Sample records for plectranthus amboinicus

  1. Response of Biomass Development, Essential Oil, and Composition of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. to Irrigation Frequency and Harvest Time.


    Sabra, Ali S; Astatkie, Tessema; Alataway, Abed; Mahmoud, Abeer A; Gendy, Ahmed S H; Said-Al Ahl, Hussein A H; Tkachenko, Kirill G


    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of four irrigation intervals (4, 8, 12, and 16 days) and six harvests (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months after transplanting) on biomass, essential oil content, and composition of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Fresh weight and essential oil yield decreased with increasing irrigation interval; whereas, essential oil content was stimulated by water stress and increased as the irrigation interval increased. Fresh weight of Plectranthus amboinicus irrigated every 4 days peaked when harvested at 6 months, but essential oil content peaked when irrigated every 16 days and harvested at 2 months after transplantation. On the other hand, essential oil yield peaked when irrigated every 8 days and harvested at 6 months. Thymol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, and β-caryophyllene were the major compounds, and they peaked at different irrigation intervals and harvest times. This study showed biomass, essential oil content, and yield as well as the major and minor constituents of Plectranthus amboinicus are influenced by irrigation interval and the timing of harvest. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  2. Technological Evaluation of Emulsions Containing The Volatile Oil from Leaves of Plectranthus Amboinicus Lour

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Pablo Queiroz; Carneiro, Fabíola Bernardo; de Sousa, Ana Letícia Braz; Santos, Sócrates Golziodo; Oliveira, Elquio Eleamen; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira


    Background: Plectranthus amboinicus Lour is a species which is widespread throughout tropical countries where it is widely used against respiratory tract disorders such as bronchodilator, antitussive, and expectorant conditions. Objective: This study aims to characterize the essential oil of P. amboinicus (PaEO) and produce and evaluate emulsions containing PaEO. Materials and Methods: The essential oil was characterized by physical-chemical analyses for density, refractive index, 90% ethanol solubility, color, appearance, and identification by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection. The emulsions were prepared following a hydrophile-lipophile balance [HLB] spreadsheet design from two nonionic surfactants (Span 80® and Tween 20®) producing HLB values ranging from 4.3 to 16.7. The products were stored at room temperature at 5°C. The emulsion stabilities were tested both in the long and short-term. Results: The PaEO was obtained by steam distillation and the total extraction was reached after 3 hours yielding of 0.2% (w/w). This essential oil was characterized by physicochemical analyses for density [1.5], refraction index [0.9167], ethanol 90% solubility [1:2], color, and appearance (yellow/clear). Nineteen components were identified in the oil, among them the sesquiterpenes: carvacrol [33.50%], p-cymene [28.20%] and γ-terpinene [14.77%]. The emulsions obtained successfully showed, for the first time, HLB values for essential oils from Plectranthus amboinicus [15.7]. Conclusion: The experimental data shows a relationship between HLB values of the surfactant mixtures contributing to the emulsified systems production containing phytopharmaceuticals. Such an approach is of great importance to the development of lipid carriers for therapeutic drugs. SUMMARY The essential oil from leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus was extracted by steam distillation and characterized.The emulsions containing essential oil were produced and the stability was

  3. Haematological profile of rats (Rattus norvegicus) induced BCG and provided leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spreng)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silitonga, Melva; Silitonga, Pasar M.


    Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spreng is a medicinal plant that has many benefits, such as an antioxidant, hepatoprotective and immunostimulan. Immune status can be seen from hematological profile. This study aims to investigate hematology profile on rats induced BCG and leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus. 24 male rats aged 3 months and weighing between 140-200 grams divided equally into six groups, P0, P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5. P0 as controle was given aquadest. The P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 treatment groups were given 19 g / kg AEP + BCG, 31.5 g / kg AEP + BCG, 19g / kg AEP, 31.5 g / kg AEP and BCG consecutively. The BCG were used as antigen. The AEP was administered orally for 30 days and 100 µl BCG were intramusculary administered on day 14 th and day 21. On day 31st, the rats we decapitated and their blood were collected for hematology (leucocyte (WBC), Erythrocyte (RBC), thrombocyte (PLT) count, Haemoglobin (Hb), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), MCV, MHC, and MHCH analysis. Data were analyzed with ANOVA. WBC increased significantly in treatment AEP 31.5 g / kg bw, 31.5 g AEP / kg bw + BCG and so were only given BCG. RBC tend to increase in all AEP treatment but tends to increase again when given a BCG. Hb increased in treatment P1, P2, T3 and P4, but the improvement was significant only in treatment P1. While PLT increase significantly in all treatments compared to the controls. HCT did not show significant differences but all of them were in the normal range. EAP without BCG and with the addition of BCG lowered ESR significantly, whereas BCG alone increased the ESR significantly. MCV increased significantly only in the treatment of P1 and show the same pattern with the MHC and MHCH. The conclusion that Plectranthus amboinicus Lour a positive impact on blood profiles with and without BCG. Plectranthus amboinicus Lour managed blood profile when administered together with BCG

  4. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance.


    Arumugam, Greetha; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani


    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  5. Phytotoxicity and Cytotoxicity of Essential Oil from Leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, Carvacrol, and Thymol in Plant Bioassays.


    Pinheiro, Patrícia Fontes; Costa, Adilson Vidal; Alves, Thammyres de Assis; Galter, Iasmini Nicoli; Pinheiro, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira, Alexandre Fontes; Oliveira, Carlos Magno Ramos; Fontes, Milene Miranda Praça


    The essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus and its chemotypes, carvacrol and thymol, were evaluated on the germination and root and aerial growth of Lactuca sativa and Sorghum bicolor and in acting on the cell cycle of meristematic root cells of L. sativa. The main component found in the oil by analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detection was carvacrol (88.61% in area). At a concentration of 0.120% (w v(-1)), the oil and its chemotypes retarded or inhibited the germination and decreased root and aerial growth in monocot and dicot species used in the bioassays. In addition, all substances caused changes in the cell cycle of the meristematic cells of L. sativa, with chromosomal alterations occurring from the 0.015% (w v(-1)) concentration. The essential oil of P. amboinicus, carvacrol, and thymol have potential for use as bioherbicides.

  6. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajitha, B.; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Sreedhara Reddy, P.


    This study reports the simple green synthesis method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract. The pathway of nanoparticles formation is by means of reduction of AgNO3 by leaf extract, which acts as both reducing and capping agents. Synthesized Ag NPs were subjected to different characterizations for studying the structural, chemical, morphological, optical and antimicrobial properties. The bright circular fringes in SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile reveals high crystalline nature of biosynthesized Ag NPs. Morphological studies shows the formation of nearly spherical nanoparticles. FTIR spectrum confirms the existence of various functional groups of biomolecules capping the nanoparticles. UV-visible spectrum displays single SPR band at 428 nm indicating the absence of anisotropic particles. The synthesized Ag NPs exhibited better antimicrobial property towards gram negative Escherichia coli and towards tested Penicillium spp. than other tested microorganisms using disc diffusion method. Finally it has proven that the synthesized bio-inspired Ag NPs have potent antimicrobial effect.

  7. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity.


    Ajitha, B; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y; Sreedhara Reddy, P


    This study reports the simple green synthesis method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract. The pathway of nanoparticles formation is by means of reduction of AgNO3 by leaf extract, which acts as both reducing and capping agents. Synthesized Ag NPs were subjected to different characterizations for studying the structural, chemical, morphological, optical and antimicrobial properties. The bright circular fringes in SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile reveals high crystalline nature of biosynthesized Ag NPs. Morphological studies shows the formation of nearly spherical nanoparticles. FTIR spectrum confirms the existence of various functional groups of biomolecules capping the nanoparticles. UV-visible spectrum displays single SPR band at 428 nm indicating the absence of anisotropic particles. The synthesized Ag NPs exhibited better antimicrobial property towards gram negative Escherichia coli and towards tested Penicillium spp. than other tested microorganisms using disc diffusion method. Finally it has proven that the synthesized bio-inspired Ag NPs have potent antimicrobial effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plectranthus amboinicus-mediated silver, gold, and silver-gold nanoparticles: phyto-synthetic, catalytic, and antibacterial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purusottam Reddy, B.; Mallikarjuna, K.; Narasimha, G.; Park, Si-Hyun


    Bio-based green nanotechnology aims to characterize compounds from natural sources and establish efficient routes for the preparation of nontoxic materials that have applicability in biodegradable and biocompatible devices. The present study has investigated the use of Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extracts as reducing and capping materials for the green fabrication of silver, gold, and silver-gold (Ag, Au, and Ag/Au) metal and bimetallic nanoparticles. The catalytic behavior of these phyto-inspired nanoparticles was then assessed in terms of the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the shape, morphology, distribution, and diameter of the phytomolecules capped with Ag, Au, and Ag/Au metal nanoparticles. The nature of the crystallinity of the nanoparticles was studied by small area electron diffraction (SAED) and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to study the reduction and stabilizing involvement of the phyto-organic moieties in aqueous medium. The phyto-inspired Ag and Ag/Au nanoparticles demonstrated good antibacterial properties toward Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp. and Gram-positive Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. microorganisms using the well diffusion method. Notably, the Ag nanoparticles were shown to possess effective antibacterial properties.

  9. In vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.


    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi


    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 10(6) promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 10(7) L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 10(6) L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Indian Borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) Leaf Extracts in Food Systems and
Against Natural Microflora in Chicken Meat

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sandeep Kumar


    Summary The ability of acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of a traditional Indian medicinal plant, Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus Benth) to prevent spoilage of artificially inoculated model food systems (cabbage and papaya) and natural microflora of chicken meat was evaluated. These extracts were able to reduce the bacterial counts in all food systems; however, the effective concentration varied with the complexity of the system (cabbage

  11. Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its control of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and blood sucking mosquito larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Vinoj, G.; Malaikozhundan, B.; Shanthi, S.; Vaseeharan, B.


    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles were biologically synthesized using the leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Pam-ZnO NPs). The synthesized Pam-ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, TEM and XRD analysis. TEM analysis of Pam-ZnO NPs showed the average size of about 20-50 nm. Pam-ZnO NPs control the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (MRSA ATCC 33591) at the concentration of 8-10 μg/ml. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) images revealed that Pam-ZnO NPs strongly inhibited the biofilm forming ability of S. aureus. In addition, Pam-ZnO NPs showed 100% mortality of fourth instar mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus at the concentration of 8 and 10 μg/ml. The histopathological studies of Pam-ZnO NPs treated A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus larvae revealed the presence of damaged cells and tissues in the mid-gut. The damaged tissues suffered major changes including rupture and disintegration of epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. The present study conclude that Pam-ZnO NPs showed effective control of S. aureus biofilms and mosquito larvae by damaging the mid gut cells.

  12. Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract mediated synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its control of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm and blood sucking mosquito larvae.


    Vijayakumar, S; Vinoj, G; Malaikozhundan, B; Shanthi, S; Vaseeharan, B


    In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles were biologically synthesized using the leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Pam-ZnO NPs). The synthesized Pam-ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, TEM and XRD analysis. TEM analysis of Pam-ZnO NPs showed the average size of about 20-50 nm. Pam-ZnO NPs control the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (MRSA ATCC 33591) at the concentration of 8-10 μg/ml. Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) images revealed that Pam-ZnO NPs strongly inhibited the biofilm forming ability of S. aureus. In addition, Pam-ZnO NPs showed 100% mortality of fourth instar mosquito larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus at the concentration of 8 and 10 μg/ml. The histopathological studies of Pam-ZnO NPs treated A. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus larvae revealed the presence of damaged cells and tissues in the mid-gut. The damaged tissues suffered major changes including rupture and disintegration of epithelial layer and cellular vacuolization. The present study conclude that Pam-ZnO NPs showed effective control of S. aureus biofilms and mosquito larvae by damaging the mid gut cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and blood compatibility assessment of electrospun polyvinyl alcohol blended with metallocene polyethylene and plectranthus amboinicus (PVA/mPE/PA) for bone tissue engineering.


    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Huang; Wang, Yingzhou; Mani, Mohan Prasath; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar


    Currently, the design of extracellular matrix (ECM) with nanoscale properties in bone tissue engineering is challenging. For bone tissue engineering, the ECM must have certain properties such as being nontoxic, highly porous, and should not cause foreign body reactions. In this study, the hybrid scaffold based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended with metallocene polyethylene (mPE) and plectranthus amboinicus (PA) was fabricated for bone tissue engineering via electrospinning. The fabricated hybrid nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), contact angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and hemolytic assays were used to investigate the blood compatibility of the prepared hybrid nanocomposites. The prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed reduced fiber diameter (238±45 nm) and also increased porosity (87%) with decreased pore diameter (340±86 nm) compared with pure PVA. The interactions between PVA, mPE, and PA were identified by the formation of the additional peaks as revealed in FTIR. Furthermore, the prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed a decreased contact angle of 51°±1.32° indicating a hydrophilic nature and exhibited lower thermal stability compared to pristine PVA. Moreover, the mechanical results revealed that the electrospun scaffold showed an improved tensile strength of 3.55±0.29 MPa compared with the pristine PVA (1.8±0.52 MPa). The prepared hybrid nanocomposites showed delayed blood clotting as noted in APTT and PT assays indicating better blood compatibility. Moreover, the hemolysis assay revealed that the hybrid nanocomposites exhibited a low hemolytic index of 0.6% compared with pure PVA, which was 1.6% suggesting the safety of the developed nanocomposite to red blood cells (RBCs). The prepared nanocomposites exhibited better physico

  14. The application of HPLC ESI MS in the investigation of the flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides of a Caribbean Lamiaceae plant with potential for bioaccumulation.


    Peter, Sonia R; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; McMartin, Dena W; Headley, John V


    As part of an exchange technology program between the government of Barbados and Environment Canada, methanolic and aqueous extracts from the flavonoid-rich Lamiaceae family were characterized using negative-ion electrospray mass spectrometry. The species investigated is part of the Caribbean Pharmacopoeia, and is used for a variety of health issues, including colds, flu, diabetes, and hypertension. The extracts were investigated for structural elucidation of phenolics, identification of chemical taxonomic profile, and evidence of bio-accumulator potential. The methanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Plectranthus amboinicus yielded rosmarinic acid, ladanein, cirsimaritin, and other methoxylated flavonoids. This genus also shows a tendency to form conjugates with monosaccharides, including glucose, galactose, and rhamnose. The aqueous extract yielded four isomeric rhamnosides. The formation of conjugates by Plectranthus amboinicus is thus evidence of high bioaccumulator significance.

  15. Mosquito repellent activity of volatile oils from selected aromatic plants.


    Lalthazuali; Mathew, Nisha


    Essential oils from fresh leaves of four aromatic plants viz., Ocimum sanctum, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Plectranthus amboinicus were extracted by hydrodistillation. The test solutions were prepared as 20% essential oil in ethanol and positive control as 20% DEET in ethanol. Essential oil blend was prepared as 5% concentration. Nulliparous, 3-5-day-old female adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were used for repellency screening as per ICMR protocol. The study showed that the repellency of 20% essential oil of O. sanctum, M. piperita and P. amboinicus were comparable with that of the standard DEET (20%) as no mosquito landing on the test was observed up to 6 h. The E. globulus oil exhibited mosquito repellency only upto 1½ h. Considerable mosquito landing and feeding was displayed in negative control. In the case of the oil blend, no landing of mosquitoes was seen up to 6 h as that of positive control. The results showed that the essential oil blend from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus could repel Ae. aegypti mosquitoes or prevent from feeding as in the case of DEET even at a lower concentration of 5%. This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils from O. sanctum, M. piperita, E. globulus and P. amboinicus and their blend as mosquito repellents against Ae. aegypti, the vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever.

  16. Ethnobotanics used in folk medicine of Tamil culture in Sri Lanka: a scientific review.


    Jesuthasan, Anternite Shanthi; Uluwaduge, Deepthi Inoka


    Tamil culture has recognized the potential use of plant herbs for prevention and treatment of different diseases. These folk remedies have been practiced by Sri Lankan Tamils even after modernization. This review focuses on frequently used medicinal plants among Sri Lankan Tamil communities, such as Cuminum cyminum, Azadirechta indica, Coriandrum sativum, Sesamum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Plectranthus amboinicus, Allium sativum and Curcuma longa, for their documented medicinal properties, which include antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic and diuretic effects.

  17. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.


    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R


    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties.

  18. Downy mildew on coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides) caused by Peronospora belbahrii sensu lato in Tennessee

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coleus (Plectranthus scutellarioides [syn. = Solenostemon scutellarioides]) is a popular ornamental plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae), prized for its colorful and showy foliage. In August 2015, disease symptoms typical of downy mildew were observed at two sites in Nashville, Tennessee: (i) at the...

  19. Ovicidal and larvicidal activity of crude extracts of Maesa lanceolata and Plectranthus punctatus against Haemonchus contortus.


    Tadesse, Dereje; Eguale, Tadesse; Giday, Mirutse; Mussa, Abiy


    The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of the conventional anthelmintic drugs, has limited the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep and goats and hence led to evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the leaves and fruits of the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Maesa lanceolata and aerial parts of Plectranthus punctatus were evaluated on the egg and larvae of Haemonchus contortus using egg hatch assay and larval development test. All extracts of plants tested have shown complete inhibition of egg hatching at or below 1 mg/ml. ED50 for egg hatch inhibition ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mg/ml, for both the aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata. All extracts have shown dose dependent inhibition of larval development with variable results. The complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml) was obtained only for hydro-alcoholic extract of the fruits of Maesa lanceolata and the lowest inhibition (50.33%) was recorded for the hydro-alcoholic extract of the leaves of the same plant. The overall findings of the present study has shown that Plectranthus punctatus and Maesa lanceolata contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of different extracts and fractions of these plants should be carried out.

  20. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  1. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaf extract of Coleus amboinicus Lour

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Sakthivel, Natarajan, E-mail:


    Highlights: {yields} Synthesis of AgNPs using the leaf extract of Coleus amboinicus L. was described. {yields} UV-vis absorption spectra showed the formation of isotrophic AgNPs at 437 nm in 6 h. {yields} XRD analysis showed intense peaks corresponding to fcc structure of AgNPs. {yields} HR-TEM analysis revealed the formation of stable anisotrophic and isotrophic AgNPs. -- Abstract: In the present investigation, Coleus amboinicus Lour. leaf extract-mediated green chemistry approach for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was described. The nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmissionmore » electron microscopy (TEM). The influence of leaf extract on the control of size and shape of silver nanoparticles is reported. Upon an increase in the concentration of leaf extract, there was a shift in the shape of nanoparticles from anisotrophic nanostructures like triangle, decahedral and hexagonal to isotrophic spherical nanoparticles. Crystalline nature of fcc structured nanoparticles was confirmed by XRD spectrum with peaks corresponding to (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) planes and bright circular spots in the selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). Such environment friendly and sustainable methods are non-toxic, cheap and alternative to hazardous chemical procedures.« less

  2. Bioactivities of decoctions from Plectranthus species related to their traditional use on the treatment of digestive problems and alcohol intoxication.


    Brito, Elsa; Gomes, Emma; Falé, Pedro L; Borges, Carlos; Pacheco, Rita; Teixeira, Vitor; Machuqueiro, Miguel; Ascensão, Lia; Serralheiro, Maria Luisa M


    Decoctions of Plectranthus species are traditionally ingested after large meals for treatment of food digestion and alcohol abuse. This study aims at associating the digestion-related ethno-uses of Plectranthus species decoctions to molecular mechanism that might explain them: easing digestion (AChE inhibition) and treating hangover (ADH inhibition) MATERIAL AND METHODS: Decoctions from Plectranthus species were analysed for their alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) inhibition and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, related with alcohol metabolism and intestinal motility, respectively. Identification of the active components was carried out by LC-MS/MS and the docking studies were performed with AChE and the bioactive molecules detected. All decoctions inhibited ADH activity. This inhibition was correlated with their rosmarinic acid (RA) content, which showed an IC 50 value of 19 μg/mL, similar to the reference inhibitor CuCl 2 . The presence of RA also leads to most decoctions showing AChE inhibiting capacity. P. zuluensis decoction with an IC 50 of 80 μg/mL presented also medioresinol, an even better inhibitor of AChE, as indicated by molecular docking studies. Furthermore, all decoctions tested showed no toxicity towards two human cell lines, and a high capacity to quench free radicals (DPPH), which also play a helpful in the digestive process, related with their RA content. All activities presented by the RA-rich Plectranthus decoctions support their use in treating digestion disorders and P. barbatus could explain its use also for alleviating hangover symptoms. Medioresinol, which is present in P. zuluensis, exhibited a significant AChE inhibition and may provide, in the future, a new lead for bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation Lactogenic Activity of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus L.) Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanik, R. M.; Kustiyah, L.; Hanafi, M.; Iwansyah, A. C.


    This study aimed to assess the lactogenic property of ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun (Coleus amboinicus L.) leaves and to identify the compounds that responsibility as ‘milk booster’ using LC- MS approach. Lactagogue activity was evaluated in terms of quantity of milk produced from the rats treated with commercial milk booster (AF), ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves (EA), water extraction of torbangun (AQ) and kaempferol (KP). The feed was given orally every two days and starting from Day 2 after giving birth until Day 28. The performance of milk production was measured along the experimental period by weight-suckle-weight method. The level of prolactin serum was determined by ELISA methods. Histopathological analysis of mammary gland, liver, intestines and kidney tissues was carried out. Moreover, in order to profiling and identification of compounds of ethyl acetate fraction, ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-ESI-MS) in the positive-ion mode was performed. The ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves (EA) was induced milk production about 17%, and AF 22% and KP 51% compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the EA was not significantly stimulate the synthesis of serum prolactin at Day 14 and Day 28 (p>0.05). Administration of EA did not cause any signs or symptoms of toxicity. In addition, a total of ten compounds was identified by UPLC-QTOF-ESI/MS in the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaves of C. amboinicus, mostly phenolic compounds, flavonols and some of their glycoside derivatives, such as: digiprolatone, and kaempferol-3-7-O-di-rhamnopyranoside. The present study reveals the ethyl acetate fraction of torbangun leaves and its bioactive compounds has the potency as a remedy for stimulating and improving milk production.

  4. High concentrations of aromatic acylated anthocyanins found in cauline hairs in Plectranthus ciliatus.


    Jordheim, Monica; Calcott, Kate; Gould, Kevin S; Davies, Kevin M; Schwinn, Kathy E; Andersen, Øyvind M


    Vegetative shoots of a naturalized population of purple-leaved plectranthus (Plectranthus ciliatus, Lamiaceae) were found to contain four main anthocyanins: peonidin 3-(6″-caffeoyl-β-glucopyranoside)-5-β-glucopyranoside, peonidin 3-(6″-caffeoyl-β-glucopyranoside)-5-(6‴-malonyl-β-glucopyranoside), peonidin 3-(6″-E-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranoside)-5-(6‴-malonyl-β-glucopyranoside), and peonidin 3-(6″-E-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranoside)-5-β-glucopyranoside. The first three of these pigments have not been reported previously from any plant. They all follow the typical anthocyanin pattern of Lamiaceae, with universal occurrence of anthocyanidin 3,5-diglucosides and aromatic acylation with p-coumaric and sometimes caffeic acids; however, they differ by being based on peonidin. The four anthocyanins were present in the leaves (22.2 mg g(-1) DW), and in the xylem and interfascicular parenchyma of the stem. They were exceptionally abundant, among the highest reported for any plant organ, in epidermal hairs on some of the stem internodes (101 mg g(-1) DW). Anthocyanin content in these hairs increased more than three-fold from the youngest to the fourth-youngest internodes. In situ absorbances (λmax ≈ 545 nm) were bathochromic in comparison to absorbances of the isolated anthocyanins in their flavylium form in acidified aqueous solutions (λmax = 525 nm), suggesting that the anthocyanins occur both in quinoidal and flavylium forms in constant proportions in the anthocyanic hair cells. The most distinctive observation with respect to relative proportions of individual anthocyanins was found in de-haired internodes, for which anthocyanin caffeoyl-derivatives decreased, and anthocyanin coumaroyl-derivatives increased, from the youngest to the fourth-youngest internode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Three New Abietane-Type Diterpenoids from Plectranthus africanus and Their Antibacterial Activities.


    Nzogong, Raïssa T; Nganou, Blaise K; Tedonkeu, Alex T; Awouafack, Maurice D; Tene, Mathieu; Ito, Takuya; Tane, Pierre; Morita, Hiroyuki


    Three new abietane-type diterpenoids, plectranthroyleanones A - C (1:  - 3: ), together with five known compounds (4:  - 8: ) were isolated from the methanol extract of the whole plant of Plectranthus africanus using column chromatography techniques. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using a combination of 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS analyses. Compound 1: exhibited weak activities with minimal inhibitory concentration values of 75 µg/mL against gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus , and 150 µg/mL against two gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae , respectively, while 2: and 3: had moderate antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae with a minimal inhibitory concentration value of 37.5 µg/mL. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Volatile organic compounds obtained by in vitro callus cultivation of Plectranthus ornatus Codd. (Lamiaceae).


    Passinho-Soares, Helna C; Meira, Paloma R; David, Juceni P; Mesquita, Paulo R R; do Vale, Ademir E; de M Rodrigues, Frederico; de P Pereira, Pedro A; de Santana, José Raniere F; de Oliveira, Fabio S; de Andrade, Jailson B; David, Jorge M


    Plectranthus spp (Lamiaceae) are plants of economic importance because they are sources of aromatic essential oils and are also cultivated and several species of this genus are used as folk medicines. This paper describes the effects of different concentrations of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on the induction of callus from nodal segments of Plectranthus ornatus Codd and in the production of volatile organic compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes). The 20 and 40 day calli were subjected to solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and submitted to GCMS analysis. Variations in VOCs between the samples were observed and, a direct relationship was observed between of the major constituent detected (α-terpinyl acetate) and the monoterpenes α-thujene, α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, sabinene and α-limonene that were present in the volatile fractions. Besides α-terpinyl acetate, isobornyl acetate and α-limonene were also major constituents. Variations were observed in VOCs in the analyzed periods. The best cultivation media for the production of VOCs was found to be MS0 (control). Moderate success was achieved by treatment with 2.68 µM and 5:37 µM NAA (Group 2). With 2,4-D (9.0 µM), only the presence of α-terpinyl acetate and isocumene were detected and, with 2.26 µM of 2,4-D was produced mainly α-terpinyl acetate, α-thujene and β-caryophyllene (16.2%). The VOC profiles present in P. ornatus were interpreted using PCA and HCA. The results permitted us to determine the best cultivation media for VOC production and, the PCA and HCA analysis allowed us to recognize four groups among the different treatments from the compounds identified in this set of treatments.

  7. Phytochemical and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous leaf extract of Indian borage (oregano) on rats induced with inflammation.


    Akinbo, David Bolaji; Onyeaghala, Augustine A; Emomidue, Jennifer Ochuko; Ogbhemhe, Stephanie Okhuriafe; Okpoli, Henry Chijindu


    The Indian borage (Plectranthus amboinicus) also called Oregano contains many effective antioxidants, which includes caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and flavonoids. It has been employed in traditional medicine for its several health benefits including the prevention and cure of many debilitating diseases. Anti-inflammatory properties of Plectranthus amboinicus grown within this environment have not been adequately explored. The protective and therapeutic effects of Oregano against endotoxaemia and inflammation were evaluated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced rat models. A total of 30 Wistar rats were randomly selected for this study and divided into six groups, with each group having 5 rats. Inflammation was induced on appropriate animal groups using LPS injection at a concentration of 4 mg/kg. Aqueous leaf extract of Indian borage was administered orally in four doses (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg post-LPS exposure and 150 mg/kg pre-LPS exposure) to respective treatment rat groups. Haematological profile, toxicity profile of liver and kidney and levels of biomarkers of inflammation were assayed using standard methods. Rats injected with LPS showed severe anaemia and marked leucopoenia with significant decrease in monocytes compared to the control group (p< 0.05). There was increased expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (p< 0.05) in the peripheral circulation of rats exposed to LPS. Treatment with Indian borage significantly (p< 0.05) reduced the toxic effects in the LPS-treated animals and attenuated the increase in the expression of circulating proinflammatory cytokines; tumor necrosis factor alpha (TN-Fα) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) caused by LPS. Indian borage pretreatment also significantly (p< 0.05) counteracted the associated haematological dyscrasias caused by exposure to LPS. The extract elicited a significant protective effect on the kidney and liver as evidenced by the decreased renal markers and hepatic enzyme

  8. A detailed study of the volatile components of Plectranthus asirensis of Saudi Arabian origin.


    Al-Saleem, Muneera S M; Khan, Merajuddin; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z


    Essential oil composition of Plectranthus asirensis grown in Saudi Arabia was chemically analysed for the first time by various gas chromatography techniques (GC-MS, GC-FID, Co-GC, LRI determination and database and literature searches) using two different stationary phase columns (polar and nonpolar). This analysis led to the characterisation of a total of 124 components representing 98.5% of the total oil composition. The results revealed that P. asirensis oil was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (90.7%) in which most representative constituents were thymol (66.0 ± 0.36%), γ-terpinene (14.0 ± 0.18%), p-cymene (5.2 ± 0.06%) and β-caryophyllene (3.0 ± 0.03%). It is worth mentioning here that this is the first report on the phytochemical constituents of P. asirensis.

  9. Composition, Granular Structure, and Pasting Properties of Native Starch Extracted from Plectranthus edulis (Oromo dinich) Tubers.


    Hellemans, Tom; Abera, Gifty; De Leyn, Ingrid; Van der Meeren, Paul; Dewettinck, Koen; Eeckhout, Mia; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Van Bockstaele, Filip


    Chemical composition, granular morphology and pasting properties of native starch extracted from tubers of Plectranthus edulis were analyzed. Starch was extracted from tubers of 6 accessions collected from 4 different areas in Ethiopia. Particle size analysis (PSA) and cryo-scanning electron microscope (cryo-SEM) imaging were used to examine the granular morphology and visualize the starch paste, respectively. Pasting properties, water absorption, and gelation capacity were compared. A wide range was found for the amylose (14.2% to 23.9%), calcium (216 to 599), potassium (131 to 878), and phosphorus (1337 to 2090) contents (parts per million per dry matter). PSA showed a bimodal distribution containing small spherical (14.6 μm) and large ellipse-shaped (190.4 μm) granules. Major differences were found for the pasting with peak viscosities differing from 3184 to 7312 mPa⋅s. Starch from accessions Chencha and Inuka showed a difference in packing density as clearly seen through cryo-SEM image at 75% of the peak viscosity (PV), and the granular integrity was mainly responsible for the significant difference in their PV and breakdown. Principal component analysis revealed 2 distinct groups: native starch extracted from accessions at the Wolayta zone (Inuka, Lofua, and Chenqoua) and other accessions (Jarmet, Arjo white, and Chencha). The study revealed the potential of P. edulis starch for its application in food industries. However, the inherent variation due to environmental conditions on physicochemical properties of the starch needs further investigation. Plectranthus edulis is cultivated in considerable amounts throughout Ethiopia, which makes it a valuable starch source. Due to its low tendency to retrograde, it could be applied in food industry as an equivalent for the current starch sources. Moreover, the low amylose content makes it preferable for an application in refrigerated foods as this unique quality trait prevents syneresis in end products during

  10. Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour): a Bataknese traditional cuisine perceived as lactagogue by Bataknese lactating women in Simalungun, North Sumatera, Indonesia.


    Damanik, Rizal


    Torbangun (Coleus amboinicus Lour) has been used as a breast milk stimulant (a lactagogue) by Bataknese people in Indonesia for hundreds of years. However, the traditional use of torbangun is not well documented, and scientific evidence is limited to establish coleus as a lactagogue. This Focus Group Discussion (FGD) study was conducted to gather information regarding the practice and cultural beliefs related to the traditional use of torbangun as a lactagogue. The main findings of this investigation were: (1) torbangun, which is considered nourishing, is usually given to the mother for one month after giving birth in order to restore her state of balance; (2) in the Bataknese culture, torbangun is perceived to serve several purposes which include enhancing breast milk production and acting as a uterine cleansing agent; and (3) the tradition has been practiced for hundreds of years, and its adherence is still strong.

  11. Control of stored grain pest, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) using the essential oil isolated from Plectranthus zeylanicus.


    Balachandra, B A H E; Pathirathna, P U; Paranagama, P A


    The bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) causes major losses during the storage of cowpea seeds [Vigna unguiculata (L.)Walp.] in Sri Lanka. Essential oil isolated from Plectranthus zeylanicus plant was tested for potential insecticidal activity against C. maculatus. The gas chromatography studies of the essential oil of P. zeylanicus showed that ρ-cymene (3.5%), β-caryophyllene (0.2%), geranyl acetate (9.3%) and geraniol (7.2%) were the major constituents. The adults of C. maculatus were susceptible to both fumigant and contact toxicity of P. zeylanicus plant oil. LC(50) values of 0.927 and 0.010 g L(-1) were obtained for fumigant toxicity and contact toxicity assays, respectively. Oviposition and F(1) adult emergence were significantly inhibited by P. zeylanicus plant oil at a concentration higher than 0.001 g L(-1) in both fumigant and contact toxicities. The analysis of olfactometer and choice camber bioassays revealed the repellent effects of the oil of P. zeylanicus plant.

  12. Efficacy of Plectranthus glandulosus (Lamiaceae) and Callistemon rigidus (Myrtaceae) Leaf Extract Fractions to Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).


    Danga, Simon Pierre Yinyang; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Younoussa, Lame; Adler, Cornel; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu


    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, methanol crude extracts of Plectranthus glandulosus and Callistemon rigidus leaves were sequentially fractionated in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol to establish the most active fraction(s) against Callosobruchus maculatus in cowpea. Cowpea seeds (25 g) were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 g/kg of extract to evaluate the contact toxicity and F1 progeny production of the beetles in the laboratory. Mortality was recorded 1, 3, and 7 d postexposure. P. glandulosus hexane fraction was more toxic than the other fractions recording 100% mortality at 4 g/kg, within 7 d with LC50 of 0.39 g/kg. Hexane fraction of C. rigidus showed superior toxicity, causing 100% mortality at 4 g/kg within only 1 d of exposure with LC50 of 1.02 g/kg. All the fractions greatly reduced progeny emergence, with C. rigidus hexane fraction being the best progeny inhibitor. Fractions of P. glandulosus and C. rigidus leaves had sufficient efficacy to be a component of storage pest management package for C. maculatus. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  13. A study on the seasonal variation of the essential oil composition from Plectranthus hadiensis and its antibacterial activity.


    Sripathi, Raju; Jayagopal, Dharani; Ravi, Subban


    The chemical composition and seasonal variation of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Plectranthus hadiensis grown during the rainy and summer seasons in the Western Ghats of India was analysed by GC-MS technique. The analysis of rainy season oil led to the identification of 31 compounds, representing 96.4% of the essential oil and the winter season oil led to 25 compounds, representing 95.1% of the oil. Most of the compounds were sesquiterpenes and oxygenated monoterpenes. The major components of the rainy season oil were L-fenchone (30.42%), β-farnesene (11.87%), copaene(11.10%), 2,3-dimethyl hydroquinone (10.78%), α-caryophyllene(8.41%) and piperitone oxide (3.94%) and of the summer season oil are L-fenchone (31.55%), copaene(11.93%), β-farnesene (10.45%), 1,8-naphthalenedione, 8a-ethylperhydro (10.06%), α-caryophyllene(6.36%), piperitone oxide (5.79%) and limonene(4.63%). Antibacterial activity of the essential oil of P. hadiensis was tested using zone of inhibition and minimum inhibition concentration methods. Both the oils inhibited the organisms and showed the zone of inhibition in the range of 20-35 mm with MIC values between 32 and 64 mg/dL.

  14. Effect of traditional plants in Sri Lanka on skin fibroblast cell number.


    Sano, Katsura; Someya, Takao; Hara, Kotaro; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Wijesekara, R G S


    This article describes the effects of extracts of several plants collected in Sri Lanka on the cell number of human skin fibroblasts. This study especially focuses on the plants traditionally used in indigenous systems of medicine in Sri Lanka, such as Ayurveda, as described below (English name, "local name in Sri Lanka," scientific name). Bougainvillea plant, "bouganvilla," Bougainvillea grabla (Nature׳s Beauty Creations Ltd., 2014) [1], purple fruited pea eggplant,"welthibbatu," Solanum trilobatum (Nature׳s Beauty Creations Ltd., 2014) [2], country borage plant, "kapparawalliya," Plectranthus amboinicus  (Nature׳s Beauty Creations Ltd., 2014) [3], malabar nut plant, "adhatoda," Justicia adhatoda (Nature׳s Beauty Creations Ltd., 2014) [4], long pepper plant,"thippili," Piper longum (Nature׳s Beauty Creations Ltd., 2014) [5], holy basil plant, "maduruthala," Ocimum tenuiflorum (Nature׳s Beauty Creations Ltd., 2014) [6], air plant, "akkapana," Kalanchoe pinnata (Nature׳s Beauty Creations Ltd., 2014) [7], plumed cockscomb plant, "kiri-henda," Celosia argentea (Nature׳s Beauty Creations Ltd., 2014) [8], neem plant,"kohomba," Azadirachta indica (Nature׳s Beauty Creations Ltd., 2014) [9], emblic myrobalan plant, "nelli," Phyllanthus emblica (Nature׳s Beauty Creations Ltd., 2014) [10]. Human skin fibroblast cells were treated with various concentration of plant extracts (0-3.0%), and the cell viability of cells were detected using calcein assay. The cell viabillity profiles are provided as line graphs.

  15. Ultraviolet-B component of sunlight stimulates photosynthesis and flavonoid accumulation in variegated Plectranthus coleoides leaves depending on background light.


    Vidović, Marija; Morina, Filis; Milić, Sonja; Zechmann, Bernd; Albert, Andreas; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Veljović Jovanović, Sonja


    We used variegated Plectranthus coleoides as a model plant with the aim of clarifying whether the effects of realistic ultraviolet-B (UV-B) doses on phenolic metabolism in leaves are mediated by photosynthesis. Plants were exposed to UV-B radiation (0.90 W m(-2) ) combined with two photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensities [395 and 1350 μmol m(-2)  s(-1) , low light (LL) and high light (HL)] for 9 d in sun simulators. Our study indicates that UV-B component of sunlight stimulates CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, depending on background light. UV-B-specific induction of apigenin and cyanidin glycosides was observed in both green and white tissues. However, all the other phenolic subclasses were up to four times more abundant in green leaf tissue. Caffeic and rosmarinic acids, catechin and epicatechin, which are endogenous peroxidase substrates, were depleted at HL in green tissue. This was correlated with increased peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities and increased ascorbate content. The UV-B supplement to HL attenuated antioxidative metabolism and partly recovered the phenolic pool indicating stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In summary, we propose that ortho-dihydroxy phenolics are involved in antioxidative defence in chlorophyllous tissue upon light excess, while apigenin and cyanidin in white tissue have preferentially UV-screening function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The phytoremediation potential of Plectranthus neochilus on 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and the role of antioxidant capacity in herbicide tolerance.


    Ramborger, Bruna Piaia; Ortis Gularte, Claudia Alves; Rodrigues, Daniela Teixeira; Gayer, Mateus Cristofari; Sigal Carriço, Murilo Ricardo; Bianchini, Matheus Chimelo; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Denardin, Elton Luis Gasparotto; Roehrs, Rafael


    The possible phytoremediation capacity of Plectranthus neochilus (boldo) exposed to the commercial pesticide (Aminol) in soil and water through consecutive extractions (days interval) was evaluated. After the exposure period, tea leaves from the plant were analyzed in terms of the presence of 2,4-D, total antioxidant capacity (DPPH), concentration of total polyphenols and flavonoids for plants exposed to soil and water. In water, 2,4-D remained up to 67% in the 60 days of experiment in the control group, which provided the use of two treatment groups with the plant (one group of plants for 30 days and another group in the remaining 30 days in the same system), thus, a decontamination up to 49% of the 2,4-D was obtained in this system with water. In both experiments (soil and water) the 2,4-D was not detected in tea leaves, the reduction of the antioxidant activity, polyphenols and flavonoids of plants exposed to the herbicide was also observed when compared to the non-exposed plants. In tea - plants in water - it was also possible to quantify the phenolic compounds and it was observed that in the group of plants of the first 30 days there was a decrease in caffeic acid and an increase in coumaric and ferulic acids, compared to the group of plants that were not exposed to 2,4-D. In the remaining 30 days with the new seedlings there was a decrease of the coumaric acid and an increase of the caffeic and ferulic acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Izabel Cristina Santiago; Delmondes, Gyllyandeson de Araújo; dos Santos, Ana Deyva Ferreira; Santos, Enaide Soares; de Oliveira, Dayanne Rakelly; de Figueiredo, Patrícia Rosane Leite; Alves, Dailon de Araújo; Barbosa, Roseli; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Kerntopf, Marta Regina; Fernandes, George Pimentel


    Background: The use of natural resources for the treatment of acute respiratory infections in children is a widespread practice within traditional communities, especially by women by being the primary caregivers. This study aimed to perform ethnobiological survey of plants and animals used for the treatment of acute respiratory infections in children of a traditional community in the municipality of Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil. Methods: It is a descriptive exploratory study with a quantitative approach, developed in Sitio Santo Antonio, in the municipality of Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil. As a tool for data collection, was applied a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. Data analysis used descriptive statistics (simple and percentage rate) and the Relative Frequency of Citation. Results: The research included a total of 54 informants. In total, there were 38 species cited. According to the Relative Frequency of Citation the following species were the most cited: Ocimum basilicum L. (0.59), Eucalyptus globulus Labili (0.59), Plectranthus amboinicus (L.) Spreng (0.42), Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. (0.24), Allium aescalonicum L. (0.22) and Mentha arvensis L. (0.18). Among the symptoms mentioned by the research subjects to treat the acute respiratory infections in childhood, there were: fever; cough; coughing with secretions; sore throat; hoarseness; tiredness; nasal congestion. Conclusions: It is important the knowledge about the usefulness of natural resources as alternative practices in diseases treatment, seeking to rescue popular knowledge used in the traditional community and fomenting the need to consider cultural aspects in the full practice to children’s health care. PMID:28852733

  18. Leaf chemistry and foliage avoidance by the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis in glasshouse collections.


    Brown, Alison S Scott; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J


    Observational studies on foliage avoidance by the polyphagous thrips species Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) identified six non-host species (Allagopappus dichotomus (Asteraceae), Gardenia posoquerioides (Rubiaceae), Plectranthus aff. barbatus, Plectranthus strigosus, Plectranthus zuluensis (Lamiaceae), and Sclerochiton harveyanus (Acanthaceae) among plants growing within a major glasshouse botanical collection. The effects of sequentially obtained acetone and aqueous methanol leaf extracts on mortality in first instar Frankliniella occidentalis were assessed. The acetone leaf extract of Sclerochiton harveyanus, which had the highest activity against the thrips, yielded four new iridoids, sclerochitonosides A-C, and sclerochitonoside B 4'-methyl ether. Mortality of F. occidentalis was increased on exposure to all four iridoids, and the most active iridoid was sclerochitonoside A (8-epiloganic acid 4'-hydroxyphenylethyl ester). Choice experiments demonstrated that this compound did not significantly deter H. haemorrhoidalis from treated leaf surfaces. The significance of iridoids in the defense mechanism of plants against thrips is discussed.

  19. Ethnomedicine and ethnobotany of fright, a Caribbean culture-bound psychiatric syndrome

    PubMed Central


    Background "Fright" is an English-speaking Caribbean idiom for an illness, or ethnomedical syndrome, of persistent distress. A parallel ethnopsychiatric idiom exists in the French Antilles as sésisma. Fright is distinct from susto among Hispanics, though both develop in the wake of traumatic events. West Indian ethnophysiology (ethnoanatomy) theorizes that an overload of stressful emotions (fear, panic, anguish or worry) causes a cold humoral state in which blood coagulates causing prolonged distress and increased risks of other humorally cold illnesses. Methods Qualitative data on local explanatory models and treatment of fright were collected using participant-observation, informal key informant interviews and a village health survey. Ethnobotanical and epidemiological data come from freelist (or "free-list") tasks, analyzed for salience, with nearly all adults (N = 112) of an eastern village in Dominica, and a village survey on medicinal plant recognition and use (N = 106). Results Along with prayer and exercise, three herbs are salient fright treatments: Gossypium barbadense L., Lippia micromera Schauer, and, Plectranthus [Coleus] amboinicus [Loureiro] Sprengel. The survey indicated that 27% of village adults had medicated themselves for fright. Logistic regression of fright suffering onto demographic variables of age, education, gender, parental status and wealth measured in consumer goods found age to be the only significant predictor of having had fright. The probability of having (and medicating for) fright thus increases with every year. Conclusions While sufferers are often uncomfortable recalling personal fright experiences, reporting use of medicinal plants is less problematic. Inquiry on fright medical ethnobotany (or phytotherapies) serves as a proxy measurement for fright occurrence. Cross-cultural and ethnopharmacology literature on the medicinal plants suggests probable efficacy in accord with Dominican ethnomedical notions of fright. Further, the

  20. [Repellent activity of plant essential oils against bites of Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae)].


    Nieves, Elsa; Fernández Méndez, Janett; Lias, José; Rondón, Maritza; Briceño, Benito


    Natural repellents from plant extracts have demonstrated good efficacy against bites of some insect species. The present study evaluated the repellent effect of essential oils extracted from 8 plants species against bites of Lutzomyia migonei, the Leishmania vector. The essential oils were extracted by steam destillation in Clevenger chamber, from the following plants: Hyptis suaveolens, Pimenta racemosa, Piper marginatum, Monticalia imbricatifolia, Pseudognaphalium caeruleocanum, Espeletia shultzii, Plecthranthus amboinicus and Cinnamomun zeylanicum. Repellency tests were performed under laboratory conditions by the human hand method in cage assays, using female colonies of L. migonei. The more effective oils were tested at variable concentrations on different volunteers. The protection percentage and time were calculated. The results showed what oils of P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum were the most effective. Although P. amboinicus oil also had repellent effect showed an irritant effect. The oils P. marginatum, H. suaveolens and P. racemosa showed no repellent effect, while the rest of oil extracts showed significant repellency in variable degrees. P. caeruleocanum and C. zeylanicum oils provided the 95% protection against bites of L. migonei for 3 h. The P. caeruleocanum oil showed the greatest protection time, with a mean over 4h and 3h at concentrations of 50% and 10% respectively. The results suggest that the P. caeruleocanum oil could represent a potential natural repellent against Leishmania vectors.

  1. Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central


    Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region. PMID:23898973

  2. Cytotoxicity of South-African medicinal plants towards sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells.


    Saeed, Mohamed E M; Meyer, Marion; Hussein, Ahmed; Efferth, Thomas


    Traditional medicine plays a major role for primary health care worldwide. Cancer belongs to the leading disease burden in industrialized and developing countries. Successful cancer therapy is hampered by the development of resistance towards established anticancer drugs. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of 29 extracts from 26 medicinal plants of South-Africa against leukemia cell lines, most of which are used traditionally to treat cancer and related symptoms. We have investigated the plant extracts for their cytotoxic activity towards drug-sensitive parental CCRF-CEM leukemia cells and their multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein-overexpressing subline, CEM/ADR5000 by means of the resazurin assay. A panel of 60 NCI tumor cell lines have been investigated for correlations between selected phytochemicals from medicinal plants and the expression of resistance-conferring genes (ABC-transporters, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes). Seven extracts inhibited both cell lines (Acokanthera oppositifolia, Hypoestes aristata, Laurus nobilis, Leonotis leonurus, Plectranthus barbatus, Plectranthus ciliates, Salvia apiana). CEM/ADR5000 cells exhibited a low degree of cross-resistance (3.35-fold) towards the L. leonurus extract, while no cross-resistance was observed to other plant extracts, although CEM/ADR5000 cells were highly resistant to clinically established drugs. The log10IC50 values for two out of 14 selected phytochemicals from these plants (acovenoside A and ouabain) of 60 tumor cell lines were correlated to the expression of ABC-transporters (ABCB1, ABCB5, ABCC1, ABCG2), oncogenes (EGFR, RAS) and tumor suppressors (TP53). Sensitivity or resistance of the cell lines were not statistically associated with the expression of these genes, indicating that multidrug-resistant, refractory tumors expressing these genes may still respond to acovenoside A and ouabain. The bioactivity of South African medicinal plants may represent a basis for the development

  3. Wild Plant Assessment for Heavy Metal Phytoremediation Potential along the Mafic and Ultramafic Terrain in Northern Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Sardar; Saddique, Umar; Gul, Nida; Khan, Muhammad Usman; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Farooq, Muhammad; Naz, Alia


    This study investigates the wild plant species for their phytoremediation potential of macro and trace metals (MTM). For this purpose, soil and wild plant species samples were collected along mafic and ultramafic terrain in the Jijal, Dubair, and Alpuri areas of Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. These samples were analyzed for the concentrations of MTM (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Co) using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS-PEA-700). Soil showed significant (P < .001) contamination level, while plants had greater variability in metal uptake from the contaminated sites. Plant species such as Selaginella jacquemontii, Rumex hastatus, and Plectranthus rugosus showed multifold enrichment factor (EF) of Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Co as compared to background area. Results revealed that these wild plant species have the ability to uptake and accumulate higher metals concentration. Therefore, these plant species may be used for phytoremediation of metals contaminated soil. However, higher MTM concentrations in the wild plant species could cause environmental hazards in the study area, as selected metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, and Pb) have toxicological concerns. PMID:24078907

  4. In vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of selected medicinal plants used in the traditional Arabian Peninsular region

    PubMed Central


    Background Worldwide particularly in developing countries, a large proportion of the population is at risk for tropical parasitic diseases. Several medicinal plants are still used traditionally against protozoal infections in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Thus the present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty-five plants collected from the Arabian Peninsula. Methods Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 μg/ml (<5 μg/ml for T. brucei) and selectivity index of >4. Results Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Chrozophora oblongifolia, Ficus ingens, Lavandula dentata and Plectranthus barbatus. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by Grewia erythraea, L. dentata, Tagetes minuta and Vernonia leopoldii. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in G. erythraea, L. dentata, P. barbatus and T. minuta. No relevant activity was found against L. infantum. High levels of cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 μg/ml) and hence non-specific activities were noted in Cupressus sempervirens, Kanahia laniflora and Kniphofia sumarae. Conclusion The results endorse that medicinal plants can be promising sources of natural products with antiprotozoal activity potential. The results support to some extent the traditional uses of some plants for the treatment of parasitic protozoal diseases. PMID:22520595

  5. A modern approach to the authentication and quality assessment of thyme using UV spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.


    Gad, Haidy A; El-Ahmady, Sherweit H; Abou-Shoer, Mohamed I; Al-Azizi, Mohamed M


    Recently, the fields of chemometrics and multivariate analysis have been widely implemented in the quality control of herbal drugs to produce precise results, which is crucial in the field of medicine. Thyme represents an essential medicinal herb that is constantly adulterated due to its resemblance to many other plants with similar organoleptic properties. To establish a simple model for the quality assessment of Thymus species using UV spectroscopy together with known chemometric techniques. The success of this model may also serve as a technique for the quality control of other herbal drugs. The model was constructed using 30 samples of authenticated Thymus vulgaris and challenged with 20 samples of different botanical origins. The methanolic extracts of all samples were assessed using UV spectroscopy together with chemometric techniques: principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The model was able to discriminate T. vulgaris from other Thymus, Satureja, Origanum, Plectranthus and Eriocephalus species, all traded in the Egyptian market as different types of thyme. The model was also able to classify closely related species in clusters using PCA and HCA. The model was finally used to classify 12 commercial thyme varieties into clusters of species incorporated in the model as thyme or non-thyme. The model constructed is highly recommended as a simple and efficient method for distinguishing T. vulgaris from other related species as well as the classification of marketed herbs as thyme or non-thyme. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.


    Watcharawit, R; Soonwera, M


    Human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in Thailand. Lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (A-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion) and commercial shampoo (BabiMild Natural'N Mild®) in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. All herbal shampoo were more effective than commercial shampoo with 100% mortality at 60 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30 to 31.97 seconds, meanwhile, commercial shampoo caused 14.0-15.0% mortality and LT50 values ranged from 83.96 to 87.43 seconds. The nine herbal shampoos from Zingiber cassumunar, Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Averrhoa bilimbi, Clitoria ternatea, Plectranthus amboincus, Myristica fragrans, Tacca chantrieri and Zanthoxylum limonella were more effective pediculicide than malathion shampoo with 100% mortality at 30 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30-13.58 seconds, on the other hand malathion shampoo showed LT50 values ranging from 12.39 to 13.67 seconds. LT50 values indicated the order of pediculicidal activity in the herbal shampoos as Z. cassumunar shampoo > P. betle shampoo > Za. limonella shampoo > Av. bilimbi shampoo > P. ribesioides shampoo > My. fragrans shampoo > T. chantrieri shampoo > Pl. amboincus shampoo. Our data showed that eight of the twenty nine herbal shampoos in this study were of high potential pediculicide to human head lice treatments for Thai children.

  7. Plants used for treating respiratory infections in rural Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.


    York, T; de Wet, H; van Vuuren, S F


    Traditional remedies are frequently used in treating various respiratory ailments, and are very important in the primary health care of the people living in rural Maputaland, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Novel information gathered from surveys like the present study is important in preserving indigenous knowledge. To explore the knowledge that the lay people of a rural community in northern Maputaland have about medicinal plants used in the vicinity to treat respiratory infections. Interviews were conducted among 80 homestead inhabitants, using structured questionnaires where convenience sampling was used. The focus was on plants used in treating respiratory infections. Some of the main topics discussed during the interviews were vernacular plant names, plant parts used, harvested amounts, preparation methods, dosage forms and quantities, use of plants in combination as well as the related symptomatic relief associated with respiratory infections. The study documented 30 plant species (18 families) which are used to treat respiratory infections by the rural people in the study area. Decoctions made with these plants are mostly taken orally, combined with the use of steaming. To the best of our knowledge, Acanthospermum glabratum, Aloe marlothii, Krauseola mosambicina, Ozoroa obovata, Parinari capensis and Plectranthus neochilus are recorded for the first time globally as medicinal plants used for treating respiratory infections and related symptoms. The indigenous aromatic shrub, Lippia javanica was by far the most frequently used plant species, followed by Eucalyptus grandis (an exotic), Tetradenia riparia and then Senecio serratulloides. Twenty-four different plant combinations were used where the most frequently used combination encountered was Eucalyptus grandis with Lippia javanica. The large number of different plant species traditionally used against respiratory infections supports previous research on the importance of traditional medicine in the primary

  8. Cellular injury evidenced by impedance technology and infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roux, K.; Prinsloo, L. C.; Meyer, D.


    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is finding increasing biological application, for example in the analysis of diseased tissues and cells, cell cycle studies and investigating the mechanisms of action of anticancer drugs. Cancer treatment studies routinely define the types of cell-drug responses as either total cell destruction by the drug (all cells die), moderate damage (cell deterioration where some cells survive) or reversible cell cycle arrest (cytostasis). In this study the loss of viability and related chemical stress experienced by cells treated with the medicinal plant, Plectranthus ciliatus, was investigated using real time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) technology and FTIR microspectroscopy. The use of plants as medicines is well established and ethnobotany has proven that crude extracts can serve as treatments against various ailments. The aim of this study was to determine whether FTIR microspectroscopy would successfully distinguish between different types of cellular injury induced by a potentially anticancerous plant extract. Cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells were treated with a crude extract of Pciliatus and cells monitored using RT-CES to characterize the type of cellular responses induced. Cell populations were then investigated using FTIR microspectroscopy and statistically analysed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The plant extract and a cancer drug control (actinomycin D) induced concentration dependent cellular responses ranging from nontoxic, cytostatic or cytotoxic. Thirteen spectral peaks (915 cm-1, 933 cm-1, 989 cm-1, 1192 cm-1, 1369 cm-1, 1437 cm-1, 1450 cm-1, 1546 cm-1, 1634 cm-1, 1679 cm-1 1772 cm-1, 2874 cm-1 and 2962 cm-1) associated with cytotoxicity were significantly (p value < 0.05, one way ANOVA, Tukey test, Bonferroni) altered, while two of the bands were also indicative of early stress related responses. In PCA, poor separation between nontoxic and cytostatic

  9. Could essential oils enhance biopolymers performance for wound healing? A systematic review.


    Pérez-Recalde, Mercedes; Ruiz Arias, Ignacio E; Hermida, Élida B


    Millions of people in the world suffer from chronic wounds of different etiologies such as diabetic foot and leg ulcers, without solutions nowadays. Molecules obtained from plants offer an alternative to aid wound healing. Strong evidence about essential oils (EO) anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties is thoroughly described in literature and their chemical compositions are well characterized. More recently, EO effects in experimental wounds have begun to be analyzed. We aim to summarize the evidence of EO in experimental wounds, and the possibility of combining them with biopolymers commonly used in skin regeneration. Electronic databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed and Scopus were used to search scientific contributions until March 2017, using relevant keywords. In a first step, literature focusing on EO and/or mono- or sesqui-terpenoids effects in rodent wounds was identified and summarized. In all cases, chemical structures and EO composition were detailed, as well as references to in vitro activities previously determined, e.g. antibacterial, antioxidant or anti-inflammatory. In a second step, scientific literature devoted to combine EO and biopolymers with the focus set on wound healing innovations, was collected and analyzed. Treatments with EO from species of genders Lavandula, Croton, Blumea, Eucalyptus, Pinus, Cymbopogon, Eucalyptus, Cedrus, Abies, Rosmarinus, Origanum, Salvia and Plectranthus, have shown positive results in rodent wounds. All of these EO were mainly composed by monoterpenoids-thymol, 1,8-cineole, linalool-or monoterpenes, as limonene or pinenes. Experimental wounds in rodents have shown faster closure rate, better collagen deposition and/or enhanced fibroblasts proliferation. In blends with biopolymers, several EO combined with chitosan, alginate, gelatin or collagen, were processed to give active films or nanofibers, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or antimicrobial activities. Curiously, all of these works were carried

  10. Antiplasmodial potential of traditional phytotherapy of some remedies used in treatment of malaria in Meru-Tharaka Nithi County of Kenya.


    Muthaura, C N; Keriko, J M; Mutai, C; Yenesew, Abiy; Gathirwa, J W; Irungu, B N; Nyangacha, R; Mungai, G M; Derese, Solomon


    Medicinal plants play a major role in many communities across the world, in the treatment and prevention of disease and the promotion of general health. The aim of the study was to escalate documentation from an earlier study of medicinal plants, traditionally used to combat malaria by the Ameru community of Imenti Forest area and Gatunga in Eastern Region of Kenya, and validate their ethnopharmacological claims by evaluating their antiplasmodial efficacies. The study was carried out in Meru County at Imenti Forest Game Reserve and in Tharaka Nithi County at Gatunga. Traditional health practitioners (THP) were interviewed with a standard questionnaire to obtain information on medicinal plants traditionally used for management of malaria. Group interviews were also held among THPs and members of the community. The antiplasmodial activities of the crude extracts against chloroquine sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) Plasmodium falciparum were determined using the semi-automated micro-dilution technique that measures the ability of the extracts to inhibit the incorporation of (G-3H) hypoxanthine into the malaria parasite. Ninety nine (99) species in eighty one (81) genera and forty five (45) families were documented and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity. Compositae, Fabaceae, Meliceae, Rubiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae had the highest number of species mentioned in treatment of malaria in Meru/Tharaka Nithi study area. Twenty four (24.2%) species showed antiplasmodial efficacy of IC50 ≤ 5 µg/ml and were considered to have potential for isolation of antimalarial compounds. Eight plant (8) species with moderate antiplasmodial activity namely; Cordia africana, Commiphora africana, Elaeodendron buchananii, Gomphocarpus semilunatus, Tarena graveolens, Plectranthus igniarius, Acacia senegal and Ziziphus abyssinica were documented from this region for the first time for the treatment of malaria. The antiplasmodial activity of MeOH root bark extract of

  11. Forskolin and derivatives as tools for studying the role of cAMP.


    Alasbahi, R H; Melzig, M F


    Forskolin (7beta-acetoxy-1alpha,6beta,9alpha-trihydroxy-8,13-epoxy-labd-14-en-11-one) is the first main labdane diterpenoid isolated from the roots of the Indian Plectranthus barbatus ANDREWS and one of the most extensively studied constituents of this plant. The unique character of forskolin as a general direct, rapid and reversible activator of adenylyl cyclase not only underlies its wide range of pharmacological effects but also renders it as a valuable tool in the study of the role of cAMP. The purpose of this review is to provide data presenting the utility of forskolin--as a cAMP activator--for studying the function of cAMP from different biological viewpoints as follows: 1) Investigation on the role of cAMP in various cellular processes in different organs such as gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, reproductive organs, endocrine system, urinary system, olfactory system, nervous system, platelet aggregating system, skin, bones, eyes, and smooth muscles. 2) Studies on the role of cAMP activation and inhibition to understand the pathogenesis (e.g. thyroid autoimmune disorders, leukocyte signal transduction defect in depression, acute malaria infection, secretory dysfunction in inflammatory diseases) as well as its possibly beneficial role for curing diseases such as the regulation of coronary microvascular NO production after heart failure, the attenuation of the development or progression of fibrosis in the heart and lungs, the augmentation of myo-protective effects of ischemic preconditioning especially in the failing hearts after myocardial infarction, the stimulation of the regeneration of injured retinal ganglion cells, the curing of glaucoma and inflammatory diseases, the reducing of cyst formation early in the polycystic kidney disease, and the management of autoimmune disorders by enhancing Fas-mediated apoptosis. 3) Studies on the role of cAMP in the mechanism of actions of a number of drugs and substances such as the effect of the

  12. Epidemiology of Basil Downy Mildew.


    Cohen, Yigal; Ben Naim, Yariv; Falach, Lidan; Rubin, Avia E


    Basil downy mildew (BDM) caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii is a destructive disease of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) worldwide. It originated in Uganda in the 1930s and recently spread to Europe, the Middle East, Americas, and the Far East. Seed transmission may be responsible for its quick global spread. The pathogen attacks leaf blades, producing chlorotic lesions with ample dark asexual spores on the lower leaf surface. Oospores may form in the mesophyll of infected leaves. The asexual spores germinate on a wet leaf surface within 2 h and penetrate into the epidermis within 4 h. Spore germination and infection occur at a wide range of temperatures from 5 to 28.5°C. Infection intensity depends on the length of dew period, leaf temperature, and inoculum dose. The duration of latent period (from infection to sporulation) extends from 5 to 10 days, depending on temperature and light regime. The shortest is 5 days at 25°C under continuous light. Sporulation requires high humidity but not free leaf wetness. Sporulation occurs at 10 to 26°C. At the optimum temperature of 18°C, the process of sporulation requires 7.5 h at relative humidity ≥ 85%, with 3 h for sporophores emergence from stomata and 4.5 h for spore formation. Sporophores can emerge under light or darkness, but spore formation occurs in the dark only. Limited data are available on spore dispersal. Spores dispersed from sporulating plants contaminate healthy plants within 2 h of exposure. Settled spores may survive on leaf surface of healthy plants for prolonged periods, depending on temperature. Seed transmission of the disease occurs in Europe, but not in Israel or the United States. P. belbahrii in Israel also attacks species belonging to Rosemarinus, Nepeta, Agastache, Micromeria, and Salvia but not Plectranthus (coleus). A Peronospora species that infects coleus does not infect sweet basil. Control of BDM includes chemical, physical, and genetic means. The fungicide mefenoxam was