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  1. Observing the Progressive Decoherence of the {open_quote}{open_quote}Meter{close_quote}{close_quote} in a Quantum Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, M.; Hagley, E.; Dreyer, J.; Maitre, X.; Maali, A.; Wunderlich, C.; Raimond, J.M.; Haroche, S.

    1996-12-01

    A mesoscopic superposition of quantum states involving radiation fields with classically distinct phases was created and its progressive decoherence observed. The experiment involved Rydberg atoms interacting one at a time with a few photon coherent fields trapped in a high {ital Q} microwave cavity. The mesoscopic superposition was the equivalent of an {open_quote}{open_quote}atom+measuringapparatus{close_quote}{close_quote} system in which the {open_quote}{open_quote}meter{close_quote}{close_quote} was pointing simultaneously towards two different directions{emdash}a {open_quote}{open_quote}Schr{umlt o}dinger cat.{close_quote}{close_quote} The decoherence phenomenon transforming this superposition into a statistical mixture was observed while it unfolded, providing a direct insight into a process at the heart of quantum measurement. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Chromogravity explains {open_quotes}strong gravity{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Ne`eman, Y. |; Sijacki, D.

    1993-03-01

    In this paper the authors deal with the question of gravitational type interactions in the case of strong interaction phenomena. They present arguments which indicate that it is not necessary to invoke a gravity type interaction into QCD in order to account for observed phenomena. They argue that the gravitational type phenomena discussed in previous work is a manifestation of a class of Feynmann diagrams. These seem to generate an analog to gravity, a J=2 {open_quotes}chromograviton{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}pseudo-graviton{close_quotes} whose action effectively generates Salam`s {open_quotes}Strong Gravity{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}f-gravity{close_quotes}, withthough having to introduce the theory as an additional input.

  3. Russia's [open quotes]red-brown[close quotes] hawks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I. )

    1993-06-01

    Since the beginning of the [open quotes]Gorbachev years,[close quotes] there has been a remarkable democratization in Russia, but there has also been a sharpening of internal contradictions. These years have led to a coalition of [open quotes]red-brown[close quotes] groups -- the most reactionary elements of society -- Stalinists, extremely aggressive members of the military-industrial complex, self-styled [open quotes]protectors of the Russian Empire,[close quotes] national patriotic unions, and groups with their own storm troops. These have also been years of economic decline and the withering of research in the fundamental sciences. This article describes the anger of Soviet nuclear specialists at vanishing funds and prestige. The desire of the neo-fascist groups for arms and power is addressed. The development of these groups is reviewed. Implications of political unrest for nuclear proliferation and the future of Russian nuclear specialists are discussed. Possibilities for government reorganization are proposed. 8 refs.

  4. The {open_quotes}first{close_quotes} problem

    SciTech Connect

    Holsinger, R.F.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes the first magnet design problem that Klaus and the author worked on together. At the time, over 30 years ago, Klaus was working as a plasma physicist in the Controlled Thermonuclear Research (CTR) Group, and the author was assigned from the Mechanical Engineering Department to help with the design of experimental equipment for various research projects. Klaus` primary research program was to develop a {open_quotes}plasma gun{close_quotes} for injecting plasma into {open_quotes}mirror machines.{close_quotes} As described, the magnet design aspect of this plasma gun was a challenging task, and led to some innovations that were quite advanced at that time.

  5. The Kent State {open_quote}{open_quote}2{pi}{close_quote}{close_quote} neutron polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.W.; Du, Q.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Foster, C.C.; Garcia, L.A.; Hu, X.; Kurmanov, R.; Lamm, D.L.; Madey, R.; Pella, P.J.; Stephenson, E.J.; Wang, Y. |; Wetmore, B.; Zhang, W.

    1995-09-01

    We designed, tested and calibrated a medium-energy neutron polarimeter of a new design, which we call the {open_quote}{open_quote}2{pi}{close_quote}{close_quote} polarimeter because of its symmetric coverage of all 2{pi} of azimuth for double-scattered neutrons. During calibration tests at the IUCF we observed an over all neutron time-of-flight resolution of 360 ps. The measured analyzing power is typically 39{percent} for neutrons of both 130 and 165 MeV for optimum software cuts. The efficiency is typically 0.3{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Great Quotes for Great Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Todd; Lumpa, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Over 600 insightful, witty nuggets to motivate and inspire you... and everyone else at your school. Teachers--display these quotes in your classrooms! Administrators--insert them into your faculty memos and share them at staff meetings! Why is this book unique? (1) it includes over 100 original quotes from internationally acclaimed speaker and…

  7. From here to a {open_quote}{open_quote}rangeless{close_quote}{close_quote} range, a roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, D.F. Jr.; Keith, E.L.

    1996-03-01

    This paper examines the issues involved in replacing the current Range infrastructure used for launching missiles and space launch vehicles with a {open_quote}{open_quote}Range{close_quote}{close_quote} structure consisting of the Global Positioning System and vehicle onboard instrumentation. The issues involved in such a changeover ultimately involve safety and the proper discharge of safety responsibilities delegated to the Range Commander by DOD 5200.11. A changeover of such magnitude cannot be accomplished without a long and involved process of building confidence in the reliability and efficacy of any system that is intended to replace an existing Range system. Therefore, a plan must be developed to phase in new systems in such a way that confidence is built up in their operational effectiveness in some structured way. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Text, Talk, and Journalistic Quoting Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1995-01-01

    Explores journalistic quoting practices as an interface between written and oral modes of communication, or between text and talk. Examines both prescriptive and performative dimensions of journalistic quoting across the media. States that when quoting, journalists creatively mix and meld text and talk. Suggests that the cogency of news…

  9. Projection in English: The Environment of Quoting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.; Teruya, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    This article is a report on an investigation of quoting strategies in English, an investigation that is part of a longer-term research programme exploring clauses of "saying" and their quoted and reported content as direct and indirect speech by members of the SAL (Systemics Across Languages) Group. Here the focus is on how quotes are…

  10. Stable maps and Quot schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Mihnea; Roth, Mike

    2003-06-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between two different compactifications of the space of vector bundle quotients of an arbitrary vector bundle on a curve. One is Grothendieck's Quot scheme, while the other is a moduli space of stable maps to the relative Grassmannian. We establish an essentially optimal upper bound on the dimension of the two compactifications. Based on that, we prove that for an arbitrary vector bundle, the Quot schemes of quotients of large degree are irreducible and generically smooth. We precisely describe all the vector bundles for which the same thing holds in the case of the moduli spaces of stable maps. We show that there are in general no natural morphisms between the two compactifications. Finally, as an application, we obtain new cases of a conjecture on effective base point freeness for pluritheta linear series on moduli spaces of vector bundles.

  11. New results of the {open_quotes}CLIO{close_quotes} infrared FEL using the new undulator {open_quotes}OMIR{close_quotes} and a hole coupling extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Prazeres, R.; Berset, J.M.; Glotin, F.

    1995-12-31

    In order to extend the {open_quote}CLIO{close_quote} laser spectral range toward larger wavelength, the previous undulator {open_quotes}POPOO{close_quotes} has been replaced by a new one called {open_quotes}OMIR{close_quotes}. The new undulator has now N=38 periods of {lambda}{sub o}=5.04cm, instead of N=48 and {lambda}{sub o}=4cm. Lasing toward larger wavelength needs also a new larger undulator vacuum chamber to avoid laser diffraction. The ZnSe Brewster plate, which was initially used for laser extraction, has been replaced by a hole coupling extraction in order to allow lasing above 17{mu}m. This paper summarizes the general performances of CLIO with this new configuration, and makes a comparison with the previous results. The laser power has been increased for the users, and the wavelength range has been extended. Two colours operating mode has also been observed with hole coupling.

  12. The effect of char {open_quotes}age{close_quotes} on gasification reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Calo, J.M.; Zhang, L.; Lu, W.

    1996-10-01

    It is well known that {open_quotes}age{close_quotes} (i.e., the degree of pyrolysis severity) can significantly affect char reactivity, generally with {open_quotes}younger{close_quotes} chars being more reactive than {open_quotes}older{close_quotes} chars. In the current work we investigate this issue via the analysis of post-reaction thermal desorption data for a few different char samples (coal chars and a resin char), that were prepared under different conditions of pyrolysis severity, in both CO{sub 2} and steam. It is observed that the total amount of desorbed oxygen increases with char {open_quotes}age,{close_quotes} in both CO{sub 2} and steam, while the reactivity decreases significantly. The CO TPD spectra for the samples gasified in one atmosphere of CO{sub 2} are analyzed using a kinetic model based on energetic heterogeneity of the char surface. It is demonstrated that this model correlates the variation in reactivity with {open_quotes}age{close_quotes} very well. These results support a conclusion that reactivity decrease with age is dependent on a decrease in the active site population in addition to a shift in the energetic distributions to higher values.

  13. Dispersion morphology diagrams for three-phase, [open quotes]microemulsion[close quotes] emulsions. 2. [open quotes]Disappearance[close quotes] of morphology-transition lines

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.K. ); Dadyburjor, D.B. ); Smith, D.H. Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK )

    1994-11-17

    The limits over which the oil-rich top phase (T), middle-phase microemulsion (M), or water-rich bottom phase (B) is the continuous phase in steady-state, three-phase macroemulsions have been determined by means of electrical conductivity measurements for the amphiphile/oil/[open quotes]water[close quotes] system C[sub 6]H[sub 13](OC[sub 2]H[sub 4])[sub 2]OH/n-tetradecane/aqueous 10 mM NaCl. Measurements were made at three different temperatures and apparent wettability conditions: (a) 45[degrees]C, wetting middle phase; (b) 25[degrees]C, no wetting phase; and (c) 12[degrees]C, wetting bottom phase. The results at 25[degrees]C were in accord with expectations from previous predictions and experiments; but for both two-phase and three-phase emulsions no abrupt, [open quotes]first-order[close quotes] transitions between M- and T-continuous emulsions at 45[degrees]C or between M- and B-continuous emulsions at 12[degrees]C were found. Instead, these changes of continuous phase appeared to occur smoothly and continuously between their respective single-phase and two-phase limits. It is not yet clear if the [open quotes]disappearance[close quotes] of first-order morphology transitions correlates with phase wettability transitions; the phenomenon suggests the possibility of bicontinuous two-phase and three-phase macroemulsions. 31 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Ordovician Red River {open_quotes}B{close_quotes}: Horizontal oil play in the southern Williston basin

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1997-04-01

    Recent application of horizontal drilling technology to the Ordovician Red River {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} zone in the southern Williston basin has resulted in a successful oil play, with more than 100 wells drilled in 1995 and 1996. The Red River {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} reservoir is a dolomitized laminated carbonate with microsucrosic porosity of 8-25% and permeabilities in the range of 1-66 md. It occurs within the middle of three depositional cycles ({open_quotes}A,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}B,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}C{close_quotes}) that form the upper Red River Formation. Each cycle consists of a lower burrowed limestone, middle laminated member, and capping anhydrite or lime mudstone. The {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} reservoir is confined to the {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} laminated member and consists of an upper portion, characterized by better reservoir quality, and a lower, less permeable portion. Horizontal drilling has the advantage of significantly increasing well-bore exposure to the upper, more permeable portion. Well data indicate the total Red River {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} porosity zone has remarkable extent over parts of southwestern North Dakota, southeastern Montana, and northwestern South Dakota. Productivity from horizontal well displays considerable variation that can be correlated with structure/tectonic patterns and with reservoir petrophysical character.

  15. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Why quantum mechanics cannot be formulated as a Markov process{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Garbaczewski, P.; Olkiewicz, R.

    1996-08-01

    In the paper with the above-noted title, D. T. Gillespie [Phys. Rev. A {bold 49}, 1607 (1994)] claims that the theory of Markov stochastic processes cannot provide an adequate mathematical framework for quantum mechanics. In conjunction with the specific quantum dynamics considered there, we give a general analysis of the associated dichotomic jump processes. If we assume that Gillespie{close_quote}s {open_quote}{open_quote}measurement probabilities{close_quote}{close_quote} {ital are} the transition probabilities of a stochastic process, then the process must have an invariant (time independent) probability measure. Alternatively, if we demand the probability measure of the process follow the quantally implemented (via the Born statistical postulate) evolution, then we arrive at the jump process which {ital can} be interpreted as a Markov process if restricted to a suitable duration time. However, there is no corresponding Markov process consistent with the {ital Z}{sub 2} event space assumption, if we require its existence for all times {ital t}{element_of}{bold R}{sub +}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Two Schools on Quoting Confuse the Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimson, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses two distinct views on what a quote is: the exact words of a speaker, or a journalist's rewritten or fabricated version of the speaker's words. Argues that paraphrasing allows writers to taint the evidence and causes the loss of the speaker's voice and the loss of credibility and independent corroboration. (SR)

  17. Keeping [open quotes]it[close quotes] down on the farm

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, L.

    1993-05-01

    The [open quotes]tank farm[close quotes] for storing nuclear waste at the Hanford, Washington plutonium production complex has been a safety concern for some time. Special attention has been paid to a particular tank known as 101-SY, which periodically burps a witches' brew of chemicals. Concerns have been voiced that this tank presents an explosion hazard. Three years ago the Energy Department agreed to improve the monitoring of the 53 storage tanks considered most dangerous. In February, however, Oregon Congressman Ron Wynden made public the Energy Department's internal [open quotes]Red Team[close quotes] report on the Hanford waste tanks. The unencouraging findings of the Red Team are briefly outlined in this article. Included are reports of numerous failures of tank monitoring equipment, but also findings that the tanks are being monitored more frequently than previously.

  18. The {open_quotes}Real{close_quotes} crisis of losing nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, L.D.

    1996-12-31

    Many rational arguments can be made to promote the resurgence of nuclear-powered generating facilities. These arguments, however, are often lost on the voters. Voters must be made aware of the life-saving potential of nuclear power. Voters must understand, on a gut level, that if nuclear power is lost as an option for the production of electricity in this country, it will have the impact of {open_quotes}killing babies.{close_quotes} The real crisis associated with the loss of nuclear power production, with which voters can identify in a personal way, will be the loss of the life-saving potential of medical applications of nuclear technology. This personal issue could provide the {open_quotes}hot button{close_quotes} needed to generate broad-based voter support for nuclear power.

  19. Nonabelian Debye screening and the {open_quotes}tsunami{close_quotes} problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1997-09-22

    The phenomenon of Debye screening is familiar from electrolytes and many other systems. Recently, it has been recognized that in nonabelian gauge theories at high temperature, even perturbatively Debye screening is much more complicated than in nonrelativistic systems. This was originally derived as {open_quotes}hard thermal loops{close_quotes}. Hard thermal loops have been derived perturbatively, by a semiclassical truncation of the Schwinger-Dyson equations, and by classical kinetic theory. In this talk I give a pedagogical derivation, following that of Kelly, Liu, Lucchesi, and Manuel. The derivation is valid not just for a thermal distribution, but (modulo certain obvious restrictions) for an arbitrary initial distribution of particles. Consider, for example, the {open_quotes}tsunami{close_quotes} problem: suppose that one starts, at time t = 0, with a spatially homogenous, infinite wall of particles, all moving with the same velocity at the speed of light.

  20. Enhanced monitoring rule-{open_quotes}fact or fiction{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the direction EPA is taking in relationship to the Enhanced Monitoring Rule of 40 CFR 64. The old Enhanced Monitoring Rule can be discarded. The title of the new rule, called {open_quotes}Compliance Assurance Monitoring{close_quotes}, appears to be nothing like old rule. A change must be called for in the way EPA conducts their rule making process. The following discussion contains the author`s views, suggestions and techniques for implementing such a change.

  1. {open_quotes}Heavy light bullets{close_quotes} in electron-positron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1995-03-01

    The nonlinear propagation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves with relativistically strong amplitudes in an unmagnetized hot electron-positron plasma with a small fraction of ions is investigated. The possibility of finding localized solutions in such a plasma is explored. It is shown that these plasmas support the propagation of {open_quotes}heavy light bullets{close_quotes}; nondiffracting and nondispersive electromagnetic (EM) pulses with large density bunching.

  2. Greenland ice core {open_quotes}signal{close_quotes} characteristics: An expanded view of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Mayewski, P.A.; Meeker, L.D.; Morrison, M.C.; Twickler, M.S.; Whitlow, S.I.; Ferland, K.K.; Meese, D.A.; Legrand, M.R.; Steffensen, J.P.

    1993-07-20

    The last millenium of Earth history is of particular interest because it documents the environmental complexities of both natural variability and anthropogenic activity. The authors have analyzed the major ions contained in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP 2) ice core from the present to {approximately}674 A.D. to yield an environmental reconstruction for this period that includes a description of nitrogen and sulfur cycling, volcanic emissions, sea salt and terrestrial influences. They have adapted and extended mathematical procedures for extracting sporadic (e.g., volcanic) events, secular trends, and periodicities found in the data sets. Finally, by not assuming that periodic components (signals) were {open_quotes}stationary{close_quotes} and by utilizing evolutionary spectral analysis, they were able to reveal periodic processes in the climate system which change in frequency, {open_quotes}turn on,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}turn off{close_quotes} with other climate transitions such as that between the little ice age and the medieval warm period. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Comment on [open quotes]Nonlocality, counterfactuals, and quantum mechanics[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P. )

    1999-09-01

    A recent proof [H. P. Stapp, Am. J. Phys. [bold 65], 300 (1997)], formulated in the symbolic language of modal logic, claims to show that contemporary quantum theory, viewed as a set of rules that allow us to calculate statistical predictions among certain kinds of observations, cannot be imbedded in any rational framework that conforms to the principles that (1) the experimenters[close quote] choices of which experiments they will perform can be considered to be free choices, (2) outcomes of measurements are unique, and (3) the free choices just mentioned have no backward-in-time effects of any kind. This claim is similar to Bell[close quote]s theorem, but much stronger, because no reality assumption alien to quantum philosophy is used. The paper being commented on [W. Unruh, Phys. Rev. A [bold 59], 126 (1999)] argues that some such reality assumption has been [open quotes]smuggled[close quotes] in. That argument is examined here and shown, I believe, to be defective. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  4. A {open_quotes}community-based{close_quotes} approach to landfill closure

    SciTech Connect

    Sungaila, M.; Fisher, J.

    1995-09-01

    Closure plans for landfill sites are typically developed by landfill owners/operators in conjunction with the appropriate regulatory agency. Often, technical issues are considered first and end use and the needs of the local community are treated as a secondary concern. This can be termed a {open_quotes}top-down{close_quotes} approach. This paper present a case study of closure plan development for the Taro West Quarry Landfill, located in Stoney Creek, Ontario. A {open_quotes}bottom-up{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}community-based{close_quotes} approach was followed, in which local residents participated early in the closure planning process. Neighbours were allowed to obtain large amounts of information about the site, gained a solid understanding of technical issues, and had influence on decision making. The landfill has been in operation since 1980. The site is licensed to accept solid, non-hazardous industrial waste. Closure plan development began in the mid 1980s with planning for placement of a final cover and end use as a recreational community park. A community liaison committee was subsequently formed in 1992 which included members of the local public, staff from the City of Stoney Creek and provincial regulators, and the owners. By the late 1980s routine monitoring indicated that the wastes produced leachate containing elevated levels of chloride, ammonia, and phenols, and that this had affected local ground and surface water quality in excess of regulatory guidelines. Monitoring also indicated that combustible gas had migrated off-site, under winter conditions, to near a residential subdivision in potentially explosive concentrations. The problems were addressed immediately upon their detection, with the involvement of the community, the City, and the regulators. The prior establishment of good communications with various stakeholders was a key factor in facilitating remedial work.

  5. Some bounds in classes of {open_quotes}aging{close_quotes} distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Kotlyar, V.Yu.

    1995-03-01

    Reliability of technical systems is closely linked with {open_quotes}aging{close_quotes} properties of the components. So-called monotone systems whose components have certain aging characteristics are of considerable importance in this field of research. Efficient bounds of reliability, mean time to failure, and other parameters can be obtained for such systems. The bounds in literature were obtained under the least restrictive assumptions on aging. In this paper, we generalize some results of literature to the case of even more general aging principles, specifically, when the system components are HNBUE, HNWUE, NBAFR, NWAFR in terms of their reliability properties. We start with a definition of these properties.

  6. {open_quotes}Hot{close_quotes} - Electron laser using a Bragg reflection of electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Malov, Yu.A.; Babadzhan, E.I.

    1995-12-31

    Authors of paper (1) have suggested developing FEL which uses hot ballistic electrons in a superlattices under the assumption that the superlattices is short, equivalently, one would be dealing with the motion of electrons within a single band. The single-band model is valid if the reflection coefficient of the superlattices less unit. In the present paper analyze a {open_quote}hot{close_quotes}-ballistic-electron laser under the condition that there is a Bragg reflection of electrons from the superlattices or, equivalently, under the condition that the energy of a hot electron is close to the bottom of one of the quasibands of the superlattices. In this case the interaction of the electron with the superlattices is not weak and the reflection coefficient is approximately unit. If the photon energy is greater than the width of the quasigap {open_quotes}vertical{close_quotes} transitions can occur between the edges of neighboring quasibands, corresponding to a stimulated emission. If the lower quasiband is not filled, there would be essentially no absorption. The IR gain in the area 0.1-0.4 eV is approximately 100 %. The possibility of experimentally observing the effect is discussed for realistic values of the parameters of the superlattices and of the injected electron beam.

  7. Avoiding the {open_quotes}definition{close_quotes} pitfall to a comprehensive test ban

    SciTech Connect

    Bunn, G.; Timerbaev, R.

    1993-05-01

    Recently approved US legislation and a new US administration have brought an end to 12 years of American opposition to a comprehensive test ban (CTB). Signed by President Bush on October 2, 1992, the new law imposes a moratorium on US nuclear tests until July and possibly longer, permits up to 15 nuclear tests to improve the safety and reliability of nuclear weapons from the end of this moratorium until October 1996, and prohibits US tests after that unless another country tests. It also calls on the president to submit a plan for resumption of negotiations to end testing. President Bill Clinton, in his February 12, 1993 letter to Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell (D-ME) supporting this legislation, said his administration was now reviewing questions {open_quotes}of forum and modalities for negotiating a CTB...{close_quotes} Moreover, Presidents Clinton and Boris Yeltsin, at their April summit in Vancouver, {open_quotes}agreed that negotiations on a multilateral nuclear test ban should commence at an early date.{close_quotes}

  8. From hyperons to applied optics: {open_quotes}Winston Cones{close_quotes} during and after ZGS era

    SciTech Connect

    Swallow, E.C. |

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses developments in light collection which had their origin in efforts to construct high performance gas Cerenkov detectors for precision studies of hyperon beta decays at the ZGS. The resulting devices, know generally as {open_quotes}compound parabolic concentrators,{close_quotes} have found applications ranging from nuclear and particle physics experiments to solar energy concentration, instrument illumination, and understanding the optics of visual receptors. Interest in these devices and the ideas underlying them stimulated the development of a substantial new subfield of physics: nonimaging optics. This progression provides an excellent example of some ways in which unanticipated - and often unanticipatable - applied science and {open_quotes}practical{close_quotes} devices naturally emerge from first-rate basic science. The characteristics of this process suggest that the term {open_quotes}spinoff{close_quotes} commonly used to denote it is misleading and in need of replacement.

  9. Effects of Pictographs and Quoting on Flaming in Electronic Mail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompsen, Philip A.; Foulger, Davis A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the perception of flaming (hostile verbal behavior) in electronic mail by exploring, in the context of five escalating levels of socioemotional intensity, the effects of pictographs (typographic symbols used to express emotion) and quoting. Results suggest pictographs and quoting can vary in perceived intensity and meaning, depending on…

  10. Commentary: Racist Quotes from Persons of Note Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This series of quotes documents negative statements about various racial, religious, and socio-economic groups. The quotes cover a time period from 1787 through 1987. All of them were made by persons of note such as U.S. presidents, members of congress, authors, and journalists. (VM)

  11. Is {open_quotes}early commitment{close_quotes} in plan generation ever a good idea?

    SciTech Connect

    Joslin, D.; Pollack, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Partial-Order Causal Link planners typically take a {open_quotes}least-commitment{close_quotes} approach to some decisions (notably, step ordering), postponing those decisions until constraints force them to be made. However, these planners rely to some degree on early commitments in making other types of decisions, including threat resolution and operator choice. We show why existing planners cannot support full least-commitment decision-making, and present an alternative approach that can. The approach has been implemented in the Descartes system, which we describe. We also provide experimental results that demonstrate that a least-commitment approach to planning can be profitably extended beyond what is done in POCL and similar planners, but that taking a least-commitment approach to every planning decision can be inefficient: early commitment in plan generation is sometimes a good idea.

  12. Report on {open_quotes}audit of internal controls over special nuclear materials{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy (Department) is responsible for safeguarding a significant amount of plutonium, uranium-233 and enriched uranium - collectively referred to as special nuclear materials - stored in the United States. The Department`s office of Nonproliferation and National Security has overall management cognizance for developing policies for safeguarding these materials, while other Headquarters program offices have {open_quotes}landlord{close_quotes} responsibilities for the sites where the materials are stored, and the Department`s operations and field offices provide onsite management of contractor operations. The Department`s management and operating contractors, under the direction of the Department, safeguard and account for the special nuclear material stored at Department sites.

  13. Comment on {open_quotes}Models of intermediate spectral statistics{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Gorin, T.; Muller, M.; Seba, P.

    2001-06-01

    In this Comment we point out that the semi-Poisson is well suited only as a reference point for the so-called {open_quotes}intermediate statistics,{close_quotes} which cannot be interpreted as a universal ensemble, like the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble or the Poissonian statistics. In Ref. 2 it was proposed that the nearest-neighbor distribution P(s) of the spectrum of a Poissonian distributed matrix perturbed by a rank one matrix is similar to the semi-Poisson distribution. We show, however, that the P(s) of this model differs considerably in many aspects from the semi-Poisson. In addition, we give an asymptotic formula for P(s) as s{r_arrow}0, which gives P{sup {prime}}(0)={pi}{radical}3/2 for the slope at s=0. This is different not only from the GOE case, but also from the semi-Poisson prediction.

  14. Evidence of melt in {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} recovered copper jets

    SciTech Connect

    Lassila, D.H.; Nikkel, D.J. Jr.; Kershaw, R.P.

    1995-08-01

    A shaped charge (81 mm, 42{degrees}, OFHC copper cone) was fired into a {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} recovery bunker to allow metallurgical examination of recovered jet particles and the slug. The initial weight of the copper liner was 245 gm, of which 184 gm was recovered. The number of jet particles recovered was 37 (approximately 63% of the particles formed by the charge). Extensive metallurgical analyses were performed on the recovered slug and jet particles. The microstructural features associated with voids, e.g. dendritic grain growth, clearly indicate that the regions in the vicinity of the centerline of the slug and jet particles were melted. In this work we present calculations of jet temperature as a function of constitutive behavior. In order to predict melt in the center region of the jet we find it necessary to scale flow stress with a pressure dependent shear modulus.

  15. Characterization and restoration of performance of {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} radioiodine removing activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.P.

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these {open_quotes}failed{close_quotes} carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Thesis - keeping the management system {open_quotes}live{close_quotes} and reaching the workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Primrose, M.J.; Bentley, P.D.; Graaf, G.C. van der

    1996-12-31

    Previous papers given to SPE conferences have described the Shell Group approach to Safety Management Systems and to Safety Cases. Their extension to HSE MS and to HSE Cases has also been addressed. Since 1984 the Enhanced Safety Management (ESM) programme within Shell companies has led to a significant improvement in the management of safety but it was only when structured management systems (based upon an understanding of the business processes) were introduced that true integration of HSE as a line responsibility became a reality. This paper describes the THESIS software package and the way that management systems have been made {open_quote}live{close_quote} and how workforce involvement can be demonstrated.

  17. New performance data for {open_quotes}Emery 3002{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Emery 3004,{close_quotes} two Army-approved safe materials to replace DOP in mask and filter testing

    SciTech Connect

    Carlon, H.R.; Guelta, M.A.

    1995-02-01

    At the 22nd Conference in Denver, we reported that the U.S. Army Surgeon General (SGJ) had approved our developmental material {open_quotes}Emery 3004{close_quotes} as a safe replacement for the suspected carcinogen DOP (dioctyl phthalate) in mask and filter testing throughout the Army. Subsequently the SG approved a second, less viscous material, {open_quotes}Emery 3002,{close_quotes} for similar applications. We have measured the viscosities and surface tensions of these liquids over a wide range of temperatures, and have initiated liquid breakup studies through Laskin and two-fluid nozzles. New measurements have been carried out with both liquids, e.g. using the ATI, Inc., TDA-4A cold generator to disperse aerosols for which droplet size distributions were measured using the TSI, Inc., Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS). Among the findings were that Emery 3004 performs much like DOP in the TDA-4A, with some possible advantages, while Emery 3002 in the TDA-4A produces mean droplet diameters about one-half those of Emery 3004 or DOP. This suggests that Emery 3002 could yield more rigorous filter tests with a smaller consumption of material. New laboratory results will be summarized. Sources of the {open_quotes}Emery{close_quotes} materials will be discussed since the production facility formerly operated by Emery is now run by the Ethyl Corporation and the source products are now known as {open_quotes}Ethylflo 192{close_quotes} (Emery 3002) and{open_quotes}Ethylflo 194{close_quotes} (Emery 3004).

  18. The dolomitized{open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone in the Barinas basin: A hydrocarbon reservoir in carbonate rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, R.; Boujana, M.

    1996-08-01

    The {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone Member, top of Escandalosa Formation of a Lower to Upper Cretaceous age, is an interval of about 70 feet thick. It represents a coastal facies of caitonate platform; dominated by carbonates of calcarenitic lithologies intercalated with some sandy, glauconitic, calcareous bodies and thin bioturbated shaly intervals. Detailed studies carried out in five cores yield to a new approach and subdivision within this interval based on diagnostic erosive surfaces that may be interpreted as sequence boundaries. Based on sedimentology, trace fossil assemblages and diagenetic events, the milieu of sedimentation varies from foreshore to offshore. Porous dolomite levels occur within the {open_quotes}O{close_quotes} Limestone. This porosity is of intergranular, moldic and vuggy types. Some microfractures are also observed. Subaerial karstification is an alternative hypothesis that can explain the origin of the localized dolomitized vuggy reservoirs. The following sequence of events is suggested: (1) Sedimentation followed by bioturbation, then lithification with a probable replacement of aragonite by calcite, (2) Early dolomitization undergoing the {open_quotes}mixing{close_quote} or {open_quotes}Dorag {close_quotes} Model, (3) Dedolomitization and dissolution generating a moldic porosity enhanced the vuggy forms. This stage may have been influenced by karst processes, (4) Burial diagenesis accompanied by stylolitization and fracturation with pressure-solution effects, and (5) Some levels increase their porosity because of partial dolomitization; in others the vuggy porosity is totally infilled with sparry calcite.

  19. {open_quotes}Heated layer{close_quotes} effect in interaction of an interplanetary shock wave with a geomagnetic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, P.E.

    1993-11-01

    Using the numerical solution as the base the conditions of propagating a parallel MGD shock wave in the presence of a heated layer are analyzed, a new {open_quotes}raking regime{open_quotes} of interaction not observed with no magnetic field is revealed. A flow steadiness criterion is obtained, and conditions for the onset of a similarity precursor are estimated.

  20. New calculation schemes for the {open_quotes}building-base{close_quotes} system in conditions of collapsing loess soils

    SciTech Connect

    Mezherovskii, V.A.

    1994-05-01

    New calculation schemes are suggested for the {open_quotes}building-loess collapsing base{close_quotes} system, with the help of which it is possible to obtain values of the forces and movements occurring in a building as a result of collapses of bases that are close to the real ones in the nature of moistening and deformations of loess strata.

  1. Salvaging dipmeters using an oil field {open_quotes}Dinosaur{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Breimayer, A.R.P.; Puzio, L.B.

    1996-09-01

    Although state-of-the-art methods such as 3-D seismic and formation imaging tools are widely used, the advantages of the old standard dipmeter should not be dismissed. Seismic dip is subject to velocity errors, and formation imagers cannot be run in all borehole conditions. The dipmeter offers a relatively low cost, highly effective alternative for defining geologic features. The 60{double_prime}= 100{prime} scale playback of the raw dipmeter data may be an oil field {open_quotes}dinosaur,{close_quotes} but it is also the key to assessing the reliability of a dipmeter. This playback should be used to determine CORRELATION QUALITY, critical to the accuracy of any dipmeter. Computer computation of the raw dipmeter data does not always yield reliable dip information, particularly when dipmeters are run under adverse hole conditions or in complex geology. This data can be often salvaged by optical correlation of the 60{close_quote} playback - the process of manually correlating raw dipmeter resistivity curves to determine the attitude of bedding planes in the subsurface. Problems such as tool noise, tool pulls, and poor pad contact compromise data quality. These problems can be recognized and compensated for using optical correlation. Finally, at the 60{double_prime} scale many formation textures and structural characteristics visible on the formation imaging logs are also discernible on the standard dipmeter traces. We will offer many Gulf Coast examples and some hands-on demonstrations using the 60{double_prime} data, and show improved tadpole plots which result from optical correlation.

  2. A q-oscillator Green{close_quote}s function

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmedov, H.; Duru, I.H. |

    1997-08-01

    By using the generating function formula for the product of two q-Hermite polynomials, q-deformation of the Feynman Green{close_quote}s function for the harmonic oscillator is obtained. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Stored Guthrie cards as DNA [open quotes]Banks[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, J.E.; Reilly, P.R. )

    1994-07-01

    Recently there has been much discussion about the possibility of using dried blood spots on Guthrie cards as a source of DNA for research or testing purposes. The collections of Guthrie cards stored by state newborn-screening laboratories can thus be viewed as inchoate [open quotes]DNA banks[close quotes]. This has generated concern among some persons who are interested in preserving the privacy of medical records. This study examines the policies of state newborn-screening laboratories in the United States, regarding their retention of Guthrie cards and the degree to which they permit the sharing of those cards with various third parties. The authors found that although most laboratories retain their cards, if at all, for only a short time, a growing number plan to keep them for an extended period-and, in several cases, indefinitely. They also found that although most laboratories would decline to release individually identifiable blood spots from the cards to third parties without a written release or other explicit authorization, a large number would at least consider sharing anonymous cards for research purposes. 10 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. {open_quotes}Unspecific{close_quotes} X-linked mental retardation: Clinical, genetic and molecular studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ropers, H.H.; Maacel, S. van der; Knoers, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous linkage studies have assigned a gene for non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (XMR) to at least 8 different regions on the X-chromosome. The fragile X-syndrome (FRAXA) does not account for more than 40% of all cases; in most XMR families early diagnosis and prevention is not possible. As part of a systematic study into {open_quotes}unspecific{close_quotes} XMR involving more than 30 non-FRAXA families, linkage studies have enabled us to map the respective genes in 4 families to the Xp11.4-q12 interval with peak lod scores around the ALAS2 locus. In three other families, the gene defect could be assigned to the KAL-DMD, DXS424-FRAXAC2 and DSX52-Xqter intervals, respectively. In one of these families, small stature due to growth hormone deficiency was observed as a distinctive clinical feature. Molecular cloning of the breakpoint in a mentally retarded girl with a balanced t(Xq13;13q) translocation has enabled us to isolate an X-chromosomal gene which is disrupted in this patient and is highly expressed in brain. YAC cloning strategies are being employed to clone another XMR gene, which has been identified previously in the vicinity of the CHM locus and genes involved in mentally retarded patients with two different inversions, inv(X)(q21p11) and inv(X)(p21q24), respectively.

  5. Identification of mutations by RNA conformational polymorphism {open_quotes}bar code{close_quotes} analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lenz, H.J.; Danenberg, K.D.; Schnieders, B. |

    1995-11-01

    DNA single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis is widely used for detection of point mutations in clinical specimens. Performing SSCP analysis with cRNA instead of DNA has been shown to improve mutation detection frequency. RNA can exist in numerous metastable conformations, which appear as patterns of bands on nondenaturing electrophoresis gels. Single base mutations can cause not only mobility shifts of major bands, but also loss of some conformations and appearance of new conformations. Unique RNA SSCP patterns associated with specific base sequences in many cases allow visual identification of point mutations. However, in some cases, the RNA SSCP pattern of a single base change in a sequence is not sufficiently different for a positive identification of the mutation. Improvement in the detection capability of RNA SSCP was obtained by adding 3{prime}-deoxy-nucleotides to the transcription reaction. The presence of chain-terminating nucleotides in the transcription reaction formed numerous new RNA fragments, thereby generating complex band patterns ({open_quotes}bar codes{close_quotes}) unique to each RNA sequence. This method was applied to analyzing p53 mutations in patients with colon cancer. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Myth-building: The [open quotes]Islamic[close quotes] bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Hoodbhoy, P. )

    1993-06-01

    The [open quotes]Islamic Bomb[close quotes] is roughly understood to be a nuclear weapon aquired for broad ideological reasons--a weapon that supposedly belongs to the Muslim [ital ummah] or community and, as such, is the ultimate expression of Islamic solidarity. Concern about the Islamic bomb is at the heart of the intense effort to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons to Muslim countries. The official justification is a general one: proliferation must be curbed globally. But unofficially, the Islamic bomb gets special attention. The reasons behind this special attention are described in this article. The reasons include fear of terrorism, of a [ital jihad] willing to indiscriminately use nuclear weapons in hope of a reward in the Hereafter, and of the transfer of nuclear arms from nuclear to non-nuclear Muslim countries in times of crisis. Possibilities for controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons in Muslim countries are addressed. Reasons are cited as to why various Muslim countries wish to acquire nuclear weapons.

  7. Containment technology at the {open_quotes}Griftpark{close_quotes} former MGP site in the Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Vries, P.W. de; Viveen, B.

    1997-12-31

    {open_quotes}Griftpark{close_quotes} is a former highly contaminated gasworks site of approximately 8 hectares situated in Utrecht (The Netherlands). The MGP site is contained by a vertical barrier wall made of a specific mixture of bentonite-concrete and underlying clay layers at depths of 50 to 60 m which are slowly permeable. The barrier wall is 80 cm thick, has an average depth of 64 m, a length of 1260 m and has a total surface area of approximately 70,000 m{sup 2}. The construction of the barrier wall took nearly three years, from 1993 to 1995, to complete and building costs approximated 35 million US$ whereas the total project costs amounted to more than 150 million US$ including water detoxification. Migration of contaminants in the soil strata is successfully arrested by the construction of the barrier wall which was built conform NEN-ISO 9000/9001 standards. Wall permeability which was tested during a ten months period after construction demonstrates fully warranted reliability. This year a top layer will be installed consisting of an open insolation without foil. After placement of the top the site will be developed into a recreation park. Contaminant migration will permanently be monitored.

  8. [open quote]Endangered[close quote] salmon: More than just a Northwest hydro problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, D.E. )

    1992-06-01

    In the US, about 600 species of plants and animals are considered threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act. One of those, the Snake River sockeye salmon, has been making news in the Pacific Northwest. In November 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared Snake River sockeye salmon an endangered species, mandating the creation of a recovery plan that could cost more than $70 million a year. Many in the Northwest believe that the Endangered Species Act has never been applied in a case affecting so large an area or such a wide range of economic interests, including hydropower, agriculture, hatcheries, and commercial and sport fishing. Implications of this listing go far beyond regional economics, though. The way in which the federal government applied the Endangered Species Act in this instance has set a precedent that could affect hydro development throughout the US. The Endangered Species Act must be reauthorized by Congress by late October 1992. As explained in the accompanying story, [open quotes]Reauthorizing the ESA: Many Groups Calling for Change,[close quotes] the majority opinion in the US is that the act needs reform. Reviewing the act and its application in the Pacific Northwest will help members of the US hydro industry understand how hydro developments could be affected.

  9. Upper stage options for reusable launch vehicle {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} missions

    SciTech Connect

    Eckmann, J.B.; Cotta, R.B.; Matuszak, L.W.; Perkins, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Suborbital separation of an expendable upper stage from a small, single-stage Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) to transfer spacecraft into Geosynchronous Equatorial Orbit (GEO) was investigated and found to significantly increase spacecraft mass into GEO (over 400{percent}) although operational issues exist. An assessment of propulsion system options for this {open_quotes}Pop-Up{close_quotes} Mission was performed to determine the propellant combinations, stage configurations, and propulsion technologies that maximize spacecraft mass and minimize size. Propellants included earth and space storable combinations, cryogenic LH{sub 2}/LO{sub 2}, and Class 1.3 solids. Stage configurations employing cylindrical metal and overwrapped tanks, isogrid tanks, and toroidal tanks were considered. Non-toxic earth storable propellants provided comparable performance (5{endash}10{percent}) to existing storables while the use of pressure-fed engines gave about 15{percent} lower performance than pump-fed. Solid stage performance was within 5{percent} of existing storable propellants. Stages employing toroidal tanks packaged more efficiently in length constrained RLV payload bays than 4-cylindrical tank configurations, giving up to 30{percent} greater mass into GEO. The use of Extendable Exit Cones (EEC) for length constrained cases resulted in about 5{endash}10{percent} higher stage performance. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. A {open_quotes}zero waste{close_quotes} coolant management strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kennicott, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    In June of 1992 the Waste Minimization Program at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) began a study to determine the best methods of managing water-based industrial metalworking fluids in the plant`s Tool Manufacturing Shop. The shop was faced with the challenge of managing fluids that could no longer be disposed of in the traditional manner, through the plant`s liquid process waste drains, due to a problem they, were having causing in the Liquid Waste Operations Evaporator. The study`s goal was to reduce the waste coolants being generated and to reduce worker exposure to a serious health risk. Results of this study and those of a subsequent study to determine relative compatibilities of various coolants and metals, led to the application of a {open_quotes}zero waste{close_quotes} machine coolant management program. This program is currently saving the generation of 10,000 gallons of liquid waste annually, has eliminated worker exposure to harmful bacteria and biocides, and should result in extended machine tool life, increased product quality, fewer rejected parts, and decreases labor costs.

  11. What is the {open_quotes}beta-induced Alfv{acute e}n eigenmode?{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Ruskov, E.; Carolipio, E.M.; Fang, J.; van Zeeland, M.A.; James, R.A.

    1999-04-01

    An instability with a lower frequency than the toroidicity-induced Alfv{acute e}n eigenmode was initially identified as a beta-induced Alfv{acute e}n eigenmode (BAE). Instabilities with the characteristic spectral features of this {open_quotes}BAE{close_quotes} are observed in a wide variety of tokamak plasmas, including plasmas with negative magnetic shear. These modes are destabilized by circulating beam ions and they transport circulating beam ions from the plasma core. The frequency scalings of these {open_quotes}BAEs{close_quotes} are compared to theoretical predictions for Alfv{acute e}n modes, kinetic ballooning modes, ion thermal velocity modes, and energetic particle modes. None of these simple theories match the data. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. {open_quotes}Balanced{close_quotes} karyotypes in six abnormal offspring of balanced reciprocal translocation normal carrier parents

    SciTech Connect

    Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W.; Boone, L.Y.

    1995-01-02

    Among 6800 consecutive blood samples studies for clinical cytogenetic diagnosis, we identified 30 families in which one parent of the proband had a balanced reciprocal autosomal translocation (excluding Robertsonian rearrangements). Twenty-eight of the 30 families had a malformed and/or mentally retarded proband: 19 with an unbalanced derived chromosome, 3 with abnormalities involving chromosomes other than those in the translocation, 5 with a {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} reciprocal translocation, and 1 with a normal karyotype. We hypothesize that a latter 6 affected probands with {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} karyotypes could be abnormal due to submicroscopic deletions and duplications as was originally suggested by Jacobs. Particularly in these 6 families, 83% of translocation breakpoints were associated with fragile sites, more than expected by chance (P < 0.025). This supports the report of an association between fragile sites and constitutional chromosome breakpoints by Hecht and Hecht. To explain these findings, we propose that autosomal fragile sites are unstable areas which predispose to breaks and unequal crossing over near the fragile site breakpoints creating minute duplications and deletions. Consequently, newborn infants inheriting a seemingly {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} karyotype from a normal parent with a balanced reciprocal translocation may still be at an increased risk of being malformed and/or developmentally delayed because of submicroscopic chromosomal imbalances. 19 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Detecting MOV stem to stem-nut lubricant degradation by reviewing MOV {open_quotes}seating time{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Loweth, W.A.

    1996-12-01

    The objective is to describe a methodology, suitable for IST Programs, that obtains sufficient data to assess and trend the overall condition of AC and DC MOVs. Using existing diagnostic test equipment, recording the time from Hard Seat Contact to the Torque Switch Trip point (TST), {open_quote}Seating Time (msec){close_quotes}, can provide a means to quickly detect for signs of lubricant degradation in the interface between the stem and stem-nut for MOVs. Obtaining and trending the {open_quote}Seating Time{close_quote} parameter can be easily accomplished using the sensors which provide motor current, torque or thrust. From the initial baseline test to subsequent tests, it is the change in time between Hard Seat Contact to Torque Switch Trip point that is utilized to monitor changes in the coefficient of friction between the stem and stem-nut. While many Licensees have begun their MOV Periodic Verification Programs, obtaining the {open_quotes}Seating Time{close_quotes} during Refueling Outages and comparing the results from subsequent outages can be an input to the justification for changing the MOV baseline test frequency.

  14. [open quotes]Passing the test[close quotes] - Human behavior and California's smog check program

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, D.R. )

    1993-12-01

    We have analyzed data obtained from more than 11,000 vehicles inspected in California's random roadside surveys to assess the real-world characteristics of the in-use motor vehicle fleet and to test the effectiveness of California's inspection and maintenance (I/M) program. The low-idle emissions data from these surveys show that 10 percent of the fleet are responsible for about 60 percent of the exhaust hydrocarbons and also that 10 percent of the fleet (not necessarily the same vehicles) are responsible for about 60 percent of the carbon monoxide emissions. We also show that high emitters appear among all model years, and not just among old vehicles, as previously assumed. Old vehicles, on average, have higher idle emissions than new vehicles, but they contribute relatively little to the total idle emissions because there are so few on the road. We compare roadside survey results at I/M and non-I/M locations in California, and observe identical tampering and overall failure rates at the two types of locations. We also show that motorists are taking steps to [open quotes]pass the test,[close quotes] and that the high-emitting vehicles' idle-emissions performance and tampering rates in the roadside surveys are unaffected by the Smog Check test. These results imply that success in California's Smog Check program in reducing emissions will require consideration of human behavior and the attendant negative incentives inherent in the program as historically conceived. 29 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. A microwave inverse Cerenkov accelerator ({open_quotes}MICA{close_quotes})

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.B.; Marshall, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    By {open_quotes}inverting{close_quotes} the stimulated Cerenkov effect to stimulated Cerenkov absorption, it is possible to build an electron accelerator device driven by high power microwaves that propagate in a slow-wave TM mode (axial E-field). An experiment now running at Brookhaven uses a powerful C02 laser and a 50MeV electron beam moving in a gas-loaded cell. Our approach is to use the 15MW available at 2.865GHz from a SLAC klystron to accelerate an electron beam provided from an rf gun ({approximately}6MeV, few psec pulses) to energy {approximately}20MeV. The use of microwaves permits a well defined group of electrons to be accelerated in a narrow window of phase. The waveguide is a cylinder, radius = 1.59cm, which contains an annular tube of alumina ({epsilon} = 9.4) having a hole about 1cm diameter, we show this will slow the waves to 0.9943c and permit electrons to be accelerated by a co-propagating field. This results in a relatively compact structure that has the advantage of a smooth-bore design and no need of magnetic focussing. We have solved for the wave dispersion in the structure, found the fields, and then used the Lorentz force equations to obtain the motion of a group of electrons distributed in radius and along the axis. We find the radial forces are focussing. Electrons in a well-defined filament (r < 0.5mm) remain collimated and do not strike the dielectric. Techniques for improving the dielectric breakdown of the surface should permit axial fields in the range of 100-200 kV/cm.

  16. The restructuring and future of {open_quotes}Mendelian Inheritance in Man{close_quotes} (MIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, P.L.; Francomano, C.; Antonarakis, S.

    1994-09-01

    Victor McKusick`s catalog {open_quotes}Mendelian Inheritance in Man{close_quotes} represents the most comprehensive compendum of human genetic disease information available today and has appeared as a series in book form for the last 30 years. The 11th edition will contain almost 7000 entries: approximately 2800 descriptions of human genetic disorders, 700 combined disorder/gene descriptions and 3500 pure gene descriptions. Until recently the content of the catalogs was maintained solely by McKusick with a support staff. However, a distributed editing system has now been established with the following primary components. New entries are initiated in Baltimore by science writers under the guidance of the senior editors and McKusick, following which the information is made immediately available to the public through online access. The subject editors can then review and edit the new or modified information without impeding the timeliness of entering new information. Entries are being reconstructured so that clinical disorder and gene information is divided into separate entries which will better represent the frequently complex relationship of gene mutations to individual clinical disorders in the data files. Further, each entry is being subdivided into logical topics which will enhance the power of electronic searching, making links between topics and improving readability. The old division of entries into autosomal dominant and recessive, etc., is being abandoned in favor of clinical disorder (phenotypes) and gene catalogs. The information is maintained in an SGML format which facilitates the production of many different types of output varying from the traditional book form to CD ROMs and various online formats including IRx, WAIS, Gopher and World Wide Web. This latter offers the exciting possibility of making hypertext links between entries and other data resources, including photographic, sound and video clips as part of the total MIM information.

  17. {open_quotes}Accelerators and Beams,{close_quotes} multimedia computer-based training in accelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Silbar, R.R.; Browman, A.A.; Mead, W.C.; Williams, R.A.

    1999-06-01

    We are developing a set of computer-based tutorials on accelerators and charged-particle beams under an SBIR grant from the DOE. These self-paced, interactive tutorials, available for Macintosh and Windows platforms, use multimedia techniques to enhance the user{close_quote}s rate of learning and length of retention of the material. They integrate interactive {open_quotes}On-Screen Laboratories,{close_quotes} hypertext, line drawings, photographs, two- and three-dimensional animations, video, and sound. They target a broad audience, from undergraduates or technicians to professionals. Presently, three modules have been published ({ital Vectors, Forces}, and {ital Motion}), a fourth ({ital Dipole Magnets}) has been submitted for review, and three more exist in prototype form ({ital Quadrupoles, Matrix Transport}, and {ital Properties of Charged-Particle Beams}). Participants in the poster session will have the opportunity to try out these modules on a laptop computer. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Final report for LDRD project {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the research performed under the laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant {open_quotes}A new approach to protein function and structure prediction{close_quotes}, funded FY94-6. We describe the goals of the research, motivate and list our improvements to the state of the art in multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny (evolutionary tree) construction, but leave technical details to the six publications resulting from this work. At least three algorithms for phylogeny construction or tree consensus have been implemented and used by researchers outside of Sandia.

  19. Quotable Quotes on the Value of Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Language Association Bulletin, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Quotations about the importance of and need for foreign language teaching and learning by well-known U. S. politicians, college and university presidents, religious leaders, and government officials are presented. Those quoted include: (1) J. M. Leslie; (2) E. Nyquist; (3) J. M. Hester; (4) C. B. Saunders; (5) L. White, Jr.; (6) H. Humphrey; (7)…

  20. Racist Quotes from Persons of Note, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fikes, Robert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Offers racist quotes about Blacks, Jews, Hispanics, Asians, Italians, Poles, and others, from famous persons such as John Wayne, Woodrow Wilson, William F. Buckley, Richard Wagner, Jesse Helms, Sam Rayburn, Walter Lippman, Jack London, Paul Lynde, Theodore Roosevelt, Frank Sinatra, Errol Flynn, Ezra Pound, Richard M. Nixon, and Ronald Reagan. (BJV)

  1. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  2. Clinical and molecular cytogenetic observations in three cases of {open_quotes}trisomy 12p syndrome{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Rauch, A.; Trautmann, U.; Pfeiffer, R.A.

    1996-05-03

    Two unpublished cases with partial tandem duplication of 12p and one previously published case were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 11 cosmid DNA probes from 12p. We propose that the smallest duplications of 12(p13.2pter) and 12(p13.1p13.33) produce the {open_quotes}trisomy 12p syndrome{close_quotes} which is characterized by heavy birth weight, macrocephaly, muscular hypotonia, short neck, flat face, high forehead, prominent cheeks, large philtrum, short nose with anteverted nostrils, and broad everted lower lip. From a review of the published cases we conclude that gross malformations are lacking in {open_quotes}pure{close_quotes} trisomy 12p, and mental retardation is severe in complete and moderate in partial trisomy 12p. Polydactyly and accessory nipples were found only with almost complete trisomy 12p. Abnormalities of hair growth may be related to a gene at 12p. The sub-band 12p11.21 may be critical for acrocallosal syndrome. Macrocephaly may be due to a metabolic disorder. 26 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. The {open_quotes}Command and Control{close_quotes} philosophy of the Communist party of China

    SciTech Connect

    Kominiak, G.J.; Eisenberger, J.C.; Menaul, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    China`s central political authorities have constructed a system which is designed to enable them to exert their personal influence and control over each level of every organization in the country -- both civil and military. The Communist Party of China (CPC) is represented at all levels of each and every organization, including the People`s Liberation Army (PLA). These Party entities are intended to both provide oversight and to ensure that Party policies, directives and orders are obeyed. This penchant for political control, which may have its roots in China`s imperial past, appears to have been reinforced by the early developmental path chosen by the Party`s leadership. Current attempts aimed at maintaining political control of its resources, especially the military, are embodied in the formal system of {open_quotes}Political Work.{close_quotes} In the PLA, this system of political control results in the involvement of political organs in day-to-day military matters to an extent unheard of in the West. Further work is needed in order to understand, more fully, both the system of {open_quotes}Political Work{close_quotes} and its contributions to the overall military (and civil) command and control philosophic of the Communist Party of China.

  4. {open_quotes}Optical guiding{close_quotes} limits on extraction efficiencies of single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.

    1995-12-31

    Single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers have an attractive feature of being able, in theory at least, of extracting a large portion of the electron beam energy into light. In circumstances where an optical FEL`s wiggler length is significantly longer than the Rayleigh length Z{sub R} corresponding to the electron beam radius, diffraction losses must be controlled via the phenomenon of {open_quotes}optical guiding{close_quotes}. Since the strength of the guiding depends upon the effective refractive index {eta}{sub r} exceeding one, and since ({eta}{sub r}-1) is inversely proportional to the optical electric field, there is a natural {open_quotes}limiting{close_quotes} mechanism to the on-axis field strength and thus the rate at which energy may be extracted from the electron beam. In particular, the extraction efficiency for a prebunched beam asymptotically grows linearly with z rather than quadratically. We present analytical and numerical simulation results concerning this behavior and discuss its applicability to various FEL designs including oscillator/amplifier-radiator configurations.

  5. Accumulation of Cd by the marine sponge Halichondria panicea pallas: Effects upon filtration rate and its relevance for biomonitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Olesen, T.M.E.; Weeks, J.M. )

    1994-05-01

    The marine demosponge Halichondria panicea Pallas, is a cosmopolitan species occurring in coastal waters with varied conditions of light, current, salinity and turbidity. H. panicea has a leuconoid structure and is composed of siliceous spicules and spongin fibers. Sponges are important members of many shallow water marine benthic communities, but comparatively little is known of their trace metal biology. Sponge architecture is constructed around a system of water canals and the physiology of the sponge is largely dependent on the currents of water flowing through their bodies. The volume of water pumped by a sponge is remarkable, ca. 100-1200 ml h[sup [minus]1] g[sup [minus]1]. This large volume of water passing through the body of a sponge means that most cells are in direct contact with the external medium. Many sponges are able to accumulate trace metals and are highly tolerant of such pollutants. This has led to the proposal that a [open quotes]sponge watch[close quotes] program be initiated supplementary to the existing [open quotes]mussel watch[close quotes] program. In view of the large volume of water passing through the bodies of sponges such as H. panicea, the suitability of this species as a biomonitoring organism was further investigated. This study describes the accumulation strategy of the demosponge H. panicea exposed to dissolved cadmium (Cd) and the effect of Cd upon sponge filtration rate.

  6. Deposition of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} radon daughters in models of human nasal and oral airways

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, J.C.; Swift, D.L.

    1992-12-31

    In order to estimate accurately an effective dose equivalent for exposures to radon daughters, knowledge of their deposition in the lung is required. However, the nose and mouth are effective filters for removing aerosol particles, especially in the range of sizes of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} radon daughters. Therefore, it is equally important to have reliable data on deposition in this region of the respiratory tract. We will describe our work in studying nasal and oral deposition of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} radon daughters in casts of these airways. Several hollow casts of adult and child nasal and oral airways were fabricated at The John Hopkins University from layers of Perspect{trademark} (an acrylic plastic). The shapes of the airway passages were obtained from nuclear magnetic resonance sectional images of healthy subjects. The casts were exposed to radon gas and daughters produced by flushing filtered air through a commercially available {sup 226}Ra source. The gas stream was drawn through a 1.4-L cylindrical tube to allow measurable growth of {sup 218}Po activity before it was passed through casts of both nasal passages or the oral cavity. The deposition of {open_quotes}unattached{close_quotes} {sup 218}Po was measured by comparing the activity collected on filters mounted in series and in parallel with a cast. Measurements were made at various flow rates (Q; 4 to 20 L min{sup -1}). The diffusion coefficient (D) of {sup 218}Po was measured each time the flow rate was changed, by replacing the cast with a stainless steel gauze screen and measuring the activity penetrating the screen. The measured diffusion coefficient ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} and was found to vary with the residence time of {sup 218}Po in the growth tube. The deposition efficiency ({eta}) of {sup 218}Po measured in these casts ranged from 50 to 70%, and was similar to values we found previously, using casts of nasal and oral airways from cadavers.

  7. Role of RT6{sup +} T lymphocytes in mercury-induced renal autoimmunity: Experimental manipulations of {open_quotes}susceptible{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}resistant{close_quotes} rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kosuda, L.L.; Hosseinzadeh, H.; Bigazzi, P.E.; Greiner, D.L. |

    1994-12-31

    Brown Norway (BN) rats, {open_quotes}susceptible{close_quotes} to the autoimmune effects of mercury, experience a decrease of peripheral RT6.2{sup +} T lymphocytes after the injection of relatively low doses of mercury chloride. This change coincides with the appearance of circulating autoantibodies to renal antigens (e.g., laminin). Lewis (LEW) rats, {open_quotes}resistant{close_quotes} to the autoimmune effects of mercury, do not show significant decreases of RT6{sup +} T cells. It is possible that BN rats are particularly sensitive to stress induced by mercury and that secretion of adrenocortical hormones decreases levels of RT6{sup +} T cells in this rat strain. Alternatively, mercury may induce a graft-versus-host-like syndrome in BN rats, resulting in higher levels of corticosteroids capable of affecting RT6{sup +} lymphocytes. To eliminate the possible influence of adrenocortical hormones, we have adrenalectomized BN rats prior to administration of mercury. Autoimmune responses to renal antigens were not affected by this experimental manipulation. Similarly, adrenalectomized rats exposed to mercury showed a significant decrease of RT6{sup +} T lymphocytes in cervical lymph nodes. Overall, these observations do not support the hypothesis that increases in adrenocortical hormones play a major role in mercury-induced changes of RT6{sup +} T cells. We have also explored whether experimental depletion of RT6{sup +} T lymphocytes would result in autoimmunity. Gamma irradiation of BN rats led to a decrease of RT6{sup +} T splenocytes, but by itself (i.e., without exposure to mercury) did not cause autoimmune responses to renal antigens. In addition, gamma-irradiated BN rats treated with mercury had autoimmune responses similar to those observed in mercury-treated nonirradiated controls. 38 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Massive {open_quotes}turbidite{close_quotes} sandstones in the Vocontian Basin (south-east of France): An analogue for blocky {open_quotes}basin floor fan{close_quotes} reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert, P.; Rubino, J.L.; Olivier, P.; Rubino, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The concept of {open_quotes}Basin Floor Fan{close_quotes} used to describe deep-marine massive sandstone reservoirs is largely derived from subsurface data, with little sedimentological support from outcrops. This paper discusses outcrop analogues for such types of massive sandstones. The Aptian-Albian sandstones in the intracratonic Vocontian Basin form elongate deposits of massive, channelized deep-marine turbidite sands up to 80 meters thick, interbedded with a predominantly shaley series. These channels, several kilometers wide, extend over a distance of 80 kilometers, with a width/thickness ratio between 20 and 100; an interesting feature of these deposits is the apparent lack of mounded depositional lobes at their extremity. These massive sands are multistory and represent stacked 1-30 meters thick units. The turbidites were sourced by the reworking of well-sorted shelf sand deposits. The massive sands are fine to medium-grained and devoid of visible structures, except for subtle grain size grading and crude parallel lamination. Sand distribution is controlled by the regional palaeotopography which forms elongate trough-like depressions (structurally controlled?). Some sandstones have a strongly irregular, erosional base and fill channel-like features. Deposition of the background shales, erosion of the valley floor and sandy infill occurred as distinct and separate phrases. The main controls on the massive sand distribution are the source of the sand and the palaeotopography. In these examples, the depositional mechanism of the {open_quotes}Basin Floor Fan{close_quotes}-like sands corresponds to the high density turbidity currents rather than slumps or contourites, as suggested from some subsurface data.

  9. Crossed and Locked Quotes in a Multi-Market Simulation.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are often fragmented, introducing the possibility that quotes in identical securities may become crossed or locked. There are a number of theoretical explanations for the existence of crossed and locked quotes, including competition, simultaneous actions, inattentiveness, fee structure and market access. In this paper, we perform a simulation experiment designed to examine the effect of simple order routing procedures on the properties of a fragmented market consisting of a single security trading in two independent limit order books. The quotes in the two markets are connected solely by the routing decision of the market participants. We report on the health of the consolidated market as measured by the duration of crossed and locked states, as well as the spread and the volatility of transaction prices in the consolidated market. We aim to quantify exactly how the prevalence of order routing among a population of market participants affects properties of the consolidated market. Our model contributes to the zero-intelligence literature by treating order routing as an experimental variable. Additionally, we introduce a parsimonious heuristic for limit order routing, allowing us to study the effects of both market order routing and limit order routing. Our model refines intuition for the sometimes subtle relationships between the prevalence of order routing and various market measures. Our model also provides a benchmark for more complex agent-based models. PMID:26959416

  10. Crossed and Locked Quotes in a Multi-Market Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Andrew; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are often fragmented, introducing the possibility that quotes in identical securities may become crossed or locked. There are a number of theoretical explanations for the existence of crossed and locked quotes, including competition, simultaneous actions, inattentiveness, fee structure and market access. In this paper, we perform a simulation experiment designed to examine the effect of simple order routing procedures on the properties of a fragmented market consisting of a single security trading in two independent limit order books. The quotes in the two markets are connected solely by the routing decision of the market participants. We report on the health of the consolidated market as measured by the duration of crossed and locked states, as well as the spread and the volatility of transaction prices in the consolidated market. We aim to quantify exactly how the prevalence of order routing among a population of market participants affects properties of the consolidated market. Our model contributes to the zero-intelligence literature by treating order routing as an experimental variable. Additionally, we introduce a parsimonious heuristic for limit order routing, allowing us to study the effects of both market order routing and limit order routing. Our model refines intuition for the sometimes subtle relationships between the prevalence of order routing and various market measures. Our model also provides a benchmark for more complex agent-based models. PMID:26959416

  11. Crossed and Locked Quotes in a Multi-Market Simulation.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2016-01-01

    Financial markets are often fragmented, introducing the possibility that quotes in identical securities may become crossed or locked. There are a number of theoretical explanations for the existence of crossed and locked quotes, including competition, simultaneous actions, inattentiveness, fee structure and market access. In this paper, we perform a simulation experiment designed to examine the effect of simple order routing procedures on the properties of a fragmented market consisting of a single security trading in two independent limit order books. The quotes in the two markets are connected solely by the routing decision of the market participants. We report on the health of the consolidated market as measured by the duration of crossed and locked states, as well as the spread and the volatility of transaction prices in the consolidated market. We aim to quantify exactly how the prevalence of order routing among a population of market participants affects properties of the consolidated market. Our model contributes to the zero-intelligence literature by treating order routing as an experimental variable. Additionally, we introduce a parsimonious heuristic for limit order routing, allowing us to study the effects of both market order routing and limit order routing. Our model refines intuition for the sometimes subtle relationships between the prevalence of order routing and various market measures. Our model also provides a benchmark for more complex agent-based models.

  12. Report on {open_quotes}inspection of human subject research in intelligence and intelligence-related projects{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-16

    Executive Order 12333, {open_quotes}United States Intelligence Activities,{close_quotes} (1) designates the Department`s intelligence element as a member of the Intelligence Community, and (2) states that no agency within the Intelligence community shall sponsor, contract for or conduct research on human subjects except in accordance with guidelines issued by the Department of Health and Human Services. The Federal policy for the Protection of Human Subjects, which was based on Department of Health and Human Services regulations, was promulgated in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 745 by the Department of Energy. The purpose of this inspection was to review the internal control procedures used by the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security to manage selected intelligence and intelligence-related projects that involve human subject research.

  13. Proposed solution to the {open_quotes}k{sub eff} of the world{close_quotes} problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gelbard, E.M.; Roussel, B.

    1995-12-31

    In 1971 Whitesides posed a Monte Carlo (MC) problem which he called {open_quotes}computing the k{sub eff} of the world.{close_quotes} This problem is still troublesome today. The problem arose in MC studies of a 9 x 9 x 9 configuration of weakly coupled Pu spheres, initially identical, with the whole array surrounded by water. The MC eigenvalue for this array was .93. When the central sphere was replaced by another, just critical in isolation, the MC eigenvalue was still .93. Here we consider a model problem somewhat analogous to Whitesides`, and use it (1) to illustrate the difficulties in the simplest traditional MC approach, and (2) to explore an alternative approach.

  14. {open_quotes}Full steam ahead{close_quotes} (a historical review of geothermal power development in the Philippines)

    SciTech Connect

    Gazo, F.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Philippine geothermal energy development is now considered in a state of maturity. After more than 20 years of geothermal experience, the total geothermal installed capacity in the Philippines reached 1,455 MW (1996) or about 12% of the total installed power plant capacity. This also enabled the Philippines to become the second largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The country`s track record in harnessing geothermal energy is considered a revelation, as it continues with its vision of {open_quotes}full steam ahead{close_quotes}, originally conceived when commercial geothermal operation started in 1973. It is thus proper and timely to refer to historical highlights and experiences in geothermal energy development for planning and implementation of the country`s geothermal energy program.

  15. Preparative purification of Trichoderma reesei native and {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} cellobiohydrolase I by electrophoresis and chromatofocusing

    SciTech Connect

    Offord, D.A.; Lee, N.E.; Woodward, J.

    1991-12-31

    The enzymes present in the cellulose complex produced by the fungus Trichoderma reesei have been the subject of considerable attention in consequence of their potential for converting cellulosic materials into glucose for further use in fermentation processes. Cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) is the major component of crude commercial fungal cellulose preparations and catalyzes the conversion of insoluble cellulose into cellobiose. The primary structure of CBH I is known, and its tertiary structure, deduced from small-angle X-ray scattering studies, takes the shape of a tadpole with a catalytic head region known as {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} CBH I and a C-terminal cellulose-binding tail region. Removal of the tail can be accomplished with the protease papain, resulting in reduced activity towards insoluble substrates but unchanged activity towards soluble substrates.

  16. Absence of {lambda} immunoglobulin sequences on the supernumerary chromosome of the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hough, C.A.; White, B.N.; Holden, J.J.A.

    1995-09-11

    The supernumerary bisatellited chromosome causing the {open_quotes}cat eye{close_quotes} syndrome (CES) is of chromosome 22 origin and consists of an inverted duplication of the 22pter{r_arrow}22q11.2 region. To determine the extent of involvement of band q11.2 on the bisatellited chromosome, copy number assessment of sequences homologous to cloned {lambda} immunoglobulin ({lambda} Ig) gene region probes was carried out on DNA from individuals with CES using densitometric analysis of Southern blots. None of the 10 {lambda} Ig sequences studied was found in increased copy number in DNA from any of the 10 CES individuals tested, indicating that these sequences are not present on the supernumerary chromosome. The breakpoints involved in the generation of the bisatellited supernumerary chromosome associated with CES are therefore proximal to the {lambda} Ig gene region. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. [Hydrotris(3-isopropyl-5-methylpyazolyl)borato]-iodocobalt(II): Unusual purification by {open_quotes}inverse recrystallization{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Reinaud, O.M.; Rheingold, A.L.; Theopold, K.H.

    1994-05-11

    In the search for homogeneous oxidation catalysts, the authors are investigating sterically hindered tris(pyrazolyl) borate complexes. For example, hydrotris(3-tert-butyl-5-methylpyrazolyl)borate (Tp{prime}) stabilizes the unusual side-on bonded superoxo-cobalt complex Tp{prime}Co{sup II}(O{sub 2}). During study of this complex there arose the need to prepare an analogous molecule with isopropyl groups in place of the tert-butyl substituents of the pyrazolyl rings. As a starting material for this chemistry, the authors prepared and structurally characterized Tp{double_prime}Co{sup II}I (Tp{double_prime} = hydrotris(3-isopropyl-5-methylpyrazoly)borate). The separation of the latter from its regioisomers takes advantage of a rather unusual solubility effect, termed {open_quotes}inverse recrystallization{close_quotes}. The potential utility of this phenomenon in related systems prompted this note.

  18. Application of innovative policies for controlling radionuclide releases: The {open_quotes}open-market trading rule{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, D.W.

    1997-08-01

    In the past, most efforts for reducing airborne radio nuclide releases and controlling radioactive wastes have been directed to the development of new and improved technologies. Little attention has been paid to the possible application to these problems of new, innovative policies. Yet, experience in other fields shows that such applications could be beneficial. A prime example is the {open_quotes}open-market trading rule,{close_quotes} now being widely used in the U.S. for the control of a range of environmental problems. Through this rule, nuclear facility operators would be permitted to control airborne emissions in a more cost-effective manner, and those responsible for decommissioning and decontaminating nuclear facilities no longer in operation could do so at far lower costs while generating significantly smaller volumes of radioactive wastes. Application of such a policy would also significantly reduce the demands on existing, and the need for research to develop new, improved, control technologies. 16 refs.

  19. Development of the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of nuclear power plant severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Naitoh, Masanori; Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Hiroichi

    1997-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has initiated a long-term program to develop the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of hypothetical severe accidents in nuclear power plants. IMPACT employs advanced methods of physical modeling and numerical computation, and can simulate a wide spectrum of senarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical, beyond-design-basis-accident events. Designed as a large-scale system of interconnected, hierarchical modules, IMPACT`s distinguishing features include mechanistic models based on first principles and high speed simulation on parallel processing computers. The present plan is a ten-year program starting from 1993, consisting of the initial one-year of preparatory work followed by three technical phases: Phase-1 for development of a prototype system; Phase-2 for completion of the simulation system, incorporating new achievements from basic studies; and Phase-3 for refinement through extensive verification and validation against test results and available real plant data.

  20. Installation effects on multi-path ultrasonic flow meters: The {open_quote}ULTRAFLOW{close_quote} project

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemendaal, K. van; Kam, P.M.A. van der

    1995-12-31

    {open_quote}ULTRAFLOW{close_quote} was a Joint Industry Project aimed at establishing the effect of installation conditions on multi-path ultrasonic flow meters. An extensive test series was performed at 5 test facilities on 6 inch and 12 inch meters operating on natural gas at pressures from 10 to 60 bar. All test facilities and procedures are reviewed by an independent international Quality Assessment Team, comprising experts from legal metrological authorities, to ensure that the work was appropriate to support International Standards activity. This paper is a condensed version of the projects final report describing the project and test results. The tests in ideal flow conditions pay attention to meter stability and effects of signal averaging and pressure. From the error shifts in the tests with upstream disturbances (1 or 2 bends, step changes in pipe diameter and pressure reduction) values for uncertainties due to the presence of these disturbances are proposed.

  1. Integrated analysis of the {open_quotes}sponge iron reactor and fuel cell system{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrhofer, J.; Ghaemi, M.; Wernigg, H.

    1996-12-31

    The system Sponge Iron Reactor/Fuel Cell (SIR/FC) is investigated from the ecological and technical aspects and also the pre-conversion energy chain as a part of the natural gas fuel cycle is analyzed. What are the decisive characteristics of a sponge iron reactor or the basic process cycle sponge iron/hydrogen/iron oxide? This process cycle offers a simple possibility to store the energy of synthesis gases in the form of sponge iron and at the same time to reform and condition these synthesis gases. As {open_quote}product{close_quote} of this energy storage one receives pure hydrogen which is intended for the running of fuel cells.

  2. Recognition and regional correlation of impact-related {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes} Arbuckle and Simpson reservoir lithofacies

    SciTech Connect

    Kuykendall, M.D.

    1995-09-01

    The concentric structural feature known as the {open_quotes}Ames Hole{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes}, located on the northern shelf of the Anadarko Basin, contains several heterogeneous and uniquely associated hydrocarbon reservoirs, as well as a locally thick (craterfilling) Middle Ordovician (Simpson shale) source rock. Critical diagnostic structural and morphological features, along with petrographic and shock metamorphism evidence, strongly support and impact origin of the structure. Principle crater reservoirs include extremely brecciated, fractured, and faulted, Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group dolomites, Pre-Cambrian granodiorities, devitrified pseudo-pyroclastic (impact melt) rocks, and a rather homogenous, dolomitic ejecta-fallout breccia, which is present along the rim and flanks of the crater. Stratigraphic trapping of hydrocarbons associated with the presence of reservoir-quality ejecta-fallout lithologies unconformably present in the upper portion of the Arbuckle Group, and in reworked, arkosic/dolomitic impact-related lithofacies within the overlying basal Simpson Group, may exist both locally and regionally relative to the {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes}. Calibration of log-rock characteristics of ejecta-fallout reservoir lithofacies from key crater rim wells provides the basis for field-wide and regional inferences about lithologies, reservoir quality, and related production characteristics. An awareness and understanding of impact-related {open_quotes}Ames Crater{close_quotes} Arbuckle and Simpson lithofacies should lead to refinement of regional Lower and Middle Ordovician stratigraphy, and create renewed exploration strategies for potential stratigraphic traps.

  3. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Carolyn; Margolis, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  4. Hamilton{close_quote}s principle for quasigeostrophic motion

    SciTech Connect

    Holm, D.D.; Zeitlin, V.

    1998-04-01

    We show that the equation of quasigeostrophic (QG) potential vorticity conservation in geophysical fluid dynamics follows from Hamilton{close_quote}s principle for stationary variations of an action for geodesic motion in the f-plane case or its prolongation in the {beta}-plane case. This implies a new momentum equation and an associated Kelvin circulation theorem for QG motion. We treat the barotropic and two-layer baroclinic cases, as well as the continuously stratified case. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia (ARA){close_quotes} a new research aircraft facility on the southern hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, J.M.

    1996-11-01

    {open_quotes}Airborne Research Australia{close_quotes} (ARA) is a new research aircraft facility in Australia. It will serve the scientific community of Australia and will also make its aircraft and expertise available for commercial users. To cover the widest possible range of applications, the facility will operate up to five research aircraft, from a small, low-cost platform to medium-sized multi-purpose aircraft, as well as a unique high altitude aircraft capable of carrying scientific loads to altitudes of up to 15km. The aircraft will be equipped with basic instrumentation and data systems, as well as facilities to mount user-supplied instrumentation and systems internally and externally on the aircraft. The ARA operations base consisting of a hangar, workshops, offices, laboratories, etc. is currently being constructed at Parafield Airport near Adelaide/South Australia. The following text reports about the current state of development of the facility. An update will be given in a presentation at the Conference. 6 figs.

  6. Laboratory {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} investigation for the acoustically enhanced remediation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Spencer, J.W. Jr.; Hill, D.G.

    1995-10-01

    Weiss Associates is conducting a three phase program investigating the systematics of using acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to enhance the in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions: Phase I - Laboratory Scale Parametric Investigation; Phase II - Technology Scaling Study; and Phase III - Large Scale Field Tests. Phase I, the subject of this paper, consisted primarily of a laboratory proof of principle investigation. The field deployment and engineering viability of acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) technology was also examined. Phase II is a technology scaling study addressing the scale up between laboratory size samples on the order of inches, and the data required for field scale testing, on the order of hundreds of feet. Phase III will consist of field scale testing at an non-industrialized, non-contaminated site and at a contaminated site to validate the technology. Summarized herein are the results of the Phase I {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} investigation, and recommendations for Phase H. A general overview of AER technology along with the plan for the Phase I investigation was presented.

  7. Ulysses observations of a {open_quotes}density hole{close_quotes} in the high-speed solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, P.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.; Forsyth, R.J.

    1998-02-01

    Ulysses observations at mid and high heliographic latitudes have revealed a solar wind devoid of the large variations in density, temperature, and speed that are commonly observed at low latitudes. One event, however, observed on May 1, 1996, while Ulysses was located at {approximately}3.7AU and 38.5{degree}, stands out in the plasma data set. The structure, which is unique in the Ulysses high-latitude data set, is seen as a drop in proton density of almost an order of magnitude and a comparable rise in proton temperature. The event lasts {approximately}3(1)/(2) hours giving the structure a size of {approximately}9.6{times}10{sup 6}km (0.06 AU) along the spacecraft trajectory. Minimum variance analysis of this interval indicates that the angle between the average magnetic field direction and the minimum variance direction is {approximately}92{degree}, suggesting that the {open_quotes}density hole{close_quotes} may be approximated by a series of planar slabs separated by several tangential discontinuities. We discuss several possible explanations for the origin of this structure, but ultimately the origin of the density hole remains unknown. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  8. Nonequilibrium evolution of a {open_quotes}tsunami,{close_quotes} a high multiplicity initial quantum state: Dynamical symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Boyanovsky, D.; de Vega, H.J.; Holman, R.; Kumar, S.P.; Pisarski, R.D.

    1998-03-01

    We propose to study the nonequilibrium features of heavy-ion collisions by following the evolution of an initial state with a large number of quanta with a distribution around a momentum {vert_bar}{rvec k}{sub 0}{vert_bar} corresponding to a {ital thin spherical shell} in momentum space, a {open_quotes}tsunami.{close_quotes} An O(N)({rvec {Phi}}{sup 2}){sup 2} model field theory in the large N limit is used as a framework to study the nonperturbative aspects of the nonequilibrium dynamics including a resummation of the effects of the medium (the initial particle distribution). In a theory where the symmetry is spontaneously broken in the absence of the medium, when the initial number of particles per correlation volume is chosen to be larger than a critical value the medium effects can restore the symmetry of the initial state. We show that if one begins with such a symmetry-restored, nonthermal, initial state, nonperturbative effects automatically induce spinodal instabilities leading to a {ital dynamical} breaking of the symmetry. As a result there is explosive particle production and a redistribution of the particles towards low momentum due to the nonlinearity of the dynamics. The asymptotic behavior displays the onset of Bose condensation of pions and the equation of state at long times is that of an ultrarelativistic gas although the momentum distribution is {ital nonthermal}. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O.

    1997-04-01

    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  10. On the article by Henri Poincare` {open_quotes}on the dynamics of the electron{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Logunov, A.A.

    1996-04-01

    The first complete translations into English are presented of two articles written by the outstanding French scientist Henri Poincare and submitted by him in 1905 under the common title of {open_quotes}Sur la dynamique de l`electron{close_quotes} to different journals. In the present edition of these articles by H. Poincare, modern notation is used, and the articles are accompanied by comments written by A.A. Logunov. The author of the comments explains the profound physical meaning and essential novelty of the particular points and relationships established by Poincare. Such explanations are often interspersed with quotations from earlier articles by Poincare, thus clearly indicating that the main initial points of the new theory were put forward by the French scientist much before 1905, while certain concepts like `local` time and the arbitrariness of simultaneity were given a clear explanation from the point of view of physical meaning. A.A. Logunov`s book, presenting the works of Poincare on the development of relativity theory, has had quite a high success among specialists interested in the history of physics, and since 1984 it has been published in Russian three times. The present English-language edition is identical to the last 1988 Russian edition, and is dedicated to the 90th anniversary of Poincare`s articles `On the Dynamics of the Electron`. In preparing the English text, fragments were used of the translation of the long article by H.Poincare published in the book by Professor C.W. Kilmister from King`s College in London/Special Theory of Relativity, Pergamon Press, New York, 1970/.

  11. Global climate change - the United Nations FCCC, {open_quotes}Berlin Mandate{close_quotes}, COP-2, and electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mathai, C.V.

    1997-12-31

    Over the past 100 years, there has been a steady increase in man-made emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and most halogenated substances) due to human activities including combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation. Scientific studies suggest that these emissions are contributing to increases in atmospheric concentrations of GHGs which in turn, cause an enhanced greenhouse effect by trapping more of the sun`s energy leading to global climate change. Recently, a consensus position has emerged among the scientific community that man-made GHG emissions appear to be contributing to global climate change. Based on that finding, United States representative, Under Secretary of State Tim Wirth stated at the July 1996 meeting of the {open_quotes}Conference of Parties{close_quotes} (COP) of the FCCC, that global voluntary efforts to meet the GHG emission reduction goal have failed He called for the COP to expedite ongoing international negotiations toward establishing (in 1997) medium-term, realistic, legally-binding GHG emission targets and implementation schedules for each country. Setting a legally binding GHG emission target would have significant impacts on the nation, and especially on the electric utility sector. This article provides a general overview of the United States and international efforts toward implementing the FCCC and their potential impacts on the utility industry. A future article is anticipated to address an update on the international negotiations and their potential impacts on other sectors of the U.S. economy, and the rapidly growing GHG emissions from developing countries such as China and India.

  12. Sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation of [open quotes]stray[close quotes] sandstones in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, Utah: Implications for exploration models

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, G.J.; Howell, J.A.; Flint, S.S. )

    1996-01-01

    The Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, eastern Utah, represents the open marine mudstones of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway and contains a number of detached sandstone bodies ([open quotes]Mancos B[close quotes]) which are located 30-150 km down depositional dip from contemporaneous highstand shoreline deposits in the Blackhawk Formation. Examination of these [open quotes]stray[close quotes] sandstones reveals that they do not represent deep water deposition, as previously supposed, but instead comprise three shallow marine facies associations; (1) tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills, (2) fluvially-dominated delta front successions and (3) low-energy shorelines. Tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills are commonly stacked into multistorey bodies at discrete stratigraphic levels, thereby defining incised valley fill (IVF) networks. Fluvially-dominated deltas are eroded into by, and lie at the down-dip terminations of, IVFs and are therefore interpreted as falling stage and lowstand shorelines. Low-energy shorelines are inferred to lie along strike from these deltas. The above shallow marine deposits have been mapped at five discrete stratigraphic horizons, which can be either traced or projected up-dip to previously-documented IVFs in the Blackhawk Formation. Their paleocurrents imply that falling stage and lowstand shoreline trends were sub-parallel to mapped highstand shorelines, although there is evidence for a perpendicular lowstand shoreline trend in the east of the study area. This facies and sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation enables predictive exploration modelling of subsurface [open quotes]Mancos B[close quotes] gas reservoir sandstones.

  13. Sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation of {open_quotes}stray{close_quotes} sandstones in the Cretaceous Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, Utah: Implications for exploration models

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, G.J.; Howell, J.A.; Flint, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Mancos Shale, Book Cliffs, eastern Utah, represents the open marine mudstones of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway and contains a number of detached sandstone bodies ({open_quotes}Mancos B{close_quotes}) which are located 30-150 km down depositional dip from contemporaneous highstand shoreline deposits in the Blackhawk Formation. Examination of these {open_quotes}stray{close_quotes} sandstones reveals that they do not represent deep water deposition, as previously supposed, but instead comprise three shallow marine facies associations; (1) tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills, (2) fluvially-dominated delta front successions and (3) low-energy shorelines. Tidally-influenced fluvial channel fills are commonly stacked into multistorey bodies at discrete stratigraphic levels, thereby defining incised valley fill (IVF) networks. Fluvially-dominated deltas are eroded into by, and lie at the down-dip terminations of, IVFs and are therefore interpreted as falling stage and lowstand shorelines. Low-energy shorelines are inferred to lie along strike from these deltas. The above shallow marine deposits have been mapped at five discrete stratigraphic horizons, which can be either traced or projected up-dip to previously-documented IVFs in the Blackhawk Formation. Their paleocurrents imply that falling stage and lowstand shoreline trends were sub-parallel to mapped highstand shorelines, although there is evidence for a perpendicular lowstand shoreline trend in the east of the study area. This facies and sequence stratigraphic re-interpretation enables predictive exploration modelling of subsurface {open_quotes}Mancos B{close_quotes} gas reservoir sandstones.

  14. Problem on the United States Continental Shelf - measuring the environmental {open_quotes}effectiveness{close_quotes} of the Outer Continental Shelf Act (OCSA)

    SciTech Connect

    Dubner, B.H.

    1994-12-31

    This article reviews the interplay of environmental standard with oil and gas leasing on the Outer Continental Shelf (OSC) in order to determine if the marine environment is really protected by the interplay of domestic legislation. The 1982 LOS treaty leaves environmental protection to State (domestic) regulation. There is no customary law regarding this type of domestic shelf regulation. The main problem is measuring the {open_quotes}effectiveness{close_quotes} of our domestic shelf legislation. For example, do we simply review effectiveness in terms of controlling operational damage or in terms of environmental injury caused by catastrophic accidents?

  15. Evidence for {open_quotes}magnetic rotation{close_quotes} in nuclei: New results on the M1-bands of {sup 198,199}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Lifetimes of states in four of the M1-bands in {sup 198,199}Pb have been determined through a Doppler Shift Attenuation Method measurement performed using the Gammasphere array. The deduced B(M1) values, which are a sensitive probe of the underlying mechanism for generating these sequences, show remarkable agreement with Tilted Axis Cranking (TAC) calculations. Evidence is also presented for the possible termination of the bands. The results represent clear evidence for a new concept in nuclear excitations: {open_quote}magnetic rotation{close_quote}.

  16. {open_quotes}Horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer from a transgenic potato line to a bacterial pathogen (Erwinia chrysanthemi) occurs - if at all - at an extremely low frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, K.; Fuetterer, J.; Potrykus, I.

    1995-10-01

    The frequency of possible {open_quotes}horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer between a plant and a tightly associated bacterial pathogen was studied in a model system consisting of transgenic Solanum tuberosum, containing a {beta}-lactamase gene linked to a pBR322 origin of replication, and Erwinia chrysanthemi. This experimental system offers optimal conditions for the detection of possible horizontal gene transfer events, even when they occur at very low frequency. Horizontal gene transfer was not detected under conditions mimicking a {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} infection. The gradual, stepwise alteration of artificial, positive control conditions to idealized natural conditions, however, allowed the characterization of factors that affected gene transfer, and revealed a gradual decrease of the gene transfer frequency from 6.3 x 10{sup -2} under optimal control conditions to a calculated 2.0 x 10{sub -17} under idealized natural conditions. These data, in combination with other published studies, argue that horizontal gene transfer is so rare as to be essentially irrelevant to any realistic assessment of the risk involved in release experiments involving transgenic plants. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Comment on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes] by Robert A. Berner

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, T.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Berner (1992) has asserted that Jackson and Keller (1970a) misinterpreted the conspicuous reddish crust which forms on young lava flows in areas of rock surface colonised by the lichen Stereocaulon vulcani (but not in adjacent areas of bare rock) in regions of high rain fall on the Island of Hawaii. Jackson (1968) and Jackson and Keller (1970a,b) concluded from the results of a thorough interdisiplinary investigation employing a wide spectrum of techniques and information that his reddish coating, is an intensely leached weathering crust formed in situ, and that biochemical activities of the lichen or its associated microflora not only accelerate the chemical weathering of the rock by orders of magnitude but also determine the specific mineralogical and chemical properties of the weathering products. Berner, however, maintained that the reddish crust is in reality a deposit of [open quotes]wind-blown soil dust[close quotes] entrapped by a sticky organic substance secreted by the lichen. Berner fixed his attention on just one aspect of the many-sided body of interrelated data on which the conclusions of Jackson and Keller are founded-the observation that the weathering crust is much thicker on lichen-covered rock surfaces than on lichen-free [open quotes]control[close quotes] areas of the same rock. The totality of published evidence overwhelmingly supports the conclusions of Jackson and Keller an demonstrates that Berner's rival hypothesis is untenable.

  18. Did the Mississippian Lodgepole buildup at Dickinson Field (North Dakota) form as a gas seep ({open_quotes}vent{close_quotes}) community?

    SciTech Connect

    Longman, M.W.

    1996-10-01

    The Lower Mississippian Lodgepole carbonate buildup reservoir at Dickinson Field in Stark County, North Dakota, has been widely reported as being a Waulsortian (or Waulsortian-like) mound. The term {open_quotes}Waulsortian mound{close_quotes} is used for a variety of Early Mississippian carbonate buildups that share a number of features including an abundance of carbonate mud, a {open_quotes}framework{close_quotes} of organisms such as fenestrate bryozoans and crinoids that tended to trap or baffle sediment, and a general absence of marine-cemented reef framework. Although the age of the Lodgepole mound at Dickinson Field qualifies it to be a Waulsortian mound, petrographic study of cores reveals that the reservoir rocks are quite unlike those in true Waulsortian mounds. Instead of being dominated by carbonate mud, the Lodgepole mound core is dominated by marine cement. Furthermore, ostracods and microbial limestones are common in the mound core where they occur with crinoid debris and small amounts of bryozoan, coral, and brachiopod debris. The abundant microbial limestones and marine cement indicate that the Dickinson mound formed as a lithified reef on the sea floor rather than as a Waulsortian mud mound. The microbial limestones, marine cement, and common ostracods in the mount core, and the fact that the mound nucleated almost directly o top of the Bakken Shale, suggest that the Dickinson Lodgepole mound formed at the site of a submarine spring and gas seep.

  19. International shipment of light weight radioisotopic heater units (LWRHU) using the USA/9516/B(U)F Mound 1 kW shipping package in support of the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, C.D.; Merten, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotopes have provided heat that has been used to maintain specific operating environments within remote satellites and spacecraft. For the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission the {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fueled light weight radioisotopic heater unit (LWRHU) will be used within the spacecraft. Since the current plan for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission incorporates the use of a Russian launch platform for the spacecraft, the LWRHUs must be transported in an internationally certified shipping container. An internationally certified shipping package that is versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the LWRHUs that will be required to support the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. The potential value of employing a RLV-based {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} trajectory approach for space access

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, E.; OLeary, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the potential benefits of employing useful upper stages with planned reusable launch vehicle systems to increase payload performance to various earth orbits. It highlights these benefits through performance analysis on a generic vehicle/upper-stage combination (basing all estimates on realistic technology availability). A nominal 34,019 kg [75,000 lbm] dry mass RLV capable of orbiting 454 kg into a polar orbit by itself (SSTO) would be capable of orbiting 9500{endash}10,000 kg into a polar orbit using a nominal upper stage released from a suborbital trajectory. The paper also emphasizes the technical and operational issues associated with actually executing a {open_quotes}pop-up{close_quotes} trajectory launch and deployment. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Translocation 4p;21q identified by FISH in a case previously described as {open_quotes}presumptive monosomy 21{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Xiu-Lan; Jenkins, E.C.

    1994-10-01

    Recently, Lopez-Pajares et al. (1993) reported identification of a translocation between the short arm of a chromosome 5 and the long arm of a chromosome 21 in a patient who was thought to be monosomy 21. This study is the first application of a chromosome 21 painting probe, pBS-21, and fluorescent in situ chromosome hybridization (FISH) to revise an earlier diagnosis of monosomy 21. We have now restudied skin fibroblast cultures, GM00137B, that are still available from another patient previously described as {open_quotes}presumptive monosomy 21{close_quotes} and have found that this case also has a translocation involving chromosomes 21 and 4. The authors urge that all previous cases of what appeared to be monosomy 21 should be re-examined with FISH to confirm or revise the original diagnosis so that genetic counseling of the family may be updated. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Review of the NAS/NRC report: {open_quotes}Groundwater at Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?{close_quotes}. Special report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Archambeau, C.B.

    1992-12-01

    There are three basic and serious problems that produce disagreement with the conclusions and recommendations of the Academy report entitled {open_quotes}Groundwater at Yucca Mountain: How high can it rise?{close_quotes}. These are: First, the report ignores a considerable body of critical data relating to the ages and nature of hydrothermal alterations at the site; second, many of the strong conclusions expressed in the report are not reasonably supported by the evidence presented and, in some cases, are inconsistent with data and results available to the committee but which are not cited or used by them; and finally, there are statements describing field relationships and data that are not consistent with the facts or are made in such a way as to be misleading.

  3. Multiple recurrence of trisomy 21 in two Bedouin families: Parental gonadal mosaicism or {open_quotes}aneuploidy{close_quotes} gene effect?

    SciTech Connect

    Farag, T.I.; Murthy, D.S.K.

    1994-09-01

    Two unrelated multiplex Down syndrome families is reported in Kuwait among the highly inbred population with Bedouin ancestors. Each family showed recurrent aneuploidies in three sibs with regular trisomy 21. Recurrent regular trisomy 21 in two or more siblings of healthy, normal parents (parental age <35 years) occurs rarely. Several possible etiological factors for recurrent aneuploidy have been suggested. The recurrence risks for regular trisomy 21 based on livebirth and prenatal diagnosis data were estimated at 1% - 2% for young women. However, there are no estimates for multiple recurrence of regular trisomy 21 in the young parents (<35 years). Clustering of trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 have been observed in Bedouin tribal population. The possibility of parental gonadal mosaicism and/or a possibility of an {open_quotes}aneuploidy gene{close_quotes} effect should be considered in practical genetic counselling of families with multiple recurrence of trisomy 21.

  4. Kähler classes on universal moduli spaces and volumina of Quot spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okonek, Christian; Teleman, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    We study canonical Kähler metrics on moduli spaces of stable oriented pairs in a very general framework, and we prove a universal formula expressing the Kähler class of such a moduli space in terms of characteristic classes of the universal bundle. We use these results to compute the volumina of certain Quot spaces.

  5. Characterization of the gene encoding nitrite reductase and the physiological consequences of its expression in the nondenitrifying Rhizobium {open_quotes}hedysari{close_quotes} strain HCNT1

    SciTech Connect

    Toffanin, A.; Shapleigh, J.P.; Maskus, M.

    1996-11-01

    Rhizobium {open_quotes}hedysari{close_quotes} HCNT1 is an unclassified rhizobium which contains a nitric oxide-producing nitrite reductase but is apparently incapable of coupling the reduction of nitrite to energy conservation. The gene encoding the nitrite reductase, nirK, has been cloned and sequenced and was found to encode a protein closely related to the copper-containing family of nitrite reductases. Unlike other members of this family, nirK expression in HCNT1 is not dependent on the presence of nitrogen oxides, being dependent only on oxygen concentration. Oxygen respiration of microaerobically grown Nir-deficient cells is not affected by concentrations of nitrite that completely inhibit oxygen respiration in wild-type cells. This loss of sensitivity suggests that the product of nitrite reductase, nitric oxide, is responsible for inhibition of oxygen respiration. By using a newly developed chemically modified electrode to detect nitric oxide, it was found that nitrite reduction by HCNT1 produces significantly higher nitric oxide concentrations than are observed in true denitrifiers. This indicates that nitrite reductase is the only nitrogen oxide reductase active in HCNT1. The capacity to generate such large concentrations of freely diffusible nitric oxide as a consequence of nitrite respiration makes HCNT1 unique among bacteria. 33 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Nuclear power meets the 101st Congress, a {open_quotes}one-act{close_quotes} comedy: Regulation of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees under the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, R.

    1992-12-31

    In the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, Congress directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate all radioactive pollutants, including those emitted from facilities licensed and regulated under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Thus began the era of so-called {open_quotes}dual regulation.{close_quotes} Thirteen years later, that era ended with the passage of section 112(d)(9) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which authorized the EPA to refrain from regulating any category of NRC-licensed facility if it found that NRC regulation was adequate to protect public health. This story of how Congress reversed regulatory policy is actually a story more about nuclear power than air pollution. Dual regulation was authorized in 1977 because of two concerns: fears about the public health risks associated with the nation`s growing commitment to nuclear power and doubts about the integrity of nuclear regulation by the NRC. Although neither of these concerns had abated by 1990, the legislative process was so adroitly manipulated by the proponents of nuclear power that Congress, unwittingly, restored the NRC`s regulatory monopoly.

  7. Sharp microwave frequency dependence in {open_quotes}ionization{close_quotes} of 3d H atoms and the effect of additive noise

    SciTech Connect

    Sirko, L.; Bellermann, M.; Haffmans, A.; Koch, P.M.

    1993-05-01

    For weak broadband (26-40 GHz) added shot noise (rms amplitude F{sub n} {approx_equal} 0.5 V/cm, <5% of the coherent amplitude F), we saw sharp variations around {nu}=30 GHz in e.g., F(10%) for 10%-{open_quotes}ionization{close_quotes} probability (n-cutoff {approx_equal} 89) of n{sub 0}=57 3d H atoms. Sharp means varying {nu} {approx_lt} 1/3 of the Fourier bandwidth 0.35 GHz of the 4.3 ns long half-sinewave pulseshape. Increased noise lowered (raised) F(10%) near sharp maxima (minima). (For some other cases noise did very little.) F{sub n} {approx_equal} 2.2 V/cm. suppressed the sharp {nu}-variation of F(10%). Our bound-basis integration of the 1d Schrodinger equation reproduces the results well, including influence of noise. Leopold, Richards, and Jensen are developing theory for a perturbed pendulum effective Hamiltonian H{sub eff} locally describing the dynamics at the classical nonlinear resonance island centered near n{sub 0}{sup 3}{omega}=1. Our data may be the first spectroscopic glimpse of novel quantal states of H{sub eff}.

  8. {open_quotes}Feature{close_quotes} mapping of the HLA-C linked DNA region: Construction by sequencing from nested deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, B.R.; Chaplin, D.D. |

    1994-09-01

    The HLA complex located on chromosome 6p spans {approximately}4 Mb and is gene dense. To enable systematic analysis of less well-characterized portions of HLA, we are defining significant {open_quotes}features{close_quotes} of these DNA regions: locations of putative genes (prediction of exons by GRAIL analysis) and Alu elements, regions with homology to the database, and regions of evolutionarily conserved DNA sequence. Initially, we cloned a 35 kb DNA segment adjacent to HLA-C into a transposon {gamma}{delta}-based cosmid vector designed for generating nested deletions in vivo. Over 70 informative nested deletions were obtained and sequenced by fluorescent-automated technology. Islands of DNA sequences were obtained and used to construct a feature map of the 35 kb HLA segment. Our data (i) defined the organization of the previously identified keratinocyte-specific S gene, (ii) generated the DNA sequence of two evolutionarily conserved DNA segments, and (iii) located otherwise undefined putative exons and Alu elements. The construction of such feature maps of large DNA segments using the nested deletion-sequencing approach provides an efficient means to identify DNA segments meriting systematic and detailed analysis.

  9. Nonmonotonic behavior of the {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} eigenvalue of the one-speed neutron transport problem in two-dimensional cylindrical (R,Z) geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, A.K.; Paranjape, S.D.; Kumar, V.; Sahni, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    Nonmonotonic variation of the {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} eigenvalue (average number of secondaries per collision) with increasing {alpha}, the strength of forward scattering, has been observed earlier for one-dimensional infinite homogeneous slabs and infinitely long homogeneous cylinders. The authors have developed the Integral Transform (IT) method, an accurate semi-analytical method to obtain the C eigenvalue for a homogeneous cylinder (two-dimensional system). They are thus able to detect any nonmonotonic variation of C (with {alpha}) using the Sahni and Sjoestrand criterion. Along with the IT method, the authors also present the results obtained by the well-known numerical techniques like the discrete ordinates method using a high quadrature order and the Monte Carlo method for the same problem. The S{sub N} results show disagreement with the other two methods when one of the dimensions is very small (<0.05{lambda}{sub t}). They believe that even the 16th order quadrature set cannot integrate the angular flux accurately in these extreme situations. 12 refs., 9 tabs.

  10. Linkage disequilibrium in the insulin gene region: Size variation at the 5{prime} flanking polymorphism and bimodality among {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} alleles

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, R.E.; Spielman, R.S.

    1994-09-01

    The 5{prime} flanking polymorphism (5{prime}FP), a hypervariable region at the 5{prime} end of the insulin gene, has {open_quotes}class 1{close_quotes} alleles (650-900 bp long) that are in positive linkage disequilibrium with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The authors report that precise sizing of the 5{prime}FP yields a bimodal frequency distribution of class 1 allele lengths. Class 1 alleles belonging to the lower component (650-750 bp) of the bimodal distribution were somewhat more highly associated with IDDM than were alleles from the upper component (760-900 bp), but the difference was not statistically significant. They also examined 5{prime}FP length variation in relation to allelic variation at nearby polymorphisms. At biallelic RFLPs on both sides of the 5{prime}FP, they found that one allele exhibits near-total association with the upper component of the 5FP class 1 distribution. Such associations represent a little-known but potentially wide-spread form of linkage disequilibrium. In this type of disequilibrium, a flanking allele has near-complete association with a single mode of VNTR alleles whose lengths represent consecutive numbers of tandem repeats (CNTR). Such extreme disequilibrium between a CNTR mode and flanking alleles may originate and persist because length mutations at some VNTR loci usually add or delete only one or two repeat units. 22 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Depositional environment and distribution of Late Cretaceous [open quotes]source rocks[close quotes] from Costa Rica to West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Erlich, R.N.; Sofer, Z. ); Pratt, L.M. ); Palmer, S.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Late Cretaceous [open quotes]source rocks[close quotes] from Costa Rica, western and eastern Venezuela, and Trinidad were studied using organic and inorganic geochemistry, biostratigraphy, and sedimentology in order to determine their depositional environments. Bulk mineralogy and major element geochemistry for 304 samples were combined with Rock Eval data and extract biomaker analysis to infer the types and distributions of the various Late Cretaceous productivity systems represented in the dataset. When data from this study are combined with published and proprietary data from offshore West Africa, Guyana/Suriname, and the central Caribbean, they show that these Late Cretaceous units can be correlated by their biogeochemical characteristics to establish their temporal and spatial relationships. Paleogeographic maps constructed for the early to late Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian to middle Santonian, and late Santonian to latest Campanian show that upwelling and excessive fluvial runoff were probably the dominant sources of nutrient supply to the coastal productivity systems. The late Santonian to Maastrichtian rocks examined in this study indicate that organic material was poorly preserved after deposition, even though biologic productivity remained constant or changed only slightly. A rapid influx of oxygenated bottom water may have occurred following the opening of a deep water connection between the North and South Atlantic oceans, and/or separation of India from Africa and the establishment of an Antarctic oceanic connection. This study suggests that the most important factors that controlled source rock quality in northern South America were productivity, preservation, degree of clastic dilution, and subsurface diagenesis.

  12. Volume II solicitation package for solicitation no. 522887-5422 {open_quotes}site electrical replacements & substation{close_quotes} subproject: 69 KV substation

    SciTech Connect

    1991-05-03

    This solicitation is for the U.S. Department of Energy under Prime Contract No. DE-AC04-88-DP43495 with EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. Ohio Sales or Use taxes are not to be included in the proposal price. Applicable taxes due or owing to the State of Ohio will be paid by the buyer under Direct Payment Permit No. 98-002230. Refer to Form ML-2487, General Provisions, Article 24, {open_quotes}Federal, State & Local Taxes{close_quotes}. Sellers are advised that purchases of building and construction materials for incorporation into a structure or improvement to a real property which is accepted for ownership by the United States or one of its agencies are exempt from Ohio Sales and Use taxes. Unnecessarily elaborate brochures or other presentations beyond those sufficient to present a complete and effective response to this solicitation are not desired and may be construed as an indication of the seller`s lack of cost consciousness. Elaborate art work, expensive paper and binding, and expensive visual and other presentation aids are neither necessary nor wanted.

  13. Compatibility issues of potential payloads for the USA/9904/B(U)F-85 RTG transportation system (RTGTS) for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.G.; Barklay, C.D.; Howell, E.I.; Frazier, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    The specific electric power system for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission has yet to be specified. However, electric power will be provided by either radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG), radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion (AMTEC) systems, radioisotope Stirling systems, or a combination of these. The selected radioisotopic power system will also be transported using the USA/9904/B(U)F-85, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). As a result, all of the potential payloads present uniquely different environmental and physical configuration requirements. This paper presents the major compatibility issues of the potential payloads for the USA/9904/B(U)F-85 RTG Transportation System for the {open_quotes}Pluto Express{close_quotes} mission. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. [The most frequently quoted national journals in the thesis studies of sociology of medicine].

    PubMed

    Delariu, V V

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the most frequently quoted national journals in dissertation studies in the field of sociology of medicine established that the most demanded among periodicals of public health and health care are "The problems of social hygiene, health care and history of medicine", "The health care of the Russian Federation" and "The health care". This is a testimony of recognition of significance of publications in these periodicals made by researchers defending dissertations.

  15. Improved clearance of radiolabeled biotinylated monoclonal antibody following the infusion of avidin as a {open_quotes}chase{close_quotes} without decreased accumulation in the target tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Sakahara, Harumi; Hosono, Makoto

    1994-10-01

    The techniques of radioimmunoimaging and radioimmunotherapy suffer from prolonged high background radioactivity because intravenously injected antibodies remain in the circulation and in the organs far longer than necessary for effective binding to the target. To decrease background and increase radionuclide excretion without decreasing the dose of radioactivity delivered to the target tumor, we used radiolabeled biotinylated antibodies followed by a {open_quotes}chase{close_quotes} avidin injection. A mouse monoclonal antibody, OST7 (lgG1), which reacts with human osteosarcoma, was biotinylated and labeled with {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I or {sup 22m}Tc. Radiolabeled biotinylated OST7 (10 {mu}g) was administered intravenously into nude mice bearing human osteosarcomas and 30 {mu}g of avidin was injected intravenously 6 or 24 hr later. Following avidin injection in mice pretreated with radiolabeled biotinylated antibodies, radioactivity was promptly cleared from the blood and deposited in the liver and spleen, after which radioiodine was rapidly detached from the antibody and excreted in the urine. The tumor-to-blood ratios at 6 and 24 hr after the injection of {sup 125}I-labeled biotinylated OST7 increased compared with the values before the avidin chase without any loss of tumor radioactivity. Furthermore, the tumor -to-background radioactivity ratio was improved and better images were obtained more rapidly after the injection of radiolabeled biotiny-lated antibodies than with conventional immunoscintigraphy. This method may find application in clinical radio-immunoimaging, especially using short half-life radionuclides such as {sup 39m}Tc and {sup 123}I. 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Hadron colliders as the {open_quotes}neutralino factory{close_quotes}: Search for a slow decay of the lightest neutralino at the CERN LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Maki, K.; Orito, S.

    1998-01-01

    The prospects are examined for the detection of a slow decay of the lightest neutralino (or any other long-lived particles) at the CERN LHC and at the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). We first point out that such hadron colliders will become the {open_quotes}neutralino factory{close_quotes} producing 10{sup 6}{endash}10{sup 9}neutralinos/yr, if gluinos and/or squarks actually exist below O(1) TeV. The lightest neutralino ({tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup 0}), usually assumed to be stable, will be unstable if lighter superparticles such as the gravitino ({tilde G}) or axino ({tilde a}) exist, or R-parity is not conserved. The decay signal would, however, be missed in usual collider experiments, particularly when the decay mostly occurs outside the detector. In order to search for such a slow decay of {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup 0}, we propose a dedicated experiment where the collision products are dumped by a thick shield, which is followed by a long decay tunnel. The decay product of {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup 0} can be detected by a detector located at the end of the tunnel. The slow arrival time and the large off angle (to the direction of the interaction point) of the decay product will provide a clear signature of slowly decaying {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup 0}{close_quote}s. One can explore the decay length (c{tau}) in a wide range, i.e., 0.2 m to 1{times}10{sup 5}km for m{sub {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup 0}}=25GeV and 1 m to 2 km for m{sub {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup 0}}=200GeV at the LHC. This corresponds to the range of the SUSY breaking scale {radical} (F) =2{times}10{sup 5} to 2{times}10{sup 7}GeV in case of the {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup 0}{r_arrow}{gamma}{tilde G} decay predicted in gauge-mediated SUSY breaking models. At VLHC, one can extend the explorable range of m{sub {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup 0}} up to {approximately}1000GeV, and that of {radical} (F) up to {approximately}1{times}10{sup 8}GeV. In the case of the {tilde {chi}}{sub 1}{sup 0}{r_arrow}{gamma}{tilde a} decay

  17. 3-D architecture modeling using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control: Example from the Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, M.A.; Tiller, G.M.; Mahaffie, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Economic considerations of the deep-water turbidite play, in the Gulf of Mexico and elsewhere, require large reservoir volumes to be drained by relatively few, very expensive wells. Deep-water development projects to date have been planned on the basis of high-quality 3-D seismic data and sparse well control. The link between 3-D seismic, well control, and the 3-D geological and reservoir architecture model are demonstrated here for Pliocene turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. This information was used to better understand potential reservoir compartments for development well planning.

  18. Innovations in the design of mechanical components for a beamline{emdash}The SRI{close_quote}95 Workshop 2 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.; Warwick, T. |

    1996-09-01

    The Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation 1995 Conference (SRI{close_quote}95) was hosted by the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Of the many workshops within the conference, the SRI{close_quote}95 Workshop 2 was {open_quote}{open_quote}Innovations in the Design of Mechanical Components of a Beamline.{close_quote}{close_quote} The workshop was well attended with over 140 registrants. The following topics were discussed. Industry{close_quote}s perspective on the status and future was provided by Huber Diffraktionstechnik GMBH on goniometers/diffractometers, Oxford Instruments on advanced manufacturing technique of high heat load components, such as the APS photon shutter, and Kohzu Seiki Co. Ltd. on the specialties of monochromators provided to the third-generation synchrotrons. This was followed by a description of the engineering of a dual function monochromator design for water-cooled diamond or cryogenically cooled silicon monochromators by CMC CAT/APS. Another category was the nagging problem of sensitivity of the photon beam position monitors (XBPM) to bending magnet radiation ({open_quote}{open_quote}BM contamination{close_quote}{close_quote}) and the undulator magnet gap changes. Problem descriptions and suggested solutions were provided by both the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the APS. Other innovative ideas were the cooling schemes (enhanced cooling of beamline components using metallic porous meshes including cryo-cooled applications); Glidcop photon shutter design using microchannels at the ALS; and window/filter design, manufacture and operational experiences at CHESS and PETRA/HASYLAB. Additional discussions were held on designing for micromotions and precision in the optical support systems and smart user filter schemes. This is a summary of the presentations at the Workshop. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket No... on the date the intended rate would have become effective and ending on the day before the...

  20. Words of Wisdom from the Literacy Symposium (Washington, D.C., May 25, 1988). Quotes from Participants and Attendees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Charles, Comp.

    Materials from the Literacy Symposium that begin this document are a letter of support from Barbara Bush, a symposium agenda, and lists of panel participants, speakers, symposium staff, and members of the Academic Advisory Council to the U.S. Government Printing Office. These are followed by 21 pages of quotes from particpants. Those quoted…

  1. Hypothesis: {open_quotes}Rogue cell{close_quotes}-type chromosomal damage in lymphocytes is associated with infection with the JC human polyoma virus and has implications for oncopenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Glover, T.; Burgess, A.

    1996-04-02

    The hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers against the JC and BK polyoma viruses (JCV and BKV, respectively) are significantly elevated in individuals exhibiting {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} cells among their cultured lymphocytes. However, the elevation is so much greater with respect to JCV that the BKV elevation could readily be explained by cross reactivity to the capsid protein of these two closely related viruses. The JCV exhibits highly sequence homology with the simian papovavirus, simian virus 40 (SV40), and inoculation of human fetal brain cells with JCV produces polyploidy and chromosomal damage very similar to that produced by SV40. We suggest, by analogy with the effects of SV40, that these changes are due to the action of the viral large tumor antigen, a pluripotent DNA binding protein that acts in both transcription and replication. The implications of these findings for oncogenesis are briefly discussed. 45 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Introduction of artificial pinning centre in {open_quotes}Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}{close_quotes} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Majewski, P.; Aldinger, F.; Elschner, S.

    1994-12-31

    Considering the phase equilibrium diagram of the system Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SrO-CaO-CuO, single phase {open_quotes}Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}{close_quotes} ceramics have been transformed by a simple annealing procedure into multi phase samples. The transformation results in the formation of second phases and in an increase of the intra grain critical current density at 1 T of five times. This increase is believed to express improved pinning properties of the superconducting crystals. The prepared pinning centres are believed to be e.g. coherent precipitates (Guinier-Preston-zones) within the superconducting crystals.

  3. 3D architecture modeling of reservoir compartments in a Shingled Turbidite Reservoir using high-resolution seismic data and sparse well control, example from Mars {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Mississippi Canyon Area, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, M.A.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Tiller, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    Economics of most deep-water development projects require large reservoir volumes to be drained with relatively few wells. The presence of reservoir compartments must therefore be detected and planned for in a pre-development stage. We have used 3-D seismic data to constrain large-scale, deterministic reservoir bodies in a 3-D architecture model of Pliocene-turbidite sands of the {open_quotes}E{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Pink{close_quotes} reservoir, Prospect Mars, Mississippi Canyon Areas 763 and 807, Gulf of Mexico. Reservoir compartmentalization is influenced by stratigraphic shingling, which in turn is caused by low accommodation space predentin the upper portion of a ponded seismic sequence within a salt withdrawal mini-basin. The accumulation is limited by updip onlap onto a condensed section marl, and by lateral truncation by a large scale submarine erosion surface. Compartments were suggested by RFT pressure variations and by geochemical analysis of RFT fluid samples. A geological interpretation derived from high-resolution 3-D seismic and three wells was linked to 3-D architecture models through seismic inversion, resulting in a reservoir all available data. Distinguishing subtle stratigraphical shingles from faults was accomplished by detailed, loop-level mapping, and was important to characterize the different types of reservoir compartments. Seismic inversion was used to detune the seismic amplitude, adjust sandbody thickness, and update the rock properties. Recent development wells confirm the architectural style identified. This modeling project illustrates how high-quality seismic data and architecture models can be combined in a pre-development phase of a prospect, in order to optimize well placement.

  4. Analysis of the inadvertent reentry of the Cassini Spacecraft{close_quote}s Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Tobery, E.W.; Bhutta, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    A rigorous multi-discipline approach has been developed to compute the aero/thermal/structural response of the Cassini Spacecraft{close_quote}s G{underscore}eneral P{underscore}urpose H{underscore}eat S{underscore}ource (GPHS) modules in the unlikely event of accidental reentry of the spacecraft during its Earth gravity-assist maneuver. A new r{underscore}eacting, a{underscore}blating, c{underscore}hemical e{underscore}quilibrium/nonequilibrium with r{underscore}adiation (RACER) full Navier-Stokes code is applied, along with an in-depth, transient-heating code, a nonlinear structural analysis code, and a six-degree-of-freedom flight-dynamics code. Attention is focused on the GPHS modules that would breakaway from the R{underscore}adioisotope T{underscore}hermoelectric G{underscore}enerators (RTGs) at high altitude. In addition, detailed analyses are performed to determine the survival/failure of the Graphite Impact Shells that would be released if the GPHS fails. The reentry velocity of the GPHS module (20 km/sec) is higher than any previously analyzed Earth reentry trajectory. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Nonperturbative renormalization and the electron{close_quote}s anomalous moment in large-{alpha} QED

    SciTech Connect

    Hiller, J.R.; Brodsky, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    We study the physical electron in quantum electrodynamics expanded on the light-cone Fock space in order to address two problems: (1) the physics of the electron{close_quote}s anomalous magnetic moment a{sub e} in nonperturbative QED and (2) the practical problems of ultraviolet regularization and renormalization in truncated nonperturbative light-cone Hamiltonian theory. We present results for a{sub e} computed in a light-cone gauge Fock space truncated to include one bare electron and at most two photons, i.e., up to two photons in flight. The calculational scheme uses an invariant mass cutoff, discretized light-cone quantization (DLCQ), a Tamm-Dancoff truncation of the Fock space, and a photon mass regulator. We introduce new weighting methods which greatly improve convergence to the continuum within DLCQ. Nonperturbative renormalization of the coupling and electron mass are carried out, and a limit on the magnitude of the effective physical coupling strength is computed. A large renormalized coupling strength {alpha}{sub R}=0.1 is then used to make the nonperturbative effects in the electron anomalous moment from the one-electron, two-photon Fock state sector numerically detectable. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Comment on {open_quotes}On the Longuet-Higgins phase and its relation to the electronic adiabatic{endash}diabatic transformation angle{close_quotes} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 107}, 2694 (1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, B.K.; Mead, C.A.; Truhlar, D.G.

    1999-04-01

    We show that the new equation for nuclear motion obtained by Baer {ital et al.} is based on an invalid and self-contradictory approximation, and leads to incorrect results for the wave functions, energy levels, degeneracies, and matrix elements. Baer{close_quote}s conclusion about the connection between the Longuet{endash}Higgins (LH) phase and the adiabatic-diabatic transformation (ADT) angle is also shown to be incorrect. Applications of the method by Baer {ital et al.} are shown to contain further errors. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Hamiltonian structure of Dubrovin{close_quote}s equation of associativity in 2-d topological field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Galvao, C.A.; Nutku, Y.

    1996-12-01

    mA third order Monge-Amp{grave e}re type equation of associativity that Dubrovin has obtained in 2-d topological field theory is formulated in terms of a variational principle subject to second class constraints. Using Dirac{close_quote}s theory of constraints this degenerate Lagrangian system is cast into Hamiltonian form and the Hamiltonian operator is obtained from the Dirac bracket. There is a new type of Kac-Moody algebra that corresponds to this Hamiltonian operator. In particular, it is not a W-algebra. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Use of geostatistic techniques to describe a reservoir to be submitted into a secondary recovery process field case: {open_quotes}Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Ceuta, Venezuela{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, T.; Poquioma, W.

    1997-08-01

    This study presents the results of an integrated reservoir study of the Eocene B-Inferior/VLG-3659, Area 7, Ceuta filed. This field located in the Maracaibo Lake in the western side of Venezuela. The objective was to evaluating the feasibility to implement a secondary recovery project by means of water flooding. Core information was used for this study (194 ft), PVT analysis, RFI, build-up and statistic`s pressure analysis, modem logs and production history data. Using geostatistical techniques (Kriging) it was defined a low uncertainty geological model that was validated by means of a black oil simulator (Eclipse). The results showed a good comparison of historical pressure of the reservoir against those obtained from the model, without the need of {open_quotes}history matching{close_quotes}. It means without modifying neither the initial rock properties nor reservoir fluids. The results of this study recommended drilling in two new locations, also the reactivation of four producing wells and water flooding under peripherical array by means of four injection wells, with the recovery of an additional 30.2 MMSTB. The economical evaluation shows an internal return rate of 31.4%.

  9. Revisiting Neil Armstrongs Moon-Landing Quote: Implications for Speech Perception, Function Word Reduction, and Acoustic Ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Dilley, Laura C; Schmidt, Stephanie; Morrill, Tuuli H; Pitt, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Neil Armstrong insisted that his quote upon landing on the moon was misheard, and that he had said one small step for a man, instead of one small step for man. What he said is unclear in part because function words like a can be reduced and spectrally indistinguishable from the preceding context. Therefore, their presence can be ambiguous, and they may disappear perceptually depending on the rate of surrounding speech. Two experiments are presented examining production and perception of reduced tokens of for and for a in spontaneous speech. Experiment 1 investigates the distributions of several acoustic features of for and for a. The results suggest that the distributions of for and for a overlap substantially, both in terms of temporal and spectral characteristics. Experiment 2 examines perception of these same tokens when the context speaking rate differs. The perceptibility of the function word a varies as a function of this context speaking rate. These results demonstrate that substantial ambiguity exists in the original quote from Armstrong, and that this ambiguity may be understood through context speaking rate. PMID:27603209

  10. Revisiting Neil Armstrongs Moon-Landing Quote: Implications for Speech Perception, Function Word Reduction, and Acoustic Ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M.; Dilley, Laura C.; Schmidt, Stephanie; Morrill, Tuuli H.; Pitt, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Neil Armstrong insisted that his quote upon landing on the moon was misheard, and that he had said one small step for a man, instead of one small step for man. What he said is unclear in part because function words like a can be reduced and spectrally indistinguishable from the preceding context. Therefore, their presence can be ambiguous, and they may disappear perceptually depending on the rate of surrounding speech. Two experiments are presented examining production and perception of reduced tokens of for and for a in spontaneous speech. Experiment 1 investigates the distributions of several acoustic features of for and for a. The results suggest that the distributions of for and for a overlap substantially, both in terms of temporal and spectral characteristics. Experiment 2 examines perception of these same tokens when the context speaking rate differs. The perceptibility of the function word a varies as a function of this context speaking rate. These results demonstrate that substantial ambiguity exists in the original quote from Armstrong, and that this ambiguity may be understood through context speaking rate. PMID:27603209

  11. Revisiting Neil Armstrongs Moon-Landing Quote: Implications for Speech Perception, Function Word Reduction, and Acoustic Ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Dilley, Laura C; Schmidt, Stephanie; Morrill, Tuuli H; Pitt, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Neil Armstrong insisted that his quote upon landing on the moon was misheard, and that he had said one small step for a man, instead of one small step for man. What he said is unclear in part because function words like a can be reduced and spectrally indistinguishable from the preceding context. Therefore, their presence can be ambiguous, and they may disappear perceptually depending on the rate of surrounding speech. Two experiments are presented examining production and perception of reduced tokens of for and for a in spontaneous speech. Experiment 1 investigates the distributions of several acoustic features of for and for a. The results suggest that the distributions of for and for a overlap substantially, both in terms of temporal and spectral characteristics. Experiment 2 examines perception of these same tokens when the context speaking rate differs. The perceptibility of the function word a varies as a function of this context speaking rate. These results demonstrate that substantial ambiguity exists in the original quote from Armstrong, and that this ambiguity may be understood through context speaking rate.

  12. Mutation in and lack of expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) in melanocytes from an individual with brown oculocutaneous albinism: A new subtype of albinism classified as {open_quotes}OCA3{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Boissy, R.E.; Zhao, H.; Austin, L.M.; Boissy, Y.L.; Zhao, Y.

    1996-06-01

    Most types of human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) result from mutations in the gene for tyrosinase (OCA1) or the P protein (OCA2), although other types of OCA have been described but have not been mapped to specific loci. Melanocytes were cultured from an African-American with OCA, who exhibited the phenotype of Brown OCA, and his normal fraternal twin. Melanocytes cultured from the patient with OCA and the normal twin appeared brown versus black, respectively. Melanocytes from both the patient with OCA and the normal twin demonstrated equal amounts of NP-40-soluble melanin; however, melanocytes from the patient with OCA contained only 7% of the amount of insoluble melanin found from the normal twin. Tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) was not detected in the OCA melanocytes by use of various anti-TRP-1 probes. Furthermore, transcripts for TRP-1 were absent in cultured OCA melanocytes. The affected twin was homozygous for a single-bp deletion in exon 6, removing an A in codon 368 and leading to a premature stop at codon 384. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity of the OCA melanocytes was comparable to controls when assayed in cell lysates but was only 30% of controls when assayed in intact cells. We conclude that this mutation of the human TRP-1 gene affects its interaction with tyrosinase, resulting in dysregulation of tyrosinase activity, promotes the synthesis of brown versus black melanin, and is responsible for a third genetic type of OCA in humans, which we classify as {open_quotes}OCA3.{close_quotes} 69 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. [open quotes]Cryptic[close quotes] repeating triplets of purines and pyrimidines (cRRY(i)) are frequent and polymorphic: Analysis of coding cRRY(i) in the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP) genes

    SciTech Connect

    Gostout, B.; Qiang Liu; Sommer, S.S. )

    1993-06-01

    Triplets of the form of purine, purine, pyrimidine (RRY(i)) are enhanced in frequency in the genomes of primates, rodents, and bacteria. Some RRY(i) are [open quotes]cryptic[close quotes] repeats (cRRY(i)) in which no one tandem run of a trinucleotide predominates. A search of human GenBank sequence revealed that the sequences of cRRY(i) are highly nonrandom. Three randomly chosen human cRRY(i) were sequenced in search of polymorphic alleles. Multiple polymorphic alleles were found in cRRY(i) in the coding regions of the genes for proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and TATA-binding protein (TBP). The highly polymorphic TBP cRRY(i) was characterized in detail. Direct sequencing of 157 unrelated human alleles demonstrated the presence of 20 different alleles which resulted in 29--40 consecutive glutamines in the amino-terminal region of TBP. These alleles are differently distributed among the races. PCR was used to screen 1,846 additional alleles in order to characterize more fully the range of variation in the population. Three additional alleles were discovered, but there was no example of a substantial sequence amplification as is seen in the repeat sequences associated with X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy, or the fragile-X syndrome. The structure of the TBP cRRY(i) is conserved in the five monkey species examined. In the chimpanzee, examination of four individuals revealed that the cRRY(i) was highly polymorphic, but the pattern of polymorphism differed from that in humans. The TBP cRRY(i) displays both similarities with and differences from the previously described RRY(i) in the coding sequence of the androgen receptor. The data suggest how simple tandem repeats could evolve from cryptic repeats. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. [The old transcript "Kosha-hon" quoted by Chusai Shibue in his lecture manuscript for Spiritual Pivot (Lingshu) "Reisu Kogi"].

    PubMed

    Nagatsuka, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    The details about the old transcript "Kosha-hon" quoted by Chusai Shibue in his Reisu Kogi had remained unspecified. However, the author found that the Kosha-hon is probably now in the possession of the Peking University Library. In addition, through the investigation, the following facts emerged: 1) The date of writing of the transcript can be presumed to be between the Kanbun and Enpo eras in the Edo period. 2) The book, called "Kosha-hon", can be presumed to transcribe the lost version of the text in the group of the twelve volumes of XinKan Huangdi Neijing Lingshu. 3) Shibue left side notes, headed "Kosha-hon Hoki", and he used them for revision, but in fact these notes originated in the Ma Taixuan's Huangdi Neijing Lingshu Zhuzheng Fawei.

  15. Electronic stopping in a He-H{sub 2} mixture substantially exceeds Bragg{close_quote}s rule value

    SciTech Connect

    Golser, R.; Semrad, D.; Aumayr, F.

    1996-04-01

    We measured the energy loss of 8 keV deuterons in mixtures of He and H{sub 2} gases using a time-of-flight technique. According to Bragg{close_quote}s rule the stopping cross section {var_epsilon} of a mixture of nonreacting gases should be the weighted average of the stopping cross sections of its constituents. Experimentally we find {var_epsilon} to exceed the Bragg value by more than 50{percent}. This can be traced to large differences in the electron capture and electron loss cross sections of He and H{sub 2}, respectively, that strongly enhance energy losses due to charge-changing collisions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Direct Quote and Reference List Entry Faults and Errors in a Sample of Articles from the "American Educational Research Journal," Compared With Findings from Previous Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Arden; Hernandez, Nelda R.

    A study compared the nature and frequency of faults and errors in reference list entries and direct quotes selected from 78 articles in 8 issues of the "American Educational Research Journal" (AERJ) with authors sampled from 10 previously studied journals. All departures from the original (additions, omissions, or changes) were labeled as either a…

  17. Quotes on Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowledge Quest, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In this article, school librarians from Henrico County Public Schools in Virginia [the AASL 2011 National School Library Programs of the Year (NSLPY) Award recipient] share some of their experiences caring for students in their libraries.

  18. Elf Atochem sets five-year emission targets

    SciTech Connect

    Young, I.

    1993-04-21

    As part of its first annual environmental report, released this month, Elf Atochem (Paris) has set targets for emission reductions at its sites for the next five years. Under the program, the company aims to slash the level of contaminants in discharge water by 30%; cut by half emissions of 17 [open quotes]priority[close quotes] substances-including ammonia, chlorofluorocarbons, vinyl chloride monomer, methyl methacrylate, aromatics, chlorinated solvent, ethylbenzene, and styrene-for which 1992 emissions totaled 15,996 m.t.; reduce nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions by 25%; and increase the proportions of toxic waste treated in installations on the company's own sites, from 90% of 1992's 383,00 m.t., to 95%. Implementation of its environmental policy cost the company about F2 billion ($375 million), or 3.5%-4% of sales, in 1992. The policy focuses on safer and more efficient technologies, toxic emissions and waste, improving energy efficiency, and cooperation with customers and public authorities on the introduction of more environmentally friendly products. Atochem says it has led to a fourfold reduction in accidents at work between 1984 and 1992. Over the same period, water contamination at the company's French sites has been cut by 67%, measured against the French chemical industry association's [open quotes]water index[close quotes]. Some sites did even better than the average, with the Carling steam cracker complex in eastern France registering a drop in water contamination of more than 90% following a F150-million joint project with local French and German water authorities.

  19. NPDES permit requirements in Gulf Coast exploration and production areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mundt, W.J. )

    1993-09-01

    The Federal Government regulates discharges of pollutants into waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act (CWA) through issuance of permits under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Anyone discharging pollutants directly into [open quotes]waters of the United States[close quotes] (almost any body of water, including lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, or offshore waters) from a point source (e.g., oil and gas exploration and production facilities) is a direct discharger. Direct dischargers must have an NPDES permit that specifically allows them to discharge designated pollutants. The permit will normally list the pollutants that the facility may discharge, and limit the discharge of each pollutant on a monthly, weekly, or daily basis. The EPA has developed NPDES requirements for facilities engaged in offshore oil and gas exploration and production. On September 30, 1992, Region 6 of the EPA issued a general NPDES permit for offshore operators within the Gulf of Mexico authorizing discharges in accordance with specific effluent limitations, monitoring requirements, and other conditions of the permit. A general NPDES permit was also formalized by EPA Region 6 in 1991 for onshore oil and gas facilities. This [open quotes]zero discharge[close quotes] NPDES permit (prohibiting any discharge of pollutants into waters of the U.S.) is applicable to most onshore oil and gas facilities within Texas, Louisiana, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Failure to meet the requirements of a general or site-specific NPDES permit violates the law. The EPA and states with delegated permit authority can penalize violators through fines and imprisonment. Permitting authorities are becoming increasingly diligent in their enforcement efforts.

  20. High-resolution cytogenetic mapping of the short arm of chromosome 1 with newly isolated 411 cosmid markers by fluorescence in situ hybridization: The precise order of 18 markers on 1p36.1 on prophase chromosomes and {open_quotes}stretched{close_quotes} DNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Ariyama, Takeshi; Inazawa, Johji; Abe, Toshihiko

    1995-01-01

    A high-resolution cytogenetic map of the short arm of chromosome 1 with newly isolated 411 cosmid markers was constructed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These markers were scattered throughout chromosome 1p, but they were preferentially concentrated on R-band dominant regions such as 1p36, 1p34, 1p32, 1p22, and 1p13. Among these markers, 197 were localized on chromosome band 1p36, a region frequently deleted in neuroblastoma. Of these, 18 were precisely ordered on 1p36.1 by multicolor FISH of prophase chromosomes and {open_quotes}stretched{close_quotes} DNAs as follows: 1pter-163-41-11-1-226-586-568-614-631-665-451-199-190-561-241-74-176-652-1cen. The high-density map of chromosome 1p constructed here can provide useful landmarks for constructing a contig map of the short arm of chromosome 1 with YACs and cosmid clones and will expedite the identification of breakpoints and/or tumor suppressor gene(s) associated with several types of malignant tumors that frequently exhibit chromosomal aberrations or deletions of chromosome 1p. 30 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way. PMID:25208840

  2. Berry{close_quote}s phase in the presence of a stochastically evolving environment: A geometric mechanism for energy-level broadening

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan, F.

    1998-09-01

    The generic Berry phase scenario in which a two-level system is coupled to a second system whose dynamical coordinate is slowly varying is generalized to allow for stochastic evolution of the slow system. The stochastic behavior is produced by coupling the slow system to a heat reservoir, which is modeled by a bath of harmonic oscillators initially in equilibrium at temperature T, and whose spectral density has a bandwidth that is small compared to the energy-level spacing of the fast system. The well-known energy-level shifts produced by Berry{close_quote}s phase in the fast system, in conjunction with the stochastic motion of the slow system, leads to a broadening of the fast system energy levels. In the limit of strong damping and sufficiently low temperature, we determine the degree of level broadening analytically, and show that the slow system dynamics satisfies a Langevin equation in which Lorentz-like and electriclike forces appear as a consequence of geometrical effects. We also determine the average energy level shift produced in the fast system by this mechanism. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  3. {open_quote}Lasagna{close_quote} process treats contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Drennan, D.

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes an integrated in-situ remedial technology for organic or inorganic contaminants in dense soils termed the Lasagna Process. The process, so named for its layers, forces contaminants out of microscopic pores in clay and silt soil regions so they do not leach into groundwater. It introduces in-situ treatment zones in the contaminated area so the waste will not have to be brought to the surface and treats the material within the newly created zones.

  4. {open_quotes}Limitless{close_quotes} actuator for distribution automation

    SciTech Connect

    Colburn, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    In the late 80`s, San Diego Gas & Electric evaluated vendors for a distribution automation project aimed at improving reliability in the downtown San Diego area. The winning bid included the use of off-the-shelf motor-operators, or actuators, bolted to existing utility switch gear for automation. This scheme requires the use of limit switches to define the extremes of operation, open and close, for each actuator. In practice, setting these limits is at times frustrating, complicated, and time consuming. Two approaches using solid-state electronics to automatically sense successful switch operation are being considered for integration into future sites built in the SDG&E service area.

  5. {open_quotes}Lure{close_quotes} North Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, M.Y.M.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the frustrations of the international community in dealing with North Korea after negotiation of the Nuclear Non-proliferation treaty. In the past, the international community has not been well prepared to deal with the North Korean obstinacy. It has repeatedly misjudged North Korean goals, South Korean Interests, and Japanese reactions. A new approach is proposed for the long run, that avoids coercion or appeasement. Economic incentives are suggested as the means to bring about changes in North Korean attitudes that will ultimately foster the desire for maintaining economic stability and well being rather than warlike independence. China and the former Soviet Union are not considered supportive of a warlike posture in North Korean but are making economic overtures to South Korea themselves. If the economic approach proves successful, it will enhance the chances of Korean unification by peaceful means and under democratic rule because time is on the side of democracy. In the long run nonproliferation will be achieved through unification.

  6. {open_quotes}No regrets{close_quotes} tax reform

    SciTech Connect

    Cristofaro, A.

    1992-12-31

    The possible role of carbon taxes in reducing global warming is Aspects of global warming are discussed in this paper. Findings from a policy research program are very briefly summarized. The most significant finding is that the effects of a carbon tax on the economy and on industrial growth depend on what is done with the revenues. Models of the economic effects of an $80 billion carbon tax were compared for revenues applied to the federal deficit, income tax reduction, and investment tax credits. For revenues applied to retiring the federal deficit, the overall gross national product (GNP) decreased in the early years but was somewhat neutralized in the long run. Revenues applied to cut income taxes did not result in an increase of GNP levels at any time, and the use of revenues to provide investment tax credits showed mixed results.

  7. Strategic {open_quote}deception{close_quote} initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.

    1993-11-01

    Veteran observers of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) were only mildly surprised by reports in late August by Tim Weiner in The New York Times and R. Jeffrey Smith in The Washington Post that the Homing Overlay Experiment (HOE) tests of 10 years ago involved deception. According to the reports, the fourth and final test, conducted June 10, 1984, and said at the time by officials to be a major success, has been rigged in several ways in a systematic program designed to fool the Kremlin. The news reports charge that it fooled Congress as well. The Pentagon claimed that the test was the world`s first successful direct-impact intercept of a mock Soviet reentry vehicle (RV).

  8. The {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} applicability in decision support system {open_quotes}strength{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Torop, V.M.; Orynyak, I.V.; Kutovoy, O.L.

    1997-04-01

    A software decision support system, STRENGTH, for application of leak before break analysis, is described. The background methodology and sample application are outlined. The program allows multioptional computation of loading parameters for different types of defects, and variable properties for metals and welded joints. Structural strength is assessed, and service life predictions are made. The program is used to analyze specific defects identified by nondestructive testing.

  9. Comment on {open_quote}{open_quote}Confirmation of the Sigma Meson{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Isgur, N.; Speth, J.

    1996-09-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Nils A. T{umlt o}rnqvist and Matts Roos, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 76}, 1575 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Comment on {open_quotes}Confirmation of the Sigma Meson{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, M.; Sannino, F.; Schechter, J.; Sannino, F.

    1997-02-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Nils A. Tornqvist and Matts Roos, Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 1575 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. On the adiabatic to diabatic states transformation in the presence of a conical intersection: A most diabatic basis from the solution to a Poisson{close_quote}s equation. I

    SciTech Connect

    Sadygov, R.G.; Yarkony, D.R.

    1998-07-01

    We report the first determination of a {open_quotes}most{close_quotes} diabatic basis for a triatomic molecule based exclusively on {ital ab initio} derivative couplings that takes careful account of the limitations imposed by the nonremovable part of those couplings. Baer [Chem. Phys. Lett. {bold 35}, 112 (1975)] showed that an orthogonal transformation from adiabatic states to diabatic states cannot remove all the derivative coupling unless the curl of the derivative coupling vanishes. Subsequently, Mead and Truhlar [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 77}, 6090 (1982)] observed that this curl does not, in general, vanish so that some of the derivative coupling is nonremovable. This observation and the historical lack of efficient algorithms for the evaluation of the derivative coupling led to a variety of methods for determining approximate diabatic bases that avoid computation of the derivative couplings. These methods neglect an indeterminate portion of the derivative coupling. Mead and Truhlar also observed that near an avoided crossing of two states the rotation angle to a most diabatic basis, i.e., the basis in which the removable part of the derivative coupling has been transformed away, could be obtained from the solution of a Poisson{close_quote}s equation requiring only knowledge of the derivative couplings. Here a generalization of this result to the case of a conical intersection is used to determine a most diabatic basis for a section of the 1thinsp{sup 1}A{sup {prime}} and 2thinsp{sup 1}A{sup {prime}} potential energy surfaces of HeH{sub 2} that includes the minimum energy point on the seam of conical intersection. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Reply to {open_quote}{open_quote}Comment on {open_quote}Why quantum mechanics cannot be formulated as a Markov process{close_quote}{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, D.T.

    1996-08-01

    In reply to the preceding Comment on an article by D. T. Gillespie [Phys. Rev. A {bold 49}, 1607 (1994)], it is emphasized that the most plausible interpretation of the singly conditioned probability function implies that the evolution of the two-state quantum system being considered {ital cannot} be characterized as a Markov process on those states over {ital any} time interval. And it is pointed out that an alternative interpretation that is offered in the Comment appears to be in conflict with quantum mechanics.

  13. Absence of a {open_quote}{open_quote}Threshold Effect{close_quote}{close_quote} in the Energy Loss of Slow Protons Traversing Large-Band-Gap Insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, K.; Semrad, D.; Bauer, P.; Golser, R.; Maier-Komor, P.; Aumayr, F.; Penalba, M.; Arnau, A.; Ugalde, J.M.; Echenique, P.M.

    1997-11-01

    The electronic stopping cross section {var_epsilon} of slow hydrogen projectiles in large-band-gap insulators has been measured at energies of a few keV. Even at velocities as low as v{sub 0}/3 (v{sub 0}=c/137) , we find no influence of the band gap on the velocity dependence of {var_epsilon} , contrary to the case of gaseous targets with similar minimum excitation energy. The magnitude of {var_epsilon} and its essentially linear velocity dependence allow us to arrive at the following conclusion: Electron promotion processes contribute substantially to stopping due to formation of molecular orbitals. This points towards the existence of a bound electron state at a proton that moves slowly in an insulator. A simple model based on the calculation of molecular orbital correlation diagrams for the H/LiF collision system supports the idea of local reduction of the band gap of an insulating target. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. A novel [open quotes]flat-plate[close quotes] PV concentrator package

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, J.R.; Cole, E.D.; Berens, T.A.; Szalaj, A. ); Alleman, J. )

    1999-03-01

    DayStar Technologies is developing a PV module technology using low-level concentration (2[endash]8 suns) that can package existing industry cell materials into a lower cost/higher value product suitable for both low-power (10W) solar lantern and 1-KW and greater power generation applications. Cell materials incorporated to date include Cu(In, hthinsp;Ga)Se[sub 2](CIGS), a-Si, and c-Si. The use of thin-film cell materials in a concentrator application is the first of its kind. The performance and reliability of CIGS and a-Si under concentration has been demonstrated. The efficacy of the proprietary optics developed by DayStar has been demonstrated. Cell integration and subsequent mating to optics has proven to be nearly lossless. A 7.2[percent] active-area CIGS-based mini-module has been measured. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  15. A novel form of {open_quotes}Tyrosinase-positive{close_quotes} oculocutaneous albinism

    SciTech Connect

    Fukai, K.; Lee, S.T.; Bundey, S.; Spritz, R.A. |

    1994-09-01

    Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (ty-pos OCA) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is greatly reduced in the skin, hair, and eyes. We have shown that typical ty-pos OCA (OCA2) results from mutations of the P gene in chromosome segment 15q11-q13. We have also shown that some patients diagnosed with ty-pos OCA actually have mild forms of type I OCA (OCAI), resulting from mutations at the tyrosinase (TYR) gene at 11q14-q21. However, in about one-third of patients with ty-pos OCA we have failed to identify abnormalities of either the P or TYR genes, suggesting the possible existence of a third ty-pos OCA locus. To test this hypothesis, we investigated a large, complex, inbred Pakistani kindred. Affected individuals exhibit slight skin pigmentation with no tanning, hair that is silver at birth and darkens somewhat over time, brown irides, and reduced visual acuity with nystagmus. SSCP/heteroduplex screening and complete DNA sequence analysis of TYR gene in the proband identified no abnormalities, and analysis of a CA repeat in the TYR gene promoter showed no linkage of ty-pos OCA to this marker in this kindred. SSCP/ heteroduplex screening of the P gene also detected no abnormalities, and the (inbred) proband was heterozygous for numerous intragenic polymorphisms. These data thus exclude TYP and P. We next carried out genetic linkage analyses and homozygisty mapping using various SSLP repeats at the locations of the human homologues of the mouse brown (TYRP, 9p23), slaty (13q32), and silver (12pter-q21) genes, all of which are associated with generalized hypopigmentation in mutant animals. However, we found no evidence of linkage of any of these markers. We are currently carrying out similar analyses using markers near the putative locations of the human homologues of several other mouse hypopigmentation genes in an effort to map this novel human ty-pos OCA locus.

  16. {open_quotes}Super{close_quotes} Japanese site gears up to sole neutrino puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Normile, D.

    1995-11-03

    Ever since Wolfgang Pauli proposed the existence of neutrinos in 1930 to explain some puzzling features of the radioactive decay of certain atoms, expermentalists have labored hard to detect enough of the elusive particles to determine their properties. It took 26 years to prove that Pauli`s particle even exits-a feat for which Frederick Reines of the University of California (UC), Irvine, won the Nobel Prize last month. Soon, however, physicists will be capturing neutrinos in unprecedented numbers in a 50,000-metric-ton tank that will fill with water starting next month. Researchers hope that this colossal waterbath will yield an answer to one of the most pressing questions is cosmology and high-energy physics: Do neutrinos have mass?The $100 million experiment, called Super-Kamiokande, in located in a lead mine west of Tokyo. This article describes the work to be conducted.

  17. Tuning and characterization of the {open_quotes}Teufel{close_quotes}-undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Verschuur, J.W.J.; Ernst, G.J.; Witteman, W.J.

    1995-12-31

    Three important criteria are used to tune the undulator are: reduce longitudinal phase errors, have approximately equal two plane focusing and have a good overlap between the electron beam and the optical beam. Although these criteria are the main design goals it is hard to meet them directly from the assembling. Small errors inevitably appear during the assembly, even when care is taken to keep the tolerances as tight as possible. The magnetic field was constantly monitored during construction using the pulsed wire method. However some kind of tuning mechanism is always needed to improve the performance of the undulator. The undulator we designed and build is of the Hybrid type, i.e. permanent magnets and high permeable poles. The well known method of using small permanent magnets to correct the field errors is nearly impossible due to the presence of iron poles. Hence, as a logical step, we decided to try to correct the various errors with shims in the form of small iron plates. The shims were put on the pole face at the edge of the poles. Different configurations were used to correct the different kind of errors. In the presentation an overview of the various shim configurations will be discussed. Steering errors are quite easy to correct, since only dipole fields are involved. We did put quite some effort in correcting the quadrupole errors. Gradients dBy/dx and dBx/dy were easy to correct with two shims on one side. The other gradients, on the other hand needed extensive shimming to be corrected. The error correction is limited by the presence of sextupole errors. We even found by experience that sextupole errors increased with the number of shims used. The ratio of the focusing strength of the undulator is measured to be 3/2, being slightly stronger in the direction of the wiggle motion. Longitudinal phase errors are introduced by amplitude and wavelength deviations in the undulator.

  18. Final report for {open_quotes}Production of mild gasification co-products{close_quotes} project

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, D.A.; Castro, J.C.

    1994-12-04

    The SGI International Liquids From Coal (LFC) Process is a mild pyrolysis, or mild gasification, treatment that upgrades low-rank coals by removing almost all of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter. The process produces two value-added co-products: a Coal Derived Liquid (CDL) and a solid Process Derived Fuel (PDF). A third co-product, a low-heating-value non-condensible gas, is recirculated and combusted in a commercial sized plant to provide drying and pyrolysis process heat. The LFC Process consists of three basic steps. The first step, drying, involves essentially inert gas convectively raising the coal temperature and removing most of the moisture. The drying temperature is limited to ensure that no hydrocarbon gases evolve, and the flow rate is limited below fluidization levels for most of the coal particles. The second step, pyrolysis, consists of additional inert gas heating that raises the temperature of the dried coal so that more than half of the volatile matter is removed under a controlled temperature history that is characteristic for each particular coal and customer demand. The third step, finishing or conditioning, consists of exposure to a cooling inert gas that quenches the pyrolysis reaction, followed by controlled exposure to oxygen for the purposes of stabilization. The processed solid char is then brought to moisture equilibrium (much less than the parent coal`s equilibrium level), and, if necessary, a dust suppressant is added to the PDF. The PDF co-product is environmentally more attractive than the parent coal because a large fraction of the organic sulfur is removed with the volatile matter, and the heating value of the fuel is increased with a concurrent increase in combustion efficiency. When subjected to appropriate finishing steps, the PDF represents a stable, economically transportable, high-heat-value reactive combustion fuel with stable flame characteristics similar to natural gas.

  19. Dual annular rotating [open quotes]windowed[close quotes] nuclear reflector reactor control system

    DOEpatents

    Jacox, M.G.; Drexler, R.L.; Hunt, R.N.M.; Lake, J.A.

    1994-03-29

    A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core. 4 figures.

  20. Leak-detection device is {open_quotes}all ears{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Malm, H.; Halpern, F.

    1996-04-01

    Ultrasonic detection devices for locating air or liquid leaks are described. Standard packages consist of a hand-held detection instrument, high-impedance headphones, a localization sound probe, an ultrasound transmitter, and a precision contact probe. The ultrasonic vibrations are converted into either an audible frequency or a digital readout. The use of ultrasonic devices in leak testing single-wall underground storage tanks is detailed.

  1. Comment on {open_quotes}Multicritical Behavior in Coupled Directed Percolation Processes{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, Y.Y.

    1998-09-01

    A Comment on the Letter by Uwe C. T{umlt a}uber, Martin J. Howard, and Haye Hinrichsen, Phys.thinspthinspRev.thinspthinspLett.thinspthinsp{bold 80}, 2165 (1998). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Solar energy is not a {open_quotes}free lunch{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, S.; Bari, R.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes costs associated with solar energy. The externality for building solar power plants must include the impact from mining, materials fabrication, and energy resources for materials processing.

  3. The {open_quotes}special employer{close_quotes} issue for nuclear utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Legal aspects of the Rudenjak versus Jersey Central Power and Light Company lawsuit are summarized in the article. Rudenjak, while working for an independent contractor at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant, received a 3.335 Rem dose of whole-body radiation over a 4-month period in 1980. In 1988, Rudenjak died of acute leukemia and his widow sued the power company. The utility filed a motion to dismiss based on the statutory employer defense, which was granted by the court; excepts of the court`s decision are included in the article. A similar suit in California is also described; the implication is that legal precedent has been established in California and New Jersey to prevent employees of independent contractors from suing utilities.

  4. {open_quotes}Industry views--timing/structure of consultative process{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Volgelsberg, T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines industry`s perspective on the issues concerning the politics and economics of climatic change. The climate change issue complexity goes beyond science and involves: technology, economics, lifestyle, population, intergenerational equity, etc. Industry resources should be actively involved in technology, timeframes, economic assessments, and the political process. Climate mitigation options should be viewed on a holistic or total impact basis. Technology and economic assessment should not create winners and losers. The climate change process is like peeling an onion - long timeframes are required for cultural and infrastructure changes, there are both short term small improvement and long term structural changes, and implementation may take generations. Interdisciplinary communications are critical, cutting across the fields of social science, physical science, economics, technology, demographics, etc. Finally, industry must play or be played - industry can either help shape or be left to live with policy.

  5. Comment on [open quotes]Validity of certain soft photon amplitudes[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, M.K.; Li, Y. ); Timmermans, R. ); Gibson, B.F. )

    1999-09-01

    The criteria suggested by Welsh and Fearing to judge the validity of certain soft-photon amplitudes are examined. Some aspects of their analysis lead to incorrect conclusions. [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  6. [open quotes]Victory[close quotes] a matter of perception in Ward Valley dispute

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, P.

    1994-02-17

    This article concerns the legal battle over the siting of Ward Valley, a proposed low-level nuclear waste site in California's Mojave Desert. The discussion centers around a judge's decision to deny a pretrial request for adjudicatory hearings to determine the site's suitability as a repository. The site is within an area designated as territory for the desert tortoise by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  7. Evaluating suspect sites {open_quotes}to clean or not to clean?{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, M.E.; Coleman, R.L.; Tiner, P.F.

    1996-04-01

    Within many large government reservations are many sites that are potentially contaminated from various uses such as experiments, material storage, or material processes. There also exist many smaller areas that, by proximity to contaminated sites, or due to work contracts, are likely to be contaminated. The party responsible for such sites must evaluate if remediation is required, based on current guidelines and future uses. The Departments of Defense and Energy have many sites and properties that are suspected of being contaminated or associated with operations that could cause contamination. In some cases the contaminants may have been adequately cleaned up, then decayed away, biodegraded, or dispersed to a nondetectable level. The decision to remove these sites from any further consideration of remediation or control must be based on historical data, potential contaminants, current analytical data, future uses, and the cost associated with managing the sites. This paper deals with the methodology for evaluating small sites and gives some case studies.

  8. Comment on {open_quotes}Covariant duality symmetric actions{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Pasti, P.; Sorokin, D.; Tonin, M.

    1997-08-01

    We demonstrate that an action proposed by Khoudeir and Pantoja [Phys. Rev. D {bold 53}, 5974 (1996)] for endowing Maxwell theory with manifest electric-magnetic duality symmetry contains, in addition to the Maxwell field, additional propagating vector degrees of freedom. Hence it cannot be considered as a duality symmetric action for a {ital single} Abelian gauge field. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. The {open_quotes}obligation to serve{close_quotes} and a competitive electric industry

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents an assessment of what the ``obligation to serve`` might look like in a competitive electric industry. Broadly, this research has three objectives: to define the ``duty to serve`` of a competitive electric industry; to identify those companies to whom that duty applies; and to explain how that duty protects residual classes.

  10. Offshore environmental risks, perceptions, and {open_quotes}corrective{close_quotes} legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    The offshore petroleum industry in the United States has been subject to intense scrutiny ever since the first barge left the dock. Various interest groups have pointed out every possible negative event that could occur in marine petroleum operations, apparently employing the theory that if a circumstance can be imagined, it will likely happen. And, if the event happens, its impact on the environment will probably be ruinous. Congress has responded to these concerns, frequently in inappropriate and punitive ways. Over the past 40 yr of federal legislation, Congress` attitude has moved from one of aiding offshore exploration and development to one of seeming to stifle it. This paper will look at the potential for environmental endangerment in the outer continental shelf, the causes for the public`s disproportionate concern, the progression of legislation to address these concerns, its effect on the offshore industry and, finally, what geologists can do to help ameliorate what has become an almost untenable exploration environment.

  11. Offshore environmental risks, perceptions and {open_quotes}corrective{close_quotes} legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    The offshore petroleum industry in the United States has been subject to intense scrutiny ever since the first barge left the dock. Various interest groups have point out every possible negative event that could occur in marine petroleum operations, apparently employing the theory that if a circumstance can be imagined, it will likely happen. And, if the event happens, its impact on the environment will probably be devastating. Congress has responded to these concerns, frequently in inappropriate and punitive ways. Over the past 40 years of Federal legislation, Congress` attitude has moved from facilitating offshore exploration and development to stifling it. This paper will look at the potential for environmental endangerment in the Outer Continental Shelf, some of the reasons for the public`s disproportionate concern, and the progression of legislation to address these concerns.

  12. Permian {open_quotes}Wolfcamp{close_quotes} limestone reservoirs: Powell Ranch field, Eastern Midland Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    Deep-water carbonate channel reservoirs form important oil reservoirs along the toe of the Eastern Shelf of the Permian basin in west Texas. In northwestern Glasscock County, these `Wolfcamp` reservoirs are Leonardian (Early Permian) in age and define high-energy channels incised into surrounding carbonate detritus and basinal shale. Porous grain-flow material filling these channels, along with encasing detritus, was derived from the shallow shelf located six miles to the east. Reservoirs are in packstone and grainstone facies and have significant interparticle and moldic porosity. Relevant exploration began in the 1960s, but expanded slowly thereafter due to lack of success caused by complex patterns of channel occurrence. Results of a three-dimensional (3-D) seismic survey conducted in 1990 have greatly enhanced the identification and mapping of productive channels in the Powell Ranch field complex. Wells in this complex are capable of flowing 400-1200 bbl of oil per day, and have reserves ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MBO. The new 3-D data have improved the relevant geologic model and dramatically increased rates of drilling success. Application of such data to this setting offers a potential model for other parts of the Permian basin.

  13. University of Virginia {open_quotes}virtual{close_quotes} reactor facility tours

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, D.R.; Mulder, R.U.

    1995-12-31

    An electronic information and tour book has been constructed for the University of Virginia reactor (UVAR) facility. Utilizing the global Internet, the document resides on the University of Virginia World Wide Web (WWW or W) server within the UVAR Homepage at http://www.virginia. edu/{approximately}reactor/. It is quickly accessible wherever an Internet connection exists. The UVAR Homepage files are accessed with the hypertext transfer protocol (http) prefix. The files are written in hypertext markup language (HTML), a very simple method of preparing ASCII text for W3 presentation. The HTML allows use of various hierarchies of headers, indentation, fonts, and the linking of words and/or pictures to other addresses-uniform resource locators. The linking of texts, pictures, sounds, and server addresses is known as hypermedia.

  14. {open_quotes}Radon{close_quotes} - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1997-07-01

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities.

  15. Design of a {open_quotes}slow-wave{close_quotes} ubitron

    SciTech Connect

    Pershing, D.E.; Jackson, R.H.; Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    The NRL fundamental TE{sub 11} mode ubitron has been successful in demonstrating high gain (29 dB large signal), broad instantaneous bandwidth (>20 %), high power (>4 MW), and efficient (18%) amplification in K{sub u} band with a 245 kV, 94 A beam. For a second generation ubitron amplifier design, it is desired to operate at higher frequencies and lower voltages, while preserving the gain, power, and bandwidth characteristics measured with the K{sub u} band amplifier. A K{sub a} band ubitron amplifier is currently under development utilizing the basic design concepts of the K{sub a} band amplifier: grazing intersection for wide instantaneous bandwidth, circularly polarized wiggler and microwave fields for high gain and power, and a high quality Pierce gun generating a cylindrical, uniform density electron beam for high efficiency. As has been previously demonstrated, the dispersion characteristics of a periodic waveguide can be exploited for low voltage FEL operation. This is the major point of departure from the K{sub u} band design; operation in the HE{sub 11} mode of corrugated cylindrical waveguide which permits broader bandwidth amplification at lower voltages than is possible with smooth waveguide. Preliminary calculations indicate that 30 % bandwidth operation in K{sub a} band is possible at voltages less than 150 kV with a 8-9 mm period wiggler. Design details and performance calculations will be presented.

  16. {open_quotes}Green{close_quotes} certification: An option for helping the biomass energy industry grow

    SciTech Connect

    Easterly, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    This article explores the potential merits of `green` certification as an approach that may help overcome barriers and facilitate the future growth of the biomass power industry. Two methods of certification are addressed in this article, independent certification and self certification. Topics discussed include the following: utility `green Pricing` opportunities; perspectives on sustainable forestry and biomass energy; market incentives and the role of biomass in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. 7 refs.

  17. Evidence found for a possible [open quote]aggression gene[close quote

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, V.

    1993-06-18

    Researchers in the Netherlands are on the track of a genetic mutation in a large Dutch family that may cause periodic outbursts of aggression in its possessors. Han G. Brunner and his colleagues at Univ. Hospital in Nijmegen report evidence suggesting that a mutation in the gene for monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) may underlie the aggressive and sometimes violent behavior displayed by certain males in this family. A linkage between MAOA gene defect and behavioral problems would make biological sense because the enzyme encoded by the gene helps break down several neurotransmitters that might, if their concentrations build up abnormally, cause a person to respond excessively-and at times even violently-to stress. If this original report is borne out by further work, it would be the first time that a specific gene defect has been found to predispose its bearers to aggressive behavior. Using markers for the X chromosome, Brunner and his colleagues identified the MAO gene region as the likely site for the diseased gene.

  18. {open_quotes}Open vessel{close_quotes} heat balance for TBP-nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; Cavin, W.S.; Laurinat, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    Heat balances were performed for both single phase (organic) and two phase (organic and aqueous) TBP/HNO{sub 3} solutions at temperatures above 100{degrees}C. The balance included the heat produced from oxidation minus losses from evaporation and butylnitrate formation by esterification. Net heat measurements were performed using an isothermal calorimeter. Losses from evaporation were determined from the volume of condensate produced (ice bath trap) and the component concentrate Carbon and nitrogen balances were performed to determine the stoichiometry of the reaction. The heat from oxidation was then calculated using the heats of formation of the reactants and products. Balances were obtained assuming that the heat from esterification was near zero (negligibly small). For two layered reaction systems the net heat was maintained endothermic, and constant with time, due to the transport of water to the organic phase by bubble mixing at the interface. This transported was replaced the water lost in the organic phase by evaporation.

  19. Taking a bottom-to-sky [open quotes]slice[close quotes] of the Arctic Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, J.

    1994-12-23

    This article discusses a Canadian-USA scientific expedition to study the Amerasian basin, comprising 2/3 of the Arctic Ocean, the world's least studied. Since the oceans remote location makes it particularly sensitive to indications of global climate change, a baseline of data is critical. Among the areas researched and discussed in this article are the following: the warm water layers in the intermediate space of the Arctic ocean; the albedo of the ocean; cloud cover; air pollution; plants and animals; cores of ocean bottom sediments. 2 figs.

  20. Producing biodiesel for the {open_quotes}truck in the park{close_quotes} project

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J.

    1995-11-01

    One of the principal advantages of Biodiesel is its environmental compatibility. Its biodegradability and reduced toxicity make it an ideal candidate fuel for environmentally sensitive areas. Biodiesel has potential as a fuel for equipment operating in or near waterways, sensitive wildlife habitat and other environmentally sensitive areas. The national park system has a mandate to maintain the environment in the areas they supervise. Use of Biodiesel could be one more tool in achieving that goal. This paper is a progress report of a joint project between the University of Idaho, The Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Wyoming Department of Energy, the PNW and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, Chrysler Corporation and the National Park Service to fuel an on-road vehicle for service in Yellowstone National Park. A 5.9L Cummins powered Dodge pickup, supplied by Dodge Truck, is being operated by NPS with fuel produced by the University of Idaho. Tests include regular dynamometer testing, emissions tests, injector coking analysis, oil analysis, detailed operational records and fuel characterization tests according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552.

  1. {open_quotes}Industry overview: Agriculture and forestry{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.

    1995-12-31

    The Climate Change negotiators left Berlin, very tired and bleary eyed, but with a Declaration which included agreements, among other things, to take a close look at what the likely effects of commitments will be and where those commitments will be going between now and 2000. Debate would then open on a new or amended legal instrument to meet the Objective of the Climate Change Convention, in the Twenty First Century. One hundred and fifty nations also declared that a new way of transfering technology could be tried on a pilot basis, thus, Joint Implementation also will move into the Twenty First Century. These two parts of the Berlin Declaration are very important to the role to be played by agriculture and forestry. Agriculture and forestry currently are playing a significant role and will continue this role in the stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. These two sectors, whether in an industrialized nation or in developing nation represent the only economically viable technologies for carbon sequestration, at this time. These sinks are constrained, however, by the reservoir capacity of the soils and are a function of temperature, moisture, soil, and history of use. The outlook is, therefore both one of optimisim and of pessimism. The view will have some global overtones, however, the focus is primarily within the U.S.

  2. Some general reflections on {open_quotes}long pulse{close_quotes} neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    A long pulse spallation neutron source (LPSS) having about 20 times more time average thermal flux than its short pulse counterpart (SPSS) at the same proton beam power and featuring a pronounced time structure not available on CW sources (CWNS) of equal time average flux can in principle host instruments typical for both classes of facilities. While the need for additional choppers introduces some restrictions on inverted time of flight techniques typical for SPSS and high incident neutron energies are not easier to use on LPSS than on CWNS, taking advantage of the pulsed nature of the neutron flux can enhance significantly the performance of direct time of flight instruments and of crystal spectrometers or diffractometers. In the paper some of the options are reviewed in a general manner and criteria are discussed which can be used to optimize the performance enhancement.

  3. {open_quotes}Perspectives on greenhouse gas emissions trends{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Hausker, K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the common perspective on greenhouse gas emissions that well over half of carbon dioxide emissions originate in developing countries. According to IPCC data, in 1991 energy-related carbon emissions from non-OECD countries accounted for 57% of the global total, while emissions from OECD countries accounted for 43%. This perspective is misleading and oversimplified. The true picture of greenhouse gas emissions is much more complex, and varies by country and gas. On a country by country basis, the OECD countries are the largest current and historic emitters. The developed countries must take the lead in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We cannot simply look at greenhouse gases in the context of OECD and non-OECD countries. There is a huge disparity between the emissions of Russia, Eastern European and certain Asian Countries compared to other non-OECD countries. On a per country basis, most developing country contributions to the global greenhouse gas budget are negligible. Finally, all greenhouse gases must be considered. While energy-related CO2 will remain the most important greenhouse gas over the next 25 years, land-use related CO2 or anthropogenic methane cannot be ignored or underestimated. Since the relative importance of various emission sources varies from region to region, greenhouse gas mitigation strategies must be tailored to the particular circumstances and factors friving emission in each region.

  4. Special-purpose interactive programming shell for the {open_quotes}POLE{close_quotes} system

    SciTech Connect

    Rvachev, V.L.; Kurpa, L.I.

    1995-09-01

    The development of the theory of R-functions has stimulated the emergence of efficient numerical-analytical methods for a wide class of problems associated with physico-mechanical fields. R-functions are the basis for computer-aided level source language, which is sufficiently close to an ordinary mathematical language. Despite the powerful capabilities of the POLE family systems and the extensive support for the analysis of computation results, these systems are still not widely used in practice, as they assume a user with special mathematical qualifications. It is therefore necessary to develop special-purpose systems that do not require the user to be proficient in mathematical physics, the theory of R-functions, variational methods, etc. In other words, we need systems that are oriented toward technical-profile engineers specializing in design and calculations. In this article, we propose some principles for the construction of a special-purpose interactive programming system POLE-PLAST capable of solving problems in the mechanics of deformable solids of complex shape. As the specific application domain for the description of the system we have chosen problems that deal with bending, stability, and vibration of elements of thin-walled constructions modeled by thin plates.

  5. {open_quotes}Applications of flow computers for gas measurement and control{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, R.

    1995-12-01

    Flow computers, themselves, are undergoing an evolution. One challenge for most vendors will be to offer a low power flow computer whose pricing approaches that of a three variable chart recorder. Many companies in the gas transmission, gas distribution and production industry, expect such a flow computer to be an evolution from today`s smart transmitter technology, because of improved accuracy and innovation of multi-variable transmitters. That is to say, differential pressure, static pressure and temperature all in one transmitter.

  6. Chattanooga, belle of the {open_quotes}sustainable communities{close_quotes} ball

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, S.

    1995-06-01

    Over the past two decades, the combined efforts of thousands of Chattanoogans have begun to clean up the city`s air, revitalize its riverfront, and diversity its economy. Chattanooga has launched a number of public/private partnerships for green development, ranging from renovation of low-income housing to construction of the nation`s largest freshwater aquarium and including plans for a zero emissions industrial park. The city has pollution prevention measures such as an initiative to protect waterways by installing oil skimming devices on parking lots and commercial properties. This article describes in detail Chattanooga`s efforts and the idea of sustainable communities.

  7. Answer to Question {number_sign}21 [{open_quote}{open_quote}Snell{close_quote}s law in quantum mechanics,{close_quote}{close_quote} Steve Blau and Brad Halfpap, Am. J. Phys. {bold 63} (7), 583 (1995)

    SciTech Connect

    Milonni, P.W.

    1996-07-01

    The quantum mechanical description of reflection and refraction in terms of photons is further extrapolated. The probability amplitude for a photon to be found inside or outside the medium is derived.

  8. Student Understanding of the Use of Quotes and Paraphrases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Rhonda; Hester, Joe Bob

    2000-01-01

    Examines journalism students' responses to a news story containing multiple sources where one side is presented in direct quotation form and the other side is presented in paraphrased form. Shows that advanced journalism students evaluated the story as significantly less balanced and significantly less fair than did beginning journalism students.…

  9. Some questions concerning safety on emergency landing in dense layers of the atmosphere of radionuclide energy sources based on plutonium-238 for autonomous station {open_quote}{open_quote}MARS-94/96{close_quote}{close_quote}

    SciTech Connect

    Makhorin, O.I.; Pustovalov, A.A.; Zhabin, V.N.; Greenberg, E.I.; Nilolaev, V.S.; Sokolov, N.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes results of investigations of questions concerning integrity keeping for an ampula containing radionuclide fuel (Pu-238) under conditions of emergency landing in dense layers of the atmosphere and under conditions of fire on launching pad. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Thermal state of the safety system, reactor, side reflector and shielding of the {open_quote}{open_quote}TOPAZ-2{close_quote}{close_quote} system under conditions of fire caused by a launcher accident at the launch pad

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, E.I.; Doschatov, V.V.; Nikolaev, V.S.; Sokolov, N.S.; Usov, V.A.

    1996-03-01

    The paper presents some results of calculational analyses performed to determine thermal state of the TOPAZ II safety system structure, radiation shielding, reactor without the side reflector, rods and inserts of the side reflector under conditions of fire at the launch pad when an accident occurs to a launch vehicle. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Response to {open_quotes}Comment on {open_quote}Reversible work of formation of an embryo of a new phase within a uniform macroscopic mother phase{close_quote}thinsp{close_quotes} [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 111}, 3769 (1999)

    SciTech Connect

    Debenedetti, P.G.; Reiss, H.

    1999-08-01

    External constraints are necessary in order to calculate the energetics of embryo formation when the embryo is not a critical nucleus. The expression for the reversible work of formation obtained in by Debenedetti and Reiss [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 108}, 5498 (1998)] is rigorous and valid regardless of the relative densities of the embryo and mother phase. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Heart rate never lies: interventional cardiologist and Braude's quote revised

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stéphane; Stauffer, Jean-Christophe; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Graf, Denis; Puricel, Serban; Frobert, Aurélien; Muller, Olivier; Togni, Mario; Arroyo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventional cardiologists may be immune to stress, allowing them to perform complex percutaneous interventions under pressure. Objectives To assess heart rate (HR) variations as a surrogate marker of stress of interventional cardiologists during percutaneous cardiac procedures and in every-day life. Design This is a single-centre observational study including a total of six male interventional cardiologists performing coronary interventions and pacemaker implantations. Participants were asked to record their HR with the Apple Watch Device during procedures, every-day life and control activities such as outpatient consultations, sport, marital conflicts and sexual intercourse. Results Average daily HR was 88±17 bpm. During work days, HR increased significantly during procedures (90±17 bpm) compared with days outside the cathlab (87±17 bpm, p=0.02). The average HR was higher during a regular week working (88±16 bpm) compared with weekends off (84±18 bpm, p=0.002). Complex cardiac procedures were associated with higher HR up to 122 bpm. Peak HR were higher during physical exertion. Of note, participants complained of hypersexuality and mania after night shifts. Conclusions Work and especially percutaneous cardiac procedures increase HR independently of physical exertion suggesting that interventional cardiologists experience mental stress and emotions. PMID:26835145

  13. Laboratory {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} investigation for the acoustically enhanced remediation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Spencer, J.W.; Hill, D.G.

    1995-12-01

    This document describes a three phase program of Weiss Associates which investigates the systematics of using acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to enhance the in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions. The focus in this particular paper is a laboratory proof of principle investigation. The field deployment and engineering viability of acoustically enhanced remediation technology is also examined.

  14. Russian multispectral-hyperspectral airborne scanner for geological and environmental investigations - {open_quotes}Vesuvius-EC{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yassinsky, G.I.; Shilin, B.V.

    1996-07-01

    Small variations of spectral characteristics in 0,3-14 microns band are of great significance in geological and environmental investigations. Multipurpose multispectral digital scanner with narrow field of view, high spectral resolution and radiometric calibration designed in Russia. Changeable modules permit to obtain parameters of the device for practical using.

  15. Superconductivity of {open_quotes}conducting polymer-fullerene alkali metal{close_quotes} composites: Dreams and realities

    SciTech Connect

    Zakhidov, A.A.; Yoshino, K.

    1996-10-01

    Composites of fullerene C{sub 60} with conjugated polymers (CP) like polyalkylthiophene (PAT) and polyphenylene vinylene derivative (OO-PPV) have earlier demonstrated intensive charge transfer upon photoexcitation. Doping of CP/C{sub 60} composites by A metal vapors (A=K,Rb) is aimed at C{sub 60} induced SC, in which electrons of CP chains may participate in SC pairing, induced via hybridization with C{sub 60} molecules. We have found an SC phase experimentally both in PAT. (C{sub 60}) {sub y}K{sub x} and OO.PPV (C{sub 60}){sub y}K{sub x} by a sensitive method of low field microwave absorption (LFMA), and proved by SQUID. The SCT{sub c} ranges from 12 to 17 K, depending on y and x. This SC phase shows a granular behavior in LFMA, and thus originates from SC A{sub 3}C{sub 60} clusters weakly linked by Josephson junctions. True C{sub 60} induced SC might be masked by granular A{sub 3}C{sub 60}. Anomalous LFMA and paramagnetic Meissner effects observed in SQUID, indicate the existence of Josephson {pi}-junctions. CP is apparently involved in SC via spin carrying polarons P in CP chains, which play a role of {pi}-junctions. Strategies for further search of C{sub 60} induced SC are discussed.

  16. Keys to evaluating [open quotes]paleokarst[close quotes] reservoirs - guidelines from Quaternary carbonates and enhanced petrography

    SciTech Connect

    Dravis, J.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Paleokarst is often invoked to explain reservoir development in ancient brecciated carbonates. However, the paleokarst model is valid only when fabrics seen in Quaternary cave systems are present and petrography of the non-brecciated zones supports subaerial exposure. Quaternary caves typically exhibit early fractures, microscopic to cavernous secondary porosity, solution collapse and brecciation, cave cements, and reddish-brown cave fill. Inter-cavern rocks show fabric-selective dissolution, porosity inversion, precompaction cements, and capping laminated soil crusts. In brecciated Ellenburger and Upper Elk Point (Devonian, W. Canada) reservoirs, major discrepancies exist between what the paleokarst model predicts and what is actually observed. Reddish calcretes, cavernous porosity and cave cements are absent. Enhanced petrography reveals relict sutured grains, implying burial dolomitization. These same dolomites are brecciated and breccia clasts contain stylolites rotated at different angles to each other and the horizon, implying burial brecciation. Fractures cutting these burial dolomites and stylolites are burial in origin. Preserved secondary porosity is unrelated to brecciated zones and facies controlled. Therefore, brecciation and reservoir quality in both sequences were created by burial dissolution of replacement dolomites and not by subaerial karstification. Brecciation alone does not prove the unconformity-related paleokarst model or the timing of porosity development.

  17. Keys to evaluating {open_quotes}paleokarst{close_quotes} reservoirs - guidelines from Quaternary carbonates and enhanced petrography

    SciTech Connect

    Dravis, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Paleokarst is often invoked to explain reservoir development in ancient brecciated carbonates. However, the paleokarst model is valid only when fabrics seen in Quaternary cave systems are present and petrography of the non-brecciated zones supports subaerial exposure. Quaternary caves typically exhibit early fractures, microscopic to cavernous secondary porosity, solution collapse and brecciation, cave cements, and reddish-brown cave fill. Inter-cavern rocks show fabric-selective dissolution, porosity inversion, precompaction cements, and capping laminated soil crusts. In brecciated Ellenburger and Upper Elk Point (Devonian, W. Canada) reservoirs, major discrepancies exist between what the paleokarst model predicts and what is actually observed. Reddish calcretes, cavernous porosity and cave cements are absent. Enhanced petrography reveals relict sutured grains, implying burial dolomitization. These same dolomites are brecciated and breccia clasts contain stylolites rotated at different angles to each other and the horizon, implying burial brecciation. Fractures cutting these burial dolomites and stylolites are burial in origin. Preserved secondary porosity is unrelated to brecciated zones and facies controlled. Therefore, brecciation and reservoir quality in both sequences were created by burial dissolution of replacement dolomites and not by subaerial karstification. Brecciation alone does not prove the unconformity-related paleokarst model or the timing of porosity development.

  18. {open_quotes}Successful and cost-effective commercial waste prevention and recycling programs{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, A.L.

    1996-08-01

    Components of an integrated solid waste management program are detailed, with emphasis on government and business partnerships. The program incorporates waste reduction, reuse, waste exchange, recycling, composting, and recycled product procurement. Program options, which focus on educational materials, methods, and technical assistance for promoting commercial waste prevention and recycling, are specified for the business, manufacturing, and industrial sectors. A sample commercial recycling program budget and budget description is included.

  19. Development and properties of the {open_quotes}Stonehart{close_quotes} humidity stabilized perfluoro-polymer membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Stonehart, P.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the role that water plays in the Polymer (or Proton) Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs -- also called PEFCs). Since proton conduction is the main ionic charge carrier, it is worthwhile to examine how this happens and how the water interacts with the perfluoro-polymer structures; examining the microstructure of the membranes and how they have been modified to overcome the water transport limitations inherent in the PEMFC.

  20. On the {open_quotes}slow mode{close_quotes} mechanism in ENSO-related coupled ocean-atmosphere models

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Weisberg, R.H.

    1994-11-01

    A linear perturbation, coupled ocean-atmosphere model is revisited for further insights into the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon. The model oscillates as a slow, eastward propagating mode interpreted as a divergence mode, whose energetics are controlled by the ocean. Growth requires that the work performed by the wind stress minus the work required to effect the ocean divergence exceeds the loss terms. The intrinsic scale of the atmosphere relative to the basin width is important. For sustainable oscillations, the ocean basin must be large enough so that oppositely directed divergence can develop on opposite sides of the basin. The global aspect of the atmospheric pressure field suggests that continental heating may provide either a direct source affecting adjacent oceans, or a connection between oceans. The important model parameters are the coupling and warming coefficients and the ocean Kelvin wave speed. The importance of the Kelvin wave speed derives from its specification of the background buoyancy state for the ocean. Upon further simplification, an analytical solution gives similar parameter dependence as found numerically and shows that growth requires both large zonal wavelength and a zonal phase lag between the anomalies of wind stress and SST. 24 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Incidence and origin of [open quotes]Null[close quotes] alleles in the (AC)n microsatellite markers

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, D.F.,; Thompson, A.D.; Shen, Y.; Phillips, H.A.; Richards, R.I.; Mulley, J.C.; Sutherland, G.R. )

    1993-05-01

    Twenty-three (AC)n repeat markers from chromosome 16 were typed in the parents of the 40 CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) families. Where parents were informative, the entire families were then typed. There were seven markers in which null alleles were demonstrated, as recognized by the apparent noninheritance, by a sib, of a parental allele. Four of these markers showed a null allele in a single sibship, while in the other three at least 30% of the CEPH sibships were shown to have a null allele segregating. One null allele was sequenced and shown to be the result of an 8-bp deletion occurring within the priming sequence for PCR amplification of the (AC)n repeats. In gene mapping or in application to diagnosis, the presence of a segregating null allele will not corrupt the linkage data but could result in loss of information. In isolated instances a segregating null allele may be interpreted as nonpaternity. The presence of a null allele may generate misleading data when individuals are haplotyped to determine the presence of linkage disequilibrium with a disease gene. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. BIG KARL and COSY: Examples for high performance magnet design taught by {open_quotes}Papa Klaus{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtstedt, U.; Hacker, U.; Maier, R.; Martin, S.; Berg, G.P.A.; Hardt, A.; Huerlimann, W.; Meissburger, J.; Roemer, J.G.M.

    1995-02-01

    The past decades have seen a tremendous development in nuclear, middle, and high energy physics. This advance was in a great part promoted by the availability of newer and more powerful instruments. Over time, these instruments grew in size as well as in sophistication and precision. Nearly all these devices had one fundamental thing in common - magnetic fields produced with currents and iron. The precision demanded by the new experiments and machines did bring the magnet technology to new frontiers requiring the utmost in the accuracy of magnetic fields. The complex properties of the iron challenged innumerable physicists in the attempt to force the magnetic fields into the desired shape. Experience and analytical insight were the pillars for coping with those problems and only few mastered the skills and were in addition able to communicate their intricate knowledge. It was a fortuitous situation that the authors got to know Klaus Halbach who belonged to those few and who shared his knowledge contributing thus largely to the successful completion of two large instruments that were built at the Forschungszentrum Juelich, KFA, for nuclear and middle energy physics. In one case the efforts went to the large spectrometer named BIG KARL whose design phase started in the early 70`s. In the second case the work started in the early 80`s with the task to build a high precision 2.5 GeV proton accelerator for cooled stored and extracted beams known as COSY-Juelich.

  3. Reply to the comments on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.F.; Berner, R.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Some lichens can and do promote the weathering of their substrates. The authors' sole interest for purposes of carbon-cycle modeling is the degree of that enhancement for calcium and magnesium silicates relative to both abiotic chemical weathering due to water-rock interaction and the weathering that occurs beneath higher plants. The work by Jackson and Keller (1970) had offered the most dramatic quantitative, empirical evidence for weathering-rate enhancement by a primitive terrestrial organism; thus, reassessment of their conclusions is of considerable importance. In analyzing their samples, the authors used the technique of back-scattered electron imaging. Their results showed that the ferrihydrite-rich gels created by Stereocaulon vulcani were formed from wind-supplied dust, volcanic ash, and detrital rock fragments, not the lichen's immediate substrate.

  4. {open_quote}Nintendo Rig{close_quote} lets two men do work of three on traditional servicing rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1996-01-01

    New well servicing rig saves costs and increases safety by using a robot derrickman. The rigs is called the Nintendo Rig, taking the name from the joystick that controls the robot on the racking board 25 feet above the ground. An automated tong/slip package permanently mounted on the front of the rig handles pipe and rods on the ground.

  5. Development of NZP ceramic based {open_quotes}cast-in-place{close_quotes} diesel engine port liners

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaswaran, R.; Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-02-01

    BSX (Ba{sub 1+x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6-2x}Si{sub 2x}O{sub 24}) and CSX (Ca{sub l-x}Sr{sub x}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6}O{sub 24}) type NZP ceramics were fabricated and characterized for: (i) thermal properties viz., thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, thermal stability and thermal shock resistance; (ii) mechanical properties viz., flexure strength and elastic modulus; and (iii) microstructures. Results of these tests and analysis indicated that the BS-25 (x=0.25 in BSX) and CS-50 (x=0.50 in CSX) ceramics had the most desirable properties for casting metal with ceramic in place. Finite element analysis (FEA) of metal casting (with ceramic in place) was conducted to analyze thermomechanical stresses generated and determine material property requirements. Actual metal casting trials were also conducted to verify the results of finite element analysis. In initial trials, the ceramic cracked because of the large thermal expansion mismatch (hoop) stresses (predicted by FEA also). A process for introduction of a compliant layer between the metal and ceramic to alleviate such destructive stresses was developed. The compliant layer was successful in preventing cracking of either the ceramic or the metal. In addition to these achievements, pressure slip casting and gel-casting processes for fabrication of NZP components; and acoustic emission and ultrasonics-based NDE techniques for detection of microcracks and internal flaws, respectively, were successfully developed.

  6. Recent experimental and analytical results on hydrogen combustion at RRC {open_quotes}Kurchatov Institute{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Dorofeev, S.B.; Efimenko, A.A.; Kochurko, A.S.; Sidorov, V.P.

    1996-03-01

    A review of hydrogen combustion research at Kurchatov Institute is presented. Criterion for spontaneous detonation onset possibility and its application to severe accidents in a nuclear power plant is discussed. Theoretical and experimental results on spontaneous detonation onset conditions are summarized. Three series of large scale turbulent jet initiation experiments have been carried out in KOPER facility (50 m{sup 3} and 150 m{sup 3}). Series of jet initiation experiments in initially confined H{sub 2} - air mixtures have been carried out in KOPER facility (20-46 m{sup 3}). Turbulent deflagration/DDT experiments were carried out in large scale confined volume of 480 m{sup 3} in RUT facility. Results showed, that the characteristic volume size should be used for conservative estimates in accident analysis. Series of experiments on detonation transition from one mixture to another of lower sensitivity has been carried in DRIVER facility. The experiments were aimed on the estimation of the minimum size of a detonation kernel. The received results are in a good agreement with the 7 cell width criterion. Results of combined hydrogen injection/ignition experiments are presented. The experiments are aimed on the investigation of possible consequences of deliberate ignition at dynamic conditions. Analysis of the experimental data showed applicability of 7 cell width criterion to dynamic conditions. The sum of the results on the scaling of spontaneous detonations is discussed in connection with the strategy of hydrogen mitigation at severe accidents.

  7. A GCM study of the late January 1992 [open quotes]mini-hole[close quotes] event observed during EASOE

    SciTech Connect

    Orsolini, Y.; Cariolle, D.; Deque, M. )

    1994-06-22

    The authors have developed a model for the ozone field in the northern hemisphere, based on a general circulation model Arpege'. They take advantage of the large number of readings of ozone profiles available as a result of the EASOE campaign to test this model against measurements. The model delimits the vortex by the use of potential vorticity. It was applied against an ozone density excursion observed over northern Europe in late January 1992. The model shows that this event was the result of transport of a large tropical air mass, low in ozone density to the north.

  8. {open_quotes}Understanding district energy customer behavior - the key to getting customers and keeping them happy{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kattner, J.F.

    1995-09-01

    The market share achieved by district energy systems is frequently represented as a percentage of a particular country`s total energy consumption, or as a percentage of the energy used for heating and cooling. While such characterizations of district energy`s market share are valid and important from a producer`s perspective, the position of the customer is not well represented. The effectiveness of communicating market share in this way greatly depends on the district energy customers` knowledge about the local, regional and national energy markets. It also fails to take into account the differences among customer buildings and their individual energy consumption patterns. An alternative view of market share is suggested when the perspective of the district energy markets shifts from that of the producer`s to the ends user`s. End users of district energy typically are responsible for the ownership and/or the operation of a building. This includes providing energy for comfort, lighting and any processes being conducted in the building. Fundamentally, district energy customers are in the property management business. Their business operations are represented and rated with respect to the building area they manage. Frequently, several buildings are managed by one company. An extensive amount of research has been done about the behavior of consumers when making buying decisions. This includes the fact that product and service buying behavior differs. Also, the field of customer satisfaction is rich with clues on how to keep our customers happy with their decisions to use district energy. This report presents key considerations about buyer behavior and customer satisfaction as they relate to marketing in the district energy field.

  9. Optimal greenhouse-gas reductions and tax policy in the [open quotes]DICE[close quotes] model

    SciTech Connect

    Nordhaus, W.D. )

    1993-05-01

    This new model DICE, (dynamic integrated climate-economy), extends earlier studies by integrating the economic costs and benefits of greenhouse gas reductions with a simple dynamic representation of the scientific links of emissions, concentrations, and climate change. This paper sketches the DICE model, presents the major results, and inquires into alternative approaches to recycling carbon-tax revenues.

  10. Molecular genetics of the glaucomas: Mapping of the first five {open_quotes}GLC{close_quotes} loci

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, V.

    1997-02-01

    Glaucoma encompasses a complex of ocular-disease entities characterized by an optic neuropathy in which degeneration of retinal ganglion cells leads to a characteristic excavation of the head of the optic nerve. Such damage causes progressive narrowing of the visual fields and, when uncontrolled, blindness. Affected people often have ocular hypertension defined as intraocular pressures consistently >21 mm Hg in both eyes. Although ocular hypertension is no longer an obligatory diagnostic criterion for glaucoma, it is still recognized as one of the most important risk factors. A diagnosis of glaucoma is made after observation of the characteristic atrophy of the optic nerve, which is associated with typical visual field defects. In 1992, the World Health Organization estimated that, in the global population, 5.2 million people were blind as a result of glaucoma, making it the third leading cause of blindness worldwide. The most common form is adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma, which represents {ge}50% of all cases of glaucoma. Among Caucasians, this form of the disorder affects {approximately}2% of the population >45 years old. In African Americans, prevalence of adult-onset open-angle glaucoma is three to four times higher than that observed in White Americans. More than 15 million North Americans may have some form of glaucoma, but at least half of them may not be aware of it. 43 refs., 1 tab.

  11. {open_quotes}Optical Guiding{close_quotes} limits on extraction efficiencies of single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, W.M.

    1995-08-01

    Single-pass, tapered wiggler amplifiers have an attractive feature of being able, in theory at least, of extracting a large portion of the electron beam energy into light. In circumstances where an optical FEL wiggler length is significantly longer than the Rayleigh length Z{sub R} corresponding to the electron beam radius, diffraction losses must be controlled via the phenomenon of optical guiding. Since the strength of the guiding depends upon the effective refractive index n exceeding one, and since (n-1) is inversely proportional to the optical electric field, there is a natural limiting mechanism to the on-axis field strength and thus the rate at which energy may be extracted from the electron beam. In particular, the extraction efficiency for a prebunched beam asymptotically grows linearly with z rather than quadratically. We present analytical and numerical simulation results concerning this behavior and discuss its applicability to various FEL designs including oscillator/amplifier-radiator configurations.

  12. United States based agricultural {open_quotes}waste products{close_quotes} as fillers in a polypropylene homopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, R.E.; Rowell, R.M.; Caulfield, D.F.

    1995-11-01

    With the advent of modern coupling agents (MAPP or maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene), the potential use of various types of renewable, sustainable agricultural byproducts as fillers in thermoplastics is explored. Over 7.7 billion pounds of fillers were used in the plastics industry in 1993. With sharp price increases in commodity thermoplastics (i.e. approximately 25% in 94`), the amount of fillers in thermoplastic materials will increase throughout the 90`s. Various types of agricultural fibers are evaluated for mechanical properties vs. 50% wood flour and 40% talc filled polypropylene (PP). The fibers included in this study are: kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, oat hulls, wood flour (pine), corncob, hard corncob, rice hulls, peanut hulls, corn fiber, soybean hull, residue, and jojoba seed meal. Composite interfaces were modified with MAPP to improve the mechanical properties through increased adhesion between the hydrophilic and polar fibers with the hydrophobic and non-polar matrix. The agro-waste composites had compositions of 50% agro-waste/48% PP/2% MAPP. All of the agricultural waste by-products were granulated through a Wiley mill with a 30 mesh screen and compounded in a high intensity shear-thermo kinetic mixer. The resultant blends were injection molded into ASTM standard samples and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact properties. This paper reports on the mechanical properties of the twelve resultant composites and compares them to wood flour and talc-filled polypropylene composites. The mechanical properties of kenaf core, oat straw, wheat straw, and oat hulls compare favorably to the wood flour and talc-filled PP, which are both commercially available and used in the automotive and furniture markets.

  13. Do more with less-make your trash can {open_quotes}A lonely trash can{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yelton, D.

    1996-08-01

    A paper recycling program in North Carolina is described in this paper. Problems with the current paper recycling system are identified. A new system is proposed to address these problems. A cost analysis of the system is compared to a cost analysis of a proposed system; the proposed system cost is significantly lower.

  14. Giant fields of the late 80s associated with type [open quotes]A[close quotes] subduction in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.; Cramez, C. ); Figuera, J. ); Lander, R. ); Hernandez, G. )

    1993-02-01

    About 10 billion bbl of recoverable oil have been found in these three fields for which the petroleum generating subsystem is very similar. The potential source rocks are the organic sediments associated with the major downlap surface of the post-Pangea continental encroachment sedimentary cycle, i.e., MFS 91, 5 Ma (La Luna formation). However, the concentrating physico-chemical petroleum subsystem is quite different. The El Furrial/Musipan field is associated with a Tertiary foredeep basin overlying a generating Atlantic type passive margin. On the other hand, Cusiana and Ceuta fields are associated with a Tertiary foredeep basin developed over a generating back-arc basin. The different stacking of sedimentary basins controls the migration/entrapment petroleum subsystem. In El Furrial/Musipan, decollement surfaces and their associated thrusts are predominant whereas, in Ceuta and Cusiana the majority of compressional structures are created by tectonic inversions. These tectonic settings create different petroleum systems: (a) supercharged with low impedance and lateral drainage in El Furrial/Musipan, (b) normally charged with high impedance and vertically drained in Ceuta and Cusiana area. Each case requires appropriated exploration approaches.

  15. {open_quotes}Exchange-spring{close_quotes} Nd-Fe-B alloys: Investigations into reversal mechanisms and their temperature dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, L.H.; Welch, D.O.; Panchanathan, V.

    1996-10-01

    In order to investigate factors affecting coercivity a series of two-phase Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B-based nanocomposite alloys with different excess iron concentrations were produced by melt-spinning methods. The constituent grain size was estimated by diffraction methods to be in the range of 150 {Angstrom} - 500 {Angstrom}, and room-temperature demagnetization curves verify that the alloys studied exhibit a modest remanence enhancement. Isothermal remanence magnetization (IRM) and dc-demagnetization (DCD) measurements performed at temperatures in the range 275 K {le} T {le} 350 K illustrate that the coercivity and irreversible magnetization develops in a bimodal, incoherent manner from a demagnetized state but upon demagnetization from a saturated state the system evinces collective, exchange-coupled behavior as illustrated by the reversible magnetization M{sub rev}. The temperature dependencies and values of the irreversible susceptibility X{sub irr} (DCD) suggest that a moderating phase with a magnetic anisotropy intermediate to the two constituent main phases may be present in the alloys.

  16. ATHEANA: {open_quotes}a technique for human error analysis{close_quotes} entering the implementation phase

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.; O`Hara, J.; Luckas, W.

    1997-02-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has become an increasingly important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. The NRC recently published a final policy statement, SECY-95-126, encouraging the use of PRA in regulatory activities. Human reliability analysis (HRA), while a critical element of PRA, has limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs that have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. In fact, better integration of HRA into the PRA process has long been a NRC issue. Of particular concern, has been the omission of errors of commission - those errors that are associated with inappropriate interventions by operators with operating systems. To address these concerns, the NRC identified the need to develop an improved HRA method, so that human reliability can be better represented and integrated into PRA modeling and quantification. The purpose of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) project, entitled `Improved HRA Method Based on Operating Experience` is to develop a new method for HRA which is supported by the analysis of risk-significant operating experience. This approach will allow a more realistic assessment and representation of the human contribution to plant risk, and thereby increase the utility of PRA. The project`s completed, ongoing, and future efforts fall into four phases: (1) Assessment phase (FY 92/93); (2) Analysis and Characterization phase (FY 93/94); (3) Development phase (FY 95/96); and (4) Implementation phase (FY 96/97 ongoing).

  17. QA (Quality Assurance) role in advanced energy activities: Towards an /open quotes/orthodox/close quotes/ Quality Program: Canonizing the traditions at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnarczuk, M.W.

    1988-02-01

    After a brief description of the goal of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) this paper poses and answers three questions related to Quality Assurance (QA) at the Laboratory. First, what is the difference between 'orthodox' and 'unorthodox' QA and is there a place for 'orthodox' QA at a laboratory like Fermilab. Second, are the deeper philosophical and cultural frameworks of high-energy physics acommodating or antagonistic to an 'orthodox' QA Program. Finally, faced with the task of developing an institutional QA program for Fermilab where does one begin. The paper is based on experience with the on-going development and implementation of an institutional QA Program at Fermilab. 10 refs.

  18. A progress report on the LDRD project entitled {open_quotes}Microelectronic silicon-based chemical sensors: Ultradetection of high value molecules{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.C.

    1996-09-01

    This work addresses a new kind of silicon based chemical sensor that combines the reliability and stability of silicon microelectronic field effect devices with the highly selective and sensitive immunoassay. The sensor works on the principle that thin SiN layers on lightly doped Si can detect pH changes rapidly and reversibly. The pH changes affect the surface potential, and that can be quickly determined by pulsed photovoltage measurements. To detect other species, chemically sensitive films were deposited on the SiN where the presence of the chosen analyte results in pH changes through chemical reactions. A invention of a cell sorting device based on these principles is also described. A new method of immobilizing enzymes using Sandia`s sol-gel glasses is documented and biosensors based on the silicon wafer and an amperometric technique are detailed.

  19. Effect of {open_quotes}bamboo{close_quotes} grain boundaries on the maximum electromigration-induced stress in microelectronic interconnect lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gleixner, R.J.; Nix, W.D.

    1998-04-01

    A model which describes the steady-state mechanical stresses resulting from electromigration in microelectronic interconnect lines is presented. This model is valid when sidewall and grain boundary interface diffusion are the dominant transport paths, and accounts for the two-dimensional microstructure present in such lines. By applying the model to simulated line microstructures, we find that bamboo grain boundaries may substantially increase the maximum electromigration stress. Furthermore, microstructural simulations on bounded interconnect segments show that variations in grain size may lead to a large scatter in the maximum stress, particularly as line length decreases. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Detection of {open_quotes}cryptic{close_quotes}karyotypic rearrangements in closely related primate species by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using human subtelomeric DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblom, J.J.; Trask, B.J.; Friedman, C.

    1994-09-01

    Specific human subtelomeric DNA probes were used to reveal cryptic chromosomal rearrangements that cannot be detected by conventional high resolution cytogenetic techniques, or by chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization using whole chromosome paint analysis. Two cosmids containing different subtelomeric DNA sequences were derived from human chromosome 19 and designated as 7501 and 16432. Cosmid 7501 was hybridized to chromosomes from humans, chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan. In humans, 7501 consistently labeled chromosomes 3q, 15q, and 19p. Additional chromosomes were labeled in different individuals, indicating a polymorphic distribution of this sequence in the human genome. In contrast, 7501 consistently and strongly labeled only the q arm terminus of chromosome 3 in both chimp and gorilla. The identification of the chromosome was made by two-color FISH analysis using human chromosome 4-specific paint and homologous to human chromosome 4. None of the human subjects showed labeling of chromosome 4 with 7501. This finding suggests that in the course of human evolution, subsequent to the divergence of humans and African apes, a cryptic translocation occurred between the ancestral human chromosome 4 and one or more of the other human chromosomes that now contain this DNA segment. In orangutan, 7501 labeled a single acrocentric chromosome pair, a distinctly different chromosome than that labeled in chimp and gorilla. Comparison of chromosome sites labeled with cosmid 16432 showed the distribution of signals on chromosome 1q arm is the same for humans and chimp, but different in the gorilla. Humans and chimps show distinct labeling on sites 1q terminus and 1q41-42. In gorilla, there is instead a large cluster of intense signal near the terminus of 1q that clearly does not extend all the way to the terminus. A paracentric inversion or an unequal cross-over event may account for the observed difference between these species.

  1. Plant and environment interactions: Growth and yield response of commercial bearing-age {open_quote}Casselman{close_quote} plum trees to various ozone partial pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E.; DeJong, T.M.

    1997-05-01

    Nursery stock of plum (Prunus salicina Lindel., cv. Casselman) was planted 1 Apr. 1988 in an experimental orchard at the Univ. of California Kearney Agricultural Center near Fresno, CA. Trees in this study were enclosed in open-top fumigation chambers on 1 May 1989, and exposed to three atmospheric ozone partial pressures (charcoal filtered air, ambient air, and ambient air + ozone) during the 1989 through 1992 growing seasons (typically 1 Apr. - 1 Nov.). A nonchamber treatment plot was used to assess chamber effects on tree performance. This study details the results of the exposures during the initial commercial bearing period (1991 through 1993) in this orchard. The mean 12-h (0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time [PDT]) ozone partial pressures during the experimental periods in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments averaged 0.031, 0.048, 0.091, and 0.056 {mu}Pa Pa{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992, respectively. Fruit number per tree decreased as atmospheric ozone partial pressure increased from the charcoal filtered to ambient + ozone treatment, significantly affecting yield. Yield of plum trees averaged 23.6, 19.8, 13.7, and 17.9 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in 1991 and 1992 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, ambient + ozone, and nonchamber treatments, respectively. Only one out of the five original treatment plots was exposed to ozone treatments during the 1993 growing season. Yield of plum trees in this single replicate in 1993 was reduced by increased atmospheric ozone partial pressure. Yield of plum trees in the four remaining unexposed treatment plots in 1993 was 16.7, 17.9, and 16.0 kg tree{sup {minus}1} in the previous charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + ozone treatments respectively. The similarity in yield of the post-chamber treatments indicates that a change in air quality in the current growing season can affect yield of Casselman plum trees. 26 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) - an interactive training tool for {open_quotes}challenge inspections{close_quotes} under the chemical weapons convention

    SciTech Connect

    Dobranich, P.R.

    1997-08-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspection Teams and the Inspected Parties. Current training techniques include lectures, table-top inspections, and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. Under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections are short-notice inspections that may occur anywhere, anytime, and with no right of refusal. The time interval between notice of intent to inspect a facility and the arrival of inspectors at the facility may be as short as 72 hours. Therefore, advance training is important. ACE-IT is used for training both the Inspection Team (inspector) and the Inspected Party (host) to conduct a hypothetical challenge inspection under the CWC. An exercise moderator controls the exercise. The training covers all of the events in the challenge inspection regime, from initial notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities. But the primary emphasis of the training tool is on conducting the inspection itself, and in particular, the concept of managed access. Managed access is used to assure the inspectors that the facility is in compliance with the CWC, while protecting sensitive information that is not related to the CWC.

  3. You won`t find these leaks with a blower door: The latest in {open_quotes}leaking electricity{close_quotes} in homes

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, L.; Greenberg, S.; Meier, A.

    1996-08-01

    Leaking electricity is the energy consumed by appliances when they are switched off or not performing their principal functions. Field measurements in Florida, California, and Japan show that leaking electricity represents 50 to 100 Watts in typical homes, corresponding to about 5 GW of total electricity demand in the United States. There are three strategies to reduce leaking electricity: eliminate leakage entirely, eliminate constant leakage and replace with intermittent charge plus storage, and improve efficiency of conversion. These options are constrained by the low value of energy savings-less than $5 per saved Watt. Some technical and lifestyle solutions are proposed. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. {open_quotes}What you don`t know can`t hurt you{close_quotes}: The right to know and the Shetland Island oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Button, G.V.

    1995-06-01

    This paper, an account of the Shetlands Islands oil spill (1993), examines the public health controversies surrounding the spill and the clean-up response. It critically examines the risk management policies of both the United Kingdom and the Shetland Islands Public Health Office, and suggests that the withholding of critical information contributed to increased anxiety and suspicion among the disaster victims. In an attempt to reassure the victims, the policies contributed to an increased air of uncertainty. It is further argued with the withholding of information prevents those who are at greatest risk from participating in critical decisions that may affect their health and livelihoods and asserts that a right-to-know policy is a critical first step in risk management practices.

  5. {open_quotes}Black Gold{close_quotes} leads to new structural interpretation, Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains/Northeast San Luis Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, T.A.; Belcher, J.S.; Gries, R.

    1995-06-01

    In the course of exploring for gold along the east margin of the Rio Grande Rift (northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains and northeastern San Luis Basin) live Cretaceous oil was discovered in fractured Precambrian gneiss in 25 of 42 shallow drill holes. Geologic mapping located two outcrops of Mesozoic sediments along the west flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Mancos Shale, Dakota Group and Morrison Formation sediments were identified from 17 drill holes. These are the first known occurrences of Mesozoic sediments in the area. Previous investigations had concluded that the Mesozoic section eroded from the San Luis uplift during the Laramide. Surface and subsurface geologic data was integrated with gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys for a new structural interpretation. The San Luis Basin is separated from the mountains by an intermediate block and the main basin-bounding fault is three miles west-southwest of the mountain front. A major low-angle, normal fault or detachment fault is related to Miocene rifting. A thick section of Mesozoic sediments are interpreted to be present in the hanging wall of this low angle fault. Buried and thermally matured in a Laramide intermountane basin, these sediments are likely the source of the present day oil found in Precambrian rocks.

  6. Conference on the topic: {open_quotes}Exploration and production of petroleum and gas from chalk reservoirs worldwide{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, V.G.

    1995-07-01

    More than 170 delegates from 14 countries in Europe, North America, Africa, and Asia took part in a conference on the topic: Exploration and Production of Petroleum and Gas from Chalk Reservoirs Worldwide. The conference was held in Copenhagen, Denmark in September,1994, and was a joint meeting of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the European Association of Petroleum Geoscientists and Engineers (EAPG). In addition to the opening remarks, 25 oral and nine poster reports were presented. The topics included chalk deposits as reservoir rocks, the occurrence of chalk deposits worldwide, the North Sea oil and gas fields, and other related topics.

  7. Nature of plant stimulators in the production of Acetobacter xylinum ({open_quotes}Tea fungas{close_quotes}) biofilm used in skin therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Franco, V.C.; Lyra, I.N.; De Souza, A.M.; De Souza, S.

    1991-12-31

    Caffeine and related xanthines were identified as potent stimulators for the bacterial cellulose production in A. xylinum. These compounds are present in several plants whose infusions are useful as culture-medium supplements for this acetobacterium. The proposed target for these native purine-like inhibitory substances is the novel diguanyl nucleotide phosphodiesterase(s) that participates in the bacterial cellulogenic complex.

  8. The {open_quotes}ASR{close_quotes} story where we are and how we got there: A history of Sandia National Laboratories maintenance employee safety committee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Area Safety Representative (ASR) Team is an employee based safety committee that was originated in the latter part of 1994. It was introduced by the Operations and Engineering Center ES&H Coordinator who had heard about an employee based safety program implemented at the EG&G Corporation. This information was the first step in creating Sandia`s Maintenance `Area Safety Representative` (ASR) Program. An advertisement went out from the ES&H Coordinator to all the Maintenance Organizations asking for individuals who would be interested in performing as a volunteer safety representative for their section. The interest was moderate but effective. The committee consisted of one volunteer from each of the working sections within the Maintenance Organization, e.e., HVAC Mechanics, Electricians, Millwrights, Plumbers, Sheetmetal Workers, High-Voltage Technicians, a Union Representative, and representatives from the Operations Group that manage sub-contracted personnel. During the past year, organizational changes have brought about the addition of representatives to include the Planners and the Custodians. The original committee members were enrolled in a 30-hour OSHA Voluntary Compliance Outreach Course. This information provided the members with a broad overview of the Safety Guidelines set forth by OSHA for themselves and their coworkers. It is to be noted that this is an employee based safety team. There are no supervisors or managers on the committee but their attendance is always welcomed at the ASR meetings.

  9. Development and demonstration of a teleoperated modular {open_quotes}snake{close_quotes} robot system. Final report, September 30, 1986--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, D.; Hooper, R.

    1995-04-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy has provided support to four universities and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to pursue research leading to the development and deployment of advanced robotic systems capable of performing tasks that generate significant occupational radiation exposure and/or whose execution times can be reduced if performed by an automated system. The goal was to develop advanced robotic systems capable of performing surveillance, maintenance, and repair tasks in nuclear facilities and other hazardous environments. The approach to achieving the program objective was a transition from teleoperation to the capability of autonomous operation within three successive generations of robotic systems. The robotic system will always have the capability to request human assistance. The development of general purpose robots to perform skilled labor tasks in restricted environments was shown to have extensive payback in areas of energy systems (nuclear and fossil units), chemical plants, fire fighting, space operations, underwater activities, defense, and other hazardous activities. The strategy that was used to achieve the program goals in an efficient and timely manner consisted in utilizing, and advancing where required, state-of-the-art robotics technology through close interaction between the universities and the manufacturers and operators of nuclear power plants. The research effort showed that a broad range of applications for the robotic systems existed for the improved operation of nuclear reactors and in other hazardous tasks. As a consequence, each institution was able to obtain additional support from other agencies, e.g., DoD and NASA. Areas of cooperation with other nations (e.g., Japan, France, Germany) were utilized.

  10. Ferric complexes as catalysts for {open_quotes}Fenton{close_quotes} degradation of 2,4-D and metolachlor in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatello, J.J.; Baehr, K.

    1994-03-01

    Fenton-type reactions of hydrogen peroxide with Fe compounds generate bydroxyl radical (OH{center_dot}) or other reactive species and are potentially useful for degrading organic contaminants in soil. The use of simple Fe salts is limited, however. This study investigated certain pH 6-soluble Fe(III) complexes (Fe-L, where L is an organic tigand) as catalysts for degradation of herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and metolachlor (2-chloro-N-[2-ethyl 6-methylphenyl]-N-[2-methoxy-l-methylethyl]acetamide). Reactions were carried out in 1:1 aqueous suspensions of a topsoil (15.7 g kg{sup -1} organic C) at the natural pH of 5.7 with herbicides at concentrations representative of a spill (2-3 g kg{sup -1} about 0.01 mol kg{sup -1}). The two herbicides had contrasting sorption behavior in that 2,4-D was mostly in solution, whereas metotachlor was mostly sorbed. The best results were obtained using Fe-nitrilotriscetate (NTA) or Fe-hydroxyethyleniminodiacetate (HEIDA) at 0.01 mol kg-{sup -1} and [H{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{ge} 0.5 mol kg{sup -1}. The gallic acid complex was less effective. In 3 h,{sup 14}C-labeled 2,4-D was quantitatively dechlorinated and partially (15-30%) converted to {sup 14}CO{sub 2}: metolachlor was 93% transformed and 29% dechlorinated. Controls using free ligand plus peroxide or peroxide alone gave little or no reaction. Fe-L + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was superior to the Fenton reagent itself (Fe{sup 2+} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The results of this study demonstrate that relatively mild chemical oxidation can be effective for remediation of certain contaminants in soil 23 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. 24th WRSM panel discussion: {open_quotes}The role of research in nuclear regulation: The case of qualified importers{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, A.

    1997-01-01

    Scientific knowledge and technological maturity are needed to establish regulatory requirements, what also needs talent and skills. Scientists are rarely interested in regulation and regulators not always are closely connected to scientific research. This has created gaps in regulations, mainly within qualified importers. A qualified importer, in the sense of this presentation, is a country who has acquired nuclear power plants from more technologically advanced exporters but with an increasing participation of its own industry and institutions in the design, construction, component manufacture and assembly of such nuclear power plants and is fully responsible for the operation of the nuclear units and the corresponding fuel cycle. These countries have also a long standing and independent nuclear regulatory organization and the corresponding technical body. Spain is a qualified importer. In the case of Spain, it originally adopted the codes and regulations of the UE which it was a member of, as well as the codes and standards of the country from which their reactors were produced. Since Spain added KWU plants they even went to German regulations. Plant operation rested with Spain. As problems began to appear in operating plants, local research projects were funded to study the problems, aimed at immediate solutions, but also providing training for local personnel in addition to information of use for regulators. Spain has participated in many joint research projects, which have trained people, and given confidence to Spaniards involved in science and regulations. Qualified importers, like Spain, participate in research, even though it may not translate itself into regulation. Such participation will always serve to give self-confidence and independence to regulators and licensees, to better understand the adopted regulations of the most advanced countries and to solve specific problems.

  12. Coal handling {open_quotes}RCM{close_quotes} Preventive Maintenance Optimization Pilot Project Pawnee Station, Public Service Company of Colorado 1995

    SciTech Connect

    August, J.

    1996-07-01

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo)`s Pawnee Station piloted a demonstration preventive maintenance optimization (PMO) on the coal handling system in 1995. This PMO effort used streamlined reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) methods. Performance, cost, and intangibles were examined before, during, and after implementation. Significant results included 20% cost reduction, 90+% emergency maintenance cost reduction, and overall improved system performance as reported by the operating personnel. Annual maintenance costs have been reduced from $440,000 to $330,000 from 1994 through 1995, and continue to decline. Current projection of annual maintenance costs (from current monthly costs) are under $250,000 for 1997. The major lessons and implications from this project are discussed here.

  13. SSC 17-meter dipole magnet DD000Z test results and investigation of coil failure: The report of the {open_quotes}Z{close_quotes} Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Coombes, R.; Mirk, K.; Tompkins, J.; Zbasnik, J.; Lundy, R.; Schneider, W.; Wanderer, P.

    1988-03-01

    Following the failure of the lower inner coil of magnet DD000Z on November 3, 1987, a committee was formed on November 11 and given the following charges: `To review the events leading up to and including the failure of the coils of magnet DD000Z. The intent of the review will be to determine the cause of the failure and to make recommendations to reduce the likelihood of such failures in the future. Given the fact that this is the first long magnet to be disassembled, the committee may uncover leads which point to other opportunities for improvement. The committee should follow up on these leads. The committee should prepare a plan to serve as an initial guide for the disassembly and provide guidance as the disassembly progresses.` The committee held its first meeting at FNAL on 17 and 18 Nov to review the record of events leading up to the failure and to establish an initial disassembly procedure. This was followed by further meetings at FNAL, BNL, and CDG, leading to this final report. Committee activities included interviewing personnel who had been involved in the design, assembly and testing of DD000Z, reviewing all documents relating to the magnet and its failure, and participating in and providing guidance during the disassembly. The intention of the committee was to report factual findings, to consider well founded hypotheses, not to consider conjecture and to avoid speculation.

  14. Comment on [open quotes]Weathering, plants, and the long-term carbon cycle[close quotes] by Robert A. Berner

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartzman, D. )

    1993-05-01

    Schwartzman contends that lichens and other microbes may significantly contribute to chemical denudation of exposed rock by their combined physical and chemical activity. Lichens do not generate a thick soil but they do stabilize already existing soil (cryptogamic). Studies on chemical denudation in soil-free alpine terrains may contribute to a better understanding of the microbial role in weathering since lichens and algae are commonly found on bare rock in these settings.

  15. Characterization of printing and laser trimming of DuPont 2000 series resistors on DuPont 951 {open_quotes}Green Tape{trademark}{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, H.; Bandler, S.; Barner, G.

    1996-10-01

    DuPont 2000 series resistors were reviewed and found to come closest to our requirement of 1% resistor tolerance over the expected 30-year life of our products. The evaluation performed involved the characterization of both the printing and trimming processes. The printing process was characterized for firing temperature print thickness, print direction, resistor geometry and encapsulant effect. Laser trimming was characterized by first finding an operating envelope and then selecting an operating point. The envelope was located by varying the trimming parameters and determining their acceptability to electrical and visual criteria. Samples from both the envelope and operating point were environmentally conditioned The conditioning included thermal shock temperature cycle, 1000-hour temperature aging, 1000-hour humidity aging, and a simulated gold/tin solder reflow.

  16. Characterization of three de novo derivative chromosomes 16 by [open quotes]Reverse Chromosome Painting[close quotes] and molecular analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, K.A.; Harris, P.C.; MacCarthy, A.B.; Boone, R.; Raynham, H.; Buckle, V.J. )

    1993-05-01

    The authors have analyzed three de novo chromosome 16 rearrangements-two with a 16p+ chromosome and one a 16q+-none of which could be fully characterized by conventional cytogenetics. In each case, flow karyotypes have been produced, and the aberrant chromosome has been isolated by flow sorting. The origin of the additional material has been ascertained by amplifying and labeling the DNA of the abnormal chromosome by degenerate-oligonucleotide-primer-PCR and hybridizing it in situ to normal metaphase spreads (reverse chromosome painting). Both 16p+ chromosomes contain more than 30 Mb of DNA from the short arm of chromosome 9 (9p21.2-pter), while the 16q+ contains approximately 9 Mb of DNA from 2q37. The breakpoints on chromosome 16 have been localized in each case; the two breakpoints on the short arm are at different points within the terminal band, 16p13.3. The breakpoint on the long arm of chromosome 16 is very close to (within 230 kb of) the 16q telomere. Determination of the regions of monosomy and trisomy allowed the observed phenotypes to be compared with other reported cases involving aneuploidy for these regions. 41 refs., 4 figs.

  17. {open_quotes}A behavioral-based segmentation methodology the next step beyond classify{close_quotes} update...update...update

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.; Riggins, J.; Neal, W.D.

    1994-11-01

    Entergy Services, Inc., along with SDR, Inc., developed a market segmentation model for Entergy`s residential end-use customer database. This model is driven by a blending of behavioral and attitudinal variables taken from Entergy`s Marketing Information System (MKIS), Donnelley data and Entergy CLASSIFY{trademark} response data. After considerable effort, seven segments were identified which exhibit behavioral and attitudinal differentiation. The reliability of predicting segment membership is approximately 88% overall and 75% for the lowest group. This is compared to the project prediction criteria set at 75%/70% (i.e., correctly predict 75% of the holdout sample with no one group under 70% correct prediction). The purpose of this segmentation strategy is to market tailored offerings to specific segments, thereby improving customer satisfaction while reducing marketing costs. In the fourth and final phase of the project, the segmentation model will be tested by using actual sales data and by collecting new customer preference data. Once this phase is completed, residential program offerings can be developed or modified to best suit the targeted segment.

  18. Mental retardation in a child with a {open_quotes}de novo{close_quotes} deletion of terminal 14q and a family history of dyslexia

    SciTech Connect

    Mak-Tam, E.; Capua, E.; Shugar, A.

    1994-09-01

    A couple presented for prenatal diagnosis for advanced maternal age. A review of the family history revealed that their elder daughter was mentally retarded while their second daughter was of normal intelligence. The father and his brother were both dyslexic. The paternal grandmother had lost three pregnancies, all female. The elder daughter had been fully assessed in the past, but no diagnosis had been made. During her first few years, she was frequently ill and failed to thrive. A developmental assessment at age 5 years concluded that she was moderately mentally retarded. She was minimally dysmorphic. DNA testing for fragile X and urine amnio acids, organic acids and metabolic screen were negative. Chromosome and FISH analyses revealed a satellited 14q with a deletion of 14q32.3. Parents did not show the karyotypic changes, but FISH studies on them and the dyslexic uncle are pending. A molecular work-up of chromosome 14 in this family is also in progress. In this child, the phenotype is probably related to the cytogenetic findings. The information about 14q terminal deletions in the literature is limited but a fairly consistent phenotype, which is slightly different from ring 14, is emerging. This is more obvious in infants that in older children. The family history of dyslexia could be unrelated to our patient`s findings but it is also possible that there is a recessive gene for dyslexia in this family which maps to 14q32.3. The current molecular map of this area provides no answer to this question. Genes mapped to 14q3.3 include the alpha-1-antitrypsin gene, the brain component of creative kinase (CKB) and the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Loss of heterozygosity of 14q has been associated with end stage human neuroblastoma and colonic neoplasia.

  19. Bananas, allegators, and {open_quotes}hot rocks that shoot ghost bullets{close_quotes}: Sitings along the trail to an MRS

    SciTech Connect

    Trebules, V.; Kane, D.

    1994-04-01

    Building new electric power facilities in a community used to be greeted warmly by that community. However, during the 20 year hiatus in power plant siting, opposition to siting just about every kind of facility has grown. The challenge to site a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for the temporary storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel is monumental but not insurmountable. The safety and environmental records on commercial spent-fuel storage to date are impressive. This article gives an overall perspective on siting an MRS. Topics covered include the following: the Nuclear waste Policy Act; the Nuclear Waste Negotiator; DOE`s Feasibility Grand`s program; Looking back at past efforts; using portable information in some areas; and where the efforts go now in trying to site a MRS.

  20. Assessment of possible consequences of a hypothetical reactivity accident associated with a {open_quotes}Topaz-2{close_quotes} spacecraft reactor entering water

    SciTech Connect

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ermoshin, M.Yu.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi; Skorlygin, V.V.

    1994-12-01

    An accident analysis for a Russian Topaz-2 nuclear reactor is summarized. The accident scenario involves emergency return from orbit, severe damage to reactor structural elements, and subsequent falling of the reactor core into the ocean. The thermionic converter reactor, used in spacecraft, has a large neutron leakage which decreases when water enters the inner core cavity. Preliminary results of numerical modeling, summarized in the article, show that the possible consequences of the hypothetical accidental submersion are limited. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Review of recent studies from central and eastern Europe associating respiratory health effects with high levels of exposure to {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jedrychowski, W.

    1995-03-01

    The serious environmental problems caused by decades of Communist mismanagement of natural resources in countries of Central and Eastern Europe have been brought to light in recent years. All environmental media, including air, water, food, and soil have been burdened with toxic chemicals. Large segments of the population have been, and are now being exposed to air pollution levels exceeding guidelines established by western countries and by international health organizations. This review focuses on epidemiologic evidence regarding health effects of poor air quality in Central and Eastern Europe. It appears that short-term high levels of air pollutants (primarily particulates and SO{sub 2}) may increase mortality in sensitive parts of the population. Associations were also seen between air pollution levels and prevalence of respiratory diseases as well as lung function disturbances in adults and children. One study indicated that urban air pollution increased the risk of lung cancer. Several investigations pointed to strong interactions between risk factors. The poor scientific standard of the studies often makes it difficult to evaluate the findings. Several steps should be taken to develop environmental epidemiology in Central and Eastern Europe, including international collaboration in research projects and training. 30 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  2. A study of the structural activation caused by proton beam loss in the {open_quotes}accelerator production of tritium{close_quotes} LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, L.L.; Beard, C.A.; Eaton, S.L.; Waters, L.S.; Wilson, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory makes use of a high power linear proton accelerator to produce neutrons via spallation reactions m a heavy metal target. The fast spallation neutrons are moderated by a heavy water blanket, and used to produce tritium by means of the reaction: {sup 3}He(n,p)T, APT 1993. Various accelerator designs are currently under consideration. At the time when this study was performed, the project called for a 1 GeV proton linear accelerator with a beam current of 200 mA, i.e., a proton beam power of 200 MW. Given the high power at which the APT accelerator is expected to operate, as well as the heavy maintenance that is likely to be required to keep it operating, it is essential to consider health physics issues at an early stage of the design.

  3. Corrections to the paper {open_quotes}fitting the armitage-doll model to radiation-exposed cohorts and implications for population cancer risks{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Little, M.P.; Hawkins, M.M.; Charles, M.W.; Hildreth, N.G.

    1994-01-01

    A recent paper analyzed patterns of cancer in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and three other groups exposed to radiation by fitting the so-called multistage model of Armitage and Doll. The paper concluded that the incidence of solid cancer could be described adequately by a model in which up to two stages affected by radiation were assumed but that the data for leukemia within the bomb survivors might not be so well fitted. This was in part because of a failure to account for the observed linear-quadratic dose response that has been observed in the Japanese cohort. It has recently come to our attention that there was a mistake in the fits of the model with two adjacent radiation-affected stages, whereby the quadratic coefficient in dose was being set to zero in all the fits. This paper provides corrections in the calculations for the model and discusses the results.

  4. {open_quotes}The effects of diabetes on the activity of the enzyme glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amindotransferase{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.P.

    1994-12-31

    Hexsoamine synthetic pathway (HexNSP) controls the supply of essential substrates for glycoprotein synthesis. In vitro studies suggest that increased flux of glucose via the hexsoamine synthetic pathway may play a role in glucose induced insulin resistance of glucose transport. Glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amindotransferase (GFAT) controls flux into the hexsoamine synthetic pathway; the major products are UDPN-acetylhexosamines (UDP.HexNac=UDP.GlcNAc= UDP.GalNac). I examined whether diabetes ({approximately} 7 days post intravenous streptozotocin, and genetically linked) affects the activity of glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate in rat and mouse skeletal muscle in vivo. Nucleotide linked HexNAc were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography(HPLC) in deproteinized hind limb muscle extracts.

  5. The DuPont, Monsanto, General Electric {open_quotes}Lasagna{close_quotes} Remediation Project - joint R&D and financing

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, P.A.

    1995-03-01

    The Lasagna project is the first of what we expect will be several large cooperative projects between industry consortia and government to develop improved remediation technologies. In 1992, Monsanto Company began contacting other major corporations to see if they were experiencing similar difficulties in applying cost-effective, or even workable technologies for industrial site remediation. Both General Electric and DuPont were early participants in the effort to develop a meeting with the EPA to discuss technical problems faced in cleanup, research needs, and ways to accelerate development of more cost-effective techniques. This paper provides some background on how this cooperative process came to reality, what the Lasagna process is and how the cooperative arrangements and financing are structured.

  6. Summary evaluation of the video, {open_quotes}Transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials: Safety for all concerned{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, M.C.; Young, C.F.

    1993-07-01

    Outreach materials are often developed and distributed without evaluation of their effectiveness. This report provides a glimpse of the effectiveness of one of the US Department of Energy`s videos on transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials. Data from a survey developed by Modern Talking Picture Service, Inc. are summarized. This survey was sent to recipients of the video at three to six weeks after they had received and viewed the video. The response rate is unknown; hence, the results suggest the range of perspectives on the video, rather than the representativeness of those perspectives. The results are also limited by incomplete responses to the survey. Most respondents were middle school and high school teachers who resided throughout the country. Respondents used the video in nearly all school subjects. Most respondents indicated that the video was fairly good and appreciated the factual information, although some saw it as propaganda. Respondents indicated that they would like additional information on hazardous wastes, nuclear power, and transportation. The test crashes were mentioned as a highlight of the video. Recommendations for revising the video and survey are included.

  7. Comment on {open_quotes}Experimental Fusion Barrier Distributions Reflecting Projectile Octupole State Coupling to Prolate and Oblate Target Nuclei{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Dasso, C.H.; Dasso, C.H.; Fernandez-Niello, J.

    1997-05-01

    The authors comment on the Letter by J.D. Bierman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1587(1996), and show the method by which they have been constructed is not the most appropriate. A Comment on the Letter by J.D. Bierman, {ital et al. }, Phys.Rev.Lett.{bold 76}, 1587 (1996). The authors of the Letter offer a Reply. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Accident analysis of railway transportation of low-level radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes: Application of the /open quotes/Maximum Credible Accident/close quotes/ concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, E.; McLean, R.B.

    1988-09-01

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) approach to accident analysis places an upper bound on the potential adverse effects of a proposed action by using conservative but simplifying assumptions. It is often used when data are lacking to support a more realistic scenario or when MCA calculations result in acceptable consequences. The MCA approach can also be combined with realistic scenarios to assess potential adverse effects. This report presents a guide for the preparation of transportation accident analyses based on the use of the MCA concept. Rail transportation of contaminated wastes is used as an example. The example is the analysis of the environmental impact of the potential derailment of a train transporting a large shipment of wastes. The shipment is assumed to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and low-level radioactivities of uranium and technetium. The train is assumed to plunge into a river used as a source of drinking water. The conclusions from the example accident analysis are based on the calculation of the number of foreseeable premature cancer deaths the might result as a consequence of this accident. These calculations are presented, and the reference material forming the basis for all assumptions and calculations is also provided.

  9. {degrees}SnapPea{close_quotes} OS/2 Warp graphical user interface for hyperbolic 3-manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Manoharan, A.C.; Weeks, J.

    1996-12-31

    An interactive color graphical user interface, with animation, has been developed to port SnapPea to the OS/2 Warp Personal Computer (IBM type PC) platform. This fulfills the interest to use an Intel microprocessor based computer to study the geometry and topology of three-dimensional hyperbolic manifolds and to perform mathematical computations with them. Hitherto the program was available only on Macintosh computers. The OS/2 operating system kernel program has for many years supported long file names, had multithreading, pre-emptive multitasking an built in crash-protection. There is also a full 32-bit graphics engine. Already, there is much interest in this product. The software is expected soon to be available to mathematicians around the world, to use in their research. A demonstration was given at the conference.

  10. The New Broom: A Fiction for Our Times with True Quotes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article spins a yarn about the appointment of António Coimbra, the first vice-chancellor of an Australian university, who came from Portugal, well-equipped for the job. Described is his approach to this new role and his unusual way of handling the unexpected task of a vice-chancellor.

  11. Blogs and Twitter in medical publications: too unreliable to quote, or a change waiting to happen?

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Pranab; Biswas, Tamoghna

    2011-09-27

    With the ubiquitous connectivity offered by the Internet, social media sites (like Twitter and Facebook) and personal publishing platforms (blogs) are proliferating rapidly. In this new, evolving scenario of social media, these tools become an important medium to disseminate information at a lightning speed. However, the conventional medical publication model is less than eager to regard them as equivalent to traditional modes of information dissemination. In this article we examine the role played by social media as a critic of the medical publication system, and how it acts as a safeguard by building a platform for post-publication peer review.

  12. Reflection of Transverse Waves in a Structure "Dielectric-Piezoelectric Semiconductor with Current&quot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyamshev, L. M.; Shevyakhov, N. S.

    2000-05-01

    Reflection of a plane monochromatic transverse wave by the boundary of the acoustic contact of a dielectric with a hexagonal piezoelectric semiconductor in the presence of a longitudinal charge drift is treated in the small-signal approximation within the framework of the hydrodynamic description of a charge carrier plasma. A procedure of selecting the branches with allowance for the conversion of the quasi-acoustic mode (a refracted transverse wave) into plasma-acoustic disturbances, both in-leaking at the boundary or out-leaking from it, is proposed for the determination of the solution under the conditions of a supersonic drift and “overcritical” angles of incidence. Beyond the restrictions of White’s theory of ultrasonic wave propagation in piezoelectric semiconductors, it is demonstrated that this technique removes the defects of the solutions obtained earlier in the form of discontinuities in angular dependences of the modulus of the reflection coefficient of a transverse wave in the vicinity of the “critical” angle of incidence and leads to a solution that does not contain a resonance singularity of a polar type.

  13. Wavefront Motion in the Vicinity of a Phase Dislocation: "Optical Vortex&quot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasnetsov, M. V.; Gorshkov, V. N.; Marienko, I. G.; Soskin, M. S.

    2000-02-01

    In the scalar approximation, an analysis is made of the light field structure in the vicinity of a line of the ring phase dislocation corresponding to the zero value of the field formed by the interference of two uniaxial Gaussian beams. The formation of an “optical vortex” or the toroidal motion of a portion of a light flow around a ring phase dislocation is shown.

  14. Quotes vs. Paraphrases in Writing Articles: Does It Make Any Difference to Readers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Richard R.; And Others

    The effects on readers of direct quotations versus paraphrases, and reader comprehension of material from direct quotations versus paraphrases were examined in this experiment. Four reasonably short and clear stories--two speech stories and two interview stories--were selected from metropolitan daily newspapers. Two versions of each story were set…

  15. More than just great quotes: An introduction to the Canadian Tri-Council’s qualitative requirements

    PubMed Central

    Boffa, Jody; Moules, Nancy; Mayan, Maria; Cowie, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Although at times misunderstood by the general research community, qualitative research has developed out of diverse, rich and complex philosophical traditions and theoretical paradigms. In the most recent Canadian Tri-Council policy statement on the ethical conduct of research involving humans, a chapter was devoted to a summary of methods and methodological requirements that characterize robust qualitative research, despite the diversity of approaches. To dispel common misperceptions about qualitative research and introduce the unfamiliar reader to these requirements, the work of a qualitative study on isoniazid preventive therapy for prophylaxis of tuberculosis published in AIDS is critiqued alongside each of the Tri-Council’s nine requirements. PMID:24421811

  16. Rolling and slipping down Galileo{close_quote}s inclined plane: Rhythms of the spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S.

    1996-05-01

    In ``Two New Sciences`` (TNS) Galileo presents a number of theorems and propositions for smooth solid spheres released from rest and rolling a distance {ital d} in time {ital t} down an incline of height {ital H} and length {ital L}. We collect and summarize his results in a single grand proportionality {ital P}: {ital d}{sub 1}/{ital d}{sub 2}=({ital t}{sup 2}{sub 1}/{ital t}{sup 2}{sub 2})({ital H}/{ital L}){sub 1}/({ital H}/{ital L}){sub 2}. ({ital P}) From TNS it is clear that what we call {ital P} is assumed by Galileo to hold for all inclinations including vertical free fall with {ital H}/{ital L}=1. But in TNS he describes only experiments with gentle inclinations {ital H}/{ital L}{lt}1/2. Indeed he cannot have performed the vertical free fall ({ital H}={ital L}) experiment, because we (moderns) know that as we increase {ital H}/{ital L}, {ital P} starts to break down when {ital H}/{ital L} exceeds about 0.5, because the sphere, which rolls without slipping for small {ital H}/{ital L}, starts to slip, whence {ital d} starts to exceed the predictions of {ital P}, becoming too large by a factor of 7/5 for vertical free fall at {ital H}/{ital L}=1. In 1973 Drake and in 1975 Drake and MacLachlan published their analysis of a previously unpublished experiment that Galileo performed that (without his realizing it) directly compared rolling without slipping to free fall. In the experiment, a sphere that has gained speed {ital v}{sub 1} while rolling down a gentle incline is deflected so as to be launched horizontally with speed {ital v}{sub 1} into a free fall orbit discovered by Galileo to be a parabola. The measured horizontal distance {ital X}{sub 2} traveled in this parabolic orbit (for a given vertical distance fallen to the floor) was smaller than he expected, by a factor 0.84. But that is exactly what we (moderns) expect, since we know that Galileo did not appreciate the difference between rolling without slipping, and slipping on a frictionless surface.

  17. Ulysses{close_quote} rapid crossing of the polar coronal hole boundary

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Riley, P.; Gosling, J.T.; Balogh, A.; Forsyth, R.

    1998-02-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft crossed from the slow dense solar wind characteristic of the solar streamer belt into the fast, less dense flow from the northern polar coronal hole over a very short interval (several days) in late March 1995. The spacecraft, which was at 1.35 AU and {approximately}19{degree} north heliographic latitude, moving northward in its orbit, remained in the fast solar wind from then through summer 1996. This boundary crossing is unique in that the combination of the spacecraft motion and rotation of the structure past the spacecraft caused Ulysses to move smoothly and completely from one regime into the other. In this study we examine this crossing in detail. The crossing is marked by a region of enhanced pressure, typical of stream interaction regions, which extends {approximately}2{times}10{sup 7}km across. We find that the transition between the slow and fast regimes occurs on several temporal, and hence spatial, scales. On the shortest scale ({lt}8{times}10{sup 4}km) the stream interface is a tangential discontinuity where the proton and core electron densities and ion and electron pressures all drop while the magnetic pressure jumps to maintain a rough pressure balance. The alpha to proton ratio also jumps across the stream interface to reach the comparatively constant polar hole value of {approximately}4.3{percent}. On larger scales (a few {times}10{sup 6}km) the proton and alpha temperatures rise to their high-speed wind values. Finally, on the largest scale ({approximately}10{sup 8}km) the solar wind speed ramps up from {approximately}400kms{sup {minus}1} to {approximately}750kms{sup {minus}1}, typical of polar hole flows. While it seems likely that the stream interface maps back to a sharp boundary near the Sun, the large region of increasing flow speed suggests that there is also an extended gradient in solar wind source speed close to the Sun. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  18. Julio Cortázar quotes on normal and abnormal movements: magical realism or reality?

    PubMed

    Merello, Marcelo

    2006-08-01

    Together with Mario Vargas Llosa and Gabriel García Márquez, Julio Cortázar was one of the most representative authors of the Latin American magical realism genre. Within his extensive body of work, many descriptions of characters suffering physical disabilities, as well as situations suggesting such medical conditions, can be extracted. In this review, two short stories by Cortázar are presented. In the first one, the main character could easily be a man suffering from corticobasal degeneration; in the second, an old woman with symptoms suggestive of progressive supranuclear palsy is clearly depicted. Despite the fact that one of the main ingredients in Cortázar's magical realism is fiction, cases described here fit real medical conditions quite well, making it hard to believe that they represent purely fantastic descriptions rather than the product of Cortázar's inquisitive observation and the description of real patients.

  19. More than just great quotes: An introduction to the Canadian Tri-Council's qualitative requirements.

    PubMed

    Boffa, Jody; Moules, Nancy; Mayan, Maria; Cowie, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Although at times misunderstood by the general research community, qualitative research has developed out of diverse, rich and complex philosophical traditions and theoretical paradigms. In the most recent Canadian Tri-Council policy statement on the ethical conduct of research involving humans, a chapter was devoted to a summary of methods and methodological requirements that characterize robust qualitative research, despite the diversity of approaches. To dispel common misperceptions about qualitative research and introduce the unfamiliar reader to these requirements, the work of a qualitative study on isoniazid preventive therapy for prophylaxis of tuberculosis published in AIDS is critiqued alongside each of the Tri-Council's nine requirements.

  20. The prospective ways of development of Russia{close_quote}s launch vehicles and their infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmykov, A.V.; Kuzin, A.I.; Menshikov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the report the main directions of development and perfecting of Russian launch vehicle system are submitted. Problems, connected with perfecting of an infrastructure of rocket-carriers complexes, including space ports and their basic elements, are considered. Alongside with conventional directions of perfecting and development of launch vehicles nontraditional variants of orbit-to-orbit space means on the basis of transport-power modules are offered as well. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. "Hey, I Didn't Say That!": Teaching Textual Integrity through Misrepresented Quotes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite specialized areas of expertise, communication instructors are unified, to a large extent, by a singular belief: the meaning people give words produces behavioral ramifications (Mead, 2009). Communication instructors revere language's ability to reflect both meaning and reality. Yet, they also are tasked with the responsibility of conveying…

  2. Click C@refully Before You Quote: Citing Internet-Based Sources

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, access to information provided by the World Wide Web (WWW) is changing as never before. The fast availability of current medical literature and the availability of tools for easy access to information, as well as for the easy production of information, have confronted research physicians, scholars, and students with new kinds of problems, many of which concern us personally. Quality control, difficulty establishing basic citation components, lack of standard guidelines for citing, as well as the short lifetime of Internet addresses concern us deeply. Some of these problems could be solved by the concept of an “Online-Library of Medicine” presented in the following paper. Since, however, at the present time there are no good answers to the problems regarding citing Internet-based sources, a Web surfer must keep in his or her mind the motto “caveat lector” (let the reader beware) - or, rather, in the spirit of our time: click c@refully before you cite. PMID:10527339

  3. A familial {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} 3;9 translocation with cryptic 8q insertion leading to deletion and duplication of 9p23 loci in siblings

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, J.; Hemann, M.

    1994-09-01

    Families in which a balanced translocation has been transmitted from a normal parent to a child with a phenotypic abnormality have been a longstanding puzzle for human geneticists. A child with phenotypic features of the 9p- syndrome, including metopic craniosynostosis, small ears, abdominal wall defect, and mental retardation, was found to have a cytogenetically balanced 3;9 translocation, with breakpoints at 3p11 and 9p23, inherited from his normal father. He also exhibited marked hypopigmentation of hair and skin. Analysis with a cDNA probe from the TYRP1 (tyrosinase-related protein 1) gene in 9p23 showed heterozygous deletion in the child but in neither parent. This submicroscopic deletion also included loci D9S157, D9S274, D9S268, and D9S267. FISH analysis of the proband`s father indicated the 9p23 loci deleted in his son were present on neither the der(3) nor the der(9) translocation product, but had been inserted into the long arm of chromosome 8. Therefore, the apparent deletion of these loci in the proband was the result of meiotic segregation of the father`s 3;9 translocation chromosomes together with his normal chromosome 8. Neither the deletion from the translocation chromosomes nor the insertion into 8q was detectable by standard chromosome banding techniques. The proband`s sister exhibited speech delay, mild facial dysmorphism, and renal malformation, and her karyotype was 46,XX. Molecular analysis of this sister showed 3 copies of 9p23 sequences, indicating that she had inherited normal chromosomes 3 and 9 from her father as well as the chromosome 8 with the insertion from 9p23. This analysis illustrates a new mechanism to explain cases of phenotypic discordance in familial balanced translocations: submicroscopic deletion of material from the translocation breakpoint and insertion into a third chromosome in the balanced parent, with meiotic segregation leading to loss of the inserted material in the child.

  4. A familial {open_quotes}balanced{close_quotes} 3;9 translocation with cryptic 8q insertion leading to deletion and duplication of 9p23 loci in siblings

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, J.; Hemann, M.

    1995-01-01

    A child with phenotypic features of the 9p{sup {minus}} syndrome, including metopic craniosynostosis, small ears, abdominal wall defect, and mental retardation, as well as hypopigmentation, was found to have a cytogenetically balanced 3;9 translocation, with breakpoints at 3p11 and 9p23, inherited from his phenotypically normal father. Molecular analysis showed heterozygous deletion of the TYRP (tyrosinase-related protein) locus, as well as loci D9S157, D9S274, D9S268, and D9S267, in the child but in neither parent. FISH analysis of the proband`s father indicated that loci deleted in his son, including TYRP, were present on neither the der(3) nor the der(9) translocation products but had been inserted into the long arm of chromosome 8. Therefore, the apparent deletion of these loci in the proband was the result of meiotic segregation of the father`s 3;9 translocation chromosomes together with his normal chromosome 8 (not bearing the insertion from 9p23). Neither the deletion of these 9p23 loci from the translocation chromosomes nor their insertion into 8q was detectable by standard chromosome banding techniques. The proband`s sister exhibited speech delay, mild facial dysmorphism, and renal malformation, and her karyotype was 46,XX. Molecular analysis showed that she had inherited normal chromosomes 3 and 9, as well as the chromosome 8 with the insertion of 9p23 material, from her father. This analysis illustrates a new mechanism to explain cases in which an apparently balanced translocation has been transmitted from a normal parent to a child with a phenotypic abnormality: submicroscopic deletion of material from the translocation breakpoint and insertion into a third chromosome in the balanced parent, with meiotic segregation leading to loss of the inserted material in the child. 36 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. US Geological Survey Committee for the Advancement of Science in the Yucca Mountain Project symposium on {open_quotes}Fractures, Hydrology, and Yucca Mountain{close_quotes}: Abstracts and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Gomberg, J.

    1991-12-31

    The principal objective of this symposium is to review the available information on fractured/faulted terrains in terms of a coherent hydrogeologic model of ground-water fluid flow and transport, particularly as it pertains to the Yucca Mountain region. This review addresses the influence and significance of fractures on ground-water flow and the transport of conservative-species solutes within the context of the hydrogeologic setting of the Yucca Mountain area. The relations between fluid flow and fractured or faulted host rock are examined integrally from information on geologic, seismologic, hydrologic, and geomechanical properties of the system. The development of new hydrogeologic approaches that incorporate information from this integrated database are contrasted with more standard approaches toward understanding flow in fractured reservoirs. Ground-water flow in both the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone are considered. The application of various models of flow is addressed, examples include porous-media equivalent and discontinuum fracture-network models. Data and interpretations from the Yucca Mountain area are presented to establish a context for information exchange. The symposium includes discussions relevant to technical considerations for characterizing the Yucca Mountain area hydrogeology. On the basis of these discussions, CASY has compiled this document in order to formally summarize the proceedings and communicate recommendations for future directions of research and investigation.

  6. A single crystal x-ray study of the fluorite-related {open_quotes}solid solutions{close_quotes} of CeO{sub 2}-YO{sub 1.5}

    SciTech Connect

    Gabbitas, N.; Thompson, J.G.; Withers, R.L.; Rae, A.D.

    1995-02-15

    A study of the (1 - {delta})CeO{sub 2} {circ} {delta}YO{sub 1.5} solid solution has been undertaken to understand the origin of the two-phase region that occurs between the fluorite-type, 0-{approximately}50 mole% YO{sub 1.5}, and C-type, {approximately}73-100 mole% YO{sub 1.5}, solid solutions. Single crystal X-ray diffraction data have been collected at 49.7, 73.0, and 79.8 mole% YO{sub 1.5}(cubic, Ia3, a = 10.757(2), 10.698(4), 10.678(3) {Angstrom}, Z = 32) and the structures refined to R{sub 1} = 0.0841, 0.0146, and 0.0202 for 29, 25, and 72 independent reflections, respectively. The deviations from the ideal fluorite structure were examined and an apparent discontinuity observed for the metal atom shift allowed by Ia3 symmetry. Previously suggested metal atom ordering was not observed in the C-type structure. Models have been proposed to understand the limiting compositions of the fluorite-type and C-type solid solutions.

  7. Mitigation of atmospheric carbon emissions through increased energy efficiency versus increased non-carbon energy sources: A trade study using a simplified {open_quotes}market-free{close_quotes} exogenously driven model

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-08-24

    A simplified model of global, long-term energy use is described and used to make a `top-level` comparison of two generic approaches for mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions: (a) those based on increased energy efficiency; and (b) those based on increased use of reduced- or non-carbon fuels. As approximate as is the model, first-order estimates of and trade offs between increasing non-carbon generation capacities (e.g., supply-side solutions) versus energy-use efficiency (e.g., demand-side solutions) to stem atmospheric carbon accumulations can be useful in guiding more elaborate models. At the level of this analysis, both the costs of abatement and the costs of damage can be large, with the formation of benefit-to-cost ratios as a means of assessment being limited by uncertainties associated with relating given climatic responses to greenhouse warming to aggregate damage cost, as well as uncertainties associated with procedures used for multi-generation discounting of both abatement and damage costs. In view of uncertainties associated with both supply-side and demand-side approaches, as well as the estimation of greenhouse-warming responses per se, a combination of solutions seems prudent. Key findings are: (a) the relative insensitivity of the benefit-to-cost ratio adopted in this study to supply-side versus demand-side approaches to abating atmospheric carbon-dioxide emissions; (b) the extreme sensitivity of damage costs, abatement costs, and the related benefit-to-cost ratios to the combination of discounting procedure and the (time) concavity of the function used to relate global temperature rise to damage costs; and (c) no matter the discounting procedure and/or functional relationship between average temperature rise and a damage cost, a goal of increased per-capita gross world product at minimum damage suggests action now rather than delay.

  8. Measuring velocity with the {open_quotes}optic boom{close_quotes}: The contribution of the Ring Imaging Cerenkov, Detector to the search for charmless beauty decay at fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Schnathorst, R.

    1992-12-01

    A charged particle traveling in a medium with a speed exceeding the speed of light in that medium produces Cerenkov radiation (light). This effect is, in a very loose sense, the optical analogue of a sonic boom. The light is emitted at a specific angle, {theta}, determined by the velocity, {beta}, of the particle according to the equation {beta}=1/(ncos{theta}) where n is the index of refraction of the medium. In the Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector (RICH), light emitted at an angle {theta} is focused as a ring of radius r=f tan {theta} (f=local length) onto a detector. The velocity of the particle is calculated from the radius of the circular ring of light striking the detector, allowing the mass of the particle to be determined. E789 makes use of the well-known E605 RICH detector to study D- and B-meson decays. The physics explored by E789 and the operation of the RICH will be described, and images produced by analysis of data from the RICH will be presented.

  9. Does C-C bonding proceed during exposure of adequate metal surfaces to CH{sub 4}? Reply to {open_quotes}Comment by Z. Hlavathy, Z. Paal, and P. Tetenyi{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Amaraiglio, A.; Pareja, P.; Amariglio, H.

    1997-02-01

    The comments, results, and reflections presented by Hlavathy and co-workers in their Letter aim at demonstrating that C-C bonding between CH{sub x} adspecies, formed upon exposure of Pt to CH{sub 4}, can proceed as well during the exposure itself as during further exposure to H{sub 2}. This possibility was implicitly put forward because they thought that a tight parallelism exists between the interactions of CH{sub 4} and CO with a metal surface, provided that the exposure to CH{sub 4} is carried out at a high enough temperature (450{degrees}C). In both cases these authors assumed that three kinds of carbon, C{sub {alpha}}, C{sub {beta}}, and C{sub {gamma}}, can be formed, C{sub {alpha}} being the main species responsible for the production of CH{sub 4} and of the C{sub 2}, alkanes obtained when the metal was further contacted with H{sub 2} at 100{degrees}C. As they argued that C{sub {alpha}} (also named carbidic carbon) has only metal atoms in its first coordination shell, they were implicitly led it that C-C bonding must take place during the hydrogenation step. The authors have not denied this possibility, but they have suggested that different situations can result from exposures to CH{sub 4} conducted at temperatures much lower than those used by Koerts et al.. 13 refs.

  10. {sup 237}Np in Hemp-palm leaves of Bontenchiku for fishing gear used by the Fifth Fukuryu-Maru: 40 year after {open_quotes}Bravo{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Komura, Kazuhisa; Ueno, Kaoru

    1996-05-01

    The alpha radioactive components in the Hemp-palm leaves of Bontenchiku were determined with emphasis on the measurement of low-level {sup 237}Np by alpha-ray spectrometry after chemical separation. Bontenchiku is a kind of fishing gear for long-line fishing used by the Fifth Fukuryu-Maru (Lucky Dragon). This gear was exposed to fallout from the second thermonuclear test explosion (Bravo) at Bikini Atoll in March 1954. The {sup 237}Np content in the Bontenchiku sample was determined to be 11.5 {plus_minus}0.8 mBq g{sup {minus}1} with an activity ratio of {sup 237}Np: {sup 239,240}Pu and an atom ratio of {sup 237}Np: {sup 239}Pu estimated to be (2.2 {plus_minus}0.2) x 10{sup {minus}3} and 0.42 {plus_minus}0.04, respectively. The data showed the existence of a chain reaction of {sup 238}U and its ratio to be {sup 237}Np: {sup 239}Pu, as well as the presence of {sup 237}U at the time of fallout from Bravo event in March 1954. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The efficacy of the table-top or {open_quote}white paper{close_quote} approach to emergency response planning of drills and exercises is examined for process improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.N.; Wesley, T.H.

    1995-11-01

    This paper examines the development of a set of procedures for the use by Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) Team, Region 6 with particular emphasis to the steps used and the feedback provided by peer review, external review, and exercise and drill critiques. This paper also presents a brief history of the RAP and recommends Total Quality Management techniques reduce the costs associated with procedure development.

  12. Computers and small satellites: How FORTE is utilizing the WWW as a {open_quotes}paperless{close_quotes} information resource and the development of a unique resource management planning tool

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, D.; Carter, M.; Franz, R.

    1997-10-01

    The Fast-On-orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite is the second satellite to be developed and flown by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is scheduled to be launched August, 1997 by a Pegasus XL rocket. FORTE follows in the footsteps of the ALEXIS satellite in utilizing a very small operations crew for mission operations. Partially based upon the ALEXIS automation and World Wide Web (WWW) usage for data dissemination, FORTE began at an early stage of ground processing to use the web as a repository of information about all aspects of the satellite. Detailed descriptions of the various satellite and experiment components, cable diagrams, integration photographs as well as extensive test data have all been compiled into a single site as a means of archiving the data at a single location. In this manner, it is readily available during times of ground testing, ground station operation training as well as anomaly resolution. Small satellites usually require extensive effort to optimize operation under minimal resources. For the FORTE satellite, a unique planning tool has been developed over the past 2 years which balances the various resources of the satellite (power, memory, downlink, on board command buffer, etc.) to provide the maximum data acquisition. This paper will concentrate on a description of both the extensive web interface and the planning tool. 6 refs.

  13. Intramolecular transfer of {open_quotes}CO{close_quotes} from ({eta}{sup 6}-arene)Cr(CO){sub 3} complexes in stille-type palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Caldirola, P.; Chowdhury, R.; Johansson, A.M.; Hacksell, U.

    1995-12-31

    The reaction between [{eta}{sup 6}-(trialkylstannyl)benzene]Cr(CO){sub 3} complexes and different electrophiles such as iodobenzene and aryltriflate and the coupling between (tributylphenyl)stannane and the Cr(CO){sub 3} complex of chlorobenzene have been studied. Products from two different types of reactions were observed: (1) benzophenone along with the alkylarylketone, resulting from a carbonylative coupling, and (2) biphenyl, arising from a direct coupling.

  14. Equation of state and electrical conductivity of {open_quotes}synthetic Uranus,{close_quotes} a mixture of water, ammonia, and isopropanol, at shock pressure up to 200 GPa (2 Mbar)

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Hamilton, D.C.; Nicol, M.

    1997-12-01

    Equation-of-state, temperature, and electrical-conductivity data were measured for a solution of water, ammonia, and isopropanol at shock pressures up to 200 GPa. The chemical composition is similar to that of the fluid mixture thought to be the major constituent of the giant planets Uranus and Neptune. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Experimental study to validate a model of hillock{close_quote}s formation in aluminum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Genin, F.Y.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1996-04-01

    The growth of holes and hillocks in thin films has been reported extensively and for a multitude of film{endash}substrate systems. A recently developed model [F. Y. G{acute e}nin, J. Appl. Phys. {bold 77}, 5130 (1995)] which analyzes the formation of a ridge at a traveling grain boundary due to stress and capillarity driving forces provides a quantitative description of the growth of the hillocks. In order to test the model, the surface morphology of aluminum thin films deposited on oxidized silicon substrates and annealed at 450{degree}C in argon is investigated; the profiles of thermal hillocks are measured by atomic force microscopy. The comparison shows excellent agreement between modeled and experimental profiles. {copyright}{ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology (PVMaT) improvements for ENTECH{close_quote}s fourth-generation concentrator systems

    SciTech Connect

    ONeill, M.J.; McDanal, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes recent improvements in manufacturing technology for fourth-generation photovoltaic concentrator systems. The fourth-generation systems are firmly based on prior generations of a field-proven, high-efficiency, stable photovoltaic technology. The fourth-generation manufacturing process has been streamlined and validated through pilot runs and field deployments. Future plans include a 1.5 MW installation in 1998, as part of the Solar Enterprise Zone (SEZ) program in Nevada. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Ni/Si based multilayer for the reflection of soft x rays in the "water window&quot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilia, M.; Verhoeven, J.

    1997-11-01

    As nickel and silicon have no absorption edges in the "water window" (2.4-4.4 nm), these materials form suitable components for multilayers to be applied as optical components in this wavelength region. The practical feasibility of using these components is limited by their chemical reactivity, resulting in intermixing at the interfaces. A procedure, based on the application of ion implantation and ion beam mixing, has been developed to produce silicon nitride and nickel silicide layers. As these processes also cause ion etching, an additional reduction of the surface roughness of the layers has been observed.

  18. Taking Race out of Scare Quotes: Race-Conscious Social Analysis in an Ostensibly Post-Racial World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Academics and activists concerned with race and racism have rightly coalesced around the sociological project to refute biologistic conceptions of race. By and large, our default position as teachers, writers and researchers is that race is a social construct. However, the deconstruction of race and its claims to theoretical intelligibility has…

  19. The discovery of the {ital b} quark at Fermilab in 1977: The experiment coordinator{close_quote}s story

    SciTech Connect

    Yoh, J.

    1998-02-01

    I present the history of the discovery of the Upsilon ({Upsilon}) particle (the first member of the {ital b}-quark family to be observed) at Fermilab in 1977 by the CFS (Columbia-Fermilab-Stony Brook collaboration) E288 experiment headed by Leon Lederman. We found the first evidence of the {Upsilon} in November 1976 in an early phase of E288. The subsequent discovery in the spring of 1977 resulted from an upgraded E288{emdash}the {mu}{mu}II phase, optimized for dimuons, with about 100 times the sensitivity of the previous investigatory dimuon phase (which had been optimized for dielectrons). The events leading to the discovery, the planning of {mu}{mu}II and the running, including a misadventure (the infamous Shunt Fire of May 1977), are described. Some discussions of the aftermath, a summary, and an acknowledgment list end this brief historical note. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. 1995 Edward teller lecture. Patience and optimism

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.

    1996-05-01

    Remarks made in the author{close_quote}s acceptance lecture for the 1995 Edward Teller Medal are presented and expanded. Topics covered include research on nuclear-pumped lasers, the first direct e-beam-pumped laser, direct energy conversion and advanced fuel fusion, plus recent work on inertial electrostatic confinement. {open_quote}{open_quote}Patience{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}optimism{close_quote}{close_quote} are viewed as essential elements needed by scientists following the {open_quote}{open_quote}zig-zag{close_quote}{close_quote} path to fusion energy production. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. 77 FR 50184 - Miami International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of Application for Registration as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... submit any of the following ``quote'' types: Standard quote; Day eQuote; Immediate or Cancel eQuote; Fill... does not expect to make Day eQuotes available for use upon first commencing operations. See Exhibit E... by its registered broker-dealer members, as well as from quotes submitted electronically by...

  2. I Thought Composition Was about Commas and Quotes, Not Queers: Diversity and Campus Change at a Rural Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Fayette County, once home to the Carnegies, the Mellons, and the Fricks, now punctuated by abandoned mines and coke ovens, is the second poorest county in Pennsylvania. Gay and lesbian students experience discrimination in this County. In this article, the author discusses her efforts to intervene in this complicated problem by deploying a…

  3. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., (iv) who is responsible for payment if different, and (v) date(s) of collection. (k) Rate and tariff... circumstances surrounding such misquote along with any other supporting documentary evidence available. 4... read this application and know its contents, and that they are true. Subscribed and sworn to before...

  4. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., (iv) who is responsible for payment if different, and (v) date(s) of collection. (k) Rate and tariff... circumstances surrounding such misquote along with any other supporting documentary evidence available. 4... read this application and know its contents, and that they are true. Subscribed and sworn to before...

  5. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., (iv) who is responsible for payment if different, and (v) date(s) of collection. (k) Rate and tariff... circumstances surrounding such misquote along with any other supporting documentary evidence available. 4... read this application and know its contents, and that they are true. Subscribed and sworn to before...

  6. Preliminary results of the correlation between ion concentrations in rainwater samples and atmospheric back trajectories as a part of the study {open_quotes}impact to acid rain in the deterioration of Mexican Maya monuments{close_quotes} (project Conacyt-UNAM: 0128T9106)

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, A.H.; Saavedra, M.I.; Snchez, P.; Camacho, R.

    1996-12-31

    The environmental Pollution Section at the Center of Atmospheric Sciences, National Autonomus University of Mexico (UNAM), has been conducting a research project on their potential of impact of acid rain on the Mexican Maya monuments since 1993. As a part of such study, 49 rainwater samples were collected during the years 1994 through 1995 at the Puerto Morelos Oceanographic Station Located close to the Tulum Maya ruins in the State of Qintana Roo. The rain water samples were collected using an automatic rain collector. After the rain event, the water samples were transferred to clean Nalgene bottles. The bottles were stored under refrigeration prior to their shipment to the UNAM laboratory in Mexico City. Concentrations of anions Cl{sup -}, NO{sup -}{sub 3}, and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and cations Na{sup +}, NH{sup +}{sub 4}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} an Ca{sup 2+} were determined by the High Pressure Ion Chromatographic Procedure. The pH of samples was measured in the laboratory. Also, wind back upper trajectories which arrived to the Puerto Morelos are at the same date of each rain event, were calculated using the GMCC atmospheric trajectory program at NOAA. A thorough analysis on the relations between anions and cations is made and preliminary correlations of these results with the calculated long range trajectories are explored in order to find the possible origin of the event.

  7. Analysis of the Pace University Center for Environmental Legal Studies report of September 1990 entitled, {open_quotes}Environmental costs of electicity{close_quotes} by R.L. Ottinger, D.R. Wooley, N.A. Robinson, D.R. Hodas, Babb, S.E.

    SciTech Connect

    Catlin, R.J.

    1992-06-01

    This report evaluates the figures used by Pace University in its September 1990 report entitled `Environmental Costs of Electricity` and the conclusions the Pace authors come to using those figures. The data Paces uses in its report is given on pages 379-381 of the US DOE report entitled `Health and Environmental Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident.` 10 refs., 1 fig., 22 tabs.

  8. 78 FR 25500 - Options Price Reporting Authority; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... the Vendor. OPRA permits Vendors to pay Usage-based Vendor Fees on either a ``quote packet'' basis or... counting quote packets from $0.005 per quote packet to $0.0075 per quote packet, and to increase the Usage... chain. \\4\\ The term ``quote packet'' is defined in footnote 6 to OPRA's Fee Schedule as consisting...

  9. Elements of gas contracts

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neal, J.

    1995-12-01

    The gas marketing scene has taken on a new look from the days of the {open_quotes}Long Term{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}Life of Lease{close_quotes} Contracts. In the past natural gas was of ten sold direct from the wellhead or a producer-owned facility to a pipeline company at a flat rate price and the only parties involved were producer or seller and buyer. Today, the parties involved in the marketing process might include a gathering entity to gather gas at a central point and provide gathering, compression and/or dehydration services; multiple pipeline companies for transportation; sales representatives or marketing brokers to negotiate a sale of the available gas on a monthly basis; and purchasers or end users. New terms have also been introduced in the process such as: {open_quotes}LDC{close_quotes} (local distribution company), {open_quotes}FERC Order 636{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Price Delivered-to-Pipeline{close_quotes} and the various {open_quotes}levels of Service{close_quotes} under Gas Sales and Purchase Agreements. Four common levels of service are: {open_quotes}Firm{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Baseload{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Swing{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Baseload/Operational{close_quotes}. It is evident that current marketing plans often require a separate contract for each service or commitment. Contract contents vary greatly, but most contain the following elements.

  10. Fuzzy logic and neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    Combine fuzzy logic`s fuzzy sets, fuzzy operators, fuzzy inference, and fuzzy rules - like defuzzification - with neural networks and you can arrive at very unfuzzy real-time control. Fuzzy logic, cursed with a very whimsical title, simply means multivalued logic, which includes not only the conventional two-valued (true/false) crisp logic, but also the logic of three or more values. This means one can assign logic values of true, false, and somewhere in between. This is where fuzziness comes in. Multi-valued logic avoids the black-and-white, all-or-nothing assignment of true or false to an assertion. Instead, it permits the assignment of shades of gray. When assigning a value of true or false to an assertion, the numbers typically used are {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}0{close_quotes}. This is the case for programmed systems. If {open_quotes}0{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}false{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}1{close_quotes} means {open_quotes}true,{close_quotes} then {open_quotes}shades of gray{close_quotes} are any numbers between 0 and 1. Therefore, {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.8 or 0.9, {open_quotes}nearly false{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.1 or 0.2, and {close_quotes}your guess is as good as mine{close_quotes} may be represented by 0.5. The flexibility available to one is limitless. One can associate any meaning, such as {open_quotes}nearly true{close_quotes}, to any value of any granularity, such as 0.9999. 2 figs.

  11. 77 FR 16287 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... receive an allocation of 1.8 million quotes per day per user.\\5\\ If a Market Maker submits more quotes than those allocated, i.e., 1.8 million quotes per day per user as measured on average in a single... days, resulting in the average quotes per day entered by that Market Maker. This number is then...

  12. 78 FR 13107 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... to quote continuously throughout the trading day rather than by a requirement to quote at the opening... purpose of the proposed rule change is to revise the quoting obligations of Market Makers prior to and... Primary Lead Market Maker (``PLMM''), will not be required to enter quotes before or during the...

  13. 76 FR 82009 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...-Quote that represents a buy order) or at the national best offer (``NBO'') (for an e-Quote that... bid is $10.04, a pegging e-Quote to buy will display at the Exchange at $10.05, thus creating a new... functionality, a ] pegging e-Quote could peg to an NBB or NBO that is locking or crossing an existing...

  14. Thermonuclear milestones: (1) The American effort

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, G.A.

    1996-11-01

    It took a decade for scientists in America to develop the first ideas for a {open_quote}Super{close_quote} bomb into a device that ignited {open_quote}the first small thermonuclear flame ever to burn on Earth.{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. 77 FR 70522 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... cover its costs related to making the order/quote entry ports available for RMG purposes. Accordingly.../quote entry ports. The Exchange believes that the proposed new fee for drop copy ports is equitable and... for entry of orders and/or quotes (``order/quote entry ports'')) and to implement a fee for ports...

  16. 77 FR 3019 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... Opt Out of the Automated Quote Management Service January 13, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of... allow Exchange market makers to opt out of the Automated Quote Management service. Automated Quote... Automated Quote Management service provided under Rules 4613(a)(2)(F) and (G).\\3\\ The Automated...

  17. Environmental laws regulating chemicals: Uses of information in decision making under environmental statutes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, J.M.

    1990-12-31

    Three areas are addressed in this paper: generic issues that arise simply in the process of decision-making under environmental statutes; different decision-making standards under various environmental statutes; and efforts to legislate a {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}acceptable{close_quotes} risk from exposure to carcinogenic chemicals.

  18. 48 CFR 570.402-6 - Cost-benefit analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quoted for standard space for any special requirements. (2) You do not need a formal SFO to obtain the... firm solicited. (ii) Name of the firm's representative providing the quote. (iii) Price(s) quoted. (iv) Description of the space and services for which the quote is provided. (v) Name of the Government...

  19. 75 FR 61538 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Increase the Class Quoting Limit in One Option Classes... quoting limit in one option class. The text of the proposed rule change is available on CBOE's Web site... Quoting Electronically per Product, establishes class quoting limits (``CQLs'') for each class traded...

  20. 75 FR 29788 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... account of a Specialist, \\7\\ Streaming Quote Trader \\8\\ (an ``SQT'') or Remote Streaming Quote Trader \\9... assigned. \\9\\ A Remote Streaming Quote Trader is defined Exchange Rule in 1014(b)(ii)(B) as an ROT that is... Traders, and Remote Streaming Quote Traders, unless the Directed Participant transaction fee applies....

  1. That which does not kill us makes us stronger--does Nietzsche's quote apply to islets? A re-evaluation of the passenger leukocyte theory, free radicals, and glucose toxicity in islet cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wright, J R; Xu, B-Y

    2014-07-01

    In clinical islet transplantation, isolated islets are embolized into the liver via the portal vein (PV); however, up to 70% of the islets are lost in the first few days after transplantation (i.e., too quickly to be mediated by the adaptive immune system). Part of early loss is due to instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction, an immune/thrombotic process caused by islets interacting with complement. We have shown that glucose toxicity (GT) also plays a critical role based upon the observation that islets embolized into the PVs of diabetic athymic mice are rapidly lost but, if recipients are not diabetic, the islet grafts persist. Using donor islets resistant to the β-cell toxin streptozotocin, we have shown that intraportal islets engrafted in non-diabetic athymic mice for as little as 3 days will maintain normoglycemia when streptozotocin is administered destroying the recipient's native pancreas β-cells. What is the mechanism of GT in β-cells? Chronic exposure to hyperglycemia over-exerts β-cells and their electron transport chains leak superoxide radicals during aerobic metabolism. Here we reinterpret old data and present some compelling new data supporting a new model of early intraportal islet graft loss. We hypothesize that diabetes stimulates overproduction of superoxide in both the β-cells of the islet grafts and the endothelial cells lining the intraportal microvasculature adjacent to where the embolized islets become lodged. This double dose of oxidant damage stresses both the islets, which are highly susceptible to free radicals because of inherent low levels of scavenging enzymes, and the adjacent hepatic endothelial cells. This, superimposed upon localized endothelial damage caused by embolization, precipitates inflammation and coagulation which further damages islet grafts. Based upon this model, we predict that pre-exposing islets to sub-lethal hyperoxia should up-regulate islet free radical scavenging enzyme levels and promote initial engraftment; reinterpretation of 30 years old "passenger leukocyte" data and preliminary new data support this. Other data suggests that pre-exposure of recipients to hyperoxia could up-regulate antioxidant enzymes in the hepatic endothelium. The combination of both effects could markedly enhance early intraportal islet graft survival and engraftment. Finally, if our model is correct, current in vitro and in vivo tests used to test batches of harvested islets for viability and function prior to transplantation are poorly conceived (n.b., it is already well-known that results using these tests often do not predict clinical islet transplantation success) and a different testing paradigm is suggested.

  2. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller{close_quote}s special lecture on {open_quote}{open_quote}New Internal Combustion Engine{close_quote}{close_quote} for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept {open_quote}{open_quote}Cannonball Target{close_quote}{close_quote} which became later to be recognize as a same concept of {open_quote}{open_quote}Hohlraum Target{close_quote}{close_quote} from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement {open_quote}{open_quote}Madrid Manifest{close_quote}{close_quote} which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O{close_quote}Leary{close_quote}s openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. Simplified approaches to some nonoverlapping domain decomposition methods

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jinchao

    1996-12-31

    An attempt will be made in this talk to present various domain decomposition methods in a way that is intuitively clear and technically coherent and concise. The basic framework used for analysis is the {open_quotes}parallel subspace correction{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}additive Schwarz{close_quotes} method, and other simple technical tools include {open_quotes}local-global{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}global-local{close_quotes} techniques, the formal one is for constructing subspace preconditioner based on a preconditioner on the whole space whereas the later one for constructing preconditioner on the whole space based on a subspace preconditioner. The domain decomposition methods discussed in this talk fall into two major categories: one, based on local Dirichlet problems, is related to the {open_quotes}substructuring method{close_quotes} and the other, based on local Neumann problems, is related to the {open_quotes}Neumann-Neumann method{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}balancing method{close_quotes}. All these methods will be presented in a systematic and coherent manner and the analysis for both two and three dimensional cases are carried out simultaneously. In particular, some intimate relationship between these algorithms are observed and some new variants of the algorithms are obtained.

  4. Factors affecting acceptability of radioactive metal recycling to the public and stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Burke, C.J.

    1995-08-01

    The perception of risk takes place within a cultural context that is affected by individual and societal values, risk information, personal experience, and the physical environment. Researchers have found that measures of {open_quotes}voluntariness of risk assumption,{close_quotes} of {open_quotes}disaster potential,{close_quotes} and of {open_quotes}benefit{close_quotes} are important in explaining risk acceptability. A review of cross-cultural studies of risk perception and risk acceptance, as well as an informal stakeholder survey, are used to assess the public acceptability of radioactive scrap metal recycling.

  5. Ecosystems and landscapes: Describing and valuing whole ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Ecosystem management involves both the design and management of complex ecological systems. This involves the application of {open_quotes}ecological engineering{close_quotes} principles. There are many alternative {open_quotes}states{close_quotes} of a landscape, all of which are ecologically sustainable. Once one fulfills the constraints of healthy, diverse, self-reproducing stocks of desirable species, there exists a wide array of alternative states, the characteristics of which represent social, economic and lifestyle trade-offs. There is no single {open_quotes}right{close_quotes} ecological design. Case studies will be used to illustrate these points.

  6. Tungsten

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The name tungsten, derived from the Swedish words {open_quotes}tung{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sten{close_quotes}, meaning heavy stone, was first applied to a tungsten-containing mineral in 1755. The mineral, itself, was subsequently identified by C.W. Scheele in 1781, and named scheelite. Metallic tungsten was first isolated from the mineral wolframite in 1783, and given the German name {open_quotes}wolfram,{close_quotes} which remains an alternative name for the element. Ultimately, the English word, tungsten, became the official name, while W remains the element`s chemical symbol. This article discusses the geology, exploitation, applications, and market overview of tungsten.

  7. Fractal scaling properties in nonstationary heartbeat time series

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, C. |; Havlin, S. |; Stanley, H.E.; Goldberger, A.L. |

    1996-06-01

    Under healthy conditions, the normal cardiac (sinus) interbeat interval fluctuates in a complex manner. Quantitative analysis using techniques adapted from statistical physics reveals the presence of long-range power-law correlations extending over thousands of heartbeats. This scale-invariant (fractal) behavior suggests that the regulatory system generating these fluctuations is operating far from equilibrium. In contrast, we find that for subjects at high risk of sudden death (e.g. congestive heart failure patients) these long-range correlations break down. Application of fractal scaling analysis and related techniques provides new approaches to assessing cardiac risk and forecasting sudden cardiac death, as well as motivating development of novel physiological models of systems that appear to be {open_quote}{open_quote}hetero-dynamic{close_quote}{close_quote} rather than {open_quote}{open_quote}homeo-static.{close_quote}{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  9. Insurance for electric and magnetic field litigation: Are you covered

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.R.; Stewart, C.A. III

    1993-04-01

    Electrical power generating companies, power transmission companies and large generators and users of electrical power recently felt the sting of a second shock. The first shock came when lawsuits were first filed against companies in the electrical power industry claiming real or imagined damages from electrical and magnetic fields ([open quotes]EMFs[close quotes]). The new and second shock is potentially more devastating because it comes from the [open quotes]safe hands[close quotes] of the insurance industry. Standard-form comprehensive general liability ([open quotes]CGL[close quotes]) insurance policies purchased by nearly every company in the electrical power industry for generations are supposed to cover EMF bodily injury and property damage claims. Not so, say the lawyers for the most prominent insurance company selling insurance coverage to electric utilities, Associated Electric Gas Insurance Services, Ltd. ([open quotes]AEGIS[close quotes]).

  10. Clinical and molecular studies in full trisomy 22: Further delineation of the phenotype and review of the literature. Reply to Dr. Hirschhorn

    SciTech Connect

    Bacino, C.A.; Graham, J.M. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} responds to the criticism that certain trisomy 22 cases in the literature were not included in an earlier review by delineating the phenotype more specifically. 2 refs.

  11. Mosaicism most likely accounts for extended survival of trisomy 22

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, W.P.; Kalousek, D.K.

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} discusses the implications of meiotic versus somatic chromosomal aberrations and how this corresponds to the discussion of trisomy 22, including the survival time of the patient. 5 refs.

  12. Coherence and Localization in 2D Luttinger Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.W.; Ramakrishnan, T.V.; Strong, S.; Clarke, D.G. |||

    1996-11-01

    Recent measurements on the resistivity of (La-Sr){sub 2}CuO{sub 4} are shown to fit within the general framework of Luttinger liquid transport theory. They exhibit a crossover from the spin-charge separated {open_quote}{open_quote}holon nondrag regime{close_quote}{close_quote} usually observed, with {rho}{sub {ital ab}}{approximately}{ital T}, to a {open_quote}{open_quote}localizing{close_quote}{close_quote} regime dominated by impurity scattering at low temperature. The proportionality of {rho}{sub {ital c}} and {rho}{sub {ital ab}} and the giant anisotropy follow directly from the theory. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. 77 FR 306 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... participants.\\10\\ CBOE believes this aspect of the AIM Auction will encourage more aggressive quoting and... aspect of the SAM Auction will encourage more aggressive quoting and superior price improvement....

  14. Gas dynamics of UV-laser produced vapor plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, S.I.; Lukyanchuk, B.S.; Luches, A.

    1996-05-01

    Dynamics of dense laser-produced vapor plume are studied. The analysis is based on the well-known special solution of gas dynamics equations that describes the expansion of an ellipsoidal gas cloud into vacuum. This solution is employed to explain the apparent {open_quote}{open_quote}rotation{close_quote}{close_quote} of the cloud (so called {open_quote}{open_quote}flip-over effect{close_quote}{close_quote}). The flux of atoms to the substrate and the film thickness profiles are calculated using the model. It is shown that the cloud expansion into vacuum and into an ambient gas both are unstable. For short-wavelength perturbations, estimates of the instability growth rate are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Considerations in the fabrication, assembly, and testing of radioisotopic thermo-photovoltaic (RTPV) generators for future space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Barklay, C.D.; Miller, R.G.; Frazier, T.A.

    1996-03-01

    To increase energy output with a smaller size and mass than the radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) that were previously used on deep space missions, a radioisotopic thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) system is being developed for the {open_quote}{open_quote}Pluto Express{close_quote}{close_quote} flyby mission. To minimize cost and development time, some facilities and components currently used for RTG production can be used to produce RTPVs. Production options also include out-sourcing and use of off-the-shelf hardware. Necessary modifications to tooling, production equipment, testing and shipping methods can be achieved in a timely manner so that the RTPV will be ready well before the planned launch of {open_quote}{open_quote}Pluto Express.{close_quote}{close_quote} {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Large data series: Modeling the usual to identify the unusual

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.V.; Lawkins, W.F.; Morris, M.D.; Ostrouchov, G.

    1997-04-01

    {open_quotes}Standard{close_quotes} approaches such as regression analysis, Fourier analysis, Box-Jenkins procedure, et al., which handle a data series as a whole, are not useful for very large data sets for at least two reasons. First, even with computer hardware available today, including parallel processors and storage devices, there are no effective means for manipulating and analyzing gigabyte, or larger, data files. Second, in general it can not be assumed that a very large data set is {open_quotes}stable{close_quotes} by the usual measures, like homogeneity, stationarity, and ergodicity, that standard analysis techniques require. Both reasons dictate the necessity to use {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} data analysis methods whereby the data is segmented and ordered, where order leads to a sense of {open_quotes}neighbor,{close_quotes} and then analyzed segment by segment. The idea of local data analysis is central to the study reported here.

  17. Decoherence of quantum fields: Pointer states and predictability

    SciTech Connect

    Anglin, J.R.; Zurek, W.H.

    1996-06-01

    We study environmentally induced decoherence of an electromagnetic field in a homogeneous, linear, dielectric medium. We derive an independent oscillator model for such an environment, which is sufficiently realistic to encompass essentially all linear physical optics. Applying the {open_quote}{open_quote}predictability sieve{close_quote}{close_quote} to the quantum field, and introducing the concept of a {open_quote}{open_quote}quantum halo,{close_quote}{close_quote} we recover the familiar dichotomy between background field configurations and photon excitations around them. We are then able to explain why a typical linear environment for the electromagnetic field will effectively render the former classically distinct, but leave the latter fully quantum mechanical. Finally, we suggest how and why quantum matter fields should suffer a very different form of decoherence. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. 48 CFR 552.211-87 - Export packing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Offerors are requested to quote, in the pricelist accompanying their offer (or by separate attachment... specifications describing the packing to be furnished at the price quoted. (b) Ordering activities will not...

  19. 12 CFR 552.14 - Dissenter and appraisal rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., if such stock was listed on a national securities exchange or quoted on the National Association of... quoted on NASDAQ, or any combination of such shares of stock and cash. (c) Procedure—(1) Notice....

  20. 48 CFR 239.7406 - Cost or pricing data and information other than cost or pricing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... data before award of contracts for tariffed services. Rates or preliminary estimates quoted by a common...) Rates or preliminary estimates quoted by a common carrier for nontariffed telecommunications services...

  1. Letters to a Young Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Anne; Becker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Presents words of encouragement to a young poet. Includes empathetic words and motivating ideas. Presents a letter including a quote from "Tintern Abbey" by William Wordsworth and ideas about that quote. (SG)

  2. 76 FR 11551 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ..., Streaming Quote Traders, Remote Streaming Quote Traders, Firms and Broker-Dealers are capped at $1,000 for... for Web site viewing and printing in the Commission's Public Reference Room on official business...

  3. 75 FR 32826 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ..., Registered Options Traders (``ROTs''),\\4\\ Streaming Quote Traders (``SQTs'') \\5\\ and Remote Streaming Quote....C. 552, will be available for Web site viewing and printing in the Commission's Public...

  4. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1994-09-15

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

  5. The implausible current interpretations of radiobiological linear, nonthreshold functions

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, V.P.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to show that inappropriate coordinates are now assigned to the assumed linearly proportional {open_quotes}dose-response{close_quotes} functions for quantal quantal (i.e., either-or) responses in the elements of a cell population system exposed to low-level radiation. The result is that the present interpretation, {open_quotes}any amount of radiation, however small, can be harmful or lethal{close_quotes} is of highly questionable validity.

  6. On third Poisson structure of KdV equation

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsky, A.; Marshakov, A.; Orlov, A.

    1995-12-01

    The third Poisson structure of the KdV equation in terms of canonical {open_quote}free fields{close_quote} and the reduced WZNW model is discussed. We prove that it is {open_quotes}diagonalized{close_quotes} in the Lagrange variables which were used before in the formulation of 2d gravity. We propose a quantum path integral for the KdV equation based on this representation.

  7. Reformulated gasoline deal with Venezuela draws heat

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1994-04-06

    A fight is brewing in Congress over a deal to let Venezuela off the hook in complying with the Clean Air Act reformulated gasoline rule. When Venezuela threatened to call for a GATT panel to challenge the rule as a trade barrier, the Clinton Administration negotiated to alter the rule, a deal that members of Congress are characterizing as {open_quotes}secret{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}back door.{close_quotes}

  8. The problem of living in a world contaminated with chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, R.L.

    1990-12-31

    The proliferation of xenobiotic chemicals in the global environment poses living problems for each of us aboard {open_quotes}spaceship earth.{close_quotes} Seven case studies are presented that illustrate the magnitude of the problem that can result from waiting to identify toxic hazards until there have been decades of {open_quotes}human guinea pig{close_quotes} exposure. 25 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Formaldehyde as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most intriguing and crucial problems of the prebiotic evolution and the origin of life is the explanation of the origin of biohomochirality. A scheme of conversions originated by formaldehyde (FA) as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality is proposed. The merit of FA as executor of this function is based -inter alia - on the distinguished role of FA as one of the earliest and simplest molecules in both warm, terrestrial and cold, extraterrestrial scenarios of the origin of life. The confirmation of the role of FA as primer of biohomochirality would support the option of an RNA world as an alternative to the protein world. The suggested hypothesis puts forward for the first time a concrete sequence of chemical reactions which can lead to biohomochirality. The spontaneous breaking of the mirror symmetry is secured by the application of the well-known Frank scheme (combination of autocatalysis and {open_quote}{open_quote}annihilation{close_quote}{close_quote} of L and D enantiomers) to the series of interactions of FA {open_quote}{open_quote}trimers{close_quote}{close_quote} (i.e. C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 3} compounds) of (aaa), (apa) and (app) types, where the monomeric groups (a) means {open_quote}{open_quote}achirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (a=CH{sub n}, n{ge}2 and C=M, M=C,O) and (p) mean {open_quote}{open_quote}prochirons{close_quote}{close_quote} (p=HC{asterisk}OM, M=H,C). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. A high energy physics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  11. 75 FR 8416 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... manner in which the quote of the EP is handled during the Directed Order process. \\4\\ A Directed Order is... assigned to them in the BOX Rules. `Quote Shelving' and `GDO' Upon receipt of a Directed Order an EP must... current NBBO for at least the size of his quote. This guarantee is called the GDO. The EP must...

  12. 76 FR 75582 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Market-Makers' Continuous Quoting Obligations and Adjusted... not be obligated to maintain continuous quotes in adjusted option series and to define the term... quote in adjusted option series if and when the need arises, the proposed rule change adds Rule...

  13. 77 FR 71469 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... executable orders and/or quotes and the bid-ask differential of the NBBO disseminated by Options Price Reporting Authority (``OPRA'') or a Market Maker quote does not exceed the bid-ask differential specified... an option series when there are no executable orders and/or quotes to match up in the OX...

  14. 75 FR 25019 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Change by NYSE Arca, Inc. To Make a Technical Adjustment to Its Rules To Allow Sub-Penny Quoting of... technical adjustment to its rules to allow sub-penny quoting of certain securities priced less than $1.00... Exchange proposes to make a technical adjustment its rules to allow sub-penny quoting of Investment...

  15. 78 FR 17736 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... continuous electronic quotes in an appointed option class on a given trading day. That filing also included a... Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Market-Maker Continuous Quoting Obligations... the implementation date of changes to Market-Makers' continuous quoting obligations. There is...

  16. Reflections for Busy Educators: 180 Affirmations To Help You through the School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lordahl, Jo Ann

    This publication of 180 affirmations offers teachers encouragement and strength for the beginning of each school day as well as help in the search for personal growth. A daily quote is provided, along with an affirmation based on the theme of the quote. The quotes are drawn from a wide variety of sources in philosophy and religion, ethics and…

  17. 76 FR 75575 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... Market-Maker is required to provide electronic quotes in an appointed option class on a given trading day... Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Market-Makers' Continuous Electronic Quoting... indicate that Market- Makers will not be obligated to maintain continuous electronic quotes in...

  18. 78 FR 34691 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Miami International Securities Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... incentive for Market Makers to use quotes and provides the Exchange with means for enforcing use of quotes... additional incentive for Market Makers to use quotes and provides the Exchange with means for enforcing...

  19. 75 FR 10533 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... e-Quotes NYSE Rule 70(a). \\8\\ See Securities Exchange Release No. 59345 (February 3, 2009), 74 FR... proposed in this filing. \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Release No. 34-61233 (December 23, 2009), 74 FR 69169... informational data feed for imbalances by including d-Quotes \\6\\ and all other e-Quotes \\7\\ containing...

  20. Lee Hot Springs power project. First topical report management plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-18

    The Lee Hot Springs Project ({open_quotes}the Project{close_quotes}) will use binary cycle turbine-generators supplied by geothermal hot water to make electricity. Two clusters of three (3) 1,000 kilowatt ({open_quotes}kw{close_quotes}) projects, each cluster comprising a {open_quotes}plant,{close_quotes} will use the pumped output of one geothermal well. The plants will tie into Sierra Pacific Power Company`s ({open_quotes}Sierra`s{open_quotes}) transmission system. The Project objectives are designed to demonstrate that geothermal energy is a non-polluting, non-CO{sub 2} emitting form of generation, which if used in larger increments, will significantly reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses. The Project will also demonstrate the use of modular, {open_quotes}non-grid{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}village{close_quotes} units which can be used throughout the world where geothermal energy is present in remote locations and power is not. The Project was conceived as a 20,000 kw Qualifying Facility, divided into two phases, a 5,000 kw phase one followed by a 15,000 kw phase two. The first phase of the Project now consists of two (2) 3,000 kw plants to generate 6,000 kws.

  1. 76 FR 82024 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... represents a buy order) or at the national best offer (``NBO'') (for an e-Quote that represents a sell order..., a pegging e-Quote to buy will display at the Exchange at $10.05, thus creating a new Exchange best... pegging e-Quote could peg to an NBB or NBO that is locking or crossing an existing Exchange best bid...

  2. The Clean Air Act`s enforcement ace: An overview of EPA`s credible evidence rule

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 Clean Air Act ({open_quotes}CAA{close_quotes}) amendments included numerous provisions directing EPA to require owners or operators to conduct enhanced monitoring and to make compliance certifications. These provisions contained in both those Title V (Operating Permits) and Title VII (Enforcement) of those amendments. Section 503(b)(2) of the amended CAA requires at least annual certifications of compliance with permit requirements and prompt reporting of any deviations from such requirements. Section 114(a)(3) of the CAA requires EPA to promulgate rules on enhanced monitoring and compliance certifications. On October 23, 1993, EPA proposed its {open_quotes}enhanced monitoring{close_quotes} rule. The enhanced monitoring proposal also included the Conceptual approach of using {open_quotes}presumptively credible evidence{close_quotes} in enforcement actions. Further, this proposal also would have allowed the use of {open_quotes}credible evidence,{close_quotes} other than reference or compliance test data to establish noncompliance in an enforcement action. In approximately three weeks, EPA is scheduled to republish as a final rule, the credible evidence provisions of the original enhanced monitoring rule with apparently minor revisions. This paper briefly summarizes the history, status, and likely impact EPA`s {open_quotes}any credible evidence{close_quotes} ({open_quotes}ACE{close_quotes}) rule.

  3. Fissile material smuggling: German politics, hype and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1994-12-01

    The spy novel nightmare scenarios of nuclear smuggling have become reality, and much of the recent news has focused on Germany. But these events must be put in perspective, and a number of apparent {open_quotes}facts{close_quotes} must be examined more carefully. For example, while authorities in Germany have seized weapons-usable material in various incidents that have captured international attention, none of this material is from nuclear weapons or weapons production facilities. Moreover, despite the fact that the number of criminal cases has risen, the quantity of {open_quotes}loose{close_quotes} weapons-usable material is still not significant. Nor are there any indications so far that powerful criminal organizations or buyers from nuclear-ambitious {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} states are involved. Rather, the incidents so far involve individuals or small groups of criminals who found that their {open_quotes}buyers{close_quotes} were, more often than not, German security agents working {open_quotes}sting{close_quotes} operations to trap the smugglers and black marketeers or journalists working on a {open_quotes}big story.{close_quotes}

  4. 78 FR 1906 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Performance Evaluations With Respect to Quote Submissions of Streaming Quote Traders and Remote Streaming... change to amend performance evaluations with respect to Streaming Quote Traders (``SQTs'') and Remote... proposes to amend the performance evaluations with respect to SQTs and RSQTs. Exchange Rule 510 sets...

  5. 76 FR 52032 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... of Proposed Rule Change To Offer a Bulk-Quoting Interface August 15, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b... proposes to introduce a bulk-quoting interface for market makers in order to offer an additional market... provide both a bid and an offer in one message. In addition, the bulk-quoting interface allows...

  6. Can waste management become an issue for the public acceptance of fusion?

    SciTech Connect

    Dworschak, H.; Rocco, P.

    1994-12-31

    Studies on the public perception of risks indicate that: (1) The most feared risks, together with {open_quotes}AIDS{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}crime{close_quotes}, are those related to {open_quotes}nuclear accidents{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}nuclear waste{close_quotes}, which are almost as dreadful as {open_quotes}nuclear war{close_quotes} whereas, {open_quotes}nuclear power production{close_quotes} raises less concern, almost comparable to that of other social risks. (2) Low probability, high consequence risks are those of most concern. Scarce consideration is given by the public to the likelihood of occurrence. The management strategies for fusion waste should be presented taking into account the previous statements. Sensible items are: (1) Planned waste management procedures should be describe in a well detailed fashion, indicating the aim of complying with conservative limits of environmental impact. (2) The build-up of optimistic thoughts on the complete lack of potential hazard in fusion waste as well as the opposite opinion of little or no progress at all by referring to fission waste should be avoided. (3) The hazards related to fission waste should not be over emphasized. It should be stated instead that studies on this waste have produced effective handling and segregation concepts, which are being progressively applied even to conventional waste in order to reduce risks which were not perceived before. This mature and well proven technology will be applied where pertinent to fusion waste too.

  7. 78 FR 35338 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... S&P 500 Index. \\4\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-69511 (May 3, 2013), 78 FR 27271 (May... Makers Quoting in Jumbo SPY Options June 6, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange... Rule 8050 to lower the minimum quoting requirement for Market Makers quoting in Jumbo SPY Options....

  8. Lie{endash}Poisson deformation of the Poincar{acute e} algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, A. |

    1996-04-01

    We find a one-parameter family of quadratic Poisson structures on {bold R}{sup 4}{times}SL(2,{ital C}) which satisfies the properties: (a) that it reduces to the standard Poincar{acute e} algebra for a particular limiting value of the parameter (which we associate with the {open_quote}{open_quote}canonical limit{close_quote}{close_quote}), as well as, (b) that it is preserved under the Lie{endash}Poisson action of the Lorentz group (and the Lie{endash}Poisson transformations reduce to canonical ones in the canonical limit). As with the Poincar{acute e} algebra, our deformed Poincar{acute e} algebra has two Casimir functions which correspond to {open_quote}{open_quote}mass{close_quote}{close_quote} and {open_quote}{open_quote}spin.{close_quote}{close_quote} The constant mass and spin surfaces in {bold R}{sup 4}{times}SL(2,{ital C}) define symplectic leaves which we parametrize with space{endash}time coordinates, momenta, and spin. We thereby obtain realizations of the deformed Poincar{acute e} algebra for both spinning and spinless particles. The formalism can be applied for finding a one-parameter family of canonically inequivalent descriptions of the photon. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. 76 FR 72991 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to a Temporary Quote Risk Monitor Mechanism Rule November 21... adopt Rule 8.12A Pilot Quote Risk Monitor Mechanism. The text of the proposed rule change is available... November 7, 2011, the Exchange filed to adopt a Quote Risk Monitor (QRM) rule.\\5\\ That rule change...

  10. 46 CFR 280.5 - Criteria for determining whether or not civilian preference cargo is carried at a premium rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... demonstrate is reasonably equated to or less, than a rate quoted or actually charged by a foreign-flag carrier... conference or other rate making group that has only U.S. flag carriers as voting members; (2) Quoted by an... member to negotiate or otherwise establish its own rate; or (3) Quoted by a carrier and not published...

  11. 78 FR 69918 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Relating To Amend Rule 53.23 Related to CBSX RMM Quoting... Market-Maker (``RMM'') quoting obligations. The text of the proposed rule change is provided below...-Maker submits a two-sided quote in a security to which it is not appointed, it must fulfill...

  12. 75 FR 78312 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... Proposed Rule Change To Clarify Quote Management Procedures December 9, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1... quote management procedures. The text of the proposed rule change is below. Proposed new language is in... immediately re-adjust and display the Equities Market Maker's quote to the appropriate Designated...

  13. 76 FR 4965 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Proposed Rule Change Adopting Standards for Market Maker Electronic Quotes That Are Present During an... Exchange proposes to adopt standards for Market Maker electronic quotes that are present during an opening... 1. Purpose The purpose of this filing is to adopt rules governing quote widths for Market...

  14. 76 FR 54518 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change Adding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Release No. 61095 (December 2, 2009) 74 FR 64786 (December 8, 2009). Rule 925.1NY discusses the quoting... Commentary .01 to Rule 925.1NY To Indicate That Market Makers Will Not Be Obligated To Quote in Adjusted Option Series and To Clarify an Existing Exception to the Quoting Obligations August 26, 2011....

  15. 7 CFR 27.96 - Quotations in bona fide spot markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Cotton Division will on each business day determine and quote by bale volume the prices or values of base... determined and quoted by bale volume in each such spot market for those qualities normally produced or traded... settlement of futures contracts, the Cotton Division will on each business day determine and quote by...

  16. 75 FR 77034 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Clarify Market Maker Quote Management Procedures December 6, 2010... change to clarify market maker quote management procedures. The text of the proposed rule change is below... immediately re-adjust and display the Market Maker's quote to the appropriate Designated Percentage set...

  17. 75 FR 17981 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... of Proposed Rule Change Relating to Market Maker Quoting Obligations April 1, 2010. Pursuant to... Proposed Rule Change 1. Purpose The purpose of this proposed rule change is to update certain quoting... thereafter make markets such that on a daily basis a Market Maker posts quotes at least eighty percent...

  18. 76 FR 4961 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Proposed Rule Change Adopting Standards for Market Maker Electronic Quotes That Are Present During an... Exchange proposes to adopt standards for Market Maker electronic quotes that are present during an opening... 1. Purpose The purpose of this filing is to adopt rules governing quote widths for Market ]...

  19. 75 FR 74757 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... Participants,\\5\\ Specialists,\\6\\ Streaming Quote Traders (``SQT''),\\7\\ Remote Streaming Quote Traders (``RSQT... which such SQT is assigned. \\8\\ A Remote Streaming Quote Trader is defined Exchange Rule in 1014(b)(ii... (November 5, 2010), 75 FR 69486 (November 12, 2010) (SR-Phlx-2010-150) (a rule change to add the KBW...

  20. 76 FR 72011 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to the Quote Risk Monitor Mechanism November 14, 2011. Pursuant to... Rule 8.12 Quote Risk Monitor Mechanism. The text of the proposed rule change is available on the... Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated (``CBOE'') Rule 8.18 (Quote Risk Monitor Mechanism). \\6\\...

  1. 75 FR 29792 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... (April 16, 2010), 75 FR 20016. The Exchange proposed to update Advice F-6 to reflect language requiring... the regular quote spread parameters that apply at the opening. The language of quote spreads not... inserting this language regarding electronically quoted options into Advice F-6. \\4\\ See Securities...

  2. A bimorph flexural-disk accelerometer for underwater use

    SciTech Connect

    Moffett, M.B.; Powers, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    Design equations, based on Ralph Woollett{close_quote}s 1960 report [{open_quote}{open_quote}The Flexural Disk Transducer,{close_quote}{close_quote} U.S. Navy Underwater Sound Laboratory Research Report No. 490], are presented for a bimorph accelerometer. Figures-of-merit are compared for PZT-4, PZT-5A, PZT-5H, PZT-8 piezoceramics, and PVDF-TrFE copolymer. Neutrally buoyant, spherical and cylindrical accelerometer configurations can be designed to meet bandwidth, sensitivity, and depth requirements. Experimental results for PZT-8 bimorphs indicate that simply-supported edge conditions are easily achievable. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Making manufacturers responsible for recycling: Passing the garbage buck

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, K.; Boerner, C.; Ansehl-Fellow, J.

    1995-09-01

    During a meeting with the Conference of Mayor and the National Association of Counties in April of 1993, Senator Max Baucus, then-Chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, unveiled his solution to America`s {open_quotes}garbage crisis{close_quotes}. Modeled after Germany`s draconian {open_quotes}green dot{close_quotes} recycling program, the Senator`s solution rested on a principle which he called {open_quotes}manufacturers` responsibility for the life-cycle of a product.{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Anyone who sells a product,{close_quotes} Senator Baucus noted, {open_quotes}should also be responsible for the product when it becomes waste{close_quotes}. Other variations on this life-cycle stewardship concept were a central element of Congress`s failed attempts in 1992-1993 to reauthorize the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Likewise, on July 11, 1994 the United States Conference of Mayors` Energy and Environment Committee passed a resolution calling on Congress to study the concept of {open_quotes}shared responsibility for waste reduction{close_quotes}. The committee cited the virtues of Western Europe`s systems of manufacturers` responsibility and claimed that a U.S. version would create jobs, promote new environmental technology and {open_quotes}result in the emergence of entire new industries{close_quotes}. This report describes a recycling program in Germany in which the manaufacturers are responsible for waste collection. The overall waste reduction benefits are described.

  4. City of Austin: Green habitat learning project. A green builder model home project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of the Year 14 UCETF project was to design and construct a residential structure that could serve as a demonstration facility, training site, and testing and monitoring laboratory for issues related to the implementation of sustainable building practices and materials. The Model Home Project builds on the previous and existing efforts, partially funded by the UCETF, of the City of Austin Green Builder Program to incorporate sustainable building practices into mainstream building activities. The Green Builder Program uses the term {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} as a synonym for sustainability. In the research and analysis that was completed for our earlier reports in Years 12 and 13, we characterized specific elements that we associate with sustainability and, thus, green building. In general, we refer to a modified life cycle assessment to ascertain if {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} building options reflect similar positive cyclical patterns found in nature (i.e. recyclability, recycled content, renewable resources, etc.). We additionally consider economic, human health and synergistic ecological impacts associated with our building choices and characterize the best choices as {open_quotes}green.{close_quotes} Our ultimate goal is to identify and use those {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} materials and processes that provide well for us now and do not compromise similar benefits for future generations. The original partnership developed for this project shifted during the year from a project stressing advanced (many prototypical) {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} building materials and techniques in a research and demonstration context, to off-the-shelf but underutilized {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} materials in the practical social context of using {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} technologies for low income housing. That project, discussed in this report, is called the Green Habitat Learning Project.

  5. ITER Building Design (D230-B), Task No. 28. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project requires a set of buildings, each with its own distinct function, to support ITER`s mission. The Joint Central Team (JCT) has identified all the buildings in the set and has placed them in an efficient arrangement on the site. The JCT has developed a conceptual layout of each individual building. The buildings have been categorized into two main groups: (1) {open_quotes}Level 1 Buildings{close_quotes} which are on the construction schedule critical path and (2) {open_quotes}Level 2 Buildings{close_quotes} which, while important, are not on the critical path. The buildings are further categorized according to construction material, that is, {open_quotes}reinforced concrete{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes}. This Report responds to the Project`s request to perform the initial structural steel design for all the {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes} buildings. Of the twelve (12) {open_quotes}steel-frame on concrete slab{close_quotes} buildings, four (4) are Level 1 and eight (8) are Level 2 Buildings. This Report is a deliverable for the ITER Task Assignment entitled {open_quotes}ITER Buildings Design (D230-B){close_quotes}, also designated as Task No. 28. ITER U.S. Home Team Industrial Consortium members, Raytheon Engineers & Constructors (RE&C) and Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC), teamed to perform Task 28. This task commenced in May 1995. It was performed in accordance with the design criteria specified by the ITER-JCT, San Diego Joint Work Site.

  6. Mining landforms - A renewable energy development opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    A {open_quotes}landforming{close_quotes} land development opportunity unique to metals mining is described. {open_quotes}Landforming{close_quotes}, wherein the earth`s surface is reconfigured with mining waste rock and tails for the capture of renewable energy, is proposed by the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) to be ecologically acceptable and, in selected cases, economically superior to conventional mineral extraction, reclamation, and minesite abandonment practices. Landforming is primary land construction that uses mining waste and applies the principles of land overlay architecture. Landforms can be layered, shaped, and configured through the use of binders and plastic sheeting to the engineering specifications necessary for the support of physical structures and passage or retention of fluids. Landforms that are terraced and south facing (in the Northern Hemisphere) are an ideal mount for sun-tracking mirror (heliostat) arrays. In {open_quotes}blue sky{close_quotes}. solar-rich environments, the mirrors can be targeted on a common area to form a {open_quotes}solar furnace.{close_quotes} The heat generated at the focal point of the solar array can be used to flash generate steam and run a turbine electric generator. The solar steam power generation cycle coproducers distilled water that can be sprayed onto the surfaces of the landform to create {open_quotes}greenscape.{close_quotes} Waters not consumed or evaporated in the site greening process percolate into and are stored by the landform if it is underlain with plastic. The landform serves, in effect as a shallow aquifer. The terrace-landform development of mineral properties in remote, infrastructurally destitute areas creates renewable energy, sustainable, electric power-water {open_quotes}oases.{close_quotes} The landform development of mineral properties adjacent to metropolitan areas creates utilities expansions and recreational {open_quotes}greenspace{close_quotes} in areas of growing urban need.

  7. Monitored plutonium aerosols at a soil cleanup site on Johnston Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Fry, C.O.; Johnson, J.S.

    1996-01-23

    Suspended plutonium in air was monitored for four periods near the operation of a stationary sorting system used to {open_quotes}mine{close_quotes} contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll. The monitoring periods were 14 October-14 November 1992, 20 October-15 November 1993, 16 August-3 November 1994, and 17 February-27 February 1995. Pairs of high volume air samplers were located at each of four locations of the process stream: the {open_quotes}spoils pile{close_quotes} that was the feedstock, the {open_quotes}plant area{close_quotes} near the hot soil gate of the sorter, the {open_quotes}clean pile{close_quotes} conveyer area where sorted clean soil was moved, and the {open_quotes}oversize soil{close_quotes} crushing area. These locations were monitored only during the working hours, while air monitoring was also done at an upwind, {open_quotes}background{close_quotes} area 24-hours per day. The median concentrations of Pu in {open_quotes}workplace{close_quotes} air (combined spoils pile, plant area, and clean pile sites) in 1992 was 397 aCi/m{sup 3} (15 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}), but increased to median values of 23000 aCi/m{sup 3} (852 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in August-November 1994 and 29800 aCi/m{sup 3} (1100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3}) in February 1995. The highest median value at the worksites (29800 aCi/m{sup 3}) was more than 200 times lower than the regulatory level. The highest observed value was 84200 aCi/m{sup 3} at the spoils pile site, and this was more than 70 times lower than the regulatory level. The conclusion was that, in spite of the dusty environment, and the increased level of specific activity, we did not find that the soil processing posed any significant risk to workers during the observation periods 1992-1995.

  8. Shelf sheet-sand reservoir of the lower Cretaceous Greensand, North Celtic Sea Basin, offshore Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, R.D. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Core and log data show that the marine, early to middle Albian {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand of the Aptian to lower Cenomanian Greensand-Gault interval, North Celtic Sea Basin, offshore Ireland, was deposited as an approximately tabular sand body in shelf water depths. The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand is the major reservoir interval at Kinsale Head and Ballycotton gas fields. The reservoir sandstone is bioturbated, variably glauconitic, shell rich, and least muddy toward its provenance in a local area of the Irish massif and finer grained southeastward into the basin. Thickness and coarseness of the {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand are related, in part, to distance from a narrow area of the paleoshore. Bathymetric control of sand thickness was superimposed on proximal-distal trends. Specifically, thick intervals are inferred to have been deposited in shelf lows, and thin zones were deposited over bathymetric highs. The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand was not deposited as a ridge sand, and positive relief on the depositional sand body appears to have been minor. Deposition of the Greensand occurred during thermal subsidence of the North Celtic Sea Basin following Early Cretaceous rifting. Overall late Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous transgression was interrupted by progradation of the {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand, probably caused by a relative drop in sea level (forced regression). The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand sheet consists of several units within the central depositional basin. Three slightly coarsening-upward units up to 15 m thick probably are the consequence of high-frequency fluctuations in sea level during progradation. The top of the {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} Sand consists of a several-meter-thick, very glauconitic, muddy sandstone to sandy mudstone. The upper unit accumulated in deepening water following the maximum lowstand.

  9. Diagnosing and curing system freeze-ups: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.

    1996-02-01

    In our last article, we discussed determination and possible causes leading to frozen pipes in the heating system. We now turn to the matter of dealing with such freeze-ups. There are two major categories of frozen heating systems. The first and worst we can label the {open_quotes}Floridian Flew{close_quotes} type, when the usual occupants have taken off for warmer climates. The second is the {open_quotes}Howcudit {open_quote}B{close_quote} virus,{close_quotes} which occurs to normal people under an unusual Arctic Attack right while they are living there. Regarding the first, I never cease to be amazed how folks can just up and leave their house for three days to three months without making proper arrangements for monitoring the temperature of their home during their absence. There are a frightening number of humanoids out there, who either lack a minimal presence of common sense, or who are terrible gamblers. The amazing thing is that some of these folks wouldn`t even gamble a postage stamp on a magazine sweepstakes, but still will gamble the contents of their home by driving off for two weeks at Disneyland in the middle of January without ever making any provision for assuring that their house doesn`t freeze up while they are away. The {open_quotes}Howcudit {open_quote}B{close_quote}{close_quotes} type is not nearly as devasting as the {open_quotes}Floridian Flew.{close_quotes} Imagine coming home to an icy cold house after flying in from the sunny beaches of some tropical paradise. The oilburner switch is on. The thermostate is set at 60 where we left it, but the needle is buried somewhere down behind the cover, like it is cowering from guilt. {open_quotes}Oh Man! I just checked the bathroom; there is an icicle hanging from the vanity faucet and the toilet bowl is a block of ice.{close_quotes}

  10. Cold prebiotic evolution, tunneling, chirality and exobiology

    SciTech Connect

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1996-07-01

    The extra-terrestrial scenario of the origin of life suggested by Svante Arrhenius (1) as the {open_quote}panspermia{close_quote} hypothesis was revived by the discovery of a low-temperature quantum limit of a chemical reaction rate caused by the molecular tunneling (2). Entropy factors play no role near absolute zero, and slow molecular tunneling can lead to the exothermic formation of quite complex molecules. Interstellar grains or particles of cometary tails could serve as possible cold seeds of life, with acetic acid, urea and products of their polycondensation as quasi-equilibrium intermediates. Very cold solid environment hinders racemization and stabilizes optical activity under conditions typical for outer space. Neither {open_quote}advantage{close_quote} factors can secure the evolutionary formation of chiral purity of initial prebiotic monomeric medium{emdash}even being temporary achieved it cannot be maintained at subsequent stages of prebiotic evolution because of counteraction of {open_quote}enantioselective pressure{close_quote}. Only bifurcational mechanism of the formation of prebiotic homochiral{emdash}monomeric and afterwards polymeric{emdash}medium and its subsequent transformation in {open_quote}homochiral chemical automata{close_quote} ({open_quote}biological big bang{close_quote}{emdash}passage from {open_quote}stochastic{close_quote} to {open_quote}algorithmic{close_quote} chemistry) is possible and can be realized. Extra-terrestrial (cold, solid phase) scenarios of the origin of life seem to be more promising from that point of view than terrestrial (warm) scenarios. Within a scheme of five main stages of prebiological evolution some problems important for further investigation are briefly discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Do disk drives dream of buffer cache hits?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, A.

    1994-12-31

    G.E. Moore, in his book Principia Ethica, examines the popular view of ethics that deals with {open_quotes}what we ought to do{close_quotes} as well as using ethics to cover the general inquiry: {open_quotes}what is good?{close_quotes} This paper utilises Moore`s view of Ethics to examine computer systems performance. Moore asserts that {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} in itself is indefinable. It is argued in this report that, although we describe computer systems as good (or bad) a computer system cannot be good in itself, rather a means to good! In terms of {open_quotes}what we ought to do{close_quotes} this paper looks at what actions (would) bring about good computer system performance according to computer science and engineering literature. In particular we look at duties, responsibilities and {open_quotes}to do what is right{close_quotes} in terms of system administration, design and usage. We further argue that in order to first make ethical observations with respect computer system performance and then apply them, requires technical knowledge which is typically limited to industry specialists and experts.

  12. New contact measures for the protein docking problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhof, H.P.

    1997-12-01

    We have developed and implemented a parallel distributed algorithm for the rigid-body protein docking problem. The algorithm is based on a new fitness function for evaluating the surface matching of a given conformation. The fitness function is defined as the weighted sum of two contact measures, the geometric contact measure and the chemical contact measure. The geometric contact measure measures the {open_quotes}size{close_quotes} of the contact area of two molecules. It is a potential function that counts the {open_quotes}van der Waals contacts{close_quotes} between the atoms of the two molecules (the algorithm does not compute the Lennard-Jones potential). The chemical contact measure is also based on the {open_quotes}van der Waals contacts{close_quotes} principle: We consider all atoms pairs that have a {open_quotes}van der Waals{close_quotes} contact, but instead of adding a constant for each pair (a, b), we add a {open_quotes}chemical weight{close_quotes} that depends on the atom pair (a, b). We tested our docking algorithm with a test set that contains the test examples of Norel et al. and Fischer et al. and compared the results of our docking algorithm with the results of Norel et al., Fischer et al. and Meyer et al. In 32 of 35 test examples the best conformation with respect to the fitness function was an approximation of the real conformation. 37 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. An empirical test of the weighted effect approach to generalized prediction using recursive neural nets

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.

    1996-12-31

    The requirement of a strict and fixed distinction between dependent variables and independent variables, together with the presence of missing data, typically imposes considerable problems for most standard statistical prediction procedures. This paper describes a solution of these problems through the {open_quotes}weighted effect{close_quotes} approach in which recursive neural nets are used to learn how to compensate for any main and interaction effects attributable to missing data through the use of an {open_quotes}effect set{close_quotes} in addition to the data of actual cases. Extensive simulations of the approach based on an existing psychological data base showed high predictive validity, and a graceful degradation in performance with an increase in the number of unknown predictor variables. Moreover, the method proved amenable to the use of two-parameter logistic curves to arrive at a three way {open_quotes}low,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}high,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}undecided{close_quotes} decision scheme with a-priori known error rates.

  14. Photosynthesis biomolecular electronics, and renewable fuels production

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-12-31

    The term {open_quotes}biomolecular electronics{close_quotes} evokes two powerful images of 20th century science and technology. First, the {open_quotes}bio{close_quotes} prefix of {open_quotes}molecular{close_quotes} explicitly acknowledges the molecular basis and understanding of living state systems. It is this understanding that forms the foundation of molecular biology, immunology, and genetic engineering. Second, {open_quotes}electronics{close_quotes} in the context of technology is understood to be that of electronic devices, starting from vacuum tubes and progressing through transistors, integrated circuits, and the semiconductor electronics industry comprising communications and consumer electronics, as examples. The conflation of these two terms into {open_quotes}biomolecular electronics{close_quotes} implies a radical concept: the construction of practical electronic devices from biomolecular components. This presentation will focus on an understanding and interpretation of the molecular architecture of the photosynthetic membrane and its potential application for the construction of optoelectronic devices and the production of renewable hydrogen via photosynthetic water splitting. Recent advances on direct electrical contact of the electron transport chain of photosynthesis with metallocatalysts as well as the discovery of new photoreactions in mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii will be discussed.

  15. Engineering change in global climate

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.H.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}With increased public focus on global warming and in the wake of the intense heat waves, drought, fires, and super-hurricanes that occurred in 1988 and 1989, interest in geoengineering has surged,{close_quotes} says Stephen H. Schneider, professor of biological science at Stanford University in Stanford, California. One scheme set forth in a National Research Council report proposes using 16-inch naval guns to fire aerosol shells into the stratosphere in hopes of offsetting {open_quotes}the radiative effects of increasing carbon dioxide,{close_quotes} Schneider says. Schneider, however, would prefer that we {open_quotes}seek measures that can cure our global {open_quote}addiction{close_quote} to polluting practices.{close_quotes} Rather than playing God, he says we should {open_quotes}stick to being human and pursue problem - solving methods currently within our grasp.{close_quotes} Such strategies include efforts to promote energy efficiency and reduce our reliance on automobiles.

  16. Essay in the theory of uncontrolled flows and congestion

    SciTech Connect

    Iri, M.

    1994-12-31

    A new type of network flow theory is proposed, where only those flows which are representable as a positive sum of elementary-path (or elementary-cycle) flows are considered and no cancellation of flows in an edge is admitted when two or more flows are superposed. It offers a general framework in which to discuss about congestion, blocking flows, etc. in a network. We will call the flows in this framework {open_quotes}uncontrollable flows{close_quotes} because they possess some basic properties of the flows which selfish and stubborn users, or users in emergency situations, generate in a network. Primarily, this is not a mathematics paper but one to introduce a new viewpoint from which to give another look at network flow problems. However, a number of interesting mathematical problems naturally arise in so doing: e.g., {open_quotes}Is a given flow uncontrollable{close_quotes}?, {open_quotes}How to determine a blocking flow or a bottleneck cut{close_quotes}?, {open_quotes}Can we design a network in which no congestion may occur{close_quotes}?, {open_quotes}Under what conditions does additional investment on a network improve its function in this framework{close_quotes}?, etc. What kind of practical problems will be the dual of the concept of uncontrollable flows will also be discussed.

  17. Applicable Railroad Commission rules regarding notification, cleanup, and follow up reporting of inland crude spills

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, G.M.

    1996-08-01

    There are a myriad of regulations, both federal, state, and local dealing with spill notification cleanup, and follow up reporting. This paper describes the applicable Railroad Commission (RRC) Oil and Gas Division Rules and Regulations requiring notification, cleanup, and follow up reporting of inland crude oil spills in the state of Texas. Statewide Rule (SWR) titled {open_quotes}water protection{close_quotes} requires that {open_quotes}no person conducting activities subject to the regulation of RRC may cause or allow pollution of the surface or subsurface water in the state{close_quotes}. SWR 20 titled {open_quotes}notification of fire, breaks, leaks, or blowouts{close_quotes}, requires immediate notice of a fire, leak, spill, or break from production facilities to the appropriate district office and follow up written reporting. SWR 71 titled {open_quotes}Pipeline Tariffs{close_quotes} requires pipeline companies to give immediate notice of spills and fires to the appropriate district office along with follow up reports. SWR 91 titled {open_quotes}Cleanup of soil contaminated by a crude oil spill{close_quotes} requires notification, cleanup, and follow up reporting requirements for crude oil spills.

  18. Segregation analysis of Alzheimer pedigrees: Rare Mendelian dominant mutation(s) explain a minority of early-onset cases

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Campion, D.; Babron, M.C.; Darpoux, F.C.

    1996-02-16

    Segregation analysis of Alzheimer disease (AD) in 92 families ascertained through early-onset ({le}age 60 years) AD (EOAD) probands has been carried out, allowing for a mixture in AD inheritance among probands. The goal was to quantify the proportion of probands that could be explained by autosomal inheritance of a rare disease allele {open_quotes}a{close_quotes} at a Mendelian dominant gene (MDG). Our data provide strong evidence for a mixture of two distributions; AD transmission is fully explained by MDG inheritance in <20% of probands. Male and female age-of-onset distributions are significantly different for {open_quotes}AA{close_quote} but not for {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects. For {open_quotes}aA{close_quote} subjects the estimated penetrance value was close to 1 by age 60. For {open_quotes}AA{close_quotes} subjects, it reaches, by age 90, 10% (males) and 30% (females). We show a clear cutoff in the posterior probability of being an MDG case. 10 refs., 1 tab.

  19. How to swallow an elephant

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, K.B.

    1995-03-01

    There is an old East Indian fable of a young man who went to see a wise man. The young man had a question - {open_quotes}How can I become rich and powerful?{close_quotes} The wise man paused for a moment then asked a question in return - {open_quotes}How can you swallow an elephant?{close_quotes} The young man was astounded, {open_quotes}There is no way a man can swallow an elephant!{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Yes, there is,{close_quotes} replied the wise man, {open_quotes}You just have to do it one bite at a time.{close_quotes} Many large problems can only be handled the same way that an elephant is swallowed, one bite at a time. Global warming and other environmental problems are obviously of elephant-swallowing scale. Some have set a goal for our society of reducing atmospheric greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), by 20%. The cost to accomplish this has been estimated to be about five trillion dollars! As big as this elephant is, I suspect that its size is understated, if all the factors involved are included. The proponents of the plan tell us that it is well worth the cost to save the world. Therein lies another elephant-style problem.

  20. Set theory and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  1. Effects of pressure and temperature on gate valve unwedging

    SciTech Connect

    Damerell, P.S.; Harrison, D.H.; Hayes, P.W.; Simons, J.W.; Walker, T.A.

    1996-12-01

    The stem thrust required to unwedge a gate valve is influenced by the pressure and temperature when the valve is closed and by the changes in these conditions between closure and opening. {open_quotes}Pressure locking{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}thermal binding{close_quotes} refer to situations where pressure and temperature effects cause the unwedging load to be much higher than normal. A model of these phenomena has been developed. Wedging (closure) is modeled as developing an {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes} between the disk and its seat rings in the valve. The effects of pressure and temperature are analyzed to determine the change in this disk-to-seat {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes}. Flexibilities, of the disk, body, stem and yoke strongly influence the unwedging thrust. Calculations and limited comparisons to data have been performed for a range of valve designs and scenarios. Pressure changes can increase the unwedging load when there is either a uniform pressure decrease, or a situation where the bonnet pressure exceeds the pressures in the adjacent piping. Temperature changes can increase the unwedging load when: (1) valve closure at elevated system temperature produces a delayed stem expansion, (2) a temperature increase after closure produces a bonnet pressure increase, or (3) a temperature change after closure produces an increase in the disk-to-seat {open_quotes}interference{close_quotes} or disk-to-seat friction.

  2. Enhancement of computer program SPECTRAN to provide optional synthesis of 1/12 octave-band and critical-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Young-Soo; Liebich, R.E.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes greatly enhanced version of the computer program SPECTRAN, which was initially presented in Paper No. 96-RA104.01, at the A&WMA 89th Annual Meeting in June 1996. The program has had three basic upgrades since that time. The first is provision of an option to use either batch-mode input from previously prepared data files or a {open_quotes}user-friendly{close_quotes} interactive input routine. The latter is primarily for first-time users and those having only one, or very few, spectra to process. The second improvement is the synthesis of 1/12 octave-band spectra from 1/3 octave-band spectra, with {open_quotes}tone correction,{close_quotes} in a manner similar to that used in the original version of the program. The third fundamental improvement is addition of a unique new capability to synthesize classic {open_quotes}critical-band{close_quotes} spectra from 1/3 octave-band input spectra. Critical-band spectra are also termed {open_quotes}equivalent-rectangular-bandwidth (ERB){close_quotes} and {open_quotes}equal-contribution-to-speech (ECS){close_quotes} spectra.

  3. Compilation for critically constrained knowledge bases

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, R.

    1996-12-31

    We show that many {open_quotes}critically constrained{close_quotes} Random 3SAT knowledge bases (KBs) can be compiled into disjunctive normal form easily by using a variant of the {open_quotes}Davis-Putnam{close_quotes} proof procedure. From these compiled KBs we can answer all queries about entailment of conjunctive normal formulas, also easily - compared to a {open_quotes}brute-force{close_quotes} approach to approximate knowledge compilation into unit clauses for the same KBs. We exploit this fact to develop an aggressive hybrid approach which attempts to compile a KB exactly until a given resource limit is reached, then falls back to approximate compilation into unit clauses. The resulting approach handles all of the critically constrained Random 3SAT KBs with average savings of an order of magnitude over the brute-force approach.

  4. HUNTER-GATHERER: Three search techniques integrated for natural language semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.; Nirenburg, S.; Mahesh, K.

    1996-12-31

    This work integrates three related Al search techniques - constraint satisfaction, branch-and-bound and solution synthesis - and applies the result to semantic processing in natural language (NL). We summarize the approach as {open_quote}Hunter-Gatherer:{close_quotes} (1) branch-and-bound and constraint satisfaction allow us to {open_quote}hunt down{close_quotes} non-optimal and impossible solutions and prune them from the search space. (2) solution synthesis methods then {open_quote}gather{close_quotes} all optimal solutions avoiding exponential complexity. Each of the three techniques is briefly described, as well as their extensions and combinations used in our system. We focus on the combination of solution synthesis and branch-and-bound methods which has enabled near-linear-time processing in our applications. Finally, we illustrate how the use of our technique in a large-scale MT project allowed a drastic reduction in search space.

  5. Disappearance of extrusion instabilities in brass capillary dies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanta, V.G.; Riise, B.L.; Denn, M.M. |

    1999-03-01

    We have extruded a linear low-density polyethylene through capillary dies fabricated from stainless steel and brass. We confirm a result first reported by Ramamurthy [Ramamurthy, A. V., {open_quotes}Wall Slip in Viscous Fluids and Influence of Materials of Construction,{close_quotes} J. Rheol. {bold 30}, 337{endash}357 (1986)]: sharkskin can be eliminated by the use of a brass die. We also find a substantially enhanced throughput from the brass die relative to the stainless-steel die at stresses in the range where sharkskin is observed with the latter. Finally, the large pressure oscillations and periodic extrudate distortions observed in the {open_quotes}slip{endash}stick{close_quotes} region with stainless steel are absent with brass, where the transition to the {open_quotes}upper branch{close_quotes} of the flow curve is more gradual. {copyright} {ital 1999 Society of Rheology.}

  6. Use of SSH on a compartmented mode workstation

    SciTech Connect

    Tolliver, J.S.; Dillow, D.

    1997-08-01

    SSH stands for {open_quotes}Secure Shell.{close_quotes} It is now a user shell like csh or ksh. Instead it is a widely-used means to accomplish secure, encrypted communication among cooperating nodes. It is a secure replacement for the {open_quotes}r-commands{close_quotes}, rlogin, and rcp. SSH is free for noncommercial use and builds and runs on most any Unix platform. A Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) is an example of a secure or {open_quotes}trusted{close_quotes} operating system. The use of SSH on a CMW introduces security problems unless the SSH source code is modified to take advantage of the security features of the CMW. This paper describes the port and use of SSH on one particular brand of CMW.

  7. Selection criteria for adding management units to the SAMAB regional biosphere reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, L.K.; Martin, G.; Abrell, J.; Meriwether, D. )

    1994-06-01

    The SAMAB (Southern Appalachian Man and the Biosphere) regional biosphere reserve initially consisted of three land management units in the southern Appalachians (Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory's National Environmental Research Park). Traditional biosphere reserves in UNESCOs Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program have been defined by [open quote]core[close quote], [open quote]buffer[close quote], and [open quote]transition[close quote] zones. These concepts are difficult to apply to regional biosphere reserves. Therefore, selection criteria for incorporating additional land management units into SAMAB were developed which recognize 4 components of the regional reserve: biosphere reserve (core) units, varied and harmonious landscapes, modified landscapes, and the zone of cooperation. Selection criteria define ecological, political, logistic, and educational requirements for inclusion. The Tennessee River Gorge Trust is currently under evaluation for inclusion in SAMAB.

  8. The Solar Flare Myth in solar-terrestrial physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1993-07-01

    Early observations of associations between solar flares and large non- recurrent geomagnetic storms, large {open_quote}solar{close_quote} energetic particle events, and transient shock wave disturbances in the solar wind led to a paradigm of cause and effect that gave flares a central position in the chain of events leading from solar activity to major transient disturbances in the near-earth space environment. However, research in the last two decades shows that this emphasis on flares is misplaced. In this paper the author outlines briefly the rationale for a different paradigm of cause and effect in solar- terrestrial physics that removes solar flares from their central position as the {open_quote}cause{close_quote} of major disturbances in the near-earth space environment. Instead, this central role of {open_quote}cause{close_quote} is played by events now known as coronal mass ejections, or CMEs.

  9. Study, outlines why outages go long, short, or on-time

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    A recent report by a nuclear industry professional, based on a survey of outage managers at US nuclear power plants, declares that [open quotes]preplanned outage schedules appear to be grossly inaccurate, and the outage management planners and schedulers do not have a grasp of the requirements and/or the resources needed to complete the actual activities on schedule.[close quotes] It declares that [open quotes]the scheduled duration of a planned outage must be realistic.[close quotes] The study identifies personnel, planning and scheduling, and equipment/hardware as [open quotes]the primary reasons why refueling outages and outage activities finished ahead of, right on, or behind schedule.[close quotes

  10. Application of break preclusion concept in German nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, E.; Maier, V.; Nagel, G.

    1997-04-01

    The break preclusion concept is based on {open_quotes}KTA rules{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}RSK guidelines{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Rahmenspeziflkation Basissicherheit{close_quotes}. These fundamental rules containing for example requirements on material, design, calculation, manufacturing and testing procedures are explained and the technical realisation is shown by means of examples. The proof of the quality of these piping systems can be executed by means of fracture mechanics calculations by showing that in every case the leakage monitoring system already detect cracks which are clearly smaller than the critical crack. Thus the leak before break behavior and the break preclusion concept is implicitly affirmed. In order to further diminish conservativities in the fracture mechanics procedures, specific research projects are executed which are explained in this contribution.

  11. Enhanced monitoring protocol guidelines for IC engine parameter based compliance monitoring systems. Final report - addendum I

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This document presents the test plan for testing reciprocating IC engines at natural gas transmission facilities. The testing effort consists of a combination of two industry funded research programs: (1) The Pipeline Research Committee (PRC)/Gas Research Institute (GRI) co-funded program entitled {open_quotes}Development of EMP Guidelines for IC Engine Parameter Monitoring Systems{close_quotes} managed by SECOR International Incorporated; and (2) The Gas Research Institute sponsored program entitled {open_quotes}Measurement of Air Toxics in Engine Exhaust{close_quotes} managed by Radian Corporation. Although these programs have different objectives, as detailed following, the programs share the need for rigorously conducted field testing of IC engines; often referred to as engine {open_quotes}mapping{close_quotes}. Additionally, these programs compete for limited and qualified resources, hence the need and decision to cooperate in the field testing phase of each program.

  12. Measurement accuracy, bit-strings, Manthey`s quaternions, and RRQM

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1995-02-01

    The author continues the discussion started last year. By now three potentially divergent research programs have surfaced in ANPA: (1) the Bastin-Kilmister understanding of the combinatorial hierarchy (Clive`s {open_quotes}Menshevik{close_quotes} position); (2) the author`s bit-string {open_quotes}Theory of Everything{close_quotes} (which Clive has dubbed {open_quotes}Bolshevik{close_quotes}); (3) Manthey`s cycle hierarchy based on co-occurrence and mutual exclusion that Clive helped him map onto quaternions (as an yet unnamed heresy?). Unless a common objective can be found, these three points of view will continue to diverge. The authors suggests the reconstruction of relativistic quantum mechanism (RRQM) as a reasonable, and attainable, goal that might aid convergence rather than divergence.

  13. Challenge problems for artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, B.; Brooks, R.A.; Dean, T.

    1996-12-31

    AI textbooks and papers of ten discuss the big questions, such as {open_quotes}how to reason with uncertainty{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}how to reason efficiently{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}how to improve performance through learning.{close_quotes} It is more difficult, however, to find descriptions of concrete problems or challenges that are still ambitious and interesting, yet not so open-ended. The goal of this panel is to formulate a set of such challenge problems for the field. Each panelist was asked to formulate one or more challenges. The emphasis is on problems for which there is a good chance that they will be resolved within the next five to ten years.

  14. Refinery suppliers face tough times

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.; Walsh, K.

    1997-03-12

    Despite a handful of bright spots in hydroprocessing and petrochemical sectors, economic woes plague much of the refinery and petrochemical catalysts business, as suppliers are feeling the impact of mature markets and refiners` ongoing cost cutting. Industry experts say the doldrums could spur further restructuring in the catalyst business, with suppliers scrambling for market share and jockeying for position in growing sectors. Expect further consolidation over the next several years, says Pierre Bonnifay, president of IFP Enterprises (New York). {open_quotes}There are still too many players for the mature [refinery catalyst] markets.{close_quotes} Others agree. {open_quotes}Only about seven [or] eight major suppliers will survive,{close_quotes} says Robert Allsmiller, v.p./refinery and petrochemical catalysts at United Catalysts Inc. (UCI; Louisville, KY). {open_quotes}Who they [will be] is still up in the air.{close_quotes}

  15. Ethanol mandate thrown out by appeals court

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1995-05-10

    In a victory for the oil industry, a federal appeals court has overturned EPA`s mandate for ethanol use in reformulated gasoline (REG), saying the agency lacks authority to require 30% of the oxygenate market be reserved for ethanol. EPA says the ruling does not prevent ethanols use in RFG - {open_quotes}It only says that EPA cannot dictate the recipe.{close_quotes} Charles DiBona, president of the American Petroleum Institute (API), says {open_quotes}API and its member companies are not opposed to the use of ethanol as an oxygenate. We oppose this illegal mandate.{close_quotes} Urvan Sternfels, president of the National Petroleum Refiners Association, says, {open_quotes}Mandating market shares for any product is unsound economic policy.{close_quotes} The two trade groups led the legal battle against the ethanol requirement.

  16. Scenarios of energy demand and efficiency potential for Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Tzvetanov, P.; Ruicheva, M.; Denisiev, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents aggregated results on macroeconomic and final energy demand scenarios developed within the Bulgarian Country Study on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Mitigation, supported by US Country Studies Program. The studies in this area cover 5 main stages: (1) {open_quotes}Baseline{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Energy Efficiency{close_quotes} socioeconomic and energy policy philosophy; (2) Modeling of macroeconomic and sectoral development till 2020; (3) Expert assessments on the technological options for energy efficiency increase and GHG mitigation in the Production, Transport and Households and Services Sectors; (4) Bottom-up modeling of final energy demand; and (5) Sectoral and overall energy efficiency potential and policy. Within the Bulgarian Country Study, the presented results have served as a basis for the final integration stage {open_quotes}Assessment of the Mitigation Policy and Measures in the Energy System of Bulgaria{close_quotes}.

  17. Climate change history stored in Greenland ice

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, B.

    1996-12-31

    Core samples drilled deep inside polar ice caps may reveal important clues about the future in an era of global warming. Ice caps are {open_quotes}excellent archives that allow us to document gradual shifts in climate that have occurred over the past millennia,{close_quotes} says Bernhard Stauffer, a researcher at the University of Bern`s Physics Institute in Switzerland. Samples taken deep beneath the surface of the ice cap {open_quotes}allow scientists to reconstruct changes not only in global climate, including temperature and precipitation, but also in atmospheric composition,{close_quotes} Stauffer says. Abrupt, not gradual, temperatures increases were found to correspond to an increase in greenhouse gases. What do these findings bode for the future? {open_quotes}Our exploration of the ice cores has suggested...that global climatic variation can occur in a fraction of a human lifetime,{close_quotes} Stauffer concludes.

  18. Whatever happened to the 60 Hertz power?

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, R.M.

    1996-05-01

    We have all become used to 60 Hertz electrical power - in fact that is what we have expected at the electrical outlet ever since the DC days of George Westinghouse and others in the early part of the 20th Century, We knew that 60 Hertz was generated and transmitted by the power supplier, and we knew that our load devices, when {open_quotes}plugged-in{close_quotes} would accept that frequency when we turned on the switch. The surprise for most of us is that this happy {open_quotes}marriage{close_quotes} of 60 Hertz supply and 60 Hertz load just does not exist much anymore and the prospect for the future is an ever increasing {open_quotes}multiple-frequency{close_quotes} demand by the new sensitive loads. These multiple frequencies, in addition to 60 Hertz, are what we call Harmonics; and, their presence introduces both current and voltage interactions which can disturb our power systems.

  19. Crystal growth of a layered silicate clay mineral as revealed by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K.A.; Song, Kang; Zajac, G.W.

    1997-12-31

    Non-contact atomic force microscopy, commonly referred to as {open_quotes}tapping mode{close_quotes} AFM, has been used to scan primarily the morphological features of growing hectorite clay crystallites synthesized in the presence of organo-ammonium cations. The use of such cations allows larger crystals to form in this system, making study by AFM feasible. This is the first time that actual temporal {open_quotes}snapshots{close_quotes} of a clay`s nucleation and crystallization processes have been presented. The observed view does not support the perhaps predicted scene of small crystallites slowly ripening into larger and larger plates. Instead, larger and larger aggregates appear to coalesce from a larger number of small crystallites that are closely associated in globular networks similar in appearance to {open_quotes}strings of pearls{close_quotes} at the initial stages of crystallization.

  20. Use of sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorocarbon tracers in plutonium storage containers for leak detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, J.K.

    1998-05-01

    This study involves an investigation of the feasibility of a tracer-based leak detection system for long-term interim plutonium storage. In particular, a protocol has been developed based on the use of inert tracers with varying concentrations in order to {open_quotes}fingerprint{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}tag{close_quotes} specific containers. A particular combination of tracers at specific ratios could be injected into the free volume of each container, allowing for the detection of leaks as well as determination of the location of leaking containers. Based on plutonium storage considerations, sulfur hexafluoride and four perfluorocarbon tracers were selected and should allow a wide range of viable fingerprinting combinations. A {open_quotes}high-low{close_quotes} protocol which uses two distinct chromatographic peak areas or concentration levels, is recommended. Combinations of air exchange rates, detection durations, and detectability limits are examined in order to predict minimum tracer concentrations required for injection in storage containers.

  1. The small-strain moduli of tetrafunctional networks of vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane chains

    SciTech Connect

    Sharaf, M.A.; Alshamsi, A.S.; Mark, J.E.

    1993-12-31

    Model polydimethylsiloxane networks were prepared by crosslinking vinyl terminated chains with employing hydrosilylation reactions at low temperature. At low temperatures, significant side reactions were found be absent, thereby leading to networks with well defined stoichiometries. These networks were study with regard to their stress-strain isotherms in elongation. The results can be best explained on premises of the more recent molecular theory of Flory and Erman, within limits set by inaccuracies in the determination of the sol fraction and so the structural parameters of the network. Also, the nonquivalence of the {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} number of chains {nu}{sub eff} relevant to theory and the commonly used {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} relevant to theory and the commonly used {open_quotes}active{close_quotes} number of chains {nu}{sub a} is emphasized.

  2. Restructuring targets global electrical grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.

    1997-12-31

    In the United Kingdom, restructuring has failed to produce substantial savings for the private customer. {open_quotes}The reality is that most of the benefits produced by the new competitive system have accrued to producers, not consumers,{close_quotes} says Edward Kahn, vice-president for National Economic Research Associates Inc., in San Francisco. But structural and historical differences are too great to allow the United States to adopt another country`s strategies. For instance, Kahn notes, {open_quotes}Outside the United States, utilities typically are publicly owned; inside the United States, utilities historically have been privately owned and heavily regulated{close_quotes}. In Australia, which most nearly compares with the United States in terms of geography and distribution of power lines, competitive practices have allowed utilities to cut employment rolls. {open_quotes}That`s one of the most effective ways to cut costs in a competitive environment,{close_quotes} Kahn says.

  3. Curbing emissions: Pressures, problems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.O.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Countries with growing populations...would have to implement more rigorous - some might say onerous - programs to control emissions than countries without growing populations,{close_quotes} says Russell O. Jones, an economist at the American Petroleum Institute in Washington, D.C. Theoretically, there are two approaches to achieving reductions in greenhouse gases: to introduce energy-saving technologies or to impose heavy taxes on coal, oil, and natural gas. {open_quotes}It appears that aggressive policies aimed at significantly reducing carbon-dioxide emissions in the short term will cost much more than they save,{close_quotes} Russell says. Moreover, it is not yet clear exactly what policies will prove most effective, Russell says. For all these reasons, he urges that developed countries avoid repeating {open_quotes}the costly efforts of the past, which have drained our economics without appreciably benefiting our environment.{close_quotes}

  4. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review for Rigid Foam

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    Rigid Foam is a chemical delay foam used to completely encapsulate an object or to block access to an area. Prior studies have indicated that the final foam product is essentially non-toxic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and summarize the current chemical and toxicological data available on the components of Rigid Foam and to update the information available on the toxicity of the final Rigid Foam product. Since the possibility exists for a partial deployment of Rigid Foam where only one of the components is released, this study also examined the toxicity of its chemical constituents. Rigid Foam is composed of an {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} Component. The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} component is primarily a polymeric isocyanate and the {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} component is a mixture of polyols. In addition to the primary constituents, dichlorodifluoromethane and trichlorofluoromethane are present as blowing agents along with catalysts and silicone surfactants necessary for foaming. The pre-deployed {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}B{close_quotes} components are stored in separate vessels and are brought together in static mixing nozzles for dispersal. The results of this evaluation indicate that a completely deployed Rigid Foam under normal conditions is essentially non-toxic as determined previously. However, in the event of a partial deployment or deployment of an individual component directly at an unprotected individual, the degree of hazard is increased due to the toxic and corrosive nature of the individual constituents. The health hazard would depend on the properties of the material to which the person was exposed.

  5. The science applications of the high-energy density plasmas created on the Nova laser

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.D.

    1996-05-01

    Since the late 1970s it has been realized that the laser-heated hohlraums envisioned for indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) could also serve as {open_quote}{open_quote}physics factories{close_quote}{close_quote} by providing a high-energy density environment for the study of a wide variety of physics with important applications. In this review we will describe some of these studies, accomplished in the early 1990s using the Nova laser [J. T. Hunt and D. R. Speck, Opt. Eng. {bold 28}, 461 (1989)] at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. They include measuring the opacity of Fe, thus confirming that the OPAL low {ital Z} opacity code [C. A. Iglesias and F. J. Rogers, Astrophys. J. {bold 443}, 460 (1995)] is quantitatively more accurate than {open_quote}{open_quote}standard{close_quote}{close_quote} models, with important astrophysical implications such as modeling the Cepheid variables [F. J. Rogers and C. A. Iglesias, Science {bold 263}, 50 (1994)]; measuring the Rosseland mean opacity of Au, confirming the correctness of the {open_quote}{open_quote}Super Transition Array{close_quote}{close_quote} (STA) high-{ital Z} code [Bar Shalom {ital et} {ital al}., Phys. Rev. A {bold 40}, 3183 (1989)] with important implications for ignition targets designed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF); sophisticated Rayleigh{endash}Taylor and other hydrodynamic turbulence experiments and analysis that serve as a test bed for understanding astrophysical observations such as supernova explosions; using laboratory x-ray lasers for probing high-density ICF plasmas as well as biology; and creating near Gbar pressures [Cauble {ital et} {ital al}. Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 70}, 2102 (1993)]. Expanded opportunities for such research on the NIF will also be described. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Splitting a default theory

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents mathematical results that can sometimes be used to simplify the task of reasoning about a default theory, by {open_quotes}splitting it into parts.{close_quotes} These so-called Splitting Theorems for default logic are related in spirit to {open_quotes}partial evaluation{close_quotes} in logic programming, in which results obtained from one part of a program are used to simplify the remainder of the program. In this paper we focus primarily on the statement and proof of the Splitting Theorems for default logic. We illustrate the usefulness of the results by applying them to an example default theory for commonsense reasoning about action.

  7. Hidden but important parameters in Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.R.; Olson, J.M.; Bertness, K.A.

    1996-05-01

    Despite their best intentions, authors often omit from publications many important technical details. These omissions can lead to contradictions in the literature and inhibit {open_quotes}researchers{close_quotes} abilities to duplicate published results. Here, the authors explore {open_quote}hidden{close_quote} parameters that are usually not reported, either because they are unknown (e.g., impurity levels) or because they are considered to be of little importance. Specifically the authors focus on the effects - and how to reduce the effects - of growth parameters in nearby layers (diffusion), impurities (oxygen), and the cooldown atmosphere (hydrogen passivation).

  8. Filled skutterudite antimonides: Validation of the electron-crystal phonon-glass approach to new thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mandrus, D.; Sales, B.C.; Keppens, V.

    1997-04-01

    After a brief review of the transport and thermoelectric properties of filled skutterudite antimonides, the authors present resonant ultrasound, specific heat, and inelastic neutron scattering results that establish the existence of two low-energy vibrational modes in the filled skutterudite LaFe{sub 3}CoSb{sub 12}. It is likely that at least one of these modes represents the localized, incoherent vibrations of the La ion in an oversized atomic {open_quotes}cage{close_quotes}. These results support the usefulness of weakly bound, {open_quotes}rattling{close_quotes} ions for the improvement of thermoelectric performance.

  9. Counter guarantee options

    SciTech Connect

    Gunguli, B.

    1995-07-01

    In November 1994, the Government of India announced a set of guidelines which independent power producers (IPPs) would have to follow if they were to receive counter guarantees for their power projects. It simultaneously announced that no further counter guarantees would be given apart from the first eight projects (See {open_quotes}India`s Fast-Track Projects{close_quotes}) where they had already been promised. {open_quotes}No other project, beyond the first eight, will be given a counter guarantee under any circumstance,{close_quotes} says P. Abraham, special secretary in the Ministry of Power.

  10. Forensic analysis of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, N.J.; Moody, K.J.

    1996-10-01

    As more and more offers for illicit {open_quotes}Black Market{close_quotes} radioactive materials are found, the forensic information contained within the radioactive material itself becomes more important. Many {open_quotes}Black Market{close_quotes} offers are for uranium in various forms and enrichments. Although most are scams, some countries have actually interdicted enriched uranium. We will discuss the forensic information that can be obtained from materials containing uranium along with examples of data that has been determined from analysis of uranium samples obtained from legitimate sources.

  11. Studies in combustion dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Koszykowski, M.L.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop a fundamental understanding and a quantitative predictive capability in combustion modeling. A large part of the understanding of the chemistry of combustion processes comes from {open_quotes}chemical kinetic modeling.{close_quotes} However, successful modeling is not an isolated activity. It necessarily involves the integration of methods and results from several diverse disciplines and activities including theoretical chemistry, elementary reaction kinetics, fluid mechanics and computational science. Recently the authors have developed and utilized new tools for parallel processing to implement the first numerical model of a turbulent diffusion flame including a {open_quotes}full{close_quotes} chemical mechanism.

  12. Oil Heat Manufacturers Association (OMA) - update

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, R.

    1996-07-01

    Our industry must undergo a major paradigm shift if we are to prosper. We must change our {open_quotes}Fix it when it breaks{close_quotes} mind set to {open_quotes}Fix it so it won`t break.{close_quotes} Our main focus must be to improve Oilheat reliability. We have entered the era of the 100,000 mile tune-up. Meeting this challenge will require the best efforts of everyone in the industry from researchers, scientists, and engineers to manufacturers, dealers, sales people, installers, and service technicians.

  13. Fundamental threshold of chaos in some nonlinear oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, V.B.

    1996-06-01

    A technique for predicting chaos arising in a broad class of nonlinear oscillatory systems is proposed. It is based on the notion of running Lyapunov exponents and uses the local stability properties of trajectories for determining the {open_quote}{open_quote}safe{close_quote}{close_quote} areas in the phase space where any trajectory is regular and stable in the sense of Lyapunov. The combination of this approach with harmonic balance method permits to obtain the corresponding {open_quote}{open_quote}safe{close_quote}{close_quote} regions in the control parameter space. The borders of these regions may be considered as threshold lines delimiting the areas of possible chaotic instability. An example of the two-well Duffing oscillator demonstrates good agreement between theoretically predicted values of control parameters where chaos arises with those obtained numerically. The technique is especially effective for rather high dissipation levels when other known methods such as Melnikov{close_quote}s criterion or combination of harmonic balance with analysis of variational equations fail to provide correct results. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. General regularities of explosion initiation in determining impact and friction sensitivity of an explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrikov, B.N.

    1995-09-01

    The impact and friction sensitivities of explosives were measured by 12 methods used in Russia and abroad. Correlations between explosion frequency on devices No. 1 and No. 2 with a {open_quotes}lower sensitivity limit{open_quotes} according to Russian standard 4545-88 and {open_quotes}critical clamping pressure{close_quotes} for the I-6-2 device are obtained. Almost all results are well correlated with critical stress p{sub 1} thus representing a good base for explanation of experimental results for impact and friction. The values we obtained determining friction sensitivity are often proportional to p{sub 1}. The regularities obtained are explained.

  15. New FORTRAN computer programs to acquire and process isotopic mass spectrometric data: Operator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.

    1993-09-01

    This TM is one of a pair that describes ORNL-developed software for acquisition and processing of isotope ratio mass spectral data. This TM is directed at the laboratory analyst. No technical knowledge of the programs and programming is required. It describes how to create and edit files, how to acquire and process data, and how to set up files to obtain the desired results. The aim of this TM is to serve as a utilitarian instruction manual, a {open_quotes}how to{close_quotes} approach rather than a {open_quotes}why?{close_quotes}

  16. The use of the information highway to explore climate variability with the Global Climate Perspectives System (GCPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.B.; Brinegar, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Current concerns over global and regional climate change fluctuations require development of a system that is capable of answering inquiries about the state of the climate from many sectors of society. Often however, when the general public is confronted with studies concerning climate change the results are presented as {open_quotes}global{close_quotes} averages. These averages can mask important regional changes which are {open_quotes}key{close_quotes} to understanding the climate system. The Global Climate Perspectives System (GCPS) system is being designed to examine regional to global scale climate changes by using station and gridded climate data.

  17. Stability of 2{radical} (2) {times}2{radical} (2) oxygen ordered superstructures in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}

    SciTech Connect

    Aligia, A.A. |; Koval, S.; Migoni, R. |

    1998-01-01

    We have compared the ground-state energy of several observed or proposed {open_quotes}2{radical} (2) {times}2{radical} (2) oxygen ordered superstructures{close_quotes} [{open_quotes}herringbone{close_quotes} structures (HS{close_quote}s)], with those of {open_quotes}chain superstructures{close_quotes} (CS{close_quote}s) (in which the O atoms of the basal plane are ordered in chains), for different compositions x in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x}. The model Hamiltonian contains (i) the Madelung energy, (ii) a term linear in the difference between Cu and O hole occupancies which controls charge transfer, and (iii) covalency effects based on known results for t-J models in one and two dimensions. The optimum distribution of charge is determined, minimizing the total energy, and depends on two parameters which are determined from known results for x=1 and x=0.5. We obtain that on the O lean side, only CS{close_quote}s are stable, while for x=7/8, a HS with regularly spaced O vacancies added to the x=1 structure is more stable than the corresponding CS for the same x. We find that the detailed positions of the atoms in the structure and long-range Coulomb interactions are crucial for the electronic structure, the mechanism of charge transfer, the stability of the different phases, and the possibility of phase separation. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Programmed cell death for defense against anomaly and tumor formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Sohei; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nomura, Taisei

    1995-12-31

    Cell death after exposure to low-level radiation is often considered evidence that radiation is poisonous, however small the dose. Evidence has been accumulating to support the notion that cell death after low-level exposure to radiation results from activation of suicidal genes {open_quote}programmed cell death{close_quote} or {open_quote}apoptosis{close_quote} - for the health of the whole body. This paper gives experimental evidence that embryos of fruit flies and mouse fetuses have potent defense mechanisms against teratogenic or tumorigenic injury caused by radiation and carcinogens, which function through programmed cell death.

  19. CIMFUELS: NPRA computer conference continues to grow

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    Process computer control has been a bedrock topic of NPRA computer conferences for many years. Traditionally this has included basic and advanced dynamic control, multivariable control (CMVPC), on-line optimization (CLRTO), scheduling, on-line integration and performance measures. These are the five active function of CIMFUELS that make money. Lately some have excluded scheduling and integration from {open_quotes}process control{close_quotes} but as they go closed loop, they become basic functions of {open_quotes}process control.{close_quotes} These new techniques to determine the financial performance of computer systems technology are discussed.

  20. Tank 241-BY-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-112 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  1. Wholesale bakeries: A small-business guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Commercial baking is thought to be one of the world`s oldest industries, with evidence of commercial bakeries dating back to the Egyptians. In the late 19th century, technological innovations such as the development of {open_quotes}tame{close_quotes} yeast and the mechanization of bread kneading enabled mass production of baked goods. As a result, larger {open_quotes}wholesale{close_quotes} baking facilities began to replace smaller local bakeries. Today, there are over 3000 wholesale bakeries across the United States. This report is intended to provide information on the bakery business from the perspective of processes, issues, and challenges faced, including energy consumption of electrically driven equipment.

  2. Stimulated Emissions in the Exact Circular Electron Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.

    1996-04-01

    An exact circular electron storage ring has many advanced features. Electrons are injected successively without disturbing the accumulated beam. This is a promising scheme for constructing a very small ring, which features an electron bunch length of less than a millimeter. This short bunch generates coherent synchrotron radiations in the sub-millimeter wavelength range. If we introduce a concentric mirror around the electron orbit, stimulated emissions will be generated. In this mirror, synchrotron radiations are reflected back and accumulated to interact with electron bunches. This new coherent generation scheme is called a {open_quote}{open_quote}photon storage ring{close_quote}{close_quote}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Mixed constraint satisfaction: A framework for decision problems under incomplete knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Fargier, H.; Lang, J.; Schiex, T.

    1996-12-31

    Constraint satisfaction is a powerful tool for representing and solving decision problems with complete knowledge about the world. We extend the CSP framework so as to represent decision problems under incomplete knowledge. The basis of the extension consists in a distinction between controllable and uncontrollable variables - hence the terminology {open_quotes}mixed CSP{close_quotes} - and a {open_quotes}solution{close_quotes} gives actually a conditional decision. We study the complexity of deciding the consistency of a mixed CSP. As the problem is generally intractable, we propose an algorithm for finding an approximate solution.

  4. Time of arrival in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Grot, N.; Rovelli, C.; Tate, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    We study the problem of computing the probability for the time of arrival of a quantum particle at a given spatial position. We consider a solution to this problem based on the spectral decomposition of the particle{close_quote}s (Heisenberg) state into the eigenstates of a suitable operator, which we denote as the {open_quote}{open_quote}time-of-arrival{close_quote}{close_quote} operator. We discuss the general properties of this operator. We construct the operator explicitly in the simple case of a free nonrelativistic particle and compare the probabilities it yields with the ones estimated indirectly in terms of the flux of the Schr{umlt o}dinger current. We derive a well-defined uncertainty relation between time of arrival and energy; this result shows that the well-known arguments against the existence of such a relation can be circumvented. Finally, we define a {open_quote}{open_quote}time representation{close_quote}{close_quote} of the quantum mechanics of a free particle, in which the time of arrival is diagonal. Our results suggest that, contrary to what is commonly assumed, quantum mechanics exhibits a hidden equivalence between independent (time) and dependent (position) variables, analogous to the one revealed by the parametrized formalism in classical mechanics. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  5. From subsistance farming to agro-business

    SciTech Connect

    Delfino, M.

    1994-12-31

    A review of the parallel session on Hardware Architectures is presented. Legacy systems from the {open_quotes}subsistance farming{close_quotes} era, where small groups from experiments built or assembled their own loosely-coupled parallel systems must still be maintained, but the major trend is towards a re-birth of the Computer Center, using {open_quotes}agrobusiness{close_quotes} technology, the large scale use of loosely-coupled parallel systems using a high performance network to communicate with storage subsystems.

  6. House passes RCRA fix by wide margin

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-07

    The House of Representatives has passed a bill to prevent expensive, court-ordered tightening of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act`s (RCRA) land-disposal rules. The measure was initiated last March as part of the Clinton Administration`s {open_quotes}reinventing environmental regulation{close_quotes} initiative and was championed by House Republicans. It passed, 402 to 19, drawing overwhelming support from Democrats. CMA president and CEO Fred Webber hailed the bipartisan approach as the right way to legislate. {open_quotes}We hope this bill can serve as a model for Superfund and other pieces of unfinished business,{close_quotes} he says.

  7. Modules for 6.0 Tesla, vertically separated, clustered or distributed lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.

    1985-10-01

    A total of four lattices have been designed for distributed and (3,3) clustered versions of the SSC, and are available in the SSC database, SSCDB. These lattices are constructed of the same four basic modules, which with only minor tuning can be re-organised to form many conceivable realistic geometries. One module is trivial, consisting of regular cells in a long main arc. The description of the other three modules is the central theme of this report. Potential improvements in both the modules and their implementation are also mentioned. The lattices, with the generic name VSDlbnn.DAT, are in MAD/standard input format in the [SSCDB.LATTICES] directory of the database. Lower case letters in the generic name represent variable characters, where {open_quotes}b{close_quotes} is either C or D, according to whether the lattice is (3,3) Clustered or Distributed, and where {open_quotes}nn{close_quotes} is 01 or 10, according to whether the collision beta is {beta}{sup *} = 1.0 or 10.0 metres, in luminosity or injection lattices. The general title {open_quotes}VS{close_quotes} stands for the Vertical Separation of the two beam lines, with a (total) separation in the main arcs of 0.70 metres, while the notation {open_quotes}Dl{close_quotes} reflects the regular cell dipoles of 6.0 Tesla ({open_quotes}D{close_quotes}), with a phase advance per cell of 60 degrees ({open_quotes}1{close_quotes}). The half cell length is 100 metres. It would be useful for lattice designers and users in the SSC design community to agree on some such lattice naming convention, even if the agreement is merely informal. Two criticisms of the above convention are first, that since the magnet selection for the SSC has fixed the dipole field to be close to 6.4 Tesla, the {open_quotes}D{close_quotes} definition of dipole strength is redundant, and second, that collision betas of less than 1.0 metre can not be handled unless three digits, {open_quotes}nnn{close_quotes}, are included.

  8. Outlook: Federal aid called vital. [High Speed Rail Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-16

    When high speed rail (HSR) proponents survey the future of their emerging industry, they invariably pepper their forecasts with [open quotes]ifs,[close quotes] most keyed to financing. In a typical comment, Jim Betts says his agency is [open quotes]waiting for a realistic and plausible funding capability[close quotes] before starting work on the 3-C's Cleveland-Cincinnati line. Betts wants federal funding to go beyond loan guarantees or greater access to tax-exempt bonds. He favors a generous direct-subsidy formula - similar to the one that financed the Interstates - in which the federal government matched every dollar from the states with nine of its own.

  9. Using theoretical descriptors in structure activity relationships: Validating toxicity predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Famini, G.R.; Wilson, L.Y.; Chester, N.A.; Sterling, P.A.

    1995-12-01

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) and Linear Free Energy Relationships (LFER) are very useful for correlating toxicological data, and in characterizating trends in terms of structural and electronic effects. Several years ago, we developed a series of equations correlating a number of toxicity tests with theoretically determined descriptors. One of these tests was the Microtox test, using the degradation in light from Photobacteriurn phosphoreum. Recently, several new compounds have been tested in our laboratory using the Microtox test, and compared against the predicted values. The agreement between experimental and theoretical results will be discussed, as will reasons for {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}poor{close_quotes} predictions.

  10. Helical-D pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, M.J.

    1997-08-01

    A stabilized pinch configuration is described, consisting of a D-shaped plasma cross section wrapped tightly around a guiding axis. The {open_quotes}helical-D{close_quotes} geometry produces a very large axial (toroidal) transform of magnetic line direction that reverses the pitch of the magnetic lines without the need of azimuthal (poloidal) plasma current. Thus, there is no need of a {open_quotes}dynamo{close_quotes} process and its associated fluctuations. The resulting configuration has the high magnetic shear and pitch reversal of the reversed field pinch (RFP). (Pitch = P = qR, where R = major radius). A helical-D pinch might demonstrate good confinement at q << 1.

  11. New Dissipation Mechanism for Three-Dimensional Current Dissipation/Reconnection in Astrophysical Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pellat, R.; Hurricane, O.; Luciani, J.

    1996-11-01

    A {open_quote}{open_quote}magnetohydrodynamiclike{close_quote}{close_quote} theory has been previously developed for chaotic nonintegrable proton orbits which occur in highly stressed magnetic configurations. In this paper we give the solution to the Vlasov equation to next order in expansion of the particle bounce motion. The new contribution, a Boltzmann-like operator, provides a collisionless dissipation mechanism which may destabilize drift or drift ballooning Alfv{acute e}n waves in high {beta} plasmas. We discuss a number of applications of this new, potentially reconnective, mechanism in the magnetosphere, in stellar wind formation, and in the galactic dynamo. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. Tank 241-BY-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-106 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-106 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  13. Flute vortices in a plasma with hot particles

    SciTech Connect

    Andrushchenko, Zh.N.; Pavlenko, V.P.; Cheremnykh, O.K.

    1992-01-01

    Flute perturbations in a plasma with {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} are considered. Steady-state solutions are found which describe localized vortex structures. Two types of vortex solutions are considered: a dipolar vortex and a combination of a dipolar and a monopolar vortex. It is shown that the presence of {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} particles has an effect on the region in which the vortex solutions exist in velocity space, which can give rise to a change in the particle flux leaving the plasma due to eddy convection. It is shown that the perturbed density profile in flute vortices must be nonmonotonic. 10 refs.

  14. DOE TMD transportation training module 14 transportation of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.L. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy Transportation Management Division has developed training module 14, entitled {open_quotes}Transportation of Explosives{close_quotes} to compliment the basic {open_quotes}core ten{close_quotes} training modules of the Hazardous Materials Modular Training Program. The purpose of this training module is to increase awareness of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements concerning the packaging and transportation of explosives. Topics covered in module 14 include the classification of explosives, approval and registration of explosives, packaging requirements, hazard communication requirements, separation and segregation compatibility requirements, loading and unloading operations, as well as safety measures required in the event of a vehicle accident involving explosives.

  15. Tank 241-TX-118 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-TX-118 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-TX-118 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  16. Tank 241-C-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-C-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-C-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  17. Tank 241-U-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-U-111 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-U-111 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  18. Tank 241-U-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-U-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-U-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  19. Tank 241-TX-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-TX-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-TX-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  20. Tank 241-S-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-S-102 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-S-102 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution. {close_quotes}

  1. Tank 241-BY-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  2. Tank 241-C-112 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-C-112 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-C-112 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  3. Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  4. Tank 241-C-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-C-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-C-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  5. Readiness assessment plan for the Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility (Trench 31)

    SciTech Connect

    Irons, L.G.

    1994-11-22

    This document provides the Readiness Assessment Plan (RAP) for the Project W-025 (Radioactive Mixed Waste Land Disposal Facility) Readiness Assessment (RA). The RAP documents prerequisites to be met by the operating organization prior to the RA. The RAP is to be implemented by the RA Team identified in the RAP. The RA Team is to verify the facility`s compliance with criteria identified in the RAP. The criteria are based upon the {open_quotes}Core Requirements{close_quotes} listed in DOE Order 5480.31, {open_quotes}Startup and Restart of Nuclear Facilities{close_quotes}.

  6. Integrated predictive maintenance program vibration and lube oil analysis: Part I - history and the vibration program

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, H.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the first of two papers which describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machines at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The organization has recently been restructured and significant benefits have been realized by the interaction, or {open_quotes}synergy{close_quotes} between the Vibration Program and the Lube Oil Analysis Program. This paper starts with the oldest part of the program - the Vibration Program and discusses the evolution of the program to its current state. The {open_quotes}Vibration{close_quotes} view of the combined program is then presented.

  7. Tank 241-BY-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    Tank 241-BY-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

  8. Radionuclide air emission report for the Hanford Site Calendar Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diediker, L.P.; Curn, B.L.; Rhoads, K.; Damberg, E.G.; Soldat, J.K.; Jette, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    This report documents radionuclide air emissions from the Hanford Site in 1993 and the resulting effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. The report has been prepared and will be submitted in accordance with reporting requirements in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, {open_quotes}National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants,{close_quotes} Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities.{close_quotes}

  9. PCFB repowering project. Annual report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This report will provide an overview discussion of the {open_quotes}First Generation{close_quotes} Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) technology planned for demonstration at DMEC-1. The PCFB Repowering project will demonstrate {open_quotes}First Generation{close_quotes} PCFB technology where steam generated in a PCFB boiler will be used to power a steam turbine and exhaust gases from the PCFB boiler will be expanded through a gas turbine to provide additional power output. The status of each of the activities that have been carried out during the first budget period of the project, primarily in 1993 (including filter testing) will be reviewed.

  10. Thermally driven neutron star glitches

    SciTech Connect

    Link, B. |; Epstein, R.I.

    1996-02-01

    We examine the thermal and dynamical response of a neutron star to a sudden perturbation of the inner crust temperature. During the star{close_quote}s evolution, starquakes and other processes may deposit {approx_gt}10{sup 42} ergs, causing significant internal heating and increased frictional coupling between the crust and the more rapidly rotating neutron superfluid the star is expected to contain. Through numerical simulation we study the propagation of the thermal wave created by the energy deposition, the induced motion of the interior superfluid, and the resulting spin evolution of the crust. We find that energy depositions of {approximately}10{sup 40} ergs produce gradual spin-ups above the timing noise level, while larger energy depositions produce sudden spin jumps resembling pulsar glitches. For a star with a temperature in the observed range of the Vela pulsar, an energy deposition of {approximately}10{sup 42} ergs produces a large spin-up taking place over minutes, similar to the Vela {open_quote}{open_quote}Christmas{close_quote}{close_quote} glitch. Comparable energy deposition in a younger and hotter {open_quote}{open_quote}Crab-like{close_quote}{close_quote} star produces a smaller spin-up taking place over {approximately}1{sup d}, similar to that seen during the partially time-resolved Crab glitch of 1989. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  11. High temperature fracture and fatigue of ceramics. Annual technical progress report No. 6, August 15, 1994--August 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.

    1996-04-01

    This report covers work done in the first year of our new contract {open_quotes}High Temperature Fracture and Fatigue of Ceramics,{close_quotes} which commenced in August, 1995 as a follow-on from our prior contract {open_quotes}Mechanisms of Mechanical Fatigue in Ceramics.{close_quotes} Our activities have consisted mainly of studies of the failure of fibrous ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) at high temperature; with a little fundamental work on the role of stress redistribution in the statistics of fracture and cracking in the presence of viscous fluids.

  12. Phase instability in ZrO{sub 2}{endash}NiAl functionally graded materials

    SciTech Connect

    He, Y.; Subramanian, V.; Lannutti, J.J.

    1997-10-01

    Sedimentation in organic solvents was followed by hot-pressing to produce 2 mole{percent} yttria stabilized zirconia-NiAl functionally graded materials (FGM{close_quote}s). These FGM{close_quote}s were better able to accommodate high levels of residual stress than alumina-NiAl FGM{close_quote}s; this is possibly due to enhanced tetragonal phase retention. However, we found that the zirconia layer in these FGM{close_quote}s subsequently experiences room temperature transformation of t-ZrO{sub 2} to m-ZrO{sub 2}. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  13. Technical and economic evaluation of selected compact drill rigs for drilling 10,000 foot geothermal production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Huttrer, G.W.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes the investigation and evaluation of several {open_quotes}compact{close_quotes} drill rigs which could be used for drilling geothermal production wells. Use of these smaller rigs would save money by reducing mobilization costs, fuel consumption, crew sizes, and environmental impact. Advantages and disadvantages of currently-manufactured rigs are identified, and desirable characteristics for the {open_quotes}ideal{close_quotes} compact rig are defined. The report includes a detailed cost estimate of a specific rig, and an evaluation of the cost/benefit ratio of using this rig. Industry contacts for further information are given.

  14. Surface tension, hydrophobicity, and black holes: The entropic connection

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The geometric entropy arising from partitioning space in a fluid {open_quote}{open_quote}field theory{close_quote}{close_quote} is shown to be linearly proportional to the area of an excluded region. The coefficient of proportionality is related to surface tension by a thermodynamic argument. Good agreement with experimental data is obtained for a number of fluids. The calculation employs a density-matrix formalism developed previously for studying the origin of black hole entropy. This approach may lead to a practical technique for the evaluation of thermodynamic quantities with important entropic components. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-26

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.

  16. Transition-metal complexes with sulfur ligands. 82. H{sub 2}S, S{sub 2}, and CS{sub 2} molecules as ligands in sulfur-rich [Ru(PPh{sub 3})`S{sub 4}] complexes (`S{sub 4}{sup 2-} = 1,2-Bis[(2-mercaptophenyl)thio]ethane(2-))

    SciTech Connect

    Sellmann, D.; Lechner, P.; Knoch, F.; Moll, M.

    1992-01-29

    Red (Ru(PPh{sub 3}){open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}){sub x} ({open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}{sup 2} = 1,2-bis((2-mercaptophenyl)thio)ethane(2-) reacts in liquid H{sub 2}S at -70 C to give (Ru(SH{sub 2})(PPh{sub 3}){open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}) (1) which recrystallizes from H{sub 2}S-saturated THF as 1-THF in yellow-orange single crystals. 1-THF is the first of the rare and often very unstable H{sub 2}S complexes that could be characterized by X-ray crystallography and shows how H{sub 2}S in complexes with sulfur-dominated coordination spheres is stabilized by hydrogen bonds. 1 and 1-THF are rapidly oxidized by O{sub 2} to yield deep turquoise-blue (({mu}-S{sub 2})(Ru(PPh{sub 3}{open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}){sub 2}) (2) which has a trans {eta}{sup 1}-{eta}{sup 1}-S{sub 2} bridge and exists in two diastereomeric forms as proved by X-ray structure determination of 2{center_dot}CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and 2{center_dot}CS{sub 2}. Crystals of 2{center_dot}CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} are triclinic. The RuSSRu core in 2 is a chromophore and is described as delocalized 4c-6e {pi} system. A high degree of sulfur coordination at the Ru centers is assumed to be responsible for the unusual electronic properties of 2 compared with other {mu}-S{sub 2} complexes. Addition of CS{sub 2} to (Ru(PPh{sub 3}) {open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}) fragments leads to formation of binuclear deep red ((Ru(PPh{sub 3}))({mu}-{open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}CS{sub 2})(Ru(PPh{sub 3}){open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote})) (3; {open_quote}S{sub 4}{close_quote}CS{sub 2}{sup 2{minus}} = 2-))2-((2-mercaptophenyl)-thio)phenyl trithiocarbonate (2-)) that exists in two diastereomeric pairs of enantiomers. One pair was characterized by X-ray crystallography of 3{center_dot}CS{sub 2} that contains a bridging thioxanthate ligand in an unprecedented bonding mode. Crystals of 3{center_dot}CS{sub 2} are monoclinic, space group P1.

  17. Nuclear power failure signals end of an era

    SciTech Connect

    Mariotte, M.

    1996-07-01

    In the United States, {open_quotes}the nuclear industry is dead, kaput, finished{close_quotes} says Michael Mariotte, executive director of the Nuclear Information and Resource Service in Washington, D.C. Why? Investors are reluctant to gamble their money on a future generation of supposedly safe, economic nuclear power plants. {open_quotes}in 1979, the `safe` Three Mile Island-2 reactor turned a several-hundred-million-dollar investment into a billion-dollar loss in a matter of hours,{close_quotes} Mariotte says. {open_quotes}In fact, investing in nuclear power at this point would be like investing in the Titanic II.{close_quotes} However, diehard proponents of nuclear energy persist in their optimism for a new nuclear age, Mariotte says. These nuclear backers see the need to replace aging plants with a new generation of safer plants. But would a new generation of reactors really be safer? {open_quotes}To date, the industry may spur some new nuclear plants, it is more likely to lead to alternative renewable sources of energy that are more economical. {open_quotes}The nuclear age has ended as a result of inefficiency and unacceptable risks...After 50 years of sustained abuse, the Earth has finally and deservedly entered the end of the nuclear age,{close_quotes} Mariotte says.

  18. 78 FR 974 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Board of Directors may establish minimum quoting increments for options traded on the Exchange. When the... quoted below $3 (including LEAPS), and $0.05 for all option series $3 and above (including LEAPS). For... second trading day following January 1, 2013. The Penny Pilot shall expire on June 30, 2013. Also, for...

  19. 77 FR 31680 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... exclude from the NBBO calculation a Market Maker's single best and single worst overall quoting days in a... broker/dealer in securities, and does not place more than 390 orders in listed options per day on average... quotes they sent to the Exchange qualify the Market Maker to become a Market Maker Plus.\\8\\ A...

  20. 29 CFR 301.5 - Form of submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submitted in exhibit form, quoting the agreement or rules involved, if any; and all data submitted in..., including all documentary evidence submitted in exhibit form, quoting the agreement or rules involved, if... Board of intention to file an ex parte submission on a certain date (30 days hence), and at the...

  1. 17 CFR 36.2 - Exempt boards of trade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bids, offers or transactions are directly based on, or quoted at a differential to, the prices... reason to believe that cash market bids, offers or transactions are directly based on, or quoted at a... readily available to the news media and the general public without charge no later than the business...

  2. 78 FR 24265 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Market Maker's single best and single worst overall quoting days each month, on a per symbol basis, is... options.\\3\\ \\3\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 69270 (April 2, 2013), 78 FR 20988 (April 8, 2013... if the quotes they send to the Exchange qualify the Market Maker to become a Market Maker Plus....

  3. 78 FR 24271 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... best and single worst overall quoting days each month, on a per symbol basis, is excluded in... Exchange currently offers a $0.10 per contract rebate to Market Makers if the quotes they send to the... not a broker/dealer in securities, and does not place more than 390 orders in listed options per...

  4. Investigation of syngas interaction in alcohol synthesis catalysts. Quartery technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Akundi, M.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents the work done on {open_quotes}Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts{close_quotes} during the last three months. In this report the results of the work done on the effect of CO adsorption on the magnetic character of cobalt in the Cu/Co/Cr catalysts is discussed.

  5. And deregulation shall lead me to lie down in green pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Weidinger, G.

    1995-06-01

    This presentation briefly reviews the history of the IPP industry, the current state of competition, and potential opportunities for IPPs in a deregulated environment. Since the beginning of the PURPA created IPP industry, we have experienced many market phases. These began with {open_quotes}beat avoided cost,{close_quotes} followed by {open_quotes}find a need and fill it,{close_quotes} followed by {open_quotes}the bid fest,{close_quotes} to today`s {open_quotes}anything goes.{close_quotes} During this time, market clearing prices have declined from over 80/KwHr to 2-40/KwHr. Today`s partially deregulated electric market includes fierce competition and several new players in the game. Where surplus capacity exists, IPPs must compete with subsidized power. Long-term contracts are no longer widely available. Access to markets is constrained by less than open transmission. Even with these challenges, opportunities remain for the IPP supplier. Opportunities for advanced coal-fired power systems will be explored.

  6. Biomorphic robots as a persistent means for removing explosive mines

    SciTech Connect

    Tilden, M.W.

    1995-04-01

    The current variety and dispersion of explosive mines is a daunting technological problem for current sensory techniques. The bottom line is that the only way to insure a mine has been found and removed is to step on it. As this is an upsetting proposition for biological organisms like animals or children, this paper details a proposed non-biological method that may have validity following additional research into the new science of Biomorphic Machines. A Robobiologist at LANL has invented and developed a variety of {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} robots that are solar powered, legged, autonomous, adaptive to massive damage and terrain, and very inexpensive. This technology, called Nervous Net (Nv) design, allows for the creation of capable walking mechanisms (known as {open_quotes}Biomorphic Robots{close_quotes}) which rather than run on a {open_quotes}work{close_quotes} ethic, use {open_quotes}survivalist{close_quotes} design principles. These principles allow Nv based machines to continue doing work even after multiple limbs have been removed or damaged, and to dynamically negotiate complex terrains as an emergent property of their operation. They are not programmed, and indeed, the 12 transistor controller used keeps their electronic cost well below that of most pocket radios. It is suspected that in finding and removing randomly placed explosive mines, they may be an interesting, capable solution.

  7. Engineering analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers for GEM

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.A.; Belser, F.C.; Pratuch, S.M.; Wuest, C.R.; Mitselmakher, G.; Gordeev, A.; Johnson, C.V. |; Polychronakos, V.A.; Golutvin, I.A.

    1993-10-21

    Structural analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers performed up to the date of this publication are documented. Mechanical property data for typical chamber materials are included. This information, originally intended to be an appendix to the {open_quotes}CSC Structural Design Bible,{close_quotes} is presented as a guide for future designers of large chambers.

  8. A 20-MW wind/hybrid proposed in lieu of a 138,000-volt transmission line in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, R.H. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    A renewable-energy-advocacy organization, RENEW Wisconsin, has proposed that the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin ({open_quotes}PSCW{close_quotes}) consider a wind/hybrid project in lieu of a utility-proposed transmission line in S.E. Wisconsin.

  9. High performance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, M.B.

    1995-03-01

    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  10. 76 FR 25727 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... commitments in the firm quote rule citation. Article 12, Rule 8(h)(ii)(11). \\9\\ Any violations of this... Exchange Act Release No. 54550 (September 29, 2006), 71 FR 59563 (October 10, 2006) (approving CHX's... ITS commitments in connection with the firm quote rule. \\13\\ See, e.g., Limit order display...

  11. 75 FR 10535 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...), 75 FR 479 (January 5, 2010) (SR-NYSEAmex-2009-81). The Exchange notes that similar changes are... other e-Quotes \\7\\ containing pegging instructions eligible to participate in the closing transaction in... Equities Rule 70, Supplementary Material .25. \\7\\ See definition of e-Quotes NYSE Amex Equities Rule...

  12. Status of the project of Novosibirsk high power FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Pinayev, I.V.; Erg, G.I.; Gavrilov, N.G.

    1995-12-31

    The project of IR FEL for the Siberian Center of photochemical researches is described. The distinguished features of this project are the use of the race-track microtron-recuperator and the {open_quotes}electron output of radiation{close_quotes}. The building for the machine is under reconstruction now. About half of hardware has been manufactured. The assembly of installation began.

  13. H. R. 5887: A Bill to provide health insurance benefits to certain former employees at defense nuclear facilities of the Department of Energy for injuries caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. Introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, August 12, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Act may be cited as the [open quotes]Defense Nuclear Workers' Health Insurance Act of 1992[close quotes]. The purpose of this bill is to provide health insurance benefits to certain former employees at defense nuclear facilities of the Department of Energy for injuries caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. Definitions for terms within this bill are provided.

  14. Soft condensed matter: Polymers, complex fluids, and biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, D.

    1995-10-01

    Historians often characterize epochs through their dominant materials, clay, bronze, iron, and steel. From this perspective, the modern era is certainly the age of plastics. The progression from hard to soft materials suggests that the emerging era will be the age of {open_quotes}soft condensed matter.{close_quotes}

  15. PW71 methylation test for Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, B.; Buiting, K.; Horsthemke, B.

    1996-01-11

    A recent workshop called {open_quotes}The Prader-Willi Syndrome International Scientific Workshop and Conference for Scientists, Professionals and Parents{close_quotes} agreed that DNA methylation is a valid diagnostic test for Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes. This letter to the editor outlines details concerning the use of this test. 6 refs.

  16. Groups concerned about Congress and criticism

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-12-07

    Environmental groups are concerned about the impact a Republican-dominated Congress will have on their activities. The Republican agenda would {open_quotes}severely undercut public health and environmental protection, {close_quotes} says the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC; Washington).

  17. The analysis of normative requirements to materials of PWR components, basing on LBB concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Anikovsky, V.V.; Karzov, G.P.; Timofeev, B.T.

    1997-04-01

    The paper discusses the advisability of the correction of Norms to solve in terms of material science the Problem: how the normative requirements to materials must be changed in terms of the concept {open_quotes}leak before break{close_quotes} (LBB).

  18. Windpower and the environment: An essay

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The current preoccupation with the technical and financial aspects of the move toward the competitive restructuring of the electric utility industry is obscuring the major impact the industry has on accomplishing important social and economic objectives not captured in the {open_quotes}price{close_quotes} of electricity. These include exploiting the benefits of the investment of energy dollars locally in promoting local and regional economic activity and job creation, in facilitating local and regional resource portfolio {open_quotes}risk management{close_quotes} as a hedge against future fuel supply and cost and environmental regulation uncertainties, and in promoting a healthy and quality local, regional national and global environment. The windpower industry contributes in major and important ways toward accomplishing these {open_quotes}beyond price{close_quotes} objectives. In this brief essay, the focus is on a comparison of environmental impacts of the energy {open_quotes}business as usual{close_quotes} scenario compared with the mitigating benefits yielded by the wind power industry. The conclusion is that the economic risks of our current path may not be ignored, and that the wind industry can mitigate those risks at very low to no cost, while offering economic advantages, and that the environmental impacts of the wind power industry itself occur at a level that is several orders of magnitude lower than the present conventional alternatives.

  19. Erratum: Letter to the Editor: Exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma (buphthalmos) from two candidate regions of chromosome arm 6p and chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This {open_quotes}Letter to the Editor{close_quotes} is the reprint of a corrected table from a previous paper about the exclusion of primary congenital glaucoma from two candidate regions of chromosome arm 6p and chromosome 11.

  20. Actinide Source Term Program, position paper. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, C.F.; Papenguth, H.W.; Crafts, C.C.; Dhooge, N.J.

    1994-11-15

    The Actinide Source Term represents the quantity of actinides that could be mobilized within WIPP brines and could migrate with the brines away from the disposal room vicinity. This document presents the various proposed methods for estimating this source term, with a particular focus on defining these methods and evaluating the defensibility of the models for mobile actinide concentrations. The conclusions reached in this document are: the 92 PA {open_quotes}expert panel{close_quotes} model for mobile actinide concentrations is not defensible; and, although it is extremely conservative, the {open_quotes}inventory limits{close_quotes} model is the only existing defensible model for the actinide source term. The model effort in progress, {open_quotes}chemical modeling of mobile actinide concentrations{close_quotes}, supported by a laboratory effort that is also in progress, is designed to provide a reasonable description of the system and be scientifically realistic and supplant the {open_quotes}Inventory limits{close_quotes} model.

  1. Characterization of insoluble fractions of TNT transformed by composting

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.E.; Ho, C.H.; Williams, R.T.; Griest, W.H. )

    1994-05-01

    Soil contaminated with explosives was supplemented with carbon-14 labelled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene ([sup 14]C-TNT) and was composted in a field static pile composting experiment. After 90 d of composting, the distribution of carbon-14 ([sup 14]C) activity in fractions from acetonitrile extraction ([open quotes]free[close quotes] fraction, 1.2% of the initial [sup 14]C-activity) and filtration ([open quotes]insoluble-particle[close quotes] fraction, 17.9%), alkaline hydrolysis ([open quotes]insoluble-hydrolyzable[close quotes] fraction, 56.8%), and combustion of the residue ([open quotes]insoluble-nonhydrolyzable[close quotes] fraction, 4.7%) showed that the bulk of the [sup 14]C-activity, and presumably transformed product(s) of the [sup 14]C-TNT, accumulated in a nonextractable, but hydrolyzable fraction. Repetitive aqueous leaching of the compost and also ultraviolet light irradiation followed by leaching suggest that the insoluble fraction of transformed TNT should not be released appreciably by the action of acid rain or sunlight. 16 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. 78 FR 62694 - Hoi Y. Kam, M.D.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... disjunctive.'' Robert A. Leslie, 68 FR 15227, 15230 (2003). I may rely on any one or a combination of factors..., 73 FR 364, 387 (2008) (quoting Samuel S. Jackson, 72 FR 23848, 23853 (2007) (quoting Leo R. Miller, 53 FR 21931, 21932 (1988))). ``Moreover, because `past performance is the best predictor of...

  3. Inversion tectonics in the Maracaibo area, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Roberta, M. ); Duval, B.; Cramez, C.

    1993-02-01

    Sequence stratigraphy and structural interpretation of regional composite seismic lines and new 3D seismic data of Lake Maracaibo lead us to question the old [open quotes]strike-slip fault movement[close quotes] geological paradigm as the major cause of deformation in this area. The pre-Miocene compressional structures of the majority of the oil fields of this area such as Ceuta, Lama, Motatan, etc., are easily and better explained as the result of a Tertiary Tectonic Inversion. Such inversion can be interpreted as a consequence of shortening of [open quotes]depocenters[close quotes] (grabens and half grabens) developed during extensional phases of a back-arc basin. During this shortening, the old faults bordering the [open quotes]depocenters[close quotes] were reactivated with reverse movements creating large compressional structural traps in the hanging wall (old downthrown block). Thin-skinned compressional deformation can occur, locally, outside the major [open quotes]depocenters[close quotes] in the footwall areas between faults of opposite vergence.

  4. What`s in a name? Chromosome 22q abnormalities and the DiGeorge, velocardiofacial and conotruncal anomalies face syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Wulfsberg, E.A.; Leana-Cox, J.; Neri, G.

    1996-11-11

    The recent advances in our understanding of the phenotype associated with deletion of the DiGeorge Chromosome Region (DGCR) at 22q11.2 are in many ways analogous to the fable about the blind men and the elephant. Originally described as three distinct phenotypes (DiGeorge (DG) syndrome, velocardiofacial (VCF) syndrome, and the conotruncal anomalies face (CTAF) syndrome), it is now clear that there is only a single broad and variable phenotype associated with deletion of the DGCR. As in the fable, distinguished clinicians approached this phenotypic {open_quotes}elephant{close_quotes} from different perspectives and provided three separate, although overlapping descriptions. Our analogy to this fable is not to imply some {open_quotes}blindness{close_quotes} on the part of these clinicians, but rather to point out the well-known difficulty in delineating the indistinct phenotypic boundaries of a syndrome until a genetic or biochemical marker for the condition is available. The recent availability of a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probe to detect deletion of the DGCR now allows delineation of the broad phenotype of our {open_quotes}elephant{close_quotes} which spans from lethal DG phenotypes through the intermediate VCF and CTAF phenotypes to the newly recognized {open_quotes}mild{close_quotes} phenotype consisting of only developmental delays and subtle facial abnormalities. 33 refs.

  5. 76 FR 60900 - Jack A. Danton, D.O.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Laurence T. McKinney, 73 FR 43260, 43266 (2008) (rejecting Government's contention that physician's failure... negligence.' '' 73 FR at 43266 (quoting United States v. McIver, 470 F.3d 550, 559 (4th Cir. 2006)). I agree... semblance of legitimate medical treatment.''' McKinney, 73 FR at 43266 (quoting United States v....

  6. Unipolar arcing phenomena observed in laboratory and nature

    SciTech Connect

    Sanduloviciu, M.

    1995-12-31

    Unipolar arcing phenomena observed as coherent {open_quotes}plasma{close_quotes} balls operating on a surface of constant potential are explained in the frame of a new already proposed self-organisation mechanism considered at the origin of the formation and stability of extended coherent structures observed in plasma devices.

  7. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  8. Determination of the onset of bulk pinning and the low-temperature-irreversibility line in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Dewhurst, C.D.; Cardwell, D.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Doyle, R.A.; Balakrishnan, G.; McK. Paul, D.

    1996-06-01

    We report the results of dc magnetization measurements of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} single crystals as a function of temperature. The evolution of the hysteresis loops with temperature is examined and the irreversibility line extracted. These loops can be scaled onto each other from 4.2 to 20 K, while the lower field part of the loops for the virgin curves continue to scale up to {ital T}{sub {ital c}}. At intermediate temperatures, the scaling is broken by the appearance of the second peak or {open_quote}{open_quote}arrowhead{close_quote}{close_quote} which appears at around 20 K but gradually disappears above about 30 K. While the behavior is dominated by significant bulk pinning at low temperatures, the hysteresis and irreversibility fields at high temperatures are considerably modified by geometrical and surface barrier effects. We identify the onset, with increasing field, of bulk pinning and significant critical current from the emergence of the {open_quote}{open_quote}arrowhead{close_quote}{close_quote} feature from the background surface barrier-determined magnetization curve. Scaling in the low-temperature regime, and extrapolation, enables the irreversibility line at 0 K to be estimated at about 110 T. We propose a phase diagram up to high magnetic fields over a wide range of temperature. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. 76 FR 20034 - Louisiana All Snax, Inc.; Dismissal of Proceeding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... (quoting David L. Wood, M.D., 72 FR 54936, 54937 (2007) (quoting Ronald J. Riegel, D.V.M., 63 FR 67132... moot. See, e.g., Riegel, 63 FR at 67133. Order Pursuant to the authority vested in me by 21 U.S.C. 823... Enforcement Administration Louisiana All Snax, Inc.; Dismissal of Proceeding On January 21, 2010, the...

  10. 78 FR 28688 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    .... 64249 (April 7, 2011), 76 FR 20773 (April 13, 2011) (SR- Phlx-2011-47) (a rule change to establish a QCC.... See Rule 1064(e). See also Securities Exchange Act Release No. 64688 (June 16, 2011), 76 FR 36606... Quote Traders (see Rule 1014(b)(ii)(A)) and Remote Streaming Quote Traders (see Rule...

  11. 78 FR 18652 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Pilot Options. Despite the increase to these fees, the Exchange believes that the fees remain... Quote Traders (see Rule 1014(b)(ii)(A)) and Remote Streaming Quote Traders (see Rule 1014(b)(ii)(B... Penny Pilot Options from $0.44 to $0.45 per contract. The Exchange also proposes to amend the...

  12. 75 FR 8762 - NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order of Summary Abrogation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ..., Streaming Quote Traders (``SQTs'') and Remote Streaming Quote Traders (``RSQTs'') \\2\\ for equity option... pilot period expiring March 2, 2010, a per contract transaction fee on market participants who remove...-2010-14, Phlx proposed to amend its fee schedule to apply, for a pilot period expiring March 2,...

  13. 76 FR 13688 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... the Exchange may determine on a class-by-class basis which electronic allocation algorithm \\6\\ would... with the allocation algorithm in effect for the option class), then to limit orders and quotes at the opening price (with multiple orders and quotes ranked in accordance with the allocation algorithm...

  14. Case studies on developing local industry by using hot spring water and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Akira; Umetsu, Yoshio; Narita, Eiichi

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the new ways to develop local industries by using hot spring water, geothermal water and geothermal energy from the Matsukawa Geothermal Power Plant in Iwate Prefecture, which is the first geothermal power plant established in Japan. The new dyeing technique, called {open_quotes}Geothermal Dyeing{close_quotes} was invented in which hydrogen sulfide in the water exhibited decoloration effect. By this technique we succeeded to make beautiful color patterns on fabrics. We also invented the new way to make the light wight wood, called {open_quotes}Geo-thermal Wood{close_quotes} by using hot spring water or geothermal water. Since polysaccharides in the wood material were hydrolyzed and taken out during the treatment in the hot spring water, the wood that became lighter is weight and more porous state. On the bases of these results, we have produced {open_quotes}Wooded Soap{close_quotes} on a commercial scale which is the soap, synthesized in the pore of the treated wood in round slice. {open_quotes}Collapsible Wood Cabin{close_quotes} was also produced for enjoyable outdoor life by using the modified properties of Geothermal Wood.

  15. 78 FR 4914 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend Performance Evaluations With Respect to Quote Submissions of Streaming Quote Traders and Remote...

  16. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  17. Total recall. [Refinancing of debt by utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hemptstead, J.

    1994-02-15

    The dramatic rally in the US treasury markets in 1992 and 1993 offered utility treasurers a unique opportunity to radically restructure their outstanding debt profiles by redeeming and refunding callable and refundable bonds. Since January 1991, utility companies have issued over $100 billion of nonconvertible debt securities; 53 percent of these companies indicated [open quotes]refinancing fixed income securities[close quotes] as the primary use of proceeds. After approximately 18 months of heavy refunding activity, utility treasurers have nearly exhausted the supply of currently callable debt and are now looking at alternative methods of reducing their embedded cost of debt and increasing cash flows. The two most common methods are to repurchase highest-cost noncallable and/or currently nonrefundable bonds through [open quotes]open-market repurchases[close quotes] and [open quotes]tender offers.[close quotes] A third, less popular and less used, method is the [open quotes]defeasance[close quotes]. This article describes the advantages, disadvantages, and economic effects of these three types of financing.

  18. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  19. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  20. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .../32-inch) cotton, CFR (cost and freight) Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland cotton... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...