL, did not show an induction effect on either qnrS1 or qnrVS1 at the tested concentrations. PMID:23689721

  6. Induction of plasmid-carried qnrS1 in Escherichia coli by naturally occurring quinolones and quorum-sensing signal molecules.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yee Gyung; Jacoby, George A; Hooper, David C

    2013-08-01

    Naturally occurring quinolone and quinolone-like compounds, such as quinine, 2-hydroxyquinoline, 4-hydroxyquinoline, and 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone, increased expression of qnrS1 in Escherichia coli 2.3- to 11.2-fold, similar to the synthetic quinolone ciprofloxacin. In contrast, chromosomal qnrVS1 of Vibrio splendidus was not induced by these compounds. Molecules associated with quorum sensing, such as N-3-hydroxybutyryl-homoserine lactone (HSL), N-hexanoyl-HSL, and N-3-(oxododecanoyl)-HSL, did not show an induction effect on either qnrS1 or qnrVS1 at the tested concentrations.

  7. ESKAPEing the labyrinth of antibacterial discovery.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Ruben; Brown, Dean G; Walkup, Grant K; Manchester, John I; Miller, Alita A

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance is a growing threat to global public health. Multidrug resistance among the 'ESKAPE' organisms - encompassing Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp. - is of particular concern because they are responsible for many serious infections in hospitals. Although some promising agents are in the pipeline, there is an urgent need for new antibiotic scaffolds. However, antibacterial researchers have struggled to identify new small molecules with meaningful cellular activity, especially those effective against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. This difficulty ultimately stems from an incomplete understanding of efflux systems and compound permeation through bacterial membranes. This Opinion article describes findings from target-based and phenotypic screening efforts carried out at AstraZeneca over the past decade, discusses some of the subsequent chemistry challenges and concludes with a description of new approaches comprising a combination of computational modelling and advanced biological tools which may pave the way towards the discovery of new antibacterial agents.

  8. Pyrrolamide DNA gyrase inhibitors: optimization of antibacterial activity and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sherer, Brian A; Hull, Kenneth; Green, Oluyinka; Basarab, Gregory; Hauck, Sheila; Hill, Pamela; Loch, James T; Mullen, George; Bist, Shanta; Bryant, Joanna; Boriack-Sjodin, Ann; Read, Jon; DeGrace, Nancy; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Illingworth, Ruth N; Eakin, Ann E

    2011-12-15

    The pyrrolamides are a new class of antibacterial agents targeting DNA gyrase, an essential enzyme across bacterial species and inhibition results in the disruption of DNA synthesis and subsequently, cell death. The optimization of biochemical activity and other drug-like properties through substitutions to the pyrrole, piperidine, and heterocycle portions of the molecule resulted in pyrrolamides with improved cellular activity and in vivo efficacy.

  9. Simple and sensitive determination of five quinolones in food by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Macarena; Aranda, Angela; Garcia, Elena; Reuvers, Thea; Hooghuis, Henny

    2003-06-15

    A simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of five different quinolones: enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, oxolinic acid and flumequine in pork and salmon muscle. The method includes one extraction and clean-up step for the five quinolones together which are detected in two separated HPLC runs by means of their fluorescence. The proposed analytical method involves homogenizing of the tissue sample with 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 and clean-up by Discovery DS-18 cartridges. For chromatographic separation a Symmetry C(18) column is used in two different runs: (1) ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and sarafloxacin with acetonitrile-0.02 M phosphate buffer pH 3.0 (18:82) as mobile phase and the detector at excitation wavelength: 280 nm and emission wavelength 450 nm; and (2) oxolinic acid and flumequine with acetonitrile-0.02 M phosphate buffer pH 3.0 (34:66) as mobile phase and excitation wavelength: 312 nm and emission wavelength: 366 nm. Detection limit was as low as 5 ng g(-1), except for sarafloxacin which had a limit of 10 ng g(-1). Standard curves using blank muscle tissues spiked at different levels showed a good linear correlation coefficient, r(2) higher than 0.999 for all quinolones.

  10. Characterization of quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. isolates from food products and human samples in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pribul, Bruno Rocha; Festivo, Marcia Lima; de Souza, Miliane Moreira Soares; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. and its association with fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Brazil. A total of 129 NTS isolates (samples from human origin, food from animal origin, environmental, and animal) grouped as from animal (n = 62) and human (n = 67) food were evaluated between 2009 and 2013. These isolates were investigated through serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (qnr, aac(6′)-Ib) and associated integron genes (integrase, and conserved integron region). Resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, from first to third generations, was observed. Fifteen isolates were positive for the presence of qnr genes (8 qnrS, 6 qnrB, and 1 qnrD) and twenty three of aac(6′)-Ib. The conserved integron region was detected in 67 isolates as variable regions, from ±600 to >1000 pb. The spread of NTS involving PMQR carriers is of serious concern and should be carefully monitored. PMID:26887245

  11. In Vitro Activities of Cephalosporins and Quinolones against Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Diarrheic Dairy Calves

    PubMed Central

    Orden, José Antonio; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, José Antonio; García, Silvia; Cid, Dolores; de la Fuente, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    The in vitro activities of several cephalosporins and quinolones against 195 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from dairy calves affected by neonatal diarrhea were determined. One hundred thirty-seven of these strains produced one or more potential virulence factors (F5, F41, F17, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, verotoxin, and the eae gene), but the remaining 58 strains did not produce any of these factors. From 11 to 18% of the E. coli strains were resistant to cephalothin, nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin. However, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and cefquinome were highly effective against the E. coli isolates tested. Some significant differences (P < 0.05) in resistance to quinolones between the strains producing potential virulence factors and nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains were found. Thus, eae-positive, necrotoxigenic, and verotoxigenic (except for nalidixic acid) E. coli strains were significantly more sensitive to nalidixic acid, enoxacin, and enrofloxacin than nonfimbriated, nontoxigenic, eae-negative strains. Moreover, eae-positive strains were significantly more sensitive to enoxacin and enrofloxacin than F5-positive strains. Thus, the results of this study suggest that the bovine E. coli strains that produce some potential virulence factors are more sensitive to quinolones than those that do not express these factors. PMID:10049259

  12. Two distinct pathways supply anthranilate as a precursor of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal.

    PubMed

    Farrow, John M; Pesci, Everett C

    2007-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections in immunocompromised patients and those with cystic fibrosis (CF). This gram-negative bacterium uses multiple cell-to-cell signals to control numerous cellular functions and virulence. One of these signals is 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone, which is referred to as the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). This signal functions as a coinducer for a transcriptional regulator (PqsR) to positively control multiple virulence genes and its own synthesis. PQS production is required for virulence in multiple models of infection, and it has been shown to be produced in the lungs of CF patients infected by P. aeruginosa. One of the precursor compounds from which PQS is synthesized is the metabolite anthranilate. This compound can be derived from the conversion of chorismate to anthranilate by an anthranilate synthase or through the degradation of tryptophan via the anthranilate branch of the kynurenine pathway. In this study, we present data which help to define the kynurenine pathway in P. aeruginosa and show that the kynurenine pathway serves as a critical source of anthranilate for PQS synthesis. We also show that the kyn pathway genes are induced during growth with tryptophan and that they are autoregulated by kynurenine. This study provides solid foundations for the understanding of how P. aeruginosa produces the anthranilate that serves as a precursor to PQS and other 4-quinolones.

  13. Characterization of quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. isolates from food products and human samples in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pribul, Bruno Rocha; Festivo, Marcia Lima; de Souza, Miliane Moreira Soares; Rodrigues, Dalia dos Prazeres

    2016-01-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. and its association with fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Brazil. A total of 129 NTS isolates (samples from human origin, food from animal origin, environmental, and animal) grouped as from animal (n=62) and human (n=67) food were evaluated between 2009 and 2013. These isolates were investigated through serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (qnr, aac(6')-Ib) and associated integron genes (integrase, and conserved integron region). Resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, from first to third generations, was observed. Fifteen isolates were positive for the presence of qnr genes (8 qnrS, 6 qnrB, and 1 qnrD) and twenty three of aac(6')-Ib. The conserved integron region was detected in 67 isolates as variable regions, from ±600 to >1000pb. The spread of NTS involving PMQR carriers is of serious concern and should be carefully monitored.

  14. Dioxygenase-mediated quenching of quinolone-dependent quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pustelny, Christian; Albers, Alexander; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Parschat, Katja; Chhabra, Siri Ram; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul; Fetzner, Susanne

    2009-12-24

    2-Heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS) is a quorum-sensing signal molecule used by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The structural similarity between 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4(1H)-quinolone, the natural substrate for the 2,4-dioxygenase, Hod, and PQS prompted us to investigate whether Hod quenched PQS signaling. Hod is capable of catalyzing the conversion of PQS to N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide. In P. aeruginosa PAO1 cultures, exogenously supplied Hod protein reduced expression of the PQS biosynthetic gene pqsA, expression of the PQS-regulated virulence determinants lectin A, pyocyanin, and rhamnolipids, and virulence in planta. However, the proteolytic cleavage of Hod by extracellular proteases, competitive inhibition by the PQS precursor 2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone, and PQS binding to rhamnolipids reduced the efficiency of Hod as a quorum-quenching agent. Nevertheless, these data indicate that enzyme-mediated PQS inactivation has potential as an antivirulence strategy against P. aeruginosa.

  15. Liquid chromatographic determination of quinolones in water and human urine samples after microextraction by packed sorbent.

    PubMed

    Rani, Susheela; Kumar, Ashwini; Malik, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Baldev

    2012-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of quinolones in water and urine samples by microextraction in a sorbent-packed syringe (MEPS) with LC is described. MEPS is a new miniaturized SPE technique that can be used with chromatographic instruments without any modifications. In MEPS, approximately 1 mg of the solid packing material is inserted into a syringe (100-250 microL) as a plug. Sample preparation takes place on the packed bed. The new method is promising, easy to use, economical, and rapid. The determination of quinolones in groundwater and urine was performed using MEPS as a sample preparation method with LC-UV determination. Four quinolone antibiotics--enrofloxacin, enoxacin, danofloxacin, and nalidixic acid--in groundwater and urine samples were used as analytes. The extraction recovery was found to be between 64.9 and 98.9%. The results showed high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.992) for all of the analytes within the calibration range. The LOQ was between 0.091 and 0.315 ng/mL.

  16. Renaissance of antibiotics against difficult infections: Focus on oritavancin and new ketolides and quinolones.

    PubMed

    Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2014-11-01

    Lipoglycopeptide, ketolide, and quinolone antibiotics are currently in clinical development, with specific advantages over available molecules within their respective classes. The lipoglycopeptide oritavancin is bactericidal against MRSA, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and proved effective and safe for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI) upon administration of a single 1200 mg dose (two completed phase III trials). The ketolide solithromycin (two phase III studies recruiting for community-acquired pneumonia) shows a profile of activity similar to that of telithromycin, but in vitro data suggest a lower risk of hepatotoxicity, visual disturbance, and aggravation of myasthenia gravis due to reduced affinity for nicotinic receptors. Among quinolones, finafloxacin and delafloxacin share the unique property of an improved activity in acidic environments (found in many infection sites). Finafloxacin (phase II completed; activity profile similar to that of ciprofloxacin) is evaluated for complicated urinary tract and Helicobacter pylori infections. The other quinolones (directed towards Gram-positive pathogens) show improved activity on MRSA and multiresistant S. pneumoniae compared to current molecules. They are in clinical evaluation for ABSSSI (avarofloxacin (phase II completed), nemonoxacin and delafloxacin (ongoing phase III)), respiratory tract infections (zabofloxacin and nemonoxacin (ongoing phase III)), or gonorrhea (delafloxacin).

  17. A series of 2D metal-quinolone complexes: Syntheses, structures, and physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiang-Hong; Xiao, Dong-Rong; Chen, Hai-Yan; Sun, Dian-Zhen; Yan, Shi-Wei; Wang, Xin; Ye, Zhong-Li; Luo, Qun-Li; Wang, En-Bo

    2013-02-01

    Six novel 2D metal-quinolone complexes, namely [Cd(cfH)(bpdc)]rad H2O (1), [M(norfH)(bpdc)]rad H2O (M=Cd (2) and Mn (3)), [Mn2(cfH)(odpa)(H2O)3]rad 0.5H2O (4), [Co2(norfH)(bpta)(μ2-H2O)(H2O)2]rad H2O (5) and [Co3(saraH)2(Hbpta)2(H2O)4]rad 9H2O (6) (cfH=ciprofloxacin, norfH=norfloxacin, saraH=sarafloxacin, bpdc=4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylate, odpa=4,4'-oxydiphthalate, bpta=3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylate) have been synthesized and characterized. Compounds 1-3 consist of 2D arm-shaped layers based on the 1D {M(COO)}nn+ chains. Compounds 4 and 5 display 2D structures based on tetranuclear manganese or cobalt clusters with (3,6)-connected kgd topology. Compound 6 exhibits a 2D bilayer structure, which represents the first example of metal-quinolone complexes with 2D bilayer structure. By inspection of the structures of 1-6, it is believed that the long aromatic polycarboxylate ligands are important for the formation of 2D metal-quinolone complexes. The magnetic properties of compounds 3-6 was studied, indicating the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of compounds 1-2 are discussed.

  18. Characterization of ESBLs and associated quinolone resistance in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from an urban wastewater treatment plant in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Alouache, Souhila; Estepa, Vanesa; Messai, Yamina; Ruiz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Bakour, Rabah

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was the characterization of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and quinolone resistance in cefotaxime-resistant coliform isolates from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). ESBLs were detected in 19 out of 24 isolates (79%) from raw water and in 21 out of 24 isolates (87.5%) from treated water, identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Molecular characterization of ESBLs and quinolone resistance showed allele profiles CTX-M-15 (3), CTX-M-3 (5), CTX-M-15+qnrB1 (1), CTX-M-3+qnrB1 (1), CTX-M-15+aac-(6')-Ib-cr (4), and CTX-M-15+qnrB1+aac-(6')-Ib-cr (7). A double mutation S83L and D87N (GyrA) and a single mutation S80I (ParC) were detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates. In K. pneumoniae, mutations S83I (GyrA)+S80I (ParC) or single S80I mutation were detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates, and no mutation was observed in ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates. bla(CTX-M), qnrB1, and aac-(6')-Ib-cr were found, respectively, in these genetic environments: ISEcp1-bla(CTX-M)-orf477, orf1005-orf1-qnrB1, and Tn1721-IS26-aac-(6')-Ib-cr-bla(OXA-1)-catB4. bla(CTX-M-15) was located on IncF plasmid in E. coli and bla(CTX-M-3) on IncL/M plasmid in both species (E. coli and K. pneumoniae). E. coli isolates were affiliated to the phylogroups/MLST: D/ST405 (CC405), A/ST10 (CC10), A/ST617 (CC10), and B1/ST1431. K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to phylogroup KpI and to sequence types ST15, ST17, ST36, ST48, ST54, and ST147. The study showed a multi-drug resistance at the inflow and outflow of the WWTP, with ESBL production, plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance, and mutations in topoisomerases. The findings highlight the similarity of antibiotic resistance mechanisms in the clinical setting and the environment, and the role of the latter as a source of dissemination of resistance genes.

  19. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency. PMID:24949423

  20. Antibacterial surface design - Contact kill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Liu, Song

    2016-08-01

    Designing antibacterial surfaces has become extremely important to minimize Healthcare Associated Infections which are a major cause of mortality worldwide. A previous biocide-releasing approach is based on leaching of encapsulated biocides such as silver and triclosan which exerts negative impacts on the environment and potentially contributes to the development of bacterial resistance. This drawback of leachable compounds led to the shift of interest towards a more sustainable and environmentally friendly approach: contact-killing surfaces. Biocides that can be bound onto surfaces to give the substrates contact-active antibacterial activity include quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs), quaternary phosphoniums (QPs), carbon nanotubes, antibacterial peptides, and N-chloramines. Among the above, QACs and N-chloramines are the most researched contact-active biocides. We review the engineering of contact-active surfaces using QACs or N-chloramines, the modes of actions as well as the test methods. The charge-density threshold of cationic surfaces for desired antibacterial efficacy and attempts to combine various biocides for the generation of new contact-active surfaces are discussed in detail. Surface positive charge density is identified as a key parameter to define antibacterial efficacy. We expect that this research field will continue to attract more research interest in view of the potential impact of self-disinfective surfaces on healthcare-associated infections, food safety and corrosion/fouling resistance required on industrial surfaces such as oil pipes and ship hulls.

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