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Sample records for quintana bartonella henselae

  1. Antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia typhi, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis among healthy population in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Paulo Sérgio Gonçalves; Brigatte, Marcos Emilio; Greco, Dirceu Bartolomeu

    2005-12-01

    Rickettsial diseases except those belonging to spotted fever group rickettsioses are poorly studied in South America particularly in Brazil where few epidemiological reports have been published. We describe a serosurvey for Rickettsia rickettsii, R. typhi, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis in 437 healthy people from a Brazilian rural community. The serum samples were tested by indirected micro-immunoflourescence technique and a cutoff titer of 1:64 was used. The seroprevalence rates for R. rickettsii, R. typhi, C. burnetii, B. henselae, B. quintana, and E. chaffeensis were respectively 1.6% (7 samples); 1.1% (5 samples); 3.9% (17 samples); 13.7% (60 samples); 12.8% (56 samples), and 10.5% (46 samples). Frequent multiple/cross-reactivity was observed in this study. Age over 40 years old, urban profession, and rural residence were significantly associated with some but not all infections rate. Low seropositivity rates for R. rickettsii, R. typhi, and C. burnetii contrasted with higher rates of seropositivity for B. quintana, B. henselae, and E. chaffeensis. These results show that all tested rickettsial species or antigenically closely related possible exist in this particular region.

  2. Bartonella (Rochalimaea) quintana infections.

    PubMed Central

    Maurin, M; Raoult, D

    1996-01-01

    Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) quintana is the etiological agent of trench fever, a disease extensively reported during the World Wars. Recent molecular biology approaches have allowed dramatic extension of the spectrum of Bartonella infections. B. quintana is now also recognized as an etiological agent of fever and bacteremia, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis, and chronic lymphadenopathy. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and/or homeless people are the most vulnerable to infection. Poverty and louse infestation were the main epidemiological factors associated with B. quintana infections during wartime. Although poverty and chronic alcoholism have been associated with modern cases of trench fever and bacteremia due to B. quintana in Europe and the United States, vectors for B. quintana have not been clearly identified and B. quintana has not been isolated from modern-day lice. Microscopic bacillary angiomatosis lesions are characterized by tumor-like capillary lobules, with proliferating endothelial cells. In vitro experiments have shown that B. quintana survives within endothelial cells and stimulates cell proliferation. These observations, together with the finding that lesions may regress when antibiotic therapy is administered, strongly suggest that B. quintana itself stimulates angiogenesis. Bartonella infections are characterized by a high frequency of relapses after brief courses of antibiotic therapy. It is to be noted that in vitro, although Bartonella species are highly susceptible to antibiotics, only the aminoglycosides have proved to be bactericidal. However, the most effective antibiotic regimen for Bartonella infections remains to be established. PMID:8809460

  3. Bartonella quintana Endocarditis in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rolain, Jean-Marc; Maggi, Ricardo; Sontakke, Sushama; Keene, Bruce; Hunter, Stuart; Lepidi, Hubert; Breitschwerdt, Kyle T.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Raoult, Didier

    2006-01-01

    We provide the first evidence that Bartonella quintana can infect dogs and cause typical signs of endocarditis. Using PCR and sequencing, we identified B. quintana in the blood of a dog from the United States with aortic valve endocarditis and probably also in the mitral valve of a dog from New Zealand with endocarditis. PMID:17326937

  4. Bartonella quintana characteristics and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2006-02-01

    Bartonella quintana, a pathogen that is restricted to human hosts and louse vectors, was first characterized as the agent of trench fever. The disease was described in 1915 on the basis of natural and experimental infections in soldiers. It is now recognized as a reemerging pathogen among homeless populations in cities in the United States and Europe and is responsible for a wide spectrum of conditions, including chronic bacteremia, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Diagnosis is based on serologic analysis, culture, and molecular biology. Recent characterization of its genome allowed the development of modern diagnosis and typing methods. Guidelines for the treatment of B. quintana infections are presented.

  5. Draft Genome Sequences of 12 Feline Bartonella henselae Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Woudstra, Cédric; Fach, Patrick; Chomel, Bruno B.; Haddad, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bartonella henselae is the main causative agent of cat scratch disease. In this report, we present the draft genome sequences of 12 strains of Bartonella henselae originating from the United States, Denmark, and France. These strains were isolated from cats and belonged to either 16S rRNA genotype I or 16S rRNA genotype II. PMID:28360154

  6. Characterization of the general stress response in Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Nhan; Lima, Amorce; Bandeali, Zahra; Anderson, Burt

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria utilize a general stress response system to combat stresses from their surrounding environments. In alpha-proteobacteria, the general stress response uses an alternate sigma factor as the main regulator and incorporates it with a two-component system into a unique regulatory circuit. This system has been described in several alpha-proteobacterial species, including the pathogens Bartonella quintana and Brucella abortus. Most of the studies have focused on characterizing the PhyR anti-anti-sigma factor, the NepR anti-sigma factor, and the alternate sigma factor. However, not enough attention is directed toward studying the role of histidine kinases in the general stress response. Our study identifies the general stress response system in Bartonella henselae, where the gene synteny is conserved and both the PhyR and alternate sigma factor have similar sequence and domain structures with other alpha-proteobacteria. Our data showed that the general stress response genes are up-regulated under conditions that mimic the cat flea vector. Furthermore, we showed that both RpoE and PhyR positively regulate this system and that RpoE also affects transcription of genes encoding heme-binding proteins and the gene encoding the BadA adhesin. Finally, we identified a histidine kinase, annotated as BH13820 that can potentially phosphorylate PhyR. PMID:26724735

  7. Splenorenal Manifestations of Bartonella henselae Infection in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Rising, Taylor; Fulton, Nicholas; Vasavada, Pauravi

    2016-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is a bacterium which can cause a wide range of clinical manifestations, ranging from fever of unknown origin to a potentially fatal endocarditis. We report a case of Bartonella henselae infection in a pediatric-aged patient following a scratch from a kitten. The patient initially presented with a prolonged fever of unknown origin which was unresponsive to antibiotic treatment. The patient was hospitalized with worsening fevers and night sweat. Subsequent ultrasound imaging demonstrated multiple hypoechoic foci within the spleen. A contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis was also obtained which showed hypoattenuating lesions in the spleen and bilateral kidneys. Bartonella henselae IgG and IgM titers were positive, consistent with an acute Bartonella henselae infection. The patient was discharged with a course of oral rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and all symptoms had resolved following two weeks of therapy. PMID:27127672

  8. Beyond cat scratch disease: widening spectrum of Bartonella henselae infection.

    PubMed

    Florin, Todd A; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Zaoutis, Lisa B

    2008-05-01

    Bartonella henselae was discovered a quarter of a century ago as the causative agent of cat scratch disease, a clinical entity described in the literature for more than half a century. As diagnostic techniques improve, our knowledge of the spectrum of clinical disease resulting from infection with Bartonella is expanding. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the microbiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic techniques, and treatment of B. henselae infection.

  9. Bartonella henselae AS A PUTATIVE CAUSE OF CONGENITAL CHOLESTASIS

    PubMed Central

    VELHO, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; BELLOMO-BRANDÃO, Maria Ângela; DRUMMOND, Marina Rovani; MAGALHÃES, Renata Ferreira; HESSEL, Gabriel; BARJAS-CASTRO, Maria de Lourdes; ESCANHOELA, Cecília Amélia Fazzio; NEGRO, Gilda Maria Barbaro DEL; OKAY, Thelma Suely

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Severe anemia and cholestatic hepatitis are associated with bartonella infections. A putative vertical Bartonella henselae infection was defined on the basis of ultrastructural and molecular analyses in a three-year-old child with anemia, jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly since birth. Physicians should consider bartonellosis in patients with anemia and hepatitis of unknown origin. PMID:27410916

  10. Fatal myocarditis-associated Bartonella quintana endocarditis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Bartonella spp. infection is not rare and must be considered with great care in patients with suspected infective endocarditis, particularly if regular blood cultures remain sterile. Management of these infections requires knowledge of the identification and treatment of these bacteria. Case presentation A 50-year-old Senegalese man was admitted to our Department of Cardiac Surgery with a culture-negative endocarditis. Despite valvular surgery and adequate antibiotic treatment, recurrence of the endocarditis was observed on the prosthetic mitral valve. Heart failure required circulatory support. Weaning off the circulatory support could not be attempted owing to the absence of heart recovery. Bacteriological diagnosis of Bartonella quintana endocarditis was performed by molecular methods retrospectively after the death of the patient. Conclusions This case report underlines the severity and difficulty of the diagnosis of Bartonella quintana endocarditis. The clinical picture suggested possible Bartonella quintana associated myocarditis, a feature that should be considered in new cases. PMID:19830188

  11. Bartonella henselae transmission by blood transfusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Marilene Neves; Vieira-Damiani, Gislaine; Ericson, Marna Elise; Gupta, Kalpna; Gilioli, Rovilson; de Almeida, Amanda Roberta; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; de Almeida Lins, Karina; Soares, Tania Cristina Benetti; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Bartonella spp. are neglected fastidious Gram-negative bacilli. We isolated Bartonella henselae from 1.2% of 500 studied blood donors and demonstrated that the bacteria remain viable in red blood cell units after 35 days of experimental infection. Now, we aim to evaluate the possibility of B. henselae transmission by blood transfusion in a mouse model. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Eight BALB/c mice were intraperitoneal inoculated with a 30μLof suspension with 104 CFU/mL of B. henselae and a second group of eight mice were inoculated with saline solution and used as control. After 96 hours of inoculation, the animals were euthanized. We collected blood and tissue samples from skin, liver, and spleen. Thirty microliters of blood from four Bartonella-inoculated animals were transfused into a new group (n=4). Another group received blood from the control animals. B. henselae infection was investigated by conventional and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS Blood samples from all 24 mice were negative by molecular tests though half of the tissue samples were positive by nested PCR in the intraperitoneal Bartonella-investigated animals. Tissues from two of the four mice that received blood transfusions from Bartonella-inoculated animals were also nested PCR positives. CONCLUSIONS Transmission of B. henselae by transfusion is possible in mice even when donor animals have undetectable bloodstream infection. The impact of human Bartonella sp. transmission through blood transfusion recipients must be evaluated. PMID:26968530

  12. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in an urban Indonesian cat population.

    PubMed

    Marston, E L; Finkel, B; Regnery, R L; Winoto, I L; Graham, R R; Wignal, S; Simanjuntak, G; Olson, J G

    1999-01-01

    We studied evidence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in 54 cats living in Jakarta, Indonesia. By using an indirect immunofluorescence assay, we found immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae in 40 of 74 cats (54%). The blood of 14 feral cats was cultured on rabbit blood agar plates for 28 days. Bartonella-like colonies were identified as B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae by using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of the PCR amplicons. Of the cats sampled in the study, 6 of 14 (43%; all feral) were culture positive for B. henselae; 3 of 14 (21%; 2 feral and 1 pet) culture positive for B. clarridgeiae. This is the first report that documents B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae infections in Indonesian cats.

  13. Bartonella henselae Infective Endocarditis Detected by a Prolonged Blood Culture.

    PubMed

    Mito, Tsutomu; Hirota, Yusuke; Suzuki, Shingo; Noda, Kazutaka; Uehara, Takanori; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    A 65-year-old Japanese man was admitted with a 4-month history of fatigue and exertional dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a vegetation on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation. Accordingly, infective endocarditis and heart failure were diagnosed. Although a blood culture was negative on day 7 after admission, a prolonged blood culture with subculture was performed according to the patient's history of contact with cats. Consequently, Bartonella henselae was isolated. Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative infective endocarditis. This case demonstrates that B. henselae may be detected by prolonged incubation of blood cultures.

  14. Bartonella henselae Infective Endocarditis Detected by a Prolonged Blood Culture

    PubMed Central

    Mito, Tsutomu; Hirota, Yusuke; Suzuki, Shingo; Noda, Kazutaka; Uehara, Takanori; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2016-01-01

    A 65-year-old Japanese man was admitted with a 4-month history of fatigue and exertional dyspnea. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a vegetation on the aortic valve and severe aortic regurgitation. Accordingly, infective endocarditis and heart failure were diagnosed. Although a blood culture was negative on day 7 after admission, a prolonged blood culture with subculture was performed according to the patient's history of contact with cats. Consequently, Bartonella henselae was isolated. Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative infective endocarditis. This case demonstrates that B. henselae may be detected by prolonged incubation of blood cultures. PMID:27746451

  15. Bartonella quintana deploys host and vector temperature-specific transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Abromaitis, Stephanie; Nelson, Christopher S; Previte, Domenic; Yoon, Kyong S; Clark, J Marshall; DeRisi, Joseph L; Koehler, Jane E

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Bartonella quintana is passed between humans by body lice. B. quintana has adapted to both the human host and body louse vector niches, producing persistent infection with high titer bacterial loads in both the host (up to 10(5) colony-forming units [CFU]/ml) and vector (more than 10(8) CFU/ml). Using a novel custom microarray platform, we analyzed bacterial transcription at temperatures corresponding to the host (37°C) and vector (28°C), to probe for temperature-specific and growth phase-specific transcriptomes. We observed that transcription of 7% (93 genes) of the B. quintana genome is modified in response to change in growth phase, and that 5% (68 genes) of the genome is temperature-responsive. Among these transcriptional changes in response to temperature shift and growth phase was the induction of known B. quintana virulence genes and several previously unannotated genes. Hemin binding proteins, secretion systems, response regulators, and genes for invasion and cell attachment were prominent among the differentially-regulated B. quintana genes. This study represents the first analysis of global transcriptional responses by B. quintana. In addition, the in vivo experiments provide novel insight into the B. quintana transcriptional program within the body louse environment. These data and approaches will facilitate study of the adaptation mechanisms employed by Bartonella during the transition between human host and arthropod vector.

  16. "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomacaque" and Bartonella quintana bacteremia in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Rohde, Cynthia M; Kelly, Catherine M; Ramaiah, Lila; Leach, Michael W; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2013-05-01

    Here, we report latent infections with Bartonella quintana and a hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in a research colony of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Sequence alignments, evolutionary analysis, and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of the hemotropic Mycoplasma 16S rRNA and RNase P genes indicate the presence of a novel organism.

  17. [Extraction and characterization of the lipopolysaccharide of Bartonella quintana

    PubMed

    Matera, G.; Liberto, M.C.; Pollio, A.; Diana, R.; Martucci, M.; Parlato, G.; Gulletta, E.; Foca', A.

    1999-01-01

    Bartonella quintana has been reported as the cause of trench fever, persistent endocarditis, bacteriaemia and has been isolated with an increasing incidence in clinical specimens from AIDS patients. One of the main pathogenic factors of gram-negative bacteria, including B. quintana, is the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, very little information is available on the features of Bartonella LPS. The aim of the present study was to extract, purify and characterise B. quintana LPS. The effect of the LPS under scrutiny was also evaluated on TNFa release by means of the "in vitro" human whole blood model of sepsis. The Oklahoma strain of B. quintana was grown on sheep blood agar, at 37 C, in a moist atmosphere containing 5% carbon dioxide. Cells were harvested and washed in sterile and apyrogenic saline solution and LPS extracted following the procedure of Westphal e Jann (1965), modified by Minnick (1994). The LPS of B. quintana showed the migration pattern of a deep rough chemotype, and the chromogenic limulus amoebocyte lysate test (LAL test) revealed strong reactivity at low concentrations (6.2 pg/ml). Samples of human whole blood stimulated by 1000 ng/ml of B. quintana LPS released 1707 378 pg/ml of TNFa.

  18. Assessment of persistence of Bartonella henselae in Ctenocephalides felis.

    PubMed

    Bouhsira, Emilie; Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Jacquiet, Philippe; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Liénard, Emmanuel

    2013-12-01

    Bartonella henselae (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) is a Gram-negative fastidious bacterium of veterinary and zoonotic importance. The cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is the main recognized vector of B. henselae, and transmission among cats and humans occurs mainly through infected flea feces. The present study documents the use of a quantitative molecular approach to follow the daily kinetics of B. henselae within the cat flea and its excreted feces after exposure to infected blood for 48 h in an artificial membrane system. B. henselae DNA was detected in both fleas and feces for the entire life span of the fleas (i.e., 12 days) starting from 24 h after initiation of the blood meal.

  19. Detection of Bartonella quintana in African body and head lice.

    PubMed

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Socolovschi, Cristina; Barker, Stephen C; Diatta, Georges; Rogier, Christophe; Olive, Marie-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Raoult, Didier

    2014-08-01

    Currently, the body louse is the only recognized vector of Bartonella quintana, an organism that causes trench fever. In this work, we investigated the prevalence of this bacterium in human lice in different African countries. We tested 616 head lice and 424 body lice from nine African countries using real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting intergenic spacer region 2 and specific B. quintana genes. Overall, B. quintana DNA was found in 54% and 2% of body and head lice, respectively. Our results also show that there are more body lice positive for B. quintana in poor countries, which was determined by the gross domestic product, than in wealthy areas (228/403 versus 0/21, P < 0.001). A similar finding was obtained for head lice (8/226 versus 2/390, P = 0.007). Our findings suggest that head lice in Africa may be infected by B. quintana when patients live in poor economic conditions and are also exposed to body lice.

  20. Detection of Bartonella quintana in African Body and Head Lice

    PubMed Central

    Sangaré, Abdoul Karim; Boutellis, Amina; Drali, Rezak; Socolovschi, Cristina; Barker, Stephen C.; Diatta, Georges; Rogier, Christophe; Olive, Marie-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the body louse is the only recognized vector of Bartonella quintana, an organism that causes trench fever. In this work, we investigated the prevalence of this bacterium in human lice in different African countries. We tested 616 head lice and 424 body lice from nine African countries using real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting intergenic spacer region 2 and specific B. quintana genes. Overall, B. quintana DNA was found in 54% and 2% of body and head lice, respectively. Our results also show that there are more body lice positive for B. quintana in poor countries, which was determined by the gross domestic product, than in wealthy areas (228/403 versus 0/21, P < 0.001). A similar finding was obtained for head lice (8/226 versus 2/390, P = 0.007). Our findings suggest that head lice in Africa may be infected by B. quintana when patients live in poor economic conditions and are also exposed to body lice. PMID:24935950

  1. Infection with Bartonella henselae in a Danish Family

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Ricardo G.; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Bradley, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species constitute emerging, vector-borne, intravascular pathogens that produce long-lasting bacteremia in reservoir-adapted (natural host or passive carrier of a microorganism) and opportunistic hosts. With the advent of more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, there is evolving microbiological evidence supporting concurrent infection with one or more Bartonella spp. in more than one family member; however, the mode(s) of transmission to or among family members remains unclear. In this study, we provide molecular microbiological evidence of Bartonella henselae genotype San Antonio 2 (SA2) infection in four of six Danish family members, including a child who died of unknown causes at 14 months of age. PMID:25740763

  2. Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana genotype C in head lice, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Diatta, Georges; Abdissa, Alemseged; Trape, Jean-François; Mediannikov, Oleg; Richet, Hervé; Raoult, Didier

    2011-12-01

    To determine the presence of Bartonella quintana in head and body lice from persons in different locations in Ethiopia, we used molecular methods. B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014).

  3. Differential effects of Bartonella henselae on human and feline macro- and micro-vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Berrich, Moez; Kieda, Claudine; Grillon, Catherine; Monteil, Martine; Lamerant, Nathalie; Gavard, Julie; Boulouis, Henri Jean; Haddad, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, a zoonotic agent, induces tumors of endothelial cells (ECs), namely bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis in immunosuppressed humans but not in cats. In vitro studies on ECs represent to date the only way to explore the interactions between Bartonella henselae and vascular endothelium. However, no comparative study of the interactions between Bartonella henselae and human (incidental host) ECs vs feline (reservoir host) ECs has been carried out because of the absence of any available feline endothelial cell lines.To this purpose, we have developed nine feline EC lines which allowed comparing the effects of Bartonella strains on human and feline micro-vascular ECs representative of the infection development sites such as skin, versus macro-vascular ECs, such as umbilical vein.Our model revealed intrinsic differences between human (Human Skin Microvascular ECs -HSkMEC and Human Umbilical Vein ECs - iHUVEC) and feline ECs susceptibility to Bartonella henselae infection.While no effect was observed on the feline ECs upon Bartonella henselae infection, the human ones displayed accelerated angiogenesis and wound healing.Noticeable differences were demonstrated between human micro- and macro-vasculature derived ECs both in terms of pseudo-tube formation and healing. Interestingly, Bartonella henselae effects on human ECs were also elicited by soluble factors.Neither Bartonella henselae-infected Human Skin Microvascular ECs clinically involved in bacillary angiomatosis, nor feline ECs increased cAMP production, as opposed to HUVEC.Bartonella henselae could stimulate the activation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in homologous cellular systems and trigger VEGF production by HSkMECs only, but not iHUVEC or any feline ECs tested.These results may explain the decreased pathogenic potential of Bartonella henselae infection for cats as compared to humans and strongly suggest that an autocrine secretion of VEGF by human skin

  4. Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in fleas from Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Mba, Pamela Angue; Marié, Jean-Lou; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Davoust, Bernard; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    A total of 155 fleas collected in 2009 in Lebanon from 16 cats (104 Ctenocephalides felis specimens, 1 C. canis specimen) and 2 dogs (50 C. canis specimens) were tested for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. using molecular methods, including real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), regular PCR, and sequencing of amplified PCR products. Rickettsia felis, the agent of the emerging flea-borne spotted fever in humans, was identified in 17 (16%) C. felis cat fleas. Bartonella henselae, an agent of cat scratch disease, was identified in three (2.9%) C. felis. Our results emphasize the potential risk of these emerging flea-borne infections in Lebanon.

  5. Clinical and Pathologic Evaluation of Chronic Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae Infection in Cats

    PubMed Central

    Kordick, Dorsey L.; Brown, Talmage T.; Shin, KwangOk; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    1999-01-01

    Human Bartonella infections result in diverse medical presentations, whereas many cats appear to tolerate chronic bacteremia without obvious clinical abnormalities. Eighteen specific-pathogen-free cats were inoculated with Bartonella henselae- and/or Bartonella clarridgeiae-infected cat blood and monitored for 454 days. Relapsing bacteremia did not correlate with changes in protein profiles or differences in antigenic protein recognition. Intradermal skin testing did not induce a delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to cat scratch disease skin test antigen. Thirteen cats were euthanatized at the end of the study. Despite persistent infection, clinical signs were minimal and gross necropsy results were unremarkable. Histopathology revealed peripheral lymph node hyperplasia (in all of the 13 cats), splenic follicular hyperplasia (in 9 cats), lymphocytic cholangitis/pericholangitis (in 9 cats), lymphocytic hepatitis (in 6 cats), lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis (in 8 cats), and interstitial lymphocytic nephritis (in 4 cats). Structures suggestive of Bartonella were visualized in some Warthin-Starry stained sections, and Bartonella DNA was amplified from the lymph node (from 6 of the 13 cats), liver (from 11 cats) heart (from 8 cats), kidney (from 9 cats), lung (from 2 cats), and brain (from 9 cats). This study indicates that B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae can induce chronic infection following blood transfusion in specific-pathogen-free cats and that Bartonella DNA can be detected in blood, brain, lymph node, myocardium, liver, and kidney tissues of both blood culture-positive cats and blood culture-negative cats. Detection of histologic changes in these cats supports a potential etiologic role for Bartonella species in several idiopathic disease processes in cats. PMID:10203518

  6. Bartonella quintana in body lice and head lice from homeless persons, San Francisco, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Denise L; Kabeya, Hidenori; Henn, Jennifer; Kramer, Vicki L; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2009-06-01

    Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that causes trench fever in humans. Past reports have shown Bartonella spp. infections in homeless populations in San Francisco, California, USA. The California Department of Public Health in collaboration with San Francisco Project Homeless Connect initiated a program in 2007 to collect lice from the homeless to test for B. quintana and to educate the homeless and their caregivers on prevention and control of louse-borne disease. During 2007-2008, 33.3% of body lice-infested persons and 25% of head lice-infested persons had lice pools infected with B. quintana strain Fuller. Further work is needed to examine how homeless persons acquire lice and determine the risk for illness to persons infested with B. quintana-infected lice.

  7. Managing iron supply during the infection cycle of a flea borne pathogen, Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mafeng; Biville, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. Most Bartonella species appear to share a natural cycle that involves an arthropod transmission, followed by exploitation of a mammalian host in which they cause long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia. Persistence in erythrocytes is considered an adaptation to transmission by bloodsucking arthropod vectors and a strategy to obtain heme required for Bartonella growth. Bartonella genomes do not encode for siderophore biosynthesis or a complete iron Fe(3+) transport system. Only genes, sharing strong homology with all components of a Fe(2+) transport system, are present in Bartonella genomes. Also, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme transport system. Bartonella must face various environments in their hosts and vectors. In mammals, free heme and iron are rare and oxygen concentration is low. In arthropod vectors, toxic heme levels are found in the gut where oxygen concentration is high. Bartonella genomes encode for 3-5 heme-binding proteins. In Bartonella henselae heme-binding proteins were shown to be involved in heme uptake process, oxidative stress response, and survival inside endothelial cells and in the flea. In this report, we discuss the use of the heme uptake and storage system of B. henselae during its infection cycle. Also, we establish a comparison with the iron and heme uptake systems of Yersinia pestis used during its infection cycle.

  8. [Fever of unknown origin and detection of Bartonella henselae IgG seropositivity: a case report].

    PubMed

    Celebi, Bekir; Yalçın, Ebru; Babür, Cahit

    2010-07-01

    Bartonella henselae, is a gram-negative bacterium which causes cat scratch disease (CSD) in man. There are sporadic case reports of CSD in Turkey. Cats play an important reservoir role for B.henselae transmission to man. In this report, a cat owner with fever of unknown origin was presented. Bartonella spp. was isolated from the blood culture of cat which had chronic progressive gingivostomatitis. B.henselae was identified by amplification of a region of citrate synthase (gltA) gene by using polymerase cha-in reaction and typed as genotype I by restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Following this identification the cat owner was investigated for the history of CSD and it was learned that he had a history of fever of unknown origin. The investigation of the patient's serum for the presence of specific B.henselae antibodies by immune fluorescence antibody test (Vircell, Spain) revealed B.henselae IgG type antibodies at a titer of 1:128. Gingivostomatitis in cats may act as a reservoir for Bartonella infection. Thus during the evaluation of patients with fever of unknown origin, Bartonella infections should be considered and possible contact with cats/dogs should be investigated.

  9. Bartonella clarridgeiae, B. henselae and Rickettsia felis in fleas from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Boudebouch, N; Sarih, M; Beaucournu, J-C; Amarouch, H; Hassar, M; Raoult, D; Parola, P

    2011-10-01

    A total of 554 fleas were collected in the Moroccan Casablanca and Tiznit regions from domesticated animals and ruminants between August 2007 and October 2008 and were tested for the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. using molecular methods. For the first time in Morocco, we found Rickettsia felis, the agent of flea-borne spotted fever in Ctenocephalides felis; B. henselae, an agent of cat scratch disease; and Bartonella clarridgeiae, a cat pathogen and potentially a human pathogen.

  10. Case series of Bartonella quintana blood culture-negative endocarditis in Washington, DC

    PubMed Central

    Ghidey, Fisseha Y.; Mills, Kristin; Lai, Leon; Woods, Christian; Ruiz, Maria E.; Fishbein, Dawn; Sampath, Rahul; Lowery, Robert; Wortmann, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prior studies (predominantly from Europe) have demonstrated blood culture-negative endocarditis due to Bartonella. Our objective was to describe three cases of Bartonella quintana endocarditis identified within one year at a large hospital in Washington, DC, USA. Case presentation: We constructed a descriptive case series from a retrospective review of medical records from April to December 2013 at an 800-bed urban hospital. All three patients (ages: 52, 55 and 57 years) were undomiciled/homeless men with a history of alcoholism. Although they had negative blood cultures, echocardiography demonstrated aortic/mitral valve perforation and regurgitation in one patient, aortic/mitral valve vegetation with mitral regurgitation in the second patient, and aortic valve vegetation with regurgitation in the third patient. The patients had positive Bartonella quintana serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) with negative immunoglobulin M (IgM). PCR on DNA extracted from cardiac valves was positive for Bartonella, and DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons identified Bartonella quintana. Patients received treatment with doxycycline/rifampin or doxycycline/gentamicin. Conclusion: Clinicians should consider Bartonella endocarditis as a differential diagnosis in patients who fit elements of the Duke Criteria, as well as having a history of homelessness and alcoholism. PMID:28348772

  11. Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a mother and son potentially associated with tick exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic, alpha Proteobacterium, historically associated with cat scratch disease (CSD), but more recently associated with persistent bacteremia, fever of unknown origin, arthritic and neurological disorders, and bacillary angiomatosis, and peliosis hepatis in immunocompromised patients. A family from the Netherlands contacted our laboratory requesting to be included in a research study (NCSU-IRB#1960), designed to characterize Bartonella spp. bacteremia in people with extensive arthropod or animal exposure. All four family members had been exposed to tick bites in Zeeland, southwestern Netherlands. The mother and son were exhibiting symptoms including fatigue, headaches, memory loss, disorientation, peripheral neuropathic pain, striae (son only), and loss of coordination, whereas the father and daughter were healthy. Methods Each family member was tested for serological evidence of Bartonella exposure using B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III, B. henselae and B. koehlerae indirect fluorescent antibody assays and for bacteremia using the BAPGM enrichment blood culture platform. Results The mother was seroreactive to multiple Bartonella spp. antigens and bacteremia was confirmed by PCR amplification of B. henselae DNA from blood, and from a BAPGM blood agar plate subculture isolate. The son was not seroreactive to any Bartonella sp. antigen, but B. henselae DNA was amplified from several blood and serum samples, from BAPGM enrichment blood culture, and from a cutaneous striae biopsy. The father and daughter were seronegative to all Bartonella spp. antigens, and negative for Bartonella DNA amplification. Conclusions Historically, persistent B. henselae bacteremia was not thought to occur in immunocompetent humans. To our knowledge, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the possibility of persistent B. henselae bacteremia in immunocompetent persons from Europe. Cat or flea contact was considered an unlikely

  12. Bartonella henselae infection in a family experiencing neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities after woodlouse hunter spider bites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella species comprise a group of zoonotic pathogens that are usually acquired by vector transmission or by animal bites or scratches. Methods PCR targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used in conjunction with BAPGM (Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium) enrichment blood culture to determine the infection status of the family members and to amplify DNA from spiders and woodlice. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) genotypes I-III, B. henselae (Bh) and B. koehlerae (Bk) were determined using an IFA test. Management of the medical problems reported by these patients was provided by their respective physicians. Results In this investigation, immediately prior to the onset of symptoms two children in a family experienced puncture-like skin lesions after exposure to and presumptive bites from woodlouse hunter spiders. Shortly thereafter, the mother and both children developed hive-like lesions. Over the ensuing months, the youngest son was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre (GBS) syndrome followed by Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). The older son developed intermittent disorientation and irritability, and the mother experienced fatigue, headaches, joint pain and memory loss. When tested approximately three years after the woodlouse hunter spider infestation, all three family members were Bartonella henselae seroreactive and B. henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood, serum or Bartonella alpha-proteobacteria (BAPGM) enrichment blood cultures from the mother and oldest son. Also, B. henselae DNA was PCR amplified and sequenced from a woodlouse and from woodlouse hunter spiders collected adjacent to the family’s home. Conclusions Although it was not possible to determine whether the family’s B. henselae infections were acquired by spider bites or whether the spiders and woodlice were merely accidental hosts, physicians should consider the possibility that B

  13. Does a feline leukemia virus infection pave the way for Bartonella henselae infection in cats?

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Alexandra U; Kershaw, Olivia; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Gruber, Achim D

    2010-09-01

    Domestic cats serve as the reservoir hosts of Bartonella henselae and may develop mild clinical symptoms or none after experimental infection. In humans, B. henselae infection can result in self-limiting cat scratch disease. However, immunocompromised patients may suffer from more-severe courses of infection or may even develop the potentially lethal disease bacillary angiomatosis. It was reasoned that cats with immunocompromising viral infections may react similarly to B. henselae infection. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of the most important viruses known to cause immunosuppression in cats-Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)-on natural B. henselae infection in cats. Accordingly, 142 cats from animal shelters were necropsied and tested for B. henselae and concurrent infections with FeLV, FIV, or FPV by PCR and immunohistochemistry. A significant association was found between B. henselae and FeLV infections (P = 0.00028), but not between B. henselae and FIV (P = 1.0) or FPV (P = 0.756) infection, age (P = 0.392), or gender (P = 0.126). The results suggest that susceptibility to B. henselae infection is higher in cats with concurrent FeLV infections, regardless of whether the infection is latent or progressive. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry for B. henselae failed to identify lesions that could be attributed specifically to B. henselae infection. We conclude that the course of natural B. henselae infection in cats does not seem to be influenced by immunosuppressive viral infections in general but that latent FeLV infection may predispose cats to B. henselae infection or persistence.

  14. Prostatitis, Steatitis, and Diarrhea in a Dog following Presumptive Flea-Borne Transmission of Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Pritchard, Jessica; Ericson, Marna; Grindem, Carol; Phillips, Kathryn; Jennings, Samuel; Mathews, Kyle; Tran, Huy; Birkenheuer, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is increasingly associated with a variety of pathological entities, which are often similar in dogs and human patients. Following an acute flea infestation, a dog developed an unusual clinical presentation for canine bartonellosis. Comprehensive medical, microbiological, and surgical interventions were required for diagnosis and to achieve a full recovery. PMID:24920774

  15. Neuroretinitis Caused by Bartonella henselae (Cat-Scratch Disease) in a 13-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Durá-Travé, Teodoro; Yoldi-Petri, Maria Eugenia; Gallinas-Victoriano, Fidel; Lavilla-Oiz, Ana; Bove-Guri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease-related neuroretinitis is a relatively unusual pathology, with suspicious clinical epidemiological and serological diagnosis. We present a case of an adolescent suffering from unilateral neuroretinitis associated with Bartonella henselae infection characterized by abrupt loss of vision, optic disc swelling, and macular star exudates with optimal response to antibiotic treatment. PMID:20628521

  16. Prostatitis, steatitis, and diarrhea in a dog following presumptive flea-borne transmission of Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Pritchard, Jessica; Ericson, Marna; Grindem, Carol; Phillips, Kathryn; Jennings, Samuel; Mathews, Kyle; Tran, Huy; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-09-01

    Bartonella henselae is increasingly associated with a variety of pathological entities, which are often similar in dogs and human patients. Following an acute flea infestation, a dog developed an unusual clinical presentation for canine bartonellosis. Comprehensive medical, microbiological, and surgical interventions were required for diagnosis and to achieve a full recovery.

  17. Bartonella quintana in head lice from Sénégal.

    PubMed

    Boutellis, Amina; Veracx, Aurélie; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Diatta, Georges; Mediannikov, Oleg; Trape, Jean-François; Raoult, Didier

    2012-07-01

    Head and body lice are strict, obligate human ectoparasites with three mitochondrial clades (A, B, and C). Body lice have been implicated as vectors of human diseases, and as the principal vectors of epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and Bartonella quintata-associated diseases (trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, chronic bacteremia, and chronic lymphadenopathy). Using molecular methods (real-time and traditional PCR), we assessed the presence of Bartonella quintana DNA in black head lice collected from three locations in Sénégal. DNA from B. quintana was identified in 19 lice (6.93%) collected from 7 patients (7%) in Dakar. B. quintana-positive lice collected from three subjects were identified as clades C and A.

  18. Does coinfection of Bartonella henselae and FIV induce clinical disorders in cats?

    PubMed

    Ueno, H; Hohdatsu, T; Muramatsu, Y; Koyama, H; Morita, C

    1996-01-01

    It was found that Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) may induce clinical disorders in cats in natural conditions from a comparison of the serological status for B. henselae with the serostatus for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and several clinical characteristics in 170 domestic cats. Seropositivity for B. henselae was not significantly different between FIV antibody-positive and -negative cats (18.4% vs 16.0%). The incidence of clinical characteristics were compared among four cat groups distinguished by the reactivity of sera against B. henselae and FIV. The incidence of lymph node swelling was lower in only FIV antibody-positive cats (3.0%), but higher in B. henselae antibody-positive cats (13.6%) and significantly higher in both B. henselae and FIV antibody-positive cats (42.9%) compared with the incidence of lymph node swelling in cats which were negative for both antibodies (5.5%). The same relation was also observed for the incidence of gingivitis among the 4 cat groups, suggesting that coinfection of B. henselae and FIV may be associated with gingivitis and lymphadenopathy in cats.

  19. Isolation of Bartonella henselae from a serologically negative cat in Bloemfontein, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, A M; Kelly, P J; Birtles, R J; Raoult, D

    1999-12-01

    Sera collected from apparently healthy 6-12-month-old cats (n = 31) presented to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Veterinary Clinic in Bloemfontein for neutering were tested for antibodies reactive to Bartonella henselae (Houston-1 strain) by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Whole blood collected from the cats was used in isolation experiments and subsequent identification of Bartonella species was based on comparison of the nucleotide base sequence of polymerase chain reaction-amplified citrate synthase gene fragments. While none of the cats had antibodies reactive with B. henselae at titres > or =1/64, an organism with a partial citrate synthase gene sequence identical to that of B. henselae (Houston-1) was isolated from 1 cat.

  20. Molecular detection of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in clinical samples of pet cats from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, M G; La Camera, E; Giacobbe, L; Orlandella, B M; Lentini, V; Zummo, S; Fera, M T

    2010-06-01

    Bartonella henselae is considered an emerging pathogen of veterinary and medical interest that can be occasionally transmitted to humans. Cats are considered to be the only reservoir host for B. henselae. In this study, we used a nested-PCR assay to investigate the prevalence of B.henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae DNA in peripheral blood samples, fine needle lymph node aspirate specimens and oral swabs from 85 cats in order to develop an easy diagnostic strategy for the selection of infection-free cats that are being considered as pets, especially for immunocompromised patients. Overall, molecular analysis showed that 71 cats (83.5%) tested PCR positive for the presence of B. henselae DNA. PCR amplification of DNA B. henselae produced positive products from lymph node aspirate specimens (62/85; 72.9%) similar to those obtained from blood samples (60/85; 70.6%) and higher than those from oral swabs (51/85; 60%) of cats. No PCR product was obtained for B. clarridgeiae. The simultaneous analysis of three different clinical samples in our study increased the diagnostic possibilities for B. henselae infection in the examined cats from 60-72.9% to 83.5%. Lymph node aspirates were found to be the most effective clinical samples for the detection of B. henselae and blood samples were the next best. Oral swab samples were used in this study with good results when considered in combination with blood and/or lymph node aspiration. The use of nested-PCR assay on these three clinical samples may enhance the diagnostic sensitivity for bartonellosis in cats irrespective of the clinical status of animals.

  1. Coexistence of Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae in populations of cats and their fleas in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Rizzo, Maria Fernanda; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Peruski, Leonard F; Kosoy, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Cats and their fleas collected in Guatemala were investigated for the presence of Bartonella infections. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 8.2% (13/159) of cats, and all cultures were identified as B. henselae. Molecular analysis allowed detection of Bartonella DNA in 33.8% (48/142) of cats and in 22.4% (34/152) of cat fleas using gltA, nuoG, and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer targets. Two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, were identified in cats and cat fleas by molecular analysis, with B. henselae being more common than B. clarridgeiae in the cats (68.1%; 32/47 vs 31.9%; 15/47). The nuoG was found to be less sensitive for detecting B. clarridgeiae compared with other molecular targets and could detect only two of the 15 B. clarridgeiae-infected cats. No significant differences were observed for prevalence between male and female cats and between different age groups. No evident association was observed between the presence of Bartonella species in cats and in their fleas.

  2. Genetic diversity of Bartonella quintana in macaques suggests zoonotic origin of trench fever.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Bai, Jie-Ying; Wang, Li-Yuan; Zeng, Lin; Shi, Yan-Sheng; Qiu, Zheng-Liang; Ye, Hua-Hu; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Lu, Qing-Bin; Kosoy, Michael; Liu, Wei; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2013-04-01

    Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that causes a broad spectrum of diseases in humans including trench fever. Humans were previously considered to be the primary, if not the only, reservoir hosts for B. quintana. To identify the animal reservoir and extend our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary history of B. quintana, we examined blood samples from macaques and performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis. We demonstrated the prevalence of B. quintana infection was common in macaques from main primate centres in mainland China. Overall, 18.0% (59/328) of rhesus macaques and 12.7% (39/308) of cynomolgus macaques were found to be infected with B. quintana by blood culture and/or polymerase chain reaction. The infection was more frequently identified in juvenile and young monkeys compared with adult animals. In contrast with the relatively low level of sequence divergence of B. quintana reported in humans, our investigation revealed much higher genetic diversity in nonhuman primates. We identified 44 new nucleotide variable sites and 14 novel sequence types (STs) among the B. quintana isolates by MLST analysis. Some STs were found only in cynomolgus macaques, while some others were detected only in rhesus macaques, suggesting evidence of host-cospeciation, which were further confirmed by phylogenetic analysis and Splits decomposition analysis. Our findings suggest that trench fever may primarily be a zoonotic disease with macaques as the natural hosts.

  3. Autochthonous epidemic typhus associated with Bartonella quintana bacteremia in a homeless person.

    PubMed

    Badiaga, Sékéné; Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2005-05-01

    Trench fever, a louse-borne disease caused by Bartonella quintana, is reemerging in homeless persons. Epidemic typhus is another life-threatening louse-borne disease caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and known to occur in conditions of war, famine, refugee camps, cold weather, poverty, or lapses in public health. We report the first case of seroconversion to R. prowazekii in a homeless person of Marseilles, France. This was associated with B. quintana bacteremia. Although no outbreaks of typhus have been notified yet in the homeless population, this disease is likely to reemerge in such situation.

  4. Encephalitis with convulsive status in an immunocompetent pediatric patient caused by Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Cerpa Polar, Rosario; Orellana, Gabriela; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Sánchez Carbonel, José; Santisteban, Javier; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Santisteban, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Cat scratch's disease caused by Bartonella henselae, is known to be a self-limited benign process in immunocompetent children. The association with neurologic manifestations is very uncommon especially in patient with no immunologic defects and in cases without specific treatment. A 7 years old male patient, without any immunocompromised defect, presented an atypic presentation of the cat scratch disease. The patient came to the hospital in two opportunities in a status epilepticus, in both cases the diagnosis was encephalitis by Bartonella henselae and the evolution with treatment was monitored with PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in cerebrospinal fluid and blood, as well as IFI (IgM, IgG) serology (indirect immunofluorescence). The patient had a favorable clinical and laboratory evolution for 6 months showing no recurrence of the disease.

  5. Acquisition and excretion of Bartonella quintana by the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis.

    PubMed

    Kernif, Tahar; Leulmi, Hamza; Socolovschi, Cristina; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Lepidi, Hubert; Bitam, Idir; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Bartonella quintana is transmitted by the infected faeces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium was detected in cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and in two humans with chronic adenopathy whose only risk factor was contact with cat fleas. In this study, a total of 960 C. felis were divided into 12 groups (2 control groups and 10 infected groups) each containing 80 fleas. The fleas were fed B. quintana-inoculated human blood at different dilutions (≈3.6 × 10(4) - 8.4 × 10(9) bacteria) for 4 days via an artificial membrane. Subsequently, all flea groups were fed uninfected blood until day 13 postinfection (dpi). On day 3 pi, B. quintana was detected with two specific genes by quantitative PCR in 60-100% of randomly chosen fleas per dilution: 52% (26/50) in the infected fleas in Trial 1 and 90% (45/50) of the fleas in Trial 2. B. quintana was also identified by molecular and culture assays in flea faeces. The average number of B. quintana as determined by qPCR decreased until the 11th dpi and was absent in both trials at the 13th dpi. Bacteria were localized only in the flea gastrointestinal gut by specific immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that cat fleas can acquire B. quintana by feeding and release viable organisms into their faeces. Therefore, fleas may play a role as vectors of trench fever or other clinical manifestations that are caused by B. quintana. However, the biological role of C. felis in the transmission of B. quintana under natural conditions is yet to be defined.

  6. [Subacute infectious endocarditis due to the agent of cat scratch fever: Bartonella henselae].

    PubMed

    Grand, A; Celard, M; el Belghiti, R; Ghadban, W; De Gevigney, G; Dabboura, A; Besnard, C; Ouanes, K; Huret, J F; Fichter, P

    2001-02-01

    The diagnosis of severe mitral stenosis with left atrial thrombus was rectified at valvular replacement in a 48-year old immuno-competent man who was a cat owner. The mass in the left atrium was, in fact, a large endocarditic vegetation. Pre- and postoperative blood cultures were negative as was culture of the excised mitral valve. The diagnosis of infectious endocarditis (IE) due to Bartonella Henselae was made from a positive serological test (1600) and identification of the germ by genetic amplification. Antibiotic therapy was continued for 6 months and the patient was cured with a follow-up of 4 years. Bartonella Henselae IE is very rare (14 reported cases) and affects mainly the aortic valve, often giving rise to very large vegetations which, in half the cases, are complicated by systemic emboli. Germs like Batonella are sensitive to most antibiotics, especially the aminosides and macrolides. In Bartonella Henselae IE, valve replacement is the rule (13 out of 14 cases) and the prognosis is usually good. Sero-diagnosis of Bartonellosis should be part of the systematic investigation of all blood culture negative IE.

  7. Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a veterinarian

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During a two year period, a 27-year-old female veterinarian experienced migraine headaches, seizures, including status epilepticus, and other neurological and neurocognitive abnormalities. Prior to and during her illness, she had been actively involved in hospital-based work treating domestic animals, primarily cats and dogs, in Grenada and Ireland and anatomical research requiring the dissection of wild animals (including lions, giraffe, rabbits, mongoose, and other animals), mostly in South Africa. The woman reported contact with fleas, ticks, lice, biting flies, mosquitoes, spiders and mites and had also been scratched or bitten by dogs, cats, birds, horses, reptiles, rabbits and rodents. Prior diagnostic testing resulted in findings that were inconclusive or within normal reference ranges and no etiological diagnosis had been obtained to explain the patient’s symptoms. Methods PCR assays targeting Anaplasma spp. Bartonella spp. and hemotopic Mycoplasma spp. were used to test patient blood samples. PCR positive amplicons were sequenced directly and compared to GenBank sequences. In addition, Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture was used to facilitate bacterial growth and Bartonella spp. serology was performed by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Results Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum DNA was amplified and sequenced from the woman’s blood, serum or blood culture samples. Her serum was variably seroreactive to several Bartonella sp. antigens. Despite symptomatic improvement, six months of doxycycline most likely failed to eliminate the B. henselae infection, whereas A. platys and Candidatus M. haematoparvum DNA was no longer amplified from post-treatment samples. Conclusions As is typical of many veterinary professionals, this individual had frequent exposure to arthropod vectors and near daily contact with persistently bacteremic reservoir hosts, including

  8. Studies on the growth of Bartonella henselae in the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Jessica L; Brown, Tracy P; O'Reilly, Kathy L; Wedincamp, Jimmy; Foil, Lane D

    2002-11-01

    Two out of three pools of cat fleas, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche), that were fed Bartonella henselae-positive cat blood for 3 d and then bovine blood for 3 d, were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for B. henselae. In a second experiment, three cats were inoculated with a streptomycin-resistant strain of B. henselae. After the cats were inoculated, caged cat fleas were fed on the cats during three different periods, and then pooled and transferred to noninfected recipient cats. In the first trial, the bacteria in the flea feces were below level of detection when the fleas were transferred from the infected cats to the recipient cat. After the fleas had fed on the recipient cat for 6 d, a bacteria level of 4.00 x 10(3) CFU/ mg was detected in the flea feces. Subsequently, the bacteria level increased for 4 d and then declined. In another experiment, the bacteria level in the flea feces was 1.80 x 10(3) CFU/mg at 2 h after collection and 3.33 x 10(2) CFU/mg at 72 h after collection. These data indicated that this strain of B. henselae can persist in flea feces in the environment for at least 3 d, and that B. henselae can multiply in the cat flea.

  9. Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae infection and correlation with disease status in cats in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Glaus, T; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Greene, C; Glaus, B; Wolfensberger, C; Lutz, H

    1997-11-01

    The prevalence of infection with Bartonella henselae was investigated in cats from different areas of Switzerland. Serum samples of 728 cats were examined for antibodies to B. henselae by immunofluorescent antibody testing, and the results were analyzed with a view to a possible correlation between a positive titer and signalment, clinical signs, infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline coronavirus (FCoV), or feline spumavirus (FeSFV), and the living environments of the cats. The seroprevalence in all cats was 8.3%. No significantly different prevalence was found in sick versus healthy cats (9.2 versus 7.2%); however, in sick cats seropositive for B. henselae, there was an increased frequency of stomatitis and a variety of diseases of the kidneys and the urinary tract. There was an increased prevalence of B. henselae in cats positive for FCoV (P = 0.0185) or FeSFV (P = 0.0235) and no statistically significant increased prevalence in cats infected with FeLV or FIV. There was no correlation between a positive titer and sex or breed. The same prevalence of B. henselae antibodies was found in cats with and without access to the outdoors and in cats from single- and multicat households. The seroprevalence was increased in cats living south of the Alps (12.1%); however, this difference was not significant (P = 0.0616).

  10. The Bartonella henselae SitABCD transporter is required for confronting oxidative stress during cell and flea invasion.

    PubMed

    Liu, MaFeng; Bouhsira, Emilie; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

    2013-10-01

    Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic pathogen that possesses a flea-cat-flea transmission cycle and causes cat scratch disease in humans via cat scratches and bites. In order to establish infection, B. henselae must overcome oxidative stress damage produced by the mammalian host and arthropod vector. B. henselae encodes for putative Fe²⁺ and Mn²⁺ transporter SitABCD. In B. henselae, SitAB knockdown increases sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide. We consistently show that SitAB knockdown decreases the ability of B. henselae to survive in both human endothelial cells and cat fleas, thus demonstrating that the SitABCD transporter plays an important role during the B. henselae infection cycle.

  11. Bartonella henselae Pap31, an Extracellular Matrix Adhesin, Binds the Fibronectin Repeat III13 Module

    PubMed Central

    Dabo, S. M.; Confer, A. W.; Anderson, B. E.; Gupta, Snehalata

    2006-01-01

    Bartonella henselae wound-associated infections suggest involvement of extracellular matrix molecules in adhesion and invasion. Pap31 was previously identified as a hemin-binding protein. Our recent studies suggest the protein is an adhesin that is recognized by the host's immune systems. In this study we examined the interactions of B. henselae Pap31 with fibronectin (Fn), heparin (Hep), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The cloned gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified Pap31 protein elicited strong antibody responses in mice and was reactive with rabbit anti-live B. henselae and mouse anti-Pap31 antibodies by Western blotting. Pap31 bound to immobilized Fn and to HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner and to Hep. Fn fragment-binding assays identified the Hep-1 and Hep-2 binding domains of human Fn and in particular the 12-13FnIII repeat module as primary binding sites for this adhesin. Furthermore, Pap31 binding to the above Fn fragments could be inhibited by Hep, suggesting a common binding site involving the 13FnIII repeat module on the Hep-2 domain of Fn. Adherence of intact B. henselae to HUVECs was inhibited by increasing concentrations of anti-Pap31 antibodies. In addition, purified Pap31 coprecipitated effectively with Fn and anti-Fn antibodies. Taken together, these data suggest that Pap31 is an Fn-binding protein mediating the B. henselae-host interaction(s), and they implicate the 13FnIII repeat module as an important binding site for this adhesin on the Fn molecule. These interactions may be important initial steps leading to bacterial attachment and colonization that promote the establishment of B. henselae infections in vivo. PMID:16622186

  12. Adhesion and host cell modulation: critical pathogenicity determinants of Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease and the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis, contains to date two groups of described pathogenicity factors: adhesins and type IV secretion systems. Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), the Trw system and possibly filamentous hemagglutinin act as promiscous or specific adhesins, whereas the virulence locus (Vir)B/VirD4 type IV secretion system modulates a variety of host cell functions. BadA mediates bacterial adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and triggers the induction of angiogenic gene programming. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is responsible for, e.g., inhibition of host cell apoptosis, bacterial persistence in erythrocytes, and endothelial sprouting. The Trw-conjugation system of Bartonella spp. mediates host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Filamentous hemagglutinins represent additional potential pathogenicity factors which are not yet characterized. The exact molecular functions of these pathogenicity factors and their contribution to an orchestral interplay need to be analyzed to understand B. henselae pathogenicity in detail. PMID:21489243

  13. A case of fatal disseminated Bartonella henselae infection (cat-scratch disease) with encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Fouch, Brandy; Coventry, Susan

    2007-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease resulting from Bartonella henselae infection is usually a benign, self-limited process in immunocompetent children. Even the rare cases associated with neurologic manifestations are not generally fatal. We report a case of a previously healthy 6-year-old boy with cat-scratch disease, systemic dissemination, and encephalitis that led to his death. Autopsy revealed perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates and microglial nodules in the brain. To our knowledge, this finding has not been previously reported in B. henselae infection, possibly because of the paucity of material available for complete neuropathologic evaluation. This case illustrates the extreme severity of the spectrum with which cat-scratch disease can present and provides evidence of brain histopathology that may be representative of the disease.

  14. Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Caused by Bartonella henselae: A Case Report of Molecular Diagnostics Informing Nonsurgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Patricia; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Raoult, Didier; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the pathogen responsible for culture-negative valve endocarditis often depends on molecular studies performed on surgical specimens. A patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome who had an aortic graft, a mechanical aortic valve, and a mitral anulloplasty ring presented with culture-negative prosthetic valve endocarditis and aortic graft infection. Research-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry on peripheral blood samples identified Bartonella henselae. Quantitative PCR targeting the16S-23S ribonucleic acid intergenic region and Western immunoblotting confirmed this result. This, in turn, permitted early initiation of pathogen-directed therapy and subsequent successful medical management of B henselae prosthetic valve endocarditis and aortic graft infection. PMID:27844027

  15. Impact of queen infection on kitten susceptibility to different strains of Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Drew A; Chomel, Bruno B; Burgos, Katlin; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Durden, Monica R; Mirrashed, Hannah; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P

    2015-11-18

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease in humans. In kittens, maternal IgG antibodies are detectable within two weeks postpartum, weaning in six to ten weeks postpartum and kittens as young as six to eight weeks old can become bacteremic in a natural environment. The study's objective was to evaluate if maternal antibodies against a specific B. henselae strain protect kittens from infection with the same strain or a different strain from the same genotype. Three seronegative and Bartonella-free pregnant queens were infected with the same strain of B. henselae genotype II during pregnancy. Kittens from queens #1 and #2 were challenged with the same strain used to infect the queens while kittens from queen #3 were challenged with a different genotype II strain. All queens gave birth to non-bacteremic kittens. After challenge, all kittens from queens infected with the same strain seroconverted, with six out of the seven kittens presenting no to very low levels of transitory bacteremia. Conversely, all four kittens challenged with a different strain developed high bacteremia (average 47,900 CFU/mL by blood culture and 146,893 bacteria/mL by quantitative PCR). Overall, qPCR and bacterial culture were in good agreement for all kittens (Kappa Cohen's agreement of 0.78). This study demonstrated that young kittens can easily be infected with a different strain of B. henselae at a very young age, even in the presence of maternal antibodies, underlining the importance of flea control in pregnant queens and young kittens.

  16. Prevalence of Bartonella quintana in patients with fever and head lice from rural areas of Sine-Saloum, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diatta, Georges; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Bassene, Hubert; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ratmanov, Pavel; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier

    2014-08-01

    Trench fever is poorly known by the staff of health facilities that manage febrile patients in Senegal. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in 5 of 274 (2%) febrile patients from two rural dispensaries and 2 of 71 (3%) head lice specimens collected from the same villages.

  17. Prevalence of Bartonella quintana in Patients with Fever and Head Lice from Rural Areas of Sine-Saloum, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Diatta, Georges; Mediannikov, Oleg; Sokhna, Cheikh; Bassene, Hubert; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ratmanov, Pavel; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Trench fever is poorly known by the staff of health facilities that manage febrile patients in Senegal. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in 5 of 274 (2%) febrile patients from two rural dispensaries and 2 of 71 (3%) head lice specimens collected from the same villages. PMID:24799368

  18. [Investigation of Bartonella henselae antibodies in serum and plasma samples of kidney transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Kiriş Satılmış, Ozgün; Akkaya, Yüksel; Ergin, Cağrı; Kaleli, Ilknur; Dursun, Belda; Aydın, Cağatay

    2012-10-01

    Solid organ transplantation is an important therapeutic choice to improve the life quality of patients with end-stage renal disease. Renal transplant recipients have to take immunosuppressive therapy to prevent transplant rejection. However, this treatment increases susceptibility to infection. Bartonella henselae causes systemic, disseminated and silent manifestations in healthy individuals, while the mortality rate is high in immunosuppressive patients in the case of untreated bartonellosis. The diagnosis of B.henselae infections is usually based on serological methods since they are practical, simple and rapid. Recent reports indicated that bartonellosis seen after liver or kidney transplantation have been increased. The aim of this study was to present the antibody seropositivity of B.henselae detected in the serum and plasma samples of renal transplant recipients. This study was aimed to evaluate the antibody seroprevalence in renal transplant recipients and also to compare the antibody results obtained from serum and plasma samples. A total of 59 renal transplant recipients (32 male, 27 female; age range: 20-65 years) followed by Transplantation Unit of Health, Research and Training Center of Pamukkale University, were included in the study. After suspension of lyophilised B.henselae ATCC 49882 (Houston-1); B.henselae co-cultivation to Vero cell culture was performed by the method recommended by Zbinden et al. [Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1995; 2(6): 693-5]. The cells were taken to co-cultivation in flasks after development of monolayers. In house immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) method was performed with the use of infected cell-coated slides. B.henselae antibodies were studied at 1/64 screening dilution both in serum and plasma samples. In our study B.henselae antibody positivity rates found in serum and plasma samples of the patients were 16.9% (10/59) and 6.8% (4/59), respectively (Cohen κ= 0.37). This detected kappa value indicated that the results of serum

  19. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii and Bartonella henselae in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from California.

    PubMed

    Wikswo, Mary Elizabeth; Hu, Renjie; Metzger, Marco E; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-two questing adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks were collected by direct removal from blades of turfgrass and adjacent concrete walkways at a suburban home in Riverside County, CA, and tested for the presence of Rickettsia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia DNA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify fragments of the 17-kDa antigen gene and the rOmpA gene of the spotted fever group rickettsiae. One male tick contained R. rickettsii DNA; its genotype differed from R. rickettsii isolates found in Montana and Arizona that cause Rocky Mountain spotted fever and from Hlp#2 and 364D serotypes. One male tick and one female tick contained B. henselae DNA. No Ehrlichia platys or Ehrlichia canis DNAs were detected using nested PCR for their 16S rRNA genes. These findings extend the area where Rickettsia rickettsii may be vectored by Rh. sanguineus. Rh. sanguineus also may be infected with Bartonella henselae, a human pathogen that is typically associated with fleas and causes cat scratch disease.

  20. Bartonella henselae infections in an owner and two Papillon dogs exposed to tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti).

    PubMed

    Bradley, Julie M; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Trull, Chelsea L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    After raccoons were trapped and removed from under a house in New York, the owner and her two Papillon dogs became infested with numerous rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti). Two weeks later, both dogs developed pruritus, progressively severe vesicular lesions, focal areas of skin exfoliation, swelling of the vulva or prepuce, abdominal pain, and behavioral changes. Two months after the mite infestation, the owner was hospitalized because of lethargy, fatigue, uncontrollable panic attacks, depression, headaches, chills, swollen neck lymph nodes, and vesicular lesions at the mite bite sites. Due to ongoing illness, 3 months after the mite infestation, alcohol-stored mites and blood and serum from both dogs and the owner were submitted for Bartonella serology and Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) enrichment blood culture/PCR. Bartonella henselae DNA was amplified and sequenced from blood or culture specimens derived from both dogs, the owner, and pooled rat mites. Following repeated treatments with doxycycline, both dogs eventually became B. henselae seronegative and blood culture negative and clinical signs resolved. In contrast, the woman was never B. henselae seroreactive, but was again PCR positive for B. henselae 20 months after the mite infestation, despite prior treatment with doxycycline. Clinicians and vector biologists should consider the possibility that rat mites may play a role in Bartonella spp. transmission.

  1. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W.; Borgo, Gina M.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  2. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in dog and cat fleas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and cats. A larger proportion of flea-infested dogs (69%) than cats (37%) harbored at least one C. felis infected with R. felis. Rickettsia typhi was not detected. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 6% (2 of 34) of C. felis collected from cats. Our study highlights the likelihood of human exposure to R. felis, an emerging agent of spotted fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease, in urban areas in Ethiopia.

  3. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella henselae in Dog and Cat Fleas in Central Oromia, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and cats. A larger proportion of flea-infested dogs (69%) than cats (37%) harbored at least one C. felis infected with R. felis. Rickettsia typhi was not detected. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 6% (2 of 34) of C. felis collected from cats. Our study highlights the likelihood of human exposure to R. felis, an emerging agent of spotted fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease, in urban areas in Ethiopia. PMID:24445204

  4. Distinct activities of Bartonella henselae type IV secretion effector proteins modulate capillary-like sprout formation.

    PubMed

    Scheidegger, F; Ellner, Y; Guye, P; Rhomberg, T A; Weber, H; Augustin, H G; Dehio, C

    2009-07-01

    The zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bh) can lead to vasoproliferative tumour lesions in the skin and inner organs known as bacillary angiomatosis and bacillary peliosis. The knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-triggered angiogenic process is confined by the lack of a suitable animal model and a physiologically relevant cell culture model of angiogenesis. Here we employed a three-dimensional in vitro angiogenesis assay of collagen gel-embedded endothelial cell (EC) spheroids to study the angiogenic properties of Bh. Spheroids generated from Bh-infected ECs displayed a high capacity to form sprouts, which represent capillary-like projections into the collagen gel. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system and a subset of its translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) were found to profoundly modulate this Bh-induced sprouting activity. BepA, known to protect ECs from apoptosis, strongly promoted sprout formation. In contrast, BepG, triggering cytoskeletal rearrangements, potently inhibited sprouting. Hence, the here established in vitro model of Bartonella- induced angiogenesis revealed distinct and opposing activities of type IV secretion system effector proteins, which together with a VirB/VirD4-independent effect may control the angiogenic activity of Bh during chronic infection of the vasculature.

  5. Molecular detection of zoonotic bartonellae (B. henselae, B. elizabethae and B. rochalimae) in fleas collected from dogs in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sofer, S; Gutiérrez, R; Morick, D; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S

    2015-09-01

    Fleas represent an acknowledged burden on dogs worldwide. The characterization of flea species infesting kennel dogs from two localities in Israel (Rehovot and Jerusalem) and their molecular screening for Bartonella species (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) was investigated. A total of 355 fleas were collected from 107 dogs. The fleas were morphologically classified and molecularly screened targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Of the 107 dogs examined, 80 (74.8%) were infested with Ctenocephalides canis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 68 (63.6%) with Ctenocephalides felis, 15 (14.0%) with Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and one (0.9%) with Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Fleas were grouped into 166 pools (one to nine fleas per pool) according to species and host. Thirteen of the 166 flea pools (7.8%) were found to be positive for Bartonella DNA. Detected ITS sequences were 99-100% similar to those of four Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae (six pools); Bartonella elizabethae (five pools); Bartonella rochalimae (one pool), and Bartonella bovis (one pool). The present study indicates the occurrence of a variety of flea species in dogs in Israel; these flea species are, in turn, carriers of several zoonotic Bartonella species. Physicians, veterinarians and public health workers should be aware of the presence of these pathogens in dog fleas in Israel and preventive measures should be implemented.

  6. Comparison of the proliferation and excretion of Bartonella quintana between body and head lice following oral challenge.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Previte, D J; Yoon, K S; Murenzi, E; Koehler, J E; Pittendrigh, B R; Lee, S H; Clark, J M

    2017-01-20

    Human body and head lice are highly related haematophagous ectoparasites but only the body louse has been shown to transmit Bartonella quintana, the causative agent of trench fever. The mechanisms by which body lice became a vector for B. quintana, however, are poorly understood. Following oral challenge, green fluorescent protein-expressing B. quintana proliferated over 9 days postchallenge with the number of bacteria being significantly higher in whole body vs. head lice. The numbers of B. quintana detected in faeces from infected lice, however, were approximately the same in both lice. Nevertheless, the viability of B. quintana was significantly higher in body louse faeces. Comparison of immune responses in alimentary tract tissues revealed that basal transcription levels of peptidoglycan recognition protein and defensins were lower in body lice and the transcription of defensin 1 was up-regulated by oral challenge with wild-type B. quintana in head but not in body lice. In addition, the level of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species generated by epithelial cells was significantly lower in body lice. Although speculative at this time, the reduced immune response is consistent with the higher vector competence seen in body vs. head lice in terms of B. quintana infection.

  7. Competence of Cimex lectularius Bed Bugs for the Transmission of Bartonella quintana, the Agent of Trench Fever

    PubMed Central

    Leulmi, Hamza; Bitam, Idir; Berenger, Jean Michel; Lepidi, Hubert; Rolain, Jean Marc; Almeras, Lionel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Bartonella quintana, the etiologic agent of trench fever and other human diseases, is transmitted by the feces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium has been detected in other arthropod families such as bed bugs, which begs the question of their involvement in B. quintana transmission. Although several infectious pathogens have been reported and are suggested to be transmitted by bed bugs, the evidence regarding their competence as vectors is unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Bed bugs at the adult and instar developmental stages were fed three successive human blood meals inoculated with B. quintana bacterium from day one (D1) to D5; subsequently they were fed with pathogen-free human blood until the end of the experiment. Bed bugs and feces were collected in time series, to evaluate their capacities to acquire, multiply and expel viable B. quintana using molecular biology, immunohistochemistry and cultures assays. B. quintana was detected molecularly in 100% of randomly selected experimentally infected bed bug specimens (D3). The monitoring of B. quintana in bed bug feces showed that the bacterium was detectable starting on the 3rd day post-infection (pi) and persisted until day 18±1 pi. Although immunohistochemistry assays localized the bacteria to the gastrointestinal bed bug gut, the detection of B. quintana in the first and second instar larva stages suggested a vertical non-transovarial transmission of the bacterium. Conclusion The present work demonstrated for the first time that bed bugs can acquire, maintain for more than 2 weeks and release viable B. quintana organisms following a stercorarial shedding. We also observed the vertical transmission of the bacterium to their progeny. Although the biological role of bed bugs in the transmission of B. quintana under natural conditions has yet to be confirmed, the present work highlights the need to reconsider monitoring of these arthropods for the transmission of human pathogens. PMID

  8. Structure of fructose bisphosphate aldolase from Bartonella henselae bound to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Gardberg, Anna; Abendroth, Jan; Bhandari, Janhavi; Sankaran, Banumathi; Staker, Bart

    2011-09-01

    Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) enzymes have been found in a broad range of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. FBPA catalyses the cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. The SSGCID has reported several FBPA structures from pathogenic sources, including the bacterium Brucella melitensis and the protozoan Babesia bovis. Bioinformatic analysis of the Bartonella henselae genome revealed an FBPA homolog. The B. henselae FBPA enzyme was recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzyme crystallized in the apo form but failed to diffract; however, well diffracting crystals could be obtained by cocrystallization in the presence of the native substrate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A data set to 2.35 Å resolution was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a=72.39, b=127.71, c=157.63 Å. The structure was refined to a final free R factor of 22.2%. The structure shares the typical barrel tertiary structure and tetrameric quaternary structure reported for previous FBPA structures and exhibits the same Schiff base in the active site.

  9. Ctenocephalides felis an in vitro potential vector for five Bartonella species.

    PubMed

    Bouhsira, Emilie; Ferrandez, Yann; Liu, MaFeng; Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

    2013-03-01

    The blood-sucking arthropod Ctenocephalides felis has been confirmed as a vector for Bartonella henselae and is a suspected vector for Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella quintana and Bartonella koehlerae in Bartonella transmission to mammals. To understand the absence of other Bartonella species in the cat flea, we have developed an artificial flea-feeding method with blood infected successively with five different Bartonella species. The results demonstrated the ability of these five Bartonella species to persist in C. felis suggesting an ability of fleas to be a potential vector for several Bartonella species. In addition, we demonstrated a regurgitation of Bartonella DNA in uninfected blood used to feed C. felis thus suggesting a potential horizontal transmission of Bartonella through C. felis saliva. On the contrary, no vertical transmission was detected in these artificial conditions.

  10. Isolation of Bartonella henselae DNA from the Peripheral Blood of a Patient with Cat Scratch Disease up to 4 Months after the Cat Scratch Injury

    PubMed Central

    Arvand, Mardjan; Schäd, Susanne G.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a girl with cervical lymphadenitis and a persistent primary lesion of cat scratch disease (CSD). Bartonella henselae DNA was isolated from plasma samples collected 3 and 4 months after the cat scratch, indicating that recurrent and long-term shedding of Bartonella DNA into peripheral blood may occur in typical CSD. PMID:16757642

  11. No evidence of Bartonella quintana but detection of Acinetobacter baumannii in head lice from elementary schoolchildren in Paris.

    PubMed

    Bouvresse, Sophie; Socolovshi, Cristina; Berdjane, Zohra; Durand, Rémy; Izri, Arezki; Raoult, Didier; Chosidow, Olivier; Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    The human body louse is the only known vector of Bartonella quintana. However, the presence of this bacterium has recently been detected in the head lice of homeless individuals and Nepalese slum children. Previous studies have reported the isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii from the body lice of homeless individuals. An epidemiological survey including 74 schools was conducted between 2008 and 2009 in Paris. After a first visual examination, the hair of children with suspected pediculosis was combed with a fine-tooth comb to collect live adult head lice. Molecular studies were performed on randomly selected DNA samples to detect B. quintana and A. baumannii by specific quantitative real-time PCR. Among a collection of 288 DNA samples, B. quintana was not detected, but A. baumannii was detected in 95 DNA samples (33%). Further study is needed to determine the significance of the finding of A. baumannii in head lice.

  12. Comparative microbiological features of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog with fever of unknown origin and granulomatous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Drut, Amandine; Bublot, Isabelle; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Chabanne, Luc; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2014-04-01

    We report the first documented case of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog from France and the first isolation of B. henselae from a dog with fever of unknown origin. This observation contributes to the "One Health" concept focusing on zoonotic pathogens emerging from companion animals. A 1-year-old female German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of fever of unknown origin of 1 month duration. Diagnostic investigations confirmed diffuse pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. The dog became afebrile, and lymph node size normalized in response to a 6-week course of doxycycline. Retrospectively, Bartonella DNA was amplified from an EDTA-anticoagulated blood sample obtained before antimicrobial therapy, with the gtlA fragment sharing 99 % identity with the 350-bp gtlA fragment of the B. henselae Houston-1 strain. The same strain was isolated in the blood of three healthy cats from the household. Two months after discontinuation of doxycycline, the dog experienced a febrile relapse. Bartonella DNA was again amplified from blood prior to and immediately after administration of a 6-week course azithromycin therapy. However, without administration of additional medications, PCR was negative 9 months after azithromycin therapy and the dog remains clinically healthy 12 months following the second course of antibiotics. The medical management of this case raises several clinically relevant comparative infectious disease issues, including the extent to which Bartonella spp. contribute to fever of unknown origin and pyogranulomatous inflammatory diseases in dogs and humans, and the potential of doxycycline and azithromycin treatment failures. The possibility that dogs could constitute an underestimated reservoir for B. henselae transmission to people is also discussed.

  13. Rapid, Sensitive Detection of Bartonella quintana by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of the groEL Gene

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shoukui; Niu, Lina; Luo, Lijuan; Song, Xiuping; Sun, Jimin; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Trench fever, caused by Bartonella quintana, is recognized as a re-emerging and neglected disease. Rapid and sensitive detection approaches are urgently required to monitor and help control B. quintana infections. Here, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which amplifies target DNA at a fixed temperature with high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity, was employed to detect B. quintana. Thirty-six strains, including 10 B. quintana, 13 other Bartonella spp., and 13 other common pathogens, were applied to verify and evaluate the LAMP assay. The specificity of the LAMP assay was 100%, and the limit of detection was 125 fg/reaction. The LAMP assay was compared with qPCR in the examination of 100 rhesus and 20 rhesus-feeder blood samples; the diagnostic accuracy was found to be 100% when LAMP was compared to qPCR, but the LAMP assay was significantly more sensitive (p < 0.05). Thus, LAMP methodology is a useful for diagnosis of trench fever in humans and primates, especially in low-resource settings, because of its rapid, sensitive detection that does not require sophisticated equipment. PMID:27916953

  14. First isolation of Bartonella henselae type I from a cat-scratch disease patient in Japan and its molecular analysis.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Soichi; Izumikawa, Koichi; Miyashita, Mayumi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Mikami, Takeshi; Yamanouchi, Hirotsugu; Sasaki, Eisuke; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Izumikawa, Kinichi

    2004-01-01

    We isolated Bartonella henselae from an inguinal lymph node of a 36-year-old male patient with cat-scratch disease. The patient had many areas of erythema on his body, swelling of the left inguinal lymph nodes with pain and slight fever. The diagnosis was made on the basis of polymerase chain reaction for B. henselae DNA from the lymph node biopsies and blood sample, and isolation of the organism, histology of the lymph node and serology with an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. We also analyzed the genome profiles for five strains of 90 isolates from the lymph node by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis after Not I endonuclease digestion. We found two different genomic profiles. These results suggest that the patient had been either co-infected or re-infected with two genetically different strains of B. henselae.

  15. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis, Bartonella henselae, and B. clarridgeiae in fleas from domestic dogs and cats in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Aida Syafinaz; Tay, Sun Tee

    2011-11-01

    The presence of Rickettsia felis, Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae in 209 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) obtained from domestic cats and dogs in several locations in Malaysia was investigated in this study. Using a polymerase chain reaction specific for the citrate synthase (gltA) and 17-kD antigenic protein (17kD) genes of rickettsiae, we detected R. felis DNA in 6 (2.9%) fleas. For detection of bartonellae, amplification of the heme-binding protein (pap31) and riboflavin synthase (ribC) genes identified B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae DNA in 24 (11.5%) and 40 (19.1%) fleas, respectively. The DNA of B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae was detected in 10 (4.8%) fleas. Two B. henselae genogroups (Marseille and Houston-1) were detected in this study; genogroup Marseille (genotype Fizz) was found more often in the fleas. The findings in this study suggest fleas as potential vectors of rickettsioses and cat-scratch disease in this country.

  16. Cat-bite-induced Francisella tularensis infection with a false-positive serological reaction for Bartonella quintana

    PubMed Central

    Petersson, Evelina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Tularaemia is caused by infection with Francisella tularensistransmitted via direct contact with an infected hare carcass or indirectly through the bites of vectors, but may be cat-bite-associated as well. Medical history and reliable diagnostic analysis are important in order to differentiate it from other cat-associated infections, e.g. Bartonella spp. Case presentation. A healthy 56-year-old man was examined because of a cat-bite-associated ulceroglandular wound on his right thumb. Nineteen days after the cat bite occurred, a serology test was positive for anti-Bartonella quintana, but negative for anti-F. tularensis. Since Bartonella infections are rare in Sweden, another serology test was analysed 2 weeks later with a positive result for anti-F. tularensis. The patient was treated with doxycycline for 14 days and recovered. The patient was re-sampled after 18 months to obtain a convalescent sample. The acute and the convalescent samples were both analysed at a reference centre, with negative results for anti-Bartonella spp. this time. Conclusion. This case is enlightening about the importance of extending the medical history and re-sampling the patient for antibody detection when the clinical suspicion of cat-bite-associated tularaemia is high. The false-positive result for anti-B. quintana antibodies may have been due to technical issues with the assay, cross-reactivity or both. PMID:28348802

  17. Novel Approach for Evaluation of Bacteroides fragilis Protective Role against Bartonella henselae Liver Damage in Immunocompromised Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Pagliuca, Chiara; Cicatiello, Annunziata G.; Colicchio, Roberta; Greco, Adelaide; Cerciello, Raimondo; Auletta, Luigi; Albanese, Sandra; Scaglione, Elena; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Pastore, Gabiria; Mansueto, Gelsomina; Brunetti, Arturo; Avallone, Bice; Salvatore, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease. Our previous data have established that Bacteroides fragilis colonization is able to prevent B. henselae damages through the polysaccharide A (PSA) in an experimental murine model. In order to determine whether the PSA is essential for the protection against pathogenic effects of B. henselae in immunocompromised hosts, SCID mice were co-infected with B. fragilis wild type or its mutant B. fragilis ΔPSA and the effects of infection on murine tissues have been observed by High-Frequency Ultrasound (HFUS), histopathological examination, and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). For the first time, echostructure, hepatic lobes length, vascular alterations, and indirect signs of hepatic dysfunctions, routinely used as signs of disease in humans, have been analyzed in an immunocompromised murine model. Our findings showed echostructural alterations in all infected mice compared with the Phosphate Buffer Solution (PBS) control group; further, those infected with B. henselae and co-infected with B. henselae/B. fragilis ΔPSA presented the major echostructural alterations. Half of the mice infected with B. henselae and all those co-infected with B. henselae/B. fragilis ΔPSA have showed an altered hepatic echogenicity compared with the renal cortex. The echogenicity score of co-infected mice with B. henselae/B. fragilis ΔPSA differed significantly compared with the PBS control group (p < 0.05). Moreover the inflammation score of the histopathological evaluation was fairly concordant with ultrasound findings. Ultrastructural analysis performed by TEM revealed no significant alterations in liver samples of SCID mice infected with B. fragilis wild type while those infected with B. fragilis ΔPSA showed the presence of collagen around the main vessels compared with the PBS control group. The liver samples of mice infected with B. henselae showed

  18. Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Previte, D; Olds, B P; Yoon, K; Sun, W; Muir, W; Paige, K N; Lee, S H; Clark, J; Koehler, J E; Pittendrigh, B R

    2014-04-01

    Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days post-infection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days post-infection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation.

  19. Differential gene expression in laboratory strains of human head and body lice when challenged with Bartonella quintana, a pathogenic bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Previte, D.; Olds, B. P.; Yoon, K.; Sun, W.; Muir, W.; Paige, K. N.; Lee, S. H.; Clark, J.; Koehler, J. E.; Pittendrigh, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Human head and body lice are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites that belong to a single species, Pediculus humanus. Only body lice, however, are vectors of the infectious Gram-negative bacterium Bartonella quintana. Because of their near identical genomes, yet differential vector competence, head and body lice provide a unique model system to study the gain or loss of vector competence. Using our in vitro louse-rearing system, we infected head and body lice with blood containing B. quintana in order to detect both differences in the proliferation of B. quintana and transcriptional differences of immune-related genes in the lice. B. quintana proliferated rapidly in body lice at 6 days postinfection, but plateaued in head lice at 4 days postinfection. RNAseq and quantitative real-time PCR validation analyses determined gene expression differences. Eight immunoresponse genes were observed to be significantly different with many associated with the Toll pathway: Fibrinogen-like protein, Spaetzle, Defensin 1, Serpin, Scavenger receptor A and Apolipoporhrin 2. Our findings support the hypothesis that body lice, unlike head lice, fight infection from B. quintana only at the later stages of its proliferation. PMID:24404961

  20. Molecular identification and phylogenic analysis of Bartonella henselae isolated from Iranian cats based on gltA gene

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Vahedi, Seyed Milad; Ashrafi, Iraj; Alipour, Faranak; Sharafi, Golnaz; Akbarein, Hesam; Aldavood, Seyed Javid

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important species of the Bartonella genus is B. henselae that causes a zoonotic infection, cat scratch disease (CSD). The main source of the bacteria is cat and the carrier is Ctenocephalides felis flea. One hundred and forty nail and saliva samples were collected from 70 domestic cats. Positive samples for B. henselae were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Sequences of gltA gene were trimmed using BioEdit software and then compared with the sequences of the same gene from B. henselae isolated from cats and humans in GenBank database. Phylogenic tree was constructed using CLC Sequence Viewer software and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method. Molecular assessments showed that five samples out of 70 nail samples (7.14%) and one sample out of 70 saliva samples (1.42%) were genetically positive for B. henselae. At least an 87.00% similarity was seen between the gene sequences from the current study and the reference sequences from the GenBank database. Phylogenic analysis has shown that strains isolated in this study were grouped in a different haplo group, compared to other strains. Among the Asian countries, the prevalence of the bacteria in Iran was close to that in Japan and Turkey. In conclusion, findings of this study showed the prevalence of B. henselae in Iranian cats which is important due to its public health issues, especially for the immunocompromised pet owners. PMID:27226890

  1. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae bacteremia, the causative agent of cat scratch disease, in an Australian cat population.

    PubMed

    Branley, J; Wolfson, C; Waters, P; Gottlieb, T; Bradbury, R

    1996-08-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of Bartonella henselae becteremia in an Australian cat population we examined blood cultures on a group of Sydney cats. Cats referred to the Concord Animal Hospital for euthanasia were selected randomly for blood culture and serum sampling. Blood samples were lysed and centrifuged and then cultured for up to five weeks. Suspicious colonies were identified biochemically as probable B. henselae. Selected isolates were confirmed as B. henselae using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the cats accrued throughout Sydney, 27/77 (35%) were culture positive for B. henselae, of these 24/59 (40%) were feral cats and 3/18 (16%) were domestic. Most cats in the study were younger than one year (mean 9.9 months). Our study demonstrates that bacteremia with B. henselae is common in the metropolitan cat population and suggests that it is particularly prevalent among feral animals. By contrast Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is a relatively uncommon clinical diagnosis in the Australian population. Explanations for this discrepancy may include poor transmission, low bacterial virulence and underdiagnosis. It is possible that feral animals are a greater potential risk source for this infection than domestic cats.

  2. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonellakoehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W; Borgo, Gina M; Stuckey, Matthew J; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined.

  3. Bartonella spp. antibodies in forensic samples from Swedish heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    McGill, Svena; Hjelm, Eva; Rajs, Jovan; Lindquist, Olle; Friman, Göran

    2003-06-01

    A high frequency of Bartonella elizabethae seropositivity (39%) was recorded among intravenous heroin addicts in Stockholm, Sweden, who died from a lethal injection. Some of the B. elizabethae-seropositive individuals also had antibodies to B. henselae Houston-1, B. grahamii, and B. quintana, but none had antibodies to B. henselae Marseille or B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii. Hepatitis was a frequent finding but no case had peliosis hepatitis. There was no case of endocarditis, but in three persons active subacute-to-chronic myocarditis was found; two of these cases were Bartonella-positive and HIV-negative.

  4. Heme Binding Proteins of Bartonella henselae Are Required when Undergoing Oxidative Stress During Cell and Flea Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, MaFeng; Ferrandez, Yann; Bouhsira, Emilie; Monteil, Martine; Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. These heme auxotroph alphaproteobacteria must import heme for their growth, since they cannot synthesize it. To import exogenous heme, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme uptake system enabling transportation of this compound into the cytoplasm and degrading it to release iron. In addition, these bacteria encode for four or five outer membrane heme binding proteins (Hbps). The structural genes of these highly homologous proteins are expressed differently depending on oxygen, temperature and heme concentrations. These proteins were hypothesized as being involved in various cellular processes according to their ability to bind heme and their regulation profile. In this report, we investigated the roles of the four Hbps of Bartonella henselae, responsible for cat scratch disease. We show that Hbps can bind heme in vitro. They are able to enhance the efficiency of heme uptake when co-expressed with a heme transporter in Escherichia coli. Using B. henselae Hbp knockdown mutants, we show that these proteins are involved in defense against the oxidative stress, colonization of human endothelial cell and survival in the flea. PMID:23144761

  5. Heme binding proteins of Bartonella henselae are required when undergoing oxidative stress during cell and flea invasion.

    PubMed

    Liu, MaFeng; Ferrandez, Yann; Bouhsira, Emilie; Monteil, Martine; Franc, Michel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Biville, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Bartonella are hemotropic bacteria responsible for emerging zoonoses. These heme auxotroph alphaproteobacteria must import heme for their growth, since they cannot synthesize it. To import exogenous heme, Bartonella genomes encode for a complete heme uptake system enabling transportation of this compound into the cytoplasm and degrading it to release iron. In addition, these bacteria encode for four or five outer membrane heme binding proteins (Hbps). The structural genes of these highly homologous proteins are expressed differently depending on oxygen, temperature and heme concentrations. These proteins were hypothesized as being involved in various cellular processes according to their ability to bind heme and their regulation profile. In this report, we investigated the roles of the four Hbps of Bartonella henselae, responsible for cat scratch disease. We show that Hbps can bind heme in vitro. They are able to enhance the efficiency of heme uptake when co-expressed with a heme transporter in Escherichia coli. Using B. henselae Hbp knockdown mutants, we show that these proteins are involved in defense against the oxidative stress, colonization of human endothelial cell and survival in the flea.

  6. Relevance of feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, feline herpesvirus and Bartonella henselae in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis.

    PubMed

    Belgard, Sylvia; Truyen, Uwe; Thibault, Jean-Christophe; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Hartmann, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    Despite its common occurrence, the aetiology of chronic gingivostomatitis in cats remains uncertain. Aetiology is likely multifactorial, and several infectious agents may be associated with chronic gingivostomatitis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of feline calicivirus (FCV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline herpesvirus (FHV), and Bartonella henselae (B. henselae) in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and in an age-matched control group. In addition, other factors, e. g., environmental conditions were investigated. In 52 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 50 healthy age-matched control cats, the presence of FCV ribonucleic acid (RNA), and FHV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (polymerase chain reaction [PCR] from oropharyngeal swabs), and B. henselae DNA (PCR from oropharyngeal swabs and blood), as well as FeLV antigen (serum), and antibodies against FCV, B. henselae, and FIV (serum) were examined. FCV RNA was significantly more common in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (53.8%, p < 0.001) than in controls (14.0%); a significant difference was also found in the prevalence of antibodies to FCV between the cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (78.8%, p = 0.023) and controls (58.0%). Of the other infectious agents investigated, there was no significant difference in the prevalence between the cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and the controls. The results of this study allow the conclusion that FCV, but no other infectious agents, is commonly associated with chronic gingivostomatitis in cats.

  7. Molecular evidence for Bartonella spp. in cat and dog fleas from Germany and France.

    PubMed

    Just, F T; Gilles, J; Pradel, I; Pfalzer, S; Lengauer, H; Hellmann, K; Pfister, K

    2008-10-01

    Nine hundred and fifty-two fleas were collected from 148 cats and 133 dogs at 18 widely distributed geographic locations in Germany and France and examined for the presence of six different Bartonella spp. (Bartonella bacilliformis, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii) by PCR. Thirty-five specimens (3.7%) tested positive for either B. henselae (14 positive fleas) or B. clarridgeiae (21 positive fleas). DNA of other Bartonella spp. were not detected. Bartonella clarridgeiae was the dominating species in samples from France (19 out of 22 positive fleas), whereas B. henselae was more frequent in Germany (11 out of 13 positive fleas). With 3.5% (22 out of 632 fleas) in France and 4.1% (13 out of 320 fleas) in Germany, the overall prevalences of pathogen did not vary significantly between the flea populations of both countries. 5.4% of cats in France versus 16.1% of cats from Germany were infested by fleas carrying Bartonella, whereas 9.5% of dogs in France but none of the examined dogs from Germany were infested by Bartonella positive fleas. The molecular evidence of Bartonella infections reveals that agents of zoonotic potential are established in flea populations in Germany and France and that the spectrum of species can vary significantly from country to country.

  8. [Pediatric pneumonia, pleural effusion, and pericarditis following cat scratch disease and serological cross-reactions among Bartonella henselae and Rickettsia japonica determined by indirect fluorescence antibodies].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Nobue; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Fukasawa, Chie; Furuya, Yumiko; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Tsukahara, Masato; Kohno, Yoichi

    2007-03-01

    Cat scratch disease is associated with a variety of systemic manifestations. We report a pediatric case associated with pneumonia, pleural effusion, and pericarditis. A 3-year-old boy developed prolonged fever unresponsive to antibiotic treatment, including azithromycin and minocycline. Although the fever resolved with corticosteroid treatment, Bartonella henselae IgG titer was positive in indirect fluorescence antibodies, as was Rickettsia japonica IgG titer. Both titers were significantly reduced by serum absorption with B. henselae antigens, and we observed a serological cross-reaction between B. henselae and R. japonica.

  9. Cat scratch disease, a rare cause of hypodense liver lesions, lymphadenopathy and a protruding duodenal lesion, caused by Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    van Ierland-van Leeuwen, Marloes; Peringa, Jan; Blaauwgeers, Hans; van Dam, Alje

    2014-10-29

    A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper abdominal pain and fever. At imaging, enlarged peripancreatic and hilar lymph nodes, as well as hypodense liver lesions, were detected, suggestive of malignant disease. At endoscopy, the mass adjacent to the duodenum was seen as a protruding lesion through the duodenal wall. A biopsy of this lesion, taken through the duodenal wall, showed a histiocytic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis. Serology for Bartonella henselae IgM was highly elevated a few weeks after presentation, consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Clinical symptoms subsided spontaneously and, after treatment with azithromycin, the lymphatic masses, liver lesions and duodenal ulceration disappeared completely.

  10. A bipartite signal mediates the transfer of type IV secretion substrates of Bartonella henselae into human cells

    PubMed Central

    Schulein, Ralf; Guye, Patrick; Rhomberg, Thomas A.; Schmid, Michael C.; Schröder, Gunnar; Vergunst, Annette C.; Carena, Ilaria; Dehio, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems mediate the transfer of macromolecular substrates into various target cells, e.g., the conjugative transfer of DNA into bacteria or the transfer of virulence proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The T4S apparatus VirB of the vascular tumor-inducing pathogen Bartonella henselae causes subversion of human endothelial cell (HEC) function. Here we report the identification of multiple protein substrates of VirB, which, upon translocation into HEC, mediate all known VirB-dependent cellular changes. These Bartonella-translocated effector proteins (Beps) A-G are encoded together with the VirB system and the T4S coupling protein VirD4 on a Bartonella-specific pathogenicity island. The Beps display a modular architecture, suggesting an evolution by extensive domain duplication and reshuffling. The C terminus of each Bep harbors at least one copy of the Bep-intracellular delivery domain and a short positively charged tail sequence. This biparte C terminus constitutes a transfer signal that is sufficient to mediate VirB/VirD4-dependent intracellular delivery of reporter protein fusions. The Bep-intracellular delivery domain is also present in conjugative relaxases of bacterial conjugation systems. We exemplarily show that the C terminus of such a conjugative relaxase mediates protein transfer through the Bartonella henselae VirB/VirD4 system into HEC. Conjugative relaxases may thus represent the evolutionary origin of the here defined T4S signal for protein transfer into human cells. PMID:15642951

  11. A bipartite signal mediates the transfer of type IV secretion substrates of Bartonella henselae into human cells.

    PubMed

    Schulein, Ralf; Guye, Patrick; Rhomberg, Thomas A; Schmid, Michael C; Schröder, Gunnar; Vergunst, Annette C; Carena, Ilaria; Dehio, Christoph

    2005-01-18

    Bacterial type IV secretion (T4S) systems mediate the transfer of macromolecular substrates into various target cells, e.g., the conjugative transfer of DNA into bacteria or the transfer of virulence proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The T4S apparatus VirB of the vascular tumor-inducing pathogen Bartonella henselae causes subversion of human endothelial cell (HEC) function. Here we report the identification of multiple protein substrates of VirB, which, upon translocation into HEC, mediate all known VirB-dependent cellular changes. These Bartonella-translocated effector proteins (Beps) A-G are encoded together with the VirB system and the T4S coupling protein VirD4 on a Bartonella-specific pathogenicity island. The Beps display a modular architecture, suggesting an evolution by extensive domain duplication and reshuffling. The C terminus of each Bep harbors at least one copy of the Bep-intracellular delivery domain and a short positively charged tail sequence. This biparte C terminus constitutes a transfer signal that is sufficient to mediate VirB/VirD4-dependent intracellular delivery of reporter protein fusions. The Bep-intracellular delivery domain is also present in conjugative relaxases of bacterial conjugation systems. We exemplarily show that the C terminus of such a conjugative relaxase mediates protein transfer through the Bartonella henselae VirB/VirD4 system into HEC. Conjugative relaxases may thus represent the evolutionary origin of the here defined T4S signal for protein transfer into human cells.

  12. Rodent-associated Bartonella Febrile Illness, Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Iralu, Jonathan; Bai, Ying; Crook, Larry; Tempest, Bruce; Simpson, Gary; McKenzie, Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Serum specimens from 114 patients hospitalized with a febrile illness were tested with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Bartonella antigens prepared from 6 species of sigmodontine rodents and 3 known human Bartonella pathogens: B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. elizabethae. Acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples from 5 of these patients showed seroconversion with an IFA titer >512 to rodent-associated Bartonella antigens. The highest titer was against antigen derived from the white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula), although this rodent is not necessarily implicated as the source of infection. Three of the 5 who seroconverted showed no cross-reaction to the 3 Bartonella human pathogens. Common clinical characteristics were fever, chills, myalgias, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and transaminasemia. Although antibodies to Bartonella are cross-reactive, high-titer seroconversions to rodent-associated Bartonella antigens in adults with common clinical characteristics should stimulate the search for additional Bartonella human pathogens. PMID:16836824

  13. Prevalence of Rickettsia felis and the first identification of Bartonella henselae Fizz/CAL-1 in cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Huang, Chin-Gi; Fang, Chi-Tai; Shu, Pei-Yun; Huang, Jyh-Hsiung; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2011-03-01

    Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis [Bouché]) are the primary ectoparasites of dog and cat populations. In this study, we report the monthly population dynamics of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. (two zoonotic pathogens that can cause human disease) in cat fleas collected from dogs and cats in Taipei, Taiwan, from December 2006 to December 2007. Natural R. felis infection in individual cat fleas was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using pRF-, ompB-, and gltA-specific primer pairs. Samples positive by PCR were confirmed with DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in cat fleas year round, and the average infection rate was 21.4% (90 of 420) in 2007. Cat fleas also play an important role in the transmission of Bartonella between reservoirs and other mammalian hosts. In this study, we used primer pairs specific for the Bartonella gltA and rpoB genes to detect Bartonella infections. Of the 420 cat fleas tested, 38 were positive by PCR for Bartonella. Sequence similarities to Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae were observed in 6.2% (26 of 420), 2.1% (9 of 420), and 0.7% (3 of 420) of the fleas, respectively. Based on the pap31 gene sequence, several amplicons of the B. henselae detected in the cat fleas could be subgrouped into three strains: Fizz/CAL-1 (n = 18), Marseille (n = 5), and Houston-1 (n = 3). These results demonstrate that cat fleas infected with R. felis are endemic to Taiwan, and highlight the role of C. felis in Bartonella transmission between reservoirs and other mammal hosts and demonstrate the genetic variability of B. henselae in Taiwan.

  14. [Investigation of Bartonella henselae seroprevalence and related risk factors in blood donors admitted to Pamukkale University Blood Center].

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Cansev; Ergin, Cağri; Kaleli, Ilknur

    2009-07-01

    Bartonella henselae is an emerging infectious agent that mainly causes cat scratch disease, basillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatitis. Although many basillary angiomatosis cases have been reported especially from the Mediterranean region of Turkey, adequate data about the seroprevalence of B. henselae in Turkey does not exist. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of B. henselae in volunteer blood donors and the related risk factors. In this study, sera samples were randomly collected from 800 (771 man, 29 women; age range: 18-60 years) voluntary healthy blood donors admitted to Pamukkale University Research and Training Hospital. B. henselae (Houston-1 strain) total antibodies were investigated by an in-house indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay. Seropositivity was detected in 6% (48/800) of the donors. B. henselae (Houston-1) antibody titer was 1/64 in 40 of the donors, 1/128 in 4, 1/256 in 2, 1/512 in 1 and 1/1024 in 1 of the donors. Statistical analysis of epidemiological and demographical data revealed that high seroprevalence rates have been found in rabbit stockfarmers (p = 0.004), students staying at hostels (p = 0.04) and people with history of tick-bite (p = 0.03). No significant statistical differences were found in each related groups in terms of age, sex, chronic disorders, sport activities, outside behaviors, being injured by any wild or domestic animals, working outdoors, geographical properties of the area of inhabitance, hunting and travelling (p > 0.05). One of the high titer (1/512) antibody positive subjects was a cat owner and had a history of phlebotomus bite, pediculosis and sporting in open area while 1/1024 titer positive case was a farmer and a dog owner. Our healthy blood donors' seroprevalence results are similar to those of other Mediterranean countries. The analysis of epidemiological data revealed that tick bite history and rabbit stockfarming were the risk factors for B. henselae infection. Variability

  15. [Comparison of the indirect immunofluorescence assay performance of Bartonella henselae antigens obtained by co-cultivation in Vero and HeLa cells].

    PubMed

    Ergin, Cağrı; Akkaya, Yüksel; Kiriş Satılmış, Ozgün; Yılmaz, Cansev

    2011-07-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Bartonella henselae infection is mainly based on serological testing by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Cell line co-cultivation with B.henselae and agar derivated antigens are the two major procedures used for evaluation of anti-Bartonella antibodies. Vero and Hep-2 cell lines are the most commonly used media for co-cultivation both in-house and commercial diagnostic kits production. However, HeLa cells which are easily supplied and grown, also can easily be infected by B.henselae. The aim of this study was to compare the performances of antigens obtained by co-cultivation of B.henselae ATCC 49882 (Houston-1) in Vero and HeLa Cells in IFA serology. Out of 381 sera samples, 127 (33.3%) were found positive and 195 (51.2%) were found negative by IFA performed by both cell line co-cultivations. The total agreement between the methods were found as 84.5% (322/381), and Cohen kappa value was calculated as 0.68 (strong, coherent). As a result, He-La cells were found to be useful for the preparation of B.henselae antigens to be used in IFA for the serologic diagnosis of B.henselae infections. However different genotype strains and cross reactions with other infectious agents should be investigated by further studies before routine applications of HeLa cell co-cultivations procedure is established.

  16. Molecular detection of Bartonella quintana, B. Elizabethae, B. Koehlerae, B. Doshiae, B. Taylorii, and Rickettsia felis in rodent fleas collected in Kabul, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Marié, Jean-Lou; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Briolant, Sébastien; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier

    2006-03-01

    The prevalences of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. were investigated using molecular methods in 77 rodent fleas collected in November 2002 by the French forces detachment in Kabul, Afghanistan. Overall, Bartonella DNA was detected in 15.5% of gerbil fleas and 40.5% of rat fleas, whereas Rickettsia felis was found in 9% of gerbil fleas. We described for the first time in this country Bartonella quintana, B. koehlerae, B. taylorii, and Rickettsia felis in fleas from the gerbil species Meriones lybicus, and B. elizabethae and B. doshiae in rat fleas. Of these, B. quintana, B. elizabethae, B. koehlerae, and R. felis are recognized human pathogens. These results emphasize the potential risk of flea-borne infections transmitted by rodents in this area, and suggest that preventive measures should be taken in the general framework of zoonoses management.

  17. Isolation of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella koehlerae subsp. koehlerae, Bartonella koehlerae subsp. bothieri and a new subspecies of B. koehlerae from free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) from South Africa, cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) from Namibia and captive cheetahs from California.

    PubMed

    Molia, S; Kasten, R W; Stuckey, M J; Boulouis, H J; Allen, J; Borgo, G M; Koehler, J E; Chang, C C; Chomel, B B

    2016-11-01

    Bartonellae are blood- and vector-borne Gram-negative bacteria, recognized as emerging pathogens. Whole-blood samples were collected from 58 free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) in South Africa and 17 cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) from Namibia. Blood samples were also collected from 11 cheetahs (more than once for some of them) at the San Diego Wildlife Safari Park. Bacteria were isolated from the blood of three (5%) lions, one (6%) Namibian cheetah and eight (73%) cheetahs from California. The lion Bartonella isolates were identified as B. henselae (two isolates) and B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The Namibian cheetah strain was close but distinct from isolates from North American wild felids and clustered between B. henselae and B. koehlerae. It should be considered as a new subspecies of B. koehlerae. All the Californian semi-captive cheetah isolates were different from B. henselae or B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae and from the Namibian cheetah isolate. They were also distinct from the strains isolated from Californian mountain lions (Felis concolor) and clustered with strains of B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri isolated from free-ranging bobcats (Lynx rufus) in California. Therefore, it is likely that these captive cheetahs became infected by an indigenous strain for which bobcats are the natural reservoir.

  18. The Bartonella quintana Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor RpoE Has a Role in Bacterial Adaptation to the Arthropod Vector Environment

    PubMed Central

    Abromaitis, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella quintana is a vector-borne bacterial pathogen that causes fatal disease in humans. During the infectious cycle, B. quintana transitions from the hemin-restricted human bloodstream to the hemin-rich body louse vector. Because extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors often regulate adaptation to environmental changes, we hypothesized that a previously unstudied B. quintana ECF sigma factor, RpoE, is involved in the transition from the human host to the body louse vector. The genomic context of B. quintana rpoE identified it as a member of the ECF15 family of sigma factors found only in alphaproteobacteria. ECF15 sigma factors are believed to be the master regulators of the general stress response in alphaproteobacteria. In this study, we examined the B. quintana RpoE response to two stressors that are encountered in the body louse vector environment, a decreased temperature and an increased hemin concentration. We determined that the expression of rpoE is significantly upregulated at the body louse (28°C) versus the human host (37°C) temperature. rpoE expression also was upregulated when B. quintana was exposed to high hemin concentrations. In vitro and in vivo analyses demonstrated that RpoE function is regulated by a mechanism involving the anti-sigma factor NepR and the response regulator PhyR. The ΔrpoE ΔnepR mutant strain of B. quintana established that RpoE-mediated transcription is important in mediating the tolerance of B. quintana to high hemin concentrations. We present the first analysis of an ECF15 sigma factor in a vector-borne human pathogen and conclude that RpoE has a role in the adaptation of B. quintana to the hemin-rich arthropod vector environment. PMID:23564167

  19. Unknown fever and back pain caused by Bartonella henselae in a veterinarian after a needle puncture: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jen-Wei; Chen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2011-05-01

    Bartonella henselae, the etiologic agent of cat-scratch disease, rarely causes back pain and is considered to be transmitted through animal scratches and bites. Here we report a cat-scratch disease case possibly with an unusual route of transmission. The patient was a 32-year-old man, and he was working as a veterinarian in a private veterinary clinic. He sought for clinical help because of unknown fever and persistent back pain for at least a month after an accidental needle puncture. Through serological testing and molecular identifications, this clinical case was confirmed to be caused by B. henselae.

  20. A report of cat scratch disease in Korea confirmed by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region of Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Suh, Borum; Chun, Jin-Kyoung; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Yang Soon; Jeong, Seok Hoon; Yang, Woo Ick; Kim, Dong Soo

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of cat scratch disease in an 8-yr-old girl who presented with fever and enlargement of both axillary lymph nodes. Both aerobic and anaerobic cultures of the lymph node aspirate were negative for microbial growth. Gram staining and Warthin-Starry silver staining did not reveal any organism. Purified DNA from the PCR-amplicon of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic region was sequenced and showed 99.7% identity with the corresponding sequence of Bartonella henselae strain Houston-1. Our findings suggest that the internal transcribed spacer is a reliable region for PCR identification of Bartonella species. In patients with lymphadenitis, a history of contact with cats or dogs necessitates the use of diagnostic approaches that employ not only the conventional staining and culture but also molecular methods to detect B. henselae.

  1. [Bartonella henselae as the causative agent in cat-scratch disease: case report].

    PubMed

    Dzelalija, B; Avsic-Zupanc, T

    2001-01-01

    In this article we reported typical clinical, primary skin lesion and regional lymphadenitis, and atypical, protracted fever and algic syndrome, characteristics of cat scratch disease (CSD) in a 21-year-old man (a student) from Zadar, Croatia. Laboratory parameters were in normal range. The histopathologic findings of affected lymph nodes included stellate caseating granulomas. By using IFA method a seroconversion of specific IgG antibodies (neg/1:512) and rise of IgM antibodies (1:160/ > 1:320) to B. henselae were detected in paired sera, and these serologic findings indicate on conclusion that B. henselae is probably etiologic agent of CSD in our patient.

  2. Real-time and multiplex real-time polymerase chain reactions for the detection of Bartonella henselae within cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, samples.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M T; Morgan, E R; Woods, D; Shaw, S E

    2010-12-01

    Bartonella henselae (Rhizobiales: Bartonellacae), the agent of cat-scratch disease, is an emerging bacterial pathogen which can be transmitted via infective faecal material of Ctenocephalides felis Bouché (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Worldwide, B. henselae has been identified in 1-53% of felines and 2.9-17.4% of fleas. Although culture is the routine method for detection, the procedure is time-consuming and is rarely used for isolation directly from flea vectors. The current study reports the development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to detect and quantify B. henselae organisms from vector samples. The qPCR is specific and detects as few as 2.5 genome copies. To enable direct quantification of Bartonella organisms in different vector samples, we developed a qPCR to detect C. felis DNA that also acts as an extraction control. Combining both PCRs into a multiplex format validates B. henselae results when sampling flea populations, although there is a reduction in sensitivity. This reduction might be counteracted by a different combination of probe fluorophores.

  3. Study of Genotypes and virB4 Secretion Gene of Bartonella henselae Strains from Patients with Clinically Defined Cat Scratch Disease

    PubMed Central

    Woestyn, Sophie; Olivé, Nathalie; Bigaignon, Geoffroy; Avesani, Véronique; Delmée, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), which usually presents as a self-limiting lymphadenopathy. Occasionally, the bacteria will spread and be responsible for tissue and visceral involvement. Two B. henselae genotypes (genotypes I and II) have been described to be responsible for uncomplicated CSD on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. A type IV secretion system (T4SS) similar to the virulence-associated VirB system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was recently identified in the B. henselae Houston-1 genotype I strain. We studied the correlations of the B. henselae genotypes with the clinical presentations and with the presence of T4SS. Isolates originated from CSD patients whose lymph nodes were prospectively analyzed. B. henselae genotype I was identified in 13 of 42 patients (30%). Among these, two teenage twins presented with hepatosplenic CSD and one immunocompetent adult presented with osteomyelitis. Genotype II was detected in 28 of 42 patients (67%), all of whom presented with uncomplicated CSD. The last patient was infected with both genotypes. T4SS was studied by PCR amplification of the virB4 gene. Amplification of virB4 codons 146 to 256, 273 to 357, and 480 to 537 enabled us to detect 66, 90, and 100% of the B. henselae isolates, respectively. Sequence analysis revealed sequence variations that correlated with genotype distribution. Our studies suggest that B. henselae genotype I strains harbor virB4 genes that are different from those harbored by genotype II strains and that genotype I strains might be more pathogenic. PMID:15070983

  4. Distribution of Bartonella henselae variants in patients, reservoir hosts and vectors in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gil, Horacio; Escudero, Raquel; Pons, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; García-Esteban, Coral; Rodríguez-Moreno, Isabel; García-Amil, Cristina; Lobo, Bruno; Valcárcel, Félix; Pérez, Azucena; Jiménez, Santos; Jado, Isabel; Juste, Ramón; Segura, Ferrán; Anda, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the diversity of B. henselae circulating in patients, reservoir hosts and vectors in Spain. In total, we have fully characterized 53 clinical samples from 46 patients, as well as 78 B. henselae isolates obtained from 35 cats from La Rioja and Catalonia (northeastern Spain), four positive cat blood samples from which no isolates were obtained, and three positive fleas by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis. This study represents the largest series of human cases characterized with these methods, with 10 different sequence types and 41 MLVA profiles. Two of the sequence types and 35 of the profiles were not described previously. Most of the B. henselae variants belonged to ST5. Also, we have identified a common profile (72) which is well distributed in Spain and was found to persist over time. Indeed, this profile seems to be the origin from which most of the variants identified in this study have been generated. In addition, ST5, ST6 and ST9 were found associated with felines, whereas ST1, ST5 and ST8 were the most frequent sequence types found infecting humans. Interestingly, some of the feline associated variants never found on patients were located in a separate clade, which could represent a group of strains less pathogenic for humans.

  5. Distribution of Bartonella henselae Variants in Patients, Reservoir Hosts and Vectors in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Horacio; Escudero, Raquel; Pons, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; García-Esteban, Coral; Rodríguez-Moreno, Isabel; García-Amil, Cristina; Lobo, Bruno; Valcárcel, Félix; Pérez, Azucena; Jiménez, Santos; Jado, Isabel; Juste, Ramón; Segura, Ferrán; Anda, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the diversity of B. henselae circulating in patients, reservoir hosts and vectors in Spain. In total, we have fully characterized 53 clinical samples from 46 patients, as well as 78 B. henselae isolates obtained from 35 cats from La Rioja and Catalonia (northeastern Spain), four positive cat blood samples from which no isolates were obtained, and three positive fleas by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis. This study represents the largest series of human cases characterized with these methods, with 10 different sequence types and 41 MLVA profiles. Two of the sequence types and 35 of the profiles were not described previously. Most of the B. henselae variants belonged to ST5. Also, we have identified a common profile (72) which is well distributed in Spain and was found to persist over time. Indeed, this profile seems to be the origin from which most of the variants identified in this study have been generated. In addition, ST5, ST6 and ST9 were found associated with felines, whereas ST1, ST5 and ST8 were the most frequent sequence types found infecting humans. Interestingly, some of the feline associated variants never found on patients were located in a separate clade, which could represent a group of strains less pathogenic for humans. PMID:23874563

  6. Analysis of Endothelial Adherence of Bartonella henselae and Acinetobacter baumannii Using a Dynamic Human Ex Vivo Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Weidensdorfer, Marko; Chae, Ju Ik; Makobe, Celestine; Stahl, Julia; Averhoff, Beate; Müller, Volker; Schürmann, Christoph; Brandes, Ralf P; Wilharm, Gottfried; Ballhorn, Wibke; Christ, Sara; Linke, Dirk; Fischer, Doris; Göttig, Stephan; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2015-12-28

    Bacterial adherence determines the virulence of many human-pathogenic bacteria. Experimental approaches elucidating this early infection event in greater detail have been performed using mainly methods of cellular microbiology. However, in vitro infections of cell monolayers reflect the in vivo situation only partially, and animal infection models are not available for many human-pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, ex vivo infection of human organs might represent an attractive method to overcome these limitations. We infected whole human umbilical cords ex vivo with Bartonella henselae or Acinetobacter baumannii under dynamic flow conditions mimicking the in vivo infection situation of human endothelium. For this purpose, methods for quantifying endothelium-adherent wild-type and trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA)-deficient bacteria were set up. Data revealed that (i) A. baumannii binds in a TAA-dependent manner to endothelial cells, (ii) this organ infection model led to highly reproducible adherence rates, and furthermore, (iii) this model allowed to dissect the biological function of TAAs in the natural course of human infections. These findings indicate that infection models using ex vivo human tissue samples ("organ microbiology") might be a valuable tool in analyzing bacterial pathogenicity with the capacity to replace animal infection models at least partially.

  7. Small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets serve as new reservoirs of Bartonella henselae and potential sources of infection for humans.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Kabeya, H; Shigematsu, Y; Sentsui, H; Une, Y; Minami, M; Murata, K; Ogura, G; Maruyama, S

    2013-12-01

    The prevalence and genetic properties of Bartonella species were investigated in small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets in Japan. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD) was isolated from 15.9% (10/63) of the mongooses and 2.0% (1/50) of the masked palm civets, respectively. The bacteraemic level ranged from 3.0 × 10(1) to 8.9 × 10(3) CFU/mL in mongooses and was 7.0 × 10(3) CFU/mL in the masked palm civet. Multispacer typing (MST) analysis based on nine intergenic spacers resulted in the detection of five MST genotypes (MSTs 8, 14, 37, 58 and 59) for the isolates, which grouped in lineage 1 with MST genotypes of isolates from all CSD patients and most of the cats in Japan. It was also found that MST14 from the mongoose strains was the predominant genotype of cat and human strains. This is the first report on the isolation of B. henselae from small Indian mongooses and masked palm civets. The data obtained in the present study suggest that these animals serve as new reservoirs for B. henselae, and may play a role as potential sources of human infection.

  8. Bartonella entry mechanisms into mammalian host cells.

    PubMed

    Eicher, Simone C; Dehio, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The Gram-negative genus Bartonella comprises arthropod-borne pathogens that typically infect mammals in a host-specific manner. Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella quintana are human-specific pathogens, while several zoonotic bartonellae specific for diverse animal hosts infect humans as an incidental host. Clinical manifestations of Bartonella infections range from mild symptoms to life-threatening disease. Following transmission by blood-sucking arthropods or traumatic contact with infected animals, bartonellae display sequential tropisms towards endothelial and possibly other nucleated cells and erythrocytes, the latter in a host-specific manner. Attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to nucleated cells is mediated by surface-exposed bacterial adhesins, in particular trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs). The subsequent engulfment of the pathogen into a vacuolar structure follows a unique series of events whereby the pathogen avoids the endolysosomal compartments. For Bartonella henselae and assumingly most other species, the infection process is aided at different steps by Bartonella effector proteins (Beps). They are injected into host cells through the type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB/D4 and subvert host cellular functions to favour pathogen uptake. Bacterial binding to erythrocytes is mediated by Trw, another T4SS, in a strictly host-specific manner, followed by pathogen-forced uptake involving the IalB invasin and subsequent replication and persistence within a membrane-bound intra-erythrocytic compartment.

  9. Bartonella quintana lipopolysaccharide (LPS): structure and characteristics of a potent TLR4 antagonist for in-vitro and in-vivo applications.

    PubMed

    Malgorzata-Miller, Gosia; Heinbockel, Lena; Brandenburg, Klaus; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2016-09-27

    The pattern recognition receptor TLR4 is well known as a crucial receptor during infection and inflammation. Several TLR4 antagonists have been reported to inhibit the function of TLR4. Both natural occurring antagonists, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria as well as synthetic compounds based on the lipid A structure of LPS have been described as potent inhibitors of TLR4. Here, we have examined the characteristics of a natural TLR4 antagonist, isolated from Bartonella quintana bacterium by elucidating its chemical primary structure. We have found that this TLR4 antagonist is actually a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) instead of a LPS, and that it acts very effective, with a high inhibitory activity against triggering by the LPS-TLR4 system in the presence of a potent TLR4 agonist (E. coli LPS). Furthermore, we demonstrate that B. quintana LPS is not inactivated by polymyxin B, a classical cyclic cationic polypeptide antibiotic that bind the lipid A part of LPS, such as E. coli LPS. Using a murine LPS/D-galactosamine endotoxaemia model we showed that treatment with B. quintana LPS could improve the survival rate significantly. Since endogenous TLR4 ligands have been associated with several inflammatory- and immune-diseases, B. quintana LPS might be a novel therapeutic strategy for TLR4-driven pathologies.

  10. Bartonella quintana lipopolysaccharide (LPS): structure and characteristics of a potent TLR4 antagonist for in-vitro and in-vivo applications

    PubMed Central

    Malgorzata-Miller, Gosia; Heinbockel, Lena; Brandenburg, Klaus; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Netea, Mihai G.; Joosten, Leo A. B.

    2016-01-01

    The pattern recognition receptor TLR4 is well known as a crucial receptor during infection and inflammation. Several TLR4 antagonists have been reported to inhibit the function of TLR4. Both natural occurring antagonists, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria as well as synthetic compounds based on the lipid A structure of LPS have been described as potent inhibitors of TLR4. Here, we have examined the characteristics of a natural TLR4 antagonist, isolated from Bartonella quintana bacterium by elucidating its chemical primary structure. We have found that this TLR4 antagonist is actually a lipooligosaccharide (LOS) instead of a LPS, and that it acts very effective, with a high inhibitory activity against triggering by the LPS-TLR4 system in the presence of a potent TLR4 agonist (E. coli LPS). Furthermore, we demonstrate that B. quintana LPS is not inactivated by polymyxin B, a classical cyclic cationic polypeptide antibiotic that bind the lipid A part of LPS, such as E. coli LPS. Using a murine LPS/D-galactosamine endotoxaemia model we showed that treatment with B. quintana LPS could improve the survival rate significantly. Since endogenous TLR4 ligands have been associated with several inflammatory- and immune-diseases, B. quintana LPS might be a novel therapeutic strategy for TLR4-driven pathologies. PMID:27670746

  11. A New Clade of African Body and Head Lice Infected by Bartonella quintana and Yersinia pestis-Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Drali, Rezak; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Davoust, Bernard; Diatta, Georges; Raoult, Didier

    2015-11-01

    The human body louse is known as a vector for the transmission of three serious diseases-specifically, epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis, respectively-that have killed millions of people. It is also suspected in the transmission of a fourth pathogen, Yersinia pestis, which is the etiologic agent of plague. To date, human lice belonging to the genus Pediculus have been classified into three mitochondrial clades: A, B, and C. Here, we describe a fourth mitochondrial clade, Clade D, comprising head and body lice. Clade D may be a vector of B. quintana and Y. pestis, which is prevalent in a highly plague-endemic area near the Rethy Health District, Orientale Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  12. A New Clade of African Body and Head Lice Infected by Bartonella quintana and Yersinia pestis—Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Drali, Rezak; Shako, Jean-Christophe; Davoust, Bernard; Diatta, Georges; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The human body louse is known as a vector for the transmission of three serious diseases—specifically, epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis, respectively—that have killed millions of people. It is also suspected in the transmission of a fourth pathogen, Yersinia pestis, which is the etiologic agent of plague. To date, human lice belonging to the genus Pediculus have been classified into three mitochondrial clades: A, B, and C. Here, we describe a fourth mitochondrial clade, Clade D, comprising head and body lice. Clade D may be a vector of B. quintana and Y. pestis, which is prevalent in a highly plague-endemic area near the Rethy Health District, Orientale Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. PMID:26392158

  13. Multilocus sequence typing of Bartonella henselae in the United Kingdom indicates that only a few, uncommon sequence types are associated with zoonotic disease.

    PubMed

    Chaloner, Gemma L; Harrison, Timothy G; Coyne, Karen P; Aanensen, David M; Birtles, Richard J

    2011-06-01

    Bartonella henselae is one of the most common zoonotic agents acquired from companion animals (cats) in industrialized countries. Nonetheless, although the prevalence of infections in cats is high, the number of human cases reported is relatively low. One hypothesis for this discrepancy is that B. henselae strains vary in their zoonotic potential. To test this hypothesis, we employed structured sampling to explore the population structure of B. henselae in the United Kingdom and to determine the distribution of strains associated with zoonotic disease within this structure. A total of 118 B. henselae strains were delineated into 12 sequence types (STs) using multilocus sequence typing. We observed that most (85%) of the zoonosis-associated strains belonged to only three genotypes, i.e., ST2, ST5, and ST8. Conversely, most (74%) of the feline isolates belonged to ST4, ST6, and ST7. The difference in host association of ST2, ST5, and ST8 (zoonosis associated) and ST6 (feline) was statistically significant (P < 0.05), indicating that a few, uncommon STs were responsible for the majority of symptomatic human infections.

  14. Three cases of cat scratch disease diagnosed by indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay and/or polymerase chain reaction of 16S rRNA gene of Bartonella henselae.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, S; Kabeya, H; Nogami, S; Sakai, H; Suzuki, J; Suzuki, H; Sugita, H; Katsube, Y

    2000-12-01

    Three suspected cases of cat scratch disease were diagnosed by indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay and/or polymerase chain reaction. Patient 1 was a 10-year-old female who presented swelling of the right axillary [corrected] lymph nodes with pain and fever. She kept a kitten, and many scratches were observed on her both legs and dorsum manus. Antibody titers against Bartonella (B.) henselae were 1:32 for IgM 3 weeks after the onset of the symptoms and 1:64 for IgG 8 weeks after the onset. The DNA for 16S rRNA type I of B. henselae was detected from the blood sample obtained 3 weeks after the onset of symptoms by polymerase chain reaction for the first time in Japan. Patient 2 was a 22-year-old female veterinary student with a cat scratch at the bottom of her neck by a male kitten. She developed a papule at the scratch, slight fever, and neck pain. Although both Bartonella-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were negative before the scratch, the IgG antibody titer rose to 1:512 14 weeks after the onset. B. henselae was isolated from the kitten and its DNA found to be for 16S rRNA type I by PCR. Patient 3 was a 23-year-old female veterinary student with a cat scratch on her left forearm. A small reddish papule developed on the scratch, and she experienced swelling of the left axillary [corrected] lymph node and pain. Both the IgG and IgM antibodies against B. henselae were negative before the cat scratch, and the IgG titer rose significantly to 1:128 and 1:1,024 in 2 and 5 weeks, respectively, after the onset of the symptoms.

  15. Bartonella henselae trimeric autotransporter adhesin BadA expression interferes with effector translocation by the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun-Yueh; Franz, Bettina; Truttmann, Matthias C; Riess, Tanja; Gay-Fraret, Jérémie; Faustmann, Marco; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Dehio, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    The Gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae is the aetiological agent of cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis in humans. Two pathogenicity factors of B. henselae - each displaying multiple functions in host cell interaction - have been characterized in greater detail: the trimeric autotransporter Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) and the type IV secretion system VirB/D4 (VirB/D4 T4SS). BadA mediates, e.g. binding to fibronectin (Fn), adherence to endothelial cells (ECs) and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VirB/D4 translocates several Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into the cytoplasm of infected ECs, resulting, e.g. in uptake of bacterial aggregates via the invasome structure, inhibition of apoptosis and activation of a proangiogenic phenotype. Despite this knowledge of the individual activities of BadA or VirB/D4 it is unknown whether these major virulence factors affect each other in their specific activities. In this study, expression and function of BadA and VirB/D4 were analysed in a variety of clinical B. henselae isolates. Data revealed that most isolates have lost expression of either BadA or VirB/D4 during in vitro passages. However, the phenotypic effects of coexpression of both virulence factors was studied in one clinical isolate that was found to stably coexpress BadA and VirB/D4, as well as by ectopic expression of BadA in a strain expressing VirB/D4 but not BadA. BadA, which forms a dense layer on the bacterial surface, negatively affected VirB/D4-dependent Bep translocation and invasome formation by likely preventing close contact between the bacterial cell envelope and the host cell membrane. In contrast, BadA-dependent Fn binding, adhesion to ECs and VEGF secretion were not affected by a functional VirB/D4 T4SS. The obtained data imply that the essential virulence factors BadA and VirB/D4 are likely differentially expressed during different stages of the infection cycle of

  16. Seroprevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in HIV patients in Catalonia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Immaculada; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Nogueras, María Mercedes; Sala, Montserrat; Cervantes, Manuel; Amengual, M José; Segura, Ferran

    2008-01-01

    Background Although the first clinical descriptions of Bartonella infection were associated with immunocompromised patient with bacillary angiomatosis, we currently know that this organism is directly involved in diseases affecting a large number of patients, regardless of their immune status. Cat scratch disease, hepatic peliosis, and some cases of bacteraemia and endocarditis, are directly caused by some species of the genus Bartonella. The purpose of this study was to determinate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae and B. quintana in HIV patients and to identify the epidemiological factors involved. Methods Serum samples were collected from HIV patients treated at Hospital de Sabadell. Antibodies to B. henselae and B. quintana from 340 patients were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Significance levels for univariate statistical test were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test. Results Of 340 patients, 82 were women and 258 men, with a median age of 42.21 ± 10.35 years (range 16–86 years). Seventy-six (22.3%) patients reacted with one or more Bartonella antigens. Of all the factors concerning the seroprevalence rate being studied (age, sex, intravenous drugs use, alcohol consumption, CD4 levels, AIDS, HCV, HBV, residential area), only age was statistically significant. Conclusion A high percentage of HIV patients presents antibodies to Bartonella and is increasing with age. PMID:18452613

  17. Paleomicrobiology of Bartonella infections.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Drancourt, Michel; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Studying ancient infectious diseases is a challenge, as written contemporary descriptions, when available, are often imprecise and do not allow for accurate discrimination among the pathogens endemic at that time. Paleomicrobiology offers a unique access to the history of these infections by identifying precisely the causative agents. Body louse-transmitted infections are amongst the most epidemic diseases in history, especially in war and famine periods. Of these, Bartonella quintana was detected by suicide PCR in 4000-year-old human remains, thus representing the oldest evidence to date of an arthropod-transmitted infection to human beings. This species has also been detected in human specimens from the 11th to 15th, 18th and 19th centuries. In addition, Bartonella henselae, a cat- and flea-associated pathogen, was detected in cat specimens from the 13th to 18th centuries, therefore demonstrating an association of the bacterium and its reservoir for over 800 years. Therefore, pathogenic Bartonella species have been involved in several outbreaks in the past millennia and should systematically be investigated in human remains from suspected epidemics.

  18. Conjugative DNA transfer into human cells by the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system of the bacterial pathogen Bartonella henselae

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Gunnar; Schuelein, Ralf; Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SS) mediate interbacterial conjugative DNA transfer and transkingdom protein transfer into eukaryotic host cells in bacterial pathogenesis. The sole bacterium known to naturally transfer DNA into eukaryotic host cells via a T4SS is the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Here we demonstrate T4SS-mediated DNA transfer from a human bacterial pathogen into human cells. We show that the zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae can transfer a cryptic plasmid occurring in the bartonellae into the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 via its T4SS VirB/VirD4. DNA transfer into EA.hy926 cells was demonstrated by using a reporter derivative of this Bartonella-specific mobilizable plasmid generated by insertion of a eukaryotic egfp-expression cassette. Fusion of the C-terminal secretion signal of the endogenous VirB/VirD4 protein substrate BepD with the plasmid-encoded DNA-transport protein Mob resulted in a 100-fold increased DNA transfer rate. Expression of the delivered egfp gene in EA.hy926 cells required cell division, suggesting that nuclear envelope breakdown may facilitate passive entry of the transferred ssDNA into the nucleus as prerequisite for complementary strand synthesis and transcription of the egfp gene. Addition of an eukaryotic neomycin phosphotransferase expression cassette to the reporter plasmid facilitated selection of stable transgenic EA.hy926 cell lines that display chromosomal integration of the transferred plasmid DNA. Our data suggest that T4SS-dependent DNA transfer into host cells may occur naturally during human infection with Bartonella and that these chronically infecting pathogens have potential for the engineering of in vivo gene-delivery vectors with applications in DNA vaccination and therapeutic gene therapy. PMID:21844337

  19. Structure of a Nudix hydrolase (MutT) in the Mg(2+)-bound state from Bartonella henselae, the bacterium responsible for cat scratch fever.

    PubMed

    Buchko, Garry W; Edwards, Thomas E; Abendroth, Jan; Arakaki, Tracy L; Law, Laura; Napuli, Alberto J; Hewitt, Stephen N; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Stewart, Lance J; Staker, Bart L; Myler, Peter J

    2011-09-01

    Cat scratch fever (also known as cat scratch disease and bartonellosis) is an infectious disease caused by the proteobacterium Bartonella henselae following a cat scratch. Although the infection usually resolves spontaneously without treatment in healthy adults, bartonellosis may lead to severe complications in young children and immunocompromised patients, and there is new evidence suggesting that B. henselae may be associated with a broader range of clinical symptoms then previously believed. The genome of B. henselae contains genes for two putative Nudix hydrolases, BH02020 and BH01640 (KEGG). Nudix proteins play an important role in regulating the intracellular concentration of nucleotide cofactors and signaling molecules. The amino-acid sequence of BH02020 is similar to that of the prototypical member of the Nudix superfamily, Escherichia coli MutT, a protein that is best known for its ability to neutralize the promutagenic compound 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine triphosphate. Here, the crystal structure of BH02020 (Bh-MutT) in the Mg(2+)-bound state was determined at 2.1 Å resolution (PDB entry 3hhj). As observed in all Nudix hydrolase structures, the α-helix of the highly conserved `Nudix box' in Bh-MutT is one of two helices that sandwich a four-stranded mixed β-sheet with the central two β-strands parallel to each other. The catalytically essential divalent cation observed in the Bh-MutT structure, Mg(2+), is coordinated to the side chains of Glu57 and Glu61. The structure is not especially robust; a temperature melt obtained using circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that Bh-MutT irreversibly unfolds and precipitates out of solution upon heating, with a T(m) of 333 K.

  20. Serological and epidemiological analysis of the prevalence of Bartonella spp. antibodies in Swedish elite orienteers 1992-93.

    PubMed

    McGill, S; Wesslen, L; Hjelm, E; Holmberg, M; Rolf, C; Friman, G

    2001-01-01

    The emergence of the popular, physically demanding and highly nature-interactive sport of orienteering was marked in Sweden by an elevated rate of sudden unexpected cardiac deaths in young competitors during the years 1979-92, with a common underlying cause or causes suspected. Subsequently, sera were collected during 1992-93 from the elite segment of orienteers holding a nationally ranked position, and a survey compiling various epidemiological data was performed. In this study, a total of 1136 sera were analyzed by indirect-fluorescent antibody assay for the presence of IgG antibodies against 3 Bartonella spp.: B. henselae, B. elizabethae and B. quintana. In total, 31% (355/1136) were seropositive for at least 1 species of Bartonella, with titers ranging up to 1/512; 350/1136 (31%) had antibodies against B. elizabethae, 34/1136 (3.0%) against B. henselae and 16/1136 (1.4%) against B. quintana. Males and females showed equal rates of 31% seropositisity to Bartonella spp. (males 241/766; females 114/370). In comparison, 322 time-matched sera from healthy blood donors had antibodies to Bartonella spp. in 6.8% of cases (p < 0.001). The observed high prevalence of Bartonella spp. antibodies found in Swedish elite orienteers may be indicative of a connection with risk factors for the development of myocarditis and sudden unexpected cardiac death.

  1. Bartonella-Associated Transverse Myelitis

    PubMed Central

    Hirzel, Cedric; Bloch, Andreas; Fischer, Urs; Jeannet, Natalie; Berlinger, Livia; Krestel, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Each year in the United States, 500 patients are hospitalized for cat-scratch disease, caused by Bartonella henselae infection. We report a case of rare but serious neurologic B. henselae infection. When typical features of cat-scratch disease occur with neurologic findings, Bartonella infection should be suspected and diagnostic testing should be performed. PMID:28322716

  2. Bartonella Endocarditis and Pauci-Immune Glomerulonephritis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Raybould, Jillian E; Raybould, Alison L; Morales, Megan K; Zaheer, Misbah; Lipkowitz, Michael S; Timpone, Joseph G; Kumar, Princy N

    2016-09-01

    Among culture-negative endocarditis in the United States, Bartonella species are the most common cause, with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana comprising the majority of cases. Kidney manifestations, particularly glomerulonephritis, are common sequelae of infectious endocarditis, with nearly half of all Bartonella patients demonstrating renal involvement. Although a pauci-immune pattern is a frequent finding in infectious endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis, it is rarely reported in Bartonella endocarditis. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) positivity can be seen with many pathogens causing endocarditis and has been previously reported with Bartonella species. In addition, ANCA-associated vasculitis can also present with renal and cardiac involvement, including noninfectious valvular vegetations and pauci-immune glomerulonephritis. Given the overlap in their clinical presentation, it is difficult to differentiate between Bartonella endocarditis and ANCA-associated vasculitis but imperative to do so to guide management decisions. We present a case of ANCA-positive Bartonella endocarditis with associated pauci-immune glomerulonephritis that was successfully treated with medical management alone.

  3. [Prevalence of haemotropic Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cats in Berlin/Brandenburg (Northeast Germany)].

    PubMed

    Morgenthal, Dinah; Hamel, Dietmar; Arndt, Gisela; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Kempf, Volkhard A J; Kohn, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Mycoplasma (M.) haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma (C. M.) turicensis, C M. haemominutum, Bartonella spp. (B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. quintana) and Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum in cats in Northeast Germany in relation to their living conditions (indoor/outdoor/ stray cat), and tick/flea exposure. 265 cats were included in the study (150 indoor, 99 outdoor access, 16 stray cats). A questionnaire provided the following data: derivation, housing environment, and previous flea/tick exposure. Serum antibody titers against A. phagocytophilum, B. henselae, and B. quintana were determined by an immunofluorescence test (IFT). PCR tests (EDTA blood) were used to test for A. phagocytophilum, M. haemofelis, C. M. turicensis, C. M. haemominutum, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae. In 19 of 265 cats (7.2%) DNA of one or more Mycoplasma spp. was detected: C M. haemominutum (5.3%), M. haemofelis (1.5%) and C M. turicensis (1.1%); three of the cats were tested positive for the feline immunodeficiency virus. All cats were B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae PCR-negative in peripheral blood. However, 91 of 245 cats (37.1%) had antibody titers > 1:200 for B. henselae (Houston I, Marseille type) and 46 (18.8%) for B. quintana. Antibody titers > 1:64 against A. phagocytophilum were detected in 24 cats (9.1%); one cat (0.4%) was PCR-positive. Since infections with haemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and also with arthropodborne organisms (Bartonella spp., A. phagocytophilum) occur in cats from the area Berlin/Brandenburg (Germany) an appropriate arthropod-control is recommended. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relevance of these infectious agents for the individual cat.

  4. Ecological fitness and strategies of adaptation of Bartonella species to their hosts and vectors☆

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Birtles, Richard J.; Koehler, Jane E.; Dehio, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause characteristic host-restricted hemotropic infections in mammals and are typically transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods. In the mammalian reservoir, these bacteria initially infect a yet unrecognized primary niche, which seeds organisms into the blood stream leading to the establishment of a long-lasting intra-erythrocytic bacteremia as the hall-mark of infection. Bacterial type IV secretion systems, which are supra-molecular transporters ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems, represent crucial pathogenicity factors that have contributed to a radial expansion of the Bartonella lineage in nature by facilitating adaptation to unique mammalian hosts. On the molecular level, the type IV secretion system VirB/VirD4 is known to translocate a cocktail of different effector proteins into host cells, which subvert multiple cellular functions to the benefit of the infecting pathogen. Furthermore, bacterial adhesins mediate a critical, early step in the pathogenesis of the bartonellae by binding to extracellular matrix components of host cells, which leads to firm bacterial adhesion to the cell surface as a prerequisite for the efficient translocation of type IV secretion effector proteins. The best-studied adhesins in bartonellae are the orthologous trimeric autotransporter adhesins, BadA in Bartonella henselae and the Vomp family in Bartonella quintana. Genetic diversity and strain variability also appear to enhance the ability of bartonellae to invade not only specific reservoir hosts, but also accidental hosts, as shown for B. henselae. Bartonellae have been identified in many different blood-sucking arthropods, in which they are typically found to cause extracellular infections of the mid-gut epithelium. Adaptation to specific vectors and reservoirs seems to be a common strategy of bartonellae for transmission and host diversity. However, knowledge regarding arthropod specificity

  5. The BatR/BatS Two-Component Regulatory System Controls the Adaptive Response of Bartonella henselae during Human Endothelial Cell Infection ▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Michaela; Tropel, David; Basler, Andrea; Toller, Isabella; Raddatz, Guenter; Engel, Philipp; Huser, Sonja; Schein, Hermine; Lindroos, Hillevi L.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Dehio, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report the first comprehensive study of Bartonella henselae gene expression during infection of human endothelial cells. Expression of the main cluster of upregulated genes, comprising the VirB type IV secretion system and its secreted protein substrates, is shown to be under the positive control of the transcriptional regulator BatR. We demonstrate binding of BatR to the promoters of the virB operon and a substrate-encoding gene and provide biochemical evidence that BatR and BatS constitute a functional two-component regulatory system. Moreover, in contrast to the acid-inducible (pH 5.5) homologs ChvG/ChvI of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, BatR/BatS are optimally activated at the physiological pH of blood (pH 7.4). By conservation analysis of the BatR regulon, we show that BatR/BatS are uniquely adapted to upregulate a genus-specific virulence regulon during hemotropic infection in mammals. Thus, we propose that BatR/BatS two-component system homologs represent vertically inherited pH sensors that control the expression of horizontally transmitted gene sets critical for the diverse host-associated life styles of the alphaproteobacteria. PMID:20418395

  6. An Immunocompromised Murine Model of Chronic Bartonella Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chiaraviglio, Lucius; Duong, Scott; Brown, Daniel A.; Birtles, Richard J.; Kirby, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Bartonella are ubiquitous Gram-negative pathogens that cause chronic blood stream infections in mammals. Two species most often responsible for human infection, B. henselae and B. quintana, cause prolonged febrile illness in immunocompetent hosts, known as cat scratch disease and trench fever, respectively. Fascinatingly, in immunocompromised hosts, these organisms also induce new blood vessel formation leading to the formation of angioproliferative tumors, a disease process named bacillary angiomatosis. In addition, they cause an endothelial-lined cystic disease in the liver known as bacillary peliosis. Unfortunately, there are as yet no completely satisfying small animal models for exploring these unique human pathologies, as neither species appears able to sustain infection in small animal models. Therefore, we investigated the potential use of other Bartonella species for their ability to recapitulate human pathologies in an immunodeficient murine host. Here, we demonstrate the ability of Bartonella taylorii to cause chronic infection in SCID/BEIGE mice. In this model, Bartonella grows in extracellular aggregates, embedded within collagen matrix, similar to previous observations in cat scratch disease, bacillary peliosis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Interestingly, despite overwhelming infection later in disease, evidence for significant intracellular replication in endothelial or other cell types was not evident. We believe that this new model will provide an important new tool for investigation of Bartonella–host interaction. PMID:20395436

  7. Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

  8. Isolation of bacteriophages from Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and the characterization of Pap31 gene sequences from bacterial and phage DNA.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2005-01-01

    Bacteriophages enhance bacterial survival, facilitate bacterial adaptation to new environmental conditions, assist in the adaptation to a new host species, and enhance bacterial evasion or inactivation of host defense mechanisms. We describe the detection and purification of a novel tailed bacteriophage from Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, which was previously described as a bacteriophage-negative species. We also compare B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffi Pap31 bacteriophage gene sequences to B. henselae (Houston I), and B. quintana (Fuller) bacteriophage Pap31 sequences. Negative staining electron microscopy of log phase culturesof B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii identified bacteriophages, possessing a 50-nm icosahedric head diameter and a 60- to 80-nm contractile tail. Sequence analysis of the bacteriophage Pap31 gene from B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii showed three consensus sequences and a 12-bp insertion when compared with Pap31 gene sequences from B. henselae (Houston I) and B. quintana (Fuller) bacteriophages. Isolation of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii bacteriophages containing a Pap31 gene suggests that this heme-binding protein gene might play an important role in bacterial virulence through the genetic exchange of DNA within this subspecies. Defining phage-associated genes may also contribute to the enhanced understanding of the evolutionary relationships among members of the genus Bartonella.

  9. BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains of Bartonella henselae effector protein BepF trigger together with BepC the formation of invasome structures.

    PubMed

    Truttmann, Matthias C; Guye, Patrick; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation.

  10. BID-F1 and BID-F2 Domains of Bartonella henselae Effector Protein BepF Trigger Together with BepC the Formation of Invasome Structures

    PubMed Central

    Truttmann, Matthias C.; Guye, Patrick; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The gram-negative, zoonotic pathogen Bartonella henselae (Bhe) translocates seven distinct Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) via the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) into human cells, thereby interfering with host cell signaling [1], [2]. In particular, the effector protein BepG alone or the combination of effector proteins BepC and BepF trigger massive F-actin rearrangements that lead to the establishment of invasome structures eventually resulting in the internalization of entire Bhe aggregates [2], [3]. In this report, we investigate the molecular function of the effector protein BepF in the eukaryotic host cell. We show that the N-terminal [E/T]PLYAT tyrosine phosphorylation motifs of BepF get phosphorylated upon translocation but do not contribute to invasome-mediated Bhe uptake. In contrast, we found that two of the three BID domains of BepF are capable to trigger invasome formation together with BepC, while a mutation of the WxxxE motif of the BID-F1 domain inhibited its ability to contribute to the formation of invasome structures. Next, we show that BepF function during invasome formation can be replaced by the over-expression of constitutive-active Rho GTPases Rac1 or Cdc42. Finally we demonstrate that BID-F1 and BID-F2 domains promote the formation of filopodia-like extensions in NIH 3T3 and HeLa cells as well as membrane protrusions in HeLa cells, suggesting a role for BepF in Rac1 and Cdc42 activation during the process of invasome formation. PMID:22043280

  11. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the human pathogenic bacterium Bartonella henselae strain Houston-1 at 2.1 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Kubra F.; Staker, Bart L.; Dobson, Renwick C. J.; Serbzhinskiy, Dmitry; Sankaran, Banumathi; Myler, Peter J.; Hudson, André O.

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme dihydrodipicolinate synthase catalyzes the committed step in the synthesis of diaminopimelate and lysine to facilitate peptidoglycan and protein synthesis. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase catalyzes the condensation of l-aspartate 4-semialdehyde and pyruvate to synthesize l-2,3-dihydrodipico­linate. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from the pathogenic bacterium Bartonella henselae, the causative bacterium of cat-scratch disease, are presented. Protein crystals were grown in conditions consisting of 20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 100 mM sodium citrate tribasic pH 5.5 and were shown to diffract to ∼2.10 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.96, b = 106.33, c = 136.25 Å. The final R values were R r.i.m. = 0.098, R work = 0.183, R free = 0.233. PMID:26750477

  12. Bartonella infections in fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and lack of bartonellae in ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Sréter-Lancz, Zsuzsa; Tornyai, Krisztián; Széll, Zoltán; Sréter, Tamás; Márialigeti, Károly

    2006-12-01

    Fleas (95 Pulex irritans, 50 Ctenocephalides felis, 45 Ctenocephalides canis) and ixodid ticks (223 ixodes ricinus, 231 Dermacentor reticulatus, 204 Haemaphysalis concinna) were collected in Hungary and tested, in assays based on PCR, for Bartonella infection. Low percentages of P. irritans (4.2%) and C. felis (4.0%) were found to be infected. The groEL sequences of the four isolates from P. irritans were different from all the homologous sequences for bartonellae previously stored in GenBank but closest to those of Bartonella sp. SE-Bart-B (sharing 96% identities). The groEL sequences of the two isolates from C. felis were identical with those of the causative agents of cat scratch disease, Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, respectively. The pap31 sequences of B. henselae amplified from Hungarian fleas were identical with that of Marseille strain. No Bartonella-specific amplification products were detected in C. canis, I. ricinus, D. reticulatus and H. concinna pools.

  13. Bartonella infection in shelter cats and dogs and their ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2011-08-01

    Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats.

  14. MICs of 28 antibiotic compounds for 14 Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) isolates.

    PubMed

    Maurin, M; Gasquet, S; Ducco, C; Raoult, D

    1995-11-01

    We assessed in vitro the antibiotic susceptibilities of 14 Bartonella isolates of the species B. quintana, B. vinsonii, B. henselae, and B. elizabethae. Columbia agar base supplemented with 5% horse blood was used as the antibiotic assay medium. Bacterial growth could be evaluated within 5 days after incubation of the plates at 37 degrees C in a 5% carbon dioxide atmosphere. The MICs at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90s) were 0.06 microgram/ml for penicillin G and amoxicillin and 0.25 microgram/ml for ticarcillin and cefotaxime. The MIC90s of oxacillin and cephalothin were 4 and 16 micrograms/ml, respectively. The MIC90s ranged from 1 to 4 micrograms/ml for aminoglycosides. Erythromycin, doxycycline, and rifampin displayed MIC90s of 0.12, 0.12, and 0.25 microgram/ml, respectively. MIC90s were 1 and 5 micrograms/ml for trimethoprim-and sulfamethoxazole, respectively, 64 micrograms/ml for fosfomycin, and 16 micrograms/ml for colistin and vancomycin. The study confirms the high levels of in vitro susceptibility of Bartonella agents to antibiotics.

  15. Prevalence of rickettsia felis-like and Bartonella Spp. in Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis from La Rioja (Northern Spain).

    PubMed

    Blanco, José Ramón; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Vallejo, Manuel; Santibáñez, Sonia; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Our aim was to determine the presence of Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ctenocephalides felis and Ctenocephalides canis from La Rioja (Spain). A total of 88 specimens were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using gltA and ompB genes as targets for Rickettsia spp., and 16S rRNA and ribC genes for Bartonella spp. Rickettsia felis-like (28.4%), Bartonella clarridgeiae (6.8%), and Bartonella henselae (3.4%) were detected in Ctenocephalides spp. Other Bartonella sp. different from B. clarridgeiae and B. henselae could also be present in fleas from La Rioja.

  16. Endocarditis caused by Rochalimaea quintana in a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Spach, D H; Callis, K P; Paauw, D S; Houze, Y B; Schoenknecht, F D; Welch, D F; Rosen, H; Brenner, D J

    1993-01-01

    Rochalimaea quintana and Rochalimaea henselae are closely related, fastidious, gram-negative rickettsiae. Thus far, the spectrum of human Rochalimaea sp. infections has not included endocarditis. We describe a 50-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-positive man who developed endocarditis caused by R. quintana. DNA relatedness studies, which compared our patient's blood culture isolate with known Rochalimaea species, identified the organism as R. quintana. Our report expands the spectrum of Rochalimaea sp. infections and identifies a new infectious cause of endocarditis. PMID:8458964

  17. Fleas and Flea-Associated Bartonella Species in Dogs and Cats from Peru.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, M F; Billeter, S A; Osikowicz, L; Luna-Caipo, D V; Cáceres, A G; Kosoy, M

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated 238 fleas collected from cats and dogs in three regions of Peru (Ancash, Cajamarca, and Lima) for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Bartonella spp. were detected by amplification of the citrate synthase gene (16.4%) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region (20.6%). Bartonella rochalimae was the most common species detected followed by Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae. Our results demonstrate that dogs and cats in Peru are infested with fleas harboring zoonotic Bartonella spp. and these infected fleas could pose a disease risk for humans.

  18. Molecular Characterization of First Human Bartonella Strain Isolated in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Ciervo, Alessandra; Petrucca, Andrea; Ciarrocchi, Simonetta; Pinto, Antonella; Bonazzi, Lucio; Fabio, Anna; Farnetti, Enrico; Chomel, Bruno B.; Ciceroni, Lorenzo

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a Bartonella strain (BA-1) isolated from a blood culture of an Italian, human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient with bacillary angiomatosis. We analyzed the isolate using molecular biology methods such as whole-cell fatty acid analysis, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, type-specific 16S rRNA PCRs, sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and arbitrarily primed PCR. The BA-1 isolate turned out to be a Bartonella quintana strain, similar but not identical to B. quintana Oklahoma, which was used as a control strain. PMID:11724882

  19. Beyond cat scratch disease: a case report of bartonella infection mimicking vasculitic disorder.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Amelia; Lumetti, Federica; Sandri, Gilda; Cestelli, Valentina; Mascia, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae and it is mainly characterized by self-limiting lymphadenopathy in the draining site of a cat scratch or bite. We report a patient with history of fever, swelling lymph nodes, vasculitic-like skin lesions, and positivity of Bartonella serology initially considered as expression of a disimmune disease.

  20. Association between Bartonella species infection and disease in pet cats as determined using serology and culture.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Jane E; Westropp, Joellen L; Kasten, Rick W; Chomel, Bruno B

    2010-08-01

    This study's objective was to determine whether a relationship exists between infection or seropositivity to Bartonella species and clinical illness in cats. Blood samples were obtained for Bartonella species isolation and immunofluorescent antibody serology from 298 cats presenting to a tertiary referral hospital. Medical records were searched and the history, physical examination findings and the results of diagnostic testing relating to the visit at which Bartonella species testing was performed were recorded. Fifty-two (17%) samples were seropositive for Bartonella henselae, four (1%) for Bartonella clarridgeiae, and 57 (19%) for both organisms. Nineteen (6.4%) samples were culture positive, 17 for B henselae and two for B clarridgeiae. Gingivostomatitis was associated with Bartonella species isolation (P=0.001), but not seropositivity. There was no association with uveitis, neurologic signs, or chronic kidney disease, and a weak association between seropositivity and idiopathic lower urinary tract disease (feline interstitial cystitis) (P=0.05).

  1. Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections in stray cats from Iraq.

    PubMed

    Switzer, Alexandra D; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Kass, Philip H; Chomel, Bruno B

    2013-12-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies.

  2. Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a Potential New Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Canids from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi; Diniz, Pedro P. V. P.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.

    2012-01-01

    Bartonellae are emerging vector-borne pathogens infecting erythrocytes and endothelial cells of various domestic and wild mammals. Blood samples were collected from domestic and wild canids in Iraq under the United States Army zoonotic disease surveillance program. Serology was performed using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. bovis. Overall seroprevalence was 47.4% in dogs (n = 97), 40.4% in jackals (n = 57) and 12.8% in red foxes (n = 39). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from whole blood and representative strains were sequenced. DNA of a new Bartonella species similar to but distinct from B. bovis, was amplified from 37.1% of the dogs and 12.3% of the jackals. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was also amplified from one jackal and no Bartonella DNA was amplified from foxes. Adjusting for age, the odds of dogs being Bartonella PCR positive were 11.94 times higher than for wild canids (95% CI: 4.55–31.35), suggesting their role as reservoir for this new Bartonella species. This study reports on the prevalence of Bartonella species in domestic and wild canids of Iraq and provides the first detection of Bartonella in jackals. We propose Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii for this new Bartonella species. Most of the Bartonella species identified in sick dogs are also pathogenic for humans. Therefore, seroprevalence in Iraqi dog owners and bacteremia in Iraqi people with unexplained fever or culture negative endocarditis requires further investigation as well as in United States military personnel who were stationed in Iraq. Finally, it will also be essential to test any dog brought back from Iraq to the USA for presence of Bartonella bacteremia to prevent any accidental introduction of a new Bartonella species to the New World. PMID:23029597

  3. Bartonella sp. Bacteremia in Patients with Neurological and Neurocognitive Dysfunction ▿

    PubMed Central

    Breitschwerdt, E. B.; Maggi, R. G.; Nicholson, W. L.; Cherry, N. A.; Woods, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    We detected infection with a Bartonella species (B. henselae or B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii) in blood samples from six immunocompetent patients who presented with a chronic neurological or neurocognitive syndrome including seizures, ataxia, memory loss, and/or tremors. Each of these patients had substantial animal contact or recent arthropod exposure as a potential risk factor for Bartonella infection. Additional studies should be performed to clarify the potential role of Bartonella spp. as a cause of chronic neurological and neurocognitive dysfunction. PMID:18632903

  4. [Zoonotic diseases caused by bacteria of the genus Bartonella genus: new reservoirs ? New vectors?].

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Boulouis, Henri-Jean

    2005-03-01

    Domestic animals and wildlife represent a large reservoir for bartonellae, at least eight species or subspecies of which have been reported to cause zoonotic infections. In addition, numerous orphan clinical syndromes are now being attributed to Bartonella henselae infection. Many mammalian species, including cats, dogs, rodents and ruminants are the main bartonellae reservoirs. Cats are the main reservoir for B. henselae. It appears that domestic dogs, at least in non tropical regions, are more likely to be accidental hosts than reservoirs, and constitute excellent sentinels for human infections. Bartonellae are vector-borne bacteria. The mode of B. henselae transmission by cat fleas is now better understood, but new potential vectors have recently been identified, including ticks and biting flies. This articles summarizes current knowledge of the etiology, new clinical features and epidemiological characteristics of these emerging zoonoses.

  5. Prevalence, hematological findings and genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. in domestic cats from Valdivia, Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ananda; Walker, Romina; Bittencourt, Pedro; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; DO Amaral, Renan Bressiani; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério

    2016-12-12

    The present study determined the prevalence, hematological findings and genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. in domestic cats from Valdivia, Southern Chile. A complete blood count and nuoG gene real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Bartonella spp. were performed in 370 blood samples from cats in Valdivia, Southern Chile. nuoG qPCR-positive samples were submitted to conventional PCR for the gltA gene and sequencing for species differentiation and phylogenetic analysis. Alignment of gltA gene was used to calculate the nucleotide diversity, polymorphic level, number of variable sites and average number of nucleotide differences. Bartonella DNA prevalence in cats was 18·1% (67/370). Twenty-nine samples were sequenced with 62·0% (18/29) identified as Bartonella henselae, 34·4% (10/29) as Bartonella clarridgeiae, and 3·4% (1/29) as Bartonella koehlerae. Bartonella-positive cats had low DNA bacterial loads and their hematological parameters varied minimally. Each Bartonella species from Chile clustered together and with other Bartonella spp. described in cats worldwide. Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae showed a low number of variable sites, haplotypes and nucleotide diversity. Bartonella clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae are reported for the first time in cats from Chile and South America, respectively.

  6. Zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas and blood from red foxes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-12-01

    Bartonella are arthropod-borne, fastidious, Gram-negative, and aerobic bacilli distributed by fleas, lice, sand flies, and, possibly, ticks. The zoonotic Bartonella species, Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, which are the causes of cat scratch disease and endocarditis in humans, have been reported from cats, cat fleas, and humans in Australia. However, to date, there has been no report of B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae in Australian wild animals and their ectoparasites. B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae were detected in fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), an introduced pest animal species in Australia, and only B. clarridgeiae was detected in blood from one red fox. Phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal intergenic spacer region revealed that the B. henselae detected in the current study were related to B. henselae strain Houston-1, a major pathogenic strain in humans in Australia, and confirmed the genetic distinctness of B. clarridgeiae. The identification and characterization of Bartonella species in red foxes in the Southwest of Western Australia suggests that red foxes may act as reservoirs of infection for animals and humans in this region.

  7. Relationship between the Presence of Bartonella Species and Bacterial Loads in Cats and Cat Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) under Natural Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit

    2015-01-01

    Cats are considered the main reservoir of three zoonotic Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) have been experimentally demonstrated to be a competent vector of B. henselae and have been proposed as the potential vector of the two other Bartonella species. Previous studies have reported a lack of association between the Bartonella species infection status (infected or uninfected) and/or bacteremia levels of cats and the infection status of the fleas they host. Nevertheless, to date, no study has compared the quantitative distributions of these bacteria in both cats and their fleas under natural conditions. Thus, the present study explored these relationships by identifying and quantifying the different Bartonella species in both cats and their fleas. Therefore, EDTA-blood samples and fleas collected from stray cats were screened for Bartonella bacteria. Bacterial loads were quantified by high-resolution melt real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results indicated a moderate correlation between the Bartonella bacterial loads in the cats and their fleas when both were infected with the same Bartonella species. Moreover, a positive effect of the host infection status on the Bartonella bacterial loads of the fleas was observed. Conversely, the cat bacterial loads were not affected by the infection status of their fleas. Our results suggest that the Bartonella bacterial loads of fleas are positively affected by the presence of the bacteria in their feline host, probably by multiple acquisitions/accumulation and/or multiplication events. PMID:26070666

  8. Detection of Bartonella spp. DNA in clinical specimens using an internally controlled real-time PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Bergmans, Anneke M C; Rossen, John W A

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat-scratch disease (CSD), usually presenting itself as a -self-limiting lymphadenopathy. In this chapter an internally controlled Taqman probe-based real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene of Bartonella spp. is described. This assay allows for the rapid, sensitive, and simple detection of Bartonella spp. in samples from CSD or endocarditis suspects, and it is suitable for implementation in the diagnostic microbiology laboratory.

  9. Molecular characterisation of Bartonella species in cats from São Luís, state of Maranhão, north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Maria do Socorro Costa de Oliveira; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; André, Marcos Rogério; Bortoli, Caroline Plácidi de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2012-09-01

    Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that predominantly infect mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells and cause long-lasting bacteraemia in their reservoir hosts. Reports that describe the epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil are limited. This study aimed to detect and characterise Bartonella spp DNA from cat blood samples in São Luís, Maranhão, north-eastern Brazil. Among 200 cats tested for multiple genes, nine (4.5%) were positive for Bartonella spp: six cats for Bartonella henselae and three for Bartonella clarridgeiae. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of four genes, the B. henselae strain matched strains previously observed in Brazil and was positioned in the same clade as B. henselae isolates from the United States of America. Moreover, sequence alignment demonstrated that the B. clarridgeiae strain detected in the present study was the same as the one recently detected in cats from southern Brazil.

  10. Prevalence of Bartonella infection in wild African lions (Panthera leo) and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Molia, S; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Leutenegger, C M; Steele, B R; Marker, L; Martenson, J S; Keet, D F; Bengis, R G; Peterson, R P; Munson, L; O'Brien, S J

    2004-05-20

    Bartonella species are emerging pathogens that have been isolated worldwide from humans and other mammals. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of Bartonella infection in free-ranging African lions (Panthera leo) and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). Blood and/or serum samples were collected from a convenience sample of 113 lions and 74 cheetahs captured in Africa between 1982 and 2002. Whole blood samples available from 58 of the lions and 17 of the cheetahs were cultured for evidence of Bartonella spp., and whole blood from 54 of the 58 lions and 73 of the 74 cheetahs tested for the presence of Bartonella DNA by TaqMan PCR. Serum samples from the 113 lions and 74 cheetahs were tested for the presence of antibodies against Bartonella henselae using an immunofluorescence assay. Three (5.2%) of the 58 lions and one (5.9%) of the 17 cheetahs were bacteremic. Two lions were infected with B. henselae, based on PCR/RFLP of the citrate synthase gene. The third lion and the cheetah were infected with previously unidentified Bartonella strains. Twenty-three percent of the 73 cheetahs and 3.7% of the 54 lions tested by TaqMan PCR were positive for Bartonella spp. B. henselae antibody prevalence was 17% (19/113) for the lions and 31% (23/74) for the cheetahs. The prevalence of seropositivity, bacteremia, and positive TaqMan PCR was not significantly different between sexes and age categories (juvenile versus adult) for both lions and cheetahs. Domestic cats are thus no longer the only known carriers of Bartonella spp. in Africa. Translocation of B. henselae seronegative and TaqMan PCR negative wild felids might be effective in limiting the spread of Bartonella infection.

  11. Bartonella genotypes in fleas (insecta: siphonaptera) collected from rodents in the negev desert, Israel.

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Kosoy, Michael Y; Harrus, Shimon

    2010-10-01

    Fleas collected from rodents in the Negev Desert in southern Israel were molecularly screened for Bartonella species. A total of 1,148 fleas, collected from 122 rodents belonging to six species, were pooled in 245 pools based on flea species, sex, and rodent host species. Two Bartonella gene fragments, corresponding to RNA polymerase B (rpoB) and citrate synthase (gltA), were targeted, and 94 and 74 flea pools were found positive by PCR, respectively. The Bartonella 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was also targeted, and 66 flea pools were found to be positive by PCR. Sixteen different Bartonella gltA genotypes were detected in 94 positive flea pools collected from 5 different rodent species, indicating that fleas collected from each rodent species can harbor several Bartonella genotypes. Based on gltA analysis, identified Bartonella genotypes were highly similar or identical to strains previously detected in rodent species from different parts of the world. A gltA fragment 100% similar to Bartonella henselae was detected in one flea pool. Another 2 flea pools contained gltA fragments that were closely related to B. henselae (98% similarity). The high sequence similarities to the zoonotic pathogen B. henselae warrant further investigation.

  12. Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors for Bartonella Infection in Tunisian Stray Dogs.

    PubMed

    Belkhiria, Jaber; Chomel, Bruno B; Ben Hamida, Taoufik; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Fleischman, Drew A; Christopher, Mary M; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Farver, Thomas B

    2017-03-27

    Bartonellae are blood-borne and vector-transmitted pathogens, some are zoonotic, which have been reported in several Mediterranean countries. Transmission from dogs to humans is suspected, but has not been clearly demonstrated. Our objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella bovis (as a proxy for Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii) in stray dogs from Tunisia, identify the Bartonella species infecting the dogs and evaluate potential risk factors for canine infection. Blood samples were collected between January and November 2013 from 149 dogs in 10 Tunisian governorates covering several climatic zones. Dog-specific and geographic variables were analyzed as potential risk factors for Bartonella spp. seropositivity and PCR-positivity. DNA was extracted from the blood of all dogs and tested by PCR for Bartonella, targeting the ftsZ and rpoB genes. Partial sequencing was performed on PCR-positive dogs. Twenty-nine dogs (19.5%, 95% confidence interval: 14-27.4) were seropositive for one or more Bartonella species, including 17 (11.4%) for B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, 14 (9.4%) for B. henselae, 13 (8.4%) for B. clarridgeiae, and 7 (4.7%) for B. bovis. Statistical analysis revealed a few potential risk factors, mainly dog's age and breed, latitude and average winter temperature. Twenty-two (14.8%) dogs, including 8 of the 29 seropositive dogs, were PCR-positive for Bartonella based on the ftsZ gene, with 18 (81.8%) of these 22 dogs also positive for the rpoB gene. Partial sequencing showed that all PCR-positive dogs were infected with Candidatus B. merieuxii. Dogs from arid regions and regions with cold average winter temperatures were less likely to be PCR-positive than dogs from other climatic zones. The widespread presence of Bartonella spp. infection in Tunisian dogs suggests a role for stray dogs as potential reservoirs of Bartonella species in Tunisia.

  13. Prevalence of Bartonella species, hemoplasmas, and Rickettsia felis DNA in blood and fleas of cats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Assarasakorn, S; Veir, J K; Hawley, J R; Brewer, M M; Morris, A K; Hill, A E; Lappin, M R

    2012-12-01

    Flea infestations are common in Thailand, but little is known about the flea-borne infections. Fifty flea pools and 153 blood samples were collected from client-owned cats between June and August 2009 from veterinary hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand. Total DNA was extracted from all samples, and then assessed by conventional PCR assays. The prevalence rates of Bartonella spp. in blood and flea samples were 17% and 32%, respectively, with DNA of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae being amplified most commonly. Bartonella koehlerae DNA was amplified for the first time in Thailand. Hemoplasma DNA was amplified from 23% and 34% of blood samples and flea pools, respectively, with 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and Mycoplasma haemofelis being detected most frequently. All samples were negative for Rickettsia felis. Prevalence rate of B. henselae DNA was increased 6.9 times in cats with flea infestation. Cats administered flea control products were 4.2 times less likely to be Bartonella-infected.

  14. Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii exposure in captive wild canids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, D A; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; André, M R; Gonçalves, L R; Machado, R Z

    2015-02-01

    SUMMARY Wild canids are potential hosts for numerous species of Bartonella, yet little research has been done to quantify their infection rates in South America. We sought to investigate Bartonella seroprevalence in captive wild canids from 19 zoos in São Paulo and Mato Grosso states, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 97 wild canids belonging to four different native species and three European wolves (Canis lupus). Indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing was performed to detect the presence of B. henselae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. rochalimae. Overall, Bartonella antibodies were detected in 11 of the canids, including five (12·8%) of 39 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), three (11·1%) of 27 bush dogs (Speothos venaticus), two (8·7%) of 23 maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) and one (12·5%) of eight hoary foxes (Lycalopex vetulus), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:512. Knowing that many species of canids make excellent reservoir hosts for Bartonella, and that there is zoonotic potential for all Bartonella spp. tested for, it will be important to conduct further research in non-captive wild canids to gain an accurate understanding of Bartonella infection in free-ranging wild canids in South America.

  15. Identification of Different Bartonella Species in the Cattle Tail Louse (Haematopinus quadripertusus) and in Cattle Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Cohen, Liron; Morick, Danny; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y.; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity. PMID:24973066

  16. Bartonella species in fleas from Palestinian territories: prevalence and genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Nasereddin, A; Risheq, A; Harrus, S; Azmi, K; Ereqat, S; Baneth, G; Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Abdeen, Z

    2014-12-01

    Bartonellosis is an infectious bacterial disease. The prevalence and genetic characteristics of Bartonella spp. in fleas of wild and domestic animals from Palestinian territories are described. Flea samples (n=289) were collected from 121 cats, 135 dogs, 26 hyraxes and seven rats from northern (n=165), central (n=113), and southern Palestinian territories (n=11). The prevalent flea species were: Ctenocephalides felis (n=119/289; 41.2%), Ctenocephalides canis (n=159/289; 55%), and Xenopsylla sp. (n=7/289; 2.4%). Targeting the Intergenic Transcribed Spacer (ITS) locus, DNA of Bartonella was detected in 22% (64/289) of all fleas. Fifty percent of the C. felis and 57% of the Xenopsylla sp. contained Bartonella DNA. DNA sequencing showed the presence of Bartonella clarridgeiae (50%), Bartonella henselae (27%), and Bartonella koehlerae (3%) in C. felis. Xenopsylla sp. collected from Rattus rattus rats were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella elizabethae, and Bartonella rochalimae. Phylogenetic sequence analysis using the 16S ribosomal RNA gene obtained four genetic clusters, B. henselae and B. koehlerae as subcluster 1, B. clarridgeiae as cluster 2, while the rat Bartonella species (B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae) were an outgroup cluster. These findings showed the important role of cat and rat fleas as vectors of zoonotic Bartonella species in Palestinian territories. It is hoped that this publication will raise awareness among physicians, veterinarians, and other health workers of the high prevalence of Bartonella spp. in fleas in Palestinian territories and the potential risk of these pathogens to humans and animals in this region.

  17. Bartonella Species Identified in Rodent and Feline Hosts from Island and Mainland Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, Dave; Adams, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella have been described in multiple mammalian hosts with many species capable of causing disease in humans. Cats and various species of rats have been reported to play a role as vertebrate hosts to a number of Bartonella spp. This study aimed to identify Bartonella spp. in Western Australia, Dirk Hartog Island (DHI), and Christmas Island (CI) and to investigate the presence of potential arthropod vectors. Feral cats were collected from CI (n = 35), DHI (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (swWA; n = 58), and black rats were collected from CI (n = 48). Individuals were necropsied, ectoparasites were collected by external examination of carcasses, and splenic tissue was collected for polymerase chain reaction analysis to detect Bartonella DNA. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected from two cats and Bartonella koehlerae DNA from one cat in southwest WA, but Bartonella DNA was not identified in cats on DHI or CI. Bartonella phoceensis (28/48 = 58.3%) and a novel Bartonella genotype (8/48 = 16.7%) based on the internal transcribed space region were detected in the spleens of black rats on CI. Detection of Bartonella spp. in each location corresponded to the presence of ectoparasites. Cats from southwest WA harbored four species of fleas, including Ctenocephalides felis, and black rats on CI were infested with multiple species of ectoparasites, including mites, fleas, and lice. Conversely, cats on Dirk Hartog and CI were free of ectoparasites. This study has identified the DNA of Bartonella species from island and mainland swWA with some (B. henselae and B. koehlerae) of known zoonotic importance. This study further extends the geographical range for the pathogenic B. koehlerae. The association of Bartonella with ectoparasites is unsurprising, but little is known about the specific vector competence of the ectoparasites identified in this study.

  18. Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Kikuchi, Yoko; Martenson, Janice S; Roelke-Parker, Melodie E; Chang, Chao-Chin; Kasten, Rickie W; Foley, Janet E; Laudre, John; Murphy, Kerry; Swift, Pamela K; Kramer, Vicki L; O'brien, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas (Felis concolor) and 91 samples (58 serum samples and 33 Nobuto strips) collected from bobcats (Lynx rufus) in North America, Central America and South America were screened for B. henselae antibodies. The overall prevalence of B. henselae antibodies was respectively 19.4% in pumas and 23.1% in bobcats, with regional variations. In the USA, pumas from the southwestern states were more likely to be seropositive for B. henselae (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55, 5.11) than pumas from the Northwest and Mountain states. Similarly, adults were more likely to be B. henselae seropositive than juveniles and kittens (PR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.93). Adult pumas were more likely to have higher B. henselae antibody titers than juveniles and kittens (p = 0.026). B. henselae antibody prevalence was 22.4% (19/85) in bobcats from the USA and 33.3% (2/6) in the Mexican bobcats. In the USA, antibody prevalence varied depending on the geographical origin of the bobcats. In California, the highest prevalence was in bobcats from the coastal range (37.5%). These results suggest a potential role of wild felids in the epidemiological cycle of Bartonella henselae or closely related Bartonella species.

  19. Detection and identification of Bartonella sp. in fleas from carnivorous mammals in Andalusia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Márquez, F J; Millán, J; Rodríguez-Liébana, J J; García-Egea, I; Muniain, M A

    2009-12-01

    A total of 559 fleas representing four species (Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Spilopsyllus cuniculi) collected on carnivores (five Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, six European wildcat Felis silvestris, 10 common genet Genetta genetta, three Eurasian badger Meles meles, 22 red fox Vulpes vulpes, 87 dogs and 23 cats) in Andalusia, southern Spain, were distributed in 156 pools of monospecific flea from each carnivore, and tested for Bartonella infection in an assay based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16 S-23 S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Twenty-one samples (13.5%) were positive and the sequence data showed the presence of four different Bartonella species. Bartonella henselae was detected in nine pools of Ctenocephalides felis from cats and dogs and in three pools of Ctenocephalides canis from cats; Bartonella clarridgeiae in Ctenocephalides felis from a cat, and Bartonella alsatica in Spilopsyllus cuniculi from a wildcat. DNA of Bartonella sp., closely related to Bartonella rochalimae, was found in seven pools of Pulex irritans from foxes. This is the first detection of B. alsatica and Bartonella sp. in the Iberian Peninsula. All of these Bartonella species have been implicated as agents of human diseases. The present survey confirms that carnivores are major reservoirs for Bartonella spp.

  20. Prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella species in Spanish cats and their fleas.

    PubMed

    Gracia, María Jesús; Marcén, José Miguel; Pinal, Rocio; Calvete, Carlos; Rodes, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia felis, and Rickettsia typhi in fleas and companion cats (serum and claws) and to assess their presence as a function of host, host habitat, and level of parasitism. Eighty-nine serum and claw samples and 90 flea pools were collected. Cat sera were assayed by IFA for Bartonella henselae and Rickettssia species IgG antibodies. Conventional PCRs were performed on DNA extracted from nails and fleas collected from cats. A large portion (55.8%) of the feline population sampled was exposed to at least one of the three tested vector-borne pathogens. Seroreactivity to B. henselae was found in 50% of the feline studied population, and to R. felis in 16.3%. R. typhi antibodies were not found in any cat. No Bartonella sp. DNA was amplified from the claws. Flea samples from 41 cats (46%) showed molecular evidence for at least one pathogen; our study demonstrated a prevalence rate of 43.3 % of Rickettsia sp and 4.4% of Bartonella sp. in the studied flea population. None of the risk factors studied (cat's features, host habitat, and level of parasitation) was associated with either the serology or the PCR results for Bartonella sp. and Rickettsia sp.. Flea-associated infectious agents are common in cats and fleas and support the recommendation that stringent flea control should be maintained on cats.

  1. Molecular Detection of Bartonella Species in Fleas Collected from Dogs and Cats from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Norman; Troyo, Adriana; Castillo, Daniela; Gutierrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2015-10-01

    The bacterial genus Bartonella includes several species with zoonotic potential, some of which are common in domestic dogs and cats, as well as in their fleas. Because there is no previous information about the presence of Bartonella species in fleas from Central America, this study aimed at evaluating the presence of Bartonella spp. in fleas collected from dogs and cats in Costa Rica. A total 72 pools of Ctenocephalides felis and 21 pools of Pulex simulans were screened by conventional PCR to detect Bartonella DNA fragments of the citrate synthase (gltA) and the β subunit RNA polymerase (rpoB) genes. Three (4.2%) pools of C. felis and five pools (22.7%) of P. simulans were found positive for Bartonella DNA. Sequences corresponding to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii strain Winnie, B. rochalimae, and an undescribed Bartonella sp. (clone BR10) were detected in flea pools from dogs, whereas Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae sequences were identified in flea pools from cats. The detection of zoonotic Bartonella spp. in this study should increase the awareness to these flea-borne diseases among physicians and public health workers and highlight the importance of flea control in the region.

  2. Prevalence of Bartonella species DNA and antibodies in cats (Felis catus) submitted to a spay/neuter program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Crissiuma, Ana; Favacho, Alexsandra; Gershony, Liza; Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Gomes, Raphael; Mares-Guia, Angélica; Rozental, Tatiana; Barreira, Jairo; Lemos, Elba; Labarthe, Norma

    2011-02-01

    The prevalence of Bartonella species DNA and antibodies for Bartonella henselae were studied in 40 clinically healthy cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758) submitted to a spay/neuter program in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Additionally, the prevalence of Bartonella species DNA was investigated in the fleas found parasitizing the subject cats. For this purpose, blood samples were obtained from all cats, and DNA extraction was performed on the blood, and blood clotted samples, as well as on pools of fleas obtained from them. Antibodies for B henselae were detected on serum samples. Bartonella species DNA was detected in 17 cats, whereas serum reactivity for B henselae was found in 19. A total of 20 cats were flea-infested and nine of these 20 had Bartonella species DNA in their blood. In four of the 20 flea-infested cats, Bartonella species DNA was detected in the fleas obtained from those cats, but only one of these four cats had Bartonella species DNA in its blood.

  3. Bartonella spp. in cats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; Brambati, Diego F; De Gennaro, María F; Carmona, Fernando; Isturiz, María L; Pujol, Laura E; Belerenian, Guillermo C; Gil, Horacio

    2014-01-10

    In Argentina, data on the presence of members of the genus Bartonella is scarce. To increase knowledge about these zoonotic pathogens in this country, the presence and variability of Bartonella spp. was investigated in cats and dogs from Buenos Aires. Bartonella spp. was detected in 17.8% of cats, while all dogs tested negative by PCR and Reverse Line Blot. B. henselae was the most frequent species, being detected in 11.9% (14/101), while B. clarridgeiae was found in only 5.9% (6/101) of the cats. Afterwards, B. henselae isolates and positive blood samples were characterized by Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA). As result, four different MLST sequence types (ST) and eight MLVA profiles were identified. ST 1 was the most frequent variant found in cats, followed by ST 8. Interestingly, some of the MLVA profiles that were detected in this study have been previously associated with human disease, and represents a potential risk of infection. Veterinarians and physicians should consider the presence of these emerging pathogens in their diagnostic routine.

  4. Oral shedding of Bartonella in cats: correlation with bacteremia and seropositivity.

    PubMed

    Namekata, David Y; Kasten, Rickie W; Boman, Dawn A; Straub, Mary H; Siperstein-Cook, Laurie; Couvelaire, Karen; Chomel, Bruno B

    2010-12-15

    Cats are the main reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae, transmitted among cats by cat fleas. No study has investigated the presence of Bartonella in the saliva of bacteremic and non-bacteremic cats to correlate it to the level of bacteremia and the presence or absence of oral lesions. Shelter cats from northern California (n=130) and Michigan (n=50) were tested for Bartonella bacteremia by blood culture, presence of Bartonella antibodies and Bartonella DNA in oral swabs. Bacteremia was detected in 45 (25%) cats, mainly from northern California (n=40), which were highly flea infested and were 4 times more likely to be bacteremic than the non-flea-infested cats from Michigan. Overall, 69 (38.3%) cats had Bartonella PCR positive oral swabs. Bacteremic cats were almost 3 times (P=0.003) more likely to have PCR positive oral swabs (59%, 26/44) than non-bacteremic cats (32.5%, 44/135). However, there was no correlation between cats being bacteremic and having oral lesions. Antibody prevalences for B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae were 30% and 42.8%. B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae seropositive cats were almost 4 times (P=0.0001) and 3 times (P=0.003) more likely to have oral lesions than seronegative cats. Despite a higher prevalence (odds ratio=1.73; 95% confidence interval=0.88-3.38) of oral lesions in cats with oral swabs testing PCR positive, no statistical association could be demonstrated in this cat population.

  5. Bartonella Infection among Cats Adopted from a San Francisco Shelter, Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Drew A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Scarlet, Jennifer; Liu, Hongwei; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Haddad, Nadia; Pedersen, Niels C.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella infection among cats from shelters can pose a health risk to adopters. Bartonella henselae is the most common species, with B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae being less common. The lower rates of infection by the latter species may reflect their rarity or an inefficiency of culture techniques. To assess the incidence of infection, blood cultures, serology, and PCR testing were performed on 193 kittens (6 to 17 weeks old) and 158 young adult cats (5 to 12 months old) from a modern regional shelter. Classical B. henselae culture medium was compared to a medium supplemented with insect cell growth factors. Bartonella colonies were isolated from 115 (32.8%) animals, including 50 (25.9%) kittens and 65 (41.1%) young adults. Therefore, young adults were twice as likely to be culture positive as kittens. Enhanced culture methods did not improve either the isolation rate or species profile. B. henselae was isolated from 40 kittens and 55 young adults, while B. clarridgeiae was cultured from 10 animals in each group. B. koehlerae was detected in one young adult by PCR only. B. henselae genotype II was more commonly isolated from young adults, and genotype I was more frequently isolated from kittens. Kittens were 4.7 times more likely to have a very high bacterial load than young adults. A significantly higher incidence of bacteremia in the fall and winter than in the spring and summer was observed. Bartonella antibodies were detected in 10% (19/193) of kittens and 46.2% (73/158) of young adults, with culture-positive kittens being 9.4 times more likely to be seronegative than young adults. PMID:26162871

  6. Combining culture techniques for Bartonella: the best of both worlds.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Tarah; Iverson, Jennifer; Kosoy, Michael

    2011-04-01

    In this study we compared some common Bartonella culturing methodologies using four diverse species causing human illnesses. Based on a review of the literature, we focused on three major inconsistencies between protocols: base medium, cell coculture, and temperature. Our data showed that Bartonella tamiae demonstrated temperature-dependent growth limitations between common culturing conditions only 2°C apart. Additionally, growth of B. quintana was significantly enhanced by the presence of mammalian cell coculture under mammalian cell culture conditions; however, when the medium was modified to incorporate insect cell culture-based medium, coculturing with mammalian cells was no longer needed. In this study, we were able to overcome these temperature- and cell-dependent limitations and accommodate all of the strains tested by combining mammalian cell culture-based medium with insect cell culture-based medium.

  7. Bartonella Osteomyelitis of the Acetabulum: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kreppel, Andrew J.; Schlaudecker, Elizabeth P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Bartonella henselae commonly involves the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), and its most common presentation is lymphadenitis. Rarely, it can cause isolated osteomyelitis. We present a case of a 3 year old with constitutional symptoms and new onset of limp. Previously reported cases of osteomyelitis due to B. henselae are also reviewed here, keeping the index case in mind. Methods: We conducted a Medline search using MeSH subject headings Bartonella and osteomyelitis, limited to humans. Results: The index case is a 3-year-old female who had a subacute presentation with new-onset leg pain and fever. Subsequent imaging demonstrated osteomyelitis of the acetabulum. Multiple diagnostic attempts were unsuccessful, and the patient did not respond to empiric therapy. Despite indeterminate serology, the diagnosis of Bartonella osteomyelitis was eventually confirmed by PCR on bone biopsy of the lesion. The literature search revealed 48 publications, which were reduced to 28 when limiting articles to the English language and the pediatric population. After a report of 36 pediatric cases in 2007, there have been an additional 12 pediatric cases since 1998. Generally, these patients had a subacute presentation with relatively mild constitutional symptoms. Most commonly, bone involvement occurred as osteolytic lesions of the axial skeleton. Of the total 48 cases reported, only four reported involvement of the axial skeleton. Conclusion: We present the first case, to our knowledge, of pediatric osteomyelitis of the pelvis due to B. henselae with indeterminate serologic and positive PCR results. Bartonella osteomyelitis should be included in the differential diagnosis when typical pathogens are not identified or if the patient is slow to respond to standard therapies. The sensitivity of tissue PCR for Bartonella osteomyelitis is now better than the current gold standard of serology, and new management guidelines may need to reflect this. PMID:26273806

  8. The prevalence of Bartonella, hemoplasma, and Rickettsia felis infections in domestic cats and in cat fleas in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Kamrani, Ali; Parreira, Valeria R; Greenwood, Janice; Prescott, John F

    2008-10-01

    The prevalence of persistent bacteremic Bartonella spp. and hemoplasma infections was determined in healthy pet cats in Ontario. Blood samples from healthy cats sent to a diagnostic laboratory for routine health assessment over the course of 1 y were tested for Bartonella spp. using both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and blood culture, and for the presence of hemoplasma by PCR. The overall prevalence of Bartonella spp. by PCR and by culture combined was 4.3% (28/646) [3.7% (24/646) Bartonella henselae, 0.6% (4/646) Bartonella clarridgeiae]. The novel B. henselae PCR developed for this study demonstrated nearly twice the sensitivity of bacterial isolation. The overall prevalence of hemoplasma was 4% (30/742) [3.3% (25/742) Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, 0.7% (5/742) Mycoplasma haemofelis]. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of infection by season or by age (< or = 2 y, > 2 y). Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis was identified, for the first time in Canada, in 1 cat. The prevalence of Bartonella (58%) and hemoplasma (47% M. haemofelis, 13% M. haemominutum) in blood from a small sampling (n = 45) of stray cats was considerably higher than that found in healthy pet cats. The prevalence of Rickettsia felis in cat fleas was also assessed. A pool of fleas from each of 50 flea-infested cats was analyzed for the presence of R. felis by PCR. Rickettsia felis was confirmed, for the first time in Canada, in 9 of the 50 samples. Therefore, the prevalence of Bartonella and hemoplasma infection in healthy pet cats is relatively low. Further, the control of cat fleas is important because of the public health significance of Bartonella and R. felis infection.

  9. Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Bartonella in ticks and fleas from dogs and cats in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Foongladda, Suporn; Inthawong, Dutsadee; Kositanont, Uraiwan; Gaywee, Jariyanart

    2011-10-01

    Flea and tick specimens (5-10 fleas or ticks) on dogs and cats from various sites in Bangkok were tested by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing to detect DNA of bacteria Rickettsia (gltA and 17 kDa genes), Anaplasmataceae (16S rRNA gene), and Bartonella (pap31 and its genes). We confirmed that Rickettsia sp. related to Rickettsia felis was detected in 66 of 98 (67.4%) flea specimens from dogs, whereas 8 Bartonella henselae and 2 Bartonella clarridgeiae were detected in 10 of 54 (18.5%) flea specimens from cats. Further, this work provides the first evidence of 10 Ehrlichia canis (3.3%), 7 Anaplasma platys (2.3%), and 2 Wolbachia spp. (0.66%) in 304 Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick specimens in Thailand.

  10. Novel Bartonella infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris nereis).

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Kasten, Rickie W; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Byrne, Barbara A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Miller, Melissa A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-06-04

    Since 2002, vegetative valvular endocarditis (VVE), septicemia and meningoencephalitis have contributed to an Unusual Mortality Event (UME) of northern sea otters in southcentral Alaska. Streptococcal organisms were commonly isolated from vegetative lesions and organs from these sea otters. Bartonella infection has also been associated with bacteremia and VVE in terrestrial mammals, but little is known regarding its pathogenic significance in marine mammals. Our study evaluated whether Streptococcus bovis/equinus (SB/E) and Bartonella infections were associated with UME-related disease characterized by VVE and septicemia in Alaskan sea otter carcasses recovered 2004-2008. These bacteria were also evaluated in southern sea otters in California. Streptococcus bovis/equinus were cultured from 45% (23/51) of northern sea otter heart valves, and biochemical testing and sequencing identified these isolates as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. One-third of sea otter hearts were co-infected with Bartonella spp. Our analysis demonstrated that SB/E was strongly associated with UME-related disease in northern sea otters (P<0.001). While Bartonella infection was also detected in 45% (23/51) and 10% (3/30) of heart valves of northern and southern sea otters examined, respectively, it was not associated with disease. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella ITS region allowed detection of two Bartonella species, one novel species closely related to Bartonella spp. JM-1, B. washoensis and Candidatus B. volans and another molecularly identical to B. henselae. Our findings help to elucidate the role of pathogens in northern sea otter mortalities during this UME and suggested that Bartonella spp. is common in sea otters from Alaska and California.

  11. Bartonella species pathogenic for humans infect pets, free-ranging wild mammals and their ectoparasites in the Caatinga biome, Northeastern Brazil: a serological and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Fontalvo, Mariana Campos; Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Araujo, Andreina de Carvalho; Santos, Naylla Mayana Dos; Oliveira, Glauber Meneses Barboza de; Aguiar, Daniel Moura; Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio de; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2017-02-27

    This study verified the occurrence of Bartonella spp. in dogs, cats, wild mammals and their ectoparasites in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande Counties, Pernambuco, located in a semi-arid region in Northeastern Brazil. Anti-Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in 24.8% of dogs (27/109) and in 15% of cats (6/40). Bartonella sp. DNA was identified by PCR performed on DNA extracted from blood and ectoparasites using primers targeting Bartonella sp. gltA and ribC genes in 100% (9/9) of Pulex irritans from Cerdocyon thous, 57.4% (35/61) of P. irritans from dogs, 2.3% (1/43) of Ctenocephalides felis felis from dogs, 53.3% (24/45) of C. felis felis from cats, and 10% (1/10) of Polyplax spp. from Thrichomys apereoides. DNA sequencing identified Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae in C. felis felis from cats, Bartonella rochalimae in P. irritans from dog and C. thous, and Bartonella vinsoni berkhofii in P. irritans from dog.

  12. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-07-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat-associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans.

  13. Bartonellae in domestic and stray cats from Israel: comparison of bacterial cultures and high-resolution melt real-time PCR as diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Morick, Danny; Gross, Ifat; Winkler, Ronen; Abdeen, Ziad; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-12-01

    To determine the occurrence of feline bartonellosis in Israel, blood samples were collected from 179 stray and 155 domestic cats from 18 cities or villages in central and northcentral Israel. Samples were screened for Bartonella infection by culture isolation and molecular detection using high-resolution melt (HRM) real-time PCR assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS). All positive samples were confirmed by two additional HRM real-time PCR assays targeting two fragments of the β-subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) and the 16S rRNA genes. The prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in the general tested population was 25.1% (84/334). A higher prevalence was detected in the stray (30.7%; 55/179) than the domestic cats (18.7%; 29/155). Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae were highly prevalent in both cat populations, however their distribution among the two populations varied significantly (p=0.016). B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae were found to be more prevalent in stray than domestic cats, whereas B. henselae was evenly distributed. Co-infection with two or more different Bartonella spp. was determined in 2.1% (7) of the cats. The ITS HRM real-time PCR assay used in this study was shown to have a greater screening power than bacterial isolation, detecting 94.0% (79/84) compared to 35.7% (30/84), respectively, of all positive samples. The high prevalence of these zoonotic Bartonella species, coupled with the overpopulation of stray cats, and increased numbers of domestic cats in the major urban centers in Israel represent a significant threat for the public health in this country.

  14. Rickettsia felis and Bartonella spp. in fleas from cats in Albania.

    PubMed

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Knaus, Martin; Rapti, Dhimiter; Shukullari, Enstela; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Fleas can serve as vectors for bacterial pathogens like Bartonella and Rickettsia species, which have been isolated worldwide. However, the knowledge of the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in general and thus on flea-borne diseases in Albania is limited. Therefore, from 78 free-roaming cats in Tirana, Albania, fleas (371 Ctenocephalides felis and 5 Ctenocephalides canis) were collected to examine them for the presence of Rickettsia and Bartonella species. Ten of the 371 C. felis (2.7%) were positive for Rickettsia felis, and 24 (6.5%) for Bartonella spp. (B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae). In total, fleas from 15 cats (19.2%) were positive for either one or the other of the pathogens. The results of this study provided evidence for the presence of R. felis (causing flea-borne spotted fever) and Bartonella spp. (causing cat scratch disease) in Albania. Thus, these infectious diseases should be considered as differential diagnoses when febrile symptoms are presented, especially after contact with cats or their fleas.

  15. Risk Factors for Bartonella species Infection in Blood Donors from Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1–9.6) or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3–13.4). These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion. PMID:26999057

  16. Prevalence, Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Bartonella Species in Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ko, S; Kang, J-G; Kim, H-C; Klein, T A; Choi, K-S; Song, J-W; Youn, H-Y; Chae, J-S

    2016-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of Bartonella species and identify which species of Bartonella naturally infects the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius) in the Republic of Korea (ROK), spleens from 200 mice were assayed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) targeting the RNA polymerase subunit beta (rpoB) gene and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region for members of the genus Bartonella. Utilizing PCR techniques, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. ranged from 31.5% (63/200) to 62.0% (124/200) for the rpoB and ITS gene fragments, respectively. The most prevalent species, Bartonella grahamii, was assigned to 17 genotypes and closely related to the zoonotic pathogens, B. taylorii, B. tribocorum, B. phoceensis and B. henselae, which also were detected. Two Bartonella isolates (KRBG28 and KRBG32) were recovered from blood of A. agrarius captured in Gyeonggi Province, ROK. Comparison of the 16S rRNA, hemin-binding protein E (hbpE), glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (gdh1), invasion-associated protein B (ialB), cell division protein (ftsZ), citrate synthase (gltA), 60 kDa heat shock protein (groEL), rpoB gene fragments and the ITS region sequences from the isolates with GenBank was confirmed as B. grahamii. Phylogenetic analysis based on the alignment of concatenated sequences (4933 bp) of KRBG28 and KRBG32 clustered with B. grahamii, forming an independent clade between Asian and American/European B. grahamii genogroups.

  17. Vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella in fleas.

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-09-01

    Pathogens use diverse pathways to infect host populations by vertical and/or horizontal routes. Horizontal transmission of bacteria belonging to the Bartonella genus via haematophagous vectors is well known. Vertical transmission of Bartonella species was also suggested to occur but its routes remain to be unveiled. In a previous study, we showed the absence of transovarial transmission of Bartonella species OE 1-1 in Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and that fleas feeding on Bartonella-positive jirds produced Bartonella-positive gut voids. This current study aimed to investigate whether vertical nontransovarial transmission of Bartonella occurs in fleas. For this aim, the X. ramesis-Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 model was used. Four groups of fleas including Bartonella-positive and Bartonella-negative female fleas and larval offspring had access to either Bartonella-negative or Bartonella-positive gut voids and faeces. Sixteen per cent of flea offspring that had access to Bartonella-positive faeces and gut voids became Bartonella positive. Our findings demonstrate that Bartonella-positive flea faeces and gut voids are proper infection sources for flea larvae and indicate that vertical nontransovarial transmission of bartonellae occurs in fleas. This information broadens our understanding of Bartonella transmission routes in flea vectors and enlightens pathways of bartonellae transmission and maintenance in flea populations in nature.

  18. Bartonella infections and HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Lindauer, A

    1996-01-01

    Successful assessment and treatment of Bartonella in HIV-seropositive people depends on nursing's fundamental role in the management of these bacterial infections. Bartonella species are responsible for a variety of infections, including cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis, which can be debilitating to people living with AIDS. This paper provides an overview of the clinical presentation and nursing management of Bartonella infection in PLWAs. The author discusses common diagnostic procedures, treatment strategies, and the nurse's role in caring for patients with a Bartonella infection.

  19. Characterization of the cryptic plasmid pBGR1 from Bartonella grahamii and construction of a versatile Escherichia coli-Bartonella spp. shuttle cloning vector.

    PubMed

    Seubert, Anja; Falch, Christine; Birtles, Richard J; Schulein, Ralf; Dehio, Christoph

    2003-01-01

    We report herein the isolation and molecular characterization of pBGR1, the first native plasmid isolated from the genus Bartonella. Cloning and sequencing revealed a 2725-base pair (bp) cryptic plasmid comprising two open reading frames of considerable length, which were designated rep and mob. The regions containing rep and mob are separated by 140-bp inverted repeat sequences and display a difference in G + C content from one another. A 1435-bp SacI-BclI fragment containing the rep gene is sufficient to mediate replication in the species Bartonella henselae and Bartonella tribocorum, while this replicon does not appear to be functional in Escherichia coli. The Rep protein of 190 amino acids (aa) shares homology to putative replication proteins of cryptic plasmids of Gram-negative origin, which form a subgroup of the rolling-circle replication proteins of the pSN2 plasmid superfamily of Gram-positive bacteria. The Mob protein of 333 aa is related to mobilization proteins of several cryptic plasmids and is associated with a conserved recombination site A. The tra functions of RP4 can mobilize pBGR1 derivatives in a mob-dependent manner. Mobilizable pBGR1-based E. coli-Bartonella spp. shuttle vectors were constructed and were shown to be maintained in B. tribocorum during in vivo passage in a rat model in the absence of antibiotic selection. The small size and stability of these shuttle cloning vectors should render them particularly valuable for genetic studies in Bartonella spp.

  20. Prevalence of Anaplasma, Bartonella and Borrelia Species in Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in North Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W. Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong

    2016-01-01

    North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. PMID:26645342

  1. Prevalence of Anaplasma, Bartonella and Borrelia Species in Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in North Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-30

    North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens.

  2. Diversifying selection and concerted evolution of a type IV secretion system in Bartonella.

    PubMed

    Nystedt, Björn; Frank, A Carolin; Thollesson, Mikael; Andersson, Siv G E

    2008-02-01

    We have studied the evolution of a type IV secretion system (T4SS), in Bartonella, which is thought to have changed function from conjugation to erythrocyte adherence following a recent horizontal gene transfer event. The system, called Trw, is unique among T4SSs in that genes encoding both exo- and intracellular components are located within the same duplicated fragment. This provides an opportunity to study the influence of selection on proteins involved in host-pathogen interactions. We sequenced the trw locus from several strains of Bartonella henselae and investigated its evolutionary history by comparisons to other Bartonella species. Several instances of recombination and gene conversion events where detected in the 2- to 5-fold duplicated gene fragments encompassing trwJIH, explaining the homogenization of the anchoring protein TrwI and the divergence of the minor pilus protein TrwJ. A phylogenetic analysis of the 7- to 8-fold duplicated gene coding for the major pilus protein TrwL displayed 2 distinct clades, likely representing a subfunctionalization event. The analyses of the B. henselae strains also identified a recent horizontal transfer event of almost the complete trwL region. We suggest that the switch in function of the T4SS was mediated by the duplication of the genes encoding pilus components and their diversification by combinatorial sequence shuffling within and among genomes. We suggest that the pilus proteins have evolved by diversifying selection to match a divergent set of erythrocyte surface structures, consistent with the trench warfare coevolutionary model.

  3. Detection of serum antibodies against Bartonella species in cats with sporotrichosis from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Amanda A B; Favacho, Alexsandra R M; Oliveira, Raquel V C; Pessoa, Adonai A; Gomes, Raphael; Honse, Carla O; Gremião, Isabella D F; Lemos, Elba R S; Pereira, Sandro A

    2014-04-01

    Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella species, transmitted to humans through scratches or bites from infected cats and via direct contact with infected feces. Sporotrichosis, caused by the fungal complex Sporothrix, is transmitted by traumatic inoculation of the fungus. Cats are important in zoonotic transmission. Serum samples from 112 domestic cats with sporotrichosis and 77 samples from healthy cats were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using the commercial kit Bartonella henselae IFA IgG (Bion). The presence of antibodies against feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) core antigens was detected using the commercial kit Snap Combo FIV-FeLV (Idexx). The group of animals with sporotrichosis contained 93 males with a median age of 22 months, eight (7.1%) of which were positive for FIV and 15 (13.4%) for FeLV. The group of animals without sporotrichosis contained 36 males with a median age 48 months, 10 (13.0%) of which were positive for FIV and eight (10.4%) for FeLV. Of the 112 cats with sporotrichosis and 77 cats without mycosis, 72 (64.3%) and 35 (45.5%), respectively, were IFA reactive. No association was found between age, sex, FIV/FeLV and the presence of antibodies to Bartonella species. The results suggest that the study population can be considered a potential source of zoonotic infection for both diseases.

  4. Heterologous Expression of Bartonella Adhesin A in Escherichia coli by Exchange of Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesin Domains Results in Enhanced Adhesion Properties and a Pathogenic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O.; Ballhorn, Wibke; Franz, Bettina; Göttig, Stephan; Linke, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Human-pathogenic Bartonella henselae causes cat scratch disease and vasculoproliferative disorders. An important pathogenicity factor of B. henselae is the trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), which is modularly constructed, consisting of a head, a long and repetitive neck-stalk module, and a membrane anchor. BadA is involved in bacterial autoagglutination, binding to extracellular matrix proteins and host cells, and in proangiogenic reprogramming. The slow growth of B. henselae and limited tools for genetic manipulation are obstacles for detailed examination of BadA and its domains. Here, we established a recombinant expression system for BadA mutants in Escherichia coli allowing functional analysis of particular BadA domains. Using a BadA mutant lacking 21 neck-stalk repeats (BadA HN23), the BadA HN23 signal sequence was exchanged with that of E. coli OmpA, and the BadA membrane anchor was additionally replaced with that of Yersinia adhesin A (YadA). Constructs were cloned in E. coli, and hybrid protein expression was detected by immunoblotting, fluorescence microscopy, and flow cytometry. Functional analysis revealed that BadA hybrid proteins mediate autoagglutination and binding to collagen and endothelial cells. In vivo, expression of this BadA construct correlated with higher pathogenicity of E. coli in a Galleria mellonella infection model. PMID:24682330

  5. Isolation of Bartonella washoensis from a Dog with Mitral Valve Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Wey, Aaron C.; Kasten, Rickie W.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first documented case of Bartonella washoensis bacteremia in a dog with mitral valve endocarditis. B. washoensis was isolated in 1995 from a human patient with cardiac disease. The main reservoir species appears to be ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) in the western United States. Based on echocardiographic findings, a diagnosis of infective vegetative valvular mitral endocarditis was made in a spayed 12-year-old female Doberman pinscher. A year prior to presentation, the referring veterinarian had detected a heart murmur, which led to progressive dyspnea and a diagnosis of congestive heart failure the week before examination. One month after initial presentation, symptoms worsened. An emergency therapy for congestive heart failure was unsuccessfully implemented, and necropsy evaluation of the dog was not permitted. Indirect immunofluorescence tests showed that the dog was strongly seropositive (titer of 1:4,096) for several Bartonella antigens (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, B. clarridgeiae, and B. henselae), highly suggestive of Bartonella endocarditis. Standard aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic cultures were negative. However, a specific blood culture for Bartonella isolation grew a fastidious, gram-negative organism 7 days after being plated. Phenotypic and genotypic characterizations of the isolate, including partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), groEL, and 16S rRNA genes, indicated that this organism was identical to B. washoensis. The dog was seronegative for all tick-borne pathogens tested (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Rickettsia rickettsii), but the sample was highly positive for B. washoensis (titer of 1:8,192) and, according to indirect immunofluorescent-antibody assay, weakly positive for phase II Coxiella burnetii infection. PMID:14605197

  6. Bartonella spp. as emerging human pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, B E; Neuman, M A

    1997-01-01

    Members of the genus Bartonella (formerly Rochalimaea) were virtually unknown to modern-day clinicians and microbiologists until they were associated with opportunistic infections in AIDS patients about 6 years ago. Since that time, Bartonella species have been associated with cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, and a variety of other disease syndromes. Clinical presentation of infection with Bartonella ranges from a relatively mild lymphadenopathy with few other symptoms, seen in cat scratch disease, to life-threatening systemic disease in the immunocompromised patient. In some individuals, infection manifests as lesions that exhibit proliferation of endothelial cells and neovascularization, a pathogenic process unique to this genus of bacteria. As the spectrum of disease attributed to Bartonella is further defined, the need for reliable laboratory methods to diagnose infections caused by these unique organisms also increases. A brief summary of the clinical presentations associated with Bartonella infections is presented, and the current status of laboratory diagnosis and identification of these organisms is reviewed. PMID:9105751

  7. A Gene Transfer Agent and a Dynamic Repertoire of Secretion Systems Hold the Keys to the Explosive Radiation of the Emerging Pathogen Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Björn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C.; Granberg, Fredrik; Näslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G. E.

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes. PMID:23555299

  8. A gene transfer agent and a dynamic repertoire of secretion systems hold the keys to the explosive radiation of the emerging pathogen Bartonella.

    PubMed

    Guy, Lionel; Nystedt, Björn; Toft, Christina; Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Berglund, Eva C; Granberg, Fredrik; Näslund, Kristina; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie; Andersson, Siv G E

    2013-03-01

    Gene transfer agents (GTAs) randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes.

  9. Isolation of Bartonella capreoli from elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bai, Y.; Cross, P.C.; Malania, L.; Kosoy, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella infections in elk populations. We report the isolation of four Bartonella strains from 55 elk blood samples. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that all four strains belong to Bartonella capreoli, a bacterium that was originally described in the wild roe deer of Europe. Our finding first time demonstrated that B. capreoli has a wide geographic range, and that elk may be another host for this bacterium. Further investigations are needed to determine the impact of this bacterium on wildlife.

  10. Antoni Quintana-Mari (1907-1998): A Pioneer of the Use of History of Science in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roca-Rosell, Antoni; Grapi-Vilumara, Pere

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1930s, the young Antoni Quintana-Mari undertook some research on Antoni de Marti i Franques, one of the most prominent Catalan scientists of the Enlightenment. This scientist worked in Tarragona, where Quintana-Mari lived. Quintana-Mari learnt about Marti i Franques from Josep Estalella, his teacher of physics and chemistry at the…

  11. Lack of transplacental transmission of Bartonella bovis.

    PubMed

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Boulouis, H-J; Reynaud, K; Thoumire, S; Gandoin, C; Bouillin, C; Cordonnier, N; Maillard, R

    2015-02-01

    Transplacental transmission of Bartonella spp. has been reported for rodents, but not for cats and has never been investigated in cattle. The objective of this study was to assess vertical transmission of Bartonella in cattle. Fifty-six cow-calf pairs were tested before (cows) and after (calves) caesarean section for Bartonella bacteremia and/or serology, and the cotyledons were checked for gross lesions and presence of the bacteria. None of the 29 (52%) bacteremic cows gave birth to bacteremic calves, and all calves were seronegative at birth. Neither placentitis nor vasculitis were observed in all collected cotyledons. Bartonella bovis was not detected in placental cotyledons. Therefore, transplacental transmission of B. bovis and multiplication of the bacteria in the placenta do not seem likely. The lack of transplacental transmission may be associated with the particular structure of the placenta in ruminants or to a poor affinity/agressiveness of B. bovis for this tissue.

  12. Feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus and Bartonella species in stray cats on St Kitts, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick J; Moura, Lenita; Miller, Tanya; Thurk, Jaime; Perreault, Nicole; Weil, Adriana; Maggio, Ricardo; Lucas, Helene; Breitschwerdt, Edward

    2010-06-01

    Stray cats trapped in various areas of Basseterre, the capital of St Kitts in the West Indies, were tested for infection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) using commercial kits. Of 99 (51 male and 48 female) cats trapped in 2006/7, 15% (12 males and three females) were positive for FIV while none were positive for FeLV. Of 72 (41 males and 31 females) cats trapped in 2009, 14% (nine males and one female) were positive for FIV while none were positive for FeLV. Polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed DNA of Bartonella species in whole blood collected from 60/95 (63%) cats trapped in 2006/7. Sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region of a convenience sample of nine amplicons and the 11 isolates made from 43 blood samples which were cultured using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria (BAPGM) enrichment medium revealed B henselae (14) and B clarridgeiae (six).

  13. Association of Bartonella with the fleas (Siphonaptera) of rodents and bats using molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Rogers, Thomas E; Durden, Lance A; Dasch, Gregory A

    2007-06-01

    Bartonella spp. are putatively vector-borne bacterial agents of humans and animals. Fleas have been incriminated as vectors of Bartonella spp. and are suspected of transmitting Bartonella of rodents and bats, but some of these Bartonella spp. have not yet been directly detected in wild caught fleas. We report the molecular detection of Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, and two novel genotypes of Bartonella from the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis, Ctenophthalmus pseudagyrtes, Sternopsylla texanus, or Orchopeas howardi.

  14. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hui-Ju; Wen, Hong-ling; Zhao, Li; Liu, Jian-wei; Luo, Li-Mei; Zhou, Chuan-Min; Qin, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Ye-Lei; Zheng, Xue-Xing

    2017-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging human pathogens. Bats are known to carry diverse Bartonella species, some of which are capable of infecting humans. However, as the second largest mammalian group by a number of species, the role of bats as the reservoirs of Bartonella species is not fully explored, in term of their species diversity and worldwide distribution. China, especially Northern China, harbors a number of endemic insectivorous bat species; however, to our knowledge, there are not yet studies about Bartonella in bats in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in bats in Northern China. Bartonella species were detected by PCR amplification of gltA gene in 25.2% (27/107) bats in Mengyin County, Shandong Province of China, including 1/3 Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, 2/10 Rhinolophus pusillus, 9/16 Myotis fimbriatus, 1/5 Myotis ricketti, 14/58 Myotis pequinius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Bartonella species detected in bats in this study clustered into ten groups, and some might be novel Bartonella species. An association between Bartonella species and bat species was demonstrated and co-infection with different Bartonella species in a single bat was also observed. Our findings expanded our knowledge on the genetic diversity of Bartonella in bats, and shed light on the ecology of bat-borne Bartonella species. PMID:28081122

  15. Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats in Peru.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Recuenco, Sergio; Gilbert, Amy Turmelle; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Gómez, Jorge; Rupprecht, Charles; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2012-09-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in bats in the Amazon part of Peru. A total of 112 bats belonging to 19 species were surveyed. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 24.1% of the bats (27/112). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 100% per bat species. Phylogenetic analyses of gltA of the Bartonella isolates revealed 21 genetic variants clustering into 13 divergent phylogroups. Some Bartonella strains were shared by bats of multiple species, and bats of some species were infected with multiple Bartonella strains, showing no evident specific Bartonella sp.-bat relationships. Rarely found in other bat species, the Bartonella strains of phylogroups I and III discovered from the common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were more specific to the host bat species, suggesting some level of host specificity.

  16. Flea-borne Bartonella grahamii and Bartonella taylorii in bank voles.

    PubMed

    Bown, Kevin J; Bennet, Malcolm; Begon, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Bartonella species are increasingly associated with a range of human and animal diseases. Despite this, we have a poor understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of many species, especially those circulating in wild populations. Previous studies have demonstrated that a diverse range of Bartonella species are abundant in wild rodent populations; little is known regarding their modes of transmission, although both direct and indirect routes have been suggested. In this study, with bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) as the host species, we demonstrate that the rodent flea Ctenophthalmus nobilis is a competent vector of at least two Bartonella species, B. grahamii, which has previously been associated with human infection, and B. taylorii. In contrast, no evidence of either horizontal or vertical transmission was seen in bank voles inoculated with B. taylorii maintained in an arthropod-free environment; this finding suggests that fleas may be essential for transmitting some Bartonella species.

  17. Flea-borne Bartonella grahamii and Bartonella taylorii in Bank Voles

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Malcolm; Begon, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Bartonella species are increasingly associated with a range of human and animal diseases. Despite this, we have a poor understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of many species, especially those circulating in wild populations. Previous studies have demonstrated that a diverse range of Bartonella species are abundant in wild rodent populations; little is known regarding their modes of transmission, although both direct and indirect routes have been suggested. In this study, with bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) as the host species, we demonstrate that the rodent flea Ctenophthalmus nobilis is a competent vector of at least two Bartonella species, B. grahamii, which has previously been associated with human infection, and B. taylorii. In contrast, no evidence of either horizontal or vertical transmission was seen in bank voles inoculated with B. taylorii maintained in an arthropod-free environment; this finding suggests that fleas may be essential for transmitting some Bartonella species. PMID:15200860

  18. Bartonella species in bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from western Africa.

    PubMed

    Billeter, S A; Hayman, D T S; Peel, A J; Baker, K; Wood, J L N; Cunningham, A; Suu-Ire, R; Dittmar, K; Kosoy, M Y

    2012-03-01

    Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa.

  19. Bartonella infection in rodents and their flea ectoparasites: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Krasnov, Boris; Morick, Danny; Gottlieb, Yuval; Khokhlova, Irina S; Harrus, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies worldwide have reported a high prevalence and a great diversity of Bartonella species, both in rodents and their flea parasites. The interaction among Bartonella, wild rodents, and fleas reflects a high degree of adaptation among these organisms. Vertical and horizontal efficient Bartonella transmission pathways within flea communities and from fleas to rodents have been documented in competence studies, suggesting that fleas are key players in the transmission of Bartonella to rodents. Exploration of the ecological traits of rodents and their fleas may shed light on the mechanisms used by bartonellae to become established in these organisms. The present review explores the interrelations within the Bartonella-rodent-flea system. The role of the latter two components is emphasized.

  20. A translocated effector required for Bartonella dissemination from derma to blood safeguards migratory host cells from damage by co-translocated effectors.

    PubMed

    Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G; Dehio, Christoph

    2014-06-01

    Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ΔbepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ΔbepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ΔbepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ΔbepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that

  1. A Translocated Effector Required for Bartonella Dissemination from Derma to Blood Safeguards Migratory Host Cells from Damage by Co-translocated Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Okujava, Rusudan; Guye, Patrick; Lu, Yun-Yueh; Mistl, Claudia; Polus, Florine; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Halin, Cornelia; Rolink, Antonius G.; Dehio, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bacterial pathogens secrete multiple effectors to modulate host cellular functions. These effectors may interfere with each other to efficiently control the infection process. Bartonellae are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria using a VirB type IV secretion system to translocate a cocktail of Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into host cells. Based on in vitro infection models we demonstrate here that BepE protects infected migratory cells from injurious effects triggered by BepC and is required for in vivo dissemination of bacteria from the dermal site of inoculation to blood. Human endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with a ΔbepE mutant of B. henselae (Bhe) displayed a cell fragmentation phenotype resulting from Bep-dependent disturbance of rear edge detachment during migration. A ΔbepCE mutant did not show cell fragmentation, indicating that BepC is critical for triggering this deleterious phenotype. Complementation of ΔbepE with BepEBhe or its homologues from other Bartonella species abolished cell fragmentation. This cyto-protective activity is confined to the C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery (BID) domain of BepEBhe (BID2.EBhe). Ectopic expression of BID2.EBhe impeded the disruption of actin stress fibers by Rho Inhibitor 1, indicating that BepE restores normal cell migration via the RhoA signaling pathway, a major regulator of rear edge retraction. An intradermal (i.d.) model for B. tribocorum (Btr) infection in the rat reservoir host mimicking the natural route of infection by blood sucking arthropods allowed demonstrating a vital role for BepE in bacterial dissemination from derma to blood. While the Btr mutant ΔbepDE was abacteremic following i.d. inoculation, complementation with BepEBtr, BepEBhe or BIDs.EBhe restored bacteremia. Given that we observed a similar protective effect of BepEBhe on infected bone marrow-derived dendritic cells migrating through a monolayer of lymphatic endothelial cells we propose that

  2. Bartonella species in invasive rats and indigenous rodents from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Billeter, Sarah A; Borchert, Jeff N; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Gage, Kenneth L; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2014-03-01

    The presence of bartonellae in invasive rats (Rattus rattus) and indigenous rodents (Arvicanthis niloticus and Cricetomys gambianus) from two districts in Uganda, Arua and Zombo, was examined by PCR detection and culture. Blood from a total of 228 R. rattus, 31 A. niloticus, and 5 C. gambianus was screened using genus-specific primers targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Furthermore, rodent blood was plated on brain heart infusion blood agar, and isolates were verified as Bartonella species using citrate synthase gene- (gltA) specific primers. One hundred and four fleas recovered from R. rattus were also tested for the presence of Bartonella species using the same gltA primer set. An overall prevalence of 1.3% (three of 228) was obtained in R. rattus, whereas 61.3% of 31 A. niloticus and 60% of five C. gambianus were positive for the presence of Bartonella species. Genotypes related to Bartonella elizabethae, a known zoonotic pathogen, were detected in three R. rattus and one C. gambianus. Bartonella strains, similar to bacteria detected in indigenous rodents from other African countries, were isolated from the blood of A. niloticus. Bartonellae, similar to bacteria initially cultured from Ornithodorus sonrai (soft tick) from Senegal, were found in two C. gambianus. Interestingly, bartonellae detected in fleas from invasive rats were similar to bacteria identified in indigenous rodents and not their rat hosts, with an overall prevalence of 6.7%. These results suggest that if fleas are competent vectors of these bartonellae, humans residing in these two districts of Uganda are potentially at greater risk for exposure to Bartonella species from native rodents than from invasive rats. The low prevalence of bartonellae in R. rattus was quite surprising, in contrast, to the detection of these organisms in a large percentage of Rattus species from other geographical areas. A possible reason for this disparity is discussed.

  3. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Chitwood, M Colter; Maggi, Ricardo G; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne; Toliver, Marcée; DePerno, Christopher S

    2013-04-01

    Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer.

  4. Investigation of Bartonella acquisition and transmission in Xenopsylla ramesis fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

    2011-07-01

    Bartonella are emerging and re-emerging pathogens affecting humans and a wide variety of animals including rodents. Horizontal transmission of Bartonella species by different hematophagous vectors is well acknowledged but vertical transmission (from mother to offspring) is questionable and was never explored in fleas. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the rodent flea, Xenopsylla ramesis, can acquire native Bartonella from wild rodents and transmit it transovarially. For this aim, Bartonella-free laboratory-reared X. ramesis fleas were placed on six naturally Bartonella-infected rodents and six species-matched Bartonella-negative rodents (three Meriones crassus jirds, two Gerbillus nanus gerbils and one Gerbillus dasyurus gerbil) for 7 days, 12-14h per day. The fleas that were placed on the Bartonella-positive rodents acquired four different Bartonella genotypes. Eggs and larvae laid and developed, respectively, by fleas from both rodent groups were collected daily for 7 days and molecularly screened for Bartonella. All eggs and larvae from both groups were found to be negative for Bartonella DNA. Interestingly, two of five gut voids regurgitated by Bartonella-positive fleas contained Bartonella DNA. The naturally infected rodents remained persistently infected with Bartonella for at least 89 days suggesting their capability to serve as competent reservoirs for Bartonella species. The findings in this study indicate that X. ramesis fleas can acquire several Bartonella strains from wild rodents but cannot transmit Bartonella transovarially.

  5. "Gris Quintana": a Spanish granite from the Past into the Future.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    "Gris Quintana" is a medium-grained, biotite and amphibole granodiorite extracted in the Pluton of Quintana de la Serena (Extremadura, Spain). It is a constant light grey granite from the Hercynian geologic with excellent physicomechanical and physicochemical properties. The granodiorite is composed of plagioclase, biotite, quartz and alkali feldspar, with accessory allanite, titanite, apatite, zircon and ilmenite, mostly as inclusions within the biotite crystals. This commercial variety is extracted from many quarries in the late Hercynian plutons located in the Iberian Massif in Spain period (transition between Central Iberian and Ossa-Moren Zones), having large reserves of granite. Many of the quarries have their own transformation factory (high production zone), with which the sector is offered an endless variety of finishes and constructive rock typologies. A wide range of solutions to architects and designers are offered. Gris Quintana granite is one of the materials with highest technological benefits that are used in arquitecture. "Gris Quintana" granite has been used since ancient times, not only at a regional, but also at national and international level: paving, building (structural, exterior façadas, interior uses), urban decoration and funeral art. It can be found in monuments and more recently, in buildings of different styles and uses, that stand out in beauty and splendor, lasting in time. Some singular works in "Gris Quintana" granite all over the world: extension to the "Congreso de Diputados" (Parliament) in Madrid, "Puerta de San Vicente" in Madrid, Andalucia Parliament columns in Sevilla, New Senate Buiding in Madird, "Gran Vía" pavement in Madrid, "Teatro Real façade" in Madrid… "Gris Quintana" granite accomplishes all the requirements for its nomination as Global Heritage Stone Resource, for both its use in construction and for artistic purposes.

  6. Seroprevalence of Bartonella Species in Patients with Ocular Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Kopacz, Dorota; Borkowski, Piotr K; Fiecek, Beata; Hevelke, Agata; Rabczenko, Daniel; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanisława; Kęcik, Dariusz; Chmielewski, Tomasz

    2017-04-13

    Bartonella species, vector-borne etiologic agents of many systemic or self-limited infections, are responsible for a widening spectrum of diseases in humans, including inflammatory conditions of the eye. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any relationship between uveitis and the evidence of Bartonella spp. infection in the serum, ocular fluid, and cataract mass in patients with intraocular inflammation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests and DNA sequencing were performed on surgery-extracted specimens of intraocular fluid and lens mass of 33 patients. Sera from 51 patients and 101 control subjects were tested for the presence of specific antibodies against Bartonella spp. Neither IgM-class antibodies against Bartonella spp. nor Bartonella spp. DNA were detected. A specific IgG-class antibody was found in 33.3% of the patients with uveitis. The rate of positive Bartonella serology was higher among the uveitis patients than that in control subjects. This high rate may in part result from unrecognized indirect mechanisms rather than the immediate presence and multiplication of Bartonella spp. in the eyeball. Nonetheless we believe that screening for Bartonella spp. should become part of the diagnostic workup in uveitis.

  7. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii endocarditis in a dog from Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Cockwill, Ken R.; Taylor, Susan M.; Philibert, Helene M.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Maggi, Ricardo G.

    2007-01-01

    A dog referred for lameness was diagnosed with culture-negative endocarditis. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were detected. Antibiotic treatment resulted in transient clinical improvement, but the dog developed cardiac failure and was euthanized. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype IV was identified within the aortic heart valve lesions by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing. PMID:17824328

  8. Pestilence, persistence and pathogenicity: infection strategies of Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Minnick, Michael F; Battisti, James M

    2009-01-01

    It has been nearly two decades since the discovery of Bartonella as an agent of bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patients and persistent bacteremia and ‘nonculturable’ endocarditis in homeless people. Since that time, the number of Bartonella species identified has increased from one to 24, and 10 of these bacteria are associated with human disease. Although Bartonella is the only genus that infects human erythrocytes and triggers pathological angiogenesis in the vascular bed, the group remains understudied compared with most other bacterial pathogens. Numerous questions regarding Bartonella's molecular pathogenesis and epidemiology remain unanswered. Virtually every mammal harbors one or more Bartonella species and their transmission typically involves a hematophagous arthropod vector. However, many details regarding epidemiology and the public health threat imposed by these animal reservoirs is unclear. A handful of studies have shown that bartonellae are highly-adapted pathogens whose parasitic strategy has evolved to cause persistent infections of the host. To this end, virulence attributes of Bartonella include the subversion of host cells with effector molecules delivered via a type IV secretion system, induction of pathological angiogenesis through various means, including inhibition of apoptosis and activation of hypoxia-inducing factor 1, use of afimbrial adhesins that are orthologs of Yersinia adhesin A, incorporation of lipopolysaccharides with low endotoxic potency in the outer membrane, and several other virulence factors that help Bartonella infect and persist in erythrocytes and endothelial cells of the host circulatory system. PMID:19659429

  9. Potentially Zoonotic Bartonella in Bats from France and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Matthew J.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    We detected Bartonella in 11 of 109 insectivorous bats from France and 1 of 26 bats from Spain. These genetic variants are closely related to bat-associated Bartonella described in Finland and the United Kingdom and to B. mayotimonensis, the agent of a human endocarditis case in the United States. PMID:28221109

  10. Bartonella infection in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lipatova, Indre; Paulauskas, Algimantas; Puraite, Irma; Radzijevskaja, Jana; Balciauskas, Linas; Gedminas, Vaclovas

    2015-01-01

    The Bartonella pathogen is an emerging zoonotic agent. Epidemiological studies worldwide have demonstrated that small mammals are reservoir hosts of Bartonella spp. and their ectoparasites are potential vectors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Bartonella infections in small mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora) and their ectoparasites (fleas and ticks) in Lithuania. A total of 430 small mammals representing nine species were captured with live-traps in Lithuania during 2013-2014. A total of 151 fleas representing eight species were collected from 109 (25.8%) small mammals. Five hundred and seventy ticks (Ixodes ricinus) were collected from 68 (16.1%) small mammals. Bartonella DNA was detected in 102 (23.7%) small mammals, 44 (29.1%) fleas and five (3.7%) pooled tick samples. Sequence analysis of 16S-23S rRNA ITS region showed that sequences were identical or similar to Bartonella grahamii, Bartonella taylorii and Bartonella rochalimae. This study is the first investigating the distribution and diversity of Bartonella species in small mammals and their ectoparasites in Lithuania. B. grahamii, B. taylorii, and B. rochalimae were detected in small mammals and their fleas, and B. grahamii in ticks obtained from small mammals.

  11. Human Lymphadenopathy Caused by Ratborne Bartonella, Tbilisi, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Kandelaki, George; Malania, Lile; Bai, Ying; Chakvetadze, Neli; Katsitadze, Guram; Imnadze, Paata; Nelson, Christina; Harrus, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    Lymphadenopathy and fever that developed in a woman in Tbilisi, Georgia, most likely were caused by a ratborne Bartonella strain related B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae. The finding suggests that this Bartonella strain could be spread by infected rats and represents a potential human risk. PMID:26889959

  12. Novel Bartonella Agent as Cause of Verruga Peruana

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Kristin; Smoak, Bonnie L.; Jiang, Ju; Canal, Enrique; Solorzano, Nelson; Hall, Eric; Meza, Rina; Maguina, Ciro; Myers, Todd; Richards, Allen L.; Laughlin, Larry

    2013-01-01

    While studying chronic verruga peruana infections in Peru from 2003, we isolated a novel Bartonella agent, which we propose be named Candidatus Bartonella ancashi. This case reveals the inherent weakness of relying solely on clinical syndromes for diagnosis and underscores the need for a new diagnostic paradigm in developing settings. PMID:23764047

  13. Entomopathogenic fungi from 'El Eden' Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Barragán; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Alatorre, Raquel; Toriello, Conchita

    2004-07-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated and identified from insects collected from the tropical forest and an agricultural area at El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico. These fungi were studied to determine their potential as biological control agents of greenhouse Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), and to contribute to the knowledge of biodiversity of this area. No pest insects were observed in the tropical forest. In contrast, all insects collected in the agricultural area were considered important pests by the local farmers, with the whitefly, as the most relevant, plentiful in Cucurbitaceae plants. From approximately 3400 collected insects in three different surveys, different anamorphic Ascomycetes were recovered. One isolate of Aspergillus sp., two of Penicillium sp., three of Paecilomyces marquandii, and three of Verticillium sp. out of 308 insects (2.9%) from three insect orders, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Isoptera in the tropical forest. In contrast, a higher number of fungal isolates were recovered from the agricultural area: three isolates from Aspergillus parasiticus, 100 of Fusarium moniliforme, one of Aschersonia sp., and 246 of Fusarium oxysporum out of 3100 insects (11.3%) from three insect orders, Homoptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera. The results of this study show Fusarium moniliforme and F oxysporum as highly virulent to infected insects in the agricultural area, with 100 and 246 isolates respectively, out of 350 infected insects of 3100 studied specimens. Laboratory whitefly nymph bioassays with isolates Ed29a of F. moniliforme, Ed322 of F. oxysporum, and Ed22 of P marquandii showed 96 to 97.5% insect mortality with no significant differences (P < 0.05) among them. F. oxysporum Ed322 produced no mortality when inoculated on tomato, bean, squash and maize seedlings (with and without injuries) compared to the 100% mortality caused by phytopathogenic strains, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis

  14. Bartonella Infection in Rodents and Their Flea Ectoparasites: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Krasnov, Boris; Morick, Danny; Gottlieb, Yuval; Khokhlova, Irina S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies worldwide have reported a high prevalence and a great diversity of Bartonella species, both in rodents and their flea parasites. The interaction among Bartonella, wild rodents, and fleas reflects a high degree of adaptation among these organisms. Vertical and horizontal efficient Bartonella transmission pathways within flea communities and from fleas to rodents have been documented in competence studies, suggesting that fleas are key players in the transmission of Bartonella to rodents. Exploration of the ecological traits of rodents and their fleas may shed light on the mechanisms used by bartonellae to become established in these organisms. The present review explores the interrelations within the Bartonella–rodent–flea system. The role of the latter two components is emphasized. PMID:25629778

  15. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Virna L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Kim, Jung; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.

  16. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. Bed Bugs Detects Burkholderia multivorans but Not Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Saenz, Virna L.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kim, Jung; Vargo, Edward L.; Schal, Coby

    2013-01-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S–23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector. PMID:24040015

  17. Isolation or detection of Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii and Bartonella rochalimae in the endangered island foxes (Urocyon littoralis).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jonathan D; Kasten, Rickie W; Coonan, Timothy J; Clifford, Deana L; Chomel, Bruno B

    2011-12-29

    Bartonella rochalimae (B.r.) and Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (B.v.b.) have been isolated from gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) in mainland California and high Bartonella seroprevalence was reported in island foxes (U. litorralis), especially from Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa Islands. As a follow-up study, the objectives were to determine the prevalence of Bartonella bacteremia and seropositivity and to identify the Bartonella species infecting a convenience sample of 51 island foxes living on Santa Rosa Island. Using an immuno-fluorescence antibody test directed against B.v.b and Bartonella clarridgeiae (B.c.), used as a substitute for B.r., the overall antibody prevalence was 62.7% with 16 (31.4%) foxes seropositive for B.c. only, 5 (9.8%) for B.v.b. only, and 11 (21.6%) for both antigens. B.v.b. was isolated from 6 (11.8%) foxes using blood culture medium. An additional seropositive fox tested PCR positive for B.v.b. and 3 other seropositive foxes tested PCR positive for B. rochalimae. All of the isolated B.v.b. colonies and the B.v.b. PCR positive sample belonged to type III, the same type found to infect mainland gray foxes. Therefore, Bartonella infection is widespread within this island fox population with evidence for B.v.b. type III reservoir host-specificity. Presence of B. rochalimae in the Channel Islands has been detected for the first time using PCR.

  18. A multi-gene analysis of diversity of Bartonella detected in fleas from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bitam, Idir; Rolain, Jean Marc; Nicolas, Violaine; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Parola, Philippe; Gundi, Vijay A K B; Chomel, Bruno B; Raoult, Didier

    2012-01-01

    We report the molecular detection of several Bartonella species in 44 (21.5%) of 204 fleas from Algeria collected from 26 rodents and 7 hedgehogs. Bartonella elizabethae and B. clarridgeiae were detected in the fleas collected on hedgehogs. Bartonella tribocorum and B. elizabethae were detected in fleas collected from rats and mice, and sequences similar to an unnamed Bartonella sp. detected in rodents from China were detected in rats as well as a genotype of Bartonella closely related to Bartonella rochalimae detected in fleas collected on brown rats (Rattus norvegicus).

  19. Bartonella: emerging pathogen or emerging awareness?

    PubMed

    Mogollon-Pasapera, Elin; Otvos, Laszlo; Giordano, Antonio; Cassone, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The number of known Bartonella species is rapidly growing. Some of them are responsible for distinct infectious diseases and show different prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Not only have some vectors of Bartonella not been fully characterized, but also intermediate hosts are actually much more numerous and diverse than previously thought. Among these, dogs differ from cats because they tend to suffer an overt disease similar to humans, thus providing the base for a useful animal indicator and research model. Among the debilitating conditions with an unclear impact on the course of these infections, specific conditions (e.g., homelessness, alcoholism) have been linked to a much higher prevalence and to high risk of unfavorable outcome. Due to the limited arsenal of antibiotics effective in vivo on this peculiar intracellular pathogen, the risk/benefit balance of antibiotic therapy is sometimes difficult to draw. In this evolving picture, the recent discoveries of new species highlights the importance of basic molecular biology resources that would bring major public health benefits if available in endemic areas, and specifically in many areas of Peru and Bolivia.

  20. Strategies of exploitation of mammalian reservoirs by Bartonella species.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hongkuan; Le Rhun, Danielle; Buffet, Jean-Philippe R; Cotté, Violaine; Read, Amanda; Birtles, Richard J; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2012-02-27

    Numerous mammal species, including domestic and wild animals such as ruminants, dogs, cats and rodents, as well as humans, serve as reservoir hosts for various Bartonella species. Some of those species that exploit non-human mammals as reservoir hosts have zoonotic potential. Our understanding of interactions between bartonellae and reservoir hosts has been greatly improved by the development of animal models for infection and the use of molecular tools allowing large scale mutagenesis of Bartonella species. By reviewing and combining the results of these and other approaches we can obtain a comprehensive insight into the molecular interactions that underlie the exploitation of reservoir hosts by Bartonella species, particularly the well-studied interactions with vascular endothelial cells and erythrocytes.

  1. Strategies of exploitation of mammalian reservoirs by Bartonella species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Numerous mammal species, including domestic and wild animals such as ruminants, dogs, cats and rodents, as well as humans, serve as reservoir hosts for various Bartonella species. Some of those species that exploit non-human mammals as reservoir hosts have zoonotic potential. Our understanding of interactions between bartonellae and reservoir hosts has been greatly improved by the development of animal models for infection and the use of molecular tools allowing large scale mutagenesis of Bartonella species. By reviewing and combining the results of these and other approaches we can obtain a comprehensive insight into the molecular interactions that underlie the exploitation of reservoir hosts by Bartonella species, particularly the well-studied interactions with vascular endothelial cells and erythrocytes. PMID:22369683

  2. [PCR rDNA 16S used for the etiological diagnosis of blood culture negative endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Baty, G; Lanotte, P; Hocqueloux, L; Prazuck, T; Bret, L; Romano, M; Mereghetti, L

    2010-06-01

    We report the case of a 55 year-old man presenting with a double aortic and mitral endocarditis for which resected valve culture was repeatedly negative. Specific PCR made on valves because of highly positive blood tests for Bartonella henselae remained negative. A molecular approach was made with 16S rDNA PCR, followed by sequencing. Bartonella quintana was identified as the etiology of endocarditis. B. quintana, "fastidious" bacteria, even if hard to identify in a laboratory, is often reported as a blood culture negative endocarditis (BCNE) agent. Molecular biology methods have strongly improved the diagnosis of BCNE. We propose a review of the literature focusing on the interest of broad-spectrum PCR on valve for the etiological diagnosis of BCNE.

  3. Cat Scratch Disease in kidney transplant receptors: is it a rare or underdiagnosed pathology?

    PubMed

    Verçoza, Ana Maria Teixeira; de los Santos, Carlos Abaeté; Vargas, José Amadeu

    2014-01-01

    Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy in patients who had been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a suspicion for the infection. In this report CSD infecting a renal transplanted adolescent complaining of headache, blurred vision and fever, presenting a cat scratching lesion in the right arm, with a bilateral painful cervical lymphadenopathy was related. He also presented indirect immunofluorescency identifying that the two subtype's titles of Bartonella--henselae and quintana--were elevated. Treatment with doxicicline e rifampicin was introduced and the patient became asymptomatic in about 3 weeks.

  4. Intruders below the Radar: Molecular Pathogenesis of Bartonella spp.

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that employ a unique stealth infection strategy comprising immune evasion and modulation, intimate interaction with nucleated cells, and intraerythrocytic persistence. Infections with Bartonella are ubiquitous among mammals, and many species can infect humans either as their natural host or incidentally as zoonotic pathogens. Upon inoculation into a naive host, the bartonellae first colonize a primary niche that is widely accepted to involve the manipulation of nucleated host cells, e.g., in the microvasculature. Consistently, in vitro research showed that Bartonella harbors an ample arsenal of virulence factors to modulate the response of such cells, gain entrance, and establish an intracellular niche. Subsequently, the bacteria are seeded into the bloodstream where they invade erythrocytes and give rise to a typically asymptomatic intraerythrocytic bacteremia. While this course of infection is characteristic for natural hosts, zoonotic infections or the infection of immunocompromised patients may alter the path of Bartonella and result in considerable morbidity. In this review we compile current knowledge on the molecular processes underlying both the infection strategy and pathogenesis of Bartonella and discuss their connection to the clinical presentation of human patients, which ranges from minor complaints to life-threatening disease. PMID:22232371

  5. Effects of Bartonella spp. on flea feeding and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Fielden, Laura J; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-06-01

    Numerous pathogens are transmitted from one host to another by hematophagous insect vectors. The interactions between a vector-borne organism and its vector vary in many ways, most of which are yet to be explored and identified. These interactions may play a role in the dynamics of the infection cycle. One way to evaluate these interactions is by studying the effects of the tested organism on the vector. In this study, we tested the effects of infection with Bartonella species on fitness-related variables of fleas by using Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and Meriones crassus jirds as a model system. Feeding parameters, including blood meal size and metabolic rate during digestion, as well as reproductive parameters, including fecundity, fertility, and life span, were compared between fleas experimentally infected with Bartonella and uninfected fleas. In addition, the developmental time, sex ratio, and body size of F1 offspring fleas were compared between the two groups. Most tested parameters did not differ between infected and uninfected fleas. However, F1 males produced by Bartonella-positive females were significantly smaller than F1 males produced by Bartonella-negative female fleas. The findings in this study suggest that bartonellae are well adapted to their flea vectors, and by minimally affecting their fitness they have evolved to better spread themselves in the natural environment.

  6. Effects of Bartonella spp. on Flea Feeding and Reproductive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Fielden, Laura J.; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    Numerous pathogens are transmitted from one host to another by hematophagous insect vectors. The interactions between a vector-borne organism and its vector vary in many ways, most of which are yet to be explored and identified. These interactions may play a role in the dynamics of the infection cycle. One way to evaluate these interactions is by studying the effects of the tested organism on the vector. In this study, we tested the effects of infection with Bartonella species on fitness-related variables of fleas by using Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, Xenopsylla ramesis fleas, and Meriones crassus jirds as a model system. Feeding parameters, including blood meal size and metabolic rate during digestion, as well as reproductive parameters, including fecundity, fertility, and life span, were compared between fleas experimentally infected with Bartonella and uninfected fleas. In addition, the developmental time, sex ratio, and body size of F1 offspring fleas were compared between the two groups. Most tested parameters did not differ between infected and uninfected fleas. However, F1 males produced by Bartonella-positive females were significantly smaller than F1 males produced by Bartonella-negative female fleas. The findings in this study suggest that bartonellae are well adapted to their flea vectors, and by minimally affecting their fitness they have evolved to better spread themselves in the natural environment. PMID:23542614

  7. Candidatus Bartonella antechini: a novel Bartonella species detected in fleas and ticks from the yellow-footed antechinus (Antechinus flavipes), an Australian marsupial.

    PubMed

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; Owen, Helen; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-05-05

    Bartonella are fastidious, Gram-negative, aerobic bacilli belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria group. In the last ten years, the discovery of new Bartonella species from a variety of mammalian hosts, arthropod vectors and geographical areas has increased. More than 20 species of Bartonella have been identified, of which approximately thirteen are associated with disease in humans and animals. Recently, four novel species of Bartonella were isolated from mammalian hosts in Australia: Bartonella australis from eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) and Bartonella rattaustraliani, Bartonella queenslandensis and Bartonella coopersplainsensis from rodents. Bartonella-like organisms have also been detected from Ixodes tasmani ticks collected from koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). However, very little is known about Bartonella spp. in other marsupials in Australia. We report the identification of a novel Bartonella species detected from fleas (Acanthopsylla jordani) and ticks (Ixodes antechini) collected from a small carnivorous marsupial, Antechinus flavipes (Mardos or Yellow-footed antechinus) in the southwest of Western Australia. New nested-PCRs targeting the gltA gene and the ribosomal ITS region were developed as part of the present study. DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA, gltA, ftsZ and rpoB genes and the ribosomal ITS region revealed that this detection is a distinct Bartonella species and is related to B. australis isolated from kangaroos. This is the first report of two different possible arthropod vectors in Australia (ticks and fleas) being infected with the same species of Bartonella. We propose the name Candidatus Bartonella antechini n. sp. for the recently characterized organism.

  8. Detection of multiple Bartonella species in digestive and reproductive tissues of fleas collected from sympatric mammals.

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Kabeya, Hidenori; Inoue, Kai; Bai, Ying; Maruyama, Soichi

    2010-07-01

    At least 12 species in the genus Bartonella are zoonotic pathogens that may be transmitted among mammalian hosts by fleas or other arthropods. Apparent host specificity by some Bartonella species to mammalian hosts has been observed, and the detection of multiple Bartonella species in mammalian fleas suggests that fleas take bloodmeals from a variety of host species. However, many flea species are observed to parasitize a narrow host range. Therefore, we suspect that fleas may acquire Bartonella by a mechanism other than ingesting infectious blood. We found that detection of multiple Bartonella genotypes and species is apparently common in fleas and that the majority of fleas tested (5/9) carried Bartonella species atypical of their hosts. We also detected Bartonella DNA in flea reproductive tissues, suggesting that vertical transmission of this organism in vectors is possible, potentially leading to the accumulation of Bartonella diversity over time within fleas.

  9. Bartonellae are Prevalent and Diverse in Costa Rican Bats and Bat Flies.

    PubMed

    Judson, S D; Frank, H K; Hadly, E A

    2015-12-01

    Species in the bacterial genus, Bartonella, can cause disease in both humans and animals. Previous reports of Bartonella in bats and ectoparasitic bat flies suggest that bats could serve as mammalian hosts and bat flies as arthropod vectors. We compared the prevalence and genetic similarity of bartonellae in individual Costa Rican bats and their bat flies using molecular and sequencing methods targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonellae were more prevalent in bat flies than in bats, and genetic variants were sometimes, but not always, shared between bats and their bat flies. The detected bartonellae genetic variants were diverse, and some were similar to species known to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The high prevalence and sharing of bartonellae in bat flies and bats support a role for bat flies as a potential vector for Bartonella, while the genetic diversity and similarity to known species suggest that bartonellae could spill over into humans and animals sharing the landscape.

  10. [Population and economics in Quintana Roo state: some considerations from recent experience].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Barajas, I

    1995-01-01

    "This article focuses on the explosive population growth in Quintana Roo [Mexico] during the last few years and its...implications [for] the local economy. First, the article briefly describes population structure, emphasizing some migratory and socioeconomic aspects. Next it considers the status sectoral and regional production structure, which [emphasize] the strong dependence on tourism and its concentration in Cancun. In the conclusions population and economic aspects entwine, providing a more comprehensive developmental perspective." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella detected in rodent fleas in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong Mei; Liu, Qi Yong; Yu, Dong Zheng; Zhang, Jian Zhong; Gong, Zheng Da; Song, Xiu Ping

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a diversity of Bartonella spp. in rodent populations in Yunnan Province, China. Although Bartonella spp. have been isolated from cat fleas and cattle ticks collected from their animal hosts, little is known about Bartonella carried by rodent fleas. In this study, Bartonella DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in two of five species of rodent fleas. These included Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenophthalmus lushuiensis, which were collected from Rattus tanezumi flavipectus and from the nests of voles, respectively, during 1997 from two sites in western Yunnan Province, China. Sequence analysis of the Bartonella citrate synthase gene (gltA) amplicons obtained from six of 65 grouped flea samples showed that Bartonella genetic variants were clustered in four groups. One from Xenopsylla cheopis was identical to Bartonella tribocorum, whereas the other three genotypes from Ctenophthalmus lushuiensis were related to the vole-associated Bartonella isolates and cat-associated Bartonella clarridgeiae. This is the first detection of this Bartonella variant from fleas in China. Therefore, further investigations are needed to clarify the distribution of Bartonella in rodents and their ectoparasites in China to define the role of these arthropods in the transmission routes of Bartonella.

  12. Prevalence and Diversity of Bartonella Species in Rodents from Georgia (Caucasus)

    PubMed Central

    Malania, Lile; Bai, Ying; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Tsertsvadze, Nikoloz; Katsitadze, Guram; Imnadze, Paata; Kosoy, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Bartonella infections are widespread and highly prevalent in rodents. Several rodent-associated Bartonella species have been related to human diseases. Recently, Bartonella species was reported as the etiology of a human case in the country of Georgia (Caucasus). However, information on Bartonella in rodents in Georgia is absent. Rodent hearts were collected from Georgia to investigate the presence and diversity of Bartonella species. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 37.2% (16/43) of rodents examined, while Bartonella DNA was detected in 41.2% (28/68) of rodents by polymerase chain reaction targeting citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Sequences of gltA showed that rodents in this region harbored multiple Bartonella strains, including Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum, Bartonella grahamii, and an unknown genogroup. The first three Bartonella species, known to be rat-associated and human cases linked, were commonly observed in wood mice (Apodemus [Sylvaemus] uralensis) (5/8 positive with B. elizabethae and B. tribocorum) and social voles (Microtus socialis) (4/6 positive with B. grahamii and B. elizabethae) in this study. The frequent distribution of these Bartonella species suggests that they may contribute to unidentified clinical infections. The unknown genogroup was observed in 24 Bartonella isolates and/or DNA extracts from heart tissues, all of which were obtained from Libyan jirds (Meriones libycus). Further characterization of the bacterial cultures based on sequence analysis of four additional genes (ftsZ, nuoG, rpoB, and ssrA) supported that the jird-associated Bartonella strains comprise a distinct monophyletic clade. The impact of this bacterium on wildlife and human health needs to be determined. PMID:27162268

  13. Phylogenetic and geographic patterns of bartonella host shifts among bat species.

    PubMed

    McKee, Clifton D; Hayman, David T S; Kosoy, Michael Y; Webb, Colleen T

    2016-10-01

    The influence of factors contributing to parasite diversity in individual hosts and communities are increasingly studied, but there has been less focus on the dominant processes leading to parasite diversification. Using bartonella infections in bats as a model system, we explored the influence of three processes that can contribute to bartonella diversification and lineage formation: (1) spatial correlation in the invasion and transmission of bartonella among bats (phylogeography); (2) divergent adaptation of bartonellae to bat hosts and arthropod vectors; and (3) evolutionary codivergence between bats and bartonellae. Using a combination of global fit techniques and ancestral state reconstruction, we found that codivergence appears to be the dominant process leading to diversification of bartonella in bats, with lineages of bartonellae corresponding to separate bat suborders, superfamilies, and families. Furthermore, we estimated the rates at which bartonellae shift bat hosts across taxonomic scales (suborders, superfamilies, and families) and found that transition rates decrease with increasing taxonomic distance, providing support for a mechanism that can contribute to the observed evolutionary congruence between bats and their associated bartonellae. While bartonella diversification is associated with host sympatry, the influence of this factor is minor compared to the influence of codivergence and there is a clear indication that some bartonella lineages span multiple regions, particularly between Africa and Southeast Asia. Divergent adaptation of bartonellae to bat hosts and arthropod vectors is apparent and can dilute the overall pattern of codivergence, however its importance in the formation of Bartonella lineages in bats is small relative to codivergence. We argue that exploring all three of these processes yields a more complete understanding of bat-bartonella relationships and the evolution of the genus Bartonella, generally. Application of these

  14. Seroepidemiology of Bartonella infection in gray foxes from Texas.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jonathan D; Moore, Guy M; Namekata, Michael S; Kasten, Rick W; Chomel, Bruno B

    2012-05-01

    Gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were shown to be naturally infected with Bartonella rochalimae, a Bartonella species similar to Bartonella clarridgeiae (B.c.), and Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii (B.v.berkhoffii) in northern California. A serological survey was performed to investigate the presence of Bartonella infection in 132 gray foxes from West/Central Texas. Using an immunofluorescence antibody test directed against B.v.berkhoffii and B.c., the antibody prevalence was 50% (66/132), with 22 (33.3%) individuals seropositive for B.c. only, 8 (12.2%) for B.v.berkhoffii, and 36 (54.5%) seroreactive for both B.c. and B.v.berkhoffii. The foxes had 3.63 more odds (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.38, 10.25) to be seropositive for B.c. than for B.v.berkhoffii. Female foxes were more likely to be seropositive for B.c. (odds ratio [OR]=2.90, 95% CI=1.33, 6.36) and also for both antigens (OR=2.50, 95% CI=1.06, 5.90) than males.

  15. Bartonella species in wild rodents and fleas from them in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kabeya, Hidenori; Inoue, Kai; Izumi, Yasuhito; Morita, Tatsushi; Imai, Soichi; Maruyama, Soichi

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of fleas for transmission of Bartonella species among wild rodents in Japan. Flea samples were collected from wild rodents and examined genetically for Bartonella infection. Bartonella DNA was detected from 16 of 40 (40.0%) flea samples. Sequence analysis demonstrated that 3 of 16 (18.8%) of the Bartonella-positive animals were infested with fleas from which the closely related Bartonella DNA sequence was detected, indicating that the fleas acquired Bartonella from the infested rodents. The DNA was detected in hemolymph, the midgut and the ovary (only in female), indicating that Bartonella might be colonized through the midgut and distributed into the body.

  16. Transmission dynamics of Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1 in Sundevall's jirds (Meriones crassus).

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-02-01

    A high prevalence of Bartonella infection is found in many natural systems; however, the transmission dynamics leading to observations of these infections is not fully understood. The capability of Xenopsylla ramesis fleas to serve as competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 (a strain closely related to the zoonotic Bartonella elizabethae) to Meriones crassus jirds was investigated. Naïve X. ramesis fleas were placed for 72 h on naïve jirds or jirds that were either experimentally or naturally infected with Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, after which they were placed on naïve jirds. Postfeeding, 69 to 100% of the fleas collected from each Bartonella-positive jird contained Bartonella DNA, and all naïve jirds became positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 after infestation with the infected fleas. In addition, maternal transmission of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in jirds was tested by mating 5 Bartonella-positive and 5 naïve female jirds with 10 naïve male jirds in the absence of fleas. Fifteen offspring were delivered by each group. Cultures of blood drawn from all offspring on days 35 and 47 postdelivery were found to be negative for Bartonella. A single spleen sample from the offspring of a Bartonella-positive mother was found molecularly positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1. This study demonstrates that X. ramesis fleas are competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 to M. crassus jirds and indicates that maternal transmission is probably not the major transmission route from female jirds to their offspring. We suggest that the dynamics of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in the M. crassus jird population in nature is mostly dependent on its vectors.

  17. 77 FR 39162 - Implementation of the Understandings Reached at the 2011 Australia Group (AG) Plenary Meeting and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... (Rickettsiae), since these organisms are more appropriately identified as bacteria. Coxiella burnetii and.... Bartonella Quintana (Rochalimea Quintana, Rickettsia Quintana) and Rickettsia rickettsii, which were..., 1C353, 2B350 and 2B352. Except for the removal of Bartonella Quintana and Rickettsia rickettsii...

  18. Detection of Bartonella spp. in wild carnivores, hyraxes, hedgehog and rodents from Israel.

    PubMed

    Marciano, Odelya; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Morick, Danny; King, Roni; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon

    2016-09-01

    Bartonella infection was explored in wild animals from Israel. Golden jackals (Canis aureus), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), southern white-breasted hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor), social voles (Microtus socialis), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami), Cairo spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus), house mice (Mus musculus) and Indian crested porcupines (Hystrix indica) were sampled and screened by molecular and isolation methods. Bartonella-DNA was detected in 46 animals: 9/70 (13%) golden jackals, 2/11 (18%) red foxes, 3/35 (9%) rock hyraxes, 1/3 (33%) southern white-breasted hedgehogs, 5/57 (9%) Cairo spiny mice, 25/43 (58%) Tristram's jirds and 1/6 (16%) house mice. Bartonella rochalimae and B. rochalimae-like were widespread among jackals, foxes, hyraxes and jirds. This report represents the first detection of this zoonotic Bartonella sp. in rock hyraxes and golden jackals. Moreover, DNA of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella acomydis, Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii and other uncharacterized genotypes were identified. Three different Bartonella strains were isolated from Tristram's jirds, and several genotypes were molecularly detected from these animals. Furthermore, this study reports the first detection of Bartonella infection in a southern hedgehog. Our study indicates that infection with zoonotic and other Bartonella species is widespread among wild animals and stresses their potential threat to public health.

  19. Prevalence and Phylogenetic Analysis of Bartonella Species of Wild Carnivores and Their Fleas in Northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Pérez, A M; Osikowicz, L; Bai, Y; Montenieri, J; Rubio, A; Moreno, K; Gage, K; Suzán, G; Kosoy, M

    2017-03-01

    The host-parasite-vector relationship of Bartonella spp. system in wild carnivores and their fleas from northwestern Mexico was investigated. Sixty-six carnivores belonging to eight species were sampled, and 285 fleas belonging to three species were collected during spring (April-May) and fall (October-November) seasons. We detected Bartonella species in 7 carnivores (10.6%) and 27 fleas (9.5%) through either blood culture or PCR. Of the 27 Bartonella-positive fleas, twenty-two were Pulex simulans, three were Pulex irritans and one was Echidnophaga gallinacea. The gltA gene and ITS region sequences alignment revealed six and eight genetic variants of Bartonella spp., respectively. These variants were clustered into Bartonella rochalimae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and another genotype, which likely represents a novel species of Bartonella spp. Although experimental infection studies are required to prove the vector role of P. simulans, our results suggest that this flea may play an important role in the Bartonella transmission. The results indicated possible host-specific relationships between Bartonella genotypes and the families of the carnivores, but further studies are needed to verify this finding. The presence of zoonotic species of Bartonella spp. in wild carnivores raises the issue of their potential risk for humans in fragmented ecosystems.

  20. Rickettsia and Bartonella Species in Fleas from Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed. PMID:25646263

  1. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Two Bartonella bacilliformis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Guillen, Yolanda; Casadellà, Maria; García-de-la-Guarda, Ruth; Espinoza-Culupú, Abraham; Paredes, Roger; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the causative agent of Carrion’s disease, a highly endemic human bartonellosis in Peru. We performed a whole-genome assembly of two B. bacilliformis strains isolated from the blood of infected patients in the acute phase of Carrion’s disease from the Cusco and Piura regions in Peru. PMID:27389274

  2. Bartonella infection in sylvatic small mammals of central Sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, M.; Mills, J. N.; McGill, S.; Benjamin, G.; Ellis, B. A.

    2003-01-01

    Sylvatic small mammals were captured in rural habitats near Uppsala, Sweden, to measure the prevalence of bartonella infections, characterize bacterial isolates and identify their host range, and increase our understanding of host-pathogen ecology. During 7 nights of trapping at 3 localities, 236 small mammals were captured (trap success 30%). Bartonella were isolated from bloods of Apodemus flavicollis (19 of 110 tested), Apodemus sylvaticus (6/25), Clethrionomys glareolus (9/60), Microtus agrestis (1/3), Mus musculus (1/18), and Sorex araneus (3/20). Nucleotide sequencing (a 338 bp fragment of the gltA gene) of 40 isolates yielded 6 unique genotypes. Five of the 6 genotypes were most similar to other known bartonella isolated from Old World small-mammal hosts. The most frequent genotype (83%) was isolated from A. flavicollis and M. musculus and was identical to Bartonella grahamii, a recently demonstrated human pathogen. These two hosts were most frequently captured in and around human structures and work places, thus providing conditions that could potentially lead to frequent human infections. PMID:12613756

  3. Rickettsia and Bartonella species in fleas from Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed.

  4. Meningitis due to a "Bartonella washoensis"-like human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Probert, Will; Louie, Janice K; Tucker, James R; Longoria, Rose; Hogue, Robin; Moler, Silvia; Graves, Margot; Palmer, Heather J; Cassady, Joseph; Fritz, Curtis L

    2009-07-01

    We report the second human case of infection caused by an organism identified as the proposed Bartonella species, "B. washoensis." The organism was isolated from a blood sample from a patient presenting with meningitis and early sepsis. Oropsylla montana fleas were implicated as the vector for disease transmission in this case.

  5. Demographic features of Bartonella infections in Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii).

    PubMed

    Jardine, C; Waldner, C; Wobeser, G; Leighton, F A

    2006-10-01

    The epidemiology of Bartonella infections in Richardson's ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) was studied at multiple sites in Saskatchewan, Canada, from 2002 to 2004. The overall prevalence of Bartonella infection was 48%. Juvenile squirrels were significantly more likely to be infected with Bartonella than were adults (58% and 37%, respectively), and juvenile animals also were significantly more likely to have high levels of bacteremia compared to adult animals. Prevalence of Bartonella infection appeared to decrease with age; only 24% of animals known to be > or = 2 yr old were infected with Bartonella. Prevalence of infection was lowest in May (27%) and highest in late summer and early autumn (71%). The prevalence of fleas also varied seasonally, and animals were more likely to have fleas in the late summer and early autumn than in early summer. We found no relationship between Bartonella prevalence and host density or flea prevalence.

  6. Molecular Detection of Candidatus Bartonella hemsundetiensis in Bats.

    PubMed

    Lilley, Thomas M; Veikkolainen, Ville; Pulliainen, Arto T

    2015-11-01

    Although bats have been implicated as reservoir hosts for a number of zoonotic and life-threatening viruses, the bat bacterial flora and its zoonotic threat remain elusive. However, members of the vector-borne bacterial genera Bartonella causing various human as well as animal diseases have recently been isolated or detected from bats and their ectoparasites. In this study, we sampled 124 insectivorous microbats (Daubenton's bat, Myotis daubentonii) for peripheral blood in southwestern Finland in 2010. A Bartonella-specific PCR targeting rpoB (RNA polymerase β-subunit) was positive with blood samples from 46 bats (prevalence 37%). Scaled mass indexes of the infected and noninfected bats did not differ (p = 0.057). One rpoB sequence was identical with the rpoB sequence of B. naantaliensis strain 2574/1, previously isolated from bats in Finland. The rest of the sequences were highly similar to each other with nucleotide identity scores of 96% or higher. Nucleotide identity scores to the previously described type strain sequences of Bartonella or other database entries were no higher than 87%. Sequence analyses of another gene, gltA (citrate synthase), gave no higher than 90% nucleotide identity scores. On the basis of the conventional 95% sequence similarity cutoff in bacterial species delineation, a novel species of Bartonella was detected. We propose a species name Candidatus B. hemsundetiensis. Phylogenetic analyses based on rpoB and gltA sequences indicate that Candidatus B. hemsundetiensis clusters in a deep-branching position close to the ancestral species B. tamiae and B. bacilliformis. Our study reinforces the importance of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella.

  7. Characterization of Candidatus Bartonella ancashi: A Novel Human Pathogen Associated with Carrins Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-12

    Clin Microbiol Rev 13:428-38 29. Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG, Lantos PM, Woods CW, Hegarty BC, Bradley JM. 2010. Bartonella vinsonii subsp...Robert Mozayeni B, Hegarty BC, Bradley JM, Mascarelli PE. 2010. PCR amplification of Bartonella koehlerae from human blood and enrichment blood cultures...Breitschwerdt EB, Sontakke S, Cannedy A, Hancock SI, Bradley JM. 2001. Infection with Bartonella weissii and detection of nanobacterium antigens in

  8. Molecular Survey of Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Rodent Fleas (Siphonaptera) From Chihuahua, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Adriana M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Rubio, André V; Graham, Christine B; Montenieri, John A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Acosta-Gutiérrez, Roxana; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Gage, Kenneth L; Suzán, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Rodent fleas from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed for the presence of Bartonella and Yersinia pestis. In total, 760 fleas belonging to 10 species were tested with multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis targeting the gltA (338-bp) and pla genes (478-bp) of Bartonella and Y. pestis, respectively. Although none was positive for Y. pestis, 307 fleas were infected with Bartonella spp., resulting in an overall prevalence of 40.4%. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the presence of Bartonella is more likely to occur in some flea species. From a subset of Bartonella-positive fleas, phylogenetic analyses of gltA gene sequences revealed 13 genetic variants clustering in five phylogroups (I–V), two of which were matched with known pathogenic Bartonella species (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis and Bartonella washoensis) and two that were not related with any previously described species or subspecies of Bartonella. Variants in phylogroup V, which were mainly obtained from Meringis spp. fleas, were identical to those reported recently in their specific rodent hosts (Dipodomys spp.) in the same region, suggesting that kangaroo rats and their fleas harbor other Bartonella species not reported previously. Considering the Bartonella prevalence and the flea genotypes associated with known pathogenic Bartonella species, we suggest that analysis of rodent and flea communities in the region should continue for their potential implications for human health. Given that nearby locations in the United States have reported Y. pestis in wild animals and their fleas, we suggest conducting larger-scale studies to increase our knowledge of this bacterium.

  9. Association of Bartonella Species with Wild and Synanthropic Rodents in Different Brazilian Biomes.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Mendes, Natalia Serra; Fidelis Junior, Otávio Luiz; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2016-12-15

    Bartonella spp. comprise an ecologically successful group of microorganisms that infect erythrocytes and have adapted to different hosts, which include a wide range of mammals, besides humans. Rodents are reservoirs of about two-thirds of Bartonella spp. described to date; and some of them have been implicated as causative agents of human diseases. In our study, we performed molecular and phylogenetic analyses of Bartonella spp. infecting wild rodents from five different Brazilian biomes. In order to characterize the genetic diversity of Bartonella spp., we performed a robust analysis based on three target genes, followed by sequencing, Bayesian inference, and maximum likelihood analysis. Bartonella spp. were detected in 25.6% (117/457) of rodent spleen samples analyzed, and this occurrence varied among different biomes. The diversity analysis of gltA sequences showed the presence of 15 different haplotypes. Analysis of the phylogenetic relationship of gltA sequences performed by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood showed that the Bartonella species detected in rodents from Brazil was closely related to the phylogenetic group A detected in other cricetid rodents from North America, probably constituting only one species. Last, the Bartonella species genogroup identified in the present study formed a monophyletic group that included Bartonella samples from seven different rodent species distributed in three distinct biomes. In conclusion, our study showed that the occurrence of Bartonella bacteria in rodents is much more frequent and widespread than previously recognized.

  10. A longitudinal study of Bartonella infection in populations of woodrats and their fleas.

    PubMed

    Morway, Christina; Kosoy, Michael; Eisen, Rebecca; Montenieri, John; Sheff, Kelly; Reynolds, Pamela J; Powers, Nelson

    2008-12-01

    Rodent-borne bartonellae have been identified as human pathogens. Little is known about Bartonella infections in woodrat hosts and their fleas and how woodrat-flea associations may affect the dynamics of Bartonella infections. We collected blood samples and fleas from two species of woodrats (Neotoma micropus and N. albigula) from Santa Fe County, NM, from 2002-2005. The most predominant flea species were Orchopeas sexdentatus and O. neotomae. Bartonella prevalence in woodrats was 64% overall, with a lower prevalence occurring in the pre-reproductive period compared to the early and late reproductive periods. A negative correlation between Bartonella prevalence in N. micropus and weight of N. micropus was observed. Flea load in Neotoma species was highest in the early reproductive period compared to the pre- and late reproductive periods and was higher in N. micropus compared to N. albigula. Bartonella prevalence in fleas was highest in the early reproductive period and lowest in the late reproductive period, and it was higher in fleas collected from N. micropus than in fleas collected from N. albigula. Abundance of O. sexdentatus was significantly higher in N. micropus compared to N. albigula, and abundance of O. sexdentatus and O. neotomae was highest in the early reproductive period. No direct correlations were found either between Bartonella prevalence in woodrats and in fleas or between Bartonella prevalence in woodrats and flea loads. Out of 25 partially characterized Bartonella isolates from Neotoma woodrats, 24 belonged to one genogroup based on sequencing of the gltA gene.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Bartonella ancashensis Strain 20.00, Isolated from the Blood of a Patient with Verruga Peruana

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Jun; Clifford, Robert J.; Onmus-Leone, Fatma; Yang, Yu; Jiang, Ju; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew R.; Maguiña, Ciro; Lesho, Emil P.; Jarman, Richard G.; Richards, Allen L.; Blazes, David

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the complete genome sequence of Bartonella ancashensis strain 20.00, isolated from the blood of a Peruvian patient with verruga peruana, known as Carrion’s disease. Bartonella ancashensis is a Gram-negative bacillus, phylogenetically most similar to Bartonella bacilliformis, the causative agent of Oroya fever and verruga peruana. PMID:26543106

  12. The Distribution and Diversity of Bartonella Species in Rodents and Their Ectoparasites across Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Klangthong, Kewalin; Promsthaporn, Sommai; Leepitakrat, Surachai; Schuster, Anthony L.; McCardle, Patrick W.; Kosoy, Michael; Takhampunya, Ratree

    2015-01-01

    Our study highlights the surveillance of Bartonella species among rodents and their associated ectoparasites (ticks, fleas, lice, and mites) in several regions across Thailand. A total of 619 rodents and 554 pooled ectoparasites (287 mite pools, 62 flea pools, 35 louse pools, and 170 tick pools) were collected from 8 provinces within 4 regions of Thailand. Bandicota indica (279), Rattus rattus (163), and R. exulans (96) were the most prevalent species of rats collected in this study. Real-time PCR assay targeting Bartonella-specific ssrA gene was used for screening and each positive sample was confirmed by PCR using nuoG gene. The prevalence of Bartonella DNA in rodent (around 17%) was recorded in all regions. The highest prevalence of Bartonella species was found in B. savilei and R. rattus with the rate of 35.7% (5/14) and 32.5% (53/163), respectively. High prevalence of Bartonella-positive rodent was also found in B. indica (15.1%, 42/279), and R. norvegicus (12.5%, 5/40). In contrast, the prevalence of Bartonella species in ectoparasites collected from the rats varied significantly according to types of ectoparasites. A high prevalence of Bartonella DNA was found in louse pools (Polyplax spp. and Hoplopleura spp., 57.1%) and flea pools (Xenopsylla cheopis, 25.8%), while a low prevalence was found in pools of mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and Ascoschoengastia spp., 1.7%) and ticks (Haemaphysalis spp., 3.5%). Prevalence of Bartonella DNA in ectoparasites collected from Bartonella-positive rodents (19.4%) was significantly higher comparing to ectoparasites from Bartonella-negative rodents (8.7%). The phylogenetic analysis of 41 gltA sequences of 16 Bartonella isolates from rodent blood and 25 Bartonella-positive ectoparasites revealed a wide range of diversity among Bartonella species with a majority of sequences (61.0%) belonging to Bartonella elizabethae complex (11 rodents, 1 mite pool, and 5 louse pools), while the remaining sequences were identical to B

  13. The Distribution and Diversity of Bartonella Species in Rodents and Their Ectoparasites across Thailand.

    PubMed

    Klangthong, Kewalin; Promsthaporn, Sommai; Leepitakrat, Surachai; Schuster, Anthony L; McCardle, Patrick W; Kosoy, Michael; Takhampunya, Ratree

    2015-01-01

    Our study highlights the surveillance of Bartonella species among rodents and their associated ectoparasites (ticks, fleas, lice, and mites) in several regions across Thailand. A total of 619 rodents and 554 pooled ectoparasites (287 mite pools, 62 flea pools, 35 louse pools, and 170 tick pools) were collected from 8 provinces within 4 regions of Thailand. Bandicota indica (279), Rattus rattus (163), and R. exulans (96) were the most prevalent species of rats collected in this study. Real-time PCR assay targeting Bartonella-specific ssrA gene was used for screening and each positive sample was confirmed by PCR using nuoG gene. The prevalence of Bartonella DNA in rodent (around 17%) was recorded in all regions. The highest prevalence of Bartonella species was found in B. savilei and R. rattus with the rate of 35.7% (5/14) and 32.5% (53/163), respectively. High prevalence of Bartonella-positive rodent was also found in B. indica (15.1%, 42/279), and R. norvegicus (12.5%, 5/40). In contrast, the prevalence of Bartonella species in ectoparasites collected from the rats varied significantly according to types of ectoparasites. A high prevalence of Bartonella DNA was found in louse pools (Polyplax spp. and Hoplopleura spp., 57.1%) and flea pools (Xenopsylla cheopis, 25.8%), while a low prevalence was found in pools of mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and Ascoschoengastia spp., 1.7%) and ticks (Haemaphysalis spp., 3.5%). Prevalence of Bartonella DNA in ectoparasites collected from Bartonella-positive rodents (19.4%) was significantly higher comparing to ectoparasites from Bartonella-negative rodents (8.7%). The phylogenetic analysis of 41 gltA sequences of 16 Bartonella isolates from rodent blood and 25 Bartonella-positive ectoparasites revealed a wide range of diversity among Bartonella species with a majority of sequences (61.0%) belonging to Bartonella elizabethae complex (11 rodents, 1 mite pool, and 5 louse pools), while the remaining sequences were identical to B

  14. [Abundance and body size of Menippe mercenaria (Crustacea: Brachyura), in artificial refuges in Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Martínez, A; Ramírez-González, A

    2001-01-01

    In Florida and Cuba the stone crab Menippe mercenaria (Say, 1818) is under strong fishing-pressure; nevertheless in the Mexican Caribbean it is considered as sub-utilized and poorly known resource. Artificial shelters ("condominios cubanos") were used to study relative abundance, age structure, claw length-carapace amplitude relation, and population in three seasons and four sectors at Bahía Ascension, Quintana Roo, Mexico. The abundance varied according to the sector and sampling season: population was higher in the south and during the north wind ("Nortes") season (January to March). The carapace amplitude was directly proportional to claw length (r2 = 0.83, 0.97 and 0.89; p < 0.05 in females, males and total, respectively). The results suggest that specimens with 37.5 and 67.5 mm of carapace amplitude are the most limited regarding refuge availability in the Bay.

  15. Preliminary Geochemical and Rock Magnetic Study of a Stalagmite From Quintana Roo, Northeastern Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Zhao, X.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Rodriguez, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present the preliminary results of geochemical, stable isotopes and rock magnetic studies of a stalagmite from a cave in eastern Quintana Roo, northern Yucatan peninsula. In the past years, there has been increased interest in understanding the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Yucatan peninsula and northern Central America, investigating the relationships between climate variations and the development of the Maya civilization. In particular, the variations in regional precipitation and occurrence of several drought periods, which might have been related to the collapse of the Classic Maya period. Stable isotope data on speleothems from different sites in Yucatan and Central America have provided evidence on changes in precipitation, which have affected the Maya region. The stalagmite is ~47 cm long and about 4-5 cm wide at its base. It was collected from the Hilariós Well cave in Tulum, Quintana Roo. Magnetic susceptibility and geochemical analyses have been completed as part of the initial characterization of the stalagmite, with measurements taken every centimeter. Geochemical analyses have been carried out for x-ray fluorescence, with a Niton XRF analyzer. Magnetic susceptibility was determined with a Bartington MS2 instrument using the high resolution surface probe. Additional rock magnetic analyses include magnetic hysteresis loops and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition, and saturation IRM demagnetization, which have been measured with a MicroMag instrument. Hysteresis loops are diamagnetic, with small varying low-coercivity ferromagnetic components. The elemental compositions of major oxides and trace elements vary with depth. Calcium is the major element and displays a pattern of small amplitude fluctuations with a trend to lower values at the bottom, which are also shown in other elements such as barium. Silica and elements such as titanium and strontium are positively correlated and show an apparent cyclic pattern

  16. Bartonella, Rodents, Fleas and Ticks: a Molecular Field Study on Host-Vector-Pathogen Associations in Saxony, Eastern Germany.

    PubMed

    Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfeffer, Martin; Kiefer, Daniel; Kiefer, Matthias; Obiegala, Anna

    2016-11-01

    Bartonellae cause zoonotic diseases and are transmitted by arthropods. Rodents are reservoirs for most Bartonella spp. As the knowledge about Bartonella in rodents and their parasitizing ectoparasites is scarce in Germany, this study's objectives were to investigate Bartonella spp. in small mammals and in their ectoparasites. A total of 79 small mammals (seven species) were captured and their ectoparasites collected at seven sites around Leipzig, Saxony, Germany, in 2010 and 2011. Altogether, 79 spleen samples, 135 fleas (five species) and 365 ticks (three species) were investigated for Bartonella spp. by PCR targeting the ITS 16S-23S rRNA region. In total, 52 (65.8 %) small mammals, 73 (54.1 %) fleas and 51 (16.3 %) ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. Most small mammals were positive for uncultured Bartonella sp. (n = 29) followed by Bartonella grahamii (n = 12), Bartonella taylorii (n = 8) and Bartonella sp. N40 (n = 3). Likewise, most fleas were positive for uncultured Bartonella sp. (n = 45) followed by B. grahamii (n = 14), B. taylorii (n = 8), B. sp. N40 (n = 5) and Bartonella elizabethae (n = 2). Most ticks were positive for B. sp. (n = 19) followed by B. grahamii (n = 10), Bartonella chomelii (n = 3), B. taylorii (n = 2) and B. sp. N40 (n = 1). This study's results suggest that rodents and fleas may be reservoirs and vectors, respectively. Zoonotic B. grahamii and B. elizabethae were found in rodents and their fleas. Therefore, humans may contract Bartonella infection by contact to wild rodents. Ticks seem of minor importance in transmitting Bartonella spp. found in fleas and rodents. However, ticks might be vectors of B. chomelii.

  17. Molecular method for Bartonella species identification in clinical and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    García-Esteban, Coral; Gil, Horacio; Rodríguez-Vargas, Manuela; Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Barandika, Jesse; Escudero, Raquel; Jado, Isabel; García-Amil, Cristina; Barral, Marta; García-Pérez, Ana L; Bhide, Mangesh; Anda, Pedro

    2008-02-01

    A new, efficient molecular method for detection of Bartonella, based on the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer and 16S rRNA amplification by multiplex PCR combined with reverse line blotting, was designed. This assay could simultaneously detect 20 different known species and other Bartonella species not described previously.

  18. Acquisition of nonspecific Bartonella strains by the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Cully, J.F.; Bala, T.; Ray, C.; Collinge, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    Rodent-associated Bartonella species are generally host-specific parasites in North America. Here evidence that Bartonella species can 'jump' between host species is presented. Northern grasshopper mice and other rodents were trapped in the western USA. A study of Bartonella infection in grasshopper mice demonstrated a high prevalence that varied from 25% to 90% by location. Bartonella infection was detected in other rodent species with a high prevalence as well. Sequence analyses of gltA identified 29 Bartonella variants in rodents, 10 of which were obtained from grasshopper mice. Among these 10, only six variants were specific to grasshopper mice, whereas four were identical to variants specific to deer mice or 13-lined ground squirrels. Fourteen of 90 sequenced isolates obtained from grasshopper mice were strains found more commonly in other rodent species and were apparently acquired from these animals. The ecological behavior of grasshopper mice may explain the occurrence of Bartonella strains in occasional hosts. The observed rate at which Bartonella jumps from a donor host species to the grasshopper mouse was directly proportional to a metric of donor host density and to the prevalence of Bartonella in the donor host, and inversely proportional to the same parameters for the grasshopper mouse. ?? 2007 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  19. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in rodents from northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Bai, Ying; Suzán, Gerardo; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2014-12-01

    Bartonella infections were investigated in wild rodents from northwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. A total of 489 rodents belonging to 14 species were surveyed in four areas. Bartonella bacteria were cultured from 50.1% of rodent samples (245/489). Infection rates ranged from 0% to 83.3% per rodent species, with no significant difference between sites except for Cynomys ludovicianus. Phylogenetic analyses of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of the Bartonella isolates revealed 23 genetic variants (15 novel and 8 previously described), clustering into five phylogroups. Three phylogroups were associated with Bartonella vinsonii subsp. vinsonii, B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis, and B. washoensis, respectively. The other two phylogroups were not genetically related to any known Bartonella species. The genetic variants and phylogenetic groups exhibited a high degree of host specificity, mainly at the genus and family levels. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of Bartonella strains in wild rodents from Mexico. Considering that some variants found in this study are associated with Bartonella species that have been reported as zoonotic, more investigations are needed to further understand the ecology of Bartonella species in Mexican wildlife and their implications for human health.

  20. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF BARTONELLA SPP. INFECTIONS IN MOOSE (ALCES ALCES) IN FINLAND.

    PubMed

    Pérez Vera, Cristina; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Spillmann, Thomas; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja

    2016-04-28

    Moose, Alces alces (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Finland are heavily infested with deer keds, Lipoptena cervi (Diptera: Hippoboschidae). The deer ked, which carries species of the genus Bartonella, has been proposed as a vector for the transmission of bartonellae to animals and humans. Previously, bartonella DNA was found in deer keds as well as in moose blood collected in Finland. We investigated the prevalence and molecular diversity of Bartonella spp. infection from blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. Given that the deer ked is not present in northernmost Finland, we also investigated whether there were geographic differences in the prevalence of bartonella infection in moose. The overall prevalence of bartonella infection was 72.9% (108/148). Geographically, the prevalence was highest in the south (90.6%) and lowest in the north (55.9%). At least two species of bartonellae were identified by multilocus sequence analysis. Based on logistic regression analysis, there was no significant association between bartonella infection and either age or sex; however, moose from outside the deer ked zone were significantly less likely to be infected (P<0.015) than were moose hunted within the deer ked zone.

  1. Effects of rodent community diversity and composition on prevalence of an endemic bacterial pathogen - Bartonella

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Calisher, C.H.; Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    By studying Bartonella prevalence in rodent communities from 23 geographic sites in the western United States and one site in northern Mexico, the present study focused on the effects of rodent community diversity (measured by richness and Shannon index) and composition on prevalence of Bartonella infections. The analysis showed negative correlations of Bartonella prevalence with rodent richness and Shannon index. Further, Bartonella prevalence varied among rodent genera/species. Three models were applied to explain the observations. (1) Within-species/genus transmission: Bartonella strains usually are host-specific and adding non-host species would decrease Bartonella prevalence in its principal host through reduction of host contact (encounter reduction); (2) Frequency-dependence: Adding hosts would decrease the proportion of all infected individuals in the community, resulting in a reduction in the number of contacts between susceptible and infected individuals that usually leads to transmission (transmission reduction); and (3) Dominant species effect: Dominant species, if not susceptible to Bartonellae, can constrain the abundance of susceptible hosts (susceptible host regulation). These mechanisms work in concert; and the level of Bartonella prevalence is an outcome of regulation of all of these mechanisms on the entire system.

  2. Diversity of Bartonella species detected in arthropod vectors from animals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; Burmej, Halina; Bennett, Mark D; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J; Wayne, Adrian F; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-09-01

    A variety of Bartonella species were detected in two species of ticks and three species of fleas collected from marsupial hosts; brush-tailed bettong or woylie (Bettongia penicillata) and western barred bandicoots (Perameles bougainville) and from a rodent host; Rattus fuscipes in Western Australia. Bartonella species were detected using nested-PCR of the gltA gene and the 16S-23S ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), and species were characterized using DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA, gltA, rpoB, ftsZ genes and the ITS region. Bartonella rattaustraliani and B. coopersplainsensis were detected in Ixodes spp. ticks and fleas (Stephanocircus pectinipes) respectively collected from rodents. Two novel Bartonella species were detected from marsupials; Candidatus Bartonella woyliei n. sp. was detected in both fleas (Pygiopsylla hilli) and ticks (Ixodes australiensis) collected from woylies and Candidatus Bartonella bandicootii n. sp. was detected in fleas (Pygiopsylla tunneyi) collected from western barred bandicoots. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis of all 5 loci clarified the marsupial cluster of Bartonella species in Australia and confirmed the species status of these two Bartonella species in ticks and fleas from woylies and western barred bandicoots, which are classified as threatened species and are vulnerable to extinction.

  3. Detection of a Potential New Bartonella Species “Candidatus Bartonella rondoniensis” in Human Biting Kissing Bugs (Reduviidae; Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Laroche, Maureen; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Mediannikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Background Among the Reduviidae family, triatomines are giant blood-sucking bugs. They are well known in Central and South America where they transmit Trypanosoma cruzi to mammals, including humans, through their feces. This parasitic protozoan is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a major public health issue in endemic areas. Because of the medical and economic impact of Chagas disease, the presence of other arthropod-borne pathogens in triatomines was rarely investigated. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, seven triatomines species involved in the transmission of T. cruzi were molecularly screened for the presence of known pathogens generally associated with arthropods, such as Rickettsia, Bartonella, Anaplasmataceae, Borrelia species and Coxiella burnetii. Of all included triatomine species, only Eratyrus mucronatus specimens tested positive for Bartonella species for 56% of tested samples. A new genotype of Bartonella spp. was detected in 13/23 Eratyrus mucronatus specimens, an important vector of T. cruzi to humans. This bacterium was further characterized by sequencing fragments of the ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes. Depending on the targeted gene, this agent shares 84% to 91% of identity with B. bacilliformis, the agent of Carrion’s disease, a deadly sandfly-borne infectious disease endemic in South America. It is also closely related to animal pathogens such as B. bovis and B. chomelii. Conclusions As E. mucronatus is an invasive species that occasionally feeds on humans, the presence of potentially pathogenic Bartonella-infected bugs could present another risk for human health, along with the T. cruzi issue. PMID:28095503

  4. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

    2015-02-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species.

  5. Adhesion to and invasion of cultured human cells by Bartonella bacilliformis.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, E M; Raji, A; Valenzuela, M S; Garcia, F; Hoover, R

    1992-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis was tested for its ability to adhere to and invade tissue culture cell monolayers. The parasite was able to efficiently bind and penetrate human dermal fibroblasts, human laryngeal epithelium, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Exposure of the organism to immune serum prepared against a crude Bartonella extract containing cell wall and membranous material resulted in decreased ability of the parasite to invade host cells. There was also an overall reduction in the invasiveness of bartonellae and total host cell association when human laryngeal epithelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were preexposed to cytochalasin D, indicating an active involvement of host cells in the uptake of bartonellae. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of bartonellae inside and outside intracellular vacuoles. These data suggest that a surface-associated factor is involved in the invasion process and that internalization of the parasite by host cells involves a microfilament-dependent process similar to phagocytosis. Images PMID:1398917

  6. Molecular detection and identification of Bartonella species in rat fleas from northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Billeter, Sarah A; Colton, Leah; Sangmaneedet, Somboon; Suksawat, Fanan; Evans, Brian P; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2013-09-01

    The presence of Bartonella species in Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Rattus spp. (R. exulans, R. norvegicus, and R. rattus) in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand was investigated. One hundred ninety-three fleas obtained from 62 rats, were screened by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, and the presence of Bartonella DNA was confirmed by using the citrate synthase gene. Bartonella DNA was detected in 59.1% (114 of 193) of fleas examined. Sequencing demonstrated the presence of Bartonella spp. similar to B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, B. rochalimae, and B. tribocorum in the samples tested with a cutoff for sequence similarity ≥ 96% and 4 clustered together with the closest match with B. grahamii (95.5% identity). If X. cheopis proves to be a competent vector of these species, our results suggest that humans and animals residing in this area may be at risk for infection by several zoonotic Bartonella species.

  7. Whole-Genome Analysis of Bartonella ancashensis, a Novel Pathogen Causing Verruga Peruana, Rural Ancash Region, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Jun; Clifford, Robert J.; Onmus-Leone, Fatma; Yang, Yu; Jiang, Ju; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew R.; Maguina, Ciro; Lesho, Emil P.; Jarman, Richard G.; Richards, Allen; Blazes, David

    2017-01-01

    The genus Bartonella contains >40 species, and an increasing number of these Bartonella species are being implicated in human disease. One such pathogen is Bartonella ancashensis, which was isolated in blood samples from 2 patients living in Caraz, Peru, during a clinical trial of treatment for bartonellosis. Three B. ancashensis strains were analyzed by using whole-genome restriction mapping and high-throughput pyrosequencing. Genome-wide comparative analysis of Bartonella species showed that B. ancashensis has features seen in modern and ancient lineages of Bartonella species and is more related to B. bacilliformis. The divergence between B. ancashensis and B. bacilliformis is much greater than what is seen between known Bartonella genetic lineages. In addition, B. ancashensis contains type IV secretion system proteins, which are not present in B. bacilliformis. Whole-genome analysis indicates that B. ancashensis might represent a distinct Bartonella lineage phylogenetically related to B. bacilliformis. PMID:28221130

  8. Encephalopathy with retinitis due to cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, R A; Scott, B; Beverley, D W; Lyon, F; Taylor, R

    2007-12-01

    Cat-scratch disease is one of several diseases known to be caused by Bartonella species. Some infections due to Bartonella resolve spontaneously without treatment with antibiotics, but in other cases the disease can be fatal without treatment. This case study reports a 7-year-old male who presented with an unexplained encephalopathy and unusual retinal findings associated with evidence supporting infection by B. henselae. The 7-year-old male presented with a 2-week history of general malaise and cervical lymphadenopathy progressing onto fever, headache, vomiting, and confusion associated with meningism. Lumbar puncture revealed a raised cerebrospinal fluid protein, low glucose, and raised white cell count. Abnormal retinal findings and raised antibodies titres to B. quintana indicated a diagnosis of cat-scratch disease. He was treated with azithromycin orally for 3 weeks and made a complete recovery.

  9. Bartonella infections in deer keds (Lipoptena cervi) and moose (Alces alces) in Norway.

    PubMed

    Duodu, Samuel; Madslien, Knut; Hjelm, Eva; Molin, Ylva; Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Harris, Philip D; Colquhoun, Duncan J; Ytrehus, Bjørnar

    2013-01-01

    Infections with Bartonella spp. have been recognized as emerging zoonotic diseases in humans. Large knowledge gaps exist, however, relating to reservoirs, vectors, and transmission of these bacteria. We describe identification by culture, PCR, and housekeeping gene sequencing of Bartonella spp. in fed, wingless deer keds (Lipoptena cervi), deer ked pupae, and blood samples collected from moose, Alces alces, sampled within the deer ked distribution range in Norway. Direct sequencing from moose blood sampled in a deer ked-free area also indicated Bartonella infection but at a much lower prevalence. The sequencing data suggested the presence of mixed infections involving two species of Bartonella within the deer ked range, while moose outside the range appeared to be infected with a single species. Bartonella were not detected or cultured from unfed winged deer keds. The results may indicate that long-term bacteremia in the moose represents a reservoir of infection and that L. cervi acts as a vector for the spread of infection of Bartonella spp. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of L. cervi in the transmission of Bartonella to animals and humans and the possible pathogenicity of these bacteria for humans and animals.

  10. Mixed infections, cryptic diversity, and vector-borne pathogens: evidence from Polygenis fleas and Bartonella species.

    PubMed

    Abbot, Patrick; Aviles, Alena E; Eller, Lauren; Durden, Lance A

    2007-10-01

    Coinfections within hosts present opportunities for horizontal gene transfer between strains and competitive interactions between genotypes and thus can be a critical element of the lifestyles of pathogens. Bartonella spp. are Alphaproteobacteria that parasitize mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells. Their vectors are thought to be various biting arthropods, such as fleas, ticks, mites, and lice, and they are commonly cited as agents of various emerging diseases. Coinfections by different Bartonella strains and species can be common in mammals, but little is known about specificity and coinfections in arthropod vectors. We surveyed the rate of mixed infections of Bartonella in flea vectors (Polygenis gwyni) parasitizing cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) in which previous surveys indicated high rates of infection. We found that nearly all fleas (20 of 21) harbored one or more strains of Bartonella, with rates of coinfection approaching 90%. A strain previously identified as common in cotton rats was also common in their fleas. However, another common strain in cotton rats was absent from P. gwyni, while a rare cotton rat strain was quite common in P. gwyni. Surprisingly, some samples were also coinfected with a strain phylogenetically related to Bartonella clarridgeiae, which is typically associated with felids and ruminants. Finally, a locus (pap31) that is characteristically borne on phage in Bartonella was successfully sequenced from most samples. However, sequence diversity in pap31 was novel in the P. gwyni samples, relative to other Bartonella previously typed with pap31, emphasizing the likelihood of large reservoirs of cryptic diversity in natural populations of the pathogen.

  11. Bartonella spp. in fruit bats and blood-feeding Ectoparasites in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Brook, Cara E; Bai, Ying; Dobson, Andrew P; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Ranaivoson, Hafaliana C; Zhu, Qiyun; Kosoy, Michael Y; Dittmar, Katharina

    2015-02-01

    We captured, ectoparasite-combed, and blood-sampled cave-roosting Madagascan fruit bats (Eidolon dupreanum) and tree-roosting Madagascan flying foxes (Pteropus rufus) in four single-species roosts within a sympatric geographic foraging range for these species in central Madagascar. We describe infection with novel Bartonella spp. in sampled Eidolon dupreanum and associated bat flies (Cyclopodia dubia), which nest close to or within major known Bartonella lineages; simultaneously, we report the absence of Bartonella spp. in Thaumapsylla sp. fleas collected from these same bats. This represents the first documented finding of Bartonella infection in these species of bat and bat fly, as well as a new geographic record for Thaumapsylla sp. We further relate the absence of both Bartonella spp. and ectoparasites in sympatrically sampled Pteropus rufus, thus suggestive of a potential role for bat flies in Bartonella spp. transmission. These findings shed light on transmission ecology of bat-borne Bartonella spp., recently demonstrated as a potentially zoonotic pathogen.

  12. Recombination Within and Between Species of the Alpha Proteobacterium Bartonella Infecting Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Philip D.; Zwolińska, Lucyna; Bajer, Anna; Siński, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Bartonella infections from wild mice and voles (Apodemus flavicollis, Mi. oeconomus, Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus) were sampled from a forest and old-field habitats of eastern Poland; a complex network of Bartonella isolates, referrable to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. birtlesii and B. doshiae, was identified by the sequencing of a gltA fragment, comparable to previous studies of Bartonella diversity in rodents. Nested clade analysis showed that isolates could be assigned to zero- and one-step clades which correlated with host identity and were probably the result of clonal expansion; however, sequencing of other housekeeping genes (rpoB, ribC, ftsZ, groEl) and the 16S RNA gene revealed a more complex situation with clear evidence of numerous recombinant events in which one or both Bartonella parents could be identified. Recombination within gltA was found to have generated two distinct variant clades, one a hybrid between B. taylorii and B. doshiae, the other between B. taylorii and B. grahamii. These recombinant events characterised the differences between the two-step and higher clades within the total nested cladogram, involved all four species of Bartonella identified in this work and appear to have played a dominant role in the evolution of Bartonella diversity. It is clear, therefore, that housekeeping gene phylogenies are not robust indicators of Bartonella diversity, especially when only a single gene (gltA or 16S RNA) is used. Bartonella clades infecting Microtus were most frequently involved in recombination and were most frequently tip clades within the cladogram. The role of Microtus in influencing the frequency of Bartonella recombination remains unknown. PMID:20740281

  13. Detection of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents in Israel using HRM real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Baneth, Gad; Avidor, Boaz; Kosoy, Michael Y; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Mintz, Dvir; Eyal, Osnat; Goethe, Ralph; Mietze, Andreas; Shpigel, Nahum; Harrus, Shimon

    2009-11-18

    The prevalence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents was studied in 19 geographical locations in Israel. One hundred and twelve rodents belonging to five species (Mus musculus, Rattus rattus, Microtus socialis, Acomys cahirinus and Apodemus sylvaticus) were included in the survey. In addition, 156 ectoparasites were collected from the rodents. Spleen sample from each rodent and the ectoparasites were examined for the presence of Bartonella DNA using high resolution melt (HRM) real-time PCR. The method was designed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight Bartonella spp. according to the nucleotide variation in each of two gene fragments (rpoB and gltA) and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) locus, using the same PCR protocol which allowed the simultaneous amplification of the three different loci. Bartonella DNA was detected in spleen samples of 19 out of 79 (24%) black rats (R. rattus) and in 1 of 4 (25%) Cairo spiny mice (A. cahirinus). In addition, 15 of 34 (44%) flea pools harbored Bartonella DNA. Only rat flea (Xenopsyla cheopis) pools collected from black rats (R. rattus) were positive for Bartonella DNA. The Bartonella sp. detected in spleen samples from black rats (R. rattus) was closely related to both B. tribocorum and B. elizabethae. The species detected in the Cairo spiny mouse (A. cahirinus) spleen sample was closely related to the zoonotic pathogen, B. elizabethae. These results indicate that Bartonella species are highly prevalent in suburban rodent populations and their ectoparasites in Israel. Further investigation of the prevalence and zoonotic potential of the Bartonella species detected in the black rats and the Cairo spiny mouse is warranted.

  14. Bartonella species in bats (Chiroptera) and bat flies (Nycteribiidae) from Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Joshua; Baneth, Gad; Mitchell, Mark; Mumcuoglu, Kosta Y; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    Previous and ongoing studies have incriminated bats as reservoirs of several emerging and re-emerging zoonoses. Most of these studies, however, have focused on viral agents and neglected important bacterial pathogens. To date, there has been no report investigating the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in bats and bat flies from Nigeria, despite the fact that bats are used as food and for cultural ritual purposes by some ethnic groups in Nigeria. To elucidate the role of bats as reservoirs of bartonellae, we screened by molecular methods 148 bats and 34 bat flies, Diptera:Hippoboscoidea:Nycteribiidae (Cyclopodia greeffi) from Nigeria for Bartonella spp. Overall, Bartonella spp. DNA was detected in 76 out of 148 (51.4%) bat blood samples tested and 10 out of 24 (41.7%) bat flies tested by qPCR targeting the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) locus. Bartonella was isolated from 23 of 148 (15.5%) bat blood samples, and the isolates were genetically characterized. Prevalence of Bartonella spp. culture-positive samples ranged from 0% to 45.5% among five bat species. Micropterus spp. bats had a significantly higher relative risk of 3.45 for being culture positive compared to Eidolon helvum, Epomophorus spp., Rhinolophus spp., and Chaerephon nigeriae. Bartonella spp. detected in this study fall into three distinct clusters along with other Bartonella spp. isolated from bats and bat flies from Kenya and Ghana, respectively. The isolation of Bartonella spp. in 10.0-45.5% of four out of five bat species screened in this study indicates a widespread infection in bat population in Nigeria. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of these bacteria as a cause of human and animal diseases in Nigeria.

  15. The effect of ecological and temporal factors on the composition of Bartonella infection in rodents and their fleas.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Morick, Danny; Cohen, Carmit; Hawlena, Hadas; Harrus, Shimon

    2014-08-01

    The composition of Bartonella infection was explored in wild Gerbillus andersoni rodents and their Synosternus cleopatrae fleas. Rodent blood samples and fleas were collected in two periods (two different seasons; 4 months apart) from juveniles and adult hosts, and their bartonellae lineages were identified by a 454-pyrosequencing analysis targeting a specific Bartonella citrate synthase gene (gltA) fragment. The rate of Bartonella spp. co-infection was estimated and the assemblage and distribution of bartonellae lineages across the samples with respect to ecological and phylogenetic distance similarities were analyzed. Moreover, environmental factors that could explain potential differences between samples were investigated. Out of the 91 bartonellae-positive samples, 89% were found to be co-infected with more than two phylogenetically distant Bartonella genotypes and additional closely related (but distinguishable) variants. These bartonellae lineages were distributed in a non-random manner, and a negative interaction between lineages was discovered. Interestingly, the overall composition of those infections greatly varied among samples. This variability was partially explained by factors, such as type of sample (blood versus fleas), flea sex and period of collection. This investigation sheds light on the patterns of Bartonella infection and the organization of Bartonella lineages in fleas and rodents in nature.

  16. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) from Quintana Roo, Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flores, Adriana E; Grajales, Jaime Salomon; Salas, Ildefonso Fernandez; Garcia, Gustavo Ponce; Becerra, Ma Haydee Loaiza; Lozano, Saul; Brogdon, William G; Black, William C; Beaty, Barry

    2006-12-01

    Potential insecticide-resistance mechanisms were studied with the use of biochemical assays in Aedes aegypti (L.) collected from 5 municipalities representing the north part of Quintana Roo: Benito Juarez, Cozumel, Isla Mujeres, Lazaro Cardenas, and Solidaridad. The activities of alpha and beta esterases, mixed-function oxidases (MFO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acethylcholinesterase (AChE), and insensitive acethylcholinesterase (iAChE) were assayed in microplates. Three replicates were performed for each enzyme and 60 males and 60 females were analyzed in each population. The New Orleans (NO) susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti was used as a susceptible reference and the threshold criteria for each enzyme were the highest NO absorbance values. In none of the 6 tests were absorbance values correlated in males and females. alpha esterases were elevated in Benito Juarez, Cozumel females and in Lazaro Cardenas males and females. beta esterases were elevated in Benito Juarez, Cozumel females and in Cozumel and Lazaro Cardenas males. Elevated esterases suggest potential insecticide-resistance mechanisms against organophosphate, carbamate, and some pyrethroid insecticides. Slightly elevated levels of MFOs appeared in Lazaro Cardenas females and in Cozumel, Isla Mujeres, and Solidaridad males. Mechanisms involving iAChE or GST were not apparent.

  17. Associated Factors to Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in Dogs of Quintana Roo, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Vega, Pedro Pablo; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger Iván; Pérez-Osorio, Carlos; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Sauri-Arceo, Carlos Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence to Ehrlichia spp. in dogs from Xcalak, Quintana Roo, Mexico, and the associated factors. Serum samples were obtained from 118 dogs and used in an indirect immunofluorescent assay test for the detection of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about possible variables associated with seroprevalence. These variables were analyzed through Chi2 test and logistic regression. Dog seroprevalence of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. was 64% (75/118). Fifty-two percent (61/118) of dogs had tick infestation which was identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Anemia was observed in 36% of dogs. Leucopenia (2.5%), thrombocytopenia (70%), and hemorrhage (14%) were also observed. Thirty-one percent (23/75) of dogs with anemia, 4% (3/75) of dogs with leucopenia, 80% (60/75) of dogs with thrombocytopenia, 17% (13/75) of dogs with hemorrhages, and 59% (44/75) of dogs with ticks were positive for Ehrlichia spp. antibodies. The factors associated with seroprevalence were age (1–3 and >3 years old, OR = 7.77 and OR = 15.39, resp.), tick infestation (OR = 3.13), and thrombocytopenia (OR = 3.36). In conclusion, seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. was high in the community of Xcalak and its associated factors were age, tick infestation, and thrombocytopenia. PMID:28096818

  18. A Focal Chorioretinal Bartonella Lesion Analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    PubMed

    Pichi, Francesco; Srivastava, Sunil K; Levinson, Ashleigh; Baynes, Kimberly M; Traut, Caitlyn; Lowder, Careen Y

    2016-06-01

    Neovascularization may be associated with cat-scratch neuroretinitis in the absence of retinal vascular occlusion. Bartonella organisms establish an intimate relationship with the vascular endothelium, causing angioproliferative lesions, which might represent a dedicated pathogenic strategy for expanding the bacterial host cell habitat. In the eye, pathological angiogenesis caused by Bartonella has been described as peripapillary or macular choroidal neovascularization, but the presence of neovascularization within foci of chorioretinitis has never before been reported. The authors present a case of Bartonella chorioretinitis in which optical coherence tomography angiography, by detecting erythrocyte motion, was able to identify neovessels inside the infectious focus. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:585-588.].

  19. Do Bartonella Infections Cause Agitation, Panic Disorder, and Treatment-Resistant Depression?

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, James L.; Burkland, Glenn A.; Langhoff, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Bartonella is an emerging infection found in cities, suburbs, and rural locations. Routine national labs offer testing for only 2 species, but at least 9 have been discovered as human infections within the last 15 years. Some authors discuss Bartonella cases having atypical presentations, with serious morbidity considered uncharacteristic of more routine Bartonella infections. Some atypical findings include distortion of vision, abdominal pain, severe liver and spleen tissue abnormalities, thrombocytopenic purpura, bone infection, arthritis, abscesses, heart tissue and heart valve problems. While some articles discuss Bartonella as a cause of neurologic illnesses, psychiatric illnesses have received limited attention. Case reports usually do not focus on psychiatric symptoms and typically only as incidental comorbid findings. In this article, we discuss patients exhibiting new-onset agitation, panic attacks, and treatment-resistant depression, all of which may be attributed to Bartonella. Methods Three patients receiving care in an outpatient clinical setting developed acute onset personality changes and agitation, depression, and panic attacks. They were retrospectively examined for evidence of Bartonella infections. The medical and psychiatric treatment progress of each patient was tracked until both were significantly resolved and the Bartonella was cured. Results The patients generally seemed to require higher dosing of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, or antipsychotics in order to function normally. Doses were reduced following antibiotic treatment and as the presumed signs of Bartonella infection remitted. All patients improved significantly following treatment and returned to their previously healthy or near-normal baseline mental health status. Discussion New Bartonella species are emerging as human infections. Most do not have antibody or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostic testing at this time. Manual differential examinations are of

  20. High Prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella Species in Rats and Fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area. PMID:24445202

  1. High prevalence of Rickettsia typhi and Bartonella species in rats and fleas, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Laudisoit, Anne; Falay, Dadi; Amundala, Nicaise; Akaibe, Dudu; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Van Houtte, Natalie; Breno, Matteo; Verheyen, Erik; Wilschut, Liesbeth; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence and identity of Rickettsia and Bartonella in urban rat and flea populations were evaluated in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by molecular tools. An overall prevalence of 17% Bartonella species and 13% Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was found in the cosmopolitan rat species, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus that were infested by a majority of Xenopsylla cheopis fleas. Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella elizabethae, and three Bartonella genotypes were identified by sequencing in rat specimens, mostly in R. rattus. Rickettsia typhi was detected in 72% of X. cheopis pools, the main vector and reservoir of this zoonotic pathogen. Co-infections were observed in rodents, suggesting a common mammalian host shared by R. typhi and Bartonella spp. Thus, both infections are endemic in DRC and the medical staffs need to be aware knowing the high prevalence of impoverished populations or immunocompromised inhabitants in this area.

  2. Association of Bartonella species, feline calicivirus, and feline herpesvirus 1 infection with gingivostomatitis in cats.

    PubMed

    Dowers, Kristy L; Hawley, Jennifer R; Brewer, Melissa M; Morris, Arianne K; Radecki, Steven V; Lappin, Michael R

    2010-04-01

    Feline gingivostomatitis (FGS) is a common syndrome in cats; feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), and Bartonella species are common differential diagnoses. In this study, blood from 70 cats with FGS and 61 healthy control cats was tested for Bartonella species antibodies in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot immunoassay and DNA in blood using a conventional polymerase chain reaction assay. Additionally, fresh oral biopsies from cats with FGS (n=42) and 19 healthy controls were tested for FCV RNA, FHV-1 DNA and Bartonella species DNA. The prevalence rates for Bartonella species antibodies and DNA in the blood and the tissues did not differ between the two groups. FHV-1 DNA was also not significantly different between groups. Only FCV RNA was present in significantly more cats with FGS (40.5%) than control cats (0%). The results suggest that FCV was associated with FGS in some of the cats.

  3. Bartonella dromedarii sp. nov. isolated from domesticated camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Israel.

    PubMed

    Rasis, Michal; Rudoler, Nir; Schwartz, David; Giladi, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Bartonella spp. are fastidious, Gram-negative bacilli that cause a wide spectrum of diseases in humans. Most Bartonella spp. have adapted to a specific host, generally a domestic or wild mammal. Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) have become a focus of growing public-health interest because they have been identified as a reservoir host for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Nevertheless, data on camel zoonoses are limited. We aimed to study the occurrence of Bartonella bacteremia among dromedaries in Israel. Nine of 51 (17.6%) camels were found to be bacteremic with Bartonella spp.; bacteremia levels ranged from five to >1000 colony-forming units/mL. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB genes demonstrated that the dromedary Bartonella isolates are closely related to other ruminant-derived Bartonella spp., with B. bovis being the nearest relative. Using electron microscopy, the novel isolates were shown to be flagellated, whereas B. bovis is nonflagellated. Sequence comparisons analysis of the housekeeping genes ftsZ, ribC, and groEL showed the highest homology to B. chomelii, B. capreoli, and B. birtlesii, respectively. Sequence analysis of the gltA and rpoB revealed ∼96% identity to B. bovis, a previously suggested cutoff value for sequence-based differentiation of Bartonella spp., suggesting that this approach does not have sufficient discriminatory power for differentiating ruminant-related Bartonella spp. A comprehensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis based on nine genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ftsZ, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 16S rRNA, ribC, groEL, nuoG, and SsrA) identified seven sequence types of the new dromedary isolates. This is the first description of a Bartonella sp. from camelids. On the basis of a distinct reservoir and ecological niche, sequence analyses, and expression of flagella, we designate these isolates as a novel Bartonella sp. named Bartonella dromedarii sp

  4. Bartonella species and trombiculid mites of rats from the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Loan, Hoang Kim; Cuong, Nguyen Van; Takhampunya, Ratree; Klangthong, Kewalin; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Campbell, James; Bryant, Juliet; Promstaporn, Sommai; Kosoy, Michael; Hoang, Nguyen Van; Morand, Serge; Chaval, Yannick; Hien, Vo Be; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2015-01-01

    A survey of Bartonella spp. from 275 rats purchased in food markets (n=150) and trapped in different ecosystems (rice field, forest, and animal farms) (n=125) was carried out during October, 2012-March, 2013, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The overall Bartonella spp. prevalence detected by culture and PCR in blood was 14.9% (10.7-19.1%), the highest corresponding to Rattus tanezumi (49.2%), followed by Rattus norvegicus (20.7%). Trapped rats were also investigated for the presence and type of chiggers (larvae of trombiculid mites), and Bartonella spp. were investigated on chigger pools collected from each rat by RT-PCR. A total of five Bartonella spp. were identified in rats, three of which (B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, and B. tribocorum) are known zoonotic pathogens. Among trapped rats, factors independently associated with increased prevalence of Bartonella spp. included: (1) Rat species (R. tanezumi); (2) the number of Trombiculini-Blankaartia and Schoengastiini-Ascoschoengastia mites found on rats; and (3) the habitat of the rat (i.e., forest/fields vs. animal farms). The prevalence of Bartonella infection among chiggers from Bartonella spp.-positive R. tanezumi rats was 5/25 (25%), compared with 1/27 (3.7%) among Bartonella spp.-negative R. tanezumi rats (relative risk [RR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.68-43.09). The finding of Bartonella spp.-positive chiggers on Bartonella spp.-negative rats is strongly suggestive of a transovarial transmission cycle. Rats are ubiquitous in areas of human activity and farms in the Mekong Delta; in addition, trapping and trading of rats for food is common. To correctly assess the human risks due to rat trapping, marketing, and carcass dressing, further studies are needed to establish the routes of transmission and cycle of infection. The widespread presence of these zoonotic pathogens in rats and the abundance of human-rat interactions suggest that surveillance efforts should be enhanced to detect any human

  5. Bartonella and Rickettsia from fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) from the western United States.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Rogers, Thomas E; Dasch, Gregory A

    2007-08-01

    Fleas of prairie dogs have been implicated in the transmission of Bartonella spp. We used PCR to test DNA extracts from 47 fleas of prairie dogs from 6 states. We amplified DNA from 5 unique genotypes of Bartonella spp. and 1 Rickettsia sp. from 12 fleas collected in North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. Sequences from the Bartonella spp. were similar, but not identical, to those from prairie dogs and their fleas in Colorado.

  6. Bartonella species and their ectoparasites: selective host adaptation or strain selection between the vector and the mammalian host?

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chao-Chin; Chuang, Shih-Te; Chomel, Bruno B

    2011-07-01

    A wide range of blood-sucking arthropods have either been confirmed or are suspected as important vectors in Bartonella transmission to mammals, including humans. Overall, it appears that the diversity of Bartonella species DNA identified in ectoparasites is much broader than the species detected in their mammalian hosts, suggesting a mechanism of adaptation of Bartonella species to their host-vector ecosystem. However, these mechanisms leading to the fitness between the vectors and their hosts still need to be investigated.

  7. Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62-269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation.

  8. Bartonella spp. Exposure in Northern and Southern Sea Otters in Alaska and California

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62–269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118

  9. Zoonotic Bartonella species in fleas collected on gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Mourad W; Henn, Jennifer; Foley, Janet E; Brown, Richard N; Kasten, Rickie W; Foley, Patrick; Chomel, Bruno B

    2009-12-01

    Bartonella spp. are fastidious, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria and are usually vector-borne. However, the vector has not been definitively identified for many recently described species. In northern California, gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) are infected with two zoonotic Bartonella species, B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Fleas (range 1-8 fleas per fox) were collected from 22 (41.5%) of 54 gray foxes from urban and backcountry zones near Hoopa, California. The flea species were determined, and DNA was individually extracted to establish the Bartonella species harbored by these fleas. Of the 108 fleas collected, 99 (92%) were identified as Pulex simulans. Overall, 39% (42/108) of the fleas were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Bartonella, with B. rochalimae and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii identified in 34 (81%) and 8 (19%) of the PCR-positive fleas, respectively. There was no difference between the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in P. simulans for the urban and backcountry zones. Fourteen (64%) of the 22 foxes were Bartonella bacteremic at one or more of the capture dates. In 10 instances, both the foxes and the fleas collected from them at the same blood collection were Bartonella-positive. B. rochalimae was the predominant species identified in both foxes and fleas. The competency of Pulex fleas as a vector of B. rochalimae has not been confirmed and will need to be demonstrated experimentally. Pulex spp. fleas readily feed on humans and may represent a source of human exposure to zoonotic species of Bartonella.

  10. Cucullanus pargi sp. n. (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) from the grey snapper Lutjanus griseus off the southern coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Solís, David; Tuz-Paredes, Vielka M; Quintal-Loria, Miguel A

    2007-09-01

    A new nematode species, Cucullanus pargi sp. n., is described from the intestine and pyloric caeca of the grey snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus), off the southern Quintana Roo coast, Mexico. This species shows similar morphological features as cucullanids occurring in marine and brackish-water fishes; however, it differs from all other species in the length of spicules, arrangement and number of caudal papillae, position of the excretory pore and deirids. Cucullanus pargi is the third species of this genus described from fishes in Mexico and the second one from Mexican marine fishes.

  11. High Prevalence and Genetic Heterogeneity of Rodent-Borne Bartonella Species on Heixiazi Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dong-Mei; Hou, Yong; Song, Xiu-Ping; Fu, Ying-Qun; Li, Gui-Chang; Li, Ming; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Wu, Hai-Xia; Pang, Bo; Yue, Yu-Juan; Huang, Ying; Lu, Liang; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We performed genetic analysis of Bartonella isolates from rodent populations from Heixiazi Island in northeast China. Animals were captured at four sites representing grassland and brushwood habitats in 2011 and examined for the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species, their relationship to their hosts, and geographic distribution. A high prevalence (57.7%) and a high diversity (14 unique genotypes which belonged to 8 clades) of Bartonella spp. were detected from 71 rodents comprising 5 species and 4 genera from 3 rodent families. Forty-one Bartonella isolates were recovered and identified, including B. taylorii, B. japonica, B. coopersplainsensis, B. grahamii, B. washoensis subsp. cynomysii, B. doshiae, and two novel Bartonella species, by sequencing of four genes (gltA, the 16S rRNA gene, ftsZ, and rpoB). The isolates of B. taylorii and B. grahamii were the most prevalent and exhibited genetic difference from isolates identified elsewhere. Several isolates clustered with strains from Japan and far-eastern Russia; strains isolated from the same host typically were found within the same cluster. Species descriptions are provided for Bartonella heixiaziensis sp. nov. and B. fuyuanensis sp. nov. PMID:26362983

  12. High prevalence and genetic heterogeneity of rodent-borne Bartonella species on Heixiazi Island, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Mei; Hou, Yong; Song, Xiu-Ping; Fu, Ying-Qun; Li, Gui-Chang; Li, Ming; Eremeeva, Marina E; Wu, Hai-Xia; Pang, Bo; Yue, Yu-Juan; Huang, Ying; Lu, Liang; Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2015-12-01

    We performed genetic analysis of Bartonella isolates from rodent populations from Heixiazi Island in northeast China. Animals were captured at four sites representing grassland and brushwood habitats in 2011 and examined for the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species, their relationship to their hosts, and geographic distribution. A high prevalence (57.7%) and a high diversity (14 unique genotypes which belonged to 8 clades) of Bartonella spp. were detected from 71 rodents comprising 5 species and 4 genera from 3 rodent families. Forty-one Bartonella isolates were recovered and identified, including B. taylorii, B. japonica, B. coopersplainsensis, B. grahamii, B. washoensis subsp. cynomysii, B. doshiae, and two novel Bartonella species, by sequencing of four genes (gltA, the 16S rRNA gene, ftsZ, and rpoB). The isolates of B. taylorii and B. grahamii were the most prevalent and exhibited genetic difference from isolates identified elsewhere. Several isolates clustered with strains from Japan and far-eastern Russia; strains isolated from the same host typically were found within the same cluster. Species descriptions are provided for Bartonella heixiaziensis sp. nov. and B. fuyuanensis sp. nov.

  13. Prevalence of zoonotic Bartonella species among rodents and shrews in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pangjai, Decha; Maruyama, Soichi; Boonmar, Sumalee; Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Nimsuphan, Burin; Petkanchanapong, Wimol; Wootta, Wattanapong; Wangroongsarb, Piyada; Boonyareth, Maskiet; Preedakoon, Poom; Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the prevalence of Bartonella species in 10 rodent and one shrew species in Thailand. From February 2008 to May 2010, a total of 375 small animals were captured in 9 provinces in Thailand. Bartonella strains were isolated from 57 rodents (54 from Rattus species and 3 from Bandicota indica) and one shrew (Suncus murinus) in 7 of the 9 provinces, and identified to the species level. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase and RNA polymerase β subunit genes identified the 58 isolates from each Bartonella-positive animal as B. tribocorum in 27 (46.6%) animals, B. rattimassiliensis in 17 (29.3%) animals, B. elizabethae in 10 (17.2%) animals and B. queenslandensis in 4 (6.9%) animals. R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and Suncus murinus carried B. elizabethae, which causes endocarditis in humans. The prevalence of Bartonella bacteremic animals by province was 42.9% of the animals collected in Phang Nga, 26.8% in Chiang Rai, 20.4% in Sa Kaeo, 16.7% in Nakhon Si Thammarat, 12.0% in Surat Thani, 9.1% in Mae Hong Son and Loei Provinces. These results indicate that Bartonella organisms are widely distributed in small mammals in Thailand and some animal species may serve as important reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella species in the country.

  14. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Species in Ixodid Ticks and Domestic Animals in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abdelmajeed; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Abdelkader, Ahmad; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Zaid, Taher; Azmi, Kifaya; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the Gram-negative pathogen Bartonella. Here, we evaluated the presence of Bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from Palestine. We tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for Bartonella using ITS-PCR. Bartonella DNA was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. None of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive for Bartonella. Seventeen R. sanguineus ticks (17/391; 4.3%) collected from dogs were infected with B. rochalimae (n = 10), B. chomelii (n = 6), and B. koehlerae (n = 1). Four H. dromedarri ticks (4/63; 6.3%) obtained from camels were infected with B. bovis (n = 2) and B. rochalimae (n = 2). Among canine blood samples (n = 110), we found one asymptomatic female dog to be infected with B. rochalimae (0.9%). The detection of zoonotic Bartonella species in this study should raise awareness of these vector-borne diseases among physicians, veterinarians and public health workers and highlight the importance of surveillance and preventive measures in the region.

  15. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Species in Ixodid Ticks and Domestic Animals in Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abdelmajeed; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Abdelkader, Ahmad; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Zaid, Taher; Azmi, Kifaya; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the Gram-negative pathogen Bartonella. Here, we evaluated the presence of Bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from Palestine. We tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for Bartonella using ITS-PCR. Bartonella DNA was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. None of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive for Bartonella. Seventeen R. sanguineus ticks (17/391; 4.3%) collected from dogs were infected with B. rochalimae (n = 10), B. chomelii (n = 6), and B. koehlerae (n = 1). Four H. dromedarri ticks (4/63; 6.3%) obtained from camels were infected with B. bovis (n = 2) and B. rochalimae (n = 2). Among canine blood samples (n = 110), we found one asymptomatic female dog to be infected with B. rochalimae (0.9%). The detection of zoonotic Bartonella species in this study should raise awareness of these vector-borne diseases among physicians, veterinarians and public health workers and highlight the importance of surveillance and preventive measures in the region. PMID:27540374

  16. Molecular detection and identification of Bartonella species in Xenopsylla cheopis fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) collected from Rattus norvegicus rats in Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Billeter, Sarah A; Gundi, Vijay A K B; Rood, Michael P; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2011-11-01

    Of 200 individual Xenopsylla cheopis fleas removed from Rattus norvegicus rats trapped in downtown Los Angeles, CA, 190 (95%) were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. Ninety-one amplicons were sequenced: Bartonella rochalimae-like DNA was detected in 66 examined fleas, and Bartonella tribocorum-like DNA was identified in 25 fleas. The data obtained from this study demonstrate an extremely high prevalence of Bartonella DNA in rat-associated fleas.

  17. Bartonella and Brucella—Weapons and Strategies for Stealth Attack

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tekaya, Houchaima; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Dehio, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella spp. and Brucella spp. are closely related α-proteobacterial pathogens that by distinct stealth-attack strategies cause chronic infections in mammals including humans. Human infections manifest by a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from mild to fatal disease. Both pathogens establish intracellular replication niches and subvert diverse pathways of the host’s immune system. Several virulence factors allow them to adhere to, invade, proliferate, and persist within various host-cell types. In particular, type IV secretion systems (T4SS) represent essential virulence factors that transfer effector proteins tailored to recruit host components and modulate cellular processes to the benefit of the bacterial intruders. This article puts the remarkable features of these two pathogens into perspective, highlighting the mechanisms they use to hijack signaling and trafficking pathways of the host as the basis for their stealthy infection strategies. PMID:23906880

  18. Possible Vertical Transmission of Bartonella bacilliformis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tuya, Ximena L.; Escalante-Kanashiro, Raffo; Tinco, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; Petrozzi, Verónica; Ruiz, Joaquim; del Valle, Juana

    2015-01-01

    A 22-day-old male was admitted with a 2-day history of irritability, dyspnea, jaundice, fever, and gastrointestinal bleeding. A thin blood smear was performed, which showed the presence of intraerythrocyte bacteria identified as Bartonella bacilliformis, and subsequently, the child was diagnosed with Carrion's disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by specific polymerase chain reaction. The child was born in a non-endemic B. bacilliformis area and had not traveled to such an area before hospitalization. However, the mother was from an endemic B. bacilliformis area, and posterior physical examination showed the presence of a wart compatible with B. bacilliformis in semi-immune subjects. These data support vertical transmission of B. bacilliformis. PMID:25371184

  19. Bartonella and Brucella--weapons and strategies for stealth attack.

    PubMed

    Ben-Tekaya, Houchaima; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Dehio, Christoph

    2013-08-01

    Bartonella spp. and Brucella spp. are closely related α-proteobacterial pathogens that by distinct stealth-attack strategies cause chronic infections in mammals including humans. Human infections manifest by a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms, ranging from mild to fatal disease. Both pathogens establish intracellular replication niches and subvert diverse pathways of the host's immune system. Several virulence factors allow them to adhere to, invade, proliferate, and persist within various host-cell types. In particular, type IV secretion systems (T4SS) represent essential virulence factors that transfer effector proteins tailored to recruit host components and modulate cellular processes to the benefit of the bacterial intruders. This article puts the remarkable features of these two pathogens into perspective, highlighting the mechanisms they use to hijack signaling and trafficking pathways of the host as the basis for their stealthy infection strategies.

  20. Molecular identification of Bartonella species in dogs with leishmaniosis (leishmania infantum) with or without cytological evidence of arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Soubasis, Nectarios; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Theodorou, Konstantina; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Saridomichelakis, Manolis; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2014-11-07

    Recent evidence suggest that Bartonella species may cause polyarthritis and lameness in dogs. Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) due to Leishmania infantum is a multi-systemic disease often occurring in association with arthritis. We hypothesized that concurrent Bartonella infection may be a contributing factor for the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL. Hence the primary objective of this study was to investigate the molecular prevalence of Bartonella spp. in dogs with naturally occurring CanL, with or without cytologically documented arthritis. Thirty-eight dogs with CanL (31 with neutrophilic arthritis and 7 without arthritis) were retrospectively studied. Seventy-four archived clinical specimens from these 38 dogs, including 33 blood samples, 19 bone marrow (BM) samples and synovial fluid (SF) aspirates from 22 dogs were tested for Bartonella spp. DNA using the Bartonella alpha proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) diagnostic platform. Overall, eight (21.1%) dogs were infected with one or two Bartonella species; however, Bartonella spp. infection was not associated with arthritis in dogs with CanL. Further prospective studies are warranted to determine if there is a correlation between Bartonella spp. infection and the development of arthritis in dogs with CanL.

  1. Flea species infesting dogs in Florida and Bartonella spp. prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Yore, K; DiGangi, B; Brewer, M; Balakrishnan, N; Breitschwerdt, E B; Lappin, M

    2014-01-31

    Several Bartonella spp. associated with fleas can induce a variety of clinical syndromes in both dogs and humans. However, few studies have investigated the prevalence of Bartonella in the blood of dogs and their fleas. The objectives of this study were to determine the genera of fleas infesting shelter dogs in Florida, the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the fleas, and the prevalence of Bartonella spp. within the blood of healthy dogs from which the fleas were collected. Fleas, serum, and EDTA-anti-coagulated whole blood were collected from 80 healthy dogs, and total DNA was extracted for PCR amplification of Bartonella spp. The genera of fleas infesting 43 of the dogs were determined phenotypically. PCR amplicons from blood and flea pools were sequenced to confirm the Bartonella species. Amplicons for which sequencing revealed homology to Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (Bvb) underwent specific genotyping by targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. A total of 220 fleas were collected from 80 dogs and pooled by genus (43 dogs) and flea species. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified from 14 of 80 dog blood samples (17.5%) and from 9 of 80 pooled fleas (11.3%). B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii DNA was amplified from nine dogs and five of the flea pools. Bartonella rochalimae (Br) DNA was amplified from six dogs and two flea pools. One of 14 dogs was co-infected with Bvb and Br. The dog was infested with Pulex spp. fleas containing Br DNA and a single Ctenocephalides felis flea. Of the Bvb bacteremic dogs, five and four were infected with genotypes II and I, respectively. Of the Bvb PCR positive flea pools, three were Bvb genotype II and two were Bvb genotype I. Amplification of Bvb DNA from Pulex spp. collected from domestic dogs, suggests that Pulex fleas may be a vector for dogs and a source for zoonotic transfer of this pathogen from dogs to people. The findings of this study provide evidence to support the hypothesis that flea-infested dogs may be a

  2. Zoonotic Bartonella species in wild rodents in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species cause disease in humans but little is known about their epidemiology in Brazil. The presence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents captured in two municipalities of the Mato Grosso do Sul state was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of heart tissue from 42 wild rodents were tested using primers targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and citrate synthase gltA gene. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and confirmed at species level by mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome B) sequencing and karyotype. Overall, 42.9% (18/42) of the wild rodents were PCR positive for Bartonella spp.: Callomys callosus (04), Cerradomys maracajuensis (04), Hylaeamus megacephalus (01), Necromys lasiurus (06), Nectomys squamipes (01), Oecomys catherinae (01) and Oxymycterus delator (01). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis was detected in N. lasiurus (46%) and C. callosus (21%) captured in the two study sites. We reported the first molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis in different species of wild rodents collected in the Brazilian territory. Further studies are needed to examine the role of these mammals in the eco-epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil.

  3. Molecular detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi and two genotypes closely related to Bartonella elizabethae.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Rita; Edouard-Fournier, Pierre; Santos-Silva, Margarida; Amaro, Fatima; Bacellar, Fatima; Raoult, Didier

    2006-10-01

    A total of 56 fleas were collected from mice, rats, and one hedgehog in national parks of mainland Portugal and the Madeira Island. All fleas were tested for the presence of bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Bartonella using PCR assays. In fleas from mainland Portugal, we detected Rickettsia felis in one Archaeopsylla erinacei maura flea and in one Ctenophtalmus sp. In five Leptopsylla segnis fleas taken from rats in the Madeira Island, we identified Rickettsia typhi. In addition, in four fleas from the genera Ornithophaga and Stenoponia collect from mice and a rat in mainland Portugal, we detected the presence of two new Bartonella genotypes closely related to Bartonella elizabethae. Our findings emphasize the potential risk of flea-transmitted infections in mainland Portugal and the Madeira archipelago, and extend our knowledge of the potential flea vectors of human pathogens.

  4. [Microbiological diagnosis of emerging bacterial pathogens: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia, and Tropheryma whipplei].

    PubMed

    Blanco, José Ramón; Jado, Isabel; Marín, Mercedes; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Portillo, Aránzazu; Anda, Pedro; Pons, Immaculada; Oteo, José Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Ehrlichia/Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia and Tropheryma whipplei (formerly called whippelii) are fastidious bacterial organisms, considered the causative agents of potentially severe emerging and re-emerging diseases with repercussions on public health. The recent availability of advanced molecular biology and cell culture techniques has led to the implication of many of these species in human pathologies. These issues are extensively covered in number 27 of the SEIMC microbiological procedure: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones por patógenos bacterianos emergentes: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia y Tropheryma whippelii (Microbiological diagnosis of Anaplasma, Bartonella, Rickettsia and Tropheryma whippelii infections) (2nd ed., 2007) (www.seimc.org/documentos/protocolos/microbiologia/).

  5. A Translocated Bacterial Protein Protects Vascular Endothelial Cells from Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Michael C; Scheidegger, Florine; Dehio, Michaela; Balmelle-Devaux, Nadège; Schulein, Ralf; Guye, Patrick; Chennakesava, Cuddapah S; Biedermann, Barbara; Dehio, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    The modulation of host cell apoptosis by bacterial pathogens is of critical importance for the outcome of the infection process. The capacity of Bartonella henselae and B. quintana to cause vascular tumor formation in immunocompromised patients is linked to the inhibition of vascular endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. Here, we show that translocation of BepA, a type IV secretion (T4S) substrate, is necessary and sufficient to inhibit EC apoptosis. Ectopic expression in ECs allowed mapping of the anti-apoptotic activity of BepA to the Bep intracellular delivery domain, which, as part of the signal for T4S, is conserved in other T4S substrates. The anti-apoptotic activity appeared to be limited to BepA orthologs of B. henselae and B. quintana and correlated with (i) protein localization to the host cell plasma membrane, (ii) elevated levels of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and (iii) increased expression of cAMP-responsive genes. The pharmacological elevation of cAMP levels protected ECs from apoptosis, indicating that BepA mediates anti-apoptosis by heightening cAMP levels by a plasma membrane–associated mechanism. Finally, we demonstrate that BepA mediates protection of ECs against apoptosis triggered by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, suggesting a physiological context in which the anti-apoptotic activity of BepA contributes to tumor formation in the chronically infected vascular endothelium. PMID:17121462

  6. Molecular Typing of “Candidatus Bartonella ancashi,” a New Human Pathogen Causing Verruga Peruana

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Kristin E.; Hang, Jun; Jiang, Ju; Leguia, Mariana; Kasper, Matthew R.; Maguiña, Ciro; Jarman, Richard G.; Blazes, David L.

    2013-01-01

    A recently described clinical isolate, “Candidatus Bartonella ancashi,” was obtained from a blood sample of a patient presenting with verruga peruana in the Ancash region of Peru. This sample and a second isolate obtained 60 days later from the same patient were molecularly typed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multispacer sequence typing (MST). The isolates were 100% indistinguishable from each other but phylogenetically distant from Bartonella bacilliformis and considerably divergent from other known Bartonella species, confirming their novelty. PMID:23985925

  7. Development of a real-time PCR for Bartonella spp. detection, a current emerging microorganism.

    PubMed

    Parra, Elena; Segura, Ferran; Tijero, Jessica; Pons, Imma; Nogueras, Maria-Mercedes

    2017-04-01

    A real-time PCR assay using SYBR Green was optimized to detect those Bartonella that are most frequently described as pathogens. The assay was genus-specific. Sequencing allowed to distinguish species. Assay sensitivity was determined using 10-fold serial dilutions of genomic DNA. Dynamic range was 100 ng-100 fg and sensitivity was 50 copies/reaction.

  8. Zoonotic pathogens in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil: Bartonella and Coxiella infections.

    PubMed

    Rozental, Tatiana; Ferreira, Michelle Santos; Guterres, Alexandro; Mares-Guia, Maria Angélica; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Gonçalves, Jonathan; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2017-04-01

    Zoonotic pathogens comprise a significant and increasing fraction of all emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that plague humans. Identifying host species is one of the keys to controlling emerging infectious diseases. From March 2007 until April 2012, we collected a total of 131 wild rodents in eight municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated these rodents for infection with Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. In total, 22.1% (29/131) of the rodents were infected by at least one pathogen; co-infection was detected in 1.5% (2/131) of rodents. Coxiella burnetii was detected in 4.6% (6/131) of the wild animals, 17.6% of the rodents harbored Bartonella spp. No cases of Rickettsia were identified. Bartonella doshiae and Bartonella vinsonii were the species found on the wild mammals. This report is the first to note C. burnetii, B. doshiae and B. vinsonii natural infections in Atlantic Forest wild rodents in Brazil. Our work highlights the potential risk of transmission to humans, since most of the infected specimens belong to generalist species that live near human dwellings.

  9. Infection Rates of Wolbachia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Different Populations of Fleas.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Antonio; Gutiérrez, Sara García; Cutillas, Cristina

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, a molecular detection of Bartonella sp. and Wolbachia sp. in Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) isolated from Canis lupus familiaris from different geographical areas of Spain, Iran and South Africa, and in Stenoponia tripectinata tripectinata isolated from Mus musculus from the Canary Islands has been carried out by amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA partial gene of Wolbachia sp. and intergenic spacer region (its region) of Bartonella sp. A total of 70 % of C. felis analysed were infected by W. pipientis. This percentage of prevalence was considerably higher in female fleas than in male fleas. Bartonella DNA was not detected in C. felis from dogs, while Bartonella elizabethae was detected and identified in S. t. tripectinata from M. musculus from the Canary Islands representing 43.75 % prevalence. This report is the first to identify B. elizabethae in S. t. tripectinata collected in M. musculus from the Canary Islands. Thus, our results demonstrate that this flea is a potential vector of B. elizabethae and might play roles in human infection. The zoonotic character of this bartonellosis emphasizes the need to alert public health authorities and the veterinary community of the risk of infection.

  10. Prevalence of Bartonella species, haemoplasmas and Toxoplasma gondii in cats in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Alexander D; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Brewer, Melissa; Lappin, Michael R

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rates for select infectious agents of cats presented to the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Whole blood, serum, and oral mucosal and nail bed swabs were collected. While Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma species or Rickettsia felis DNA were not amplified from any cat, 44.2% of the cats had evidence of infection or exposure to either a Bartonella species (15.3% were seropositive and 5.8% polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive), a haemoplasma (28.6% PCR positive), and/or Toxoplasma gondii (19.2% seropositive). No Bartonella species DNA was amplified from the nail or oral mucosal swabs despite a 5.8% amplification rate from the blood samples. This finding likely reflects the absence of Ctenocephalides felis infection from our study population, as this organism is a key component for Bartonella species translocation in cats. The results from this study support the use of flea control products to lessen exposure of cats (and people) to Bartonella species and support discouraging the feeding of raw meat to cats and preventing them from hunting to lessen T gondii infection.

  11. Contrasting Patterns in Mammal–Bacteria Coevolution: Bartonella and Leptospira in Bats and Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Bonnie R.; Olival, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Emerging bacterial zoonoses in bats and rodents remain relatively understudied. We conduct the first comparative host–pathogen coevolutionary analyses of bacterial pathogens in these hosts, using Bartonella spp. and Leptospira spp. as a model. Methodology/Principal Findings We used published genetic data for 51 Bartonella genotypes from 24 bat species, 129 Bartonella from 38 rodents, and 26 Leptospira from 20 bats. We generated maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenies for hosts and bacteria, and tested for coevoutionary congruence using programs ParaFit, PACO, and Jane. Bartonella spp. and their bat hosts had a significant coevolutionary fit (ParaFitGlobal = 1.9703, P≤0.001; m2 global value = 7.3320, P≤0.0001). Bartonella spp. and rodent hosts also indicated strong overall patterns of cospeciation (ParaFitGlobal = 102.4409, P≤0.001; m2 global value = 86.532, P≤0.0001). In contrast, we were unable to reject independence of speciation events in Leptospira and bats (ParaFitGlobal = 0.0042, P = 0.84; m2 global value = 4.6310, P = 0.5629). Separate analyses of New World and Old World data subsets yielded results congruent with analysis from entire datasets. We also conducted event-based cophylogeny analyses to reconstruct likely evolutionary histories for each group of pathogens and hosts. Leptospira and bats had the greatest number of host switches per parasite (0.731), while Bartonella and rodents had the fewest (0.264). Conclusions/Significance In both bat and rodent hosts, Bartonella exhibits significant coevolution with minimal host switching, while Leptospira in bats lacks evolutionary congruence with its host and has high number of host switches. Reasons underlying these variable coevolutionary patterns in host range are likely due to differences in disease-specific transmission and host ecology. Understanding the coevolutionary patterns and frequency of host-switching events between bacterial pathogens and

  12. Development and characterisation of highly antibiotic resistant Bartonella bacilliformis mutants

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Cláudia; Martínez-Puchol, Sandra; Ruiz-Roldán, Lidia; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to develop and characterise in vitro Bartonella bacilliformis antibiotic resistant mutants. Three B. bacilliformis strains were plated 35 or 40 times with azithromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin or rifampicin discs. Resistance-stability was assessed performing 5 serial passages without antibiotic pressure. MICs were determined with/without Phe-Arg-β-Napthylamide and artesunate. Target alterations were screened in the 23S rRNA, rplD, rplV, gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE and rpoB genes. Chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin resistance were the most difficult and easiest (>37.3 and 10.6 passages) to be selected, respectively. All mutants but one selected with chloramphenicol achieved high resistance levels. All rifampicin, one azithromycin and one ciprofloxacin mutants did not totally revert when cultured without antibiotic pressure. Azithromycin resistance was related to L4 substitutions Gln-66 → Lys or Gly-70 → Arg; L4 deletion Δ62–65 (Lys-Met-Tyr-Lys) or L22 insertion 83::Val-Ser-Glu-Ala-His-Val-Gly-Lys-Ser; in two chloramphenicol-resistant mutants the 23S rRNA mutation G2372A was detected. GyrA Ala-91 → Val and Asp-95 → Gly and GyrB Glu474 → Lys were detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants. RpoB substitutions Gln-527 → Arg, His-540 → Tyr and Ser-545 → Phe plus Ser-588 → Tyr were detected in rifampicin-resistant mutants. In 5 mutants the effect of efflux pumps on resistance was observed. Antibiotic resistance was mainly related to target mutations and overexpression of efflux pumps, which might underlie microbiological failures during treatments. PMID:27667026

  13. Development and characterisation of highly antibiotic resistant Bartonella bacilliformis mutants.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cláudia; Martínez-Puchol, Sandra; Ruiz-Roldán, Lidia; Pons, Maria J; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-09-26

    The objective was to develop and characterise in vitro Bartonella bacilliformis antibiotic resistant mutants. Three B. bacilliformis strains were plated 35 or 40 times with azithromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin or rifampicin discs. Resistance-stability was assessed performing 5 serial passages without antibiotic pressure. MICs were determined with/without Phe-Arg-β-Napthylamide and artesunate. Target alterations were screened in the 23S rRNA, rplD, rplV, gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE and rpoB genes. Chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin resistance were the most difficult and easiest (>37.3 and 10.6 passages) to be selected, respectively. All mutants but one selected with chloramphenicol achieved high resistance levels. All rifampicin, one azithromycin and one ciprofloxacin mutants did not totally revert when cultured without antibiotic pressure. Azithromycin resistance was related to L4 substitutions Gln-66 → Lys or Gly-70 → Arg; L4 deletion Δ62-65 (Lys-Met-Tyr-Lys) or L22 insertion 83::Val-Ser-Glu-Ala-His-Val-Gly-Lys-Ser; in two chloramphenicol-resistant mutants the 23S rRNA mutation G2372A was detected. GyrA Ala-91 → Val and Asp-95 → Gly and GyrB Glu474 → Lys were detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants. RpoB substitutions Gln-527 → Arg, His-540 → Tyr and Ser-545 → Phe plus Ser-588 → Tyr were detected in rifampicin-resistant mutants. In 5 mutants the effect of efflux pumps on resistance was observed. Antibiotic resistance was mainly related to target mutations and overexpression of efflux pumps, which might underlie microbiological failures during treatments.

  14. New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States.

    PubMed

    Bown, K J; Ellis, B A; Birtles, R J; Durden, L A; Lello, J; Begon, M; Bennett, M

    2002-12-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites.

  15. Bartonella, a Common Cause of Endocarditis: a Report on 106 Cases and Review

    PubMed Central

    Edouard, Sophie; Nabet, Cecile; Lepidi, Hubert; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative endocarditis and have been increasingly reported. In this study, we included all patients retrospectively and prospectively diagnosed with Bartonella endocarditis in our French reference center between 2005 and 2013. Our diagnosis was based on the modified Duke criteria and microbiological findings, including serological and PCR results. To review the published literature, we searched all human Bartonella endocarditis cases published in the PubMed database between January 2005 and October 2013. We report here a large series of 106 cases, which include 59 cases that had not previously been reported or mentioned. Indirect immunofluorescence assays, Western blotting, and real-time PCR from total blood, serum, and valve tissue exhibited sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 33%, 36%, and 91%, respectively. The number of cases reported in the literature between 2005 and 2013 increased to reach a cumulative number of 196 cases. The number of cases reported in the literature by other centers is increasing more rapidly than that reported by our French reference center (P < 10−2). Currently, there is a lack of criteria for the diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis. We suggest that a positive PCR result from a cardiac valve or blood specimen, an IgG titer of ≥800 using an immunofluorescence assay, or a positive Western blot assay be considered major Duke criteria for Bartonella endocarditis. There is no real increase in the incidence of these infections but rather a better understanding and interest in the disease resulting from the improvement of diagnostic tools. PMID:25540398

  16. Bacillary angiomatosis with bone invasion*

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Lucia Martins; Medeiros, Karina Bittencourt; Landeiro, Luana Gomes; Lucas, Elton Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Bacillary angiomatosis is an infection determined by Bartonella henselae and B. quintana, rare and prevalent in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We describe a case of a patient with AIDS and TCD4+ cells equal to 9/mm3, showing reddish-violet papular and nodular lesions, disseminated over the skin, most on the back of the right hand and third finger, with osteolysis of the distal phalanx observed by radiography. The findings of vascular proliferation with presence of bacilli, on the histopathological examination of the skin and bone lesions, led to the diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis. Corroborating the literature, in the present case the infection affected a young man (29 years old) with advanced immunosuppression and clinical and histological lesions compatible with the diagnosis. PMID:28099606

  17. Detection of two Bartonella tamiae-like sequences in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) using 16S-23S intergenic spacer region-specific primers.

    PubMed

    Billeter, Sarah A; Miller, Melissa K; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Levy, Michael G

    2008-01-01

    Four hundred and sixty-six questing Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) from Carolina County, VA, and 98 questing A. americanum from Chatham County, NC, were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Two amplicons, approximately 270-280 bp, were detected in two ticks from Virginia. Based upon PCR and sequencing, an adult male and adult female tick harbored DNA sequences closely related to Bartonella tamiae (DQ395180). Bartonella DNA was not detected in A. americanum from North Carolina. Potential transmission of Bartonella spp. by A. americanum should be the focus of future experimental studies.

  18. Demonstration of Bartonella grahamii DNA in Ocular Fluids of a Patient with Neuroretinitis

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, F. T.; Bergmans, A. M. C.; van der Zee, A.; Rothova, A.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the clinical and laboratory features of a 55-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-negative female patient who presented with bilateral intraocular inflammatory disease (neuroretinitis type) and behavioral changes caused by a Bartonella grahamii infection. Diagnosis was based on the PCR analysis of DNA extracted from the intraocular fluids. DNA analysis of the PCR product revealed a 100% identity with the 16S rRNA gene sequence of B. grahamii. The patient was successfully treated with doxycycline (200 mg/day) and rifampin (600 mg/day) for 4 weeks. This is the first report that demonstrates the presence of a Bartonella species in the intraocular fluids of a nonimmunocompromised patient and that indicates that B. grahamii is pathogenic for humans. PMID:10565926

  19. Coyotes (Canis latrans) as the reservoir for a human pathogenic Bartonella sp.: molecular epidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii infection in coyotes from central coastal California.

    PubMed

    Chang, C C; Kasten, R W; Chomel, B B; Simpson, D C; Hew, C M; Kordick, D L; Heller, R; Piemont, Y; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2000-11-01

    Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was originally isolated from a dog suffering infectious endocarditis and was recently identified as a zoonotic agent causing human endocarditis. Following the coyote bite of a child who developed clinical signs compatible with Bartonella infection in Santa Clara County, Calif., this epidemiological study was conducted. Among 109 coyotes (Canis latrans) from central coastal California, 31 animals (28%) were found to be bacteremic with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and 83 animals (76%) had B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii antibodies. These findings suggest these animals could be the wildlife reservoir of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes for these 31 isolates yielded similar profiles that were identical to those of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Partial sequencing of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, indicated 99.5 and 100% homology between the coyote isolate and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (ATCC 51672). PCR-RFLP analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region showed the existence of two different strain profiles, as has been reported in dogs. Six (19%) of 31 Bartonella bacteremic coyotes exhibited the strain profile that was identified in the type strain of a canine endocarditis case (B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii ATCC 51672). The other 25 bacteremic coyotes were infected with a strain that was similar to the strains isolated from healthy dogs. Based on whole bacterial genome analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with SmaI restriction endonuclease, there was more diversity in fingerprints for the coyote isolates, which had at least 10 major variants compared to the two variants described for domestic dog isolates from the eastern United States. By PFGE analysis, three Bartonella bacteremic coyotes were infected by a strain identical to the one isolated from three healthy dog carriers. Further studies are necessary

  20. Bartonella chomelii is the most frequent species infecting cattle grazing in communal mountain pastures in Spain.

    PubMed

    Antequera-Gómez, M L; Lozano-Almendral, L; Barandika, J F; González-Martín-Niño, R M; Rodríguez-Moreno, I; García-Pérez, A L; Gil, H

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Bartonella spp. was investigated in domestic ungulates grazing in communal pastures from a mountain area in northern Spain, where 18.3% (17/93) of cattle were found to be positive by PCR combined with a reverse line blot (PCR/RLB), whereas sheep (n = 133) or horses (n = 91) were found not to be infected by this pathogen. Bartonella infection was significantly associated with age, since older animals showed a higher prevalence than heifers and calves. In contrast to other studies, B. chomelii was the most frequent species found in cattle (14/17), while B. bovis was detected in only three animals. Moreover, 18 B. chomelii isolates and one B. bovis isolate were obtained from nine animals. Afterwards, B. chomelii isolates were characterized by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method which was adapted in this study. This method presented a high discrimination power, identifying nine different sequence types (STs). This characterization also showed the presence of different STs simultaneously in the same host and that STs had switched over time in one of the animals. In addition, B. chomelii STs seem to group phylogenetically in two different lineages. The only B. bovis isolate was characterized with a previously described MLST method. This isolate corresponded to a new ST which is located in lineage I, where the B. bovis strains infecting Bos taurus subsp. taurus are grouped. Further studies on the dynamics of Bartonella infection in cattle and the potential ectoparasites involved in the transmission of this microorganism should be performed, improving knowledge about the interaction of Bartonella spp. and domestic ungulates.

  1. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in neotropical primates from Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Letícia; Figueiredo, Mayra Araguaia Pereira; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas in nonhuman primates (NHP). The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of and assess the phylogenetic position of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasma species infecting neotropical NHP from Brazilian Amazon. From 2009 to 2013, a total of 98 blood samples from NHP belonging to the Family Cebidae were collected in the island of São Luís, state of Maranhão, of which 87 NHP were from Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS) in the municipality of São Luís, and 11 (9 Sapajus sp. and 2 Saimiri sciureus) were from NHP caught in the Sítio Aguahy Private Reserve. DNA samples were screened by previously described PCR protocols for amplifying Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. based on nuoG, gltA and 16S rRNA genes, respectively. Purified amplicons were submitted to sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Bacteremia with one or more Bartonella spp. was not detected in NHP. Conversely, 35 NHP were PCR positive to Mycoplasma spp. The Blastn analysis of seven positive randomly selected sequencing products showed percentage of identity ranging from 95% to 99% with other primates hemoplasmas. The Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analysis based on a 1510 bp of 16S rRNA gene showed the presence of two distinct clusters, positioned within Mycoplasma haemofelis and Mycoplasma suis groups. The phylogenetic assessment suggests the presence of a novel hemoplasma species in NHP from the Brazilian Amazon.

  2. Kinetics of Bartonella birtlesii Infection in Experimentally Infected Mice and Pathogenic Effect on Reproductive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Boulouis, Henri J.; Barrat, Francine; Bermond, Delphine; Bernex, Florence; Thibault, Danièle; Heller, Rémy; Fontaine, Jean-Jacques; Piémont, Yves; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2001-01-01

    The kinetics of infection and the pathogenic effects on the reproductive function of laboratory mice infected with Bartonella birtlesii recovered from an Apodemus species are described. B. birtlesii infection, as determined by bacteremia, occurred in BALB/c mice inoculated intravenously. Inoculation with a low-dose inoculum (1.5 × 103 CFU) induced bacteremia in only 75% of the mice compared to all of the mice inoculated with higher doses (≥1.5 × 104). Mice became bacteremic for at least 5 weeks (range, 5 to 8 weeks) with a peak ranging from 2 × 103 to 105 CFU/ml of blood. The bacteremia level was significantly higher in virgin females than in males but the duration of bacteremia was similar. In mice infected before pregnancy (n = 20), fetal loss was evaluated by enumerating resorption and fetal death on day 18 of gestation. The fetal death and resorption percentage of infected mice was 36.3% versus 14.5% for controls (P < 0.0001). Fetal suffering was evaluated by weighing viable fetuses. The weight of viable fetuses was significantly lower for infected mice than for uninfected mice (P < 0.0002). Transplacental transmission of Bartonella was demonstrated since 76% of the fetal resorptions tested was culture positive for B. birtlesii. The histopathological analysis of the placentas of infected mice showed vascular lesions in the maternal placenta, which could explain the reproductive disorders observed. BALB/c mice appeared to be a useful model for studying Bartonella infection. This study provides the first evidence of reproductive disorders in mice experimentally infected with a Bartonella strain originating from a wild rodent. PMID:11500400

  3. Bartonella chomelii Is the Most Frequent Species Infecting Cattle Grazing in Communal Mountain Pastures in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Antequera-Gómez, M. L.; Lozano-Almendral, L.; Barandika, J. F.; González-Martín-Niño, R. M.; Rodríguez-Moreno, I.; García-Pérez, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Bartonella spp. was investigated in domestic ungulates grazing in communal pastures from a mountain area in northern Spain, where 18.3% (17/93) of cattle were found to be positive by PCR combined with a reverse line blot (PCR/RLB), whereas sheep (n = 133) or horses (n = 91) were found not to be infected by this pathogen. Bartonella infection was significantly associated with age, since older animals showed a higher prevalence than heifers and calves. In contrast to other studies, B. chomelii was the most frequent species found in cattle (14/17), while B. bovis was detected in only three animals. Moreover, 18 B. chomelii isolates and one B. bovis isolate were obtained from nine animals. Afterwards, B. chomelii isolates were characterized by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method which was adapted in this study. This method presented a high discrimination power, identifying nine different sequence types (STs). This characterization also showed the presence of different STs simultaneously in the same host and that STs had switched over time in one of the animals. In addition, B. chomelii STs seem to group phylogenetically in two different lineages. The only B. bovis isolate was characterized with a previously described MLST method. This isolate corresponded to a new ST which is located in lineage I, where the B. bovis strains infecting Bos taurus subsp. taurus are grouped. Further studies on the dynamics of Bartonella infection in cattle and the potential ectoparasites involved in the transmission of this microorganism should be performed, improving knowledge about the interaction of Bartonella spp. and domestic ungulates. PMID:25381240

  4. Molecular epidemiology of Bartonella species isolated from ground squirrels and other rodents in northern California.

    PubMed

    Ziedins, A C; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Kjemtrup, A M; Chang, C-C

    2016-07-01

    Bartonella spp. are endemic in wild rodents in many parts of the world. A study conducted in two northern California counties (Sonoma and Yolo) sampling California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi) and four other rodent species (Peromyscus maniculatus, P. boylii, P. truei and Neotoma fuscipes) led to the isolation of small Gram-negative bacilli which were identified as Bartonella spp. based on colony morphology, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and partial gene sequencing. Overall, Bartonella spp. were isolated from the blood of 71% (32/45) of the ground squirrels and one third (22/66) of the other rodents. PCR-RFLP analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes yielded seven unique profiles, four for the ground squirrels and three for the other rodents. Isolates from each PCR-RFLP profiles were submitted for partial sequencing. Ground squirrel isolates were most closely related to B. washoensis, whereas the other rodent isolates were closest to B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii and B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis. Two of these three species or subspecies are known zoonotic agents.

  5. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-02-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings.

  6. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus)

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A.; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  7. Detection of novel Bartonella strains and Yersinia pestis in prairie dogs and their fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae and Pulicidae) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Heather L; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Montenieri, John A; Lowell, Jennifer L; Chu, May C; Gage, Kenneth L

    2003-05-01

    We developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that simultaneously detects three types of flea-associated microorganisms. Targets for the assay were sequences encoding portions of the gltA, a 17-kDa antigen, and pla genes of Bartonella spp. Strong et al., Rickettsia spp. da Rocha-Lima, and Yersinia pestis Yersin, respectively. A total of 260 flea samples containing bloodmeal remnants were analyzed from fleas collected from abandoned prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) burrows at the site of an active plague epizootic in Jefferson County, CO. Results indicated that 34 (13.1%) fleas were positive for Bartonella spp., 0 (0%) were positive for Rickettsia spp., and 120 (46.2%) were positive for Y. pestis. Twenty-three (8.8%) of these fleas were coinfected with Bartonella spp. and Y. pestis. A second group of 295 bloodmeal-containing fleas was collected and analyzed from abandoned burrows in Logan County, CO, where a prairie dog die-off had occurred 2-4 mo before the time of sampling. Of these 295 fleas, 7 (2.4%) were positive for Bartonella spp., 0 (0%) were positive for Rickettsia spp., and 46 (15.6%) were positive for Y. pestis. Coinfections were not observed in fleas from the Logan County epizootic site. The multiplex PCR also was used to identify Y. pestis and Bartonella in prairie dog blood and tissues. This report represents the first identification of Bartonella from prairie dogs and their fleas. Prairie dog fleas were tested with PCR, and the Bartonella PCR amplicons produced were sequenced and found to be closely related to similar sequences amplified from Bartonella that had been isolated from prairie dog blood samples. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the sequences of bartonellae from prairie dogs and prairie dog fleas cluster tightly within a clade that is distinct from those containing other known Bartonella genotypes.

  8. Serological survey of Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Leptospira spp., Echinococcus, Hanta-, TBE- and XMR-virus infection in employees of two forestry enterprises in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Jurke, Annette; Bannert, N; Brehm, K; Fingerle, V; Kempf, V A J; Kömpf, D; Lunemann, M; Mayer-Scholl, A; Niedrig, M; Nöckler, K; Scholz, H; Splettstoesser, W; Tappe, D; Fischer, Silke F

    2015-10-01

    We initiated a survey to collect basic data on the frequency and regional distribution of various zoonoses in 722 employees of forestry enterprises in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) from 2011 to 2013. Exposures associated with seropositivity were identified to give insight into the possible risk factors for infection with each pathogen. 41.2% of participants were found to be seropositive for anti-Bartonella IgG, 30.6% for anti-Borrelia burgdorferi IgG, 14.2% for anti-Leptospira IgG, 6.5% for anti-Coxiella burnetii IgG, 6.0% for anti-Hantavirus IgG, 4.0% for anti-Francisella tularensis IgG, 3.4% for anti-TBE-virus IgG, 1.7% for anti-Echinococcus IgG, 0.0% for anti-Brucella IgG and anti-XMRV IgG. Participants seropositive for B. burgdorferi were 3.96 times more likely to be professional forestry workers (univariable analysis: OR 3.96; 95% CI 2.60-6.04; p<0.001); and participants seropositive for Hantavirus 3.72 times more likely (univariable analysis: OR 3.72; 95% CI 1.44-9.57; p=0.007). This study found a surprisingly high percentage of participants seropositive for anti-B. henselae IgG and for anti-F. tularensis IgG. The relatively high seroprevalence for anti-Leptospira IgG seen in this study could be related to living conditions rather than to exposure at work. No specific risk for exposure to C. burnetii and Echinococcus was identified, indicating that neither forestry workers nor office workers represent a risk population and that NRW is not a typical endemic area. Forestry workers appear to have higher risk for contact with B. burgdorferi-infected ticks and a regionally diverse risk for acquiring Hantavirus-infection. The regional epidemiology of zoonoses is without question of great importance for public health. Knowledge of the regional risk factors facilitates the development of efficient prevention strategies and the implementation of such prevention measures in a sustainable manner.

  9. Infection of Domestic Dogs in Peru by Zoonotic Bartonella Species: A Cross-Sectional Prevalence Study of 219 Asymptomatic Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V. P.; Morton, Bridget A.; Tngrian, Maryam; Kachani, Malika; Barrón, Eduardo A.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Angulo, Noelia P.; Brenner, Elliott C.; Lerner, Richard; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Bartonella species are emerging infectious organisms transmitted by arthropods capable of causing long-lasting infection in mammalian hosts. Among over 30 species described from four continents to date, 15 are known to infect humans, with eight of these capable of infecting dogs as well. B. bacilliformis is the only species described infecting humans in Peru; however, several other Bartonella species were detected in small mammals, bats, ticks, and fleas in that country. The objective of this study was to determine the serological and/or molecular prevalence of Bartonella species in asymptomatic dogs in Peru in order to indirectly evaluate the potential for human exposure to zoonotic Bartonella species. A convenient sample of 219 healthy dogs was obtained from five cities and three villages in Peru. EDTA-blood samples were collected from 205 dogs, whereas serum samples were available from 108 dogs. The EDTA-blood samples were screened by PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing for species identification. Antibodies against B. vinsonii berkhoffii and B. rochalimae were detected by IFA (cut-off of 1∶64). Bartonella DNA was detected in 21 of the 205 dogs (10%). Fifteen dogs were infected with B. rochalimae, while six dogs were infected with B. v. berkhoffii genotype III. Seropositivity for B. rochalimae was detected in 67 dogs (62%), and for B. v. berkhoffii in 43 (40%) of the 108 dogs. Reciprocal titers ≥1∶256 for B. rochalimae were detected in 19% of dogs, and for B. v. berkhoffii in 6.5% of dogs. This study identifies for the first time a population of dogs exposed to or infected with zoonotic Bartonella species, suggesting that domestic dogs may be the natural reservoir of these zoonotic organisms. Since dogs are epidemiological sentinels, Peruvian humans may be exposed to infections with B. rochalimae or B. v. berkhoffii. PMID:24040427

  10. Presence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of cats in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Michael R; Hawley, Jennifer

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella species and Rickettsia species DNA in the blood, oral cavity, skin and claw beds of feral cats without evidence of skin disease that were housed in Alabama (n = 24), Florida (n = 27) and Colorado (n = 32). Samples were assessed by use of polymerase chain reaction assays. The Bartonella species IgG prevalence was also determined. While Bartonella species DNA was not amplified from any sample from Colorado cats, it was commonly amplified from blood (56.9%), skin (31.4%), claws (17.6%) and gingiva (17.6%) of the 51 cats housed in Alabama and Florida. All 10 flea groups assessed in this study were infected with a Bartonella species or R. felis. Bartonella species IgG titres did not accurately predict bacteraemia (positive predictive value = 57.1%; negative predictive value = 82.1%). Bartonella species DNA was amplified from blood of cats with and without C. felis. Rickettsia felis DNA was only detected in or on the skin of one cat and the gingiva of an additional cat. It was concluded that cats can be an occupational health risk for veterinarians, particularly in areas with high prevalence of Ctenocephalides felis. Further study is required to determine whether Bartonella species or Rickettsia species infections of cats are associated with dermatological disease. The combination of Bartonella species serological test results with Bartonella species PCR or culture is likely to give the most accurate information concerning the current infection status of individual cats.

  11. Infection-associated type IV secretion systems of Bartonella and their diverse roles in host cell interaction

    PubMed Central

    Dehio, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are transporters of Gram-negative bacteria that mediate interbacterial DNA transfer, and translocation of virulence factors into eukaryotic host cells. The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises arthropod-borne pathogens that colonize endothelial cells and erythrocytes of their mammalian reservoir hosts, thereby causing long-lasting intraerythrocytic infections. The deadly human pathogen Bartonella bacilliformis holds an isolated position in the Bartonella phylogeny as a sole representative of an ancestral lineage. All other species evolved in a separate ‘modern’ lineage by radial speciation and represent highly host-adapted pathogens of limited virulence potential. Unlike B. bacilliformis, the species of the modern lineage encode at least one of the closely related T4SSs, VirB/VirD4 or Vbh. These VirB-like T4SSs represent major host adaptability factors that contributed to the remarkable evolutionary success of the modern lineage. At the molecular level, the VirB/VirD4 T4SS was shown to translocate several effector proteins into endothelial cells that subvert cellular functions critical for establishing chronic infection. A third T4SS, Trw, is present in a sub-branch of the modern lineage. Trw does not translocate any known effectors, but produces multiple variant pilus subunits critically involved in the invasion of erythrocytes. The T4SSs laterally acquired by the bartonellae have thus adopted highly diverse functions during infection, highlighting their versatility as pathogenicity factors. PMID:18489724

  12. Prevalence of selected vector-borne organisms and identification of Bartonella species DNA in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis).

    PubMed

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Birkenheuer, Adam J; Blanton, Hunter L; Maggi, Ricardo G; Belfiore, Natalia; Marr, Henry S; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2010-07-01

    Trapper-killed North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) in North Carolina, USA, were screened for multiple vector-borne bacteria known to be pathogenic to mammals. Blood was collected from 30 carcasses in 2006, from 35 in 2007, and from one live otter in 2008. Samples were screened using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for DNA from Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia spp., and spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. All samples were negative for Rickettsia spp. Twelve of 30 samples from 2006 produced amplicons using the assay designed to detect Ehrlichia spp., but sequencing revealed that the amplified DNA fragment was from a novel Wolbachia sp., thought to be an endosymbiote of a Dirofilaria sp. Between 2006 and 2007, DNA from a novel Bartonella sp. was detected in 19 of 65 animals (29%). Blood from one live otter captured in 2008 was found positive for this Bartonella sp. by both PCR and culture. The pathogenicity of this Bartonella species in river otters or other mammals is unknown.

  13. Genetic characterization of flea-derived Bartonella species from native animals in Australia suggests host-parasite co-evolution.

    PubMed

    Kaewmongkol, Gunn; Kaewmongkol, Sarawan; McInnes, Linda M; Burmej, Halina; Bennett, Mark D; Adams, Peter J; Ryan, Una; Irwin, Peter J; Fenwick, Stanley G

    2011-12-01

    Fleas are important arthropod vectors for a variety of diseases in veterinary and human medicine, and bacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella are among the organisms most commonly transmitted by these ectoparasites. Recently, a number of novel Bartonella species and novel species candidates have been reported in marsupial fleas in Australia. In the present study the genetic diversity of marsupial fleas was investigated; 10 species of fleas were collected from seven different marsupial and placental mammal hosts in Western Australia including woylies (Bettongia penicillata), western barred bandicoots (Perameles bougainville), mardos (Antechinus flavipes), bush rats (Rattus fuscipes), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), feral cats (Felis catus) and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). PCR and sequence analysis of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and the 18S rRNA genes from these fleas was performed. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis of the COI and 18S rRNA genes revealed a close genetic relationship between marsupial fleas, with Pygiopsylla hilli from woylies, Pygiopsylla tunneyi from western barred bandicoots and Acanthopsylla jordani from mardos, forming a separate cluster from fleas collected from the placental mammals in the same geographical area. The clustering of Bartonella species with their marsupial flea hosts suggests co-evolution of marsupial hosts, marsupial fleas and Bartonella species in Australia.

  14. Diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in Bats and Their Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites from South Africa and Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Muriel; Tjale, Mabotse A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Kearney, Teresa; Seamark, Ernest C J; Nel, Louis H; Monadjem, Ara; Markotter, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    In addition to several emerging viruses, bats have been reported to host multiple bacteria but their zoonotic threats remain poorly understood, especially in Africa where the diversity of bats is important. Here, we investigated the presence and diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in bats and their ectoparasites (Diptera and Siphonaptera) collected across South Africa and Swaziland. We collected 384 blood samples and 14 ectoparasites across 29 different bat species and found positive samples in four insectivorous and two frugivorous bat species, as well as their Nycteribiidae flies. Phylogenetic analyses revealed diverse Bartonella genotypes and one main group of Rickettsia, distinct from those previously reported in bats and their ectoparasites, and for some closely related to human pathogens. Our results suggest a differential pattern of host specificity depending on bat species. Bartonella spp. identified in bat flies and blood were identical supporting that bat flies may serve as vectors. Our results represent the first report of bat-borne Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in these countries and highlight the potential role of bats as reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens.

  15. Diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in Bats and Their Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites from South Africa and Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Muriel; Tjale, Mabotse A.; Weyer, Jacqueline; Kearney, Teresa; Seamark, Ernest C. J.; Nel, Louis H.; Monadjem, Ara; Markotter, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    In addition to several emerging viruses, bats have been reported to host multiple bacteria but their zoonotic threats remain poorly understood, especially in Africa where the diversity of bats is important. Here, we investigated the presence and diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in bats and their ectoparasites (Diptera and Siphonaptera) collected across South Africa and Swaziland. We collected 384 blood samples and 14 ectoparasites across 29 different bat species and found positive samples in four insectivorous and two frugivorous bat species, as well as their Nycteribiidae flies. Phylogenetic analyses revealed diverse Bartonella genotypes and one main group of Rickettsia, distinct from those previously reported in bats and their ectoparasites, and for some closely related to human pathogens. Our results suggest a differential pattern of host specificity depending on bat species. Bartonella spp. identified in bat flies and blood were identical supporting that bat flies may serve as vectors. Our results represent the first report of bat-borne Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in these countries and highlight the potential role of bats as reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:26999518

  16. Molecular detection of Bartonella alsatica in European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Andalusia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Francisco J

    2010-10-01

    A sample of 279 European wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (141 males, 138 females), captured alive in Andalusia (Spain) and belonging to the two haplotype classes previously described for this species (230 and 49 corresponding with haplotypes A and B, respectively), were tested for the presence of Bartonella alsatica DNA. Two species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction assays targeting for 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region and RNA polymerase β subunit genes have been developed. Forty-eight (17.20%) rabbits were infected with B. alsatica. Two-way contingency table analyses and the calculation of Cramer's V statistic showed no differences in infection rate, considering haplotype lineage or sex. The risk of infection of human population, especially for hunters in close contact with this demonstrated human pathogen, should be considered.

  17. Dogs are more permissive than cats or guinea pigs to experimental infection with a human isolate of Bartonella rochalimae.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Henn, Jennifer B; Kasten, Rickie W; Nieto, Nathan C; Foley, Janet; Papageorgiou, Sophia; Allen, Claire; Koehler, Jane E

    2009-01-01

    Bartonella rochalimae was first isolated from the blood of a human who traveled to Peru and was exposed to multiple insect bites. Foxes and dogs are likely natural reservoirs for this bacterium. We report the results of experimental inoculation of two dogs, five cats and six guinea pigs with the only human isolate of this new Bartonella species. Both dogs became bacteremic for 5-7 weeks, with a peak of 10(3)-10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/mL blood. Three cats had low bacteremia levels (< 200 CFU/mL) of 6-8 weeks' duration. One cat that remained seronegative had two bacterial colonies isolated at a single culture time point. A fifth cat never became bacteremic, but seroconverted. None of the guinea pigs became bacteremic, but five seroconverted. These results suggest that dogs could be a reservoir of this strain of B. rochalimae, in contrast to cats and guinea pigs.

  18. Contrasting dynamics of Bartonella spp. in cyclic field vole populations: the impact of vector and host dynamics.

    PubMed

    Telfer, S; Begon, M; Bennett, M; Bown, K J; Burthe, S; Lambin, X; Telford, G; Birtles, R

    2007-03-01

    Many zoonotic disease agents are transmitted between hosts by arthropod vectors, including fleas, but few empirical studies of host-vector-microparasite dynamics have investigated the relative importance of hosts and vectors. This study investigates the dynamics of 4 closely related Bartonella species and their flea vectors in cyclic populations of field voles (Microtus agrestis) over 3 years. The probability of flea infestation was positively related to field vole density 12 months previously in autumn, but negatively related to more recent host densities, suggesting a dilution effect. The 4 Bartonella species exhibited contrasting dynamics. Only B. grahamii, showed a distinct seasonal pattern. Infection probability increased with field vole density for B. doshiae, B. taylorii and BGA (a previously unidentified species) and with density of coexisting wood mice for B. doshiae and B. grahamii. However, only the infection probability of BGA in spring was related to flea prevalence. B. doshiae and BGA were most common in older animals, but the other 2 were most common in non-reproductive hosts. Generally, host density rather than vector abundance appears most important for the dynamics of flea-transmitted Bartonella spp., possibly reflecting the importance of flea exchange between hosts. However, even closely related species showed quite different dynamics, emphasising that other factors such as population age structure can impact on zoonotic risk.

  19. The Utility of Inquiry-Based Exercises in Mexican Science Classrooms: Reports from a Professional Development Workshop for Science Teachers in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racelis, A. E.; Brovold, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    The quality of science teaching is of growing importance in Mexico. Mexican students score well below the world mean in math and science. Although the government has recognized these deficiencies and has implemented new policies aimed to improve student achievement in the sciences, teachers are still encountering in-class barriers to effective teaching, especially in public colleges. This paper reports on the utility of inquiry based exercises in Mexican classrooms. In particular, it describes a two-day professional development workshop with science teachers at the Instituto Tecnologico Superior in Felipe Carrillo Puerto in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Felipe Carrillo Puerto is an indigenous municipality where a significant majority of the population speak Maya as their first language. This alone presents a unique barrier to teaching science in the municipality, but accompanied with other factors such as student apathy, insufficient prior training of both students and teachers, and pressure to deliver specific science curriculum, science teachers have formidable challenges for effective science teaching. The goals of the workshop were to (1) have a directed discussion regarding science as both content and process, (2) introduce inquiry based learning as one tool of teaching science, and (3) get teachers to think about how they can apply these techniques in their classes.

  20. Detection of Bartonella tamiae DNA in ectoparasites from rodents in Thailand and their sequence similarity with bacterial cultures from Thai patients.

    PubMed

    Kabeya, Hidenori; Colborn, James M; Bai, Ying; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Richardson, Jason H; Maruyama, Soichi; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2010-06-01

    Ectoparasites, including chigger mites (genera Leptotrombidium, Schoengastia, and Blankarrtia) and one tick (genus Haemaphysalis) collected from wild-caught rodents in Thailand, were assessed for the presence of Bartonella DNA by using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region and citrate synthase gene (gltA). Of the 41 pooled samples tested, 34 were positive for Bartonella DNA. Sequence analysis demonstrated that DNA detected in 33 chigger mite pools and one tick pool was similar to Bartonella tamiae sequences previously isolated from three patients in Thailand. This is the first report of the detection of B. tamiae DNA in chigger mites; additional field and experimental investigations are required to determine the role of chigger mites as potential vectors of B. tamiae.

  1. A mathematical epidemiological model of gram-negative Bartonella bacteria: does differential ectoparasite load fully explain the differences in infection prevalence of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus?

    PubMed

    Brettschneider, H; Anguelov, R; Chimimba, C T; Bastos, A D S

    2012-01-01

    We postulate that the large difference in infection prevalence, 24% versus 5%, in R. norvegicus and R. rattus, respectively, between these two co-occurring host species may be due to differences in ectoparasite and potential vector infestation rates. A compartmental model, representative of an infectious system containing these two Rattus species and two ectoparasite vectors, was constructed and the coefficients of the forces of infection determined mathematically. The maximum difference obtained by the model in the prevalence of Bartonella in the two Rattus species amounts to 4.6%, compared to the observed mean difference of 19%. Results suggest the observed higher Bartonella infection prevalence in Rattus norvegicus compared to Rattus rattus, cannot be explained solely by higher ectoparasite load. The model also highlights the need for more detailed biological research on Bartonella infections in Rattus and the importance of the flea vector in the spread of this disease.

  2. Evolutionary dynamics of pathoadaptation revealed by three independent acquisitions of the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system in Bartonella.

    PubMed

    Harms, Alexander; Segers, Francisca H I D; Quebatte, Maxime; Mistl, Claudia; Manfredi, Pablo; Körner, Jonas; Chomel, Bruno B; Kosoy, Michael; Maruyama, Soichi; Engel, Philipp; Dehio, Christoph

    2017-03-07

    The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises a group of ubiquitous mammalian pathogens that are studied as a model for the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. Vast abundance of two particular phylogenetic lineages of Bartonella had been linked to enhanced host adaptability enabled by lineage-specific acquisition of a VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) and parallel evolution of complex effector repertoires. However, the limited availability of genome sequences from one of those lineages as well as other, remote branches of Bartonella has so far hampered comprehensive understanding of how the VirB/D4 T4SS and its effectors called Beps have shaped Bartonella evolution. Here, we report the discovery of a third repertoire of Beps associated with the VirB/D4 T4SS of B. ancashensis, a novel human pathogen that lacks any signs of host adaptability and is only distantly related to the two species-rich lineages encoding a VirB/D4 T4SS. Furthermore, sequencing of ten new Bartonella isolates from under-sampled lineages enabled combined in silico analyses and wet lab experiments that suggest several parallel layers of functional diversification during evolution of the three Bep repertoires from a single ancestral effector. Our analyses show that the Beps of B. ancashensis share many features with the two other repertoires, but may represent a more ancestral state that has not yet unleashed the adaptive potential of such an effector set. We anticipate that the effectors of B. ancashensis will enable future studies to dissect the evolutionary history of Bartonella effectors and help unraveling the evolutionary forces underlying bacterial host adaptation.

  3. Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathoadaptation Revealed by Three Independent Acquisitions of the VirB/D4 Type IV Secretion System in Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Alexander; Segers, Francisca H.I.D.; Quebatte, Maxime; Mistl, Claudia; Manfredi, Pablo; Körner, Jonas; Chomel, Bruno B.; Kosoy, Michael; Maruyama, Soichi; Engel, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    The α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises a group of ubiquitous mammalian pathogens that are studied as a model for the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis. Vast abundance of two particular phylogenetic lineages of Bartonella had been linked to enhanced host adaptability enabled by lineage-specific acquisition of a VirB/D4 type IV secretion system (T4SS) and parallel evolution of complex effector repertoires. However, the limited availability of genome sequences from one of those lineages as well as other, remote branches of Bartonella has so far hampered comprehensive understanding of how the VirB/D4 T4SS and its effectors called Beps have shaped Bartonella evolution. Here, we report the discovery of a third repertoire of Beps associated with the VirB/D4 T4SS of B. ancashensis, a novel human pathogen that lacks any signs of host adaptability and is only distantly related to the two species-rich lineages encoding a VirB/D4 T4SS. Furthermore, sequencing of ten new Bartonella isolates from under-sampled lineages enabled combined in silico analyses and wet lab experiments that suggest several parallel layers of functional diversification during evolution of the three Bep repertoires from a single ancestral effector. Our analyses show that the Beps of B. ancashensis share many features with the two other repertoires, but may represent a more ancestral state that has not yet unleashed the adaptive potential of such an effector set. We anticipate that the effectors of B. ancashensis will enable future studies to dissect the evolutionary history of Bartonella effectors and help unraveling the evolutionary forces underlying bacterial host adaptation. PMID:28338931

  4. Cat Scratch Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  5. Conservation of gene order and content in the circular chromosomes of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' asiaticus and other rhizbiales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intracellular plant pathogen ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ is a member of the Rhizobiales, as are the nitrogen fixing Sinorhizobium meliloti and Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the intracellular mammalian pathogen Bartonella henselae. Whole genome compar...

  6. Comparison of the 'Ca Liberibacter asiaticus' genome adapted for an intracellular lifestyle with other members of the rhizobiales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An intracellular plant pathogen ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus,’ a member of the Rhizobiales, is related to Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Bartonella henselae, an intracellular mammalian pathogen. Whole chromosome comparisons identified at least 52 clust...

  7. Similar presentation of cervical lymphadenitis of different etiology in two siblings.

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, Jerome A; Schreuder, Willem H

    2016-08-01

    Here, we report chronic suppurating submandibular swelling occurring in two siblings, with one case caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria and the other caused by Bartonella henselae. These two infections share a similar clinical presentation, but the treatment modalities differed.

  8. Viral Diversity, Prey Preference, and Bartonella Prevalence in Desmodus rotundus in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wray, Amy K; Olival, Kevin J; Morán, David; Lopez, Maria Renee; Alvarez, Danilo; Navarrete-Macias, Isamara; Liang, Eliza; Simmons, Nancy B; Lipkin, W Ian; Daszak, Peter; Anthony, Simon J

    2016-12-01

    Certain bat species serve as natural reservoirs for pathogens in several key viral families including henipa-, lyssa-, corona-, and filoviruses, which may pose serious threats to human health. The Common Vampire Bat (Desmodus rotundus), due to its abundance, sanguivorous feeding habit involving humans and domestic animals, and highly social behavioral ecology, may have an unusually high potential for interspecies disease transmission. Previous studies have investigated rabies dynamics in D. rotundus, yet the diversity of other viruses, bacteria, and other microbes that these bats may carry remains largely unknown. We screened 396 blood, urine, saliva, and fecal samples from D. rotundus captured in Guatemala for 13 viral families and genera. Positive results were found for rhabdovirus, adenovirus, and herpesvirus assays. We also screened these samples for Bartonella spp. and found that 38% of individuals tested positive. To characterize potential for interspecies transmission associated with feeding behavior, we also analyzed cytochrome B sequences from fecal samples to identify prey species and found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) made up the majority of blood meals. Our findings suggest that the risk of pathogen spillover from Desmodus rotundus, including between domestic animal species, is possible and warrants further investigation to characterize this microbial diversity and expand our understanding of foraging ecology in their populations.

  9. Ecological differences and coexistence in a guild of microparasites: Bartonella in wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Telfer, Sandra; Clough, Helen E; Birtles, L Richard J; Bennett, Malcolm; Carslake, David; Helyar, Sarah; Begon, Michael

    2007-07-01

    The study of ecological differences among coexisting microparasites has been largely neglected, but it addresses important and unusual issues because there is no clear distinction in such cases between conventional (resource) and apparent competition. Here patterns in the population dynamics are examined for four species of Bartonella (bacterial parasites) coexisting in two wild rodent hosts, bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). Using generalized linear modeling and mixed effects models, we examine, for these four species, seasonal patterns and dependencies on host density (both direct and delayed) and, having accounted for these, any differences in prevalence between the two hosts. Whereas previous studies had failed to uncover species differences, here all four were different. Two, B. doshiae and B. taylorii, were more prevalent in wood mice, and one, B. birtlesii, was more prevalent in bank voles. B. birtlesii, B. grahamii, and B. taylorii peaked in prevalence in the fall, whereas B. doshiae peaked in spring. For B. birtlesii in bank voles, density dependence was direct, but for B. taylorii in wood mice density dependence was delayed. B. birtlesii prevalence in wood mice was related to bank vole density. The implications of these differences for species coexistence are discussed.

  10. A Case of Multi-vector and Multi-host Epidemiological Model: Bartonella Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguelov, R.; Brettschneider, H.; Bastos, A. D. S.

    2010-11-01

    We consider a compartmental model for the Bartonella infection on rodents. More precisely, on the co-occurring populations of Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus where the vectors are two species of ectoparasites, namely ticks and fleas. As usual for such models a key stage is the modelling of the forces of infection. While the vital dynamics and the progression of the infection within each of the four species are sufficiently well known to determine the rest of the transfer rates, there is practically no data on the probability of infection. In order to determine appropriate values for the coefficients of the forces of infection we solve an optimal control problem where the objective function is the norm of the difference between the observed and the predicted by the model equilibrium infection prevalence rates in the four species. Within this setting the conjecture that the higher prevalence of the infection in Rattus norvegicus can be explained solely by their higher ectoparasite load is tested and disproved.

  11. Bartonella and Rickettsia in arthropods from the Lao PDR and from Borneo, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kernif, Tahar; Socolovschi, Cristina; Wells, Konstans; Lakim, Maklarin B; Inthalad, Saythong; Slesak, Günther; Boudebouch, Najma; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Newton, Paul N; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Rickettsioses and bartonelloses are arthropod-borne diseases of mammals with widespread geographical distributions. Yet their occurrence in specific regions, their association with different vectors and hosts and the infection rate of arthropod-vectors with these agents remain poorly studied in South-east Asia. We conducted entomological field surveys in the Lao PDR (Laos) and Borneo, Malaysia by surveying fleas, ticks, and lice from domestic dogs and collected additional samples from domestic cows and pigs in Laos. Rickettsia felis was detected by real-time PCR with similar overall flea infection rate in Laos (76.6%, 69/90) and Borneo (74.4%, 268/360). Both of the encountered flea vectors Ctenocephalides orientis and Ctenocephalides felis felis were infected with R. felis. The degrees of similarity of partial gltA and ompA genes with recognized species indicate the rickettsia detected in two Boophilus spp. ticks collected from a cow in Laos may be a new species. Isolation and further characterization will be necessary to specify it as a new species. Bartonella clarridgeiae was detected in 3/90 (3.3%) and 2/360 (0.6%) of examined fleas from Laos and Borneo, respectively. Two fleas collected in Laos and one flea collected in Borneo were co-infected with both R. felis and B. clarridgeiae. Further investigations are needed in order to isolate these agents and to determine their epidemiology and aetiological role in unknown fever in patients from these areas.

  12. Evaluation of PCR Approaches for Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Cláudia; Martinez-Puchol, Sandra; Pons, Maria J.; Bazán, Jorge; Tinco, Carmen; del Valle, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Background The lack of an effective diagnostic tool for Carrion’s disease leads to misdiagnosis, wrong treatments and perpetuation of asymptomatic carriers living in endemic areas. Conventional PCR approaches have been reported as a diagnostic technique. However, the detection limit of these techniques is not clear as well as if its usefulness in low bacteriemia cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection limit of 3 PCR approaches. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined the detection limit of 3 different PCR approaches: Bartonella-specific 16S rRNA, fla and its genes. We also evaluated the viability of dry blood spots to be used as a sample transport system. Our results show that 16S rRNA PCR is the approach with a lowest detection limit, 5 CFU/μL, and thus, the best diagnostic PCR tool studied. Dry blood spots diminish the sensitivity of the assay. Conclusions/Significance From the tested PCRs, the 16S rRNA PCR-approach is the best to be used in the direct blood detection of acute cases of Carrion’s disease. However its use in samples from dry blood spots results in easier management of transport samples in rural areas, a slight decrease in the sensitivity was observed. The usefulness to detect by PCR the presence of low-bacteriemic or asymptomatic carriers is doubtful, showing the need to search for new more sensible techniques. PMID:26959642

  13. Parallel Evolution of a Type IV Secretion System in Radiating Lineages of the Host-Restricted Bacterial Pathogen Bartonella

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C.; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens

  14. Parallel evolution of a type IV secretion system in radiating lineages of the host-restricted bacterial pathogen Bartonella.

    PubMed

    Engel, Philipp; Salzburger, Walter; Liesch, Marius; Chang, Chao-Chin; Maruyama, Soichi; Lanz, Christa; Calteau, Alexandra; Lajus, Aurélie; Médigue, Claudine; Schuster, Stephan C; Dehio, Christoph

    2011-02-10

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid origination of multiple species from a single ancestor as the result of concurrent adaptation to disparate environments. This fundamental evolutionary process is considered to be responsible for the genesis of a great portion of the diversity of life. Bacteria have evolved enormous biological diversity by exploiting an exceptional range of environments, yet diversification of bacteria via adaptive radiation has been documented in a few cases only and the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show a compelling example of adaptive radiation in pathogenic bacteria and reveal their genetic basis. Our evolutionary genomic analyses of the α-proteobacterial genus Bartonella uncover two parallel adaptive radiations within these host-restricted mammalian pathogens. We identify a horizontally-acquired protein secretion system, which has evolved to target specific bacterial effector proteins into host cells as the evolutionary key innovation triggering these parallel adaptive radiations. We show that the functional versatility and adaptive potential of the VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS), and thereby translocated Bartonella effector proteins (Beps), evolved in parallel in the two lineages prior to their radiations. Independent chromosomal fixation of the virB operon and consecutive rounds of lineage-specific bep gene duplications followed by their functional diversification characterize these parallel evolutionary trajectories. Whereas most Beps maintained their ancestral domain constitution, strikingly, a novel type of effector protein emerged convergently in both lineages. This resulted in similar arrays of host cell-targeted effector proteins in the two lineages of Bartonella as the basis of their independent radiation. The parallel molecular evolution of the VirB/Bep system displays a striking example of a key innovation involved in independent adaptive processes and the emergence of bacterial pathogens

  15. Human pathogens in body and head lice.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Ndihokubwayo, Jean-Bosco; Guidran, Jo; Kelly, Patrick J; Raoult, Didier

    2002-12-01

    Using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, we investigated the prevalence of Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis in 841 body lice collected from various countries. We detected R. prowazekii in body lice from Burundi in 1997 and in lice from Burundi and Rwanda in 2001; B. quintana infections of body lice were widespread. We did not detect B. recurrentis in any lice.

  16. Force Protection Technologies for the 2010-2020 Timeframe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-11-01

    Rickettsia prowasecki Rickettsiae R4. Rickettsia rickettsii B1. Bacillus anthracis B2. Brucella abortus B3. Brucella melitensis B4. Brucella suis B6...reduction Sensor systems that detect levels of chemical agents, radiological agents, pathogenic bacteria , viruses, or toxins in the environment will be...virus Viruses V20. Japanese encephalitis virus R1. Coxiella burnetti R2. Bartonella Quintana (Rochlimea quintana, Rickettsia quintana) R3

  17. [Cat scratch disease associated neuroretinitis: clinical report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Pérez G, Jorge; Munita S, José M; Araos B, Rafael; López G, Juan P; Stevenson A, Ricardo; González A, Patricia; Pérez C, Daniel; Noriega R, Luis M

    2010-10-01

    Cat scratch disease is the main clinical presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. However, ocular manifestations of bartonellosis occur in about 5 to 10% of the patients, mainly presenting as neuroretinitis, choroiditis or oculoglandular syndrome of Parinaud. We describe two patients with documented B. henselae infection and typical ocular compromise. Both patients were treated and had a favorable visual outcome.

  18. An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...

  20. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

  1. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) from cats and dogs in New Zealand: Molecular characterisation, presence of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella clarridgeiae and comparison with Australia.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Shona; Forsyth, Maureen; Lawrence, Andrea L; Emery, David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-01-30

    The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is the most common flea species parasitising both domestic cats and dogs globally. Fleas are known vectors of zoonotic pathogens such as vector borne Rickettsia and Bartonella. This study compared cat fleas from domestic cats and dogs in New Zealand's North and South Islands to Australian cat fleas, using the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and II (cox1, cox2). We assessed the prevalence of Rickettsia and Bartonella using genus specific multiplexed real-time PCR assays. Morphological identification confirmed that the cat flea (C. felis) is the most common flea in New Zealand. The examined fleas (n=43) at cox1 locus revealed six closely related C. felis haplotypes (inter-haplotype distance 1.1%) across New Zealand. The New Zealand C. felis haplotypes were identical or near identical with haplotypes from southern Australia demonstrating common dispersal of haplotype lineage across both the geographical (Tasman Sea) and climate scale. New Zealand cat fleas carried Rickettsia felis (5.3%) and Bartonella clarridgeiae (18.4%). To understand the capability of C. felis to vector zoonotic pathogens, we determined flea cox1 and cox2 haplotype diversity with the tandem multiplexed real-time PCR and sequencing for Bartonella and Rickettsia. This enabled us to demonstrate highly similar cat fleas on cat and dog populations across Australia and New Zealand.

  2. Bartonella melophagi in blood of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern US: Cultures, genetic characterization, and ecological connections.

    PubMed

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Enscore, Russell; Rizzo, Maria Rosales; Bender, Scott; Popov, Vsevolod; Albayrak, Levent; Fofanov, Yuriy; Chomel, Bruno

    2016-07-15

    Bartonella melophagi sp. nov. was isolated from domestic sheep blood and from sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus) from the southwestern United States. The sequence analyses of the reference strain performed by six molecular markers consistently demonstrated that B. melophagi relates to but differ from other Bartonella species isolated from domestic and wild ruminants. Presence of 183 genes specific for B. melophagi, being absent in genomes of other Bartonella species associated with ruminants also supports the separation of this bacterial species from species of other ruminants. Bartonella DNA was detected in all investigated sheep keds; however, culturing of these bacteria from sheep blood rejects a speculation that B. melophagi is an obligatory endosymbiont. Instead, the results support the hypothesis that the domestic sheep is a natural host reservoir for B. melophagi and the sheep ked its main vector. This bacterium was not isolated from the blood of bighorn sheep and domestic goats belonging to the same subfamily Caprinae. B. melophagi has also been shown to be zoonotic and needs to be investigated further.

  3. Bartonella bacilliformis: A Systematic Review of the Literature to Guide the Research Agenda for Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez Clemente, Nuria; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar A.; Solórzano, Nelson; Maguiña, Ciro; Pachas, Paul; Blazes, David; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David; Moore, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Carrion's disease affects small Andean communities in Peru, Colombia and Ecuador and is characterized by two distinct disease manifestations: an abrupt acute bacteraemic illness (Oroya fever) and an indolent cutaneous eruptive condition (verruga Peruana). Case fatality rates of untreated acute disease can exceed 80% during outbreaks. Despite being an ancient disease that has affected populations since pre-Inca times, research in this area has been limited and diagnostic and treatment guidelines are based on very low evidence reports. The apparently limited geographical distribution and ecology of Bartonella bacilliformis may present an opportunity for disease elimination if a clear understanding of the epidemiology and optimal case and outbreak management can be gained. Methods All available databases were searched for English and Spanish language articles on Carrion's disease. In addition, experts in the field were consulted for recent un-published work and conference papers. The highest level evidence studies in the fields of diagnostics, treatment, vector control and epidemiology were critically reviewed and allocated a level of evidence, using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) guidelines. Results A total of 44 studies were considered to be of sufficient quality to be included in the analysis. The majority of these were level 4 or 5 (low quality) evidence and based on small sample sizes. Few studies had been carried out in endemic areas. Conclusions Current approaches to the diagnosis and management of Carrion's disease are based on small retrospective or observational studies and expert opinion. Few studies take a public health perspective or examine vector control and prevention. High quality studies performed in endemic areas are required to define optimal diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:23145188

  4. Succinyl-CoA Synthetase: New Antigen Candidate of Bartonella bacilliformis

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Cláudia; Palma, Noemí; Pons, Maria J.; Magallón-Tejada, Ariel; Sandoval, Isabel; Tinco-Valdez, Carmen; Gutarra, Carlos; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim; Matsuoka, Mayumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Bartonella bacilliformis is the causative agent of Carrion’s disease, a neglected illness with mortality rates of 40–85% in the absence of treatment. The lack of a diagnostic technique to overcome misdiagnosis and treat asymptomatic carriers is of note. This study aimed to identify new B. bacilliformis antigenic candidates that could lead to a new diagnostic tool able to be implemented in endemic rural areas. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood (n = 198) and serum (n = 177) samples were collected in northern Peru. Clinical data were recorded. Specific 16S rRNA amplification by RT-PCR, IFA and ELISA for IgM/IgG with whole cells as antigens was done. Western blot analysis and N-terminal amino acid sequencing detected seroreactive proteins. ELISAs for IgM/IgG for the antigenic candidates were performed. Of the population 33.3% reported at least one symptom compatible with Carrion’s disease; 25.4% (IFA), 27.1% (ELISA-IgG), 33.9% (ELISA-IgM) and 38.9% (RT-PCR) of samples were positive. Four proteins were considered potential antigenic candidates, including two new antigenic candidates, succinyl-CoA synthetase subunit α (SCS-α) and succinyl-CoA synthetase subunit β (SCS-β). On Western blot both Pap31 and SCS-α interacted with IgM, while GroEL and SCS-β interacted with IgG. The presence of specific antibodies against the antigenic candidates varied from 34.5% (IgG against SCS-α) to 97.2% (IgM against Pap31). Conclusions/Significance RT-PCR and the high levels of positivity for specific ELISAs demonstrate high levels of B. bacilliformis exposure and asymptomatic carriers among inhabitants. The new antigens identified might be used as a new rapid diagnostic tool to diagnose acute Carrion’s disease and identify asymptomatic carriers. PMID:27627803

  5. Surveillance of Egyptian fleas for agents of public health significance: Anaplasma, Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, Rickettsia, and Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Amanda D; Reeves, Will K; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Moriarity, John R; Dasch, Gregory A

    2006-07-01

    Serologic surveys in Egypt have documented human and animal exposure to vector-borne bacterial pathogens, but the presence and distribution of these agents in arthropods has not been determined. Between July 2002 and July 2003, fleas were collected from 221 mammals trapped in 17 cities throughout Egypt. A total of 987 fleas were collected, representing four species (Ctenocephalides felis, Echidnophaga gallinacea, Leptopsylla segnis, and Xenopsylla cheopis); 899 of these fleas were X. cheopis from rats (Rattus spp.). Fleas were tested for DNA from Anaplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Yersinia pestis. Rickettsia typhi, the agent of murine typhus, was detected in X. cheopis and L. segnis from rats from nine cities. A spotted-fever group Rickettsia sp. similar to "RF2125" was detected in E. gallinacea, and two unidentified spotted fever group Rickettsia were detected in two X. cheopis. Novel Bartonella genotypes were detected in X. cheopis and L. segnis from three cities. Coxiella burnetii was detected in two fleas. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Y. pestis were not detected.

  6. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats.

    PubMed

    Al-Kappany, Y M; Lappin, M R; Kwok, O C H; Abu-Elwafa, S A; Hilali, M; Dubey, J P

    2011-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLv) are related to human immunodeficiency virus and human leukemia virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii , Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLv and Dirofilaria immitis antigens was determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Cairo, Egypt. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 172 (95.5%) of the 180 cats with titers of 1∶5 in 9, 1∶10 in 9, 1∶20 in 3, 1∶40 in 5, 1∶80 in 5, 1∶160 in 15, 1∶320 in 22, and 1∶640 or higher in 104. Thus, 57.4% had high T. gondii titers. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in 105 (59.6%) of 178, with titers of 1∶64 in 45, 1∶128 in 39, 1∶256 in 13, 1∶512 in 3, 1∶1,024 in 4, and 1∶2,048 in 1 cat. Antibodies to FIV were detected in 59 (33.9%) of 174 cats. Of 174 cats tested, antigens to FeLv, and D. immitis were detected in 8 (4.6%) and 6 (3.4%) cats, respectively. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii, Bartonella spp., and FIV infections in cats from Cairo, Egypt. This is the first report of Bartonella spp., and D. immitis infection in cats in Egypt.

  7. Comparative Field Evaluation of Different Traps for Collecting Adult Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an Endemic Area of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rojas, Jorge J; Arque-Chunga, Wilfredo; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2016-06-01

    Phlebotominae are the vectors of Leishmania parasites. It is important to have available surveillance and collection methods for the sand fly vectors. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate and compare traps for the collection of sand fly species and to analyze trap catches along months and transects. Field evaluations over a year were conducted in an endemic area of leishmaniasis in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. A randomized-block design was implemented in study area with tropical rainforest vegetation. The study design utilized 4 transects with 11 trap types: 1) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light trap with incandescent bulb (CDC-I), 2) CDC light trap with blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (CDC-B), 3) CDC light trap with white LEDs (CDC-W), 4) CDC light trap with red LEDs (CDC-R), 5) CDC light trap with green LEDs (CDC-G), 6) Disney trap, 7) Disney trap with white LEDs, 8) sticky panels, 9) sticky panels with white LEDs, 10) delta-like trap, and 11) delta-like trap with white LEDs. A total of 1,014 specimens of 13 species and 2 genera (Lutzomyia and Brumptomyia) were collected. There were significant differences in the mean number of sand flies caught with the 11 traps; CDC-I was (P  =  0.0000) more effective than the other traps. Other traps exhibited the following results: CDC-W (17.46%), CDC-B (15.68%), CDC-G (14.89%), and CDC-R (14.30%). The relative abundance of different species varied according to trap types used, and the CDC-I trap attracted more specimens of the known vectors of Leishmania spp., such as like Lutzomyia cruciata, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. ovallesi. Disney trap captured more specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca. Based on abundance and number of species, CDC light traps and Disney traps appeared to be good candidates for use in vector surveillance programs in this endemic area of Mexico.

  8. A Regional-Scale Groundwater Model Supporting Management of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve and its Catchment, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuman, B. R.; Merediz Alonso, G.; Rebolledo Vieyra, M.; Marin, L.; Supper, R.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2007-05-01

    The Caribbean Coast of the Yucatan Peninsula is a rapidly developing area featuring a booming tourism industry. The number of hotel rooms in the Riviera Maya has increased from 2600 in 1996 to 26,000 in 2005, while the total population in the Mexican federal state of Quintana Roo has grown from 500,000 in 1990 to 1,115,000 in 2005. This explosive growth threatens the region's water resources, which primarily consist of a less than 50m thick freshwater lens residing in the regional karst aquifer underlying the entire Yucatan Peninsula. The Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, a 6400 km2 combined marine/terrestrial nature protection area is situated south of Tulum (approx. 87.3° - 88° W, 19° - 20° N). The site is listed as a UNESCO world heritage site and is protected under the Ramsar Convention. It includes extensive freshwater wetlands, saline/brackish mangrove swamps, tropical rainforests and parts of the world's second largest coral reef. The freshwater supply to the system occurs primarily via subsurface inflow. Large freshwater springs emerge through vertical sinkholes (cenotes) in the lagoons of Sian Ka'an. Management of this unique ecosystem in view of the rapid development and urbanization of the surrounding areas requires detailed knowledge on the groundwater flow paths in and around the reserve. Moreover, mapping and delineation of its groundwater catchment zone and groundwater traveling time zones is essential. To this end, a regional-scale steady-state groundwater flow model of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere reserve and its catchment was developed. The model is implemented in MIKE SHE with a finite-difference cell size of 1 km2 and is driven with temporally averaged climate forcings. The karst aquifer is treated as an equivalent porous medium. Darcy's law is assumed to be valid over regional scales and the main structural elements of the karst aquifer are included in the model as zones of varying hydraulic conductivity. High conductivity zones in the Sian Ka

  9. Arthropod-borne diseases in homeless.

    PubMed

    Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2006-10-01

    ), and occasionally cat scratch disease on account of Bartonella henselae (C. felis). The role of fleas as potential vector of B. quintana has recently been suggested. Among the hematophagic-biting mites, L. sanguineus, is responsible for the transmission of Rickettsia akari, the etiologic agent of rickettsialpox. Virtually, no data are available on tick-borne disease in this population. This article will deal with epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of these ectoparasite and the infectious diseases they transmit to the homeless people.

  10. Human isolates of Bartonella tamiae induce pathology in experimentally inoculated immunocompetent mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bartonella tamiae, a newly described bacterial species, was isolated from the blood of three hospitalized patients in Thailand. These patients presented with headache, myalgia, anemia, and mild liver function abnormalities. Since B. tamiae was presumed to be the cause of their illness, these isolates were inoculated into immunocompetent mice to determine their relative pathogenicity in inducing manifestations of disease and pathology similar to that observed in humans. Methods Three groups of four Swiss Webster female mice aged 15-18 months were each inoculated with 106-7 colony forming units of one of three B. tamiae isolates [Th239, Th307, and Th339]. A mouse from each experimental group was sampled at 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks post-inoculation. Two saline inoculated age-matched controls were included in the study. Samples collected at necropsy were evaluated for the presence of B. tamiae DNA, and tissues were formalin-fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and examined for histopathology. Results Following inoculation with B. tamiae, mice developed ulcerative skin lesions and subcutaneous masses on the lateral thorax, as well as axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. B. tamiae DNA was found in subcutaneous masses, lymph node, and liver of inoculated mice. Histopathological changes were observed in tissues of inoculated mice, and severity of lesions correlated with the isolate inoculated, with the most severe pathology induced by B. tamiae Th239. Mice inoculated with Th239 and Th339 demonstrated myocarditis, lymphadenitis with associated vascular necrosis, and granulomatous hepatitis and nephritis with associated hepatocellular and renal necrosis. Mice inoculated with Th307 developed a deep dermatitis and granulomas within the kidneys. Conclusions The three isolates of B. tamiae evaluated in this study induce disease in immunocompetent Swiss Webster mice up to 6 weeks after inoculation. The human patients from whom these isolates were obtained had

  11. First report for the seasonal and annual prevalence of flea-borne bartonella from rodents and soricomorphs in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Baek-Jun; Kim, Su-Jin; Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Won, Sohyun; Kim, Hyewon; Kim, Heung-Chul; Kim, Myung-Soon; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Lee, Sanghun; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2013-07-01

    Rodents and soricomorphs are animal hosts of fleas and associated zoonotic microbial pathogens. A total of 4,889 small mammals were collected from Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea, from 2008 through 2010, including: Apodemus agrarius (4,122, 84.3%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (282, 5.8%), Microtus fortis (257, 5.3%), Myodes regulus (77, 1.6%), Micromys minutus (71, 1.5%), Mus musculus (63, 1.3%), and 4 other species (17, 0.3%). A total of 1,099 fleas belonging to 10 species and 7 genera were collected. Ctenophthalmus congeneroides (724, 65.9%) was the most commonly collected flea, followed by Stenoponia sidimi (301, 27.4%), Neopsylla bidentatiformis (29, 2.6%), and Rhadinopsylla insolita (25, 2.3%). The remaining species accounted for only 1.8% (20, range 1-6) of all fleas collected. The 2 dominant flea species, C. congeneroides and S. sidimi, showed an inverse seasonal pattern, with higher populations of C. congeneroides from January-September, whereas S. sidimi was more frequently collected during October-December. The overall flea infestation rates (FIR) and flea indices (FI) were 14.1% and 0.22, respectively, and were highest during April-June (19.7% and 0.30, respectively). A total of 735 of the 1,099 fleas were assayed for the detection of Bartonella spp. by PCR using Bartonella-specific primers, of which 515 were positive for Bartonella, with an overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of 700.7/1,000. The highest MLE values were observed during April-June (899.2) and July-September (936.2) trapping periods and, although lower, were similar for January-March (566.7) and October-December (574.1). C. congeneroides demonstrated high MLEs for all seasons (range 752.5-934.8), while S. sidimi was positive for Bartonella only during January-March (MLE=342.1) and October-December (MLE=497.2) collection periods. Continued long-term surveillance of small mammals and associated ectoparasites is needed to improve our understanding of the prevalence

  12. Mutation-Driven Divergence and Convergence Indicate Adaptive Evolution of the Intracellular Human-Restricted Pathogen, Bartonella bacilliformis

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sandip; Minnick, Michael F.; Chattopadhyay, Sujay

    2016-01-01

    Among all species of Bartonella, human-restricted Bartonella bacilliformis is the most virulent but harbors one of the most reduced genomes. Carrión’s disease, the infection caused by B. bacilliformis, has been afflicting poor rural populations for centuries in the high-altitude valleys of the South American Andes, where the pathogen’s distribution is probably restricted by its sand fly vector’s range. Importantly, Carrión’s disease satisfies the criteria set by the World Health Organization for a disease amenable to elimination. However, to date, there are no genome-level studies to identify potential footprints of B. bacilliformis (patho)adaptation. Our comparative genomic approach demonstrates that the evolution of this intracellular pathogen is shaped predominantly via mutation. Analysis of strains having publicly-available genomes shows high mutational divergence of core genes leading to multiple sub-species. We infer that the sub-speciation event might have happened recently where a possible adaptive divergence was accelerated by intermediate emergence of a mutator phenotype. Also, within a sub-species the pathogen shows inter-clonal adaptive evolution evidenced by non-neutral accumulation of convergent amino acid mutations. A total of 67 non-recombinant core genes (over-representing functional categories like DNA repair, glucose metabolic process, ATP-binding and ligase) were identified as candidates evolving via adaptive mutational convergence. Such convergence, both at the level of genes and their encoded functions, indicates evolution of B. bacilliformis clones along common adaptive routes, while there was little diversity within a single clone. PMID:27167125

  13. Cat-Scratch Disease: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gai, M; d'Onofrio, G; di Vico, M C; Ranghino, A; Nappo, A; Diena, D; Novero, D; Limerutti, G; Messina, M; Biancone, L

    2015-09-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is caused by Bartonella henselae and characterized by self-limited fever and granulomatous lymphadenopathy. In some cases signs of a visceral, neurologic, and ocular involvement can also be encountered. In this report we describe the development of CSD in a kidney transplant patient. Immunocompromised hosts are more susceptible to infection from Bartonella compared with the standard population. Infection of Bartonella should be considered as a differential diagnosis in kidney transplant patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown origin.

  14. Evaluation of the association of Bartonella species, feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus with chronic feline gingivostomatitis.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica M; Elston, Thomas; Hawley, Jennifer; Brewer, Melissa; Miller, Arianne; Lappin, Michael R

    2008-02-01

    Gingivostomatitis (GS) is a significant condition in cats because of oral discomfort and associated periodontal disease. Several infectious agents have been associated with the presence of GS, but a causal relationship is unclear. The cats in this study were housed together, had a history of flea exposure, and were vaccinated with a modified live FVRCP product. There were nine cats with active GS and 36 unaffected cats at the time of sample collection. Serum was tested for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen and antibodies against feline immunodeficiency virus, feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), and Bartonella species (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot immunoassay). PCR assays for Bartonella species and FHV-1 and a reverse transcriptase PCR assay for FCV were performed on blood and throat swabs. All cats were negative for FeLV. Assay results failed to correlate to the presence of GS in the group of cats studied.

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia virus infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Lappin, M R; Kwok, O C H; Mofya, S; Chikweto, A; Baffa, A; Doherty, D; Shakeri, J; Macpherson, C N L; Sharma, R N

    2009-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLv) are related to human immunodeficiency virus, and human leukemia virus, respectively; all of these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondi, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLv antigen were determined in sera from 75 domestic and 101 feral cats (Felis catus) from the Caribbean island of Grenada, West Indies. Using a modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 23 (30.6%) of the 75 pet cats with titers of 1:25 in 1, 1:50 in 3, 1:400 in 4, 1:500 in 12, 1:800 in 2, and 1:1,600 in 1, and 28 (27.7%) of 101 feral cats with titers of 1:25 in 4, 1:50 in 7, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 1, 1:500 in 3, 1:800 in 2, 1:1,600 in 3, and 1:3,200 in 4. Overall, in both pet and feral cats, the seroprevalence increased with age. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in 38 (50.6%) of the 75 pet cats and 52.4% of 101 feral cats. Antibodies to FIV were found in 6 domestic and 22 feral cats. None of the 176 cats was positive for FeLv antigen. There was no correlation among T. gondii, Bartonella spp., and FIV seropositivity.

  16. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul virus, and Bartonella spp. among Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the urban slum environment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E

    2014-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney impressions was used to identify Leptospira interrogans in 2010, whereas isolation was used in 1998, and western blotting was used to detect SEOV antibodies in 2010, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in 1998: in 2010, Bartonella spp. were isolated from a subsample of rats. The most common pathogen in both years was Leptospira spp. (83%, n=142 in 1998, 63%, n=84 in 2010). SEOV was detected in 18% of individuals in both 1998 and 2010 (n=78 in 1998; n=73 in 2010), and two species of Bartonella were isolated from 5 of 26 rats (19%) tested in 2010. The prevalence of all agents increased significantly with rat mass/age. Acquisition of Leptospira spp. occurred at a younger mass/age than SEOV and Bartonella spp. infection, suggesting differences in the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. These data indicate that Norway rats in Salvador serve as reservoir hosts for all three of these zoonotic pathogens and that the high prevalence of leptospiral carriage in Salvador rats poses a high degree of risk to human health.

  17. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul Virus, and Bartonella spp. Among Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the Urban Slum Environment in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I.; Childs, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney impressions was used to identify Leptospira interrogans in 2010, whereas isolation was used in 1998, and western blotting was used to detect SEOV antibodies in 2010, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in 1998: in 2010, Bartonella spp. were isolated from a subsample of rats. The most common pathogen in both years was Leptospira spp. (83%, n=142 in 1998, 63%, n=84 in 2010). SEOV was detected in 18% of individuals in both 1998 and 2010 (n=78 in 1998; n=73 in 2010), and two species of Bartonella were isolated from 5 of 26 rats (19%) tested in 2010. The prevalence of all agents increased significantly with rat mass/age. Acquisition of Leptospira spp. occurred at a younger mass/age than SEOV and Bartonella spp. infection, suggesting differences in the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. These data indicate that Norway rats in Salvador serve as reservoir hosts for all three of these zoonotic pathogens and that the high prevalence of leptospiral carriage in Salvador rats poses a high degree of risk to human health. PMID:24359425

  18. Studies of Resurgent Bed Bugs: Population Genetic Structure, Impact of Aggregation on Development and Molecular Screening for Bartonella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz, Virna Lisa

    . Here we describe the development of 24 high resolution microsatellite markers and their application to elucidate infestation dynamics within three multistory apartment buildings in the United States. Results reveal contrasting characteristics potentially representative of geographic or locale differences. In Raleigh, NC, an infestation within an apartment building seemed to have started from a single introduction followed by extensive spread throughout the building. In Jersey City, NJ, two or more introductions followed by extensive spread. Populations within single apartments in all buildings showed low levels of genetic diversity suggesting that few individuals are starting these infestations, possibly a singly mated female or her progeny. This work is described in Chapter 3 and was published in the Journal of Medical Entomology in 2012. Third, we studied the impact of aggregation in bed bug development. Although it is well known that bed bugs live in aggregations, the adaptive benefits of this behavior are not well understood. In this study, we reared first instars either in isolation or in groups of five from hatching to adult eclosion and recorded their development time. Additionally, we investigated the effects of group-housing on same age nymphs versus nymphs reared with adults. Nymphal development was 2.2 d faster in grouped nymphs than in solitary-housed nymphs, representing 7.3% faster overall development. However, this grouping effect did not appear to be influenced by group composition (nymphs vs. adults). Thus, similar to other gregarious insect species, nymph development in bed bugs is faster in aggregations than in isolation. This work is described in Chapter 4. Fourth, we investigated the prevalence of a re-emergent bacterial pathogen in United States bed bugs populations. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the United States, and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgence of these

  19. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia, and Bartonella in wild and domestic carnivores from Zambia, Africa.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brianna M; Berentsen, Are; Shock, Barbara C; Teixiera, Maria; Dunbar, Michael R; Becker, Matthew S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    A molecular survey was conducted for several hemoparasites of domestic dogs and three species of wild carnivores from two sites in Zambia. Three Babesia spp. were detected including Babesia felis and Babesia leo in lions (Panthera leo) and a Babesia sp. (similar to Babesia lengau) in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) and a single lion. All wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) and domestic dogs were negative for Babesia. High prevalences for Hepatozoon were noted in all three wild carnivores (38-61%) and in domestic dogs (13%). Significantly higher prevalences were noted in hyenas and wild dogs compared with domestic dogs and lions. All carnivores were PCR negative for Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Bartonella spp. Overall, high prevalences and diversity of Babesia and Hepatozoon were noted in wild carnivores from Zambia. This study is the first molecular characterization of Babesia from any hyena species and is the first report of a Babesia sp. closely related to B. lengau, a parasite previously only reported from cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), in lions and hyenas. Although usually benign in wild carnivores, these hemoparasites can be pathogenic under certain circumstances. Importantly, data on vectors for these parasites are lacking, so studies are needed to identify vectors as well as determine transmission routes, infection dynamics, and host specificity of these hemoparasites in wildlife in Africa and also the risk of transmission between domestic animals and wildlife.

  20. An investigation of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia typhi, and Seoul hantavirus in rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada: is pathogen presence a reflection of global and local rat population structure?

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael Y; Wood, Heidi; DiBernardo, Antonia; Lindsay, Robbin; Bidulka, Julie; Tang, Patrick; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David

    2015-01-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are reservoirs for variety of zoonotic pathogens. Many of these pathogens, including Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., and Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), are thought to be endemic in rat populations worldwide; however, past field research has found these organisms to be absent in certain rat populations. Rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, were tested for exposure to and/or infection with SEOV and R. typhi (using serology and PCR), as well as Bartonella spp. (using culture and sequencing). Approximately 25% of 404 rats tested were infected with Bartonella tribocorum, which demonstrated significant geographic clustering within the study area. Infection was associated with both season and sexual maturity. Seroreactivity against R. typhi and SEOV was observed in 0.36% and 1.45% of 553 rats tested, respectively, although PCR screening results for these pathogens were negative, suggesting that they are not endemic in the study population. Overall, these results suggest that the geographic distribution of rat-associated zoonoses, including R. typhi, SEOV, and Bartonella spp., is less ubiquitous than previously appreciated, and is likely dependent on patterns of dispersion and establishment of the rat reservoir host. Further study on global and local Rattus spp. population structures may help to elucidate the ecology of zoonotic organisms in these species.

  1. L'endocardite à Bartonella en Tunisie: particularités lésionnelles et évolutives

    PubMed Central

    Hammami, Rania; Abid, Dorra; Abid, Leila; Znazen, Abir; Hentati, Mourad; Hammami, Adnene; Kammoun, Samir

    2013-01-01

    L'endocardite à Bartonalla est une infection ubiquitaire, son diagnostic est difficile vu qu'il s'agit souvent d'endocardite à hémoculture négative. Le but de cette étude est d'analyser les particularités lésionnelles et évolutives de cette entité dans un pays du nord d'Afrique, la Tunisie et de démontrer la gravité de cette infection. Nous avons étudié rétrospectivement les dossiers médicaux de 20 patients atteints d'endocardite à Bartonella, confirmée selon les critères de Dukes modifiés. L’âge moyen de nos patients était 37 ans avec une prédominance masculine (SR=3). Tous nos malades avaient un niveau socio-économique bas. Le motif essentiel de consultation était la dyspnée, 6 patients étaient admis dans un tableau d'insuffisance cardiaque congestive. Une prédilection des lésions au niveau de la valve aortique a été notée (14 cas). Quatorze patients avaient des végétations endocarditiques avec une taille qui dépasse 10 mm chez 8 malades. La majorité des patients (18 patients) présentaient une régurgitation valvulaire massive en rapport principalement avec des mutilations importantes (6 cas de ruptures de cordages mitraux, 2 cas de déchirures des sigmoïdes aortiques, un cas de perforation valvulaire aortique, un cas de désinsertion de prothèse mitrale). Quinze malades (3/4) avaient nécessité une chirurgie à la phase active de la maladie, l'indication majeure était l'insuffisance cardiaque. Une complication neurologique était notée chez 2 malades et une complication rénale chez 3 malades. Treize patients étaient guéris, 5 malades étaient décédés et 2 malades opérés ont présenté une réinfection à staphylococcus aureus et à candida albicans en postopératoire. L'endocardite à Bartonella est une infection grave. Cette Bactérie possède un potentiel destructif important. Le recours à la chirurgie est quasi constant. La morbi-mortalité est élevée. La recherche de cette bactérie devrait être alors

  2. A Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii typing scheme based upon 16S-23S ITS and Pap31 sequences from dog, coyote, gray fox, and human isolates.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Ricardo G; Chomel, Bruno; Hegarty, Barbara C; Henn, Jennifer; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2006-04-01

    Since the isolation of Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii from a dog with endocarditis in 1993, this organism has emerged as an important pathogen in dogs and as an emerging pathogen in people. Current evidence indicates that coyotes, dogs and gray foxes potentially serve as reservoir hosts. Based upon sequence differences within the 16S-23S ITS region and Pap31 gene, we propose a classification scheme that divides B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii isolates into four distinct types. Two conserved sequences, of 37 and 18 bp, respectively, are differentially present within the ITS region of each of the four B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii types. To date, B. vinsonii berkhoffii types I, II, and III have been identified in the US, type III in Europe and type IV in Canada. Based upon the proposed genotyping scheme, the geographic distribution of B. vinsonii berkhoffii types needs to be more thoroughly delineated in future molecular epidemiological studies involving Bartonella infection in coyotes, dogs, gray foxes, human beings and potentially other animals or in arthropod vectors. Strain typing may help to better define the reservoir potential, carriership patterns, modes of transmission, and geographic distribution for each B. vinsonii berkhoffii type.

  3. Cat-scratch disease and bone scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Ismaili-Alaoui, Nadia; Vuong, Valerie; Marcu-Marin, M; Sergent-Alaoui, Aline; Chevallier, Bertrand; de Labriolle-Vaylet, Claire

    2012-08-01

    Cat-scratch disease is a bacterial infection caused by Bartonella henselae. Bone involvement is rare. We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy with a systemic form of the disease. He presented with a 15-day history of fever, altered general condition, weight loss and cough, associated with back pain, and right-sided coxalgia. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate showed spinal involvement, the iliac crest, the right ankle, and the right first metatarsal. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed these locations. He was positive for anti-Bartonella henselae. The fever regressed before treatment with rifampicin began, and he made a full recovery.

  4. An approach for modeling cross-immunity of two strains, with application to variants of Bartonella in terms of genetic similarity.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kwang Woo; Kosoy, Michael; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2014-06-01

    We developed a two-strain susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model that provides a framework for inferring the cross-immunity between two strains of a bacterial species in the host population with discretely sampled co-infection time-series data. Moreover, the model accounts for seasonality in host reproduction. We illustrate an approach using a dataset describing co-infections by several strains of bacteria circulating within a population of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Bartonella strains were clustered into three genetically close groups, between which the divergence is correspondent to the accepted level of separate bacterial species. The proposed approach revealed no cross-immunity between genetic clusters while limited cross-immunity might exist between subgroups within the clusters.

  5. Molecular detection of Anaplasma, Bartonella, and Borrelia species in ticks collected from migratory birds from Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Kim, Heung-Chul; Choi, Chang-Yong; Nam, Hyun-Young; Chae, Hee-Young; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Ko, Sungjin; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2013-04-01

    Bird migration is a recurring annual and seasonal event undertaken by more than 100 species of birds in the southeast Asian and northeast Palearctic regions that pass through or remain for short periods from April to May and September to November at Hong-do Island, Republic of Korea (ROK). A total of 212 ticks (40 Haemaphysalis flava, 12 H. longicornis, 146 Ixodes turdus, 13 I. nipponensis, and 1 I. ornithophila) were collected from 65/2,161 (3.0%) migratory birds consisting of 21 species that were captured from January, 2008, through December, 2009, as part of the Migratory Birds Center, Hong-do bird banding program for studying bird migration patterns. Adult ticks were assayed individually while larvae and nymphs were pooled (1-22 and 1-6 ticks per pool, respectively) into 31 and 65 pools, respectively. Ticks were assayed for zoonotic pathogens by PCR using 16S rRNA, heat shock protein (groEL), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene primers to amplify genera specific for Anapalsma, Bartonella, and Borrelia PCR amplicons. Using the 16S rRNA-based nested PCR, A. phagocytophilum (n=1) was detected in I. nipponensis collected from Zoothera sibirica and A. bovis (n=1) was detected in I. turdus collected from Emberiza chrysophrys. Borrelia turdi 16S rRNA genes (n=3) were detected in I. turdus and I. nipponensis collected from Turdus pallidus and Zoothera aurea. Borrelia spp. 16S rRNA genes (n=4) were detected in Ixodes ticks collected from Emberiza tristrami, T. pallidus, and Z. aurea. The Bartonella grahamii ITS gene (n=1) was detected by nested PCR assay in I. turdus collected from Z. aurea. These results provide insight into the potential role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks and associated tick-borne pathogens throughout their ranges in Asia.

  6. Prevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii, and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from Grenada.

    PubMed

    Yabsley, Michael J; McKibben, John; Macpherson, Calum N; Cattan, Peggy F; Cherry, Natalie A; Hegarty, Barbara C; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; O'Connor, Tom; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Paterson, Tara; Perea, Marta Lanza; Ball, Geoffrey; Friesen, Stanley; Goedde, Jill; Henderson, Brooke; Sylvester, Wayne

    2008-02-14

    To identify the tick-borne pathogens in dogs from Grenada, we conducted a serologic survey for Ehrlichia canis in 2004 (104 dogs) and a comprehensive serologic and molecular survey for a variety of tick-borne pathogens in 2006 (73 dogs). In 2004 and 2006, 44 and 32 dogs (42.3% and 43.8%) were seropositive for E. canis, respectively. In 2006, several tick-borne pathogens were identified by serology and PCR. DNA of E. canis, Anaplasma platys, Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, and Bartonella sp. were identified in 18 (24.7%), 14 (19.2%), 5 (7%), 5 (7%), and 1 (1.4%) dogs, respectively. Six (8.2%) dogs were seropositive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. All dogs were seronegative and PCR-negative for Rickettsia spp. Coinfection with two or three pathogens was observed in eight dogs. Partial 16S rRNA E. canis and A. platys sequences were identical to sequences in GenBank. Partial 18S rRNA gene sequences from the Grenadian H. canis were identical to each other and had one possible mismatch (ambiguous base) from H. canis detected from Spain and Brazil. Grenadian B. c. vogeli sequences were identical to B. c. vogeli from Brazil and Japan. All of the detected pathogens are transmitted, or suspected to be transmitted, by Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Results of this study indicate that dogs from Grenada are infected with multiple tick-borne pathogens; therefore, tick-borne diseases should be included as differentials for dogs exhibiting thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, fever, or lethargy. One pathogen, E. canis, is also of potential public health significance.

  7. [Cat scratch disease with deradenoncus and high fever: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing; Meng, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a bacterial disease caused by Bartonella henselae. It is mainly characterized by self-limiting lymphadenopathy in the draining site after cat scratch or bite. This paper reported a case of cat scratch disease with deradenoncus and high fever, and discussed the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment methods of CSD.

  8. Cat-scratch disease with severe pleuritis in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Sasagu; Hasegawa, Shunji; Yanagihara, Masashi; Inoue, Hirofumi; Matsushige, Takeshi; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Ichiyama, Takashi; Ohga, Shouichi

    2015-06-01

    We present the case of a 6-year-old girl with cat-scratch disease (CSD), who developed severe pleuritis without lymphadenitis. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of whole blood. This is the first report of CSD diagnosed on real-time PCR using whole blood.

  9. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing of Bartonella bacilliformis DNA Performed Directly from Blood of Patients with Oroya’s Fever During a Peruvian Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Maria J.; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; del Valle-Mendoza, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Background Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiological agent of Carrion’s disease, a neglected tropical poverty-linked illness. This infection is endemic of Andean regions and it is estimated that approximately 1.7 million of South Americans are at risk. This bacterium is a fastidious slow growing microorganism, which is difficult and cumbersome to isolate from clinical sources, thereby hindering the availability of phylogenetic relationship of clinical samples. The aim of this study was to perform Multi Locus Sequence Typing of B. bacilliformis directly in blood from patients diagnosed with Oroya fever during an outbreak in Northern Peru. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA extracted among blood samples from patients diagnosed with Oroya’s fever were analyzed with MLST, with the amplification of 7 genetic loci (ftsZ, flaA, ribC, rnpB, rpoB, bvrR and groEL) and a phylogenetic analysis of the different Sequence Types (ST) was performed. A total of 4 different ST were identified. The most frequently found was ST1 present in 66% of samples. Additionally, two samples presented a new allelic profile, belonging to new STs (ST 9 and ST 10), which were closely related to ST1. Conclusions/Significance The present data demonstrate that B. bacilliformis MLST studies may be possible directly from blood samples, being a promising approach for epidemiological studies. During the outbreak the STs of B. bacilliformis were found to be heterogeneous, albeit closely related, probably reflecting the evolution from a common ancestor colonizing the area. Additional studies including new samples and areas are needed, in order to obtain better knowledge of phylogenetic scenario B. bacilliformis. PMID:26824740

  10. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Experimentally Infected Sand Flies by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) of the Pap31 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Atkins, Erin H.; Johnson, Richard N.; Grieco, John P.; Ching, Wei Mei; Chao, Chien Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background Carrion' disease, caused by Bartonella bacilliformis, remains truly neglected due to its focal geographical nature. A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including asymptomatic bacteremia, and lack of a sensitive diagnostic test can potentially lead to a spread of the disease into non-endemic regions where competent sand fly vectors may be present. A reliable test capable of detecting B. bacilliformis is urgently needed. Our objective is to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the pap31 gene to detect B. bacilliformis. Methods and Findings The sensitivity of the LAMP was evaluated in comparison to qPCR using plasmid DNA containing the target gene and genomic DNA in the absence and presence of human or sand fly DNA. The detection limit of LAMP was 1 to 10 copies/µL, depending on the sample metrics. No cross-reaction was observed when testing against a panel of various closely related bacteria. The utility of the LAMP was further compared to qPCR by the examination of 74 Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies artificially fed on blood spiked with B. bacilliformis and harvested at days (D) 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post feeding. Only 86% of sand flies at D1 and 63% of flies at D3 were positive by qPCR. LAMP was able to detect B. bacilliformis in all those flies confirmed positive by qPCR. However, none of the flies after D3 were positive by either LAMP or qPCR. In addition to demonstrating the sensitivity of the LAMP assay, these results suggest that B. bacilliformis cannot propagate in artificially fed L. longipalpis. Conclusions The LAMP assay is as sensitive as qPCR for the detection of B. bacilliformis and could be useful to support diagnosis of patients in low-resource settings and also to identify B. bacilliformis in the sand fly vector. PMID:25522230

  11. Colonization of Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Bartonella bacilliformis, the Etiologic Agent of Carrión’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Battisti, James M.; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Minnick, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is a pathogenic bacterium transmitted to humans presumably by bites of phlebotomine sand flies, infection with which results in a bi-phasic syndrome termed Carrión’s disease. After constructing a low-passage GFP-labeled strain of B. bacilliformis, we artificially infected Lutzomyia verrucarum and L. longipalpis populations, and subsequently monitored colonization of sand flies by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, colonization of the two fly species was indistinguishable, with bacteria exhibiting a high degree of motility, yet still confined to the abdominal midgut. After 48h, B. bacilliformis transitioned from bacillus-shape to a non-motile, small coccoid form and appeared to be digested along with the blood meal in both fly species. Differences in colonization patterns became evident at 72h when B. bacilliformis was observed at relatively high density outside the peritrophic membrane in the lumen of the midgut in L. verrucarum, but colonization of L. longipalpis was limited to the blood meal within the intra-peritrophic space of the abdominal midgut, and the majority of bacteria were digested along with the blood meal by day 7. The viability of B. bacilliformis in L. longipalpis was assessed by artificially infecting, homogenizing, and plating for determination of colony-forming units in individual flies over a 13-d time course. Bacteria remained viable at relatively high density for approximately seven days, suggesting that L. longipalpis could potentially serve as a vector. The capacity of L. longipalpis to transmit viable B. bacilliformis from infected to uninfected meals was analyzed via interrupted feeds. No viable bacteria were retrieved from uninfected blood meals in these experiments. This study provides significant information toward understanding colonization of sand flies by B. bacilliformis and also demonstrates the utility of L. longipalpis as a user-friendly, live-vector model system for studying this severely neglected

  12. Colonization of Lutzomyia verrucarum and Lutzomyia longipalpis Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) by Bartonella bacilliformis, the Etiologic Agent of Carrión's Disease.

    PubMed

    Battisti, James M; Lawyer, Phillip G; Minnick, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is a pathogenic bacterium transmitted to humans presumably by bites of phlebotomine sand flies, infection with which results in a bi-phasic syndrome termed Carrión's disease. After constructing a low-passage GFP-labeled strain of B. bacilliformis, we artificially infected Lutzomyia verrucarum and L. longipalpis populations, and subsequently monitored colonization of sand flies by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, colonization of the two fly species was indistinguishable, with bacteria exhibiting a high degree of motility, yet still confined to the abdominal midgut. After 48 h, B. bacilliformis transitioned from bacillus-shape to a non-motile, small coccoid form and appeared to be digested along with the blood meal in both fly species. Differences in colonization patterns became evident at 72 h when B. bacilliformis was observed at relatively high density outside the peritrophic membrane in the lumen of the midgut in L. verrucarum, but colonization of L. longipalpis was limited to the blood meal within the intra-peritrophic space of the abdominal midgut, and the majority of bacteria were digested along with the blood meal by day 7. The viability of B. bacilliformis in L. longipalpis was assessed by artificially infecting, homogenizing, and plating for determination of colony-forming units in individual flies over a 13-d time course. Bacteria remained viable at relatively high density for approximately seven days, suggesting that L. longipalpis could potentially serve as a vector. The capacity of L. longipalpis to transmit viable B. bacilliformis from infected to uninfected meals was analyzed via interrupted feeds. No viable bacteria were retrieved from uninfected blood meals in these experiments. This study provides significant information toward understanding colonization of sand flies by B. bacilliformis and also demonstrates the utility of L. longipalpis as a user-friendly, live-vector model system for studying this severely neglected

  13. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease.

  14. Disseminated cat-scratch disease presenting as nausea, diarrhea, and weight loss without fever in a heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Antar, Annukka A R; Goyal, Amit; Murphy, Karly; Schimmel, Matthew; Gilotra, Nisha A; Martin, Isabella; Crane, Genevieve Marie; Sciortino, Christopher; Avery, Robin K; Houston, Brian A

    2017-02-15

    We report the case of an afebrile 59-year-old heart transplant recipient presenting with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, and diffuse lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsies revealed non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. Cat-scratch disease was confirmed by serologic studies, Warthin-Starry staining, and polymerase chain reaction testing of lymph node tissue. The patient's symptoms resolved with 3 months of doxycycline. We review clinical presentations of Bartonella henselae infection in and review diagnostic approaches for B. henselae in this patient population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Combining cytomorphology and serology for the diagnosis of cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Dima; Shams, Wael E; El Abbassi, Adel; Moorman, Jonathan P; Al-Abbadi, Mousa A

    2011-03-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a self limited zoonotic disease that presents most commonly as a regional lymphadenopathy. We are reporting a case of a 25-year-old male patient who presented with fever and large right inguinal lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis of cat scratch disease was confirmed based on the characteristic cytopathological features on aspirate smears from the lymph node and the serological titers for Bartonella henselae. This case report emphasizes the importance of combining Bartonella serology, and cytopathology in the diagnostic work-up of febrile lymphadenopathy and suspected CSD since the culture of this organism is arduous.

  16. [Hepatosplenic localization of cat scratch disease in immunocompetent adults. Two cases].

    PubMed

    Le Tallec, Véronique; Abgueguen, Pierre; Pichard, Eric; Chennebault, Jean-Marie; Bellec, Véronique; Delbos, Valérie; Rousselet, Marie-Christine; Dib, Nina; Boyer, Jean

    2003-02-01

    The infective agent responsible for cat scratch disease, Bartonella henselae, is a rare cause of hepatic granulomatosis in immunocompetent adults. Clinical features include a prolonged fever or more typical symptoms such as lymphadenopathy associated with painful hepatomegaly and a fever following a cat scratch or bite. Images of micronodular hepatosplenic lesions on abdominal ultrasonography or computed tomography scan along with epithelioid granulomas in a liver biopsy can suggest this diagnosis. It is established with a serology by indirect immunofluorescence or by ELISA and/or the presence of Bartonella henselae DNA evidenced by PCR in the liver biopsy. We report two cases of hepatosplenic localizations of cat scratch disease in a 41-year-old woman and a 44-year-old man presenting asthenia and fever associated with a biological inflammatory syndrome and elevated liver enzymes.

  17. Visceral cat scratch disease with endocarditis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shasha, David; Gilon, Dan; Vernea, Fiona; Moses, Allon E; Strahilevitz, Jacob

    2014-03-01

    Infective endocarditis and hepatosplenic abscesses are rare manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD), especially among immunocompetent adults. An otherwise healthy woman who presented with fever and abdominal pain was diagnosed with multiple abscesses in the spleen and the liver, as well as a mitral valve vegetation. PCR on spleen tissue was positive for Bartonella henselae. Prolonged treatment with doxycycline and gentamicin led to complete recovery. Review of the literature revealed 18 cases of hepatosplenic CSD in immunocompetent adults; the majority presented with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain. In most cases the causative organism was B. henselae and the pathological findings were necrotizing granulomas, similar to the pathological features in classic CSD. Concomitant endocarditis was diagnosed in one case. Because Bartonella is one of the leading pathogens of culture-negative endocarditis, we raise the question of whether a comprehensive evaluation for endocarditis is needed in cases of systemic CSD.

  18. Necrotizing ANCA-Positive Glomerulonephritis Secondary to Culture-Negative Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Van Haare Heijmeijer, Sophie; Wilmes, Dunja; Aydin, Selda; Clerckx, Caroline; Labriola, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) and small-vessel vasculitis may have similar clinical features, including glomerulonephritis. Furthermore the association between IE and ANCA positivity is well documented, making differential diagnosis between IE- and ANCA-associated vasculitis particularly difficult, especially in case of culture-negative IE. We report on one patient with glomerulonephritis secondary to culture-negative IE caused by Bartonella henselae which illustrates this diagnostic difficulty. PMID:26819786

  19. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery.

  20. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  1. Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum and Mycoplasma haemocanis infections in dogs from the United States.

    PubMed

    Compton, S M; Maggi, R G; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2012-12-01

    Mycoplasma haemocanis (Mhc) and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum (CMhp) have been described in dogs. Historically, microscopic visualization of hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. has occurred most often in immunocompromised or splenectomized dogs. The aim of this study was to determine the Mhc and CMhp prevalences among dogs from the United States. Novel 16S rRNA and RNAseP gene PCR assays were used to amplify hemotropic Mycoplasma species DNA for GenBank sequence alignment. Among the study population, hemoplasma prevalence was 1.3% (7 out of 506), with Mhc and CMhp prevalences of 0.6% and 0.8%, respectively. Two of six CMhp-infected dogs were co-infected with a Bartonella sp., and a third dog was seroreactive to Bartonella henselae antigens. The prevalence of Mhc and CMhp in this study was low; potential blood donors should be screened; and dogs and people can be co-infected with hemoplasma and Bartonella spp.

  2. Rickettsial diseases and ectoparasites from military bases in Japan.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Durden, Lance A; Iwakami, Masahiro; Vince, Kent J; Paul, Robert R

    2015-04-01

    Ectoparasitic arthropods are often vectors of rickettsiosis. We conducted a survey of ectoparasites on U.S. military facilities throughout Japan with the use of specimens submitted by pest control, public health, and veterinary personnel. Over 1,600 individual ectoparasites were collected. Fifteen species were identified, including several significant vectors of human diseases such as scrub typhus and rickettsial spotted fevers. These ectoparasites included Ctenocephalides felis , Haemaphysalis longicornis, Ixodes persulcatus , Leptotrombidium fuji, Leptotrombidium pallidum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus . Rickettsial agents were detected by PCR and DNA sequencing. These included Bartonella henselae , Bartonella japonica, a novel Bartonella, Coxiella burnetii , an unnamed Coxiella, Ehrlichia canis , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Rickettsia typhi , and "Rickettsia Rf2125"/"Rickettsia cf1and5".

  3. Zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor), 1987-2010.

    PubMed

    Girard, Yvette A; Swift, Pamela; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Fleer, Katryna; Foley, Janet E; Torres, Steven G; Johnson, Christine K

    2012-11-01

    Sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 California counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. Data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. Seroprevalences for B. burgdorferi (19.9%) and B. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with the highest exposure in the Central Coast region for B. henselae. B. henselae DNA amplified in mountain lion samples was genetically similar to human-derived Houston-1 and domestic cat-derived U4 B. henselae strains at the gltA and ftsZ loci. The statewide seroprevalences of Y. pestis (1.4%), F. tularensis (1.4%), and A. phagocytophilum (5.9%), were comparatively low. Sera from Y. pestis- and F. tularensis-seropositive mountain lions were primarily collected in the Eastern and Western Sierra Nevada, and samples reactive to Y. pestis antigen were collected exclusively from adult females. Adult age (≥ 2 years) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi exposure. Over 70% of tested animals were killed on depredation permits, and therefore were active near areas with livestock and human residential communities. Surveillance of mountain lions for these bacterial vector-borne and zoonotic agents may be informative to public health authorities, and the data are useful for detecting enzootic and peridomestic pathogen transmission patterns, particularly in combination with molecular characterization of the infecting organisms.

  4. Molecular evidence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats and their ectoparasites in Algiers, Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bessas, Amina; Leulmi, Hamza; Bitam, Idir; Zaidi, Sara; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In Algeria, only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of emergent canine and feline vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present work was to detect by qPCR vector-associated bacteria in stray dogs and cats and their ectoparasites from Algiers. 18/117 (15.38%) dogs and 2/107 (1.87%) cats were positive for at least one vector-borne agent. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella henselae were identified in 1/117 (0.85%) dog individually. Ehrlichia canis DNA was detected in 17/117 (14.52%) dogs. 1/107 (0.93%) cat was positive to C. burnetii and another 1/107 (0.93%) to B. henselae. DNA of Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia conorii and E. canis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Cat fleas were infected with Rickettsia felis, B. henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was identified in Xenopsylla cheopis collected from dogs. The findings of this study indicate that dogs and cats from Algeria are exposed to multiple tick and flea-borne pathogens.

  5. Systemic cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Min; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Chi, Hsin; Wang, Nieu-Lu; Chen, Be-Fong

    2006-08-01

    Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD) is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitish-tan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  6. Cat-scratch disease presenting as a solitary splenic abscess in an elderly man

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Momoko; Kurimoto, Mio; Kato, Takehiro; Kunieda, Takeshige

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD), which is caused by Bartonella henselae, typically present with local lymphadenopathy with a brief period of fever and general symptoms. Most cases are self-limiting and usually afflict children and young adults. Although rare, CSD can lead to serious complications, especially in immunocompromised patients. These rare complications often require intensive treatment. We describe the case of a 79-year-old man who presented with general malaise and a high fever. The physical examination findings were unremarkable. Of note, the lymph nodes were not enlarged. An abdominal CT scan with intravenous contrast revealed a solitary splenic abscess and no lymphadenopathy. The initial antibiotic treatment was ineffective and a splenectomy was indicated. A history of contact with cats raised the possibility of CSD, which was confirmed by a positive serology test result for B henselae. Antibiotic treatment with azithromycin successfully treated the splenic abscess and splenectomy was avoided. PMID:25804947

  7. Cat-scratch disease presenting as a solitary splenic abscess in an elderly man.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Momoko; Kurimoto, Mio; Kato, Takehiro; Kunieda, Takeshige

    2015-03-24

    Patients with cat-scratch disease (CSD), which is caused by Bartonella henselae, typically present with local lymphadenopathy with a brief period of fever and general symptoms. Most cases are self-limiting and usually afflict children and young adults. Although rare, CSD can lead to serious complications, especially in immunocompromised patients. These rare complications often require intensive treatment. We describe the case of a 79-year-old man who presented with general malaise and a high fever. The physical examination findings were unremarkable. Of note, the lymph nodes were not enlarged. An abdominal CT scan with intravenous contrast revealed a solitary splenic abscess and no lymphadenopathy. The initial antibiotic treatment was ineffective and a splenectomy was indicated. A history of contact with cats raised the possibility of CSD, which was confirmed by a positive serology test result for B henselae. Antibiotic treatment with azithromycin successfully treated the splenic abscess and splenectomy was avoided.

  8. Cat scratch disease with epidural extension while on antimicrobial treatment.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sabiha; Rathore, Mobeen H

    2007-01-01

    We report the first case of a child with an epidural abscess caused by Bartonella henselae. This case is unique in that the diagnosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the abscess fluid. A 3-year-old male was admitted with a 1-week history of fever and lower back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine revealed a paraspinal soft tissue abnormality extending from the T(12) to the L(4) level, and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the lumbar spine showed osteomyelitis at the T(12) level with soft tissue changes. B. henselae serology showed an IgG titer of 1:256 and IgM of <1:16.

  9. Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis.

    PubMed

    Pinto Jr, Vitor Laerte; Curi, André Land; Pinto, Adriana da Silva; Nunes, Estevão Portela; Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes Benamor; Rozental, Tatiana; Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues; Castro, Elba Lemos de; Bóia, Márcio Neves

    2008-04-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI) assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.

  10. First evidence of feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, and Ehrlichia exposure in Brazilian free-ranging felids.

    PubMed

    Filoni, Claudia; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Bay, Gert; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Jorge, Rodrigo Silva Pinto; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2006-04-01

    Serum samples from 18 pumas (Puma concolor), one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and two little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus) collected from free-ranging animals in Brazil between 1998 and 2004 were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) for antibodies to feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1), calicivirus (FCV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvo-virus (FPV), Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma pha-gocytophilum, and Bartonella henselae. Serum samples also were tested, by Western blot and ELISA, for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) specific antibodies and antigen, respectively, by Western blot for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and by indirect ELISA for antibodies to puma lentivirus (PLV). Antibodies to FHV 1, FCV, FCoV, FPV, FeLV, FIV, PLV or related viruses, and to B. henselae were detected. Furthermore, high-titered antibodies to E. canis or a closely related agent were detected in a puma for the first time.

  11. Bacillary angiomatosis presenting with facial tumor and multiple abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Käser, Stephanie; Müller, Andreas; Lang, Gerold; Lang, Susanna; Mayerhöfer, Marius; Stanek, Gerold; Rieger, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The clinical manifestation of bacillary angiomatosis (BA) can be limited to one organ, most commonly the skin, but systemic courses can also occur. We report a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient with a systemic manifestation of BA caused by Bartonella quintana, diagnosed in Vienna, Austria. The pathogen was detected in multiple organs including a facial tumor which is an unusual finding for BA. Furthermore, infections with B quintana are rare in our area and no other autochthonous cases have been reported. Methods and results: The clinical manifestation included multiple papules and nodules on the entire body, several organic abscesses, and a facial tumor influencing the patient's view. The main laboratory finding indicated HIV infection combined with severe immunosuppression with 47 CD4+ cells/μL. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the chest and the abdomen showed multiple and abscesses. Histological examination of the facial tumor confirmed inflammatory process. Bartonella quintana was detected by PCR in blood and in the facial tumor as well as by culture in the skin tissue. Antibiotic treatment with doxycycline and antiretroviral therapy resulted in clinical improvement. Conclusion: Our case shows that rare opportunistic, vector-borne infections, usually associated with poverty, can lead to diagnosis of HIV even in well-developed countries. Furthermore, we provide details on clinical manifestation and diagnostic work-up which might expand the knowledge on disseminated infections with B quintana. As far, tumorous deformations have rarely been reported as consequence of BA. In our patient the pathogen was detected in the facial tumor using PCR techniques. PMID:27428207

  12. Presumed ocular bartonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, F; Ossewaarde, J; de Loos, W S; Rothova, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The spectrum of diseases caused by Bartonella henselae continues to expand and ocular involvement during this infection is being diagnosed with increasing frequency.
METHODS—The clinical features and visual prognosis for 13 patients with intraocular inflammatory disease and laboratory evidence of bartonellosis were investigated. There were nine patients with neuroretinitis and four with panuveitis with positive antibody titres against B henselae determined by an enzyme immunoassay (IgG exceding 1:900 and/or IgM exceeding 1:250).
RESULTS—Positive IgG levels were found for eight patients and positive IgM levels for five. Despite animal exposure of 10 patients, only two (IgG positive) cases had systemic symptoms consistent with the diagnosis of cat scratch disease. Pathological fluorescein leakage of the optic disc was observed in all affected eyes. At 6 months' follow up, 3/18 (17%) affected eyes had a visual acuity of less than 20/100, owing to optic disc atrophy and cystoid macular oedema. 12 patients (17 eyes) were treated with antibiotics; visual acuity improved two or more Snellen lines for 9/17 (53%) eyes.
CONCLUSIONS—The possibility of B henselae infection should be considered in patients with neuroretinitis and panuveitis (especially in cases with associated optic nerve involvement) even in the absence of systemic symptoms typical for cat scratch disease.

 Keywords: bartonellosis; Bartonella henselae; intraocular inflammatory disease; cat scratch disease PMID:10365031

  13. [Cat scratch disease as fever of unknown origin].

    PubMed

    Santarcángelo, Salomé; Sosa, Rubén; Dondoglio, Patricia; Valle, Lidia E; Navacchia, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    The cat scratch disease is a relatively rare disease caused by Bartonella henselae. Only a small proportion of the cases that described extranodal involvement occurs. We report a 11 year old male patient with persistent fever, liver and osteoarticular involvement with a predominance of dorsolumbar spine. Evolution was satisfactory with complete clinical and imaging evidenced recovery in several months of monitoring. Case was analyzed considering EAG published literature, emphasizing the need to include this condition in the differential diagnoses in patients with bone involvement suggestive of systemic disease.

  14. [Atypical presentation of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Boiron, E; Soto, B; Zimmermann, B; Jullien, M

    2012-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is caused by a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, Bartonella henselae. This disease is transmitted by cat scratches or bites. The typical form is a large and rough adenopathy, with no general signs. In a few cases, the symptoms are aspecific and various, which makes the diagnosis difficult. A 3-year-old child presented a prolonged fever with an aspecific skin eruption and hepatosplenic lesions seen 1 month after the beginning of the disease, which led to the diagnosis of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease. An adapted antibiotic therapy completely cured the disease.

  15. [A case of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takuya; Suzuki, Takashi; Shinoda, Masataka; Takashi, Hitomi; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Suzuki, Takahisa; Miyake, Nobuyuki; Kamiya, Tohru

    2006-09-01

    A 43-year-old man was admitted with idiopathic fever. Abdominal ultrasonogram demonstrated multiple hypoechoic lesions in the spleen. Abdominal CT scan showed multiple hypodense lesions in the liver and spleen. The patient had a cat in his house, and the presence of a very high serous antibody titer for Bartonella henselae led to the diagnosis of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease. It is important to consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic fever when multiple lesions are detected in the liver and spleen.

  16. [Perinaud's oculoglandular syndrome as a manifestation of cat-scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Kruse, L P; Engbaek, K

    1995-07-17

    The first Danish case of Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, a manifestation of cat-scratch disease, is reported in a 35-year-old man presenting with an enlarged preauricular lymph node and an ipsilateral conjunctival granuloma. Surgical removal of the granulomatous lesion was followed by rapid healing. The diagnosis was verified by demonstrating a high antibody tire against Rochalimaea (Bartonella) henselae. On subsequent questioning the man gave a history of acquiring a kitten six weeks before his illness. The importance of eye examination in patients presenting with preauricular lymphadenopathy is emphasized.

  17. [Cat's cratch disease and Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome].

    PubMed

    Escarmelle, A; Delbrassine, N; De Potter, P

    2004-02-01

    By presenting this case report describing Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, we review the medical literature on its most frequent etiology: catscratch disease, a self-limited, systemic illness caused by a Gram-negative bacillus, Bartonella henselae, principally affecting children under 15 years of age. Typical symptoms include regional lymphadenopathy, fever, malaise, and fatigue, possibly with more severe complications such as splenomegaly, granulomatous hepatitis, and encephalopathy. Ocular manifestations may include follicular conjunctivitis, Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, neuroretinitis, optic neuritis, and chorioretinitis. Diagnosis is based on serologic tests, and when necessary, antimicrobial treatment can be considered.

  18. Lacrimal gland involvement in Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease.

    PubMed

    Chavis, Pamela S.; Fallata, Amna; Al-Hussein, Hailah; Clunie, David; Huaman, Antonio

    1998-06-01

    PURPOSE. A 32-year-old Saudi female presented with typical Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease, i.e., fever, cervical lymphadenitis and leukopenia, but there was also painful upper eyelid swelling with pain on upgaze. METHODS. A connective tissue disease and lymphoma workup were unremarkable, as were antibody titers to Apifia felis and Bartonella henselae. RESULTS. Orbital computed tomography showed significant lacrimal gland enlargement. Cervical node biopsy revealed necrotizing lymphadenitis. CONCLUSION. Concomitant lacrimal gland inflammation and cervical lymphadenopathy may be a benign self-limited disease.

  19. Vector-borne pathogens in arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, from Canada.

    PubMed

    Mascarelli, Patricia E; Elmore, Stacey A; Jenkins, Emily J; Alisauskas, Ray T; Walsh, Mary; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Maggi, Ricardo G

    2015-04-01

    Because of the relatively low biodiversity within arctic ecosystems, arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, could serve as sentinels for the study of changes in the ecology of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular prevalence of 5 different genera of vector borne pathogens (Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Ehrlichia, and Hemotropic Mycoplasma spp.) using blood collected from 28 live-trapped arctic foxes from the region of Karrak Lake, Nunavut, Canada. Bartonella henselae (n = 3), Mycoplasma haemocanis (n = 1), Ehrlichia canis (n = 1), and an Anaplasma sp. (n = 1) DNA were PCR amplified and subsequently identified by sequencing. This study provides preliminary evidence that vector borne pathogens, not typically associated with the arctic ecosystem, exist at low levels in this arctic fox population, and that vector exposure, pathogen transmission dynamics, and changes in the geographic distribution of pathogens over time should be investigated in future studies.

  20. Cat scratch disease during etanercept therapy in a rheumatoid arthritis patient.

    PubMed

    Orden, Alberto O; Nardi, Norma N; Vilaseca, Alicia B; Colombini, Ana C; Barrios, Nora G; Vijnovich Barón, Anahí

    2017-02-27

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious disorder caused by Bartonella henselae and characterized by fever and granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Immunosuppression is a risk factor for the development of atypical forms of the disease. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with fever and bilateral inguinal lymph node enlargement. She did not have apparent contact with animals. The patient was receiving etanercept therapy for rheumatoid arthritis. Lymph node biopsy demonstrated granulomatous lymphadenitis. She was successfully managed by discontinuing etanercept and by treatment with minocycline. She developed clinical remission and typical seroconversion. Infection with Bartonella should be considered in the differential diagnosis in rheumatoid arthritis patients with lymphadenopathy of unknown origin.

  1. Molecular detection of feline arthropod-borne pathogens in cats in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, central-western region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Natasha Gandolfi; Gavioli, Fernando Antonio; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2013-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas), Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis are prominent pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts. The present study aimed to detect the presence of DNA from hemoplasmas, Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis, and then confirm it by means of sequencing, in blood samples from cats in Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. From February 2009 to February 2011, blood samples with added EDTA were collected from 163 cats that were being housed in four different animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil and from 15 cats that were admitted to the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT). Out of the 178 cats sampled, 15 (8.4%) were positive for hemoplasmas: four (2.2%) for Mycoplasma haemofelis, 12 (6.7%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (0.5%) for 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One cat (0.5%), a patient that was attended at the veterinary hospital, was coinfected with M. haemofelis, 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis', based on sequencing confirmation. Four cats were positive for Bartonella spp.: three (1.7%) for B. henselae and one (0.5%) for B. clarridgeiae. None of the animals showed Cytauxzoon sp. or Hepatozoon sp. DNA in their blood samples. This study showed that cats housed in animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, are exposed to hemoplasmas and Bartonella species.

  2. Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii, a Potential New Zoonotic Bartonella Species in Canids from Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-27

    Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America, 2 Public Health Command...Region-Pacific, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America, 3 Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health, Department of... Veterinary Medicine, College of Bioresource Sciences, Nihon University, Fujisawa, Japan, 4 College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health

  3. Vector-borne diseases in client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Ayllón, Tania; Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Breitschwerdt, Edward Bealmear; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Sainz, Angel

    2012-02-01

    The role of various vector-borne pathogens as a cause of disease in cats has not been clearly determined. The current study evaluated risk factors, clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Neorickettsia spp., Leishmania spp., and Bartonella spp. infection or exposure in 680 client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain. Our results indicate that a large portion (35.1%) of the cat population of Madrid, Spain, is exposed to at least one of the five vector-borne pathogens tested. We found seroreactivity to Bartonella henselae in 23.8%, to Ehrlichia canis in 9.9%, to Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 8.4%, to Leishmania infantum in 3.7%, and to Neorickettsia risticii in 1% of the feline study population. About 9.9% of cats had antibody reactivity to more than one agent. L. infantum DNA was amplified from four cats (0.6%), B. henselae DNA from one cat (0.15%), and B. clarridgeiae DNA from another cat (0.15%).

  4. Seroprevalence of seven pathogens transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus tick in forestry workers in France.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, E; Jaulhac, B; Garcia-Bonnet, N; Hunfeld, K-P; Féménia, F; Huet, D; Goulvestre, C; Vaillant, V; Deffontaines, G; Abadia-Benoist, G

    2016-08-01

    In order to assess the level of occupational exposure to the main pathogens transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus tick, a seroprevalence study was performed on serum samples collected in 2003 from 2975 forestry workers of northeastern France. The global seroprevalence estimated for the seven pathogens studied was 14.1% (419/2975) for Borrelia burgdorferi sl, 5.7% (164/2908) for Francisella tularensis, 2.3% (68/2941) for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 1.7% (50/2908) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 1.7% (48/2908) for Bartonella henselae. The seroprevalences of Babesia divergens and Babesia microti studied in a subgroup of participants seropositive for at least one of these latter pathogens were 0.1% (1/810) and 2.5% (20/810), respectively. Borrelia burgdorferi sl seroprevalence was significantly higher in Alsace and Lorraine and F. tularensis seroprevalence was significantly higher in Champagne-Ardenne and Franche-Comté. The results of this survey also suggest low rates of transmission of Bartonella henselae and F. tularensis by ticks and a different west/east distribution of Babesia species in France. The frequency and potential severity of these diseases justify continued promotion of methods of prevention of I. ricinus bites.

  5. The centenary of the discovery of trench fever, an emerging infectious disease of World War 1.

    PubMed

    Anstead, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    In 1915, a British medical officer on the Western Front reported on a soldier with relapsing fever, headache, dizziness, lumbago, and shin pain. Within months, additional cases were described, mostly in frontline troops, and the new disease was called trench fever. More than 1 million troops were infected with trench fever during World War 1, with each affected soldier unfit for duty for more than 60 days. Diagnosis was challenging, because there were no pathognomonic signs and symptoms and the causative organism could not be cultured. For 3 years, the transmission and cause of trench fever were hotly debated. In 1918, two commissions identified that the disease was louse-borne. The bacterium Rickettsia quintana was consistently found in the gut and faeces of lice that had fed on patients with trench fever and its causative role was accepted in the 1920s. The organism was cultured in the 1960s and reclassified as Bartonella quintana; it was also found to cause endocarditis, peliosis hepatis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Subsequently, B quintana infection has been identified in new populations in the Andes, in homeless people in urban areas, and in individuals with HIV. The story of trench fever shows how war can lead to the recrudescence of an infectious disease and how medicine approached an emerging infection a century ago.

  6. Survey of three bacterial louse-associated diseases among rural Andean communities in Peru: prevalence of epidemic typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever.

    PubMed

    Raoult, D; Birtles, R J; Montoya, M; Perez, E; Tissot-Dupont, H; Roux, V; Guerra, H

    1999-08-01

    Typhus and other louse-transmitted bacterial infections in Peruvian sierra communities are known to occur but have not recently been assessed. In this study, 194 of 1,280 inhabitants of four villages in Calca Province in the Urubamba Valley were included. Thirty-nine (20%) of the 194 volunteers had antibodies to Rickettsia prowazekii, whereas 24 (12%) had antibodies to Bartonella quintana and 2 against Borrelia recurrentis. There was a significant correlation between the presence of infesting ectoparasites and antibodies to R. prowazekii, as well as between antibodies to R. prowazekii and ectoparasite infestation and fever in the previous 6 months. The proportion of inhabitants infested with ectoparasites was significantly higher in the highest-altitude village than in the other three villages. Two volunteers' antibody levels suggested a recent typhus infection, but only B. quintana DNA was amplified from lice. Epidemic typhus remains extant in the area, and B. quintana infections were encountered and documented for the first time in South America.

  7. Risk Factors for Human Lice and Bartonellosis among the Homeless, San Francisco, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Porse, Charsey; Kjemtrup, Anne; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kosoy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Homeless persons in San Francisco, California, USA, have been shown to have head and body lice infestations and Bartonella quintana infections. We surveyed a self-selected population of homeless persons in San Francisco to assess infestations of head and body lice, risks of having body lice, and presence of B. quintana in lice. A total of 203 persons who reported itching were surveyed during 2008–2010 and 2012: 60 (30%) had body lice, 10 (4.9%) had head lice, and 6 (3.0%) had both. B. quintana was detected in 10 (15.9%) of 63 body lice pools and in 6 (37.5%) of 16 head lice pools. Variables significantly associated (p<0.05) with having body lice in this homeless population included male sex, African–American ethnicity, and sleeping outdoors. Our study findings suggest that specific segments of the homeless population would benefit from information on preventing body lice infestations and louseborne diseases. PMID:25280380

  8. Risk factors for human lice and bartonellosis among the homeless, San Francisco, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Denise L; Cole-Porse, Charsey; Kjemtrup, Anne; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kosoy, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Homeless persons in San Francisco, California, USA,have been shown to have head and body lice infestations and Bartonella quintana infections. We surveyed a self selected population of homeless persons in San Francisco to assess infestations of head and body lice, risks of having body lice, and presence of B. quintana in lice. A total of 203 persons who reported itching were surveyed during 2008-2010 and 2012: 60 (30%) had body lice, 10 (4.9%)had head lice, and 6 (3.0%) had both. B. quintana was detected in 10 (15.9%) of 63 body lice pools and in 6 (37.5%)of 16 head lice pools. Variables significantly associated(p<0.05) with having body lice in this homeless population included male sex, African-American ethnicity, and sleeping outdoors. Our study findings suggest that specific segments of the homeless population would benefit from information on preventing body lice infestations and louse borne diseases.

  9. Cat-scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Ianas, Voichita; Elliott, Sean P

    2011-01-15

    Cat-scratch disease is a common infection that usually presents as tender lymphadenopathy. It should be included in the differential diagnosis of fever of unknown origin and any lymphadenopathy syndrome. Asymptomatic, bacteremic cats with Bartonella henselae in their saliva serve as vectors by biting and clawing the skin. Cat fleas are responsible for horizontal transmission of the disease from cat to cat, and on occasion, arthropod vectors (fleas or ticks) may transmit the disease to humans. Cat-scratch disease is commonly diagnosed in children, but adults can present with it as well. The causative microorganism, B. henselae, is difficult to culture. Diagnosis is most often arrived at by obtaining a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titers (greater than 1:256) of immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, azithromycin has been shown in one small study to speed recovery. Infrequently, cat-scratch disease may present in a more disseminated form with hepatosplenomegaly or meningoencephalitis, or with bacillary angiomatosis in patients with AIDS.

  10. [A clinical case of spontaneous involution of systemic cat scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Loeckx, I; Tuerlinckx, D; Jespers, S; Marchant, A S; Bodart, E

    2010-02-01

    Typical Cat-scratch disease (CSD) manifests as regional lymphadenopathy following cat scratch and sometimes associated with mild fever. There is a lot of atypical manifestations and some of those have systemic involvement. Hepatosplenic CSD is a systemic presentation associating fever of unknown origin with nodules in the liver and/or the spleen. Ultrasound abdominal examination shows nodules (3-30 mm) in the spleen and/or in the liver. Diagnostic is based on serology for B henselae (always IgG + and sometimes IgM +), or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the liver to test for the presence of B henselae. Hepatosplenic CSD is rare and therefore underdiagnosed. There is no consensus about the treatment but most of the authors suggest to treat with rifampicine. We report a case of a 4-years-old girl presenting with fever of unknown origin (FUO), high inflammatory markers with normal leukocytosis and hepatosplenic nodules. The diagnosis of CSD was made retrospectively. Evolution was favourable even though no specific antibiotic treatment for Bartonella henselae was administrated.

  11. Bacterial effector binds host cell adenylyl cyclase to potentiate Gαs-dependent cAMP production.

    PubMed

    Pulliainen, Arto T; Pieles, Kathrin; Brand, Cameron S; Hauert, Barbara; Böhm, Alex; Quebatte, Maxime; Wepf, Alexander; Gstaiger, Matthias; Aebersold, Ruedi; Dessauer, Carmen W; Dehio, Christoph

    2012-06-12

    Subversion of host organism cAMP signaling is an efficient and widespread mechanism of microbial pathogenesis. Bartonella effector protein A (BepA) of vasculotumorigenic Bartonella henselae protects the infected human endothelial cells against apoptotic stimuli by elevation of cellular cAMP levels by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, adenylyl cyclase (AC) and the α-subunit of the AC-stimulating G protein (Gαs) were identified as potential cellular target proteins for BepA by gel-free proteomics. Results of the proteomics screen were evaluated for physical and functional interaction by: (i) a heterologous in vivo coexpression system, where human AC activity was reconstituted under the regulation of Gαs and BepA in Escherichia coli; (ii) in vitro AC assays with membrane-anchored full-length human AC and recombinant BepA and Gαs; (iii) surface plasmon resonance experiments; and (iv) an in vivo fluorescence bimolecular complementation-analysis. The data demonstrate that BepA directly binds host cell AC to potentiate the Gαs-dependent cAMP production. As opposed to the known microbial mechanisms, such as ADP ribosylation of G protein α-subunits by cholera and pertussis toxins, the fundamentally different BepA-mediated elevation of host cell cAMP concentration appears subtle and is dependent on the stimulus of a G protein-coupled receptor-released Gαs. We propose that this mechanism contributes to the persistence of Bartonella henselae in the chronically infected vascular endothelium.

  12. Bacterial effector binds host cell adenylyl cyclase to potentiate Gαs-dependent cAMP production

    PubMed Central

    Pulliainen, Arto T.; Pieles, Kathrin; Brand, Cameron S.; Hauert, Barbara; Böhm, Alex; Quebatte, Maxime; Wepf, Alexander; Gstaiger, Matthias; Aebersold, Ruedi; Dessauer, Carmen W.; Dehio, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Subversion of host organism cAMP signaling is an efficient and widespread mechanism of microbial pathogenesis. Bartonella effector protein A (BepA) of vasculotumorigenic Bartonella henselae protects the infected human endothelial cells against apoptotic stimuli by elevation of cellular cAMP levels by an as yet unknown mechanism. Here, adenylyl cyclase (AC) and the α-subunit of the AC-stimulating G protein (Gαs) were identified as potential cellular target proteins for BepA by gel-free proteomics. Results of the proteomics screen were evaluated for physical and functional interaction by: (i) a heterologous in vivo coexpression system, where human AC activity was reconstituted under the regulation of Gαs and BepA in Escherichia coli; (ii) in vitro AC assays with membrane-anchored full-length human AC and recombinant BepA and Gαs; (iii) surface plasmon resonance experiments; and (iv) an in vivo fluorescence bimolecular complementation-analysis. The data demonstrate that BepA directly binds host cell AC to potentiate the Gαs-dependent cAMP production. As opposed to the known microbial mechanisms, such as ADP ribosylation of G protein α-subunits by cholera and pertussis toxins, the fundamentally different BepA-mediated elevation of host cell cAMP concentration appears subtle and is dependent on the stimulus of a G protein-coupled receptor-released Gαs. We propose that this mechanism contributes to the persistence of Bartonella henselae in the chronically infected vascular endothelium. PMID:22635269

  13. [Population estimates and conservation of felids (Carnivora: Felidae) in Northern Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ávila-Nájera, Dulce María; Chávez, Cuauhtémoc; Lazcano-Barrero, Marco A; Pérez-Elizalde, Sergio; Alcántara-Carbajal, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife density estimates provide an idea of the current state of populations, and in some cases, reflect the conservation status of ecosystems, essential aspects for effective management actions. In Mexico, several regions have been identified as high priority areas for the conservation of species that have some level of risk, like the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), where the country has the largest population of jaguars. However, little is known about the current status of threatened and endangered felids, which coexist in the Northeastern portion of the Peninsula. Our objective was to estimate the wild cats' density population over time at El Eden Ecological Reserve (EEER) and its surrounding areas. Camera trap surveys over four years (2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012) were conducted, and data were obtained with the use of capture-recapture models for closed populations (CAPTURE + MMDM or 1/2 MMDM), and the spatially explicit capture-recapture model (SPACECAP). The species studied were jaguar (Panthera onca), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), jaguarundi (Puma yaguaroundi) and margay (Leopardus wiedii). Capture frequency was obtained for all five species and the density for three (individuals/100km2). The density estimated with The Mean Maximum Distance Moved (MMDM), CAPTURE, ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 for jaguars, from 1.7 to 4.3 for pumas and from 1.4 to 13.8 for ocelots. The density estimates in SPACECAP ranged from 0.7 to 3.6 for jaguars, from 1.8 to 5.2 for pumas and 2.1 to 5.1 for ocelots. Spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods in SPACECAP were less likely to overestimate densities, making it a useful tool in the planning and decision making process for the conservation of these species. The Northeastern portion of the Yucatan Peninsula maintains high populations of cats, the EEER and its surrounding areas are valuable sites for the conservation of this group of predators. Rev. Biol.

  14. Paleoenvironmental and Paleoecological Reconstruction of the Ancient Maya Port Site of Vista Alegre, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissolo, D.; Jaijel, R.; Glover, J. B.; Goodman, B.; Beddows, P. A.; Carter, A.; Smith, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ancient Maya ports along the largely unstudied northeast coast of the Yucatan Peninsula once supported a network of trade routes linking people, goods, and ideas from across Mesoamerica. The Costa Escondida Project has focused on the interrelationships between the ancient Maya and their dynamic coastal environment along the shores of the Laguna Holbox. Central to our interdisciplinary efforts is a paleoenvironmental and paleoecological reconstruction of the key port of Vista Alegre - a low-lying island surrounded by a complex mosaic of costal ecosystems, sedimentological facies, and hydrological conditions. Geoarchaeological field methods, such as sediment coring, have made possible multiproxy analyses that enable us to better understand sea level fluctuations and the morphology of the shoreline and harboring locations over time, as well as changes in ecosystem biodiversity, which would have presented the maritime Maya with unique challenges and opportunities.

  15. Reconstructing water level in Hoyo Negro, Quintana Roo, Mexico, implications for early Paleoamerican and faunal access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, S. V.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Rissolo, D.; Chatters, J. C.; Nava Blank, A.; Luna Erreguerena, P.

    2015-09-01

    The skeletal remains of a Paleoamerican (Naia; HN5/48) and extinct megafauna were found at -40 to -43 mbsl in a submerged dissolution chamber named Hoyo Negro (HN) in the Sac Actun Cave System, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The human remains were dated to between 12 and 13 Ka, making these remains the oldest securely dated in the Yucatan. Twelve sediment cores were used to reconstruct the Holocene flooding history of the now phreatic cave passages and cenotes (Ich Balam, Oasis) that connect to HN. Four facies were found: 1. bat guano and Seed (SF), 2. lime Mud (MF), 3. Calcite Rafts (CRF) and 4. Organic Matter/Calcite Rafts (OM/CRF) which were defined by their lithologic characteristics and ostracod, foraminifera and testate amoebae content. Basal radiocarbon ages (AMS) of aquatic sediments (SF) combined with cave bottom and ceiling height profiles determined the history of flooding in HN and when access was restricted for human and animal entry. Our results show that the bottom of HN was flooded at least by 9850 cal yr BP but likely earlier. We also found, that the pit became inaccessible for human and animal entry at ≈8100 cal yr BP, when water reaching the cave ceiling effectively prevented entry. Water level continued to rise between ≈6000 and 8100 cal yr BP, filling the cave passages and entry points to HN (Cenotes Ich Balam and Oasis). Analysis of cave facies revealed that both Holocene sea-level rise and cave ceiling height determined the configuration of airways and the deposition of floating and bat derived OM (guano and seeds). Calcite rafts, which form on the water surface, are also dependent on the presence of airways but can also form in isolated air domes in the cave ceiling that affect their loci of deposition on the cave bottom. These results indicated that aquatic cave sedimentation is transient in time and space, necessitating extraction of multiple cores to determine a limit after which flooding occurred.

  16. A new endophytic ascomycete from El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a preliminary survey to report the biodiversity of endophytic fungi associated with leaves of some woody plants from El Eden Ecological Reserve in Mexico, a new fungus was isolated from Callicarpa acuminata leaves. Cultures of this fungus on PDA form a white floccose colony with a reddish-bro...

  17. [Growth of Strombus gigas (Gastropoda: Strombidae) snail in 4 environments of Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Navarrete, A J

    2001-03-01

    The growth rate of queen conch cultured in pens was studied from October 1993 to March 1994. Sixteen pens (50 m2 each, four pens per environment), were set in four environments: Thalassia, Thalassia-sand, Sand and Coral within a reef lagoon on Punta Gavilan and Banco Chinchorro. Twenty conchs were introduced in each pen (sizes: 100-120, 120-140, 140-160 and 160-180 mm shell length) and measured monthly to the nearest mm. Growth rate was assessed by two methods: a) shell marginal mean increase and b) the Gulland-Holt method considering all conch within pens. In the first method, the environment Sand had the highest growth (3.21 +/- 0.26 mm/month) at Punta Gavilan, whereas at Banco Chinchorro, highest growth was recorded in Coral (2.31 +/- 0.44 mm/month). Considering the second method, highest asymptotic length conch in Punta Gavilan occurred in Thalassia-sand (287.5 mm), whereas in Banco Chinchorro the highest asymptotic length was measured in Sand (318.1 mm). There were significant differences in growth between sites; juvenile growth is related with habitat quality mainly food availability.

  18. An Outbreak of Bartonella bacilliformis in an Endemic Andean Community

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez Clemente, Nuria; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Solorzano, Nelson; Maguiña, Ciro; Moore, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Bartonellosis affects small Andean communities in Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. Research in this area has been limited. Methods Retrospective review of 191 cases of bartonellosis managed in Caraz District Hospital, Peru, during the last outbreak (2003). Results The majority of cases (65%) were 14 years old and younger. There was a peak in acute cases after the rainy season; chronic cases presented more constantly throughout the year. The sensitivity of blood smear against blood culture in acute disease was 25%. The most commonly used treatment for chronic disease was rifampicin; chloramphenicol was used to treat most acute cases. Complications arose in 6.8% and there were no deaths. Conclusions Diagnostic and treatment algorithms for acute and chronic bartonellosis have been developed without a strong evidence base. Preparation of ready-to-go operational research protocols for future outbreaks would strengthen the evidence base for diagnostic and treatment strategies and enhance opportunities for control. PMID:26991495

  19. [Lice and lice-borne diseases in humans].

    PubMed

    Houhamdi, L; Parola, P; Raoult, D

    2005-01-01

    Among the three lice which parasite the human being, the human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus, is a vector of infectious diseases. It lives and multiplies in clothes and human infestation is associated with cold weather and a lack of hygiene. Three pathogenic bacteria are transmitted by the body louse: 1) Rickettsia prowazekii, the agent of epidemic typhus of which the most recent outbreak (and the largest since World War II) was observed during the civil war in Burundi; 2) Borrelia recurrentis, the agent of relapsing fever, historically responsible of massive outbreaks in Eurasia and Africa, which prevails currently in Ethiopia and neighboring countries; 3) Bartonella quintana, the agent of trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, chronic bacteremia, endocarditis, and lymphadenopathy. Body louse infestation, associated with a decline in social and hygienic conditions provoked by civil unrest and economic instability, is reemergent worldwide. Recently, a forth human pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, has been associated to the body louse.

  20. Arthropod-borne diseases associated with political and social disorder.

    PubMed

    Brouqui, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The living conditions and the crowded situations of the homeless, war refugees, or victims of a natural disaster provide ideal conditions for the spread of lice, fleas, ticks, flies and mites. The consequence of arthropod infestation in these situations is underestimated. Along with louse-borne infections such as typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, the relationship between Acinetobacter spp.-infected lice and bacteremia in the homeless is not clear. Murine typhus, tungiasis, and myiasis are likely underestimated, and there has been a reemergence of bed bugs. Attempted eradication of the body louse, despite specific measures, has been disappointing, and infections with Bartonella quintana continue to be reported. The efficacy of ivermectin in eradicating the human body louse, although the effect is not sustained, might provide new therapeutic approaches. Arthropod-borne diseases continue to emerge within the deprived population. Public health programs should be engaged rapidly to control these pests and reduce the incidence of these transmissible diseases.

  1. High Throughput, Multiplexed Pathogen Detection Authenticates Plague Waves in Medieval Venice, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Signoli, Michel; Fozzati, Luigi; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th–16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. Methodology/Principal Findings High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9%) samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7%) samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. Conclusions These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century. PMID:21423736

  2. Biology and genetics of human head and body lice.

    PubMed

    Veracx, Aurélie; Raoult, Didier

    2012-12-01

    Head lice and body lice have distinct ecologies and differ slightly in morphology and biology, questioning their taxonomic status. Over the past 10 years many genetic studies have been undertaken. Controversial data suggest that not only body lice but also head lice can serve as vectors of Bartonella quintana, and a better understanding of louse epidemiology is crucial. Here, we review taxonomic studies based on biology and genetics, including genomic data on lice, lice endosymbionts, and louse-transmitted bacteria. We recommend that studies of human lice employ morphological and biological characteristics in conjunction with transcriptomic date because lice seem to differ mainly in gene expression (and not in gene content), leading to different phenotypes.

  3. Vector-borne agents detected in fleas of the northern white-breasted hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Földvári, Gábor; Rigó, Krisztina; Meli, Marina L; Tóth, Mária; Molnár, Viktor; Gönczi, Enikő; Farkas, Róbert; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2014-01-01

    This is the first large-scale molecular investigation of fleas from a geographically widespread and highly urbanized species, the northern white-breasted hedgehog. In this study, 759 fleas (the majority were Archaeopsylla erinacei) collected from 134 hedgehogs were molecularly analyzed individually or in pools for the presence of three groups of vector-borne pathogens. All flea samples were positive for rickettsiae: In two samples (1.5%) Rickettsia helvetica and in 10% of the others a novel rickettsia genotype were identified. Additionally, Bartonella henselae (the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans) was demonstrated in one flea (0.7%), and hemoplasmas of the hemofelis group were identified in seven other samples (5.2%). The findings of vector-borne agents not detected before in A. erinacei fleas broaden the range of those diseases of veterinary-medical importance, of which hedgehogs may play a role in the epidemiology.

  4. Acute hemiplegia associated with cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Rocha, J L; Pellegrino, L N; Riella, L V; Martins, L T

    2004-06-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious illness caused by a Gram-negative rod named Bartonella henselae. Typical CSD is characterized by a small skin lesion at the site of a scratch or a bite, followed by regional lymphadenopathy, one to two weeks later. Atypical forms may present as ocular manifestations, neurological manifestations, hepatosplenic involvement and vertebral osteomyelitis. Among neurological complications, encephalopathy is by far the most common. Other neurological manifestations are very rare. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy, with a posterior cervical lymphadenopathy and fever. Cat scratch disease was diagnosed and treated after a positive "Whartin-Starry" stain on lymph node biopsy. Two weeks after treatment, the patient was readmitted presenting an acute episode of left hemiplegia. A brain MRI demonstrated a right subcortical fronto-parietal lesion with no contrast enhancement. Complete recovery was observed after corticosteroid treatment.

  5. Cat-scratch disease: historic, clinical, and pathologic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lamps, Laura W; Scott, Margie A

    2004-06-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) initially was described in 1931, but the etiologic agent (Bartonella henselae) was not elucidated until decades later. This disease is the most common cause of chronic lymphadenopathy among children and adolescents, characteristically manifesting as subacute regional lymphadenitis with an associated inoculation site due to a cat scratch or bite, often accompanied by fever. The hallmark histologic lesion is granulomatous inflammation with a central stellate microabscess. Numerous atypical manifestations of CSD have been described, and these often lack the characteristic superficial lymphadenopathy and inoculation site papule. These atypical forms may be misdiagnosed initially as other infectious processes or neoplasms. We present a review of the history and epidemiologic features of CSD, describe common and unusual clinicopathologic manifestations, and discuss current diagnostic modalities.

  6. [A 34-year-old woman with cat scratch disease who developed encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Ubano, Megumi; Uesaka, Yoshikazu; Kunimoto, Masanari

    2012-01-01

    We experienced a patient with cat-scratch disease (CSD) who developed encephalopathy. The subject was a 34-year-old female who had been aware of a low-grade fever and swollen inguinal lymph nodes for 1 month. The subject's consciousness became impaired after a headache developed, accompanied by fever, nausea, and vomiting, and she subsequently sought medical consultation. No major abnormalities were observed in the cerebrospinal fluid and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was normal. However, necrotizing lymphadenitis was observed on contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis and granulomatous changes were observed in a surgical lymph node biopsy. As the subject lived with a pet cat, PCR testing for Bartonella henselae (the CSD pathogen) was performed using a tissue biopsy. This was positive and the subject was diagnosed with CSD encephalopathy. There are very few domestic reports of CSD encephalopathy and care must be taken not to overlook this disease.

  7. A serologically proven case of cat-scratch disease presenting with neuroretinitis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Benjamin C Y; Tam, Victor T Y

    2009-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease is a clinical syndrome that usually presents as a self-limiting illness featuring regional lymphadenopathy, fever, and small skin lesions in association with a cat scratch or bite. It is caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Bartonella henselae, which commonly affects children and young adults. Ocular bartonellosis is the most common atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. It can present with a wide spectrum of ocular diseases including neuroretinitis, Parinaud's oculoglandular syndrome, and other forms of intra-ocular inflammation. This case report describes cat-scratch disease neuroretinitis in a 10-year-old girl who presented with typical signs, including optic disc swelling and a macular star, preceded by pyrexia of unknown origin and cervical lymphadenopathy.

  8. Treatment of cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Conrad, D A

    2001-02-01

    Cat-scratch disease is an infection caused by Bartonella henselae, a fastidious gram-negative bacillus acquired from exposure to an infected kitten or cat. The most common manifestation of human disease is lymphadenitis. Atypical forms of infection include Parinaud oculoglandular syndrome, stellate neuroretinitis, persistent fever without localizing signs, hepatosplenic infection, encephalopathy, osteomyelitis, and endocarditis. Immunocompromised individuals with B. hensalae infection may develop bacillary angiomatosis, bacillary peliosis, and relapsing bacteremia with fever syndrome. The bacillus is susceptible to several antibacterial agents in vitro, including penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, macrolides, quinolones, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, and rifampin. Greatest clinical efficacy has been observed following treatment with rifampin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, clarithromycin, and azithromycin. In one placebo-controlled study, azithromycin therapy was associated with more rapid diminution in size of infected lymph nodes. The majority of cases of cat-scratch disease occurring in normal hosts do not require anti-infective therapy for resolution of infection.

  9. Multifocal osteomyelitis in a child: a rare manifestation of cat scratch disease: a case report and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    de Kort, Joris G J L; Robben, Simon G F; Schrander, Jaap J P; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W

    2006-07-01

    We present a case of a 9-year-old immunocompetent girl who presented with pain in her left elbow and a painful swelling at her left clavicle. She had no lymphadenopathy or fever. Four hot spots were seen at her left clavicle, proximal and distal left humerus and lumbo-sacral spine on a bone scan. A magnetic resonance imaging showed an inflammatory process with bone destruction at her clavicle. Serological testing and polymerase chain reaction performed on a bone biopsy identified a Bartonella henselae infection. She was treated with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. After a relapse half a year later, the patient recovered fully. Multifocal osteomyelitis is a rare manifestation of cat scratch disease in children.

  10. Thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis with paraspinous mass and intraspinal extension: an atypical presentation of cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Rahawan, Mohamad M; Gray, Barry M; Mitchell, Craig S; Smith, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    Children with cat-scratch disease (CSD) commonly present with fever and tender lymphadenopathy. The disease is mild and manifestations of infection resolve spontaneously within several weeks. However, some children with CSD have unusual features that present diagnostic challenges. Children with atypical CSD may present with prolonged fever, hepatosplenic disease or ocular disease. We performed an MRI on a child who presented with persistent back pain. The MRI demonstrated a paravertebral mass with intraspinous extension and the collapse of T7 vertebral body. A biopsy was reported to show a small round blue cell tumor. An evaluation for malignancy was negative, but Bartonella henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction on the biopsy specimen. We present this case because it is a rare but important radiological presentation of CSD.

  11. Cat-scratch disease relapse in a kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Rheault, Michelle N; van Burik, Jo-Anne; Mauer, Michael; Ingulli, Elizabeth; Ferrieri, Patricia; Jessurun, Jose; Chavers, Blanche M

    2007-02-01

    Cat-scratch disease, an infectious illness infrequently reported in kidney transplant patients, is caused by the organism Bartonella henselae and is transmitted through contact with cats or kittens. It is a self-limited disorder in the general pediatric population. Here we present a case of unsuspected cat-scratch disease in a pediatric kidney transplant patient who presented with fever and lymphadenopathy. Eight months after treatment with a short course of azithromycin, the patient developed a recurrence of cat-scratch disease. We emphasize that the evaluation of a young immunocompromised kidney transplant patient presenting with fever and lymphadenopathy should include unusual infections such as cat-scratch disease. We review the diagnosis and treatment of this uncommon infection in the organ transplant population.

  12. Cat-scratch disease: unusual perivascular chorioretinal lesions.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    This study is a case report of bilateral perivascular chorioretinal lesions associated with Bartonella henselae. A 37-year-old woman presented with headache and blurred vision in both eyes aggravating occasionally during five years. She was otherwise healthy, with best-corrected visual acuities were 20/20 in both eyes. History of close contact with cats was more than merely eye-catching upon examination of her fundus. In both eyes, fundi were coated with yellow-brown pigmented perivenous chorioretinal lesions along the superotemporal and inferotemporal vascular arcades and their branches. The perivenous lesions were associated with vascular fibrous bands and corresponding changes in vascular calibers. There were no associated intraocular inflammatory signs in both eyes. The serologic tests confirmed the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease. The patient received no treatment, and she was followed for three years without any signs of ocular inflammation.

  13. Comparative analysis of glutaredoxin domains from bacterial opportunistic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Leeper, Thomas; Zhang, Suxin; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Myler, Peter J; Varani, Gabriele

    2011-09-01

    Glutaredoxin proteins (GLXRs) are essential components of the glutathione system that reductively detoxify substances such as arsenic and peroxides and are important in the synthesis of DNA via ribonucleotide reductases. NMR solution structures of glutaredoxin domains from two Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens, Brucella melitensis and Bartonella henselae, are presented. These domains lack the N-terminal helix that is frequently present in eukaryotic GLXRs. The conserved active-site cysteines adopt canonical proline/tyrosine-stabilized geometries. A difference in the angle of α-helix 2 relative to the β-sheet surface and the presence of an extended loop in the human sequence suggests potential regulatory regions and/or protein-protein interaction motifs. This observation is consistent with mutations in this region that suppress defects in GLXR-ribonucleotide reductase interactions. These differences between the human and bacterial forms are adjacent to the dithiol active site and may permit species-selective drug design.

  14. Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Northern Florida.

    PubMed

    Luria, Brian J; Levy, Julie K; Lappin, Michael R; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Legendre, Alfred M; Hernandez, Jorge A; Gorman, Shawn P; Lee, Irene T

    2004-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of infection in feral cats in Northern Florida with a select group of infectious organisms and to determine risk factors for infection. Blood samples or sera from 553 cats were tested with a panel of antibody, antigen or PCR assays. Male cats were at higher risk for FIV, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and M. haemominutum. Infection with either FeLV or FIV was associated with increased risk for coinfection with the other retrovirus, M. haemofelis, or M. haemominutum. Bartonella henselae had the highest prevalence and was the only organism that did not have any associated risk for coinfection with other organisms. Feral cats in this study had similar or lower prevalence rates of infections than those published for pet cats in the United States. Thus, feral cats assessed in this study appear to be of no greater risk to human beings or other cats than pet cats.

  15. Serological survey of vector-borne zoonotic pathogens in pet cats and cats from animal shelters and feral colonies.

    PubMed

    Case, Joseph Brad; Chomel, Bruno; Nicholson, William; Foley, Janet E

    2006-04-01

    Although cats and their arthropod parasites can sometimes be important sources of zoonotic diseases in humans, the extent of exposure among various cat populations to many potential zoonotic agents remains incompletely described. In this study, 170 domestic cats living in private homes, feral cat colonies, and animal shelters from California and Wisconsin were evaluated by serology to determine the levels of exposure to a group of zoonotic vector-borne pathogens. Serological positive test results were observed in 17.2% of cats for Rickettsia rickettsii, 14.9% for R akari, 4.9% for R typhi, 11.1% for R felis, and 14.7% for Bartonella henselae. Although vector-borne disease exposure has been documented previously in cats, the evaluation of multiple pathogens and diverse cat populations simultaneously performed here contributes to our understanding of feline exposure to these zoonotic pathogens.

  16. Neuroretinitis: a clinical syndrome of cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Rost Monahan S

    2000-12-01

    Cat-scratch disease is usually a benign self-limited illness, characterized by regional lymphadenopathy lasting between 3 and 6 weeks. The causative organism is Bartonella henselae, a small gram-negative rod. Between 1 and 2% of patients who contract the illness experience blurred vision, metamorphopsia and scotomas as a result of neuroretinitis, an associated clinical syndrome. The classical clinical findings in cat-scratch neuroretinitis include disc edema and a stellate pattern of exudates in the macula. However, a myriad of other signs has been documented, suggesting a much wider spectrum of intra-ocular disease. The following case report presents a young patient with neuroretinitis, and a history of lymphadenopathy secondary to cat-scratch disease.

  17. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase–expressing dendritic cells form suppurative granulomas following Listeria monocytogenes infection

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Alexey; Abdullah, Zeinab; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Saric, Tomo; Driesen, Julia; Hanisch, Franz-Georg; Domann, Eugen; Raven, Emma Lloyd; Dehus, Oliver; Hermann, Corinna; Eggle, Daniela; Debey, Svenja; Chakraborty, Trinad; Krönke, Martin; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Schultze, Joachim L.

    2006-01-01

    Control of pathogens by formation of abscesses and granulomas is a major strategy of the innate immune system, especially when effector mechanisms of adaptive immunity are insufficient. We show in human listeriosis that DCs expressing indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), together with macrophages, are major cellular components of suppurative granulomas in vivo. Induction of IDO by DCs is a cell-autonomous response to Listeria monocytogenes infection and was also observed in other granulomatous infections with intracellular bacteria, such as Bartonella henselae. Reporting on our use of the clinically applied anti–TNF-α antibody infliximab, we further demonstrate in vitro that IDO induction is TNF-α dependent. Repression of IDO therefore might result in exacerbation of granulomatous diseases observed during anti–TNF-α therapy. These findings place IDO+ DCs not only at the intersection of innate and adaptive immunity but also at the forefront of bacterial containment in granulomatous infections. PMID:17111046

  18. Complements do not lie.

    PubMed

    Robert, Stefanie Christina; Forbes, Suzanne Helen; Soleimanian, Surusch; Hadley, Julia S

    2011-12-13

    A 74-year-old patient presented with constitutional symptoms and was found to have acute kidney injury. He was known to have a prosthetic aortic valve. He was febrile with splenomegaly and vasculitic lesions on both hands. Nephritic screen revealed strongly positive cytoplasmic-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA). Differential diagnosis thus included a small vessel vasculitis or infective endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiography demonstrated no vegetations and serial blood cultures were negative. Immunosuppression for presumed granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegeners granulomatosis) was therefore instituted. The patient deteriorated, requiring multi-organ support. Renal biopsy showed a proliferative glomerulopathy and complements were low. Atypical screen for culture negative endocarditis revealed a strongly positive IgG-antibody titre against Bartonella henselae. Immunosuppression was discontinued and treatment for chronic Bartonellosis commenced. The patient made a remarkable recovery. His renal function quickly returned to normal, and ANCA titres and complements normalised. He was discharged home after completing a 6 week course of antibiotic therapy.

  19. Complements do not lie

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Stefanie Christina; Forbes, Suzanne Helen; Soleimanian, Surusch; Hadley, Julia S

    2011-01-01

    A 74-year-old patient presented with constitutional symptoms and was found to have acute kidney injury. He was known to have a prosthetic aortic valve. He was febrile with splenomegaly and vasculitic lesions on both hands. Nephritic screen revealed strongly positive cytoplasmic-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA). Differential diagnosis thus included a small vessel vasculitis or infective endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiography demonstrated no vegetations and serial blood cultures were negative. Immunosuppression for presumed granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegeners granulomatosis) was therefore instituted. The patient deteriorated, requiring multi-organ support. Renal biopsy showed a proliferative glomerulopathy and complements were low. Atypical screen for culture negative endocarditis revealed a strongly positive IgG-antibody titre against Bartonella henselae. Immunosuppression was discontinued and treatment for chronic Bartonellosis commenced. The patient made a remarkable recovery. His renal function quickly returned to normal, and ANCA titres and complements normalised. He was discharged home after completing a 6 week course of antibiotic therapy. PMID:22674942

  20. Complements do not lie.

    PubMed

    Robert, Stefanie Christina; Forbes, Suzanne Helen; Soleimanian, Surusch; Hadley, Julia S

    2011-12-01

    A 74-year-old patient presented with constitutional symptoms and was found to have acute kidney injury. He was known to have a prosthetic aortic valve. He was febrile with splenomegaly and vasculitic lesions on both hands. Nephritic screen revealed strongly positive cytoplasmic-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA). Differential diagnosis thus included a small vessel vasculitis or infective endocarditis. Transoesophageal echocardiography demonstrated no vegetations and serial blood cultures were negative. Immunosuppression for presumed granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegeners granulomatosis) was therefore instituted. The patient deteriorated, requiring multi-organ support. Renal biopsy showed a proliferative glomerulopathy and complements were low. Atypical screen for culture negative endocarditis revealed a strongly positive IgG-antibody titre against Bartonella henselae. Immunosuppression was discontinued and treatment for chronic Bartonellosis commenced. The patient made a remarkable recovery. His renal function quickly returned to normal, and ANCA titres and complements normalised. He was discharged home after completing a 6 week course of antibiotic therapy.

  1. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    PubMed Central

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  2. Cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Bozhkov, V; Madjov, R; Plachkov, I; Arnaudov, P; Chernopolsky, P; Krasnaliev, I

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 24,000 people are infected with cat scratch disease (CSD) every year. CSD is caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae, a gram-negative bacteria most often transmitted to humans through a bite or scratch from an infected cat or kitten. Although CSD is often a benign and self-limiting condition, it can affect any major organ system in the body, manifesting in different ways and sometimes leading to lifelong sequelae. It is a disease that is often overlooked in primary care because of the wide range of symptom presentation and relative rarity of serious complications. It is important for health care providers to recognize patients at risk for CSD, know what laboratory testing and treatments are available, and be aware of complications that may arise from this disease in the future.

  3. Cat-scratch disease causing status epilepticus in children.

    PubMed

    Easley, R B; Cooperstock, M S; Tobias, J D

    1999-01-01

    Status epilepticus from cat-scratch encephalopathy is often recalcitrant to usual therapies, causing treatment to focus on critical care management of the patient that may require aggressive interventions, such as continuous pentobarbital administration. We describe two children whose initial clinical presentation of cat-scratch disease was status epilepticus with normal cerebrospinal fluid studies. A history of cat exposure (specifically, kitten and/or fleas), regional lymphadenopathy, and a papule or inoculation site should be sought, but are not essential for diagnosis. The presumptive diagnosis of cat-scratch disease can be made by serology alone even in the absence of classic diagnostic criteria. Our two cases and other reports in the literature show a favorable prognosis in most cases, despite the occurrence of status epilepticus. The diagnosis of cat-scratch disease should be strongly considered in all children with unexplained status epilepticus or encephalopathy and serologic testing for Bartonella henselae should be done.

  4. Transmission of flea-borne zoonotic agents.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Gage, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Flea-borne zoonoses such as plague (Yersinia pestis) and murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) caused significant numbers of human cases in the past and remain a public health concern. Other flea-borne human pathogens have emerged recently (e.g., Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia felis), and their mechanisms of transmission and impact on human health are not fully understood. Our review focuses on the ecology and epidemiology of the flea-borne bacterial zoonoses mentioned above with an emphasis on recent advancements in our understanding of how these organisms are transmitted by fleas, maintained in zoonotic cycles, and transmitted to humans. Emphasis is given to plague because of the considerable number of studies generated during the first decade of the twenty-first century that arose, in part, because of renewed interest in potential agents of bioterrorism, including Y. pestis.

  5. Synthesis of 5-O-oligoglucosyl extended α-(2→4)-Kdo disaccharides corresponding to inner core fragments of Moraxellaceae lipopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Barbara; Kosma, Paul

    2016-03-03

    The heptose-deficient inner core of the lipopolysaccharide of several pathogenic strains of the Moraxellaceae family (Moraxella, Acinetobacter) and of Bartonella henselae, respectively, comprises an α-D-glucopyranose attached to position 5 of Kdo. In continuation of the synthesis of fragments of Acinetobacter haemolyticus LPS, the branched α-Glcp-(1 → 5)[α-Kdo-(2 → 4)]-α-Kdo trisaccharide motif was elaborated. The glycosylation of a suitably protected, α-(2 → 4)-interlinked Kdo-disaccharide was achieved in high yield and fair anomeric selectivity using a 4,6-O-benzylidene N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidate glucosyl donor. Subsequent regioselective reductive benzylidene opening afforded a trisaccharide acceptor, which was extended with β-D-glucopyranosyl and isomaltosyl residues. Global deprotection provided tri- to pentasaccharide structures corresponding to the inner core region of A. haemolyticus lipopolysaccharide.

  6. Thoracic osteomyelitis and epidural abscess formation due to cat scratch disease: case report.

    PubMed

    Dornbos, David; Morin, Jocelyn; Watson, Joshua R; Pindrik, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    Osteomyelitis of the spine with associated spinal epidural abscess represents an uncommon entity in the pediatric population, requiring prompt evaluation and diagnosis to prevent neurological compromise. Cat scratch disease, caused by the pathogen Bartonella henselae, encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical presentations; however, an association with osteomyelitis and epidural abscess has been reported in only 4 other instances in the literature. The authors report a rare case of multifocal thoracic osteomyelitis with an epidural abscess in a patient with a biopsy-proven pathogen of cat scratch disease. A 5-year-old girl, who initially presented with vague constitutional symptoms, was diagnosed with cat scratch disease following biopsy of an inguinal lymph node. Despite appropriate antibiotics, she presented several weeks later with recurrent symptoms and back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed 2 foci of osteomyelitis at T-8 and T-11 with an associated anterior epidural abscess from T-9 to T-12. Percutaneous image-guided vertebral biopsy revealed B. henselae by polymerase chain reaction analysis, and she was treated conservatively with doxycycline and rifampin with favorable clinical outcome.

  7. Multiple Renal and Splenic Lesions in Cat Scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Matsunaga, Manaka; Kodama, Yuichi; Miyazono, Akinori; Seki, Shunji; Ikeda, Naohiro; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2016-09-21

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae. Atypical clinical presentations of CSD include prolonged fever and multiple hepatosplenic lesions. Furthermore, multiple renal lesions are extremely rare in CSD. An 11-year-old Japanese girl presented at our hospital with a prolonged fever of unknown cause after being scratched and bitten by a kitten. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple small, round hypodense lesions in both kidneys and the spleen. Based on her history and the CT results, her diagnosis was CSD. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological tests, which indicated antibodies against B. henselae. After treatment with azithromycin, her fever immediately improved. Careful history taking and imaging are essential for the diagnosis of atypical CSD. In CT images, not only hepatosplenic lesions but also renal lesions are important features indicative of a diagnosis of atypical CSD. Subsequently, a diagnosis of CSD can be confirmed by specific serological tests. This is the first reported Japanese case of multiple renal and splenic lesions in a patient with CSD. Although difficult to diagnose, an early diagnosis atypical CSD and appropriate treatment are important to prevent complications and the need for invasive examinations.

  8. Zoonotic Infections Among Employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Ingrid B.; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S.; Mead, Paul S.; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Jones, Jeffery L.; Gupton, Paige N.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

    2012-01-01

    Abstract U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents. PMID:22835153

  9. Zoonotic infections among employees from Great Smoky Mountains and Rocky Mountain National Parks, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Adjemian, Jennifer; Weber, Ingrid B; McQuiston, Jennifer; Griffith, Kevin S; Mead, Paul S; Nicholson, William; Roche, Aubree; Schriefer, Martin; Fischer, Marc; Kosoy, Olga; Laven, Janeen J; Stoddard, Robyn A; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Smith, Theresa; Bui, Duy; Wilkins, Patricia P; Jones, Jeffery L; Gupton, Paige N; Quinn, Conrad P; Messonnier, Nancy; Higgins, Charles; Wong, David

    2012-11-01

    U.S. National Park Service employees may have prolonged exposure to wildlife and arthropods, placing them at increased risk of infection with endemic zoonoses. To evaluate possible zoonotic risks present at both Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM) and Rocky Mountain (ROMO) National Parks, we assessed park employees for baseline seroprevalence to specific zoonotic pathogens, followed by evaluation of incident infections over a 1-year study period. Park personnel showed evidence of prior infection with a variety of zoonotic agents, including California serogroup bunyaviruses (31.9%), Bartonella henselae (26.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (22.2%), Toxoplasma gondii (11.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8.1%), Brucella spp. (8.9%), flaviviruses (2.2%), and Bacillus anthracis (1.5%). Over a 1-year study period, we detected incident infections with leptospirosis (5.7%), B. henselae (5.7%), spotted fever group rickettsiae (1.5%), T. gondii (1.5%), B. anthracis (1.5%), and La Crosse virus (1.5%) in staff members at GRSM, and with spotted fever group rickettsiae (8.5%) and B. henselae (4.3%) in staff at ROMO. The risk of any incident infection was greater for employees who worked as resource managers (OR 7.4; 95% CI 1.4,37.5; p=0.02), and as law enforcement rangers/rescue crew (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1,36.5; p=0.03), relative to those who worked primarily in administration or management. The results of this study increase our understanding of the pathogens circulating within both parks, and can be used to inform the development of effective guidelines and interventions to increase visitor and staff awareness and help prevent exposure to zoonotic agents.

  10. Molecular survey of arthropod-borne pathogens in ticks obtained from Japanese wildcats.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Morihiro; Sunahara, Ayano; Nakanishi, Nozomi; Izawa, Masako; Matsuo, Tomohide; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The Iriomote cat (IC), Prionailurus bengalensis iriomotensis, and the Tsushima leopard cat (TLC), Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus, are endangered subspecies of leopard cats in Japan. In addition to habitat destruction and road kills, infectious diseases may threaten their populations, and infection with arthropod-borne pathogens has been reported in both subspecies. Infestations with ectoparasites, especially ticks, have frequently been observed in ICs and TLCs. In the present study, ticks collected from captured ICs and TLCs between November 2011 and January 2012 were morphologically identified and the prevalence of the pathogens Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., Ehrlichia sp., Anaplasma sp., Hepatozoon sp., and hemoplasmas in the ticks was molecularly evaluated. The ticks Haemaphysalis longicornis, H. hystricis, and Amblyomma testudinarium were obtained from ICs, and H. megaspinosa, Ixodes tanuki, H. campanulata, and A. testudinarium were collected from TLCs. The pathogens Hepatozoon felis, Babesia sp., and Anaplasma bovis were detected in ticks obtained from ICs, while H. felis. Babesia sp., Ehrlichia sp., E. muris, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum', and Bartonella henselae were found in ticks from TLCs. To protect and conserve these endangered animals, continuous monitoring and additional surveys will be necessary to understand the role of ticks as disease vectors in Japanese wildcats.

  11. Proyecto Costa Escondida: Interdisciplinary Research at the Ancient Maya Port Site of Vista Alegre, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, J.; Rissolo, D.; Beddows, P. A.; Goodman, B.; Smith, D.

    2013-05-01

    At the northeast tip of the Yucatan Peninsula - where the Caribbean meets the Gulf - lies the ancient Maya port site of Vista Alegre. The inhabitants of this site, much like the people living nearby today, were forced to contend with the challenging coastal environment of Laguna Holbox. The sediment-rich, low gradient of the north coast presents a contrasting landscape compared to the Caribbean coast, where water resources are of much larger magnitude and evident in the extensive systems of cenotes (sinkholes) and underground rivers that supported pre-Columbian sites along this eastern rocky sediment-poor coastline. For past inhabitants the north coast was a mosaic of low-lying, non-arable zones where access to potable water was a challenge for inhabitants well into the 20th century. By bringing together scholars from the fields of archaeology, coastal ecology, geoarchaeology, and hydrogeology, the Proyecto Costa Escondida is focusing on the dynamic relationship between the Maya and their coastal landscape over the past 3000 years. To date we have collected 12 manual push-cores from the shallow waters surrounding Vista Alegre, which have been analyzed at 1 cm resolution using standard methods for Loss on Ignition (LOI), δ18Ocarb and δ13Ccarb of bulk carbonate, granulometry, micropalentology, and AMS radiocarbon dating. In addition to have baseline comparative data, we have conducted near-shore and terrestrial coastal ecological surveys along with the mapping of coastal water salinity and temperatures in the dry and wet seasons. Overall, the chemical proxies, lithology, and paleosalinity model reconstructed to date reveal four onlapping parasequences representing an overall transgression of the coastline with strong seasonality of water chemistry that has been changing under the control of rising sea levels over the past 3000 years. The sedimentation rate and timing of the transition to marine is in reasonable agreement with local sea level curves meaning that the shoreline and possible terrestrial features during some of the occupational phases of Vista Alegre are most likely drowned today. The isotope record indicates large changes in the proportion of freshwater and high evaporation rates have occurred throughout the site's history. Superposition of these seasonal cycles on the long-term rise in sea level means that water may have been much more readily accessible to the Maya that inhabited this site than it is today. By correlating the environmental data with the archaeological evidence from Vista Alegre, our research sheds light on the varying adaptive strategies employed by these coastal inhabitants. By carefully correlating changing paleoenvironmental data with broader sociopolitical changes, we are in a strong position to address the challenges faced, and opportunities pursued, by these coastal peoples in a holistic manner.

  12. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  13. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece

    PubMed Central

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people. PMID:28141857

  14. Clinical implication of prolonged fever in children with cat scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Kumiko; Tsukahara, Masato; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Furuya, Tomoko; Kawauchi, Shigeto; Oga, Atsunori; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2004-08-01

    Cat scratch disease, caused by Bartonella henselae, typically presents with a localized lymphadenopathy with a brief period of fever and general symptoms. However, there are atypical cases with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including prolonged fever (> or =37.5 degrees C, for more than 7 days), or with systemic complication, or without lymphadenopathy. We analyzed relationships among those manifestations in children with cat scratch disease. A total of 127 patients were serologically diagnosed as having Bartonella infection between 1997 and 2003. Relationships among clinical manifestations were analyzed by use of multiple regression and multiple logistic regression analyses. Of the 127 seropositive cases, 75 (59.1%) had typical cat scratch disease and 52 (40.9%) had an atypical one. As atypical manifestations, 46 (36.2%) had prolonged fever, 23 (18.1%) had no lymphadenopathy, and 21 (16.5%) had complications: hepatic/splenic abscesses or low-echoic lesions, hepatic granuloma, and central nervous system involvements. Prolonged fever was observed in 20 (87%) of the 23 cases without lymphadenopathy and 16 (76.2%) of the 21 cases with complications. By multiple regression analysis, the duration of fever was significantly associated with both the absence of lymphadenopathy and the presence of complications. The child suffering from cat scratch disease without lymphadenopathy or with complication tends to have prolonged fever. Conversely, when a child has a prolonged fever of unknown origin, possibility of cat scratch disease should be considered, and a search for underlying systemic complications is recommended for prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  15. Fic domain-catalyzed adenylylation: Insight provided by the structural analysis of the type IV secretion system effector BepA

    PubMed Central

    Palanivelu, Dinesh V; Goepfert, Arnaud; Meury, Marcel; Guye, Patrick; Dehio, Christoph; Schirmer, Tilman

    2011-01-01

    Numerous bacterial pathogens subvert cellular functions of eukaryotic host cells by the injection of effector proteins via dedicated secretion systems. The type IV secretion system (T4SS) effector protein BepA from Bartonella henselae is composed of an N-terminal Fic domain and a C-terminal Bartonella intracellular delivery domain, the latter being responsible for T4SS-mediated translocation into host cells. A proteolysis resistant fragment (residues 10–302) that includes the Fic domain shows autoadenylylation activity and adenylyl transfer onto Hela cell extract proteins as demonstrated by autoradiography on incubation with α-[32P]-ATP. Its crystal structure, determined to 2.9-Å resolution by the SeMet-SAD method, exhibits the canonical Fic fold including the HPFxxGNGRxxR signature motif with several elaborations in loop regions and an additional β-rich domain at the C-terminus. On crystal soaking with ATP/Mg2+, additional electron density indicated the presence of a PPi/Mg2+ moiety, the side product of the adenylylation reaction, in the anion binding nest of the signature motif. On the basis of this information and that of the recent structure of IbpA(Fic2) in complex with the eukaryotic target protein Cdc42, we present a detailed model for the ternary complex of Fic with the two substrates, ATP/Mg2+ and target tyrosine. The model is consistent with an in-line nucleophilic attack of the deprotonated side-chain hydroxyl group onto the α-phosphorus of the nucleotide to accomplish AMP transfer. Furthermore, a general, sequence-independent mechanism of target positioning through antiparallel β-strand interactions between enzyme and target is suggested. PMID:21213248

  16. Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis by Real-Time PCR in Naturally Infected Sand Flies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Probe/Primer Data and tested. Lutzomyia verrucarum sand flies were collected from an endemic focus of bartonellosis in and around Caraz, Ancash...14 Real-Time PCR………………………………………………………….15 Annealing Temperature and Primer Design …………………………….16 Probe Selection TaqMan® Probe...results by houses. Table 7. Field sample results. List of Figures Figure 1. Correlation of bartonellosis cases with Lutzomyia verrucarum

  17. Multiplexed colorimetric detection of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus and Bartonella DNA using gold and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancuso, Matthew; Jiang, Li; Cesarman, Ethel; Erickson, David

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an infectious cancer occurring most commonly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and in endemic regions, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, where KS is among the top four most prevalent cancers. The cause of KS is the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also called HHV-8), an oncogenic herpesvirus that while routinely diagnosed in developed nations, provides challenges to developing world medical providers and point-of-care detection. A major challenge in the diagnosis of KS is the existence of a number of other diseases with similar clinical presentation and histopathological features, requiring the detection of KSHV in a biopsy sample. In this work we develop an answer to this challenge by creating a multiplexed one-pot detection system for KSHV DNA and DNA from a frequently confounding disease, bacillary angiomatosis. Gold and silver nanoparticle aggregation reactions are tuned for each target and a multi-color change system is developed capable of detecting both targets down to levels between 1 nM and 2 nM. The system developed here could later be integrated with microfluidic sample processing to create a final device capable of solving the two major challenges in point-of-care KS detection.

  18. Human louse-transmitted infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Badiaga, S; Brouqui, P

    2012-04-01

    Several of the infectious diseases associated with human lice are life-threatening, including epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, and trench fever, which are caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Bartonella quintana, respectively. Although these diseases have been known for several centuries, they remain a major public health concern in populations living in poor-hygiene conditions because of war, social disruption, severe poverty, or gaps in public health management. Poor-hygiene conditions favour a higher prevalence of body lice, which are the main vectors for these diseases. Trench fever has been reported in both developing and developed countries in populations living in poor conditions, such as homeless individuals. In contrast, outbreaks of epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever have occurred in jails and refugee camps in developing countries. However, reports of a significantly high seroprevalence for epidemic typhus and epidemic relapsing fever in the homeless populations of developed countries suggest that these populations remain at high risk for outbreaks of these diseases. Additionally, experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated that the body louse can transmit other emerging or re-emerging pathogens, such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Yersinia pestis. Therefore, a strict survey of louse-borne diseases and the implementation of efficient delousing strategies in these populations should be public health priorities.

  19. Argentinian phlebotomine fauna, new records of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) for the country and the province of Chaco.

    PubMed

    Szelag, Enrique A; Filho, Jose D Andrade; Rosa, Juan R; Parras, Matias A; Quintana, Maria G; Quintana, Maria G; Salomon, Oscar D

    2016-07-21

    Sand flies are insects of medical and veterinary importance, because some species are able to transmit several pathogens such as Bartonella spp., Phlebovirus spp., and protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania (Ross). They are widely distributed in the Americas, with recordings ranging from Canada to Argentina. Approximately 500 Phlebotominae species are known in the Americas, of which it is considered that at least 56 are involved in the transmission of leishmaniasis (Maroli et al. 2012). Previous studies have shown that the phlebotomine fauna in Argentina consists of 32 species distributed in 14 provinces (Quintana et al. 2012; Sábio et al. 2015; Salomón et al. 2010). Of these species, Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto), Ny. whitmani (Antunes & Countinho), Cortelezzii complex [Evandromyia cortelezzii (Brèthes) - Ev. sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho)], Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar) and Migonemyia migonei (França) have been found with DNA of Leishmania spp. (Moya et al. 2015). Five new records of species in the province of Chaco, obtained from different projects carried out between 2001 and 2015, four of which are also new records for Argentina, are described in this article. Their importance as potential vectors and the correct determination of the sympatric species is also discussed.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

  1. Water-Level Reconstruction and its Implications for Late Pleistocene Paleontological Site Formation in Hoyo Negro, a Submerged Subterranean Pit in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissolo, D.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Collins, S.; Kovacs, S. E.; Beddows, P. A.; Chatters, J. C.; Nava Blank, A.; Luna Erreguerena, P.

    2014-12-01

    A massive pit deep within the now submerged cave system of Sac Actun, located along the central east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, contains a diverse fossil assemblage of extinct megafauna as well as a nearly complete human skeleton. The inundated site of Hoyo Negro presents a unique and promising opportunity for interdisciplinary Paleoamerican and paleoenvironmental research in the region. Investigations have thus far revealed a range of associated features and deposits which make possible a multi-proxy approach to identifying and reconstructing the natural and cultural processes that have formed and transformed the site over millennia. Understanding water-level fluctuations (both related to, and independent from, eustatic sea level changes), with respect to cave morphology is central to understanding the movement of humans and animals into and through the cave system. Recent and ongoing studies involve absolute dating of human, faunal, macrobotanical, and geological samples; taphonomic analyses; and a characterization of site hydrogeology and sedimentological facies, including microfossil assemblages and calcite raft deposits.

  2. Proteome-wide identification of predominant subcellular protein localizations in a bacterial model organism

    SciTech Connect

    Stekhoven, Daniel J.; Omasits, Ulrich; Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Christoph; Ahrens, Christian H.

    2014-03-01

    Proteomics data provide unique insights into biological systems, including the predominant subcellular localization (SCL) of proteins, which can reveal important clues about their functions. Here we analyzed data of a complete prokaryotic proteome expressed under two conditions mimicking interaction of the emerging pathogen Bartonella henselae with its mammalian host. Normalized spectral count data from cytoplasmic, total membrane, inner and outer membrane fractions allowed us to identify the predominant SCL for 82% of the identified proteins. The spectral count proportion of total membrane versus cytoplasmic fractions indicated the propensity of cytoplasmic proteins to co-fractionate with the inner membrane, and enabled us to distinguish cytoplasmic, peripheral innermembrane and bona fide inner membrane proteins. Principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbor classification training on selected marker proteins or predominantly localized proteins, allowed us to determine an extensive catalog of at least 74 expressed outer membrane proteins, and to extend the SCL assignment to 94% of the identified proteins, including 18% where in silico methods gave no prediction. Suitable experimental proteomics data combined with straightforward computational approaches can thus identify the predominant SCL on a proteome-wide scale. Finally, we present a conceptual approach to identify proteins potentially changing their SCL in a condition-dependent fashion.

  3. Pathogen and rodenticide exposure in American badgers (Taxidea taxus) in California.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jessica H; Girard, Yvette A; Gilardi, Kirsten; Hernandez, Yvette; Poppenga, Robert; Chomel, Bruno B; Foley, Janet E; Johnson, Christine K

    2012-04-01

    Urban and agricultural land use may increase the risk of disease transmission among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans as we share ever-shrinking and fragmented habitat. American badgers (Taxidae taxus), a species of special concern in California, USA, live in proximity to urban development and often share habitat with livestock and small peridomestic mammals. As such, they may be susceptible to pathogens commonly transmitted at this interface and to anticoagulant rodenticides used to control nuisance wildlife on agricultural lands. We evaluated free-ranging badgers in California for exposure to pathogens and anticoagulant rodenticides that pose a risk to wildlife, domestic animals, or public health. We found serologic evidence of badger exposure to Francisella tularensis, Toxoplasma gondii, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, canine distemper virus, and three Bartonella species: B. henselae, B. clarridgeiae, and B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. Badger tissues contained anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum and bromadiolone, commonly used to control periurban rodent pests. These data provide a preliminary investigation of pathogen and toxicant exposure in the wild badger population.

  4. Fleas as parasites of the family Canidae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Historically, flea-borne diseases are among the most important medical diseases of humans. Plague and murine typhus are known for centuries while the last years brought some new flea-transmitted pathogens, like R. felis and Bartonella henselae. Dogs may play an essential or an accidental role in the natural transmission cycle of flea-borne pathogens. They support the growth of some of the pathogens or they serve as transport vehicles for infected fleas between their natural reservoirs and humans. More than 15 different flea species have been described in domestic dogs thus far. Several other species have been found to be associated with wild canids. Fleas found on dogs originate from rodents, birds, insectivores and from other Carnivora. Dogs therefore may serve as ideal bridging hosts for the introduction of flea-borne diseases from nature to home. In addition to their role as ectoparasites they cause nuisance for humans and animals and may be the cause for severe allergic reactions. PMID:21767354

  5. Cat-scratch disease: ocular manifestations and visual outcome.

    PubMed

    Curi, André L L; Machado, Danuza; Heringer, Gustavo; Campos, Wesley Ribeiro; Lamas, Cristiane; Rozental, Tatiana; Gutierres, Alexandro; Orefice, Fernando; Lemos, Elba

    2010-10-01

    To describe the intra-ocular manifestations of cat-scratch disease (CSD) found at two uveitis reference centers in Brazil. Retrospective case series study. Review of clinical records of patients diagnosed with CSD in the Uveitis Department of São Geraldo Hospital and the Ophthalmology Department of the Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-FIOCRUZ, from 2001 to 2008. In the 8-year period, 24 patients with the diagnosis of CSD were identified. Twelve patients were male and 12 female. The mean age was 27.04 years (range 7-56). Sixteen patients (66.6%) presented with a history of a cat scratch and all patients reported cat exposure. Visual acuity ranged from counting fingers to 1.0 in the affected eye. Thirteen patients presented with bilateral disease. Sixteen (66.6%) patients complained of systemic symptoms, including fever, lymphadenopathy, liver and spleen enlargement and rash. All patients presented with serum antibodies (IgG) to Bartonella henselae. Thirty-seven eyes were affected. The most common findings were small areas of retinal infiltrates which occurred in 11 eyes (29.7%) and angiomatous lesions which occurred in nine eyes (24.3%). Neuroretinitis occurred in only six eyes (16.2%). The most common findings of CSD in our study were retinal infiltrates and angiomatous lesions. CSD patients may present with significant visual loss. Patients may benefit from systemic treatment with antibiotics.

  6. Cat scratch disease causing hepatic masses after liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Thudi, Kavitha R; Kreikemeier, Jeffrey T; Phillips, Nancy J; Salvalaggio, Paolo R; Kennedy, Donald J; Hayashi, Paul H

    2007-02-01

    Hepatic cat scratch disease is rarely reported in liver transplant recipients and has never been reported with discrete liver lesions in the graft. A 52-year-old woman was transplanted for hepatitis C cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Her posttransplant course was uneventful. She presented 2.7 years after transplantation with fever of unknown origin and went on to develop multiple and diffuse discrete liver lesions. Despite an extensive work-up including percutaneous and laparoscopic biopsies, a subsegmental resection that included one of these masses was required to make the diagnosis of Bartonella henselae infection. Serologic tests were equivocal. Histology was consistent with cat scratch disease of the liver, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of the resected tissue confirmed the diagnosis. Response to doxycycline was rapid. Fevers resolved within 7 days. Repeat abdominal CT scan showed reduction of the liver masses. Cat scratch disease should be considered in postliver transplant patients presenting with fever and liver lesions, especially if close contact with cats has occurred. Diagnosis by PCR testing of involved tissue is preferred when serologies are equivocal due to immunosuppression.

  7. Role of magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of osteomyelitis in cat-scratch disease.

    PubMed

    Rozmanic, Vojko; Banac, Srdjan; Miletic, Damir; Manestar, Koraljka; Kamber, Silvija; Paparic, Sime

    2007-01-01

    Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is a self-limiting infectious disease characterised with lymphadenopathy in a patient with a history of cat contact. Cases of bone involvement in patients with CSD are rare. We reported a case of 11-year-old boy with prolonged intermittent fever, inguinal lymphadenopathy and osteomyelitis. He had a history of exposure to kittens. The physical examination revealed a febrile boy without an apparent site of infection except an enlarged inguinal lymph node. Its histopathology demonstrated granulomatous lesion with no presence of acid-fast bacilli. Serum titers for Bartonella henselae were positive. Multiple bone lesions were detected by skeletal scintigraphy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed and characterised osteolytic masses. The oral combination of azithromycin and rifampicin were given for 6 weeks with a good clinical response. At follow-up, the boy was without symptoms or signs of the disease. Successive MRI controls showed gradual regression of the bone lesions together with significant decrease of acute-phase reactants. In conclusion, CSD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteomyelitis. MRI is more reliable for the characterisation, evaluation of soft-tissue extension and follow-up of the bone lesions than scintigraphy. However, the later method permits an overview of the multiple osseous lesions. Therefore, standard MRI equipment may not exclude bone scintigraphy. Both methods are required until whole-body MRI units become routine.

  8. [Osteomyelitis in cat scratch disease: a case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Dusser, P; Eyssette-Guerreau, S; Koné-Paut, I

    2013-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is the most common zoonosis in humans and its typical expression is a persistent benign regional adenopathy. In some rare cases, mono- or multifocal osteomyelitis is described. In this paper, we report the case of bone lesions in a 13-year-old girl infected with cat scratch disease. We have also undertaken a literature review and analyzed 60 other such cases. The manifestation of a bone lesion associated with cat scratch disease was characterized by a mono- or multifocal infectious osteomyelitis, fever, and a general alteration of the patient's health. The most frequent location of osteomyelitis was in the spine. Magnetic resonance imaging appeared the most sensitive test to highlight the bone lesions. Serological findings help reinforce the diagnosis of cat scratch disease caused by Bartonella henselae infection. Osteomyelitis in cat scratch disease is rare but not exceptional. Therefore, it is essential to think about this hypothesis in case of osteomyelitis associated with a general alteration of the patient's health, especially if the lesions are multifocal and if there is a known history of cat contact.

  9. Cat-scratch disease in adult hospitalized for prolonged-Fever associated with multiple lymphadenopathies and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Guiyedi, Vincent; Haddad, Hanna; Okome-Nkoumou, Madeleine; Gire, Fabien; Ongali, Brice; Lore, Philippes; Gameiro, Luis

    2013-01-01

    We report a 19-year-old patient with a Cat-scratch disease presenting three months continuous alteration of the general condition, including prolonged-fever, anorexia, asthenia, weight loss associated with adenitis and multiple thoracic-abdominal adenopathies, leukocytosis with neutrophil polynuclear predominance, and increased of C-reactive protein. The serologies of toxoplasmosis, infectious mononucleosis, human immunodeficiency virus, Brucellosis, Bartonellosis and the tuberculosis research by tuberculin reaction test and Ziehl acid-alcohol resistant bacilli direct examination were negatives. The cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus serologies were positives only for immunoglobulin-G. The Bartonella henselae diagnosis was made with the analysis of histopathological specimens. The clinical and biological symptoms regressed following eight weeks of azithromycin's treatment. According to this observation, the cat-scratch disease should be considered in differential diagnosis of patients presenting prolonged-fever associated with multiple lymphadenopathies and weight loss. The azithromycin would be an alternative therapeutic issue for this pathology in case of confirmed efficacy by studies in a large patient population.

  10. [Splenic abscess and cat-scratch disease].

    PubMed

    Valdesoiro Navarrete, L; Pineda Solas, V; Martín Martín, C; Sanfeliu Sala, I; Cabezas Maspoch, R M; Sánchez Oespina, M

    2001-10-01

    Cat-scratch disease is caused by a Gram-negative bacillus known as Bartonella henselae. This disease is usually benign and causes regional adenitis that does not require treatment. However, some patients develop more serious atypical forms of the disease including prol