Science.gov

Sample records for quinuclidines

  1. Crystal and molecular structures of new enantiopure quinuclidines.

    PubMed

    Kania, Iwona; Stadnicka, Katarzyna; Oleksyn, Barbara J

    2004-03-01

    X-ray crystal structure analysis was performed on single crystals of two diastereomeric enantiopure quinuclidines, (3R,8R)-3-vinyl-8-hydroxymethyl-quinuclidine (quincoridine, QCD) and (3R,8S)-3-vinyl-8-hydroxymethyl-quinuclidine (quincorine, QCI) as their salts with tartaric and p-toluenesulphonate anions, respectively. The molecules of these quinuclidine derivatives are considered here as fragments of the Cinchona alkaloids, quinidine and quinine. A comparison of the conformational features of QCD, QCI, and Cinchona alkaloids in the crystalline state shows that the molecular geometry of the title compounds is similar to that of threo-alkaloids (e.g., R,R isomer of epicinchonine) rather than to quinidine and quinine. The packing of the molecules in both structures is dominated by intermolecular hydrogen bonds.

  2. Potent anti-muscarinic activity in a novel series of quinuclidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Starck, Jean-Philippe; Talaga, Patrice; Quéré, Luc; Collart, Philippe; Christophe, Bernard; Lo Brutto, Patrick; Jadot, Sophie; Chimmanamada, Dinesh; Zanda, Matteo; Wagner, Alain; Mioskowski, Charles; Massingham, Roy; Guyaux, Michel

    2006-01-15

    The synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel family of M(3) muscarinic antagonists are described. A systematic modification of the substituents to a novel alkyne-quinuclidine scaffold yielded original compounds displaying potent in vitro anticholinergic properties.

  3. Centrosymmetric dimer of quinuclidine betaine and squaric acid complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2012-12-01

    The complex of squaric acid (3,4-dihydroxy-3-cyclobuten-1,2-dion, H2SQ) with quinuclidine betaine (1-carboxymethyl-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane inner salt, QNB), 1, has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, FTIR and NMR spectroscopies and by DFT calculations. In the crystal of 1, monoclinic space group P21/n, one proton from H2SQ is transferred to QNB. QNBH+ and HSQ- are linked together by a Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond of 2.553(2) Å. Two such QNBH+·HSQ- complexes form a centrosymmetric dimer bridged by two Osbnd H⋯O bonds of 2.536(2) Å. The FTIR spectrum is consistent with the X-ray results. The structures of monomer QNBH+·HSQ- (1a) and dimer [QNB·H2SQ]2 (2) have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Isolated dimer 2 optimized back to a molecular aggregate of H2SQ and QNB. The calculated frequencies for the optimized structure of dimer 2 have been used to explain the frequencies of the experimental FTIR spectrum. The interpretation of 1H and 13C NMR spectra has been based on the calculated GIAO/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) magnetic isotropic shielding constants for monomer 1a.

  4. Novel muscarinic acetylcholine receptor hybrid ligands embedding quinuclidine and 1,4-dioxane fragments.

    PubMed

    Del Bello, Fabio; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Giorgioni, Gianfabio; Petrelli, Riccardo; Quaglia, Wilma; Altomare, Angela; Falcicchio, Aurelia; Matucci, Rosanna; Vistoli, Giulio; Piergentili, Alessandro

    2017-09-08

    To obtain novel muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonists, the enantiomers of the hybrid compounds 3-5, in which the quinuclidin-3-yloxy fragment of solifenacin and the 6,6-diphenyl-1,4-dioxane-2-yl moiety of 2 linked by an ester or ether spacer were embedded in the same chemical entity, were prepared and evaluated for their affinity at the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5). Stereochemistry and the nature of the linker between the quinuclidine moiety and the 1,4-dioxane nucleus play an important role on the affinities of the compounds. The presence of an ether bridge confers higher affinities for all mAChR subtypes to the ligand. Interestingly, the ether enantiomer (R,S)-5 shows the highest affinity at all mAChR subtypes with pKi values similar to that of solifenacin at M3 and higher at the other subtypes. Unlike solifenacin, it shows a preference for M1 mAChR subtype with respect to the other subtypes. This compound, lacking a permanent positive charge on the nitrogen atom, can be a useful tool for the pharmacological study of mAChRs in the central nervous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel substituted (Z)-2-(N-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-one and (Z)-(+/-)-2-(N-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ol derivatives as potent thermal sensitizing agents.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Vijayakumar N; Thirupathi Reddy, Y; Sekhar, Konjeti R; Sasi, Soumya; Freeman, Michael L; Crooks, Peter A

    2007-12-15

    Use of ionizing radiation is essential for the management of many human cancers, and therapeutic hyperthermia has been identified as a potent radiosensitizer. Radiation therapy combined with adjuvant hyperthermia represents a potential tool to provide outstanding local-regional control for refractory disease. (Z)-(+/-)-2-(N-Benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ol (2) and (Z)-(+/-)-2-(N-benzenesulfonylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ol (4) were initially identified as potent thermal sensitizers that could lower the threshold needed for thermal sensitivity to radiation treatment. To define the structural requirements of the molecule that are essential for thermal sensitization, we have synthesized and evaluated a series of (Z)-2-(N-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-one (9), and (Z)-(+/-)-2-(N-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ol (10) analogs that incorporate a variety of substituents in both the indole and N-benzyl moieties. These systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were designed to further the development and optimization of potential clinically useful thermal sensitizing agents. The most potent analog was compound 10 (R(1)=H, R(2)=4-Cl), which potently inhibited (93% inhibition at 50 microM) the growth of HT-29 cells after a 41 degrees C/2h exposure.

  6. Antiangiogenic properties of substituted (Z)-(±)-2-(N-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ol/one analogs and their derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Reddy, Y. Thirupathi; Sonar, Vijaykumar N.; Muthusamy, Venkatraj; Crooks, Peter A.; Freeman, Michael L.; Sekhar, Konjeti R.

    2010-01-01

    In the past half century research efforts have defined a critical role for angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis. We previously reported that inhibition of a novel target, ENOX1, by a (Z)-2-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene) quinuclidin-3-ol, suppressed tumor angiogenesis. The present study was undertaken in order to establish structure-activity relationships for quinuclidine analogs. The angiogenesis inhibiting activity of a series of substituted (Z)-(±)-2-(N-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ols (1a–1k), (Z)-2-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ones (2a–2h), (Z)-(±)-2-(1H/N-methyl-indol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ols (3a–3b), and substituted (Z)-(±)-2-(N-benzenesulfonylindol-3-yl-methylene)quinuclidin-3-ols and their derivatives (4a–4d) that incorporate a variety of substituents in both the indole and N-benzyl moieties was evaluated using Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) subjected to in vitro cell migration scratch assays, tubule formation in Matrigel, cell viability and proliferation assays. In total, 25 different analogs were evaluated. Based on in vitro cell migration scratch assays, eight analogs were identified as potent angiogenesis inhibitors at 10 µM, a concentration that was determined to be nontoxic by colony formation assay. In addition, this approach identified a potent antiangiogenic ENOX1 inhibitor, analog 4b. PMID:21055930

  7. A fluorinated quinuclidine benzamide named LMA 10203 acts as an agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Bodereau-Dubois, Béatrice; Lapied, Bruno; Lebreton, Jacques; Thany, Steeve H

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, we take advantage of the fact that cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons express different nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes to demonstrate that simple quinuclidine benzamides such as the 2-fluorinated benzamide LMA 10203, could act as an agonist of cockroach α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype, called nAChR2. Indeed, 1 mM LMA 10203 induced ionic currents which were partially blocked by 0.5 μM α-bungarotoxin and methyllycaconitine and completely blocked by 5 μM mecamylamine. Moreover, the current-voltage curve revealed that the ionic current induced by LMA 10203 increased from -30 mV to +20 mV confirming that it acted as an agonist of α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2. In addition, 1 mM LMA 10203 induced a depolarization of the sixth abdominal ganglion and this neuroexcitatory activity was completely blocked by 5 μM mecamylamine. These data suggest that nAChR2 was also expressed at the postsynaptic level on the synapse between the cercal afferent nerve and the giant interneurons. Interestingly, despite LMA 10203 being an agonist of cockroach nicotinic receptors, it had a poor insecticidal activity. We conclude that LMA 10203 could be used as an interesting compound to identify specific insect nAChR subtypes.

  8. Design of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands in quinuclidine, tropane and quinazoline series. Chemistry, molecular modeling, radiochemistry, in vitro and in rats evaluations of a [(18)F] quinuclidine derivative.

    PubMed

    Pin, Frédéric; Vercouillie, Johnny; Ouach, Aziz; Mavel, Sylvie; Gulhan, Zuhal; Chicheri, Gabrielle; Jarry, Christian; Massip, Stephane; Deloye, Jean-Bernard; Guilloteau, Denis; Suzenet, Franck; Chalon, Sylvie; Routier, Sylvain

    2014-07-23

    In this report, we describe the synthesis of a novel library of α7 nAChR ligands based on the modulation of the quinuclidine, quinazoline and tropane moieties. Spirane derivatives were newly synthesized under stereo specific 1,3 dipolar cylcoadditions. Only amide derivatives bonded efficiently to the receptor with Ki measured between 14 and 133 nM. The best fluorinated candidate was selected and radiolabeled. The potent [(18)F]4 PET tracer was evaluated in rats and its brain accumulation quantified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular structure of quinuclidine betaine hydrate studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT, FTIR, Raman, NMR methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2009-03-01

    A new quinuclidine betaine (1-carboxymethyl-quinuclidinium inner salt), QNB, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, NMR, and Raman spectra, and DFT calculations. QNB crystallized as monohydrate in monoclinic space group P2 1/n. Two water molecules link two QNB molecules into a cyclic system by two O-H···O hydrogen bonds of 2.731(1) and 2.760(1) Å. The optimized structure of (QNB·H 2O) 2 by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method is more bent than in the crystal. The FTIR spectrum of the solid compound is consistent with the X-ray structure.

  10. Quinuclidine compounds differently act as agonists of Kenyon cell nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and induced distinct effect on insect ganglionic depolarizations.

    PubMed

    Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Swale, Daniel; Leray, Xavier; Benzidane, Yassine; Lebreton, Jacques; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R; Thany, Steeve H

    2013-12-01

    We have recently demonstrated that a new quinuclidine benzamide compound named LMA10203 acted as an agonist of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Its specific pharmacological profile on cockroach dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUM) helped to identify alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2 receptors. In the present study, we tested its effect on cockroach Kenyon cells. We found that it induced an inward current demonstrating that it bounds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on Kenyon cells. Interestingly, LMA10203-induced currents were completely blocked by the nicotinic antagonist α-bungarotoxin. We suggested that LMA10203 effect occurred through the activation of α-bungarotoxin-sensitive receptors and did not involve α-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2, previously identified in DUM neurons. In addition, we have synthesized two new compounds, LMA10210 and LMA10211, and compared their effects on Kenyon cells. These compounds were members of the 3-quinuclidinyl benzamide or benzoate families. Interestingly, 1 mM LMA10210 was not able to induce an inward current on Kenyon cells compared to LMA10211. Similarly, we did not find any significant effect of LMA10210 on cockroach ganglionic depolarization, whereas these three compounds were able to induce an effect on the central nervous system of the third instar M. domestica larvae. Our data suggested that these three compounds could bind to distinct cockroach nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

  11. Pharmacological properties and predicted binding mode of arylmethylene quinuclidine-like derivatives at the α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR).

    PubMed

    Kombo, David C; Hauser, Terry A; Grinevich, Vladimir P; Melvin, Matthew S; Strachan, Jon-Paul; Sidach, Serguei S; Chewning, Joseph; Fedorov, Nikolai; Tallapragada, Kartik; Breining, Scott R; Miller, Craig H

    2013-03-01

    We have carried out a pharmacological evaluation of arylmethylene quinuclidine derivatives interactions with human α3β4 nAChRs subtype, using cell-based receptor binding, calcium-influx, electrophysiological patch-clamp assays and molecular modeling techniques. We have found that the compounds bind competitively to the α3β4 receptor with micromolar affinities and some of the compounds behave as non-competitive antagonists (compounds 1, 2 and 3), displaying submicromolar IC(50) values. These evidences suggest a mixed mode of action for these compounds, having interactions at the orthosteric site and more pronounced interactions at an allosteric site to block agonist effects. One of the compounds, 1-benzyl-3-(diphenylmethylene)-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride (compound 3), exhibited poorly reversible use-dependent block of α3β4 channels. We also found that removal of a phenyl group from compound 1 confers a partial agonism to the derived analog (compound 6). Introducing a hydrogen-bond acceptor into the 3-benzylidene quinuclidine derivative (compound 7) increases agonism potency at the α3β4 receptor subtype. Docking into the orthosteric binding site of a α3β4 protein structure derived by comparative modeling accurately predicted the experimentally-observed trend in binding affinity. Results supported the notion that binding requires a hydrogen bond formation between the ligand basic nitrogen and the backbone carbonyl oxygen atom of the conserved Trp-149.

  12. Structure and rheology of cationic molecular hydrogels of quinuclidine grafted bile salts. Influence of the ionic strength and counter-ion type.

    PubMed

    Terech, P; Dourdain, S; Maitra, U; Bhat, S

    2009-04-09

    Quinuclidine grafted cationic bile salts are forming salted hydrogels. An extensive investigation of the effect of the electrolyte and counterions on the gelation has been envisaged. The special interest of the quinuclidine grafted bile salt is due to its broader experimental range of gelation to study the effect of electrolyte. Rheological features of the hydrogels are typical of enthalpic networks exhibiting a scaling law of the elastic shear modulus with the concentration (scaling exponent 2.2) modeling cellular solids in which the bending modulus is the dominant parameter. The addition of monovalent salt (NaCl) favors the formation of gels in a first range (0.00117 g cm(-3) (0.02 M) < T(NaCl) < 0.04675 g cm(-3) (0.8 M)). At larger salt concentrations, the gels become more heterogeneous with nodal zones in the micron scale. Small-angle neutron scattering experiments have been used to characterize the rigid fibers ( approximately 68 A) and the nodal zones. Stress sweep and creep-recovery measurements are used to relate the lack of linear viscoelastic domain to a mechanism of disentanglement of the fibers from their associations into fagots. The electrostatic interactions can be screened by addition of salt to induce a progressive evolution toward flocculation. SEM, UV absorbance, and SAXS study of the Bragg peak at large Q-values complete the investigation.

  13. Étude par la méthode de Monte Carlo de la phase plastique de la quinuclidine à différentes températures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumeau, Daniel; André, Daniel

    La phase plastique (c.f.c.) de la quinuclidine est étudiée à différentes températures par la méthode de Monte Carlo utilisant la technique des matrices de compatibilité. Afin de ne pas modifier la symétrie moyenne du réseau, les centres de masse de molécules sont supposés fixes. Les orientations moléculaires sont choisies de façon aléatoire parmi les 48 orientations équivalentes et discernables du groupe c.f.c. Cela permet une mémorisation préalable des énergies d'interaction entre molécules voisines et un gain de temps de calcul considérable. Nous observons alors un blocage des réorientations moléculaires à basse température, tandis que la symétrie cristalline devient monoclinique. Ceci est interprété en termes de transition de phase dont la température (215 K) et la variation d'énergie (5 kJ mol-1) sont très proches des valeurs expérimentales.

  14. Reactions of nitroxides XIII: Synthesis of the Morita–Baylis–Hillman adducts bearing a nitroxyl moiety using 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl as a starting compound, and DABCO and quinuclidine as catalysts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary The Morita–Baylis–Hillman adducts bearing a nitroxyl moiety were synthesized from 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and aliphatic, aryl and heterocyclic aldehydes. PMID:23019486

  15. Benzylic Ammonium Ylide Mediated Epoxidations

    PubMed Central

    Roiser, Lukas; Robiette, Raphaël; Waser, Mario

    2016-01-01

    A high yielding synthesis of stilbene oxides using ammonium ylides has been developed. It turned out that the amine leaving group plays a crucial role as trimethylamine gives higher yields than DABCO or quinuclidine. The amine group also influences the diastereoselectivity, and detailed DFT calculations to understand the key parameters of these reactions have been carried out. PMID:27766017

  16. FT-Raman study of cinchonine aqueous solutions with varying pH; 2D correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesetucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra

    1999-05-01

    Cinchonine (C 19H 22N 2O) is one of the Cinchona tree alkaloids. It consists of two moieties, a quinoline ring and quinuclidine linked by a hydroxymethylene bridge. Each one of these parts contains nitrogen atoms, which are proton acceptor and cause that cinchonine can be treated as a weak base. For the first time the protonation effect was evidenced in the RR spectra of cinchonine while interacting with DNA (A. Wesetucha-Birczyńska and K. Nakamoto, J. Raman Spectrosc. 27 (1996) 915). In the current study 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the FT-Raman spectra of cin aqueous solutions with varying pH, which was regarded as external perturbation in the 1300-1700 cm -1 range, which is quinuclidine and quinoline ring stretching vibration region. These monitored fluctuations transformed into 2D spectra allows to analyze these vibrations and differentiate them.

  17. Excited state proton transfer in the Cinchona alkaloid cupreidine.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junhong; Brouwer, Albert M

    2010-10-21

    Photophysical properties of the organocatalyst cupreidine (CPD) and its chromophoric building block 6-hydroxyquinoline (6HQ) in protic and nonprotic polar solvents (methanol and acetonitrile) were investigated by means of UV-vis absorption, and steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The effects of the catalytically relevant interactions with electrophilic and hydrogen bonding agents (p-toluene sulfonic acid and water) on their spectral characteristics were studied. In neutral CPD in acetonitrile, quenching of fluorescence occurs due to electron transfer from the quinuclidine nitrogen to the excited quinoline chromophore. Protonation suppresses this process, while complexation with water leads to enhanced excited state proton transfer from the 6'-OH group to the quinuclidine nitrogen, and emission occurs from the anionic form of the chromophore. The weakly emitting zwitterionic form of the hydroxyquinoline chromophore is readily formed in methanol, but not in acetonitrile.

  18. Analyte Kinetics in a Nanocluster-Based Chemiresistor: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    substituting reactants with more rigid structures and higher melting points (see Fig. 2b). One attempt involved using benzoic acid (MP 122 ◦C) in place of...Likewise, substituting quinuclidine (MP 158 ◦C) for TEA (MP −115 ◦C) and reacting with benzoic acid produced a viscous liquid that did not...nanoclusters are functionalized with mercaptohexanoic acid are investigated as sensors of amines, and especially of tri- ethylamine to

  19. Characterization of the principal metabolite of quinine in human urine by 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bolaji, O O; Babalola, C P; Dixon, P A

    1991-04-01

    1. The major metabolite of quinine in human urine, which is also the sole metabolite in human plasma and saliva, has been identified and characterized by chemical ionization mass spectrometry and 1H-n.m.r. spectrometry. 2. The mass spectrum showed that an oxygen atom is incorporated in the quinuclidine nucleus, and the exact position of the oxidation was established from the n.m.r. spectrum to be at the C-3 position.

  20. Cobalt complexes with cinchonidine and quinidine: effect of C8/C9 stereochemistry and 6'-substitution on intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Agnieszka; Stadnicka, Katarzyna; Oleksyn, Barbara J

    2005-02-01

    The title compounds, (cinchonidinium)trichlorocobalt(II) [(C(19)H(23)ON(2))CoCl(3)] (CoCdn) and (quinidinium)trichlorocobalt(II) [(C(20)H(25)O(2)N(2))CoCl(3)] (CoQd), are zwitterions that differ in absolute configuration and conformation. In both complexes, the sp(3) nitrogen of quinuclidine is protonated, whereas the sp(2) nitrogen of quinoline is linked to the Co(II) atom, which coordinates three chlorine atoms in distorted tetrahedral geometry. The mutual orientations of the quinoline and quinuclidine moieties in CoCdn and CoQd differ significantly because of different hydrogen bonding involving the hydroxyl group. In both complexes, the quinuclidine NH groups and hydroxyl groups are hydrogen-bond donors to the chlorine atoms of Co(II) tetrahedra. In CoQd the hydrogen bonding leads to formation of a nine-membered ring consisting of Co, two chlorines, and a fragment of the quinidine molecule. A comparison of the crystal structures of four Cinchona alkaloid complexes with trichlorocobalt(II) shows that their space groups are determined by the absolute configuration of the alkaloid, whereas the hydrogen-bonding pattern is mainly affected by the substituent in the quinoline ring, i.e., by hydrogen or methoxyl group.

  1. Organic transformations catalyzed by methylrhenium trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zuolin

    1995-10-06

    Methylrhenium trioxide (MTO), CH3ReO3, was first prepared in 1979. MTO forms stable or unstable adducts with electron-rich ligands, such as amines (quinuclidine, 1,4-diazabicyclo-octane, pyridine, aniline, 2,2'-bipyridine), alkynes, olefins, 1,2-diols, catechols, hydrogen peroxide, water, thiophenols, 1,2-dithiols, triphenylphosphine, 2-aminophenols, 2-aminothiophenols, 8-hydroxyquinoline and halides (Cl-, Br-, I-). After coordination, different further reactions will occur for different reagents. Reactions described in this report include the dehydration of alcohols, direct amination of alcohols, activation of hydrogen peroxide, oxygen transfer, and decomposition of ethyl diazoacetate.

  2. Quininium tetra-chloridozinc(II).

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Zhuang

    2009-09-05

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound {systematic name: 2-[hydr-oxy(6-meth-oxy-quinolin-1-ium-4-yl)meth-yl]-8-vinyl-quinuclidin-1-ium tetra-chlorido-zinc(II)}, (C(20)H(26)N(2)O(2))[ZnCl(4)], consists of a double proton-ated quininium cation and a tetra-chloridozinc(II) anion. The Zn(II) ion is in a slightly distorted tetra-hedral coordination environment. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter-molecular N-H⋯Cl and O-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  3. Design and Synthesis of a New Series of 4-Heteroarylamino-1'-azaspiro[oxazole-5,3'-bicyclo[2.2.2]octanes as α7 Nicotinic Receptor Agonists. 1. Development of Pharmacophore and Early Structure-Activity Relationship.

    PubMed

    Cook, James; Zusi, F Christopher; McDonald, Ivar M; King, Dalton; Hill, Matthew D; Iwuagwu, Christiana; Mate, Robert A; Fang, Haiquan; Zhao, Rulin; Wang, Bei; Cutrone, Jingfang; Ma, Baoqing; Gao, Qi; Knox, Ronald J; Matchett, Michele; Gallagher, Lizbeth; Ferrante, Meredith; Post-Munson, Debra; Molski, Thaddeus; Easton, Amy; Miller, Regina; Jones, Kelli; Digavalli, Siva; Healy, Francine; Lentz, Kimberley; Benitex, Yulia; Clarke, Wendy; Natale, Joanne; Siuciak, Judith A; Lodge, Nicholas; Zaczek, Robert; Denton, Rex; Morgan, Daniel; Bristow, Linda J; Macor, John E; Olson, Richard E

    2016-12-22

    The design and synthesis of a series of quinuclidine-containing spirooxazolidines ("spiroimidates") and their utility as α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonists are described. Selected members of the series demonstrated excellent selectivity for α7 over the highly homologous 5-HT3A receptor. Modification of the N-spiroimidate heterocycle substituent led to (1S,2R,4S)-N-isoquinolin-3-yl)-4'H-4-azaspiro[bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,5'oxazol]-2'-amine (BMS-902483), a potent α7 partial agonist, which improved cognition in preclinical rodent models.

  4. Squalene Synthase As a Target for Chagas Disease Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Li, Jikun; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ren, Feifei; Chen, Chun-Chi; Zhu, Zhen; Galizzi, Melina; Li, Zhu-Hong; Rodrigues-Poveda, Carlos A.; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; de Souza, Wanderley; Urbina, Julio A.; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Docampo, Roberto; Li, Kai; Liu, Yi-Liang; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites are the causative agents of many neglected tropical diseases and there is currently considerable interest in targeting endogenous sterol biosynthesis in these organisms as a route to the development of novel anti-infective drugs. Here, we report the first x-ray crystallographic structures of the enzyme squalene synthase (SQS) from a trypanosomatid parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We obtained five structures of T. cruzi SQS and eight structures of human SQS with four classes of inhibitors: the substrate-analog S-thiolo-farnesyl diphosphate, the quinuclidines E5700 and ER119884, several lipophilic bisphosphonates, and the thiocyanate WC-9, with the structures of the two very potent quinuclidines suggesting strategies for selective inhibitor development. We also show that the lipophilic bisphosphonates have low nM activity against T. cruzi and inhibit endogenous sterol biosynthesis and that E5700 acts synergistically with the azole drug, posaconazole. The determination of the structures of trypanosomatid and human SQS enzymes with a diverse set of inhibitors active in cells provides insights into SQS inhibition, of interest in the context of the development of drugs against Chagas disease. PMID:24789335

  5. Chiral modification of platinum: ab initio study of the effect of hydrogen coadsorption on stability and geometry of adsorbed cinchona alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Konstanze R; Seitsonen, Ari P; Baiker, Alfons

    2015-11-07

    The cinchona alkaloids cinchonidine and cinchonine belong to the most efficient chiral modifiers for the noble metal-catalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation of C=O and C=C bonds. Under reaction conditions these modifiers are coadsorbed on the noble metal surface with hydrogen. Using density functional theory, we studied the effect of coadsorbed hydrogen on the adsorption mode of cinchonidine and cinchonine on a Pt(111) surface at different hydrogen coverages. The theoretical study indicates that the presence of coadsorbed hydrogen affects both the adsorption geometry as well as the stability of the adsorbed cinchona alkaloids. At all hydrogen coverages the cinchona alkaloids are found to be adsorbed via anchoring of the quinoline moiety. In the absence of hydrogen as well as at low hydrogen coverage the quinoline moiety adsorbs nearly parallel to the surface, whereas at higher hydrogen coverage it becomes tilted. Higher hydrogen coverage as well as partial hydrogenation of the quinoline part of the cinchona alkaloid and hydrogen transfer to the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bond at 10, 11 position of the quinuclidine moiety destabilize the adsorbed cinchona alkaloid, whereas hydrogen transfer to the nitrogen atom of the quinoline and the quinuclidine moiety stabilizes the adsorbed molecule. The stability as well as the adsorption geometry of the cinchona alkaloids are affected by the coadsorbed hydrogen and are proposed to influence the efficiency of the enantiodifferentiating ability of the chirally modified platinum surface.

  6. Salts of phenylacetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid with Cinchona alkaloids: Crystal structures, thermal analysis and FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amombo Noa, Francoise M.; Jacobs, Ayesha

    2016-06-01

    Seven salts were formed with phenylacetic acid (PAA), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPAA) and the Cinchona alkaloids; cinchonidine (CIND), quinidine (QUID) and quinine (QUIN). For all the structures the proton was transferred from the carboxylic acid of the PAA/HPAA to the quinuclidine nitrogen of the respective Cinchona alkaloid. For six of the salts, water was included in the crystal structures with one of these also incorporating an isopropanol solvent molecule. However HPAA co-crystallised with quinine to form an anhydrous salt, (HPAA-)(QUIN+). The thermal stability of the salts were determined and differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the (HPAA-)(QUIN+) salt had the highest thermal stability compared to the other salt hydrates. The salts were also characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. (PAA-)(QUID+)·H2O and (PAA-)(QUIN+)·H2O are isostructural and Hirshfeld surface analysis was completed to compare the intermolecular interactions in these two structures.

  7. Synthesis and muscarinic activity of quinuclidinyl- and (1-azanorbornyl)pyrazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Street, L J; Baker, R; Book, T; Reeve, A J; Saunders, J; Willson, T; Marwood, R S; Patel, S; Freedman, S B

    1992-01-24

    The synthesis and cortical muscarinic activity of a novel series of pyrazine-based agonists is described. Quinuclidine and azanorbornane derivatives were prepared either by reaction of lithiated pyrazines with azabicyclic ketones, followed by chlorination and reduction, or by reaction of the lithium enolate of the azabicyclic ester with 2-chloropyrazines followed by ester hydrolysis and decarboxylation. Substitution at all three positions of the heteroaromatic ring has been explored. Optimal muscarinic agonist activity was observed for unsubstituted pyrazines in the azanorbornane series. The exo-1-azanorbornane 18a is one of the most efficacious and potent centrally active muscarinic agonists known. Studies on the 3-substituted derivatives have provided evidence of the preferred conformation of these ligands for optimal muscarinic activity. Substitution at C6 gave ligands with increased affinity and reduced efficacy. Moving the position of the diazine ring nitrogens to give pyrimidine and pyridazine derivatives resulted in a significant loss of muscarinic activity.

  8. 1-Butyl­quinine tetra­fluoro­borate

    PubMed Central

    Eltaief, Sana; Retailleau, Pascal; Straver, Leo; Ben Hassine, Béchir

    2010-01-01

    In the title salt (2S,4S,8R)-1-butyl-2-[(R)-(hydr­oxy)(6-methoxy­quinolin-4-yl)meth­yl]-8-vinyl­quinuclidin-1-ium tetra­fluoro­borate, C24H33N2O2 +·BF4 −, the butyl substituent at the 1-position is in an equatorial conformation with respect to the unsubstituted six-membered ring and the four butyl C atoms are almost coplanar with the ring N and vinyl C atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.046 Å). In the crystal, the cations are linked by O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The F atoms of the tetra­fluoro­borate group are disordered over two sets of site with an occupancy raitio of 0.552 (8):0.448 (8). PMID:21579717

  9. Potential probe for examining opiate-receptor interactions: model compound study of dynamic effects on /sup 15/N INEPT enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, K.H.; Mikita, M.A.

    1987-10-01

    Model systems were chosen in an attempt to mimic the proton exchange environment of an agonist nitrogen in an opiate-receptor interaction. The two model systems studied were an ammonium: 18-crown-6 ether complex and a quinuclidine-trifluoroacetic acid ion pair. Each system was examined for their effects on /sup 15/N NMR INEPT enhancements. Both models were found to retard proton exchange dynamics, as observed by increased enhancements relative to free ions in neutral aqueous solutions. These results suggest that the confinement of a protonated nitrogen, such as that expected in receptor binding, may alter exchange dynamics to favor INEPT enhancements, while unbound agonists would remain unenhanced. As a result, /sup 15/N NMR INEPT enhancements from a solution of receptor subtypes with an appropriate /sup 15/N-labeled agonist may present a means of exploring the dynamics of direct opiate-receptor interactions.

  10. Thermochemistry of Alane Complexes for Hydrogen Storage: A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the relative stabilities of alane (AlH3) complexes with electron donors is essential for identifying hydrogen storage materials for vehicular applications that can be regenerated by off-board methods; however, almost no thermodynamic data are available to make this assessment. To fill this gap, we employed the G4(MP2) method to determine heats of formation, entropies, and Gibbs free energies of formation for 38 alane complexes with NH3−nRn (R = Me, Et; n = 0−3), pyridine, pyrazine, triethylenediamine (TEDA), quinuclidine, OH2−nRn (R = Me, Et; n = 0−2), dioxane, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). Monomer, bis, and selected dimer complex geometries were considered. Using these data, we computed the thermodynamics of the key formation and dehydrogenation reactions that would occur during hydrogen delivery and alane regeneration, from which trends in complex stability were identified. These predictions were tested by synthesizing six amine−alane complexes involving trimethylamine, triethylamine, dimethylethylamine, TEDA, quinuclidine, and hexamine and obtaining upper limits of ΔG° for their formation from metallic aluminum. Combining these computational and experimental results, we establish a criterion for complex stability relevant to hydrogen storage that can be used to assess potential ligands prior to attempting synthesis of the alane complex. On the basis of this, we conclude that only a subset of the tertiary amine complexes considered and none of the ether complexes can be successfully formed by direct reaction with aluminum and regenerated in an alane-based hydrogen storage system. PMID:22962624

  11. Controlled Synthesis of Polyenes by Catalytic Methods. Progress Report, December 1, 1989 -- November 30, 1992

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schrock, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    A more direct approach to polyenes by the direct polymerization of acetylenes has been achieved. We were able to show that polymerization of acetylene itself can be controlled with a well- characterized alkylidene catalyst, but only if a base such as quinuclidine is present in order to slow down the rate of propagation relative to initiation. (Quinuclidine may also stabilize vinylalkylidene intermediates formed in the reaction). Unfortunately, living polyenes were no more stable than isolated polyenes, and so this approach had its limitations. Direct polymerization of acetylene by Mo(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)(O-t-Bu){sub 2} was more successful, but inherent polyene instability was still a problem. The most important result of the past grant period is the finding that dipropargyl derivatives (HC=CCH{sub 2}XCH{sub 2}C=CH; X = CH{sub 2}, C(CO{sub 2}R){sub 2}, SiR{sub 2}, etc.), which have been reported to be cyclopolymerized by various classical catalysts by as yet unknown mechanisms, are polymerized by Mo(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)[OCMe(CF{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2} in dimethoxyethane. We speculate that intramolecular formation of a five-membered ring in the product of {alpha} addition is fast enough to yield another terminal alkylidene on the time scale of the polymerization reaction, while a six-membered ring is formed in a reaction involving a more reaction terminal alkylidene. Either intermediate alkylidene, but most likely the terminal alkylidene, could react with additional monomer to lead to growth of a chain having dangling triple bonds that eventually could be employed to form crosslinks.

  12. Investigation of the effect of cucurbit[7]uril complexation on the photophysical and acid-base properties of the antimalarial drug quinine.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Suman; Pal, Kaushik; Chandra, Falguni; Koner, Apurba L

    2016-11-09

    Host-guest complexation of mono and dicationic quinine with cucurbit[7]uril (CB7), a water-soluble macrocyclic host molecule, has been investigated. Job's plot, time-resolved anisotropy as well as concentration dependent NMR titration confirm the binding of two CB7 macrocycles with one quinine molecule. The binding affinity of dicationic quinine with CB7 is one order of magnitude higher than the binding constant of mono-cationic quinine. Such preferential binding results in one unit pKa shift in the ground-state of the quinoline ring. However, using fluorescence spectroscopy we have obtained two acid-dissociation constants, one for quinoline ring nitrogen and the other for the nitrogen of the quinuclidine moiety. In the excited state, CB7 complexation causes one unit pKa shift for the quinoline ring and 1.9 unit shift for the quinuclidine moiety. Interestingly, a large enhancement of fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy of quinine at pH 2.7 and pH 9.0 upon CB7 complexation was observed due to the restriction of conformational flexibility. Moreover, at pH 3.0, a large fluorescence enhancement of quinine due to CB7 complexation was observed and it was quite significant as compared to that of quinine in 0.1 (M) HCl without CB7. We believe that this study of quinine complexation with CB7 will reduce phototoxicity, increase bioavailability and offer an alternative standard for quantum yield measurements in an amiable condition.

  13. Structure-property relationship of quinuclidinium surfactants--Towards multifunctional biologically active molecules.

    PubMed

    Skočibušić, Mirjana; Odžak, Renata; Štefanić, Zoran; Križić, Ivana; Krišto, Lucija; Jović, Ozren; Hrenar, Tomica; Primožič, Ines; Jurašin, Darija

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by diverse biological and pharmacological activity of quinuclidine and oxime compounds we have synthesized and characterized novel class of surfactants, 3-hydroxyimino quinuclidinium bromides with different alkyl chains lengths (CnQNOH; n=12, 14 and 16). The incorporation of non conventional hydroxyimino quinuclidinium headgroup and variation in alkyl chain length affects hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of surfactant molecule and thereby physicochemical properties important for its application. Therefore, newly synthesized surfactants were characterized by the combination of different experimental techniques: X-ray analysis, potentiometry, electrical conductivity, surface tension and dynamic light scattering measurements, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Comprehensive investigation of CnQNOH surfactants enabled insight into structure-property relationship i.e., way in which the arrangement of surfactant molecules in the crystal phase correlates with their solution behavior and biologically activity. The synthesized CnQNOH surfactants exhibited high adsorption efficiency and relatively low critical micelle concentrations. In addition, all investigated compounds showed very potent and promising activity against Gram-positive and clinically relevant Gram-negative bacterial strains compared to conventional antimicrobial agents: tetracycline and gentamicin. The overall results indicate that bicyclic headgroup with oxime moiety, which affects both hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of CnQNOH molecule in addition to enabling hydrogen bonding, has dominant effect on crystal packing and physicochemical properties. The unique structural features of cationic surfactants with hydroxyimino quinuclidine headgroup along with diverse biological activity have made them promising structures in novel drug discovery. Obtained fundamental understanding how combination of different functionalities in a single surfactant molecule affects its physicochemical

  14. The Minimal Pharmacophore for Silent Agonism of the α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chojnacka, Kinga; Horenstein, Nicole A.

    2014-01-01

    The minimum pharmacophore for activation of the human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the tetramethylammonium cation. Previous work demonstrated that larger quaternary ammonium compounds, such as diethyldimethylammonium or 1-methyl quinuclidine, were α7-selective partial agonists, but additional increase in the size of the ammonium cation or the quinuclidine N-alkyl group by a single carbon to an N-ethyl group led to a loss of efficacy for ion channel activation. We report that although such compounds are ineffective at inducing the normal channel open state, they nonetheless regulate the induction of specific conformational states normally considered downstream of channel activation. We synthesized several panels of quaternary ammonium nAChR ligands that systematically varied the size of the substituents bonded to the central positively charged nitrogen atom. In these molecular series, we found a correlation between the molecular volume of the ligand and/or charge density, and the receptor’s preferred distribution among conformational states including the closed state, the active state, a nonconducting state that could be converted to an activated state by a positive allosteric modulator (PAM), and a PAM-insensitive nonconducting state. We hypothesize that the changes of molecular volume of an agonist’s cationic core subtly impact interactions at the subunit interface constituting the orthosteric binding site in such a way as to regulate the probability of conversions among the conformational states. We define a new minimal pharmacophore for the class of compounds we have termed “silent agonists,” which are able to induce allosteric modulator-dependent activation but not the normal activated state. PMID:24990939

  15. Controlled Synthesis of Polyenes by Catalytic Methods. Progress Report for the period December 1, 1989 - November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, R.R.

    1992-11-30

    A more direct approach to polyenes by the direct polymerization of acetylenes has been achieved. We were able to show that polymerization of acetylene itself can be controlled with a well- characterized alkylidene catalyst, but only if a base such as quinuclidine is present in order to slow down the rate of propagation relative to initiation. (Quinuclidine may also stabilize vinylalkylidene intermediates formed in the reaction). Unfortunately, living polyenes'' were no more stable than isolated polyenes, and so this approach had its limitations. Direct polymerization of acetylene by Mo(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)(O-t-Bu){sub 2} was more successful, but inherent polyene instability was still a problem. The most important result of the past grant period is the finding that dipropargyl derivatives (HC=CCH{sub 2}XCH{sub 2}C=CH; X = CH{sub 2}, C(CO{sub 2}R){sub 2}, SiR{sub 2}, etc.), which have been reported to be cyclopolymerized by various classical catalysts by as yet unknown mechanisms, are polymerized by Mo(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)(OCMe(CF{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2} in dimethoxyethane. We speculate that intramolecular formation of a five-membered ring in the product of {alpha} addition is fast enough to yield another terminal alkylidene on the time scale of the polymerization reaction, while a six-membered ring is formed in a reaction involving a more reaction terminal alkylidene. Either intermediate alkylidene, but most likely the terminal alkylidene, could react with additional monomer to lead to growth of a chain having dangling'' triple bonds that eventually could be employed to form crosslinks.

  16. Controlled synthesis of polyenes by catalytic methods. Progress report, December 1, 1989--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Schrock, R.R.

    1992-07-01

    A more direct approach to polyenes by the direct polymerization of acetylenes has been achieved. We were able to show that polymerization of acetylene itself can be controlled with a well- characterized alkylidene catalyst, but only if a base such as quinuclidine is present in order to slow down the rate of propagation relative to initiation. (Quinuclidine may also stabilize vinylalkylidene intermediates formed in the reaction). Unfortunately, ``living polyenes`` were no more stable than isolated polyenes, and so this approach had its limitations. Direct polymerization of acetylene by Mo(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)(O-t-Bu){sub 2} was more successful, but inherent polyene instability was still a problem. The most important result of the past grant period is the finding that dipropargyl derivatives (HC=CCH{sub 2}XCH{sub 2}C=CH; X = CH{sub 2}, C(CO{sub 2}R){sub 2}, SiR{sub 2}, etc.), which have been reported to be cyclopolymerized by various classical catalysts by as yet unknown mechanisms, are polymerized by Mo(CH-t-Bu)(NAr)[OCMe(CF{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2} in dimethoxyethane. We speculate that intramolecular formation of a five-membered ring in the product of {alpha} addition is fast enough to yield another terminal alkylidene on the time scale of the polymerization reaction, while a six-membered ring is formed in a reaction involving a more reaction terminal alkylidene. Either intermediate alkylidene, but most likely the terminal alkylidene, could react with additional monomer to lead to growth of a chain having ``dangling`` triple bonds that eventually could be employed to form crosslinks.

  17. Thermochemistry of Alane Complexes for Hydrogen Storage: A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Bryan M; Lacina, David; Nielsen, Ida M B; Graetz, Jason; Allendorf, Mark D

    2011-04-21

    Knowledge of the relative stabilities of alane (AlH(3)) complexes with electron donors is essential for identifying hydrogen storage materials for vehicular applications that can be regenerated by off-board methods; however, almost no thermodynamic data are available to make this assessment. To fill this gap, we employed the G4(MP2) method to determine heats of formation, entropies, and Gibbs free energies of formation for 38 alane complexes with NH(3-n)R(n) (R = Me, Et; n = 0-3), pyridine, pyrazine, triethylenediamine (TEDA), quinuclidine, OH(2-n)R(n) (R = Me, Et; n = 0-2), dioxane, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). Monomer, bis, and selected dimer complex geometries were considered. Using these data, we computed the thermodynamics of the key formation and dehydrogenation reactions that would occur during hydrogen delivery and alane regeneration, from which trends in complex stability were identified. These predictions were tested by synthesizing six amine-alane complexes involving trimethylamine, triethylamine, dimethylethylamine, TEDA, quinuclidine, and hexamine and obtaining upper limits of ΔG° for their formation from metallic aluminum. Combining these computational and experimental results, we establish a criterion for complex stability relevant to hydrogen storage that can be used to assess potential ligands prior to attempting synthesis of the alane complex. On the basis of this, we conclude that only a subset of the tertiary amine complexes considered and none of the ether complexes can be successfully formed by direct reaction with aluminum and regenerated in an alane-based hydrogen storage system.

  18. Thermochemistry of Alane Complexes for Hydrogen Storage: A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, B.M.; Graetz, J.; Lacina, D.; Nielsen, I.M.B.; Allendorf, M.D.

    2011-03-30

    Knowledge of the relative stabilities of alane (AlH{sub 3}) complexes with electron donors is essential for identifying hydrogen storage materials for vehicular applications that can be regenerated by off-board methods; however, almost no thermodynamic data are available to make this assessment. To fill this gap, we employed the G4(MP2) method to determine heats of formation, entropies, and Gibbs free energies of formation for 38 alane complexes with NH{sub 3-n}R{sub n} (R = Me, Et; n = 0-3), pyridine, pyrazine, triethylenediamine (TEDA), quinuclidine, OH{sub 2-n}R{sub n} (R = Me, Et; n = 0-2), dioxane, and tetrahydrofuran (THF). Monomer, bis, and selected dimer complex geometries were considered. Using these data, we computed the thermodynamics of the key formation and dehydrogenation reactions that would occur during hydrogen delivery and alane regeneration, from which trends in complex stability were identified. These predictions were tested by synthesizing six amine-alane complexes involving trimethylamine, triethylamine, dimethylethylamine, TEDA, quinuclidine, and hexamine and obtaining upper limits of {Delta}G{sup o} for their formation from metallic aluminum. Combining these computational and experimental results, we establish a criterion for complex stability relevant to hydrogen storage that can be used to assess potential ligands prior to attempting synthesis of the alane complex. On the basis of this, we conclude that only a subset of the tertiary amine complexes considered and none of the ether complexes can be successfully formed by direct reaction with aluminum and regenerated in an alane-based hydrogen storage system.

  19. Neuropharmacokinetics of two investigational compounds in rats: divergent temporal profiles in the brain and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cuyue; Chen, Ting; Kapadnis, Sudarshan; Hodgdon, Hilliary; Tao, Yi; Chen, Xing; Wen, Melody; Costa, Don; Murphy, Deirdre; Nolan, Scott; Flood, Dorothy G; Welty, Devin F; Koenig, Gerhard

    2014-10-15

    Two investigational compounds (FRM-1, (R)-7-fluoro-N-(quinuclidin-3-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide and FRM-2, (R)-7-cyano-N-(quinuclidin-3-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-2-carboxamide) resided in rat brain longer than in systemic circulation. In Caco-2 directional transport studies, they both showed good intrinsic passive permeability but differed significantly in efflux susceptibility (efflux ratio of <2 and ∼7, respectively), largely attributed to P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Capitalizing on these interesting properties, we investigated how cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration (CCSF) would be shaped by unbound plasma concentration (Cu,p) and unbound brain concentration (Cu,b) in disequilibrium conditions and at steady state. Following subcutaneous administration, FRM-1CCSF largely followed Cu,p initially and leveled between Cu,p and Cu,b. However, it gradually approached Cu,b and became lower than, but parallel to Cu,b at the terminal phase. In contrast, FRM-2CCSF temporal profile mostly paralleled the Cu,p but was at a much lower level. Upon intravenous infusion to steady state, FRM-1CCSF and Cu,b were similar, accounting for 61% and 69% of the Cu,p, indicating a case of largely passive diffusion-governed brain penetration where CCSF served as a good surrogate for Cu,b. On the contrary, FRM-2CCSF and Cu,b were remarkably lower than Cu,p (17% and 8% of Cu,p, respectively), suggesting that FRM-2 brain penetration was severely impaired by P-gp-mediated efflux and CCSF underestimated this impact. A semi-physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was constructed that adequately described the temporal profiles of the compounds in the plasma, brain and CSF. Our work provided some insight into the relative importance of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) in modulating CCSF.

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of E5700 and ER-119884, Two Novel Orally Active Squalene Synthase Inhibitors, against Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Urbina, Julio A.; Concepcion, Juan Luis; Caldera, Aura; Payares, Gilberto; Sanoja, Cristina; Otomo, Takeshi; Hiyoshi, Hironobu

    2004-01-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious public health problem in Latin America, and no treatment is available for the prevalent chronic stage. Its causative agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, requires specific endogenous sterols for survival, and we have recently demonstrated that squalene synthase (SQS) is a promising target for antiparasitic chemotherapy. E5700 and ER-119884 are quinuclidine-based inhibitors of mammalian SQS that are currently in development as cholesterol- and triglyceride-lowering agents in humans. These compounds were found to be potent noncompetitive or mixed-type inhibitors of T. cruzi SQS with Ki values in the low nanomolar to subnanomolar range in the absence or presence of 20 μM inorganic pyrophosphate. The antiproliferative 50% inhibitory concentrations of the compounds against extracellular epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes were ca. 10 nM and 0.4 to 1.6 nM, respectively, with no effects on host cells. When treated with these compounds at the MIC, all of the parasite's sterols disappeared from the parasite cells. In vivo studies indicated that E5700 was able to provide full protection against death and completely arrested the development of parasitemia when given at a concentration of 50 mg/kg of body weight/day for 30 days, while ER-119884 provided only partial protection. This is the first report of an orally active SQS inhibitor that is capable of providing complete protection against fulminant, acute Chagas' disease. PMID:15215084

  1. SN2' versus SN2 reactivity: control of regioselectivity in conversions of Baylis-Hillman adducts.

    PubMed

    Baidya, Mahiuddin; Remennikov, Grygoriy Y; Mayer, Peter; Mayr, Herbert

    2010-01-25

    TiCl(4)-induced Baylis-Hillman reactions of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with aldehydes yield the (Z)-2-(chloromethyl)vinyl carbonyl compounds 5, which react with 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO), quinuclidine, and pyridines to give the allylammonium ions 6. Their combination with less than one equivalent of the potassium salts of stabilized carbanions (e.g. malonate) yields methylene derivatives 8 under kinetically controlled conditions (S(N)2' reactions). When more than one equivalent of the carbanions is used, a second S(N)2' reaction converts 8 into their thermodynamically more stable allyl isomers 9. The second-order rate constants for the reactions of 6 with carbanions have been determined photometrically in DMSO. With these rate constants and the previously reported nucleophile-specific parameters N and s for the stabilized carbanions, the correlation log k (20 degrees C)=s(N + E) allowed us to calculate the electrophilicity parameters E for the allylammonium ions 6 (-19 < E < -18). The kinetic data indicate the S(N)2' reactions to proceed via an addition-elimination mechanism with a rate-determining addition step.

  2. Laser desorption ionization of small molecules assisted by tungsten oxide and rhenium oxide particles.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Matthew C; Wysocki, Vicki H; Dagan, Shai

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic metal oxides have shown potential as matrices for assisting in laser desorption ionization with advantages over the aromatic acids typically used. Rhenium and tungsten oxides are attractive options due to their high work functions and relative chemical inertness. In this work, it is shown that ReO3 and WO3 , in microparticle (μP) powder forms, can efficiently facilitate ionization of various types of small molecules and provide minimized background contamination at analyte concentrations below 1 ng/µL. This study shows that untreated inorganic WO3 and ReO3 particles are valid matrix options for detection of protonatable, radical, and precharged species under laser desorption ionization. Qualitatively, the WO3 μP showed improved detection of apigenin, sodiated glucose, and precharged analyte choline, while the ReO3 μP allowed better detection of protonated cocaine, quinuclidine, ametryn, and radical ions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons at detection levels as low as 50 pg/µL. For thermometer ion survival yield experiments, it was also shown that the ReO3 powder was significantly softer than α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnaminic acid. Furthermore, it provided higher intensities of cocaine and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, at laser flux values equal to those used with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnaminic acid.

  3. Iron(III) protoporphyrin IX complexes of the antimalarial Cinchona alkaloids quinine and quinidine.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Katherine A; Gildenhuys, Johandie; le Roex, Tanya

    2012-04-20

    The antimalarial properties of the Cinchona alkaloids quinine and quinidine have been known for decades. Surprisingly, 9-epiquinine and 9-epiquinidine are almost inactive. A lack of definitive structural information has precluded a clear understanding of the relationship between molecular structure and biological activity. In the current study, we have determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction the structures of the complexes formed between quinine and quinidine and iron(III) protoporphyrin IX (Fe(III)PPIX). Coordination of the alkaloid to the Fe(III) center is a key feature of both complexes, and further stability is provided by an intramolecular hydrogen bond formed between a propionate side chain of Fe(III)PPIX and the protonated quinuclidine nitrogen atom of either alkaloid. These interactions are believed to be responsible for inhibiting the incorporation of Fe(III)PPIX into crystalline hemozoin during its in vivo detoxification. It is also possible to rationalize the greater activity of quinidine compared to that of quinine.

  4. Interaction Energies and Dynamics of Acid–Base Pairs Isolated in Cavitands

    PubMed Central

    Purse, Byron W.; Butterfield, Sara M.; Ballester, Pablo; Shivanyuk, Alexander; Rebek, Julius

    2009-01-01

    The use of capsules and cavitands in physical organic chemistry is briefly reviewed, and their application to the study of salt bridges is introduced. Carboxylate/ammonium ion pairs are generated within an environment that more or less surrounds the functional groups within a synthetic fixed introverted solvent sphere. This is provided by cavitands that fold around amines and present them with a carboxylic acid function. Both organic and water-soluble versions were prepared, and their equilibrium affinities with quinuclidine bases were determined by NMR methods. The association constants range from approximately 103 M−1 in water to more than 105 M−1 in organic solvents. Studies of nitrogen inversion and tumbling of [2.2.2]-diazabicyclooctane within the introverted acids also illustrate the strength of the acid–base interactions. The barriers to in–out exchange of several amine guests were determined to be in the range from 15 to 24 kcal mol−1. Some parallels with enzymes are drawn: the receptor folds around the guest species; presents them with inwardly directed functionality; and provides a generally hydrophobic environment and a periphery of secondary amide bonds. PMID:18672933

  5. Theoretical study on the mechanism and stereochemistry of the cinchona-thiourea organocatalytic hydrophosphonylation of an α-ketoester.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiyi; Huang, Dongfeng; Lv, Yajing

    2013-11-21

    The mechanism and stereochemistry of the hydrophosphonylation of an α-ketoester with dimethylphosphonate (DMHP) catalyzed by a thiourea-cinchona organocatalyst have been studied by the ONIOM method. The calculations show that the catalytic cycle is a three-step process, including the deprotonation of DMHP, C-P bond formation via nucleophilic addition and proton transfer with the regeneration of the catalyst. The deprotonation of DMHP mediated by the basicity of the quinuclidine nitrogen atom is the rate-determining step for the entire reaction. The activation of the α-ketoester by the thiourea or protonated cinchona moiety of the bifunctional catalyst is comparatively investigated, and the former is energy-preferred. AIM combined with NBO analysis indicate that the multiple hydrogen bonds play essential roles in activating substrates, facilitating charge transfer and stabilizing transition states and intermediates. The stereochemistry of the reaction is controlled by the C-P bond formation step and originated from the chiral induction of the multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions. The bulkier substituent groups on the chiral scaffold of the catalyst may increase rigidity of the catalyst and the asymmetric induction to the substrates. The calculations predict that alkyl substituted α-ketoesters might also be converted to chiral α-hydroxyl phosphonates with high enantioselectivity.

  6. Multi-modal applicability of a reversed-phase/weak-anion exchange material in reversed-phase, anion-exchange, ion-exclusion, hydrophilic interaction and hydrophobic interaction chromatography modes.

    PubMed

    Lämmerhofer, Michael; Nogueira, Raquel; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    We recently introduced a mixed-mode reversed-phase/weak anion-exchange type separation material based on silica particles which consisted of a hydrophobic alkyl strand with polar embedded groups (thioether and amide functionalities) and a terminal weak anion-exchange-type quinuclidine moiety. This stationary phase was designed to separate molecules by lipophilicity and charge differences and was mainly devised for peptide separations with hydroorganic reversed-phase type elution conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the extraordinary flexibility of this RP/WAX phase, in particular for peptide separations, by illustrating its applicability in various chromatographic modes. The column packed with this material can, depending on the solute character and employed elution conditions, exploit attractive or repulsive electrostatic interactions, and/or hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions as retention and selectivity increments. As a consequence, the column can be operated in a reversed-phase mode (neutral compounds), anion-exchange mode (acidic compounds), ion-exclusion chromatography mode (cationic solutes), hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode (polar compounds), and hydrophobic interaction chromatography mode (e.g., hydrophobic peptides). Mixed-modes of these chromatographic retention principles may be materialized as well. This allows an exceptionally flexible adjustment of retention and selectivity by tuning experimental conditions. The distinct separation mechanisms will be outlined by selected examples of peptide separations in the different modes.

  7. Acylated mono-, bis- and tris- cinchona-based amines containing ferrocene or organic residues: synthesis, structure and in vitro antitumor activity on selected human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Károlyi, Benedek Imre; Bösze, Szilvia; Orbán, Erika; Sohár, Pál; Drahos, László; Gál, Emese; Csámpai, Antal

    2012-02-24

    A series of novel functionalized mono-, bis- and tris-(S)-{[(2S,4R,8R)-8-ethyl-quinuclidin-2-yl](6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl)}methanamines including ferrocene-containing derivatives was obtained by the reaction of the precursor amine with a variety of acylation agents. Their in vitro antitumor activity was investigated against human leukemia (HL-60), human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y), human hepatoma (HepG2) and human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-assay and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values were determined. Our data indicate that the precursor amine has no antitumor activity in vitro, but the bis-methanamines with ureido-, thioureido and amide-type linkers display attractive in vitro cytotoxicity and cytostatic effects on HL-60, HepG2, MCF-7 and SH-SY5Y cells. Besides 1H- and 13C-NMR methods the structures of the new model compounds were also studied by DFT calculations.

  8. Theoretical investigation on mechanism of asymmetric Michael addition of malononitrile to chalcones catalyzed by Cinchona alkaloid aluminium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhishan; Lee, Hai Whang; Kim, Chan Kyung

    2011-09-21

    The mechanism of Michael addition of malononitrile to chalcones catalyzed by Cinchona alkaloid aluminium(III) complex has been investigated by DFT and ONIOM methods. Calculations indicate that the reaction proceeds through a dual activation mechanism, in which Al(III) acts as a Lewis acid to activate the electrophile α,β-unsaturated carbonyl substrate while the tertiary amine in the Cinchona alkaloid works as a Lewis base to promote the activation of the malononitrile and deprotonation. A stepwise pathway involving C-C bond formation followed by proton transfer from the catalyst to the carbonyl substrate is adopted, and latter step is predicted to be the rate-determining-step in the reaction with an energy barrier of 12.4 kcal mol(-1). In the absence of the Al(III)-complex, a Cinchona alkaloid activates the carbonyl substrate by a hydrogen bonding of the hydroxyl group, involving a higher energy barrier of 30.4 kcal mol(-1). The steric repulsion between the phenyl group attached to the carbonyl group in the chalcone and isopropoxyl groups of the Al(III)-complex may play an important role in the control of stereoselectivity. The π-π stacking effect between the quinuclidine ring of the quinine and the phenyl group of the chalcones may also help the stabilization of the preferred molecular complex. These results are in agreement with experimental observations.

  9. Dithiocarbamates effectively inhibit the β-carbonic anhydrase from the dandruff-producing fungus Malassezia globosa.

    PubMed

    Vullo, Daniela; Del Prete, Sonia; Nocentini, Alessio; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Capasso, Clemente; Bozdag, Murat; Carta, Fabrizio; Gratteri, Paola; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-02-01

    A series of dithiocarbamates (DTCs) was investigated for the inhibition of the β-class carbonic anhydrase (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) from the fungal parasite Malassezia globosa, MgCA, a validated anti-dandruff drug target. These DTCs incorporate various scaffold, among which those of N,N-dimethylaminoethylenediamine, the aminoalcohols with 3-5 carbon atoms in their molecule, 3-amino-quinuclidine, piperidine, morpholine and piperazine derivatives, as well as phenethylamine and its 4-sulfamoylated derivative. Several DTCs resulted more effective in inhibiting MgCA compared to the standard sulfonamide drug acetazolamide (KI of 74μM), with KIs ranging between 383 and 6235nM. A computational approach, involving a homology modeling of the enzyme and docking inhibitors within its active site, helped us rationalize the results. This study may contribute to better understand the inhibition profile of MgCA, and offer new ideas for the design of modulators of activity which belong to less investigated chemical classes, thus potentially useful to combat dandruff and other fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogen bonding and molecular association in 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid bromide hydrate studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and potentiometric titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.; Barczyński, P.

    2010-06-01

    The structure of 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid bromide hydrate (QNBu·H 2O·HBr, 3) has been determined by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations and characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Crystals of 3 are monoclinic, space group P2 1. The water molecule interacts with the carboxylic group of 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid and with the bromide anion by the COOH⋯OH 2 and HOH⋯Br hydrogen bonds of 2.575(3) and 3.293(2) Å, respectively. The structures of monomer ( 4) and dimeric cation ( 5) of the title complex have been optimized by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach, yielding conformations consistent with this in the crystal. The solid-state FTIR spectra of 3 and its deuterated analogue have been measured and compared with the theoretical spectrum of 4. The assignments of the observed and predicted bands have been proposed. The molecule of 3 has a chiral center at the C(9) atom, which is responsible for the non-magnetically equivalence of the α-ring and C(11)H 2 methylene protons in 1H NMR spectrum. The values of p Ka of quinuclidinium-acetate (quinuclidine betaine), 2-(quinuclidinium)-propionate and 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyrate have been determined by the potentiometric titration of their hydrohalides.

  11. Mechanism of phosphine borane deprotection with amines: the effects of phosphine, solvent and amine on rate and efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, Guy C; Taylor, Nicholas P

    2015-03-27

    The kinetics of borane transfer from simple tertiary phosphine borane adducts to a wide range of amines have been determined. All data obtained, including second-order kinetics, lack of cross-over, and negative entropies of activation for reaction of triphenylphosphine borane with quinuclidine and triethylamine, are consistent with a direct (SN 2-like) transfer process, rather than a dissociative (SN 1-like) process. The identities of the amine, phosphine, and solvent all impact substantially on the rate (k) and equilibrium (K) of the transfer, which in some cases vary by many orders of magnitude. P-to-N transfer is more efficient with cyclic amines in apolar solvents due to reduced entropic costs and ground-state destabilisation. Taken as a whole, the data allow informed optimisation of the deprotection step from the stand-point of rate, or synthetic convenience. In all cases, both reactants should be present at high initial concentration to gain kinetic benefit from the bimolecularity of the process. Ultimately, the choice of amine is dictated by the identity of the phosphine borane complex. Aryl-rich phosphine boranes are sufficiently reactive to allow use of diethylamine or pyrrolidine as a volatile low polarity solvent and reactant, whereas more alkyl-rich phosphines benefit from the use of more reactive amines, such as 1,4-diaza[2.2.2]bicyclooctane (DABCO), in apolar solvents at higher temperatures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Development of 4-Heteroarylamino-1'-azaspiro[oxazole-5,3'-bicyclo[2.2.2]octanes] as α7 Nicotinic Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Hill, Matthew D; Fang, Haiquan; King, H Dalton; Iwuagwu, Christiana I; McDonald, Ivar M; Cook, James; Zusi, F Christopher; Mate, Robert A; Knox, Ronald J; Post-Munson, Debra; Easton, Amy; Miller, Regina; Lentz, Kimberley; Clarke, Wendy; Benitex, Yulia; Lodge, Nicholas; Zaczek, Robert; Denton, Rex; Morgan, Daniel; Bristow, Linda; Macor, John E; Olson, Richard

    2017-01-12

    We describe the synthesis of quinuclidine-containing spiroimidates and their utility as α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonists. A convergent synthetic route allowed for rapid SAR investigation and provided a diverse set of fused 6,5-heteroaryl analogs. Two potent and selective α7 nAChR partial agonists, (1'S,3'R,4'S)-N-(7-bromopyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl)-4H-1'-azaspiro[oxazole-5,3'-bicyclo[2.2.2]octan]-2-amine (20) and (1'S,3'R,4'S)-N-(7-chloropyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazin-4-yl)-4H-1'-azaspiro[oxazole-5,3'-bicyclo[2.2.2]octan]-2-amine (21), were identified. Both agonists improved cognition in a preclinical rodent model of learning and memory. Additionally, 5-HT3A receptor SAR suggested the presence of a steric site that when engaged led to significant loss of affinity at that receptor.

  13. Conformation of epicinchonine and cinchonine in view of their antimalarial activity: x-ray and theoretical studies.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, J T; Lipińska, T; Oleksyn, B J; Sliwiński, J

    1999-01-01

    X-ray structure analysis was carried out for a single crystal of 9-epi-10,11-dihydrocinchonine in the form of free base obtained by stereoselective interconversion of cinchonine via 9-O-tosylcinchonine. An intramolecular hydrogen bond was found between the carbinol hydroxyl group, -O12-H12, and the quinuclidine nitrogen atom, N1, with the parameters: O12...N1=2.688(3)A, O12-H12=0.84(4)A, N1...H12=2.11(4)A and O12-H12...N1=126(3) degrees. Theoretical calculations for isolated molecules of epicinchonine and cinchonine with the use of AM1 semiempirical method and comparative studies of the crystal structures have shown that the conformation of the alkaloid molecules with respect to the C8-C9 bond depends on the absolute configuration at C9. The conformation with respect to the C9-C16 bond depends on the protonation of N1 for threo but not for erythro alkaloids. It was established that the ability to form inter- or intramolecular hydrogen bonds is determined by the energetically preferred conformations of erythro and threo alkaloids, respectively. In most cases the conformations preferred for erythro alkaloids are energetically forbidden for their threo epimers and vice versa. The differences in conformation and capability to form intramolecular hydrogen bonds may explain why their antimalarial activities are incomparable.

  14. Anomalous dispersion of sulfur in quinidine sulfate, (C20H25N2O2)2SO4·2H2O: Implications for structure analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karle, Isabella L.; Karle, Jerome

    1981-01-01

    A Patterson-type map computed with Bijvoet differences squared as coefficients, (ǀFhǀ - ǀF-hǀ)2, as recommended by Rossmann, readily yielded the position of the S atom. The experiment was performed with Cu Kα radiation which is far from the absorption edge for sulfur. The coordinates of the remainder of the 54C, N, and O atoms were derived by means of partial structure development by use of the tangent formula. The latter was used only to effect phase extension, not phase refinement. A main purpose of this experiment was to reaffirm, as first shown in the investigation of the protein crambin by Hendrickson and Teeter, that, in the presence of a large number of lighter atoms, sulfur atoms can be located by use of anomalous dispersion at wave-lengths far from the absorption edge. The space group is P21 with a = 26.718(8) Å, b = 6.987(3) Å, c = 10.857(6) Å, and β = 99.51(4)° and contains two quinidyl ions, one sulfate ion, and two water molecules per asymmetric unit. The conformations of the two independent quinidyl ions differ mainly in the torsional angle of the bond between the vinyl side chain and the quinuclidine moiety. The R factor is 4.9% for all 2869 data. PMID:16593097

  15. Crystal and molecular structures of trichloro-cobalt(II) complexes of epiquinine, epiquinidine, and epidihydrocinchonine.

    PubMed

    Tesarowicz, Iwona; Oleksyn, Barbara J; Nitek, Wojciech

    2007-02-01

    Cinchona alkaloids are very well known antimalarials but the mechanism of their biological action still remains to be elucidated. The structural studies of active erythro and inactive threo alkaloid complexes are an important step to this aim. In this paper results of crystal structure analysis of three cobalt complexes of threo alkaloids are presented: (epiquininium)trichlorocobalt(II) (EpiQnCoCl3), (epiquinidinium)trichlorocobalt(II) (EpiQdCoCl3) and (epidihydrocinchoninium)trichlorocobalt(II) (EpiCnCoCl3). The complexes are zwitterions in which trichlorocobalt substituents are coordinated to quinoline nitrogen atoms and quinuclidine nitrogen atoms are protonated. EpiQnCoCl3 adopts uncommon conformation with quinoline moiety oriented in the opposite direction in comparison to the analogous uncomplexed alkaloid. The packing in the crystal structures is determined mainly by the hydrogen bonds, in which the chlorine atoms of substituents and solvent molecules contribute. Atoms participating in hydrogen bonds in EpiQnCoCl3 and EpiQdCoCl3 form large rings, while in EpiCnCoCl3 only chains are present. Solvent molecules are very important for the packing mode. In contrast to most erythro alkaloids, the hydroxyl oxygen atom in the title complexes forms weak or not well defined hydrogen bonds. The contribution of very weak intramolecular interactions N1--H1...O12 cannot be excluded. Such "trace" interactions can be considered a relic of the unprotonated status of an epi alkaloid.

  16. Quinidine as a muscarinic antagonist: a structural approach.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowicz-Rutkowska, M; Oleksyn, B J; Suszko-Purzycka, A; Lipińska, T

    1992-06-01

    The synthesis, spectroscopic characteristics, and single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of quitenidine methyl ester monohydrate, a derivative of the muscarinic antagonist quinidine, are presented. Quitenidine methyl ester monohydrate (C20H24N2O4.H2O) crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 16.69(3) A, b = 12.46(2) A, c = 9.70(1) A, and Z = 4. The crystal structure was refined to a discrepancy factor (R) of 0.097. Substitution of the quinidine vinyl chain with a carboxymethyl group does not influence the conformation. The carboxymethyl group is positionally disordered, a fact that complicates refinement of the structure. The water molecule is bonded to the quinuclidine nitrogen atom, and the hydroxyl group forms an intermolecular hydrogen bond with the quinoline nitrogen atom. The molecular structure of the ester was compared with those of quinidine, quinine, and four other antimuscarinic agents. An approximately linear relationship between the distance from the nonaromatic nitrogen to the plane of the aromatic part of the molecules and the blocking potency of these agents was noted; the greater this distance, the more potent is the antagonist.

  17. Cardiovascular and antihypertensive actions of 1-methyl-3-keto-4-phenylquinuclidinium bromide.

    PubMed

    Vidrio, H; Hong, E

    1976-01-01

    The sympatholytic and norepinephrine depleting drug 1-methyl-3-keto-4-phenylquinuclidinium bromide (MA540) possessed significant chronic antihypertensive activity in mecamylamine- and renal-hypertensive dogs. The compound was approximately four times more potent than guanethidine in the former model and three times as potent in the latter. MA540 reduced orthostatic blood pressure responses in unanesthetized rabbits, but was approximately ten times less potent than guanethidine. The quinuclidine derivative did not affect cardiac output, heart rate or stroke volume in anesthetized open chest dogs and moderately increased mean blood pressure and total peripheral resistance. It produced diuresis and saluresis in anesthetized dogs, but did not influence water or electrolyte urinary excretion in conscious rats. In the latter test, guanethidine produced antidiuresis and antisaluresis. It was concluded that MA540 is a potent, orally effective antihypertensive agent acting through adrenergic neuron blockade, that it lacks undesirable effects on cardiac and renal functions, and that compared with guanethidine, it is more potent in lowering blood pressure but less so in interfering with orthostatic cardiovascular reflexes.

  18. Structure-affinity relationship of the cocaine-binding aptamer with quinine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Slavkovic, Sladjana; Altunisik, Merve; Reinstein, Oren; Johnson, Philip E

    2015-05-15

    In addition to binding its target molecule, cocaine, the cocaine-binding aptamer tightly binds the alkaloid quinine. In order to understand better how the cocaine-binding aptamer interacts with quinine we have used isothermal titration calorimetry-based binding experiments to study the interaction of the cocaine-binding aptamer to a series of structural analogs of quinine. As a basis for comparison we also investigated the binding of the cocaine-binding aptamer to a set of cocaine metabolites. The bicyclic aromatic ring on quinine is essential for tight affinity by the cocaine-binding aptamer with 6-methoxyquinoline alone being sufficient for tight binding while the aliphatic portion of quinine, quinuclidine, does not show detectable binding. Compounds with three fused aromatic rings are not bound by the aptamer. Having a methoxy group at the 6-position of the bicyclic ring is important for binding as substituting it with a hydrogen, an alcohol or an amino group all result in lower binding affinity. For all ligands that bind, association is driven by a negative enthalpy compensated by unfavorable binding entropy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Laser Desorption Ionization of small molecules assisted by Tungsten oxide and Rhenium oxide particles

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Matthew; Wysocki, Vicki; Dagan, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic metal oxides have shown potential as matrices for assisting in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with advantages over the aromatic acids typically used. Rhenium and tungsten oxides are an attractive option due to their high work functions and relative chemical inertness. In this work, it is shown that ReO3 and WO3, in microparticle (μP) powder forms, can efficiently ionize various types of small molecules and provide minimized background contamination at analyte concentrations below 1 ng/μL. This study shows that untreated inorganic WO3 and ReO3 particles are valid matrix options for detection of protonatable, radical, and precharged species under LDI. Qualitatively, the WO3 μP showed an improved detection of apigenin, sodiated glucose, and the precharged analyte choline, while the ReO3 μP allowed detection of protonated cocaine, quinuclidine, ametryn, and radical ions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons at detection levels as low as 50 pg/μL. For thermometer ion survival yield experiments, it was also shown that the ReO3 powder was significantly softer than CCA. Furthermore, it provided higher intensities of cocaine and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, at laser flux values equal to that used with CCA. PMID:26349643

  20. I. Synthesis of group 13 fluoroalkoxide complexes and the chemical vapor deposition of indium oxide films. II. Synthesis of gallium hydrido-thiolate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miinea, Liliana Angela

    gallium hydrido-thiolate complexes for possible use as precursors to gallium sulfide films. Reactions of GaH 3L (L = NMe3 or quinuclidine) with 1 or 2 equivalents of t-BuSH and GaH3-xClx(quin) with 1 or 2 equivalents of LiS-t-Bu produced mixtures of products. GaH(S- t-Bu)2(NMe3) and GaH2(S- t-Bu)(quin) were isolated as crystalline solids from the product mixtures. The complexes Ga(S-t-Bu)3L (L = NMe 3 or quinuclidine) were synthesized from GaH3L and a slight excess of t-BuSH.

  1. Cognitive improvements in a mouse model with substituted 1,2,3-triazole agonists for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Arunrungvichian, Kuntarat; Boonyarat, Chantana; Fokin, Valery V; Taylor, Palmer; Vajragupta, Opa

    2015-08-19

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a recognized drug target for dementias of aging and certain developmental disorders. Two selective and potent α7-nAChR agonists, winnowed from a list of 43 compounds characterized in a companion article (DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00058), 5-((quinuclid-3-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1H-indole (IND8) and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) quinuclidine (QND8), were evaluated for cognitive improvement in both short- and long-term memory. Tacrine, a centrally active acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and PNU-282987, a congeneric α7 nAChR agonist, were employed as reference standards. Three behavioral tests, modified Y-maze, object recognition test (ORT), and water maze, were performed in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Intraperitoneal injection of these two compounds significantly improved the cognitive impairment in a modified Y-maze test (5 μmol/kg for IND8 and 10 μmol/kg for QND8), ORT (10 μmol/kg), and water maze test (25 μmol/kg). For delay induced memory deficit or natural memory loss in mice, IND8 and QND8 at 10 μmol/kg were able to enhance memory comparable to PNU-282987 when evaluated using ORT time delay model. Cognitive enhancement of IND8 and QND8 was mediated through α7-nAChRs as evidenced by its complete abolition after pretreatment with a selective α7-nAChR antagonist, methyllycaconitine. These data demonstrate that IND8 and QND8 and their congeners are potential candidates for treatment of cognitive disorders, and the substituted triazole series formed by cycloaddition of alkynes and azides warrant further preclinical optimization.

  2. General pharmacological profile of the novel muscarinic receptor agonist SNI-2011, a drug for xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome. 4th communication: Effects on gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive systems and other effects.

    PubMed

    Arisawa, Hirohiko; Fukui, Kenji; Imai, Eiichi; Fujise, Nobuaki; Masunaga, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    A novel muscarinic receptor agonist, SNI-2011 ((+/-)-cis-2-methylspiro[1,3-oxathiolane-5,3'-quinuclidine] monohydrochloride hemihydrate, cevimeline, CAS 153504-70-2), is a candidate therapeutic drug for xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome. The general pharmacological properties of this drug on the gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive systems and other tissues were investigated in mice, rats guinea pigs, rabbits and dogs. 1. Gastrointestinal system: SNI-2011 did not cause any effects on the gastrointestinal system, i.e. the intestinal transport of charcoal meal in mice, the secretion of gastric and bile juices, and the formation of ulcer induced by water immersion restraint in rats. 2. Urinary and reproductive systems: SNI-2011 augmented the spontaneous movement of rat pregnant uterus in vivo at 0.3 mg/kg i.v. or higher, and this effect was not observed in the non-pregnant uterus. SNI-2011 increased the spontaneous movement of isolated guinea pig bladder (3 x 10(-6) mol/l or higher) and increased the in vivo spontaneous movement of rat bladder (0.3 mg/kg i.v. or higher). SNI-2011 caused increases in rat urine volume, pH and urinary excretion of Na+ and Cl- at 30 mg/kg p.o. 3. Others: SNI-2011 had no effect on the vascular permeability in mice, hematological parameters and blood coagulation in rats. SNI-2011 had neither hemolytic nor anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest that SNI-2011 has muscarinic effects on the gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive systems and other tissues at the doses approximately 10-fold higher than the doses needed for saliva secretion.

  3. Mixed-mode ion-exchangers and their comparative chromatographic characterization in reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography elution modes.

    PubMed

    Lämmerhofer, Michael; Richter, Martin; Wu, Junyan; Nogueira, Raquel; Bicker, Wolfgang; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2008-08-01

    A set of particulate silica-supported mixed-mode RP/weak anion-exchangers (RP/WAX) (obtained by bonding of N-undecenoylated 3-aminoquinuclidine, 3-aminotropane and 2-dimethylaminoethylamine as well as of N-butenoyl-(2S,4S,5R)-2-aminomethyl-5-[(2-octylthio)ethyl]-quinuclidine to thiol-modified silica) were chromatographically characterized in comparison to selected commercially available columns using two distinct isocratic elution modes, viz. an aqueous-rich RP-type elution mode (with 40% ACN and 60% buffer) as well as an organic solvent-rich hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-type elution mode (95 and 90% ACN). The mixed-mode RP/WAX phases showed multimodal applicability, unlike a polar embedded RP material (Synergi Fusion RP), amino phases (Luna NH(2), BioBasic AX) or typical HILIC packings (ZIC-HILIC, TSKGel Amide-80). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the RP test data confirmed that the in-house developed RP/WAX columns as well as the Acclaim Mixed-Mode WAX-1 phase resemble each other in their chromatographic characteristics having slightly lower hydrophobic selectivity (alpha(CH2) of 1.5) than the tested Synergi Fusion RP (alpha(CH2) approximately 1.8). In contrast, a decrease in mixed-mode character due to lowered ion-exchange capacity and concomitantly increased RP-like behavior could be identified for other mixed-mode phases in the order of Obelisc R > Primesep B2 > Uptisphere MM3. PCA on HILIC data revealed that the RP/WAX phases behave dissimilar to TSKGel Amide-80, ZIC-HILIC and polysulfoethyl A under the chosen elution conditions. Hence, they may be regarded as complementary to these commercial stationary phases with applicability profiles for hydrophilic but also hydrophobic solutes.

  4. Pharmacological profile of zacopride and new quaternarized fluorobenzamide analogues on mammalian α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Bourdin, Céline M; Lebreton, Jacques; Mathé-Allainmat, Monique; Thany, Steeve H

    2015-08-15

    From quaternarization of quinuclidine enantiomers of 2-fluoro benzamide LMA10203 in dichloromethane, the corresponding N-chloromethyl derivatives LMA10227 and LMA10228 were obtained. Here, we compared the agonist action of known zacopride and its 2-fluoro benzamide analogues, LMA10203, LMA10227 and LMA10228 against mammalian homomeric α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. We found that LMA10203 was a partial agonist of α7 receptor with a pEC50 value of 4.25 ± 0.06 μM whereas LMA10227 and LMA10228 were poorly active on α7 homomeric nicotinic receptor. LMA10227 and LMA10228 were identified as antagonists of acetylcholine-induced currents with IC50 values of 28.4 μM and 39.3 μM whereas LMA10203 and zacopride possessed IC50 values of 8.07 μM and 7.04 μM, respectively. Moreover, despite their IC50 values, LMA10227 was the most potent inhibitor of nicotine-induced current amplitudes (65.7 ± 2.1% inhibition). LMA10203 and LMA10228 had the same inhibitory effects (26.5 ± 7.5% and 33.2 ± 4.1%, respectively), whereas zacopride had no significant inhibitory effect (4.37 ± 4%) on nicotine-induced responses. Our results revealed different pharmacological properties between the four compounds on acetylcholine and nicotine currents. The mode of action of benzamide compounds may need to be reinterpreted with respect to the potential role of α7 receptor.

  5. Radiosynthesis of (S)-[(18)F]T1: The first PET radioligand for molecular imaging of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Sarasamkan, Jiradanai; Fischer, Steffen; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Ludwig, Friedrich-Alexander; Scheunemann, Matthias; Arunrungvichian, Kuntarat; Vajragupta, Opa; Brust, Peter

    2017-03-18

    Recent pharmacologic data revealed the implication of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in nicotine and drug addiction. To image α3β4 nAChRs in vivo, we aimed to establish the synthesis of a [(18)F]-labelled analog of the highly affine and selective α3β4 ligand (S)-3-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)quinuclidine ((S)-T1). (S)-[(18)F]T1 was synthesized from ethynyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzene ([(18)F]5) and (S)-azidoquinuclidine by click reaction. After a synthesis time of 130min (S)-[(18)F]T1 was obtained with a radiochemical yield (non-decay corrected) of 4.3±1.3%, a radiochemical purity of >99% and a molar activity of >158 GBq/μmol. The brain uptake and the brain-to-blood ratio of (S)-[(18)F]T1 in mice at 30min post injection were 2.02 (SUV) and 6.1, respectively. According to an ex-vivo analysis, the tracer remained intact (>99%) in brain. Only one major radiometabolite was detected in plasma and urine samples. In-vitro autoradiography on pig brain slices revealed binding of (S)-[(18)F]T1 to brain regions associated with the expression of α3β4 nAChRs, which could be reduced by the α3β4 nAChR selective drug AT-1001. These findings make (S)-[(18)F]T1 a potential tool for the non-invasive imaging of α3β4 nAChRs in the brain by PET.

  6. Study on 1,3,5-triazine chemistry in dehydrocondensation: gauche effect on the generation of active triazinylammonium species.

    PubMed

    Kunishima, Munetaka; Ujigawa, Takae; Nagaoka, Yoshie; Kawachi, Chiho; Hioki, Kazuhito; Shiro, Motoo

    2012-12-03

    The reaction of 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine (CDMT) with various nitrogen-containing compounds, particularly tertiary amines (tert-amines), has been studied for the preparation of 2-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazinyl)trialkylammonium salts [DMT-Am(s)]. DMT-Ams derived from aliphatic tert-amines exhibited activity for the dehydrocondensation between a carboxylic acid and an amine to form an amide in a model reaction. Based on a conformational analysis of DMT-Ams and tert-amines by NMR and X-ray diffraction methods, we concluded that a β-alkyl group maintained in a gauche relationship with the nitrogen lone pair of tert-amines significantly hinders the approach of CDMT to the nitrogen. Thus, trimethylamine and quinuclidine without such alkyl groups readily react with CDMT whereas triethylamine, possessing two or three such gauche β-alkyl groups in the stable conformations, does not react at all. The theory of "gauche β-alkyl group effect" proposed here provides useful guidelines for the preparation of DMT-Ams possessing various tertiary amine moieties. An investigation of the dehydrocondensation activity of tert-amines in a CDMT/tert-amine system that involves in situ generation of DMT-Am, showed that the gauche effect of the β-alkyl group becomes quite pronounced; the yield of the amide decreases significantly with tert-amines possessing an unavoidable gauche β-alkyl group. Thus, the tert-amine/CDMT systems are useful for judging whether tert-amines can readily react with CDMT without isolation of DMT-Ams.

  7. A search for pure compounds suitable for use as matrix in spectroscopic studies of radiation-produced radical cations. III. A selection of compounds based on the thermochemistry of hydrogen and proton transfer reactions between neutral molecules and their cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Bosch, Ann; Ceulemans, Jan

    A systematic investigation is made of the thermochemistry of hydrogen and proton transfer between neutral molecules and their cations covering the entire organic chemistry, with the aim of selecting those compounds that are suitable for use as matrices in spectroscopic studies of radiation-produced radical cations. Compounds that are characterized by positive reaction enthalpies may be considered promising for use as matrices in such studies. Calculations are based on experimentally determined ionization energies and proton affinities and on carbon-hydrogen bond strengths that are arbitrarily taken as 418 kJ.mol -1 (100 kcal.mol -1). Effects of actual deviations from this value are considered. In the aliphatic series of compounds, reaction enthalpies depend strongly on functional groups present. Marked positive reaction enthalpies are obtained for alkenes, alkadienes, thioethers, mercaptans, iodoalkanes and tertiary amines. Non-aromatic cyclic compounds generally behave as their aliphatic counterparts. Thus, positive reaction enthalpies are generally obtained for unsaturated alicyclic hydrocarbons and cyclic thioethers. Positive reaction enthalpies are also obtained for piperidine, quinuclidine, manxine and derivatives. In the homocyclic aromatic series of compounds, reaction enthalpies are generally positive. Thus, positive reaction enthalpies are obtained for aromatic hydrocarbons, fluoro- and chlorobenzenes, aromatic amines (amino group attached directly to the ring) and halo- and methoxyanilines. In the heterocyclic aromatic series of compounds reaction enthalpies are generally negative. This is for instance the case for a large number of pyridine derivatives, di- and triazines and a number of bi- and tricyclic compounds. Positive reaction enthalpies are however obtained for furan and pyrrole.

  8. Acetylcholine-Like Molecular Arrangement in Psychomimetic Anticholinergic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Maayani, Saul; Weinstein, Harel; Cohen, Sasson; Sokolovsky, Mordechai

    1973-01-01

    A study of the relation between the psychotropic activity and the antagonism to acetylcholine observed for some heterocyclic amino esters and compounds of the phencyclidine series suggests some common molecular structural requirements for their properties. Criteria obtained from quantum mechanical calculations of acetylcholine-like molecules indicate that their molecular reactivity with the cholinergic receptor site follows a certain dynamic interaction pattern. This pattern suggests a certain molecular arrangement essential for the interaction, which is based on the electronic properties of the molecules and therefore remains valid for the evaluation of compounds which lack any apparent similarity to acetylcholine. This type of molecular arrangement is shown to be shared by both activators and inhibitors of the acetylcholine receptor discussed here, thus supporting the hypothesis of their binding to a common receptor. The differences in biological activity are attributed to the effect of molecular structural factors which are not commonly included in the molecular arrangement based on the active groups of acetylcholine. The role of such factors is revealed by a study of the observed differences in the cholinergic and psychomimetic activities of related pairs of isomers and enantiomers of the molecules investigated. Structural factors which interfere with the conformational changes occurring in the receptor protein induced by an activator are characterized through differences obtained by the comparative investigation of the activities of the agonist acetate and the antagonist benzilate amino esters of quinuclidine, tropine, and pseudotropine. The same factors are shown in studies of the phencyclidine series to contribute to the antagonism to acetylcholine activity that is closely related to the psychomimetic activity of these drugs in the central nervous system. Similarly, phencyclidine derivatives in which the characteristic acetylcholine-like molecular

  9. Acetylcholine-like molecular arrangement in psychomimetic anticholinergic drugs.

    PubMed

    Maayani, S; Weinstein, H; Cohen, S; Sokolovsky, M

    1973-11-01

    A study of the relation between the psychotropic activity and the antagonism to acetylcholine observed for some heterocyclic amino esters and compounds of the phencyclidine series suggests some common molecular structural requirements for their properties. Criteria obtained from quantum mechanical calculations of acetylcholine-like molecules indicate that their molecular reactivity with the cholinergic receptor site follows a certain dynamic interaction pattern. This pattern suggests a certain molecular arrangement essential for the interaction, which is based on the electronic properties of the molecules and therefore remains valid for the evaluation of compounds which lack any apparent similarity to acetylcholine. This type of molecular arrangement is shown to be shared by both activators and inhibitors of the acetylcholine receptor discussed here, thus supporting the hypothesis of their binding to a common receptor. The differences in biological activity are attributed to the effect of molecular structural factors which are not commonly included in the molecular arrangement based on the active groups of acetylcholine. The role of such factors is revealed by a study of the observed differences in the cholinergic and psychomimetic activities of related pairs of isomers and enantiomers of the molecules investigated. Structural factors which interfere with the conformational changes occurring in the receptor protein induced by an activator are characterized through differences obtained by the comparative investigation of the activities of the agonist acetate and the antagonist benzilate amino esters of quinuclidine, tropine, and pseudotropine. The same factors are shown in studies of the phencyclidine series to contribute to the antagonism to acetylcholine activity that is closely related to the psychomimetic activity of these drugs in the central nervous system. Similarly, phencyclidine derivatives in which the characteristic acetylcholine-like molecular

  10. Docking studies of benzylidene anabaseine interactions with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and acetylcholine binding proteins (AChBPs): application to the design of related α7 selective ligands.

    PubMed

    Kombo, David C; Mazurov, Anatoly; Tallapragada, Kartik; Hammond, Philip S; Chewning, Joseph; Hauser, Terry A; Vasquez-Valdivieso, Montserrat; Yohannes, Daniel; Talley, Todd T; Taylor, Palmer; Caldwell, William S

    2011-11-01

    AChBPs isolated from Lymnaea stagnalis (Ls), Aplysia californica (Ac) and Bulinus truncatus (Bt) have been extensively used as structural prototypes to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie ligand-interactions with nAChRs [1]. Here, we describe docking studies on interactions of benzylidene anabaseine analogs with AChBPs and α7 nAChR. Results reveal that docking of these compounds using Glide software accurately reproduces experimentally-observed binding modes of DMXBA and of its active metabolite, in the binding pocket of Ac. In addition to the well-known nicotinic pharmacophore (positive charge, hydrogen-bond acceptor, and hydrophobic aromatic groups), a hydrogen-bond donor feature contributes to binding of these compounds to Ac, Bt, and the α7 nAChR. This is consistent with benzylidene anabaseine analogs with OH and NH(2) functional groups showing the highest binding affinity of these congeners, and the position of the ligand shown in previous X-ray crystallographic studies of ligand-Ac complexes. In the predicted ligand-Ls complex, by contrast, the ligand OH group acts as hydrogen-bond acceptor. We have applied our structural findings to optimizing the design of novel spirodiazepine and spiroimidazoline quinuclidine series. Binding and functional studies revealed that these hydrogen-bond donor containing compounds exhibit improved affinity and selectivity for the α7 nAChR subtype and demonstrate partial agonism. The gain in affinity is also due to conformational restriction, tighter hydrophobic enclosures, and stronger cation-π interactions. The use of AChBPs structure as a surrogate to predict binding affinity to α7 nAChR has also been investigated. On the whole, we found that molecular docking into Ls binding site generally scores better than when a α7 homology model, Bt or Ac crystal structure is used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. An Umeclidinium membrane sensor; Two-step optimization strategy for improved responses.

    PubMed

    Yehia, Ali M; Monir, Hany H

    2017-09-01

    In the scientific context of membrane sensors and improved experimentation, we devised an experimentally designed protocol for sensor optimization. Two-step strategy was implemented for Umeclidinium bromide (UMEC) analysis which is a novel quinuclidine-based muscarinic antagonist used for maintenance treatment of symptoms accompanied with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the first place, membrane components were screened for ideal ion exchanger, ionophore and plasticizer using three categorical factors at three levels in Taguchi design. Secondly, experimentally designed optimization was followed in order to tune the sensor up for finest responses. Twelve experiments were randomly carried out in a continuous factor design. Nernstian response, detection limit and selectivity were assigned as responses in these designs. The optimized membrane sensor contained tetrakis-[3,5-bis(trifluoro- methyl)phenyl] borate (0.44wt%) and calix[6]arene (0.43wt%) in 50.00% PVC plasticized with 49.13wt% 2-ni-tro-phenyl octylether. This sensor, along with an optimum concentration of inner filling solution (2×10(-4)molL(-1) UMEC) and 2h of soaking time, attained the design objectives. Nernstian response approached 59.7mV/decade and detection limit decreased by about two order of magnitude (8×10(-8)mol L(-1)) through this optimization protocol. The proposed sensor was validated for UMEC determination in its linear range (3.16×10(-7) -1×10(-3)mol L(-1)) and challenged for selective discrimination of other congeners and inorganic cations. Results of INCRUSE ELLIPTA(®) inhalation powder analyses obtained from the proposed sensor and manufacturer's UPLC were statistically compared. Moreover the proposed sensor was successfully used for the determination of UMEC in plasma samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. New crystalline complex of quinine and quinidine.

    PubMed

    Paliwoda, Grazyna; Oleksyn, Barbara J; Sliwiński, J

    2002-01-01

    A new complex of diastereoisomeric pair, quinine and quinidine (QQd), was obtained from a mixture of saturated ethanol solutions of quinine and quinidine (0.5:1). The complex crystallises in the triclinic system, space group P1, and contains two molecules of quinine, two molecules of quinidine and four water molecules in the asymmetric unit. The X-ray structure analysis of a single crystal revealed that quinine and quinidine molecules occur in the so-called open conformation, characteristic for Cinchona alkaloids, whenever they are engaged in intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Quinine and quinidine molecules are organized in two very similar kinds of chains. In each chain the links that contain 14-membered rings can be distinguished. Within these rings quinine and quinidine molecules interact via intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the quinuclidine nitrogens and hydroxyl groups, mediated by water molecules. The links are connected with each other by hydrogen bonds between water molecules and nitrogens of the quinoline moieties, which interact via pi-pi stacking. The architecture of the hydrogen bond system in QQd, compared to those observed in the crystal structures of nonhydrated quinidine, cinchonine and cinchonidine, reveals the effect of the co-crystallizing water on the molecular packing. In nonhydrated alkaloid structures the hydrogen-bonded molecules form helical chains, different from those observed in the hydrated QQd complex and hydrated quinine toluene solvate (QTol). Comparison of QQd structure with that of QTol suggests that while the intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the system quinine-water-quinidine-water are very similar to those in quinine-water-quinine-water system, the mode of pi-pi interaction between their quinoline moieties depends on the absolute configuration of the interacting alkaloid molecules.

  13. Tertiary amine and N-heterocyclic carbene coordinated haloalanes--synthesis, structure, and application.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Sean G; Cole, Marcus L; Forsyth, Craig M

    2009-09-14

    The preparation of several tertiary amine and N-heterocyclic carbene coordinated chloro- and bromoalanes has been studied and routes to their gram-scale synthesis optimized. This provides a catalogue of well-characterized, thermally stable haloalanes for future application. All complexes have been investigated by spectroscopy (IR, NMR) and, where possible, single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure determination. A particular focus of this article is the relative thermal stabilities of the complexes, which provides a useful handle for the aerobic stability of Group 13 hydride complexes. These thermal data have been elucidated in full and rationalized relative to one another on the basis of Lewis base donation, steric shielding, and relative inductive halide strengthening of the aluminum hydride bonds by halides. All of the four-coordinate complexes reported exist as distorted tetrahedra in the solid state with aluminum to N/C-donor bonds that shorten with the increasing Lewis acidity of the aluminum Lewis acid. The five-coordinate complexes [AlBrH(2)(Quin)(2)] and [AlBr(2)H(Quin)(2)] (Quin = quinuclidine) exist in a trigonal-bipyramidal geometry in the solid state with the amine donors situated in the apical positions. Five chloroalanes; [AlClH(2)(Quin)], [AlClH(2)(Quin)(2)], [AlCl(2)H(Quin)(2)], [AlClH(2)(IMes)], and [AlCl(2)H(IMes)] (IMes = 1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene), the latter two of which are aerobically stable, have been applied to the hydroalumination of carbonyl and heterocycle substrates and their chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivities compared to those of Group 13 hydride reagents cited in the literature. Overall, the reactivities of these species are comparable to non-halogenated alane complexes with the additional benefit of aerobic stability, non-pyrophoricity, and enhanced regioselectivity borne out of greater Lewis acidity.

  14. L-689,660, a novel cholinomimetic with functional selectivity for M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, R. J.; McKnight, A. T.; Scholey, K.; Newberry, N. R.; Street, L. J.; Hutson, P. H.; Semark, J. E.; Harley, E. A.; Patel, S.; Freedman, S. B.

    1992-01-01

    1. L-689,660, 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane, 3-(6-chloropyrazinyl)maleate, a novel cholinomimetic, demonstrated high affinity binding (pKD (apparent) 7.42) at rat cerebral cortex muscarinic receptors. L-689,660 had a low ratio (34) of pKD (apparent) values for the displacement of binding of the antagonist ([3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]-NMS) compared with the displacement of the agonist [3H]-oxotremorine-M ([3H]-Oxo-M), in rat cerebral cortex. Low NMS/Oxo-M ratios have been shown previously to be a characteristic of compounds that are low efficacy partial agonists with respect to stimulation of phosphatidyl inositol turnover in the cerebral cortex. 2. L-689,660 showed no muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity in radioligand binding assays but showed functional selectivity in pharmacological assays. At M1 muscarinic receptors in the rat superior cervical ganglion, L-689,660 was a potent (pEC50 7.3 +/- 0.2) full agonist in comparison with (+/-)-muscarine. At M3 receptors in the guinea-pig ileum myenteric plexus-longitudinal muscle or in trachea, L-689,660 was again a potent agonist (pEC50 7.5 +/- 0.2 and 7.7 +/- 0.3 respectively) but had a lower maximum response than carbachol. In contrast L-689,660 was an antagonist at M2 receptors in guinea-pig atria (pA2 7.2 (95% confidence limits 7, 7.4)) and at muscarinic autoreceptors in rat hippocampal slices. 3. The putative M1-selective muscarinic agonist, AF102B (cis-2-methylspiro-(1,3-oxathiolane 5,3')-quinuclidine hydrochloride) was found to have a profile similar to L-689,660 but had up to 100 times less affinity in binding and functional assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1422595

  15. Oxidation of NADH by chloramines and chloramides and its activation by iodide and by tertiary amines.

    PubMed

    Prütz, W A; Kissner, R; Koppenol, W H

    2001-09-15

    Irreversible oxidation of reduced nicotinamide nucleotides by neutrophil-derived halogen oxidants (HOCl, chloramines, HOBr, etc.) is likely to be a highly lethal process, because of the essential role of NAD(P)H in important cell functions such as mitochondrial electron transport, and control of the cellular thiol redox state by NADPH-dependent glutathione reductase. Chloramines (chloramine-T, NH(2)Cl, etc.) and N-chloramides (N-chlorinated cyclopeptides) react with NADH to generate the same products as HOCl, i.e., pyridine chlorohydrins, as judged from characteristic changes in the NADH absorption spectrum. Compared with the fast oxidation of NADH by HOCl, k approximately 3 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.2, the oxidation by chloramines is about five orders of magnitude slower; that by chloramides is about four orders of magnitude slower. Apparent rate constants for oxidation of NADH by chloramines increase with increasing proton or buffer concentration, consistent with general acid catalysis, but oxidation by chloramides proceeds with pH-independent kinetics. In presence of iodide the oxidation of NADH by chloramines or chloramides is faster by at least two orders of magnitude; this is due to reaction of iodide with the N-halogen to give HOI/I(2), the most reactive and selective oxidant for NADH among HOX species. Quinuclidine derivatives (QN) like 3-chloroquinuclidine and quinine are capable of catalyzing the irreversible degradation of NADH by HOCl and by chloramines; QN(+)Cl, the chain carrier of the catalytic cycle, is even more reactive toward NADH than HOCl/ClO(-) at physiological pH. Oxidation of NADH by NH(2)Br proceeds by fast, but complex, biphasic kinetics. A compilation of rate constants for interactions of reactive halogen species with various substrates is presented and the concept of selective reactivity of N-halogens is discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  16. Potent In Vitro Antiproliferative Synergism of Combinations of Ergosterol Biosynthesis Inhibitors against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    de Macedo-Silva, S. T.; Visbal, G.; Urbina, J. A.; de Souza, W.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniases comprise a spectrum of diseases caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. Treatments available have limited safety and efficacy, high costs, and difficult administration. Thus, there is an urgent need for safer and more-effective therapies. Most trypanosomatids have an essential requirement for ergosterol and other 24-alkyl sterols, which are absent in mammalian cells. In previous studies, we showed that Leishmania amazonensis is highly susceptible to aryl-quinuclidines, such as E5700, which inhibit squalene synthase, and to the azoles itraconazole (ITZ) and posaconazole (POSA), which inhibit C-14α-demethylase. Herein, we investigated the antiproliferative, ultrastructural, and biochemical effects of combinations of E5700 with ITZ and POSA against L. amazonensis. Potent synergistic antiproliferative effects were observed against promastigotes, with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) ratios of 0.0525 and 0.0162 for combinations of E5700 plus ITZ and of E5700 plus POSA, respectively. Against intracellular amastigotes, FIC values were 0.175 and 0.1125 for combinations of E5700 plus ITZ and E5700 plus POSA, respectively. Marked alterations of the ultrastructure of promastigotes treated with the combinations were observed, in particular mitochondrial swelling, which was consistent with a reduction of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species. We also observed the presence of vacuoles similar to autophagosomes in close association with mitochondria and an increase in the number of lipid bodies. Both growth arrest and ultrastructural/biochemical alterations were strictly associated with the depletion of the 14-desmethyl endogenous sterol pool. These results suggest the possibility of a novel combination therapy for the treatment of leishmaniasis. PMID:26239973

  17. Effect of stereogenic centers on the self-sorting, depolymerization, and atropisomerization kinetics of porphyrin-based aggregates.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Floris; Smulders, Maarten M J; Lee, Cameron C; Schenning, Albertus P H J; Meijer, E W

    2011-08-10

    We present our results on the mixing of different porphyrin molecules in supramolecular assemblies. Herein, chiral amplification experiments reveal the subtle role of the structural (mis)match between these monomers. We show that according to the "sergeant-and-soldiers" principle, a chiral porphyrin "sergeant" efficiently mixes with achiral "soldiers" in the same helical aggregate and strongly biases its handedness. However, when we mix two porphyrin enantiomers in a majority-rules experiment, no chiral amplification is observed at all, which is due to their narcissistic self-sorting into conglomerate-like aggregates. The mixing between two enantiomers in the same stack only occurs in a diluted-majority-rules experiment, in which enantiomeric mixtures of sergeants are diluted with achiral soldiers. The different outcomes of these chiral amplification phenomena are verified by modeling studies that reveal high mismatch penalties, which are ascribed to the high stereocenter loading of 12 methyl groups onto the monomers. Mixed-metal chiral amplification experiments between copper- and zinc-porphyrins show the same distinction in their mixing behavior, which is further supported by fluorescence measurements. The selective removal of chiral Zn-porphyrins from these mixed-metal systems is performed with the Lewis base quinuclidine that depolymerizes the Zn-porphyrins upon axial ligation. This extraction process proceeds at different time scales, depending on the mixed state: slow extraction kinetics for the mixed sergeant-and-soldiers and diluted-majority-rules systems and an instant extraction for the phase-separated majority-rules system. By simultaneously monitoring the supramolecular chirality during extraction, a chiral memory effect is observed for both mixed systems that show slow extraction kinetics. For the sergeant-and-soldiers system, the remaining supramolecular backbone contains achiral monomers only, which give rise to a long lasting chiral memory with slow

  18. Determination of the pKa of cyclobutanone: Brønsted correlation of the general base-catalyzed enolization in aqueous solution and the effect of ring strain.

    PubMed

    Cope, Steven M; Tailor, Dishant; Nagorski, Richard W

    2011-01-21

    The induction of strain in carbocycles, thereby increasing the amount of s-character in the C-H bonds and the acidity of these protons, has been probed with regard to its effect on the rate constants for the enolization of cyclobutanone. The second-order rate constants for the general base-catalyzed enolization of cyclobutanone have been determined for a series of 3-substituted quinuclidine buffers in D(2)O at 25 °C, I = 1.0 M (KCl). The rate constants for enolization were determined by following the extent of deuterium incorporation (up to ∼30% of the first α-proton) into the α-position, as a function of time. The observed pseudo-first-order rate constants correlated to the [basic form] of the buffer and yielded the second-order rate constants for the general base-catalyzed enolization of cyclobutanone for four tertiary amine buffers. A Brønsted β-value of 0.59 was determined from the second-order rate constants determined. Comparison of the results for cyclobutanone to those previously reported for acetone and a 1-phenylacetone derivative, under similar conditions, indicated that the ring strain of the carbocycle appeared to have only a small effect on the general base-catalyzed rate constants for enolization. The similarity of the rate constants for the general base-catalyzed enolization of cyclobutanone to those determined for acetone allowed for an estimation of the limits of the rate constant for protonation of the enolate intermediate of cyclobutanone by the conjugate acid of 3-quinuclidinone (k(BH) = 5 × 10(8) - 2 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)). Combining the rate constants for deprotonation of cyclobutanone (k(B)) and protonation of the enolate of cyclobutanone (k(BH)) by 3-quinuclidinone and its conjugate acid, the pK(a) of the α-protons of cyclobutanone has been estimated to be pK(a) = 19.7-20.2.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of thermally robust amidinato group 13 hydride complexes.

    PubMed

    Cole, Marcus L; Jones, Cameron; Junk, Peter C; Kloth, Marc; Stasch, Andreas

    2005-07-18

    The reactivity of two sterically bulky amidines, ArNC(R)N(H)Ar (Ar=2,6-diisopropylphenyl; R=H (HFiso); tBu, (HPiso)) towards LiMH4, M=Al or Ga, [AlH3(NMe3)], and [GaH3(quin)] (quin=quinuclidine) has been examined. This has given rise to a variety of very thermally stable aluminum and gallium hydride complexes. The structural motif adopted by the prepared complexes has been found to be dependent upon both the amidinate ligand and the metal involved. The 1:1 reaction of HFiso with LiAlH4 yielded dimeric [{AlH3(mu-Fiso)Li(OEt2)}2]. Amidine HFiso reacts in a 1:1 ratio with [AlH3(NMe3)] to give the unusual hydride-bridging dimeric complex, [{AlH2(Fiso)}2], in which the Fiso- ligand is nonchelating. The equivalent reaction with the bulkier amidine, HPiso, yielded a related hydride-bridging complex, [{AlH2(Piso)}2], in which the Piso- ligand is chelating. In contrast, the treatment of [GaH3(quin)] with one equivalent of HFiso afforded the four-coordinate complex [GaH2(quin)(Fiso)], in which the Fiso- ligand acts as a localized monodentate amido-imine ligand. The 2:1 reactions of HFiso with [AlH3(NMe3)] or [GaH3(quin)] gave the monomeric complexes [MH(Fiso)2], which are thermally robust and which exhibit chelating amidinate ligands. In contrast, HPiso did not give 2:1 complexes in its reactions with either of the Group 13 trihydride precursors. For sake of comparison, the reactions of [AlH3(NMe3)] and [GaH3(quin)] with the bulky carbodiimide ArN=C=NAr and the thiourea Ar(H)NC(=S)N(H)Ar were examined. These last reactions afforded the five-coordinate thioureido complexes, [MH{N(Ar)C[N(H)(Ar)]S}2], M=Al or Ga.

  20. Sterol Biosynthesis Pathway as Target for Anti-trypanosomatid Drugs

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Wanderley; Rodrigues, Juliany Cola Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    Sterols are constituents of the cellular membranes that are essential for their normal structure and function. In mammalian cells, cholesterol is the main sterol found in the various membranes. However, other sterols predominate in eukaryotic microorganisms such as fungi and protozoa. It is now well established that an important metabolic pathway in fungi and in members of the Trypanosomatidae family is one that produces a special class of sterols, including ergosterol, and other 24-methyl sterols, which are required for parasitic growth and viability, but are absent from mammalian host cells. Currently, there are several drugs that interfere with sterol biosynthesis (SB) that are in use to treat diseases such as high cholesterol in humans and fungal infections. In this review, we analyze the effects of drugs such as (a) statins, which act on the mevalonate pathway by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, (b) bisphosphonates, which interfere with the isoprenoid pathway in the step catalyzed by farnesyl diphosphate synthase, (c) zaragozic acids and quinuclidines, inhibitors of squalene synthase (SQS), which catalyzes the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, (d) allylamines, inhibitors of squalene epoxidase, (e) azoles, which inhibit C14α-demethylase, and (f) azasterols, which inhibit Δ24(25)-sterol methyltransferase (SMT). Inhibition of this last step appears to have high selectivity for fungi and trypanosomatids, since this enzyme is not found in mammalian cells. We review here the IC50 values of these various inhibitors, their effects on the growth of trypanosomatids (both in axenic cultures and in cell cultures), and their effects on protozoan structural organization (as evaluted by light and electron microscopy) and lipid composition. The results show that the mitochondrial membrane as well as the membrane lining the protozoan cell body and flagellum are the main targets. Probably as a consequence of these primary effects, other important changes take place in

  1. Molecular precursors for solid state materials: Volatile anhydrous metal nitrates as single-source precursor molecules for the chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Daniel Gerard

    This thesis has focused on the use of volatile anhydrous metal nitrates as carbon- and hydrogen-free, single-source precursors for the CVD of metal oxide films. Chapter 3 discusses the low temperature CVD of crystalline TiO2 thin films using tetranitratitanium(IV), Ti(NO3)4. Ti(NO3)4 produces crystalline TiO2 films of the anatase phase in UHV-CVD at temperatures as low as 184°C. Fabricated TiO2 capacitors exhibited electrically equivalent SiO2 gate dielectric thicknesses and leakage current densities as low as 17 and 10-8 Amp·cm-2, respectively. Deposition kinetics suggested Ea = 67 kJ·mol-1 in the reaction-limited regime below 250°C. Chapter 4 describes the result that volatile anhydrous metal nitrates can be readily used to deposit metal oxide films. The precursors used included Zr(NO3)4, VO(NO3)3, Co(NO 3)4, [NO2][Ga(NO3)4], Sn(NO 3)4, CrO2(NO3)2, Hf(NO 3)4, In(NO3)3, Cu(NO3) 2, WO2(NO3)2 and MoO2(NO 3)2. Notably, zirconium(IV) nitrate, Zr(NO3) 4, was found to reproducibly deposit the high temperature cubic phase of ZrO2 on Si(100) at 400°C. The mechanism of precursor decomposition and how it leads to the stabilization of the cubic phase at low temperatures has not yet been determined. Chapter 5 describes the crystallography of nitronium tetranitratogallate(III), [NO2][Ga(NO3)4]. X-ray structure analysis of single crystals of [NO2][Ga(NO3)4] revealed that [NO2][Ga(NO3)4] undergoes a reversible, first-order phase transition from a room temperature polymorph indexed to a tetragonal cell (space group I4¯.) to a rotationally-twinned, low-temperature monoclinic polymorph (space group I2) without any apparent damage to the crystal at ˜250 K. In chapter 6, the effects of using a Lewis base to stabilize aluminum hydride complexes in low states of aggregation was probed. Several monomeric, donor-stabilized amidoalanes and a rare, dimeric, donor-stabilized imidoalane, [AlH(Quin)(mu-N-C6H3-2,6-(CH3)2)] 2 (Quin = quinuclidine), were synthesized and fully

  2. Asymmetric fluorocyclizations of alkenes.

    PubMed

    Wolstenhulme, Jamie R; Gouverneur, Véronique

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: The vicinal fluorofunctionalization of alkenes is an attractive transformation that converts feedstock olefins into valuable cyclic fluorinated molecules for application in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, medical, and material sectors. The challenges associated with asymmetric fluorocyclizations induced by F(+) reagents are distinct from other types of halocyclizations. Processes initiated by the addition of an F(+) reagent onto an alkene do not involve the reversible formation of bridged fluoronium ions but generate acyclic β-fluorocationic intermediates. This mechanistic feature implies that fluorocyclizations are not stereospecific. A discontinuity exists between the importance of this class of fluorocyclization and the activation modes currently available to implement successful catalysis. Progress toward fluorocyclization has been achieved by investing in neutral and cationic [NF] reagent development. The body of work on asymmetric fluorination using chiral cationic [NF](+) reagents prepared by fluorine transfer from the dicationic [NF](2+) reagent Selectfluor to quinuclidines, inspired the development of asymmetric F(+)-induced fluorocyclizations catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids; for catalysis, the use of N-fluorobenzenesulfonimide, which is less reactive than Selectfluor, ensures that the achiral F(+) source remains unreactive toward the alkene. These organocatalyzed enantioselective fluorocyclizations can be applied to indoles to install the fluorine on a quaternary benzylic stereogenic carbon center and to afford fluorinated analogues of natural products featuring the hexahydropyrrolo[2,3-b]indole or the tetrahydro-2H-furo[2,3-b]indole skeleton. In an alternative approach, the poor solubility of dicationic Selectfluor bis(tetrafluoroborate) in nonpolar solvent was exploited with anionic phase transfer catalysis as the operating activation mode. Exchange of the tetrafluoroborate ions of Selectfluor with bulky lipophilic chiral anions (e