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Sample records for r-btp extraction resins

  1. Extraction chromatography of neodymium by an organophosphorous extractant supported on various polymeric resins

    SciTech Connect

    Takigawa, D.Y.

    1993-04-01

    Fifteen resins coated with dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethyl phosphonate (CMP) were studied for their extraction of neodymium (Nd) in 4.0 and 7.0 M nitric acid. Resin properties, such as chemical composition and physical morphology, which can influence Nd extraction as well as subsequent resin regeneration (Nd stripping), were identified. Hydrophilic or polar resins coated with CMP efficiently extracted the Nd. Resins initially washed free of residual monomer and solvent before CMP coating outperformed their untreated counterparts. The macroporous styrene-divinylbenzene hydrophobic resins that were high in surface area were less effective supports compared with hydrophilic microporous Aurorez, polybenzimidazole (PBI) and macroporous Amberlite polyacrylic resins. Only one resin, Duolite C-467, showed no measurable improvement in Nd extraction with CMP coating. CMP-coated Aurorez PBI, a microporous and hydrophilic polymeric resin with an average surface area, showed the best overall efficiency for Nd removal and resin regeneration.

  2. Antibacterial activity of resin rich plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Mohd; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohd; Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Ahmad, Mohd Imtiyaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: The in vitro antibacterial activity of resin rich methanolic extracts (RRMEs) of Commiphora myrrha, Operculina turpethum, and Pinus roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Different concentration were studied by agar-well diffusion method against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae). Results: Among all the bacterial strains tested, E. faecalis was most sensitive and S. typhi was resistant to C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. The extracts of O. turpethum were active against all tested strains in which B. subtilis and S. aureus were the most sensitive. Conclusion: This suggested that the antibacterial activity of RRMEs of O. turpethum was more than C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. This probably explains the potential of these plants against a number of infections caused by bacterial strains tested. PMID:24302834

  3. Selective recovery of minor trivalent actinides from high level liquid waste by R-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yuichi; Surugaya, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masahiko

    2010-03-01

    Concerning the selective recovery of minor trivalent actinides (MA(III) = Am(III) and Cm(III)) from high level liquid waste (HLLW) by extraction chromatography, adsorption and elution behaviours of MA(III) and fission products (FP) in a nitric acid media were studied using iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents, which is expected to show high adsorption affinity for MA(III) even in concentrated HNO3 solution, such as HLLW. In the batch experiments, Pd showed strong adsorption on iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents under any concentration of HNO3. The MA(III) and heavy Ln(III) (Sm(III), Eu(III) and Gd(III)) were also adsorbed at the condition of high HNO3 concentration, but they showed no adsorption under low HNO3concentration. The separation factor for MA(III)/heavy Ln(III) took the maximum value (over 100) at around 1mol/dm3 HNO3. It was difficult to elute MA(III) or heavy Ln(III) selectively by HNO3 from the iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents degradated by γ-ray irradiation. The chromatographic separation of real HLLW by an iHex-BTP/SiO2-P column showed that MA(III) could be recovered selectively by adjusting the acidity of the feed solution, i.e. HLLW, to 1mol/dm3 and using H2O as eluant. The adsorption of Pd(II) can be decreased by the addition of appropriate complexing reagents, e.g. DTPA, into HLLW without any effects on the MA(III) adsorption.

  4. The kinetics of fossil resin extraction from a flotation concentrate

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.; Yu, Q.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    The kinetics of fossil resin extraction from a flotation concentrate by heptane were investigated as a function of process variables using monosize particles. Experimental results provide for a better understanding of the refining process and the basis for subsequent design and construction of a continuous resin refining circuit. Based on the effect of process variables (particle size, stirring speed, and temperature) the resin extraction rate appears to be controlled by surface solvation phenomena. The initial extraction rate was found to be inversely proportional to the initial particle size and a kinetic model is being developed to describe the experimental results.

  5. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1991-12-10

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  6. Modified resins for solid-phase extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, James S.; Sun, Jeffrey J.

    1993-07-27

    A process of treating aqueous solutions to remove organic solute contaminants by contacting an aqueous solution containing polar organic solute contaminants with a functionalized polystyrene-divinyl benzene adsorbent resin, with the functionalization of said resin being accomplished by organic hydrophilic groups such as hydroxymethyl, acetyl and cyanomethyl.

  7. 45Ti extraction using hydroxamate resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, K.; Severin, G. W.; Barnhart, T. E.; Engle, J. W.; Valdovinos, H. F.; Nickles, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    As an attractive radionuclide for positron emission tomography, this study explores the extraction and reactivity of 45Ti produced via the 45Sc(p,n)45Ti reaction on a GE PETtrace. Using a small hydroxamate column, we have demonstrated an overall recovery of >50% of 45Ti in ˜1 mL of 1M oxalic acid. Conditions for reacting with desferal were also explored, with effective specific activities up to 38 GBq/μmol obtained.

  8. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  9. Cloud point extraction of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol from cannabis resin.

    PubMed

    Ameur, S; Haddou, B; Derriche, Z; Canselier, J P; Gourdon, C

    2013-04-01

    A cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) method was developed for the determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in micellar phase. The nonionic surfactant "Dowfax 20B102" was used to extract and pre-concentrate THC from cannabis resin, prior to its determination with a HPLC-UV system (diode array detector) with isocratic elution. The parameters and variables affecting the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions (1 wt.% Dowfax 20B102, 1 wt.% Na2SO4, T = 318 K, t = 30 min), this method yielded a quite satisfactory recovery rate (~81 %). The limit of detection was 0.04 μg mL(-1), and the relative standard deviation was less than 2 %. Compared with conventional solid-liquid extraction, this new method avoids the use of volatile organic solvents, therefore is environmentally safer.

  10. In vitro color change of three dental veneering resins in tea, coffee and tamarind extracts

    PubMed Central

    Subramanya, J.K.; Muttagi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the in vitro color changes of three dental resin veneering materials when immersed in tea, coffee and tamarind extracts. Materials and Methods The color changes of heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (Stellondetrey, B, F14, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai), auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin (DPI, B, QV5, DPI Dental products of India Ltd, Mumbai) and light polymerized resin composite (Herculite XRV, Enamel A2, part no. 22860, lot no. 910437, Kerr Corporation, West Collins Avenue, Orange, CA, USA) when immersed in water extracts of tea (Tata Tea Ltd. Bangalore, India), coffee (Tata Coffee Ltd. Coorg, India) and tamarind were evaluated using computer vision systems. The color images were recorded in R (red), G (green) and B (blue) form and converted into H (hue), S (saturation) and V (value). Results Significant color change occurred for auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tamarind extract, for heat polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin in tea extract and for light polymerized resin composite in coffee extract. Auto polymerized tooth colored acrylic resin samples showed an overall higher color change. However, for all the material samples coffee extract produced more color change. Conclusion These results suggest that the color stability of the resins is influenced by the presence of secondary metabolites such as tartaric acid, tannins, caffeine, saponins and phenols in tamarind, tea and coffee extracts. PMID:22457841

  11. Test plan for demonstrating plutonium extraction from 10-L solutions using EIChrom extraction chromatographic resins

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1994-08-15

    Corrosive plutonium solutions stored in 10-L containers at the Plutonium Finishing Plant must be treated to convert the plutonium to a safe, solid form for storage and to remove the americium so that radiation exposure can be reduced. Extraction chromatographic resins will be tested for separating plutonium from these solutions in the laboratory. Separation parameters will be developed during the testing for large scale processing of the 10-L solutions and solutions of similar composition. Use of chromatographic resins will allow plutonium separation with minimum of chemical addition to the feed and without the need for plutonium valence adjustment. The separated plutonium will be calcined to plutonium oxide by direct solution calcination.

  12. Wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. resin.

    PubMed

    Wani, T A; Chandrashekara, H H; Kumar, D; Prasad, R; Gopal, A; Sardar, K K; Tandan, S K; Kumar, D

    2012-04-01

    The ethanolic extract of S. robusta resin (10 and 30 % w/w applied locally in excised and incised wounds) produced a dose-dependent acceleration in wound contraction and increased hydroxyproline content and tensile strength of wounds in rats. The results demonstrate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of S. robusta resin.

  13. Fermium purification using TEVA{trademark} resin extraction chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.E.; Riley, F.D. Jr.; Vandergrift, R.D.; Felker, L.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiochemical Engineering Development Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory processes irradiated targets to recover the transplutonium actinides for research and industrial users. In a typical processing campaign, dekagram quantities of curium are recovered for recycle into targets for subsequent irradiation and processing; decigram quantities of californium are recovered for fabrication into neutron sources; and milligram quantities of einsteinium and berkelium as well as picogram quantities of fermium are recovered for distribution to the research community. The transcurium actinides are separated in a series of chromatographic elutions using a cation-exchange resin and ammonium {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyrate as the eluant. The fermium fraction from these final purification runs still contains significant amounts of rare earth fission products, such as yttrium, dysprosium, and holmium. In the most recent campaign, a process using a TEVA{trademark} resin extraction chromatography column was developed and tested to determine its effectiveness in providing a fermium product free of rare earth fission products. Gamma spectroscopy indicated that dysprosium and holmium were reduced to levels less than minimum detectable limits and that only 0.07 pg of {sup 91}Y remained in the final fermium product, which contained 0.5 pg of {sup 257}Fm. An overall decontamination factor of {approximately}10{sup 3} was achieved for fission product removal.

  14. A NEW EXTRACTION CHROMATOGRAPHY RESIN CONTAINING KLÄUI LIGANDS FOR APPLICATION IN ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Wester, Dennis W.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Latesky, Stanley L.; Martyr, Cuthbert C.; Richards, Kia N.

    2004-11-01

    An extraction chromatography resin containing the anionic ligand (η5-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tris-(diethylphosphito-P)cobalt(III), (L) has been prepared. The resin consists of 1 wt% L on Amberlite® XAD-7. This resin strongly sorbs Am(III) and Pu(IV). The sorption of these ions decreases with increasing nitric acid concentration, but this effect is more pronounced for Am(III). This allows for convenient separation of Am(III) from Pu(IV) by simple adjustments in the nitric acid concentration. The tripodal geometry of L disfavors the complexation of uranyl ion, so sorption of U(VI) by the L-containing resin is weak.

  15. Copolymer resins made of agricultural and forest residues extracts for wood laminating adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.M.

    1995-11-01

    Extracts of Southern pine bark, peanut hulls, pecan nut pitch, and pecan shell flour were used to synthesize copolymer resins using resorcinol, phenol, and formaldehyde. The test joints of both southern pine and oak were laminated in room temperature. The gluability of these copolymer resins were evaluated with shear compression loading test. The effects of resorcinol level, the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenolic, and the composition of the hardener on bonding quality were investigated. With a more than 80% wood failure after vacuum pressure treatment, several copolymer resins provided good bonding quality as a wood laminating adhesive. Different extracts required different formulations of copolymer resin and hardner to obtain the best bonding quality.

  16. [DNA extraction using Chelex resin for oncogenic amplification analysis in head and neck tumours].

    PubMed

    García González, L A; Rodrigo Tapia, J P; Sánchez Lazo, P; Ramos, S; Suárez Nieto, C

    2004-03-01

    DNA extraction from tissues can be the most laborious and complex step in amplifying DNA by PCR when phenol-choroform procedure is used. We compare this lengthy, slow and expensive extraction method with other two based in the use of Chelex-100 resin. This chelating resin has been applied for extracting DNA from different tissues to use with the PCR. These procedures are simple, rapid and do not require multiple steps. In this study we compared DNA extraction from 30 head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) using organic solvent precipitation, Chelex 100 resin with and without proteinase K pretreatment. The results show that proteinase K-Chelex 100 procedure is as efficient as the phenol-chloroform one.

  17. [Mechanism of gold solid extraction from aurocyanide solution using D3520 resin impregnated with TRPO].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Jun; Wang, Shi-Xiong; Zou, An-Qin; Chen, Jing; Guo, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Trialkyphosphine oxides (TRPO) was successfully used for the impregnation of D3520 resin to prepare an extractant-impregnated resin (EIR). Solid extraction of Au(I) from alkaline cyanide solution was studied using this extractant-impregnated resin (EIR), with addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB), directly into the aurous aqueous phase in advance. The mechanism of solid extraction was further investigated by means of FTIR, XPS and SEM. The column separation studies have shown that cationic surfactant CTMAB played a key role in the solid phase extraction, and the resin containing TRPO were effective for the extraction of gold when the molar ratio of CTMAB: Au( I ) reached 1:1. FTIR spectroscopy of gold loaded EIR showed that the frequency of C[triple bond]N stretching vibration was at 2144 cm(-1), and the frequency of P=O stretching vibration shifted to lower frequency from 1153 to 1150 cm(-1). The XPS spectrum of N(1s), Au(4f7/2) and Au(4f5/2) sugges- ted that the coordination environment of gold did not change before and after extraction, and gold was still as the form of Au (CN)2(-) anion exiting in the loaded resin; O(1s) spectrum showed that the chemically combined water significantly increased after solid extraction from 30.74% to 42.34%; Comparing to the P(2p) spectrum before and after extraction, the binding energy increased from 132. 15 to 132. 45 eV, indicating there maybe existing hydrogen-bond interaction between P=O and water molecule, such as P=O...H-O-H. The above results obtained established that in the solid extraction process, the hydrophobic ion association [CTMA+ x Au(CN)] diffused from the bulk solution into the pores of the EIR, and then be solvated by TRPO adsorbed in the pores through hydrogen bonding bridged by the water molecules.

  18. Extraction of High Quality DNA from Seized Moroccan Cannabis Resin (Hashish)

    PubMed Central

    El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaâ; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004) adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish) resin derived from Cannabis sativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances. PMID:24124454

  19. Separation and recovery of food coloring dyes using aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic resins.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, J G; Willauer, H D; Boaz, K R; Rogers, R D

    1998-06-26

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) and aqueous biphasic extraction chromatographic (ABEC) resins are currently under investigation for their utility in the removal of color from textile plant wastes. The structures of several widely used food colorings, suggest that these dyes would also be retained on the resins. In work currently in progress, we have begun to investigate the retention and resolution of several common food colorings including indigo carmine, amaranth, carminic acid. erythrosin B, tartrazine and quinoline yellow. The relationship between the uptake of these dyes on ABEC resins in terms of the binding strengths and capacities of the resins and their partitioning behavior in ABS is illustrated. Some possible theoretical and practical approaches to the prediction of the partitioning and retention behavior is discussed. PMID:9699992

  20. [Purification technology of procymidone residues in ginseng extracts by macroporous resins].

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Li; Zheng, Pei-He; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2014-07-01

    The macroporous resin separation technology has been mainly applied in the enrichment of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and other ingredients, and used in the removal of heavy metal impurities and pesticide residues in recent years. This paper focuses on the synthesis of the new-type macroporous adsorption resin LKS-11 according to the molecular structure characteristics of procymidone. Specifically, the selective absorptive property and other advantages of macroporous resin were utilized to analyze the procymidone removal efficiency in ginseng extracts from different sources. The type of macroporous resins, absorptive property and desorption conditions were observed respectively by static and dynamic adsorption methods to determined the optimum process conditions. According to the results, LKS-11 showed a good absorptive property to procymidone in ginseng extracts and provided a theoretical basis for studies on the removal of procymidone residues from ginseng extracts by using macroporous adsorption resin. Because of no secondary pollution on samples, low production and operation costs, high procymidone removal efficiency and high product recovery rate, this method is suitable to be applied in production. PMID:25276973

  1. [Purification technology of procymidone residues in ginseng extracts by macroporous resins].

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Li; Zheng, Pei-He; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2014-07-01

    The macroporous resin separation technology has been mainly applied in the enrichment of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and other ingredients, and used in the removal of heavy metal impurities and pesticide residues in recent years. This paper focuses on the synthesis of the new-type macroporous adsorption resin LKS-11 according to the molecular structure characteristics of procymidone. Specifically, the selective absorptive property and other advantages of macroporous resin were utilized to analyze the procymidone removal efficiency in ginseng extracts from different sources. The type of macroporous resins, absorptive property and desorption conditions were observed respectively by static and dynamic adsorption methods to determined the optimum process conditions. According to the results, LKS-11 showed a good absorptive property to procymidone in ginseng extracts and provided a theoretical basis for studies on the removal of procymidone residues from ginseng extracts by using macroporous adsorption resin. Because of no secondary pollution on samples, low production and operation costs, high procymidone removal efficiency and high product recovery rate, this method is suitable to be applied in production.

  2. Evaluation of extractants and chelating resins in polishing actinide-contaminated waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, S.B.; Dunn, S.L.; Yarbro, S.L.

    1991-06-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility, anion exchange is used for recovering plutonium from nitric acid solutions. Although this approach recovers >99%, the trace amounts of plutonium and other actinides remaining in the effluent require additional processing. We are doing research to develop a secondary unit operation that can directly polish the effluent so that actinide levels are reduced to below the maximum allowed for facility discharge. We selected solvent extraction, the only unit operation that can meet the stringent process requirements imposed; several carbonyl and phosphoryl extractants were evaluated and their performance characterized. We also investigated various engineering approaches for solvent extraction; the most promising was a chelating resin loaded with extractant. Our research now focuses on the synthesis of malonamides, and our goal is to bond these extractants to a resin matrix. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Chemically modified polymeric resins for high performance liquid chromatography, solid-phase extraction and organic separation by LC and GC

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jeffrey Jiafang.

    1991-08-06

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene resins were chemically modified by introduction of various functional groups, which included polar, non-polar, ionic and metallic groups. These chemically modified polymeric resins were used successfully for high performance liquid chromatography, solid phase extraction and some special applications in liquid and gas chromatography. The introduced functional groups offer an additional selectivity parameter for liquid chromatographic separation. The polar derivatized polymeric resins dramatically increased the recoveries of solid phase extraction, especially for polar compounds. The sulfonated polystyrene resins were used for separation of neutral and basic compounds as well as basic and weaker basic compounds. The sulfonated non-porous resin was used amine abstracter and the polymeric-mercuric resin was used as mercaptan abstracter in capillary gas chromatograph. The researches in this dissertation has shown the very promising applications of polystyrene divinylbenzene resin in chromatographic field. 58 refs., 34 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. N-Acetyl cysteine restores viability and function of rat odontoblast-like cells impaired by polymethylmethacrylate dental resin extract.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masahiro; Kojima, Norinaga; Att, Wael; Hori, Norio; Suzuki, Takeo; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2009-01-01

    There is concern that dental-resin materials directly loaded on a prepared tooth adversely affect dental pulp tissue by releasing the resin chemicals through dentinal tubes. This study determined whether self-curing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resin extract adversely affected the viability and function of odontoblast-like cells and whether the cytotoxicity of this resin, if any, could be eliminated by N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant amino acid derivative. Odontoblast-like cells isolated from rat maxillary incisor dental pulp tissue were exposed to a PMMA resin extract with or without N-acetyl cysteine for 1 h and then cultured in osteoblastic media. The percentage of viable cells 24 h after seeding was 20% in cells exposed to the resin extract without N-acetyl cysteine, whereas 45% of cells were viable after exposure to the N-acetyl cysteine-supplemented extract. The cells that had been exposed to the extract showed a strong tendency for apoptosis associated with the increased reactive oxygen species production and decreased intracellular glutathione level, which was improved by the addition of N-acetyl cysteine. N-Acetyl cysteine supplementation almost completely restored the significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization by the resin extract. These results conclusively demonstrated that exposure of odontoblast-like cells to the resin extract impaired the cell viability and function and, more intriguingly, N-acetyl cysteine supplementation to the extract significantly prevented these toxic effects.

  5. Ionic-liquid-impregnated resin for the microwave-assisted solid-liquid extraction of triazine herbicides in honey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Yu, Cui; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-09-01

    Microwave-assisted ionic-liquid-impregnated resin solid-liquid extraction was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides, including cyanazine, metribuzin, desmetryn, secbumeton, terbumeton, terbuthylazine, dimethametryn, and dipropetryn in honey samples. The ionic-liquid-impregnated resin was prepared by immobilizing 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the microspores of resin. The resin was used as the extraction adsorbent. The extraction and enrichment of analytes were performed in a single step. The extraction time can be shortened greatly with the help of microwave. The effects of experimental parameters including type of resin, type of ionic liquid, mass ratio of resin to ionic liquid, extraction time, amount of the impregnated resin, extraction temperature, salt concentration, and desorption conditions on the extraction efficiency, were investigated. A Box-Behnken design was applied to the selection of the experimental parameters. The recoveries were in the range of 80.1 to 103.4% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.8%. The present method was applied to the analysis of honey samples. PMID:26082329

  6. Ionic-liquid-impregnated resin for the microwave-assisted solid-liquid extraction of triazine herbicides in honey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Yu, Cui; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-09-01

    Microwave-assisted ionic-liquid-impregnated resin solid-liquid extraction was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides, including cyanazine, metribuzin, desmetryn, secbumeton, terbumeton, terbuthylazine, dimethametryn, and dipropetryn in honey samples. The ionic-liquid-impregnated resin was prepared by immobilizing 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the microspores of resin. The resin was used as the extraction adsorbent. The extraction and enrichment of analytes were performed in a single step. The extraction time can be shortened greatly with the help of microwave. The effects of experimental parameters including type of resin, type of ionic liquid, mass ratio of resin to ionic liquid, extraction time, amount of the impregnated resin, extraction temperature, salt concentration, and desorption conditions on the extraction efficiency, were investigated. A Box-Behnken design was applied to the selection of the experimental parameters. The recoveries were in the range of 80.1 to 103.4% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.8%. The present method was applied to the analysis of honey samples.

  7. Genetic toxicology of dental composite resin extracts in somatic cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Arossi, Guilherme Anziliero; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Lehmann, Mauricio; Reguly, Maria Luiza; de Andrade, Heloísa Helena Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential genetic toxicity associated to nine aqueous extracts from dental composite resins (Charisma, Fill Magic, Fill Magic Flow, Durafill, TPH Spectrum, Concept, Natural Look, Filtek Z250 and Filtek P60) and one random extract. Homologous mitotic recombination, point and chromosomal mutation effects were determined in somatic proliferative cells of Drosophila melanogaster exposed to aqueous extracts of the clinically used composites. Reproducible increases in clone mutant spot frequencies induced by diluted extract of Fill Magic Flow were observed. These increments were exclusively associated to the induction of homologous recombination - a genetic phenomenon involved in the loss of heterozygosis. The other eight composite resins and the random extract had no statistically significant effect on total spot frequencies - suggesting that they are non-genotoxic in the somatic mutation and recombination test assay, which agrees with the applications they have in dentistry. These findings - supported by numerous studies showing a positive correlation between carcinogenicity in man and genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing spot test - point to the potential risks some composite resins pose to the health of patients and dentistry personnel.

  8. Comparison of extracts and toxicities of organic compounds in drinking water concentrated by single and composite XAD resins.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue; Xiang, Lunhui; Wu, Fenghong; Peng, Xiaoling; Xie, Hong; Wang, Jiachun; Yang, Kedi; Lu, Wenqing; Wu, Zhigang

    2013-12-01

    We compared extracts and toxicities of organic compounds (OCs) in drinking water concentrated by composite XAD-2/8 resin (mixed with an equal volume of XAD-2 and XAD-8 resins) with those extracted by single XAD-2 (non-polar) and XAD-8 (polar) resins. Drinking water was processed from raw water of the Han River and the Yangtze River in Wuhan section, China. The extraction efficiency of all resins was controlled at 30%. The types of extracted OCs were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and comet assays, respectively, in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Our results showed that XAD-2/8 extracted a larger variety of OCs, compared with XAD-8 and XAD-2. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of extracted OCs were in the order of XAD-8> XAD-2/8> XAD-2 at almost all tested concentrations after 24 h treatment (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that single XAD resin selectively extracts either polar or non-polar OCs, which would lead to over- or under-estimation of the toxicity of drinking water. Nevertheless, composite resin extracts both polar and non-polar OCs, and could be utilized as a useful extraction technique to evaluate the level and toxicity of OCs in drinking water.

  9. Recovery of hesperidin from orange peel by concentration of extracts on styrene-divinylbenzene resin.

    PubMed

    Di Mauro, A; Fallico, B; Passerini, A; Rapisarda, P; Maccarone, E

    1999-10-01

    This paper describes a new procedure for obtaining hesperidin from the waste orange peel of the citrus industry. It is based on the adsorption of dilute extracts of hesperidin on a styrene-divinylbenzene (SDVB) resin and the desorption in much more reduced volumes by means of alkaline eluents. Hesperidin immediately precipitates with good yield and high purity after acidification of the concentrated solutions, thus overcoming disadvantages due to the high dilution. Different experiments were carried out to examine operating conditions in each phase of the process. Hesperidin was extracted from peel with an aqueous saturated Ca(OH)(2) solution, allowing precipitation of calcium pectates from colloidal pectins that can interfere in the subsequent phases of adsorption and separation of hesperidin. The clear extracts were neutralized to optimize adsorption on resin. The most effective eluent was 0.5 N NaOH solution containing 10% ethanol. Recycling of the crystallization liquor improved the yield and purity of the product and reduced the acid amount required for neutralizing fresh alkaline extracts. Resin must be washed after each adsorption-desorption cycle and regenerated after five cycles. Results can constitute a useful starting point for an industrial application. A flow scheme of the process is also reported.

  10. Determination of weight distribution ratios of Pa(V) and Np(V) with some extraction chromatography resins and the AG1-X8 resin.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M; Aupiais, J; Jutier, C; Pointurier, F

    2013-05-30

    Literature data on distribution ratios (Dw) of Np(V) and Pa(V) for the AG1-X8 resin are scarce whereas those related on resin capacity factors (k') values for TEVA, TRU and U/TEVA resins are absent. Therefore, batch extraction experiments for Pa(V) and Np(V) from HCl and HNO3 media were realized, at tracer scale, with AG1-X8 and EIChroM resins (TEVA, TRU and U/TEVA). Based on the new Dw and k' values obtained in this study, a new protocol for Pa/Np separation has been developed leading to a better separation factor of 10(5) and a chemical yield of 97±3% and 99±1% for Pa and Np, respectively. A separation of (231)Pa from uranium matrix was successfully tested.

  11. Determination of weight distribution ratios of Pa(V) and Np(V) with some extraction chromatography resins and the AG1-X8 resin.

    PubMed

    Mendes, M; Aupiais, J; Jutier, C; Pointurier, F

    2013-05-30

    Literature data on distribution ratios (Dw) of Np(V) and Pa(V) for the AG1-X8 resin are scarce whereas those related on resin capacity factors (k') values for TEVA, TRU and U/TEVA resins are absent. Therefore, batch extraction experiments for Pa(V) and Np(V) from HCl and HNO3 media were realized, at tracer scale, with AG1-X8 and EIChroM resins (TEVA, TRU and U/TEVA). Based on the new Dw and k' values obtained in this study, a new protocol for Pa/Np separation has been developed leading to a better separation factor of 10(5) and a chemical yield of 97±3% and 99±1% for Pa and Np, respectively. A separation of (231)Pa from uranium matrix was successfully tested. PMID:23680558

  12. Biochemical changes of Culex pipiens larvae treated with oil and oleo-resin extracts of Myrrh Commiphora molmol.

    PubMed

    Massoud, A M; Labib, I M; Rady, M

    2001-08-01

    The mosquitocidal plant extracts of the Myrrh, Commiphora molmol namely; oil and oleo-resin, were proved to demonstrate larvicidal activity against Culex pipiens larvae. Oleo-resin was found to induce significant higher toxic action than oil. Solvent (cremophore EL) did not perform any toxic activity. The Impact of both oleo-resin and oil extracts on the protein profile of the treated larvae was evaluated in order to explain their mode of action. Electrophoretic analysis of total proteins, lipoproteins and glycoproteins revealed inhibitory action of the used plant extracts on the protein contents. Larvicidal activity of the oleo-resin and oil was explained as to be related to the loss of certain enzymes inhibited by these extracts which affect the metabolic processes. PMID:11478451

  13. Preliminary enrichment and separation of chlorogenic acid from Helianthus tuberosus L. leaves extract by macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng-Cheng; Liu, Ying; Yi, Yue-Tao; Li, Hong-Juan; Fan, Ping; Xia, Chuan-Hai

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, a simple and efficient method for the preparative separation of 3-CQA from the extract of Helianthus tuberosus leaves with macroporous resins was studied. ADS-21 showed much higher adsorption capacity and better adsorption/desorption properties for 3-CQA among the tested resins. The adsorption of 3-CQA on ADS-21 resin at 25°C was fitted best to the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments were carried out in a glass column packed with ADS-21 to optimise the separation process of 3-CQA from H. tuberosus leaves extract. After one treatment with ADS-21, the content of 3-CQA in the product was increased 5.42-fold, from 12.0% to 65.2%, with a recovery yield of 89.4%. The results demonstrated that the method was suitable for large-scale separation and manufacture of 3-CQA from H. tuberosus leaves.

  14. Preliminary enrichment and separation of chlorogenic acid from Helianthus tuberosus L. leaves extract by macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng-Cheng; Liu, Ying; Yi, Yue-Tao; Li, Hong-Juan; Fan, Ping; Xia, Chuan-Hai

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, a simple and efficient method for the preparative separation of 3-CQA from the extract of Helianthus tuberosus leaves with macroporous resins was studied. ADS-21 showed much higher adsorption capacity and better adsorption/desorption properties for 3-CQA among the tested resins. The adsorption of 3-CQA on ADS-21 resin at 25°C was fitted best to the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments were carried out in a glass column packed with ADS-21 to optimise the separation process of 3-CQA from H. tuberosus leaves extract. After one treatment with ADS-21, the content of 3-CQA in the product was increased 5.42-fold, from 12.0% to 65.2%, with a recovery yield of 89.4%. The results demonstrated that the method was suitable for large-scale separation and manufacture of 3-CQA from H. tuberosus leaves. PMID:25172683

  15. Chemically modified polymeric resins for solid-phase extraction and group separation prior to analysis by liquid or gas chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, L.W.

    1993-07-01

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene was modified by acetyl, sulfonic acid, and quaternary ammonium groups. A resin functionalized with an acetyl group was impregnated in a PTFE membrane and used to extract and concentrate phenolic compounds from aqueous samples. The acetyl group created a surface easily wetted, making it an efficient adsorbent for polar compounds in water. The membrane stabilized the resin bed. Partially sulfonated high surface area resins are used to extract and group separate an aqueous mixture of neutral and basic organics; the bases are adsorbed electrostatically to the sulfonic acid groups, while the neutraons are adsorbed hydrophobically. A two-step elution is then used to separate the two fractions. A partially functionalized anion exchange resin is used to separate organic acids and phenols from neutrals in a similar way. Carboxylic acids are analyzed by HPLC and phenols by GC.

  16. Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, R.

    1997-10-08

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 {micro}l injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few {micro}l of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.

  17. Separation of thorium and uranium from silicate rock samples using two commercial extraction chromatographic resins.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, T; Makishima, A; Nakamura, E

    1999-01-01

    A new chemical separation technique to isolate Th and U from silicate rocks was established by using two kinds of commercial extraction chromatographic resins. In the first column procedure, with U/TEVA·spec resin, almost all elements except Th and U were eluted by 4 M HNO(3). Th was then separated by using 5 M HCl, and U was finally isolated by successive addition of 0.1 M HNO(3). A significant amount of Zr still remained in the Th fraction, which was then further purified in the second column stage using TEVA·spec resin. In the second procedure, Zr was eluted first by using 2 M HNO(3), and then Th was collected by 0.1 M HNO(3). Both the Th and U fractions obtained by these procedures were sufficiently pure for thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) analysis. Recovery yields of Th and U exceeded 90%, and total blanks were <19 pg for Th and <10 pg for U. Our method has advantages over previous methods in terms of matrix effects, tailing problems, and degree of isolation. Since Th and U are effectively separated without suffering any matrix interference from coexisting cations and anions, this technique can be used not only for the analysis of igneous rock samples but also for the analysis of soils, marine sediments, carbonates, phosphates and seawater, groundwater, and surface water.

  18. Separation of thorium and uranium from silicate rock samples using two commercial extraction chromatographic resins.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, T; Makishima, A; Nakamura, E

    1999-01-01

    A new chemical separation technique to isolate Th and U from silicate rocks was established by using two kinds of commercial extraction chromatographic resins. In the first column procedure, with U/TEVA·spec resin, almost all elements except Th and U were eluted by 4 M HNO(3). Th was then separated by using 5 M HCl, and U was finally isolated by successive addition of 0.1 M HNO(3). A significant amount of Zr still remained in the Th fraction, which was then further purified in the second column stage using TEVA·spec resin. In the second procedure, Zr was eluted first by using 2 M HNO(3), and then Th was collected by 0.1 M HNO(3). Both the Th and U fractions obtained by these procedures were sufficiently pure for thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) analysis. Recovery yields of Th and U exceeded 90%, and total blanks were <19 pg for Th and <10 pg for U. Our method has advantages over previous methods in terms of matrix effects, tailing problems, and degree of isolation. Since Th and U are effectively separated without suffering any matrix interference from coexisting cations and anions, this technique can be used not only for the analysis of igneous rock samples but also for the analysis of soils, marine sediments, carbonates, phosphates and seawater, groundwater, and surface water. PMID:21662935

  19. An improved extraction chromatographic resin for the separation of uranium from acidic nitrate media.

    PubMed

    Dietz, M L; Horwitz, E P; Sajdak, L R; Chiarizia, R

    2001-07-01

    The preparation and characterization of a new extraction chromatographic resin exhibiting extraordinarily strong retention of hexavalent uranyl ion over a wide range of nitric acid concentrations and very high selectivity for U(VI) over Fe(III) and numerous other cations is described. This new material (designated U/TEVA-2) comprises a novel liquid stationary phase consisting of an equimolar mixture of diamyl amylphosphonate (DA[AP]) and Cyanex 923((R)) (a commercially available trialkyl-phosphine oxide, TRPO) sorbed on silanized silica or Amberchrom CG-71. Cyanex 923 is shown to be preferable to a related TRPO, Cyanex 925((R)), due to its lower viscosity and higher selectivity for U(VI) over Fe(III). The retention of uranyl nitrate by the U/TEVA-2 resin, as measured by the k' values (number of free column values to peak maximum) is >5000 from approximately 0.1 to 8 M HNO(3). The ability of the new resin to strongly and selectively retain U(VI) from such a wide range of acid concentrations, along with its favorable physical properties, make it a good candidate for application in the separation and preconcentration of U(VI) from complex environmental, biological, and nuclear waste samples for subsequent determination.

  20. A method for analyzing the δ18O of resin-extractable soil inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Tal; Mazeh, Shunit; Tamburini, Federica; Frossard, Emmanuel; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Chiti, Tommaso; Angert, Alon

    2011-03-15

    Improved tools for tracing phosphate transformations in soils are much needed, and can lead to a better understanding of the terrestrial phosphorus cycle. The oxygen stable isotopes in soil phosphate are still not exploited in this regard. Here we present a method for measuring the oxygen stable isotopes in a fraction of the soil phosphate which is rapidly available to plants, the resin-extractable P. This method is based on extracting available phosphate from the soil with anion-exchange membranes, soil organic matter removal by a resin, purification by precipitation as cerium phosphate, and finally precipitation as silver phosphate. The purified silver phosphate samples are then measured by a high-temperature elemental analyzer (HT-EA) coupled in continuous flow mode to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Testing the method with Mediterranean and semi-arid soils showed no artifacts, as well as good reproducibility in the same order as that of the HT-EA analytical uncertainty (0.3‰).

  1. Comparison of methods for nutrient measurement in calcareous soils: Ion-exchange resin bag, capsule, membrane, and chemical extractions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Four methods for measuring quantities of 12 plant-available nutrients were compared using three sandy soils in a series of three experiments. Three of the methods use different ion-exchange resin forms-bags, capsules, and membranes-and the fourth was conventional chemical extraction. The first experiment compared nutrient extraction data from a medium of sand saturated with a nutrient solution. The second and third experiments used Nakai and Sheppard series soils from Canyonlands National Park, which are relatively high in soil carbonates. The second experiment compared nutrient extraction data provided by the four methods from soils equilibrated at two temperatures, "warm" and "cold." The third experiment extracted nutrients from the same soils in a field equilibration. Our results show that the four extraction techniques are not comparable. This conclusion is due to differences among the methods in the net quantities of nutrients extracted from equivalent soil volumes, in the proportional representation of nutrients within similar soils and treatments, in the measurement of nutrients that were added in known quantities, and even in the order of nutrients ranked by net abundance. We attribute the disparities in nutrient measurement among the different resin forms to interacting effects of the inherent differences in resin exchange capacity, differences among nutrients in their resin affinities, and possibly the relatively short equilibration time for laboratory trials. One constraint for measuring carbonate-related nutrients in high-carbonate soils is the conventional ammonium acetate extraction method, which we suspect of dissolving fine CaCO3 particles that are more abundant in Nakai series soils, resulting in erroneously high Ca2+ estimates. For study of plant-available nutrients, it is important to identify the nutrients of foremost interest and understand differences in their resin sorption dynamics to determine the most appropriate extraction method.

  2. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. resin.

    PubMed

    Wani, T A; Chandrashekara, H H; Kumar, D; Prasad, R; Sardar, K K; Kumar, D; Tandan, S K

    2012-12-01

    Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. (Sal) is one of the most important traditional Indian medicinal plants. The resin of the plant has been used in the treatment of inflammation in folklore medicine. In the present study, ethanolic extract (70%) of S. robusta resin (SRE) was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. Acute inflammation was produced by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and sub-acute by cotton pellet-induced granuloma in male Wistar rats. The antipyretic activity of SRE was studied using Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The rats were divided into five groups with five animals in each group. Group I was treated with vehicle i.e. 1% v/v Tween-80 and served as control. Groups II to IV were treated with three different doses of SRE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg orally). Group V was treated with standard drug etoricoxib (10 mg/kg orally). The anti-inflammatory activity of SRE was assessed by per cent reduction in edema volume of carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and by per cent decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test. SRE (100 and 300 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in edema volume and decrease in granulation tissue formation in rats. Significant reduction in pyrexia was observed at all the dose levels of SRE i.e. 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The results of the present study demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of S. robusta resin and supported its traditional therapeutic use in painful inflammatory conditions and fever. PMID:23350282

  3. Response surface optimized extraction of 1-deoxynojirimycin from mulberry leaves (Morus alba L.) and preparative separation with resins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teng; Li, Cui-Qing; Zhang, Hong; Li, Ji-Wen

    2014-05-30

    In the present study, the extraction technology and preparative separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from mulberry leaves were systematically investigated. Four extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, extraction time and ratio of solvent to sample) were explored by response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated that the maximal yield of 1-deoxynojirimycin was achieved with an ethanol concentration of 55%, extraction temperature of 80 °C, extraction time of 1.2 h and ratio of solvent to sample of 12:1. The extraction yield under these optimum conditions was found to be 256 mg/100 g dry mulberry leaves. A column packed with a selected resin was used to perform dynamic adsorption and desorption tests to optimize the separation process. The results show that the preparative separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from mulberry leaves can be easily and effectively done by adopting 732 resin. In conclusion, 732 resin is the most appropriate for the separation of 1-deoxynojirimycin from other components in mulberry leaves extracts, and its adsorption behavior can be described with Langmuir isotherms and a two-step adsorption kinetics model. The recovery and purity of 1-deoxynojirimycin in the final product were 90.51% and 15.3%, respectively.

  4. Fluid flow after resin-composite restoration in extracted carious teeth.

    PubMed

    Banomyong, Danuchit; Palamara, Joseph E A; Messer, Harold H; Burrow, Michael F

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fluid flow in dentin after restoration of carious teeth with resin composite bonded with a total-etching adhesive, with or without glass-ionomer cement lining. The roots of extracted third molars were removed and the crowns were connected to a fluid flow-measuring device. Each carious lesion was stained with caries detector dye and caries was removed using slow-speed burs and spoon excavators. Caries-excavated teeth were divided into two groups for restoration with resin composite bonded with a total-etch adhesive: (i) without lining; and (ii) lined with glass-ionomer cement before bonding. In non-carious teeth, cavities of similar dimensions were prepared, divided into two groups, and restored in the same manner. Fluid flow was recorded, after restoration, for up to 1 month. Caries-affected dentin was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bonded interfaces were observed using a confocal laser scanning microscope. No significant difference in fluid flow was observed between the two restorative procedures or between the carious and non-carious groups. The SEM images showed that the dentinal tubules of acid-etched, caries-affected dentin were usually still occluded, while some were patent. Limited penetration of fluorescent dye into dentin and into the bonded interfaces of restored carious teeth was observed.

  5. Characterization of the effects of post-extraction treatments on human dentin-resin interface by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Yiuchong; Morris, Michael D.

    1997-01-01

    Raman microprobe spectroscopy was used to investigate the effects of post-extraction treatments of human dentin on the penetration of the 4-methacryloxyethyl trimellitic acid (4- MET)/methyl methacrylate (MMA)/tri-n-butyl borane (TBB) dentin adhesive. Human molar teeth, extracted and stored in distilled water or 70% ethanol solution for 7 or 28 days, were treated with the resin. Spatially resolved Raman microspectroscopy was used to measure penetration. The band intensity ratio 1612 cm-1 (resin): 962 cm-1 (dentin) was used as a diagnostic. Diffusion of the resin into dentin increased with the length of storage period. The results indicate that the effects of postextraction treatments on teeth must be considered when laboratory measurements of bonding strengths are employed to predict the clinical performance of dental cements. In addition, it is demonstrated that Raman microprobe spectroscopy is a feasible analytical tool to evaluate the effects of postextraction treatments on teeth.

  6. Multi-podant diglycolamides and room temperature ionic liquid impregnated resins: An excellent combination for extraction chromatography of actinides.

    PubMed

    Gujar, R B; Ansari, S A; Verboom, W; Mohapatra, P K

    2016-05-27

    Extraction chromatography resins, prepared by impregnating two multi-podant diglycolamide ligands, viz. diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene (C4DGA) and tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) dissolved in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (RTIL: C4mimTf2N) on Chromosorb-W (an inert solid support), gave excellent results for the removal of trivalent actinides from acidic waste solutions. Distribution coefficient measurements on several metal ions showed selective sorption of Am(III) over hexavalent uranyl ions and other fission product elements such as strontium and cesium. The sorbed metal ions could be efficiently desorbed with a complexing solution containing guanidine carbonate and EDTA buffer. The sorption of Am(III) on both resins followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics with rate constants of 1.37×10(-6) and 6.88×10(-7)g/cpmmin for T-DGA and C4DGA resins, respectively. The metal sorption on both resins indicated the Langmuir monolayer chemisorption phenomenon with Eu(III) sorption capacities of 4.83±0.21 and 0.52±0.05mg per g of T-DGA and C4DGA resins, respectively. The results of column studies show that these resins are of interest for a possible application for the recovery of hazardous trivalent actinides from dilute aqueous solutions. PMID:27130582

  7. Separation and purification of flavonoid from Taxus remainder extracts free of taxoids using polystyrene and polyamide resin.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiao; Zhan, Li-mei; Gao, Xing-xing; Yan, Liu-ye; Zhang, Huan; Zhu, Zhi-yong; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, De-an

    2013-06-01

    An efficient separation process of flavonoid from Taxus wallichiana var. mairei remainder extracts free of taxoids was developed in this study. AB-8 macroporous resin and polyamide resin offered the fine adsorption capacity, and its adsorption rate at 30°C fitted well to the Langmuir and Freundich isotherms. Resin dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were conducted to optimize the separation process of total flavonoids from T. wallichiana var. mairei remainder extracts free of taxoids. The optimum parameters for adsorption by AB-8 resin were as follows: (1) the concentration of flavonoids in a sample solution of 5.61 mg/mL with a processing volume of 2 bed volume (BV) (60 mL); (2) for desorption, ethanol-water (80:20, v/v), with 6 BV as an eluent at a flow rate of 2 BV/h. After a one-run treatment with AB-8 resin, the content of flavonoids was increased 5.10-fold from 4.05 to 20.65%. The optimum parameters for adsorption by polyamide resin were as follows: processing volume of 2 BV (30 mL); for desorption, ethanol-water (70:30, v/v), with 8 BV as an eluent at a flow rate of 2 BV/h. After one-run treatment with polyamide resin, the content of total flavonoids increased from 20.65 to 65.21%. The method will provide a potential approach for large-scale separation and purification of flavonoid for its wide pharmaceutical use. PMID:23936912

  8. Effects of Balsamodendron mukul Gum Resin Extract on Articular Cartilage in Papain-induced Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Manjhi, Jayanand; Gupta, Maneesh; Sinha, Anvesha; Rawat, Beena; Rai, Durg V

    2016-07-01

    Context • Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of the musculoskeleton, causing functional disability among older adults. Management of OA includes conventional pharmacological treatments consisting primarily of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, physiotherapy, and surgical procedures. The medications are not ideal therapeutic agents; NSAIDs in particular can cause serious side effects. Objective • The study was conducted to investigate the effects of Balsamodendron mukul (BDM) gum resin extract on cartilage damage and microstructural changes in the subchondral bone of rats with papain-induced, osteoarthritic knee joints. Design • The authors designed a parallel randomized, controlled study to examine the effects of 3 concentrations of BDM on OA in a murine model. Setting • The present study was undertaken at the research laboratory, Faculty of Biological Engineering, Shobhit University (Modipuram, Meerut, India). Intervention • OA was induced by intra-articular injections of 0.2 mL of 4% papain solution and 0.1 mL of 0.03 M cysteine through the patellar ligament using a 26-gauge, 1.27-cm needle. The rats in the sham group received same volume of isotonic sodium chloride solution. The rats were divided into 6 groups : (1) control group-fresh rats, with ages and genders similar to those of the other groups but with no induction of OA and no treatments; (2) sham group-rats receiving a sham induction of OA using an intra-articular injection of saline of the same volume as the papain given to all OA rats but no treatments; (3) OA group-rats induced with OA but receiving no treatments; (4) OA + BDM (10%) group-rats induced with OA that received a 10% dose of BDM; (5) OA + BDM (20%) group-rats induced with OA that received a 20% dose of BDM; and (6) OA + BDM (40%) group-rats induced with OA that received a 40% dose of BDM. Rats in the treatment groups were fed their respective doses of BDM extract for 30 d

  9. Two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid [C4mim]Ac by macroporous resin and ion exchange resin from Schisandra chinensis fruits extract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Zu, Yuan-gang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-22

    In this study, two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim]Ac) were studied through a digestion extraction system of extracting biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis. The RP-HPLC detection method for [C4mim]Ac was established in order to investigate the recovery efficiency of IL. The recycling method of [C4mim]Ac is divided into two steps, the first step was the separation of lignans from the IL solution containing HPD 5000 macroporous resin, the recovery efficiency and purity of [C4mim]Ac achieved were 97.8% and 67.7%, respectively. This method cannot only separate the lignans from [C4mim]Ac solution, also improve the purity of lignans, the absorption rate of lignans in [C4mim]Ac solution was found to be higher (69.2%) than that in ethanol solution (57.7%). The second step was the purification of [C4mim]Ac by the SK1B strong acid ion exchange resin, an [C4mim]Ac recovery efficiency of 55.9% and the purity higher than 90% were achieved. Additionally, [C4mim]Ac as solvent extraction of lignans from S. chinensis was optimized, the hydrolysis temperature was 90°C and the hydrolysis time was 2h. PMID:25463641

  10. Two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid [C4mim]Ac by macroporous resin and ion exchange resin from Schisandra chinensis fruits extract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Zu, Yuan-gang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-22

    In this study, two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim]Ac) were studied through a digestion extraction system of extracting biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis. The RP-HPLC detection method for [C4mim]Ac was established in order to investigate the recovery efficiency of IL. The recycling method of [C4mim]Ac is divided into two steps, the first step was the separation of lignans from the IL solution containing HPD 5000 macroporous resin, the recovery efficiency and purity of [C4mim]Ac achieved were 97.8% and 67.7%, respectively. This method cannot only separate the lignans from [C4mim]Ac solution, also improve the purity of lignans, the absorption rate of lignans in [C4mim]Ac solution was found to be higher (69.2%) than that in ethanol solution (57.7%). The second step was the purification of [C4mim]Ac by the SK1B strong acid ion exchange resin, an [C4mim]Ac recovery efficiency of 55.9% and the purity higher than 90% were achieved. Additionally, [C4mim]Ac as solvent extraction of lignans from S. chinensis was optimized, the hydrolysis temperature was 90°C and the hydrolysis time was 2h.

  11. Two novel extraction chromatography resins containing multiple diglycolamide-functionalized ligands: preparation, characterization and actinide uptake properties.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Seraj A; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Iqbal, Mudassir; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2014-03-21

    Two extraction chromatography resins were prepared for the first time by impregnating multiple diglycolamide-functionalized ligands such as diglycolamide-calix[4]arene (C4DGA) and tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) on Chromosorb-W, an inert solid support, for the removal of hazardous actinides like Am(III) from radioactive waste solutions at 3M nitric acid. The resins were characterized by SEM, thermal and surface area (BET) analyses. The sorption of Am(III) on the two resins followed pseudo-second order sorption rate kinetics and was exothermic in nature. The sorption of trivalent f-elements proceeded through a chemisorption monolayer phenomenon as analyzed by using several isotherm models. The negative free energy change (ΔG) values of -34.46 and -28.45kJ/mol for T-DGA and C4DGA, respectively, indicate a chemical interaction between the metal ions and the ligands on the surface of the resins. Distribution coefficient measurements of various metal ions showed a selective sorption of trivalent f-elements over hexavalent uranyl ions and other fission product elements. Column studies on breakthrough indicated 0.76 and 0.37mg/g as the breakthrough capacities of the T-DGA and the C4DGA resins, respectively. It was possible to quantitatively elute the loaded metal ion using EDTA solutions.

  12. [Determination of 9 residual acrylic monomers in acrylic resins by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with microwave assisted extraction].

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying; Lin, Rui; Cai, Luxin; Ge, Xiuxiu; Huang, Changchun

    2012-01-01

    A reliable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of 9 residual acrylic monomers (methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate, n-butyl acrylate, butyl methacrylate, styrene, acrylic acid and methacrylic acid) in acrylic resins. Solid resin was precipitated with methanol after microwave assisted extraction with ethyl acetate for 30 min, and liquid resin was diluted with methanol directly. The nine acrylic monomers got a good separation within 20 min on a DB-WAX column. The limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N = 10) of the method were in the range of 1-10 mg/kg for liquid resin and 3-50 mg/kg for solid resin. The calibration curves were linear within 1-500 mg/L range with correlation coefficients above 0. 995. The recoveries ranged from 84.4% to 108.6% at five spiked levels. The sensitivity, recovery and selectivity of the method can fully meet the requirements of practical work.

  13. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro.

    PubMed

    von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites.

  14. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro.

    PubMed

    von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites. PMID:26611396

  15. Separation of Technetium in Nitric Acid Solution With an Extractant Impregnated Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Jei Kwon Moon; Eil Hee Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Byung Chul Lee

    2006-07-01

    An extractant impregnated resin (EIR) was prepared by impregnation of Aliquat 336 into Amberlite XAD-4 for separation of technetium from rhodium in nitric acid solution. The prepared EIR showed high preference for rhenium (chemical analogue of technetium) over rhodium. The adsorption isotherms for rhenium were described well by Langmuir equation in both the single and multi-component systems. Maximum adsorption capacities obtained by modelling the isotherms of rhenium were 2.01 meq g{sup -1} and 1.97 meq g{sup -1} for the single and the multi-component systems, respectively. Column tests were also performed to confirm the separation efficiency of rhenium using a jacketed glass column (diam. 11 x L 150). The EIR column showed successful separation of rhenium with the breakthrough volume of about 122 BV for the breakthrough concentration of 0.08. Also the breakthrough data were modelled successfully by assuming a homogeneous diffusion model in the particle phase. The diffusivities obtained from the modelling were in the order of 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1} for a rhenium. The rhenium adsorbed on the bed could be eluted with a high purity by using a nitric acid solution. (authors)

  16. Determination of radium-228 in natural waters using extraction chromatographic resins

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, W.C.; Cable, P.H.; Moser, R.

    1995-12-31

    We have developed a procedure for determination of {sup 228}Ra (t 1/2= 5.75 y) in natural waters using either the extraction chromatographic resins TRU-Spec{sup TM} or Ln-{center_dot}Spec{sup TM} to isolate the direct daughter, {sup 228}Ac, just before low-level counting. These separations are shown to be quantitative, simple, relatively fast, and free from most interferences. The recommended procedure effectively eliminates the need to perform the multiple precipitations and solvent extractions required by conventional techniques. The method uses a standard BaSO{sub 4} co-precipitation with {sup 133}Ba as an internal tracer to preconcentrate radium from a 1-2 L water sample. This is followed by a metathesizing process using K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to convert the BaSO{sub 4} to the more soluble BaCO{sub 3} form. After the {sup 133}Ba yield determination, the sample (in HN0{sub 3}) is stored for {ge}30 hours to allow ingrowth of equilibrium amounts of {sup 228}Ac (t 1/2=6.14 h) from the {sup 228}Ra in the sample. This solution is then loaded onto a chromatographic column prerinsed with HN0{sub 3} followed by a rinse with sufficient HN0{sub 3} to completely flush out barium, radium, lead, and other common elements which may be contained in the sample load. Actinium is then eluted with either HCl or more concentrated HN0{sub 3} and is ready for low-level beta-particle counting after mounting by filtration or evaporation. We estimate a detection limit of {le}1.0 pCi/L in approximately 30 minutes of counting using a proportional counter with a 1.0 cpm total beta background, a {sup 133}Ba yield of 80%, and a 2-L sample volume.

  17. Preliminary extraction of tannins by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazole bromide and its subsequent removal from Galla chinensis extract using macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunxia; Luo, Xiaoling; Lu, Liliang; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Xia; Ji, Yong

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids have become increasingly attractive as 'green solvents' used in the extraction of bioactive compounds from natural plant. However, the separation of ionic liquid from the target compounds was difficult, due to their low vapour pressure and high stabilities. In our study, ionic liquid-based ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extraction was used to obtain the crude tannins, then the macroporous resin adsorption technology was further employed to purify the tannins and remove the ionic liquid from crude extract. The results showed that XDA-6 had higher separation efficiency than other tested resins, and the equilibrium experimental data were well fitted to Langmuir isotherms. Dynamic adsorption and desorption were performed on XDA-6 packed in glass columns to optimise the separation process. The optimum conditions as follows: the ratio of column height to diameter bed was 1:8, flow rate 1 BV/h (bed volume per hour), 85% ethanol was used as eluant while the elution volume was 2 BV. Under the optimised conditions, the adsorption and desoption rate of tannins in XDA-6 were 94.81 and 91.63%, respectively. The content of tannins was increased from 70.24% in Galla chinensis extract to 85.12% with a recovery of 99.06%. The result of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS analysis showed that [bmim]Br could be removed from extract.

  18. Preliminary extraction of tannins by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazole bromide and its subsequent removal from Galla chinensis extract using macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chunxia; Luo, Xiaoling; Lu, Liliang; Li, Hongmin; Chen, Xia; Ji, Yong

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids have become increasingly attractive as 'green solvents' used in the extraction of bioactive compounds from natural plant. However, the separation of ionic liquid from the target compounds was difficult, due to their low vapour pressure and high stabilities. In our study, ionic liquid-based ultrasonic and microwave-assisted extraction was used to obtain the crude tannins, then the macroporous resin adsorption technology was further employed to purify the tannins and remove the ionic liquid from crude extract. The results showed that XDA-6 had higher separation efficiency than other tested resins, and the equilibrium experimental data were well fitted to Langmuir isotherms. Dynamic adsorption and desorption were performed on XDA-6 packed in glass columns to optimise the separation process. The optimum conditions as follows: the ratio of column height to diameter bed was 1:8, flow rate 1 BV/h (bed volume per hour), 85% ethanol was used as eluant while the elution volume was 2 BV. Under the optimised conditions, the adsorption and desoption rate of tannins in XDA-6 were 94.81 and 91.63%, respectively. The content of tannins was increased from 70.24% in Galla chinensis extract to 85.12% with a recovery of 99.06%. The result of ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS analysis showed that [bmim]Br could be removed from extract. PMID:23362230

  19. Preparation of high purity biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra extract by ion exchange resin catalytic transformation combined with macroporous resin separation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Yang, Feng-jian; Zhao, Chun-jian; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Zhong-hua

    2011-11-15

    In this study, ester-bond biphenyl cyclooctene lignans were efficiently hydrolytically degraded into free biphenyl cyclooctene lignans by ion exchange resin transformation and simultaneous removal of impurities by macroporous resin. The OH-type strongly basic anion exchange resin 201×7 was the best one, and the dynamic hydrolysis efficiency was 146.7±5.0%. HPD5000 macroporous resin, which offered higher adsorption and desorption capacities and faster adsorption than other resins. The purity of free biphenyl cyclooctene lignans in the product increased from 5.14±0.24% to 79.67±0.0.67%. After dynamic catalytic transformation by 201×7 resin combined with purification of HPD5000 resin, the yield and the purity of free biphenyl cyclooctene lignans in the product were 132.1±4.7% and 80.91±3.53%, respectively.

  20. Characterization of Group V Dubnium Homologs on DGA Extraction Chromatography Resin from Nitric and Hydrofluoric Acid Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Despotopulos, J D; Sudowe, R

    2012-02-21

    somewhere between Nb and Pa. Much more recent studies have examined the properties of Db from HNO{sub 3}/HF matrices, and suggest Db forms complexes similar to those of Pa. Very little experimental work into the behavior of element 114 has been performed. Thermochromatography experiments of three atoms of element 114 indicate that the element 114 is at least as volatile as Hg, At, and element 112. Lead was shown to deposit on gold at temperatures about 1000 C higher than the atoms of element 114. Results indicate a substantially increased stability of element 114. No liquid phase studies of element 114 or its homologs (Pb, Sn, Ge) or pseudo-homologs (Hg, Cd) have been performed. Theoretical predictions indicate that element 114 is should have a much more stable +2 oxidation state and neutral state than Pb, which would result in element 114 being less reactive and less metallic than Pb. The relativistic effects on the 7p{sub 1/2} electrons are predicted to cause a diagonal relationship to be introduced into the periodic table. Therefore, 114{sup 2+} is expected to behave as if it were somewhere between Hg{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}. In this work two commercially available extraction chromatography resins are evaluated, one for the separation of Db homologs and pseudo?homologs from each other as well as from potential interfering elements such as Group IV Rf homologs and actinides, and the other for separation of element 114 homologs. One resin, Eichrom's DGA resin, contains a N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide extractant, which separates analytes based on both size and charge characteristics of the solvated metal species, coated on an inert support. The DGA resin was examined for Db chemical systems, and shows a high degree of selectivity for tri-, tetra-, and hexavalent metal ions in multiple acid matrices with fast kinetics. The other resin, Eichrom's Pb resin, contains a di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 extractant with isodecanol solvent, which separates

  1. Refined separation of combined Fe–Hf from rock matrices for isotope analyses using AG-MP-1M and Ln-Spec chromatographic extraction resins

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ting; Nebel, Oliver; Sossi, Paolo A.; Chen, Fukun

    2014-01-01

    A combined procedure for separating Fe and Hf from a single rock digestion is presented. In a two-stage chromatographic extraction process, a purified Fe fraction is first quantitatively separated from the rock matrix using AG-MP-1M resin in HCl. Hafnium is subsequently isolated using a modified version of a commonly applied method using Eichrom LN-Spec resin. Our combined method includes:•Purification of Fe from the rock matrix using HCl, ready for mass spectrometric analysis.•Direct loading of the matrix onto the resin that is used for Hf purification.•Collection of a Fe-free Hf fraction. PMID:26150946

  2. Vacuum-powered bubble-assisted solvent extraction followed by macroporous resin enrichment for isolation of podophyllotoxin from Sinopodophyllum emodi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Yang, Lei; Sui, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jie; Li, Li; Fu, Shuang; Li, Wenjing; Liang, Xin

    2015-10-01

    A vacuum-powered bubble-assisted solvent extraction (VBE) technique was used to extract podophyllotoxin from the root of Sinopodophyllum emodi. We optimized the VBE procedure and showed it had the highest efficiency of extraction compared to other conventional extraction techniques. Based upon the results of single-factor experiments, a three-factor, three-level experiment design was developed by application of a Box-Behnken design. The method was validated by stability, repeatability and recovery experiments. The optimal conditions were: solvent, 60% (v/v) ethanol; particle size of the sample, 60-80 mesh; soak time, 2h; liquid/solid ratio, 21L/kg; air flow, 32mL/min; vacuum-powered bubble extraction time, 65min. The VBE method we developed achieved efficient extraction of podophyllotoxin from S. emodi. The podophyllotoxin extracted can be enriched and separated by an HPD300 macroporous resin adsorption and desorption process. The results indicated that VBE is a convenient, rapid and efficient sample preparation technique.

  3. Chelating resin immobilizing carboxymethylated polyethyleneimine for selective solid-phase extraction of trace elements: Effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneimine and its carboxymethylation rate.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Kajiwara, Takehiro; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Kamichatani, Waka; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2016-01-15

    The effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneimine (PEI), defined as a compound having two or more ethyleneamine units, and of its carboxymethylation rate (CM/N), represented by the ratio of ion-exchange capacity to the amount of N on the resin, on the selective solid-phase extraction ability of the chelating resin immobilizing carboxymethylated (CM) PEI was investigated. The chelating resins (24 types) were prepared by immobilization of diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine, pentaethylenehexamine, PEI300 (MW=ca. 300), and PEI600 (MW=ca. 600) on methacrylate resins, followed by carboxymethylation with various amounts of sodium monochloroacetate. When resins with approximately the same CM/N ratio (0.242-0.271) were used, the recovery of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn, and alkaline earth elements increased with increasing the molecular weight of PEIs under acidic and weakly acidic conditions; however, the extraction behavior of Mo and V was only slightly affected. This was probably due to the increase in N content of the resin, resulting in an increase in carboxylic acid groups; the difference in the molecular weight of PEIs immobilized on the resin exerts an insignificant influence on the selective extraction ability. The CM/N ratio considerably affected the extraction behavior for various elements. Under acidic and neutral conditions, the recovery of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn increased with increasing CM/N values. However, under these conditions, the recovery of alkaline earth elements was considerably low when a resin with low CM/N ratio was used. This is presumably attributed to the different stability constants of the complexes of these elements with aminocarboxylic acids and amines, and to the electrostatic repulsion between the elements and the protonated amino groups in the CM-PEI. The recovery of Mo and V decreased or varied with increasing CM/N values, suggesting that the extraction of these elements occurred mainly

  4. Chelating resin immobilizing carboxymethylated polyethyleneimine for selective solid-phase extraction of trace elements: Effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneimine and its carboxymethylation rate.

    PubMed

    Kagaya, Shigehiro; Kajiwara, Takehiro; Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Kamichatani, Waka; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2016-01-15

    The effect of the molecular weight of polyethyleneimine (PEI), defined as a compound having two or more ethyleneamine units, and of its carboxymethylation rate (CM/N), represented by the ratio of ion-exchange capacity to the amount of N on the resin, on the selective solid-phase extraction ability of the chelating resin immobilizing carboxymethylated (CM) PEI was investigated. The chelating resins (24 types) were prepared by immobilization of diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine, tetraethylenepentamine, pentaethylenehexamine, PEI300 (MW=ca. 300), and PEI600 (MW=ca. 600) on methacrylate resins, followed by carboxymethylation with various amounts of sodium monochloroacetate. When resins with approximately the same CM/N ratio (0.242-0.271) were used, the recovery of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, Zn, and alkaline earth elements increased with increasing the molecular weight of PEIs under acidic and weakly acidic conditions; however, the extraction behavior of Mo and V was only slightly affected. This was probably due to the increase in N content of the resin, resulting in an increase in carboxylic acid groups; the difference in the molecular weight of PEIs immobilized on the resin exerts an insignificant influence on the selective extraction ability. The CM/N ratio considerably affected the extraction behavior for various elements. Under acidic and neutral conditions, the recovery of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Ti, and Zn increased with increasing CM/N values. However, under these conditions, the recovery of alkaline earth elements was considerably low when a resin with low CM/N ratio was used. This is presumably attributed to the different stability constants of the complexes of these elements with aminocarboxylic acids and amines, and to the electrostatic repulsion between the elements and the protonated amino groups in the CM-PEI. The recovery of Mo and V decreased or varied with increasing CM/N values, suggesting that the extraction of these elements occurred mainly

  5. Actinide Binding by Kläui Ligands: REDOX Speciation and Sorption on an Extraction Chromatography Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2008-12-01

    The sorption of Eu(III) and actinide ions in various oxidation states from nitric acid solutions by an extraction chromatography resin containing 1 wt% of the Kläui ligand Cp*Co[P(O)(OR)2]3– [Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, R = –CH2 CH2CH3] on Amberlite® XAD-7HP was examined. At 0.3 M HNO3 and a metal-to-ligand ratio of 0.07, the relative affinity of the resin for the ions investigated followed the order: tetravalent >> hexavalent > trivalent > pentavalent; however, the relative affinity for the trivalent and hexavalent ions can be reversed, depending on the extent of ligand loading and the nitric acid concentration. The sorption of the tetravalent ions was exceptionally strong in the entire range of nitric acid concentration examined (0.2 to 8 M HNO3). Resin samples loaded with various actinide ions were examined spectrophotometrically. No Np(V) and Pu(III) species were identified on the resin; rather, reduction-oxidation (REDOX) reactions occurred during equilibration, resulting in their complete conversion to M(IV) species bound by the Kläui ligand. Similarly, the sorption behavior of Pu(VI) and Np(VI) was complicated by their reduction to M(IV) upon sorption. The observed REDOX processes were apparently driven by the extremely high affinity of the Kläui ligand for the tetravalent ions. The acid-base properties of the methyl derivative of the Kläui ligand were investigated in aqueous solution, and its pKa was found to be highly dependent upon the solution ionic strength. The binding constants of this ligand with various actinide ions measured in a mixed methanol/carbon tetrachloride solvent exhibited qualitative agreement with the sorption selectivity trends.

  6. A physical entrapment method for the preparation of carbon nanotube reinforced macroporous adsorption resin with enhanced selective extraction performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Wei; Song, Xin-Yue; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) for the first time. The CNTs were dispersed in water via sonication, and then in situ physically entrapped in the pores of MAR by capillary forces and sonication. The resulting CNT reinforced MAR (CNT-MAR) was proved by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and subsequently applied to extract a mixture of 8 types, 14 natural products. For comparison, the extraction efficiency of original MAR without CNTs was also evaluated. After extraction, the supernatants were detected via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the pores of MAR can significantly improve the adsorptive selectivity of MAR for natural products. The original MAR without CNTs has almost the same adsorption capacity for selectively extracting 3 types of natural products (phenols, alkaloids and anthraquinones). However, the CNT-MAR only could selectively extract anthraquinones and the adsorption capacity for three anthraquinone natural products is 1.46-1.83 times higher than that of unmodified MAR. In order to achieve the highest extraction efficiency of CNT-MAR for anthraquinone natural products, the main extraction parameters such as the extraction time and the pH value were also optimized. The CNT-MAR demonstrated an excellent ability to extract anthraquinone natural products with high selectivity and adsorption capacity. Due to its low cost, easy preparation and use, and operational characteristics, it shows great potential for selective extraction of natural products.In this paper, we demonstrate a novel carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) for the first time. The CNTs were dispersed in water via sonication, and then in situ physically entrapped in the pores of MAR by capillary forces and sonication. The resulting CNT reinforced MAR

  7. Extraction of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater with macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Hansen, Conly; Allen, Karin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated purification of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater by column chromatography with 5 types of macroporous resins (Diaion Hp20, Sepabeads Sp70, Sepabeads Sp207, Sepabeads Sp700, and Sepabeads Sp710). By-product of canned black beans was partially purified by filtration, in anticipation of higher performance during column chromatography. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were measured and analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Both Langmuir (all R² ≥ 0.98) and Freundlich (all R² ≥ 0.97) models can describe the adsorption process of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater using the tested resins. The adsorption and desorption behaviors of anthocyanins were studied using a dynamic method on the 5 types of resins, and Sp700 presented the highest adsorption capacity (39 ± 4 mg/g; P < 0.05) as well as desorption capacity (19 ± 2%; P < 0.05), indicating that of the resins examined, Sp700 is a better candidate for purification of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater. PMID:24472095

  8. A physical entrapment method for the preparation of carbon nanotube reinforced macroporous adsorption resin with enhanced selective extraction performance.

    PubMed

    Ha, Wei; Song, Xin-yue; Chen, Juan; Shi, Yan-ping

    2015-11-28

    In this paper, we demonstrate a novel carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) for the first time. The CNTs were dispersed in water via sonication, and then in situ physically entrapped in the pores of MAR by capillary forces and sonication. The resulting CNT reinforced MAR (CNT-MAR) was proved by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and subsequently applied to extract a mixture of 8 types, 14 natural products. For comparison, the extraction efficiency of original MAR without CNTs was also evaluated. After extraction, the supernatants were detected via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the pores of MAR can significantly improve the adsorptive selectivity of MAR for natural products. The original MAR without CNTs has almost the same adsorption capacity for selectively extracting 3 types of natural products (phenols, alkaloids and anthraquinones). However, the CNT-MAR only could selectively extract anthraquinones and the adsorption capacity for three anthraquinone natural products is 1.46-1.83 times higher than that of unmodified MAR. In order to achieve the highest extraction efficiency of CNT-MAR for anthraquinone natural products, the main extraction parameters such as the extraction time and the pH value were also optimized. The CNT-MAR demonstrated an excellent ability to extract anthraquinone natural products with high selectivity and adsorption capacity. Due to its low cost, easy preparation and use, and operational characteristics, it shows great potential for selective extraction of natural products.

  9. Inadequacy, Impurity and Infidelity; Modifying the Modified Brendel Alpha-Cellulose Extraction Method for Resinous Woods in Stable Isotope Dendroclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookman, T. H.; Whittaker, T. E.; King, P. L.; Horton, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    Stable isotope dendroclimatology is a burgeoning field in palaeoclimate science due to its unique potential to contribute (sub)annually resolved climate records, over millennial timescales, to the terrestrial palaeoclimate record. Until recently the time intensive methods precluded long-term climate reconstructions. Advances in continuous-flow mass spectrometry and isolation methods for α-cellulose (ideal for palaeoclimate studies as, unlike other wood components, it retains its initial isotopic composition) have made long-term, calendar dated palaeoclimate reconstructions a viable proposition. The Modified Brendel (mBrendel) α-cellulose extraction method is a fast, cost-effective way of preparing whole-wood samples for stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. However, resinous woods often yield incompletely processed α-cellulose using the standard mBrendel approach. As climate signals may be recorded by small (<1%) isotopic shifts it is important to investigate if incomplete processing affects the accuracy and precision of tree-ring isotopic records. In an effort to address this methodological issue, we investigated three highly resinous woods: kauri (Agathis australis), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and huon pine (Lagarastrobus franklinii). Samples of each species were treated with 16 iterations of the mBrendel, varying reaction temperature, time and reagent volumes. Products were investigated using microscopic and bulk transmission Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR) to reveal variations in the level of processing; poorly-digested fibres display a peak at 1520cm-1 suggesting residual lignin and a peak at ~1600cm-1 in some samples suggests retained resin. Despite the different levels of purity, replicate analyses of samples processed by high temperature digestion yielded consistent δ18O within and between experiments. All α-cellulose samples were 5-7% enriched compared to the whole-wood, suggesting that even incomplete processing at high

  10. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1995-09-12

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  11. Phosphonic acid based exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1995-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  12. Efficient extraction and preparative separation of four main isoflavonoids from Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen leaves by deep eutectic solvents-based negative pressure cavitation extraction followed by macroporous resin column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Liu, Ju-Zhao; Luo, Meng; Wang, Wei; Huang, Yu-Yan; Efferth, Thomas; Wang, Hui-Mei; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-10-15

    In this study, green and efficient deep eutectic solvent-based negative pressure cavitation-assisted extraction (DES-NPCE) followed by macroporous resin column chromatography was developed to extract and separate four main isoflavonoids, i.e. prunetin, tectorigenin, genistein and biochanin A from Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen leaves. The extraction procedure was optimized systematically by single-factor experiments and a Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface methodology. The maximum extraction yields of prunetin, tectorigenin, genistein and biochanin A reached 1.204, 1.057, 0.911 and 2.448mg/g dry weight, respectively. Moreover, the direct enrichment and separation of four isoflavonoids in DES extraction solution was successfully achieved by macroporous resin AB-8 with recovery yields of more than 80%. The present study provides a convenient and efficient method for the green extraction and preparative separation of active compounds from plants. PMID:27517524

  13. Efficient extraction and preparative separation of four main isoflavonoids from Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen leaves by deep eutectic solvents-based negative pressure cavitation extraction followed by macroporous resin column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Liu, Ju-Zhao; Luo, Meng; Wang, Wei; Huang, Yu-Yan; Efferth, Thomas; Wang, Hui-Mei; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2016-10-15

    In this study, green and efficient deep eutectic solvent-based negative pressure cavitation-assisted extraction (DES-NPCE) followed by macroporous resin column chromatography was developed to extract and separate four main isoflavonoids, i.e. prunetin, tectorigenin, genistein and biochanin A from Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen leaves. The extraction procedure was optimized systematically by single-factor experiments and a Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface methodology. The maximum extraction yields of prunetin, tectorigenin, genistein and biochanin A reached 1.204, 1.057, 0.911 and 2.448mg/g dry weight, respectively. Moreover, the direct enrichment and separation of four isoflavonoids in DES extraction solution was successfully achieved by macroporous resin AB-8 with recovery yields of more than 80%. The present study provides a convenient and efficient method for the green extraction and preparative separation of active compounds from plants.

  14. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  15. Extraction of antibiotic zwittermicin A from Bacillus thuringiensis by macroporous resin and silica gel column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zaibin; Yan, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie; Li, Xia

    2015-01-01

    To establish a production process capable of providing refined zwittermicin A (ZwA) on a large scale, the macroporous resin and silica gel column chromatography were used to separate and purify the antibiotic ZwA from the fermentation broth of Bacillus thuringiensis HD-1. The result of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after purification suggests that the samples of ZwA were of high purity, 89%, and the average yield was 20 mg L(-1). Erwinia herbicola LS005, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis were used to assess the toxicity of ZwA. The antibiotic had strong antibacterial activity against E. herbicola LS005 and a color reaction with ninhydrin. PMID:25099664

  16. Tunable aqueous polymer-phase impregnated resins-technology-a novel approach to aqueous two-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    van Winssen, F A; Merz, J; Schembecker, G

    2014-02-14

    Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction (ATPE) represents a promising unit operation for downstream processing of biotechnological products. The technique provides several advantages such as a biocompatible environment for the extraction of sensitive and biologically active compounds. However, the tendency of some aqueous two-phase systems to form intensive and stable emulsions can lead to long phase separation times causing an increased footprint for the required mixer-settler devices or the need for additional equipment such as centrifuges. In this work, a novel approach to improve ATPE for downstream processing applications called 'Tunable Aqueous Polymer-Phase Impregnated Resins' (TAPPIR(®))-Technology is presented. The technology is based on the immobilization of one aqueous phase inside the pores of a solid support. The second aqueous phase forms the bulk liquid around the impregnated solids. Due to the immobilization of one phase, phase emulsification and phase separation of ATPE are realized in a single step. In this study, a biodegradable and sustainable aqueous two-phase system consisting of aqueous polyethylene glycol/sodiumcitrate solutions was chosen. The impregnation of different macroporous glass and ceramic solids was investigated and could be proven to be stable. Additionally, the separation of the dye Patent blue V was successfully performed with the TAPPIR(®)-Technology. Thus, the "proof of principle" of this technology is presented.

  17. Separation of cyclotron-produced 44Sc from a natural calcium target using a dipentyl pentylphosphonate functionalized extraction resin

    PubMed Central

    Valdovinos, H.F.; Hernandez, R.; Barnhart, T.E.; Graves, S.; Cai, W.; Nickles, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Significant interest in 44Sc as a radioactive synthon to label small molecules for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been recently observed. Despite the efforts of several research groups, the ideal 44Sc production and separation method remains elusive. Herein, we propose a novel separation method to obtain 44Sc from the proton irradiation of calcium targets based on extraction chromatography, which promises to greatly simplify current production methodologies. Using the commercially available Uranium and Tetravalent Actinides (UTEVA) extraction resin we were able to rapidly (< 20 min) recover > 80% of the activity generated at end of bombardment (EoB) in small ~1 M HCl fractions (400 μL). The chemical purity of the 44Sc eluates was evaluated through chelation with DOTA and DTPA, and by trace metal analysis using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The distribution coefficients (Kd) of Sc(III) and Ca(II) in UTEVA were determined in HCl medium in a range of concentrations from zero to 12.1 M The 44Sc obtained with our method proved to be suitable for the direct labeling of small biomolecules for PET imaging, with excellent specific activities and radiochemical purity. PMID:25464172

  18. Mechanistic Study of Silver Nanoparticle's Synthesis by Dragon's Blood Resin Ethanol Extract and Antiradiation Activity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Murtaza; Iqbal, Javed; Awan, Umer; Saeed, Yasmeen; Ranran, Yuan; Liang, Yanli; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2015-02-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is best way to avoid exposure of hazardous materials as compared to chemical manufacturing process which is a severe threat not only to biodiversity but also to environment. In present study, we reported a novel method of finding antiradiation compounds by bioreducing mechanism of silver nanoparticles formation using 50% ethanol extract of Dragons blood, a famous Chinese herbal plant. Color change during silver nanoparticles synthesis was observed and it was confirmed by ultra violet (UV) visible spectroscopy at wave length at 430 nm after 30 min of reaction at 60 °C. Well dispersed round shaped silver nanoparticles with approximate size (4 nm to 50 nm) were measured by TEM and particle size analyser. Capping of biomolecules on Ag nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectra. HPLC analysis was carried out to find active compounds in the extract. Furthermore, antiradiation activity of this extract was tested by MTT assay in vitro after incubating the SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h at 37 °C. The results indicate that presence of active compounds in plant extract not only involves in bioreduction process but also shows response against radiation. The dual role of plant extract as green synthesis of nanoparticles and exhibit activity against radiation which gives a new way of fishing out active compounds from complex herbal plants.

  19. Comparison of Apical Microleakage of Dual-Curing Resin Cements with Fluid-Filtration and Dye Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Sadullah; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Adigüzel, Özkan; Oruçoğlu, Hasan; Değer, Yalçın; Tümen, Emin Caner; Uysal, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Background Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure are frequently restored using fiber posts. In this in vitro study, the apical leakage of self- and dual-activated curing modes for dual-curing resins cementing a translucent fiber post was evaluated using computerized fluid filtration meter and dye extraction method. Material/Methods One hundred and four extracted human maxillary incisors with single root and canal were used. Experimental samples embedded in a closed system were divided into 4 groups (n=20) according to 2 dual-curing luting systems, with 2 different curing modes (either with self- or light-activation): (1) Panavia F 2.0 with self-cure, (2) Panavia F 2.0 with light-activation, (3) Clearfill SA with self-cure, and (4) Clearfill SA with light activation. Twenty-four teeth served as negative and positive controls. Translucent fiber posts were luted in the roots except in the control groups. Results Statistical analysis indicated no significant difference in leakage among groups (p>0.05) with 4.12×10−4 (Panavia self-cure), 4.55×10−4 (Clearfill SA self-cure), 5.17×10−4 (Panavia dual-cure), and 5.59×10−4 (Clearfill SA dual-cure) in fluid-filtration method. Absorbance values for dye-extraction method were 266 nanometer (nm) (Panavia self-cure), 268 nm (Clearfill SA self-cure), 270 nm (Panavia dual-cure), and 271 nm (Clearfill SA dual-cure), in which difference among the groups were not statistically significant (p>0.05). When comparing the leakage, assessment methods results showed no statistically significant difference between the tested evaluation techniques (p>0.05). Conclusions Light- and self-activation curing modes of Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfill SA perform similar to each other in a closed system. PMID:25824712

  20. Characterization and Application of Superlig 620 Solid Phase Extraction Resin for Automated Process Monitoring of 90Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Devol, Timothy A.; Clements, John P.; Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg; Grate, Jay W.

    2009-11-30

    Characterization of SuperLig® 620 solid phase extraction resin was performed in order to develop an automated on-line process monitor for 90Sr. The main focus was on strontium separation from barium, with the goal of developing an automated separation process for 90Sr in high-level wastes. High-level waste contains significant 137Cs activity, of which 137mBa is of great concern as an interference to the quantification of strontium. In addition barium, yttrium and plutonium were studied as potential interferences to strontium uptake and detection. A number of complexants were studied in a series of batch Kd experiments, as SuperLig® 620 was not previously known to elute strontium in typical mineral acids. The optimal separation was found using a 2M nitric acid load solution with a strontium elution step of ~0.49M ammonium citrate and a barium elution step of ~1.8M ammonium citrate. 90Sr quantification of Hanford high-level tank waste was performed on a sequential injection analysis microfluidics system coupled to a flow-cell detector. The results of the on-line procedure are compared to standard radiochemical techniques in this paper.

  1. Capture and recovery of indole from methylnaphthalene oil in a continuous supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction apparatus over a fixed bed of anion-exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Sakanishi, Kinya; Obata, Hiroaki; Mochida, Isao; Sakaki, Tsuyoshi

    1996-01-01

    Capture and recovery of nonbasic aromatic nitrogen compounds such as indole from crude methylnaphthalene oil in coal tar fractions were examined using a continuous supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction apparatus with the fixed bed of an anion-exchange resin. A model feed consisting of 10 wt% indole with 10 wt% quinoline in 1-methylnaphthalene and crude methylnaphthalene oil (CMNO) was used for the supercritical CO{sub 2} separation procedures. Indole was selectively adsorbed on an anion-exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-904) for the first 120 min, with quinoline and 1-methylnaphthalene being eluted under the supercritical CO{sub 2} (323 K, 80 atm) conditions. After the resin was saturated with indole, the feed was stopped and the adsorbed indole was recovered. Preextraction of the resin with supercritical CO{sub 2} before the recovery of indole from the adsorbent improved the concentration of recovered indole through the selective elution of quinoline and 1-methylnaphthalene remaining in the dead space in the flow line and fixed bed. Indole in CMNO was also effectively separated by the same procedures as described above. The adsorption and desorption mechanisms of indole are briefly discussed based on the above results.

  2. Chemical affinities between the solvent extractable and the bulk organic matter of fossil resin associated with an extinct podocarpaceae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimalt, J.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses by GC-MS and GC-IR of resin associated to Dacridiumites mawsonii deposits, an extinct species of Podocarpaceae occurring on the South Island of New Zealand during the Bortonian (Middle Eocene), have revealed that dehydroabietic acid is the predominant component of the solvent soluble fraction. Accordingly, this diterpenoid has been selected as the principal component material for spectroscopic comparison with the bulk resin using IR and CP/MAS 13C NMR. ?? 1989.

  3. Application of ionic liquids in vacuum microwave-assisted extraction followed by macroporous resin isolation of three flavonoids rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin from Sorbus tianschanica leaves.

    PubMed

    Gu, Huiyan; Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Zang, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin were effectively extracted from Sorbus tianschanica leaves by an ionic liquid vacuum microwave-assisted method. A series of ionic liquids with various anions and alkyl chain length of the cations were studied and the extraction was performed in [C6mim][BF4] aqueous solution. After optimization by a factorial design and response surface methodology, total extraction yield of 2.37mg/g with an error of 0.12mg/g (0.71±0.04mg/g, 1.18±0.06mg/g and 0.48±0.02 for rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin, respectively) was achieved under -0.08MPa for vacuum, 19min and 420W for microwave irradiation time and power, and 15mL/g for liquid-solid ratio. The proposed method here is more efficient and needs a shorter extraction time for rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin from S. tianschanica leaves than reference extraction techniques. In stability studies performed with standard rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin, the target analytes were stable under the optimum conditions. The proposed method had a high reproducibility and precision. In addition, separation of rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin from [C6mim][BF4] extraction solution was completed effectively by AB-8 macroporous resin adsorption and desorption process. Ionic liquid vacuum microwave-assisted extraction is a simple, rapid and efficient sample extraction technique.

  4. Pre-Harvest Dropped Kinnow (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Waste Management through the Extraction of Naringin and Pectin from their Peels using Indigenous Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxmi Deepak Bhatlu, M.; Katiyar, Prashant; Singh, Satya Vir; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-09-01

    About 10-20 % kinnow fruits are dropped in preharvest stage which are waste and are problem to farmer as these create nuisance by rotting and insect rearing ground. The peels of these dropped fruits as well as peels from kinnow processing may be good source of naringin and pectin. Naringin is used in pharmaseutics while pectin is used in food industry. For recovery of naringin and pectn, peels of preharvest dropped kinnow fruits were boiled in water. The extract was passed through macroporus polymeric adsorbent resin Indion PA 800, naringin was adsorbed on it. The adsorbed naringin was desorbed with ethanol. This solution was passed through membrane filter and filtrate was evaporated to obtain naringin. The extract remaining after adsorption of naringin was used to recover pectin using acid extraction method. The recovery of naringin and pectin was about 52 and 58 % respectively. The naringin finally obtained had 91-93 % purity.

  5. Pre-Harvest Dropped Kinnow ( Citrus reticulata Blanco) Waste Management through the Extraction of Naringin and Pectin from their Peels using Indigenous Resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxmi Deepak Bhatlu, M.; Katiyar, Prashant; Singh, Satya Vir; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-09-01

    About 10-20 % kinnow fruits are dropped in preharvest stage which are waste and are problem to farmer as these create nuisance by rotting and insect rearing ground. The peels of these dropped fruits as well as peels from kinnow processing may be good source of naringin and pectin. Naringin is used in pharmaseutics while pectin is used in food industry. For recovery of naringin and pectn, peels of preharvest dropped kinnow fruits were boiled in water. The extract was passed through macroporus polymeric adsorbent resin Indion PA 800, naringin was adsorbed on it. The adsorbed naringin was desorbed with ethanol. This solution was passed through membrane filter and filtrate was evaporated to obtain naringin. The extract remaining after adsorption of naringin was used to recover pectin using acid extraction method. The recovery of naringin and pectin was about 52 and 58 % respectively. The naringin finally obtained had 91-93 % purity.

  6. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1994-01-25

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 9 figures.

  7. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Gatrone, R.C.; Chiarizia, R.

    1996-07-23

    An ion exchange resin is described for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene. 10 figs.

  8. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1994-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene disphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  9. Phosphonic acid based ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Alexandratos, Spiro D.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Ronato

    1996-01-01

    An ion exchange resin for extracting metal ions from a liquid waste stream. An ion exchange resin is prepared by copolymerizing a vinylidene diphosphonic acid with styrene, acrylonitrile and divinylbenzene.

  10. Final report on the safety assessment of capsicum annuum extract, capsicum annuum fruit extract, capsicum annuum resin, capsicum annuum fruit powder, capsicum frutescens fruit, capsicum frutescens fruit extract, capsicum frutescens resin, and capsaicin.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Capsicum-derived ingredients function as skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, external analgesics, flavoring agents, or fragrance components in cosmetics. These ingredients are used in 19 cosmetic products at concentrations as high as 5%. Cosmetic-grade material may be extracted using hexane, ethanol, or vegetable oil and contain the full range of phytocompounds that are found in the Capsicum annuum or Capsicum frutescens plant (aka red chiles), including Capsaicin. Aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds (N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine) have been detected as contaminants. The ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrum for Capsicum Annuum Fruit Extract indicates a small peak at approximately 275 nm, and a gradual increase in absorbance, beginning at approximately 400 nm. Capsicum and paprika are generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in food. Hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of Capsicum Frutescens Fruit at 200 mg/kg resulted in death of all mice. In a short-term inhalation toxicity study using rats, no difference was found between vehicle control and a 7% Capsicum Oleoresin solution. In a 4-week feeding study, red chilli (Capsicum annuum) in the diet at concentrations up to 10% was relatively nontoxic in groups of male mice. In an 8-week feeding study using rats, intestinal exfoliation, cytoplasmic fatty vacuolation and centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, and aggregation of lymphocytes in the portal areas were seen at 10% Capsicum Frutescens Fruit, but not 2%. Rats fed 0.5 g/kg day-1 crude Capsicum Fruit Extract for 60 days exhibited no significant gross pathology at necropsy, but slight hyperemia of the liver and reddening of the gastric mucosa were observed. Weanling rats fed basal diets supplemented with whole red pepper at concentrations up to 5.0% for up to 8 weeks had no pathology of the large intestines, livers, and kidneys, but destruction of the taste buds and keratinization and erosion of

  11. Solid-phase extraction of gallium(III) with hydrophobic 8-quinolinol derivatives-impregnated resin from aqueous acidic and alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Nahoko; Imura, Hisanori; Ohashi, Akira; Ohashi, Kousaburo

    2008-12-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of gallium(III) with hydrophobic 8-quinolinol derivatives (HQs)-impregnated resin from aqueous acidic and alkaline solutions has been investigated. The HQs used were 7-(4-ethyl-1-methyloctyl)-8-quinolinol (HEMOQ), 5-octyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol (HO(8)Q), 2-methyl-5-octyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol (HMO(8)Q), 5-dioctylaminomethyl-8-quinolinol (HN(8)Q), 7-bromo-5-octyloxymethyl-8-quinolinol (HBrO(8)Q), and 5-(2-ethylhexyloxymethyl)-8-quinolinol (HOEHQ). Various factors affecting the SPE, such as the substituents of the HQs, HCl and NaOH concentrations in the aqueous phase, the HQ concentration in the resin, and the equilibration time were clarified. The extractability for gallium(III) from the aqueous solution became higher in the following order: HBrO(8)Q < HEMOQ < HO(8)Q < HN(8)Q < HMO(8)Q at 3 mol l(-1) HCl; HMO(8)Q < HO(8)Q < HOEHQ < HEMOQ < HN(8)Q < HBrO(8)Q at pH 0.4; HMO(8)Q < HO(8)Q asymptotically equal to HOEHQ < HN(8)Q < HEMOQ at 3 mol l(-1) NaOH.

  12. Single vial sample preparation of markers of nerve agents by dispersive solid-phase extraction using magnetic strong anion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2015-05-22

    A sample preparation method involving extraction, enrichment and derivatization of acidic degradation products of nerve agents was developed using magnetic strong anion exchange resins (MSAX). The method was performed in a single vial involving magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE). Analytes were derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) in the presence of resins. MSAX were custom synthesized using Fe3O4 nanoparticles as core, 4-vinylpyridine-co-divinylbenzene as polymer shell and quaternary pyridinium function as anion-exchanger. Hydroxide ions were the counter-anions of MSAX to effectively capture the acidic alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs). Quantitative measurements of analytes were performed in the selected ion monitoring mode of GC-MS. Full scan mode of analysis was followed for identifications. Under the optimized conditions analytes were recovered in the range of 39.7-98.8% (n=3, relative standard deviations (RSD) from 0.3 to 6.5%). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.1-1.1ngmL(-1); and the linear dynamic range was 5-1000ngmL(-1) with r(2) of 0.9977-0.9769. Applicability of the method was tested with rain-, tap-, muddy-water and Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Proficiency Test samples.

  13. Single vial sample preparation of markers of nerve agents by dispersive solid-phase extraction using magnetic strong anion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varoon; Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay Kumar; Pardasani, Deepak; Tak, Vijay; Dubey, Devendra Kumar

    2015-05-22

    A sample preparation method involving extraction, enrichment and derivatization of acidic degradation products of nerve agents was developed using magnetic strong anion exchange resins (MSAX). The method was performed in a single vial involving magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction (MDSPE). Analytes were derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) in the presence of resins. MSAX were custom synthesized using Fe3O4 nanoparticles as core, 4-vinylpyridine-co-divinylbenzene as polymer shell and quaternary pyridinium function as anion-exchanger. Hydroxide ions were the counter-anions of MSAX to effectively capture the acidic alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs). Quantitative measurements of analytes were performed in the selected ion monitoring mode of GC-MS. Full scan mode of analysis was followed for identifications. Under the optimized conditions analytes were recovered in the range of 39.7-98.8% (n=3, relative standard deviations (RSD) from 0.3 to 6.5%). Limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 0.1-1.1ngmL(-1); and the linear dynamic range was 5-1000ngmL(-1) with r(2) of 0.9977-0.9769. Applicability of the method was tested with rain-, tap-, muddy-water and Organization for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Proficiency Test samples. PMID:25863924

  14. Chelating resin-based extraction of DNA from dental pulp and sex determination from incinerated teeth with Y-chromosomal alphoid repeat and short tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Tsuchimochi, Tsukasa; Iwasa, Mineo; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Koyama, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Isobe, Ichiro; Matoba, Ryoji; Yokoi, Motoo; Nagao, Masataka

    2002-09-01

    A procedure utilizing Chelex 100, chelating resin, was adapted to extract DNA from dental pulp. The procedure was simple and rapid, involved no organic solvents, and did not require multiple tube transfers. The extraction of DNA from dental pulp using this method was as efficient, or more so, than using proteinase K and phenol-chloroform extraction. In this study, the Chelex method was used with amplification and typing at Y-chromosomal loci to determine the effects of temperature on the sex determination of the teeth. The extracted teeth were incinerated in a dental furnace for 2 minutes at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C, 300 degrees C, 400 degrees C, and 500 degrees C. After the isolation of DNA from the dental pulp by the Chelex method, alphoid repeats, and short tandem repeats, the human Y chromosome (DYZ3), DYS19, SYS389, DYS390, and DYS393 could be amplified and typed in all samples incinerated at up to 300 degrees C for 2 minutes. The DYS389 locus in some samples could not be amplified at 300 degrees C for 2 minutes. An autopsy case is described in which genotypings of DYS19, DYS390, and DYS393 from dental pulp obtained from a burned body were needed. The data presented in this report suggest that Chelex 100-based DNA extraction, amplification, and typing are possible in burned teeth in forensic autopsy cases.

  15. Application of alkyl polyglycoside surfactant in ultrasonic-assisted extraction followed by macroporous resin enrichment for the separation of vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and vitexin from Crataegus pinnatifida leaves.

    PubMed

    Han, Feng; Guo, Yupin; Gu, Huiyan; Li, Fenglan; Hu, Baozhong; Yang, Lei

    2016-02-15

    An alkyl polyglycoside (APG) surfactant was used in ultrasonic-assisted extraction to effectively extract vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside (VOR) and vitexin (VIT) from Crataegus pinnatifida leaves. APG0810 was selected as the surfactant. The extraction process was optimized for ultrasonic power, the APG concentration, ultrasonic time, soaking time, and liquid-solid ratio. The proposed approach showed good recovery (99.80-102.50% for VOR and 98.83-103.19% for VIT) and reproducibility (relative standard deviation, n=5; 3.7% for VOR and 4.2% for VIT) for both components. The proposed sample preparation method is both simple and effective. The use of APG for extraction of key herbal ingredients shows great potential. Ten widely used commercial macroporous resins were evaluated in a screening study to identify a suitable resin for the separation and purification of VOR and VIT. After comparing static and dynamic adsorption and desorption processes, HPD100B was selected as the most suitable resin. After column adsorption and desorption on this resin, the target compounds VOR and VIT can be effectively separated from the APG0810 extraction solution. Recoveries of VOR and VIT were 89.27%±0.42% and 85.29%±0.36%, respectively. The purity of VOR increased from 35.0% to 58.3% and the purity of VIT increased from 12.5% to 19.9%. PMID:26807707

  16. Synthesis, characterization and application of a new chelating resin for solid phase extraction, preconcentration and determination of trace metals in some dairy samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Daşbaşı, Teslima; Saçmacı, Şerife; Çankaya, Nevin; Soykan, Cengiz

    2016-11-15

    In this study, a simple and rapid solid phase extraction/preconcentration procedure was developed for determination of Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) trace metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). A new chelating resin, poly(N-cyclohexylacrylamide-co-divinylbenzene-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (NCA-co-DVB-co-AMPS) (hereafter CDAP) was synthesized and characterized. The influences of the analytical parameters such as pH of the sample solution, type and concentration of eluent, flow rates of the sample and eluent, volume of the sample and eluent, amount of chelating resin, and interference of ions were examined. The limit of detection (LOD) of analytes were found (3s) to be in the range of 0.65-1.90μgL(-1). Preconcentration factor (PF) of 200 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of ⩽2% were achieved (n=11). The developed method was applied for determination of analytes in some dairy samples and certified reference materials. PMID:27283608

  17. Chromium speciation in environmental samples by solid- phase extraction using lewatit ionac SR-7 resin and flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sacmaçi, Serife; Kartal, Senol; Kumsuz, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    A new method for the speciation, preconcentration, and separation of Cr(lll) and Cr(VI) species in different matrixes was developed using SPE combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Theprocedure is based on the exchange of Cr(VI) ions as CrO(4)(2-) with CI- ions on Lewatit lonac SR-7 ion-exchange resin. After the oxidation of Cr(lll) to CrO(4)(2-) ions by concentrated H202 in basic medium, the procedure was applied to the determination of total Cr. Cr(lll) was calculated as the difference between the total Cr and Cr(VI) contents. The influence of the analytical parameters including the pH of the solution, amount of resin, eluent type, sample volume, and flow rates of the sample and eluent solutions were investigated. No considerable interferences were observed from: other anions and cations investigated in the Cr speciation. The preconcentration factor was found to be 500. The LOD for Cr(VI), corresponding to three times the SD of the blank, was 0.003 μg/L. The sorption capacity and binding equilibrium constant were calculated as 17.2 mg/g and 2.54 L/mg, respectively. The accuracy of the method was verified by analyzing certified reference materials. The proposed method was applied to the speciation of Cr species in real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:25632449

  18. Determination of strontium-90 from direct separation of yttrium-90 by solid phase extraction using DGA Resin for seawater monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, Hirofumi; Obata, Hajime; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Karube, Zin'ichi; Nagai, Hisao; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-05-15

    It is important for public safety to monitor strontium-90 in aquatic environments in the vicinity of nuclear related facilities. Strontium-90 concentrations in seawater exceeding the background level have been observed in accidents of nuclear facilities. However, the analytical procedure for measuring strontium-90 in seawater is highly demanding. Here we show a simple and high throughput analytical technique for the determination of strontium-90 in seawater samples using a direct yttrium-90 separation. The DGA Resin is used to determine the abundance of strontium-90 by detecting yttrium-90 decay (beta-emission) in secular equilibrium. The DGA Resin can selectively collect yttrium-90 and remove naturally occurring radionuclides such as (40)K, (210)Pb, (214)Bi, (238)U, and (232)Th and anthropogenic radionuclides such as (140)Ba, and (140)La. Through a sample separation procedure, a high chemical yield of yttrium-90 was achieved at 95.5±2.3%. The result of IAEA-443 certified seawater analysis (107.7±3.4 mBq kg(-1)) was in good agreement with the certified value (110±5 mBq kg(-1)). By developed method, we can finish analyzing 8 samples per day after achieving secular equilibrium, which is a reasonably fast throughput in actual seawater monitoring. By processing 3 L of seawater sample and applying a counting time of 20 h, minimum detectable activity can be as low as 1.5 mBq kg(-1), which could be applied to monitoring for the contaminated marine environment. Reproducibility was found to be 3.4% according to 10 independent analyses of natural seawater samples from the vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in September 2013. PMID:26992514

  19. Determination of strontium-90 from direct separation of yttrium-90 by solid phase extraction using DGA Resin for seawater monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, Hirofumi; Obata, Hajime; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Karube, Zin'ichi; Nagai, Hisao; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-05-15

    It is important for public safety to monitor strontium-90 in aquatic environments in the vicinity of nuclear related facilities. Strontium-90 concentrations in seawater exceeding the background level have been observed in accidents of nuclear facilities. However, the analytical procedure for measuring strontium-90 in seawater is highly demanding. Here we show a simple and high throughput analytical technique for the determination of strontium-90 in seawater samples using a direct yttrium-90 separation. The DGA Resin is used to determine the abundance of strontium-90 by detecting yttrium-90 decay (beta-emission) in secular equilibrium. The DGA Resin can selectively collect yttrium-90 and remove naturally occurring radionuclides such as (40)K, (210)Pb, (214)Bi, (238)U, and (232)Th and anthropogenic radionuclides such as (140)Ba, and (140)La. Through a sample separation procedure, a high chemical yield of yttrium-90 was achieved at 95.5±2.3%. The result of IAEA-443 certified seawater analysis (107.7±3.4 mBq kg(-1)) was in good agreement with the certified value (110±5 mBq kg(-1)). By developed method, we can finish analyzing 8 samples per day after achieving secular equilibrium, which is a reasonably fast throughput in actual seawater monitoring. By processing 3 L of seawater sample and applying a counting time of 20 h, minimum detectable activity can be as low as 1.5 mBq kg(-1), which could be applied to monitoring for the contaminated marine environment. Reproducibility was found to be 3.4% according to 10 independent analyses of natural seawater samples from the vicinity of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in September 2013.

  20. Water-compatible dummy molecularly imprinted resin prepared in aqueous solution for green miniaturized solid-phase extraction of plant growth regulators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyu; Chang, Xiaochen; Wu, Xingyu; Yan, Hongyuan; Qiao, Fengxia

    2016-08-01

    A water-compatible dummy molecularly imprinted resin (MIR) was synthesized in water using melamine, urea, and formaldehyde as hydrophilic monomers of co-polycondensation. A triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) was used as porogen to dredge the network structure of MIR, and N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, which has similar shape and size to the target analytes, was the dummy template of molecular imprinting. The obtained MIR was used as the adsorbent in a green miniaturized solid-phase extraction (MIR⬜mini-SPE) of plant growth regulators, and there was no organic solvent used in the entire MIR⬜mini-SPE procedure. The calibration linearity of MIR⬜mini-SPE⬜HPLC method was obtained in a range 5⬜250ngmL(↙1) for IAA, IPA, IBA, and NAA with correlation coefficient (r) Ⱕ0.9998. Recoveries at three spike levels are in the range of 87.6⬜100.0% for coconut juice with relative standard deviations Ⱔ8.1%. The MIR⬜mini-SPE method possesses the advantages of environmental friendliness, simple operation, and high efficiency, so it is potential to apply the green pretreatment strategy to extraction of trace analytes in aqueous samples.

  1. Water-compatible dummy molecularly imprinted resin prepared in aqueous solution for green miniaturized solid-phase extraction of plant growth regulators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyu; Chang, Xiaochen; Wu, Xingyu; Yan, Hongyuan; Qiao, Fengxia

    2016-08-01

    A water-compatible dummy molecularly imprinted resin (MIR) was synthesized in water using melamine, urea, and formaldehyde as hydrophilic monomers of co-polycondensation. A triblock copolymer (PEO-PPO-PEO, P123) was used as porogen to dredge the network structure of MIR, and N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, which has similar shape and size to the target analytes, was the dummy template of molecular imprinting. The obtained MIR was used as the adsorbent in a green miniaturized solid-phase extraction (MIR⬜mini-SPE) of plant growth regulators, and there was no organic solvent used in the entire MIR⬜mini-SPE procedure. The calibration linearity of MIR⬜mini-SPE⬜HPLC method was obtained in a range 5⬜250ngmL(↙1) for IAA, IPA, IBA, and NAA with correlation coefficient (r) Ⱕ0.9998. Recoveries at three spike levels are in the range of 87.6⬜100.0% for coconut juice with relative standard deviations Ⱔ8.1%. The MIR⬜mini-SPE method possesses the advantages of environmental friendliness, simple operation, and high efficiency, so it is potential to apply the green pretreatment strategy to extraction of trace analytes in aqueous samples. PMID:27378249

  2. Glyoxal-Urea-Formaldehyde Molecularly Imprinted Resin as Pipette Tip Solid-Phase Extraction Adsorbent for Selective Screening of Organochlorine Pesticides in Spinach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Lv, Tianwei; Yan, Hongyuan; Wu, Gaochan; Li, Haonan

    2015-11-01

    A new kind of glyoxal-urea-formaldehyde molecularly imprinted resin (GUF-MIR) was synthesized by a glyoxal-urea-formaldehyde (GUF) gel imprinting method with 4,4'-dichlorobenzhydrol as a dummy template. The obtained GUF-MIR was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and applied as a selective adsorbent of miniaturized pipet tip solid-phase extraction (PT-SPE) for the separation and extraction of three organochlorine pesticides (dicofol (DCF), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDD), and tetradifon) in spinach samples. The proposed pretreatment procedures of spinach samples involved only 5.0 mg of GUF-MIR, 0.7 mL of MeOH-H2O (1:1, v/v) (washing solvent), and 0.6 mL of cyclohexane-ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v) (elution solvent). In comparison with other adsorbents (such as silica gel, C18, NH2-silica gel, and neutral alumina (Al2O3-N)), GUF-MIR showed higher adsorption and purification capacity for DCF, DDD, and tetradifon in aqueous solution. The average recoveries at three spiked levels ranged from 89.1% to 101.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ≤ 7.1% (n = 3). The presented GUF-MIR-PT-SPE method combines the advantages of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), GUF, and PT-SPE and can be used in polar solutions with high affinity and selectivity to the analytes in complex samples.

  3. Adsorption characteristics of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and caffeine in the extract of waste tea on macroporous adsorption resins functionalized with chloromethyl, amino, and phenylamino groups.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongfeng; Bai, Qingqing; Lou, Song; Di, Duolong; Li, Jintian; Guo, Mei

    2012-02-15

    According to the Friedel-Crafts and amination reaction, a series of macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) with novel structures were synthesized and identified by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and corresponding adsorption behaviors for (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine (CAF) extracted from waste tea were systemically investigated. Based on evaluation of adsorption kinetics, the kinetic data were well fitted by pseudo-second-order kinetics. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin-Pyzhev, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms were selected to illustrate the adsorption process of EGCG and CAF on the MARs. Thermodynamic parameters were adopted to explain in-depth information of inherent energetic changes associated with the adsorption process. The effect of temperature on EGCG and CAF adsorption by D101-3 was further expounded. Van der Waals force, hydrogen bonding, and electrostatic interaction were the main driving forces for the adsorption of EGCG and CAF on the MARs. This study might provide a scientific reference point to aid the industrial large-scale separation and enrichment of EGCG from the extracts of waste tea using modified MARs.

  4. Rapid determination of strontium-90 by solid phase extraction using DGA Resin® for seawater monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazoe, H.; Obata, H.; Yamagata, T.; Karube, Z.; Yamada, M.

    2015-12-01

    Strontium-90 concentrations in seawater exceeding the background level have been observed at the accidents of nuclear facilities, such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. However, analytical procedure for strontium-90 in seawater is still quite complicated and challenging. Here we show a simple and rapid analytical technique for the determination of strontium-90 in seawater samples without time-consuming separation of strontium from calcium. The separation with DGA Resin® is used to determine the abundance of strontium-90, which selectively collects yttrium-90, progeny of strontium-90. Naturally occurring radioactive nuclides (such as potassium, lead, bismuth, uranium, and thorium) and anthropogenic radionuclides (such as cesium, barium, lanthanum, and cerium) were separated from yttrium. Through a sample separation procedure, a high chemical yield of yttrium-90 was achieved at 93.9 % for seawater. The result of IAEA 443 certified seawater analysis was in good agreement with the certified value. At 20 hrs counting a lower detection limit of 1.5 mBq L-1 was obtained from 3 L of seawater. The proposed method can finish analyzing 8 samples per day, which is a reasonably fast throughput in actual seawater monitoring. Reproducibility was found to be 3.4 % according to 10 separate analyses of natural seawater samples from the vicinity of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in September 2013.

  5. Development and application of a new method to extract bacterial DNA from soil based on separation of bacteria from soil with cation-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, C S; Rasmussen, O F

    1992-08-01

    A new method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from soil has been developed. Soil samples of 50 g were dispersed, and bacteria were released by use of a cation-exchange resin; subsequently, bacteria were separated from soil particles by low-speed centrifugation and lysed with lysozyme and ionic detergent, and the DNA was then purified by CsCl-ethidium bromide equilibrium density centrifugation. The extracted DNA was of high molecular weight and sufficiently pure for restriction enzyme digestion, DNA-DNA hybridization, and amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. The advantages of the new method are that the separation of bacteria from soil is considerably faster than by repeated blending, more samples can be handled, and furthermore no aerosols are formed during separation. Also, we investigated whether the CsCl-ethidium bromide equilibrium density centrifugation could be replaced by purification using Gene-Clean. However, this method produced DNAs which were insufficiently pure for several types of analysis. The new method was used to study survival of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading Pseudomonas cepacia DBO1 (pRO101) in unamended soil and in soil amended with 2,4-D. We found that the degrading strain, irrespective of inoculation level, was able to grow to the same high numbers in soil amended with 2,4-D, while the strain in nonamended soil were maintained at the inoculation level. Detection based on DNA extraction and subsequent dot blot DNA-DNA hybridization was in accordance with detection by plating on selective medium. PMID:16348750

  6. Evalution of new cobalt dicarbollide resins and extractants for Cs and Sr removal from Hanford tank wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Abney, K.D.; Hurlburt, P.K.; Melo, M.M.

    1996-10-01

    Schemes for processing Hanford tank wastes call for initial separation of the highly radioactive nuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. While cobalt dicarbollide solvent extraction has been extensively demonstrated on acidic Purex waste streams in Russia and the Czech Republic, the use of cobalt dicarbollide for treating highly alkaline tank wastes was not previously studied. Simulant studies on cobalt dicarbollide systems-solvent extraction, supported liquid membranes, and solid-sorbed materials-have shown selective uptake of cesium and/or strontium from Hanford-type wastes containing high concentrations of sodium. These studies culminated with testing of selected sorbers; for removal of Cs and Sr from actual samples of waste from Hanford tanks 101-SY and 103-SY. Performance of the cobalt dicarbollide systems is compared with other commercial and experimental absorbers.

  7. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  8. Composite resins.

    PubMed

    Leinfelder, K F

    1985-04-01

    The interest in posterior composite resins has grown rapidly during the last several years. Much of the interest has been initiated by a demand for esthetic dentistry. Some has developed as a result of a concern by some for mercury sensitivity. Despite their growing popularity, a number of major problems persist. Some of these deal with the restorative material, whereas others relate to the clinical techniques associated with their use. Before the clinician considers the use of composite resins in posterior teeth, he or she should be familiar with conditions that strongly influence clinical behavior.

  9. The Effect of Aloe Vera, Pomegranate Peel, Grape Seed Extract, Green Tea, and Sodium Ascorbate as Antioxidants on the Shear Bond Strength of Composite Resin to Home-bleached Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Farshad, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Immediate application of bonding agent to home- bleached enamel leads to significant reduction in the shear bond strength of composite resin due to the residual oxygen. Different antioxidant agents may overcome this problem. Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of composite resin to home-bleached. Materials and Method Sixty extracted intact human incisors were embedded in cylindrical acrylic resin blocks (2.5×1.5 cm), with the coronal portion left out of the block. After bleaching the labial enamel surface with 15% carbamide peroxide, they were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=10). Before performing composite resin restoration by using a cylindrical Teflon mold (5×2 mm), each group was treated with one of the following antioxidants: 10% sodium ascorbate solution, 10% pomegranate peel solution, 10% grape seed extract, 5% green tea extract, and aloe vera leaf gel. One group was left untreated as the control. The shear bond strength of samples was tested under a universal testing machine (ZwickRoell Z020). The shear bond strength data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests (p< 0.05). Results No significant difference existed between the control and experimental groups. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the effects of different antioxidants on the shear bond strength of bleached enamel. Conclusion Different antioxidants used in this study had the same effect on the shear bond strength of home-bleached enamel, and none of them caused a statistically significant increase in its value. PMID:26636116

  10. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  11. Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

    2012-07-01

    Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

  12. 21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race... of the resin pellets, when extracted with 100 milliliters of 50 percent (by volume) ethyl alcohol...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race... of the resin pellets, when extracted with 100 milliliters of 50 percent (by volume) ethyl alcohol...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race... of the resin pellets, when extracted with 100 milliliters of 50 percent (by volume) ethyl alcohol...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race... of the resin pellets, when extracted with 100 milliliters of 50 percent (by volume) ethyl alcohol...

  16. Determining resin/fiber content of laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, G. G.; Houston, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Article discusses procedure where hydrazine is used to extract graphite fibers from cured polyimide resin. Method does not attack graphite fibers and is faster than hot-concentrated-acid digestion process.

  17. Preconcentration of trace metals from sea water with 7-dodecenyl-8-quinolinol impregnated macroporous resin

    SciTech Connect

    Isshiki, K.; Tsuji, F.; Kuwamoto, T.; Nakayama, E.

    1987-10-15

    7-Dodecenyl-8-quinolinol (DDQ) impregnated XAD-4 resin (DDQ resin) was prepared, and its extraction behavior was studied and compared with solvent extraction with DDQ for Aq, Al, Bi, Cd, Cu, Fe, Ga, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Ti. The results demonstrate that the DDQ resin is effective in the preconcentration of those metals from sea water. The column extraction method using the DDQ resin was applied to sea water analysis with satisfactory results being obtained.

  18. Process for preparing phenolic formaldehyde resole resin products derived from fractionated fast-pyrolysis oils

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Kreibich, Roland E.

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins and adhesive compositions in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenol/neutral fractions extract obtained from fractionating fast-pyrolysis oils.

  19. Guayule resin detection and influence on guayule rubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guayule (Parthenium argentatum) is a natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene) producing crop, native to North America. Guayule also produces organic resins, complex mixtures of terpenes, triglycerides, guayulins, triterpenoids and other components. During natural rubber extraction, guayule resins can b...

  20. Resin collection and social immunity in honey bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined if the use of resins, complex plant secretions with diverse antimicrobial properties, acts as a colony-level immune defense by honey bees. Colonies were enriched with extracts of Brazilian or Minnesotan propolis (a bee mixture of resins and wax) or were left as controls. We measured ge...

  1. Branched polymeric media: boron-chelating resins from hyperbranched polyethylenimine.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Himanshu; Yu, Changjun; Chen, Dennis P; Goddard, William A; Dalleska, Nathan F; Hoffmann, Michael R; Diallo, Mamadou S

    2012-08-21

    Extraction of boron from aqueous solutions using selective resins is important in a variety of applications including desalination, ultrapure water production, and nuclear power generation. Today's commercial boron-selective resins are exclusively prepared by functionalization of styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) beads with N-methylglucamine to produce resins with boron-chelating groups. However, such boron-selective resins have a limited binding capacity with a maximum free base content of 0.7 eq/L, which corresponds to a sorption capacity of 1.16 ± 0.03 mMol/g in aqueous solutions with equilibrium boron concentration of ∼70 mM. In this article, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a new resin that can selectively extract boron from aqueous solutions. We show that branched polyethylenimine (PEI) beads obtained from an inverse suspension process can be reacted with glucono-1,5-D-lactone to afford a resin consisting of spherical beads with high density of boron-chelating groups. This resin has a sorption capacity of 1.93 ± 0.04 mMol/g in aqueous solution with equilibrium boron concentration of ∼70 mM, which is 66% percent larger than that of standard commercial STY-DVB resins. Our new boron-selective resin also shows excellent regeneration efficiency using a standard acid wash with a 1.0 M HCl solution followed by neutralization with a 0.1 M NaOH solution.

  2. Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats haplotyping from vaginal swabs using a chelating resin-based DNA extraction method and a dual-round polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Mineo; Koyama, Hiroyoshi; Tsuchimochi, Tsukasa; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Ichiro; Seko-Nakamura, Yoshimi; Monma-Ohtaki, Jun; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Nagao, Masataka

    2003-09-01

    Reported are 2 autopsy cases in which Y-chromosomal microsatellite short tandem repeats DYS19, DYS389I and II, DYS390, and DYS393 could be haplotyped with vaginal swabs by using a Chelex 100-based DNA extraction method and dual-round polymerase chain reaction. The extraction of DNA from vaginal swabs by using this method was as efficient or more efficient than using proteinase K and phenol-chloroform extraction or the alkaline lysis methods. Y-chromosomal microsatellite short tandem repeats haplotyping based on the dual-round polymerase chain reaction method provided genotypes from all the loci determined. Although amplification of Y-chromosomal microsatellite short tandem repeats loci is not directly involved in the existence of spermatozoa, it is considerably advantageous for male individualization from body fluid mixture stains in criminal cases.

  3. [Radiopacity of composite resins].

    PubMed

    Tamburús, J R

    1990-01-01

    The author studied the radiopacity of six composite resins, submitted to radiographic examination in standardized conditions, only with kilovoltage variations. Along with resins it was radiographed an aluminium penetrometer, to compare their optical densities. The results showed that kilovoltagem variations interfered in optical densities of the resins, being more pronounced in 50-55, 55-60 and 60-65 kilovoltages. Despite this, the relations of optical densities as compared with that of penetrometer steps kept unaltered most fo the kilovoltages used.

  4. Polyester Resin Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.

    1963-01-01

    Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where dimethylaniline is used scrupulous cleanliness and no-touch technique must be enforced. Handling precautions are suggested. Images PMID:14014495

  5. 21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Specifications. (1) The finished copolymers shall contain from 70 to 80 weight percent of polymer units derived from diphenylisophthalate and 20 to 30 weight percent of polymer units derived from...) Polyarylate resins may be identified by their characteristic infrared spectra. (c) Extractive limitations....

  6. 21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Materials,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA... the resin pellets, when extracted with 100 milliliters of 50 percent (by volume) ethyl alcohol...

  7. Delayed cure bismaleimide resins

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-08-12

    Prior art polybismaleimides begin to polymerize at or just above the melting point of the monomer. This patent describes new bismaleimide resins which have an increased pot life and provide longer time periods in which the monomer remains fluid. The resins can be polymerized into molded articles with a high uniformity of properties. (DLC)

  8. Erosion of composite resins.

    PubMed

    Powers, J M; Fan, P L

    1980-05-01

    The surface degradation of composite resins caused by accelerated aging was studied. Accelerated aging for 900 hours caused erosion of the resin matrices and exposure of filler particles. Differences in surface profiles after aging suggest that the materials eroded at different rates. Accelerated aging may model erosive wear of composites.

  9. Incombustible resin composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akima, T.

    1982-01-01

    Incombustible resin compositions composed of aromatic compounds were obtained through (1) combustion polymer material and (2) bisphenol A or halogenated bisphenol A and bisphenol A diglycidl ether or halogenated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. The aromatic compound is an adduct of bifunctional phenols and bifunctional epoxy resins.

  10. Development of resins for composites by resin transfer molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, Paul M.; Maynard, Shawn J.

    1991-01-01

    Designed to cover a wide range of resin technology and to meet the near-term and long-term needs of the aircraft industry, this research has three objectives: to produce resin transfer molding (RES) resins with improved processability, to produce prepreg systems with high toughness and service temperature, and to produce new resin systems. Progress on reaching the objectives is reported.

  11. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption on macroporous resins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.; Suffet, I.H.; Malaiyandi, Murugan

    1987-01-01

    Adsorption on synthetic macroporous resins, such as the Amberlite XAD series and Duolite A-7, is routinely used to isolate and concentrate organic acids from forge volumes of water. Samples as large as 24,500 L have been processed on site by using these resins. Two established extraction schemes using XAD-8 and Duolite A-7 resins are described. The choice of the appropriate resin and extraction scheme is dependent on the organic solutes of interest. The factors that affect resin performance, selectivity, and capacity for a particular solute are solution pH, resin surface area and pore size, and resin composition. The logistical problems of sample handling, filtration, and preservation are also discussed.

  12. Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

  13. Impregnation of softwood cell walls with melamine-formaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Gindl, W; Zargar-Yaghubi, F; Wimmer, R

    2003-05-01

    Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin impregnation has shown considerable potential to improve a number of wood properties, such as surface hardness and weathering resistance. In this study, selected factors influencing the uptake of MF resin into the cell wall of softwood were studied. Using UV-microspectroscopy, it could be shown that water soluble MF diffused well into the secondary cell wall and the middle lamella. Concentrations as high as 24% (v/v) were achieved after an impregnation of 20 h. High cell wall moisture content, high water content of the resin used for impregnation, and low extractive content are factors which are favourable for MF resin uptake into the cell wall. For dry cell walls, solvent exchange drying improved resin uptake to a similar extent, as was the case when cell walls were soaked in water.

  14. Impregnation of softwood cell walls with melamine-formaldehyde resin.

    PubMed

    Gindl, W; Zargar-Yaghubi, F; Wimmer, R

    2003-05-01

    Melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin impregnation has shown considerable potential to improve a number of wood properties, such as surface hardness and weathering resistance. In this study, selected factors influencing the uptake of MF resin into the cell wall of softwood were studied. Using UV-microspectroscopy, it could be shown that water soluble MF diffused well into the secondary cell wall and the middle lamella. Concentrations as high as 24% (v/v) were achieved after an impregnation of 20 h. High cell wall moisture content, high water content of the resin used for impregnation, and low extractive content are factors which are favourable for MF resin uptake into the cell wall. For dry cell walls, solvent exchange drying improved resin uptake to a similar extent, as was the case when cell walls were soaked in water. PMID:12507874

  15. [Study of purity tests for silicone resins].

    PubMed

    Sato, Kyoko; Otsuki, Noriko; Ohori, Akio; Chinda, Mitsuru; Furusho, Noriko; Osako, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    In the 8th edition of Japan's Specifications and Standards for Food Additives, the purity test for silicone resins requires the determination of the refractive index and kinetic viscosity of the extracted silicone oil, and allows for only a limited amount of silicon dioxide. In the purity test, carbon tetrachloride is used to separate the silicone oil and silicon dioxide. To exclude carbon tetrachloride, methods were developed for separating the silicone oil and silicon dioxide from silicone resin, which use hexane and 10% n-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid in hexane. For silicone oil, the measured refractive index and kinetic viscosity of the silicone oil obtained from the hexane extract were shown to be equivalent to those of the intact silicone oil. In regard to silicon dioxide, it was confirmed that, following the separation with 10% n-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid in hexane, the level of silicon dioxide in silicone resin can be accurately determined. Therefore, in this study, we developed a method for testing the purity of silicone resins without the use of carbon tetrachloride, which is a harmful reagent.

  16. Thermally stable laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.; Burns, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Improved thermally stable laminating resins were developed based on the addition-type pyrolytic polymerization. Detailed monomer and polymer synthesis and characterization studies identified formulations which facilitate press molding processing and autoclave fabrication of glass and graphite fiber reinforced composites. A specific resin formulation, termed P10P was utilized to prepare a Courtaulds HMS reinforced simulated airfoil demonstration part by an autoclave molding process.

  17. Acetylene terminated matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfarb, I. J.; Lee, Y. C.; Arnold, F. E.; Helminiak, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of resins with terminal acetylene groups has provided a promising technology to yield high performance structural materials. Because these resins cure through an addition reaction, no volatile by-products are produced during the processing. The cured products have high thermal stability and good properties retention after exposure to humidity. Resins with a wide variety of different chemical structures between the terminal acetylene groups are synthesized and their mechanical properties studied. The ability of the acetylene cured polymers to give good mechanical properties is demonstrated by the resins with quinoxaline structures. Processibility of these resins can be manipulated by varying the chain length between the acetylene groups or by blending in different amounts of reactive deluents. Processing conditions similar to the state-of-the-art epoxy can be attained by using backbone structures like ether-sulfone or bis-phenol-A. The wide range of mechanical properties and processing conditions attainable by this class of resins should allow them to be used in a wide variety of applications.

  18. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... *Epoxy Resins *Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins *Urea Formaldehyde Resins *Urea Resins...

  19. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... *Epoxy Resins *Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins *Urea Formaldehyde Resins *Urea Resins...

  20. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... *Epoxy Resins *Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins *Urea Formaldehyde Resins *Urea Resins...

  1. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... *Epoxy Resins *Fumaric Acid Polyesters *Furan Resins Glyoxal-Urea Formaldehyde Textile Resin *Ketone-Formaldehyde Resins *Melamine Resins *Phenolic Resins *Polyacetal Resins Polyacrylamide *Polyurethane Prepolymers *Polyurethane Resins *Urea Formaldehyde Resins *Urea Resins...

  2. Effects of Guayule Resin on Termite Feeding Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guayule, a desert adapted plant, yields hypoallergenic rubber that is used primarily by the medical profession for rubber gloves, catheters, etc. Terpene resin, a co-product from guayule that can be extracted prior to rubber extraction, has been found to have termiticidal properties. As such, this r...

  3. Graphite fiber reinforced thermoplastic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical properties of neat resin samples and graphite fiber reinforced samples of thermoplastic resins were characterized with particular emphasis directed to the effects of environmental exposure (humidity, temperature and ultraviolet radiation). Tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, creep and impact strengths were measured for polysulfone, polyarylsulfone and a state-of-the-art epoxy resin samples. In general, the thermoplastic resins exhibited environmental degradation resistance equal to or superior to the reference epoxy resin. Demonstration of the utility and quality of a graphite/thermoplastic resin system was accomplished by successfully thermoforming a simulated compressor blade and a fan exit guide vane.

  4. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  5. Determination of Human-Health Pharmaceuticals in Filtered Water by Chemically Modified Styrene-Divinylbenzene Resin-Based Solid-Phase Extraction and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furlong, Edward T.; Werner, Stephen L.; Anderson, Bruce D.; Cahill, Jeffery D.

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, the Methods Research and Development Program of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory began the process of developing a method designed to identify and quantify human-health pharmaceuticals in four filtered water-sample types: reagent water, ground water, surface water minimally affected by human contributions, and surface water that contains a substantial fraction of treated wastewater. Compounds derived from human pharmaceutical and personal-care product use, which enter the environment through wastewater discharge, are a newly emerging area of concern; this method was intended to fulfill the need for a highly sensitive and highly selective means to identify and quantify 14 commonly used human pharmaceuticals in filtered-water samples. The concentrations of 12 pharmaceuticals are reported without qualification; the concentrations of two pharmaceuticals are reported as estimates because long-term reagent-spike sample recoveries fall below acceptance criteria for reporting concentrations without qualification. The method uses a chemically modified styrene-divinylbenzene resin-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge for analyte isolation and concentration. For analyte detection and quantitation, an instrumental method was developed that used a high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) system to separate the pharmaceuticals of interest from each other and coextracted material. Immediately following separation, the pharmaceuticals are ionized by electrospray ionization operated in the positive mode, and the positive ions produced are detected, identified, and quantified using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In this method, 1-liter water samples are first filtered, either in the field or in the laboratory, using a 0.7-micrometer (um) nominal pore size glass-fiber filter to remove suspended solids. The filtered samples then are passed through cleaned and conditioned SPE cartridges at a rate of about 15

  6. Multidrug resistance-reversal effects of resin glycosides from Dichondra repens.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei-Bin; Wang, Wen-Qiong; Zhang, Shu-Wei; Xuan, Li-Jiang

    2015-02-15

    Investigation of hydrophobic extract of Dichondra repens (Convolvulaceae) led to the isolation of three new resin glycosides dichondrins A-C (1-3), and three known resin glycosides cus-1, cus-2, and cuse 3. All the isolated resin glycosides with an acyclic core were evaluated for their multidrug resistance reversal activities, and the combined use of these compounds at a concentration of 25μM increased the cytotoxicity of vincristine by 1.03-1.78-fold.

  7. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  8. EP-toxicity testing of mercury removal resin grout

    SciTech Connect

    Mersman, K.E.

    1984-07-18

    To determine which category a waste will fit into, the EPA requires a classification test. The test, EP-toxicity, consists of a physical integrity test followed by an extraction. For the case of the mercury removal resin grout, the mercury concentration in the extract cannot exceed 0.2 mg/L if the waste is to be classified as ``solid waste.`` Otherwise, the waste is classified as ``hazardous.`` Simulated process solutions were used to load the mercury removal resin. The resin was solidified with the addition of cement and water using a formulation based on grout formulations typically used to solidify power reactor ion exchange resins. Envirodyne Engineers of St. Louis, Missouri, an EPA sanctioned laboratory, performed the EP-toxicity test for the two samples. One sample was a blank which was made with unloaded resin. For the formulation tested, the EP-toxicity test results showed that the mercury removal resin grout does not fit into the ``hazardous waste`` category.

  9. Nontoxic Resins Advance Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year, PETI-330, is a polyimide matrix resin that performs well at high temperatures and is easily processed into composites in a simple, short curing cycle. Invented by scientists at Langley Research Center, PETI-330 is now licensed to Ube Industries, based in Japan with its American headquarters in New York. In addition to being durable and lightweight, the resin is also nontoxic, which makes it safe for workers to handle. PETI-330 was created specifically for heat-resistant composites formed with resin transfer molding and resin infusion, which formerly could only be used with low temperature resin systems.

  10. Evaluation of Selective Ion Exchange Resins for Removal of Mercury from the H-Area Water Treatment Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2000-09-05

    This study investigated the ability of seven ion exchange (IX) resins, some of which were mercury specific, to remove mercury in H-Area WTU waters from three sources (Reverse Osmosis (RO) Feed, RO Permeate from Train A, and a mercury ''hot spot'' extraction well HEX 18). Seven ion exchange resins, including ResinTech CG8 and Dowex 21K (the cation and anion exchange resins currently used at the H-Area WTU) were screened against five alternative ion exchange materials plus an experimental blank. Mercury decontamination factors (DFs), mercury breakthrough, and post-test contaminant concentrations of IX resins were determined for each IX material tested.

  11. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  12. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  13. Indirect posterior composite resins.

    PubMed

    Leinfelder, Karl F

    2005-07-01

    The use of indirect posterior composite restorations has facilitated the generation of ideal anatomic form, marginal adaptation, and appropriate proximal contact and contour. Unfortunately, however, the use of post-cure heat treatments has done little to enhance the overall clinical performance of the restoration. The development of new curing techniques in conjunction with modifications of the formulae have contributed to a substantial improvement in both the mechanical characteristics and long-term clinical performance of indirect posterior composite resins.

  14. Stingless bees use terpenes as olfactory cues to find resin sources.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, S D; Zeilhofer, S; Blüthgen, N; Schmitt, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Insects largely rely on olfactory cues when seeking and judging information on nests, partners, or resources. Bees are known to use volatile compounds-besides visual cues-to find flowers suitable for pollen and nectar collection. Tropical stingless bees additionally collect large amounts of plant resins for nest construction, nest maintenance, nest defense, and to derive chemical constituents for their cuticular profiles. We here demonstrate that stingless bees of Borneo also use olfactory cues to find tree resins. They rely on volatile mono- and sesquiterpenes to locate or recognize known resin sources. Moreover, by modifying resin extracts, we found that stingless bees do not use the entire resin bouquet but relative proportions of several terpenes. In doing so, the bees are able to learn specific tree resin profiles and distinguish between tree species and partly even tree individuals.

  15. Antibacterial activities of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul.

    PubMed

    Saeed, M Asif; Sabir, A W

    2004-03-01

    The essential oil, chloroform extract and seven sesquiterpenoids compounds newly isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora mukul showed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. PMID:15030926

  16. Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, C. L.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.; Gerken, N. T.

    1991-01-01

    Eight thermoplastic polyimide resin systems were evaluated as composite matrix materials. Two resins were selected for more extensive mechanical testing and both were versions of LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center - Thermoplastic Polyimide). One resin was made with LaRC-TPI and contained 2 weight percent of a di(amic acid) dopant as a melt flow aid. The second system was a 1:1 slurry of semicrystalline LaRC-TPI powder in a polyimidesulfone resin diglyme solution. The LaRC-TPI powder melts during processing and increases the melt flow of the resin. Testing included dynamic mechanical analysis, tension and compression testing, and compression-after-impact testing. The test results demonstrated that the LaRC-TPI resins have very good properties compared to other thermoplastics, and that they are promising matrix materials for advanced composite structures.

  17. Vitrification of ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Cicero-Herman, Connie A.; Workman, Rhonda Jackson

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to vitrification of ion exchange resins that have become loaded with hazardous or radioactive wastes, in a way that produces a homogenous and durable waste form and reduces the disposal volume of the resin. The methods of the present invention involve directly adding borosilicate glass formers and an oxidizer to the ion exchange resin and heating the mixture at sufficient temperature to produce homogeneous glass.

  18. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  19. Phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The production of fire-resistant resins particularly useful for making laminates with inorganic fibers such as graphite fibers is discussed. The resins are by (1) condensation of an ethylenically unsaturated cyclic anhydride with a bis(diaminophenyl) phosphine oxide, and (2) by addition polymerization of the bisimide so obtained. Up to about 50%, on a molar basis, of benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid anhydride can be substituted for some of the cyclic anhydride to alter the properties of the products. Graphite cloth laminates made with these resins show 800 C char yields greater than 70% by weight in nitrogen. Limiting oxygen indexes of more than 100% are determined for these resins.

  20. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  1. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.; Pater, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    High char yield epoxy using novel bisimide amines (BIA's) as curing agents with a state of the art epoxy resin was developed. Stoichiometric quantities of the epoxy resin and the BIA's were studied to determine the cure cycle required for preparation of resin specimens. The bisimide cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). The physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these novel resins were determined. The levels of moisture absorption exhibited by the bisimide amine cured expoxies (IME's) were considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies. The strain-to-failure of the control resin system was improved 25% by replacement of DDS with 6F-DDS. Each BIA containing resin exhibited twice the char yield of the control resin MY 720/DDS. Graphite fiber reinforced control (C) and IME resins were fabricated and characterized. Two of the composite systems showed superior properties compared to the other Celion 6000/IME composite systems and state of the art graphite epoxy systems. The two systems exhibited excellent wet shear and flexural strengths and moduli at 300 and 350 F.

  2. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  3. Synthesis and application of a new functionalized resin for use in an on-line, solid phase extraction system for the determination of trace elements in waters and reference cereal materials by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Karadaş, Cennet; Turhan, Onur; Kara, Derya

    2013-11-15

    The synthesis and characterization of the resin Amberlite XAD-4 functionalized with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde and its application in an on-line system for the preconcentration of cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead and manganese prior to determination using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is proposed. Metal ions retained on the modified resin were eluted using 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution and aspirated directly to the nebulizer-burner system of a FAAS instrument using a flow injection system. Detection limits (3σ) were determined to be 0.13 μg L(-1) for Cd, 0.29 μg L(-1) for Cu, 0.23 μg L(-1) for Mn, 0.58 μg L(-1) for Co and 2.19 μg L(-1) for Pb using a 10 mL of water sample loading volume. The limits of detection would be 100 times higher with units of μg kg(-1) for the solid samples in which their dilution ratios as (volume/weight) were 100. Enrichment factors ranged from 23.6 to 28.9 (for Co and Mn, respectively). The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of the analytes in natural water samples and certified reference materials.

  4. Synthesis and application of a new functionalized resin for use in an on-line, solid phase extraction system for the determination of trace elements in waters and reference cereal materials by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Karadaş, Cennet; Turhan, Onur; Kara, Derya

    2013-11-15

    The synthesis and characterization of the resin Amberlite XAD-4 functionalized with 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde and its application in an on-line system for the preconcentration of cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead and manganese prior to determination using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) is proposed. Metal ions retained on the modified resin were eluted using 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution and aspirated directly to the nebulizer-burner system of a FAAS instrument using a flow injection system. Detection limits (3σ) were determined to be 0.13 μg L(-1) for Cd, 0.29 μg L(-1) for Cu, 0.23 μg L(-1) for Mn, 0.58 μg L(-1) for Co and 2.19 μg L(-1) for Pb using a 10 mL of water sample loading volume. The limits of detection would be 100 times higher with units of μg kg(-1) for the solid samples in which their dilution ratios as (volume/weight) were 100. Enrichment factors ranged from 23.6 to 28.9 (for Co and Mn, respectively). The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of the analytes in natural water samples and certified reference materials. PMID:23790831

  5. K Basin sludge/resin bead separation test report

    SciTech Connect

    Squier, D.M.

    1998-08-25

    The K Basin sludge is an accumulation of fuel element corrosion products, organic and inorganic ion exchange materials, canister gasket materials, iron and aluminum corrosion products, sand, dirt and minor amounts of other organic material. The sludge will be collected and treated for storage and eventual disposal. This process will remove the large solid materials by a 1/4 inch screen. The screened material will be subjected to nitric acid in a chemical treatment process. The organic ion exchange resin beads produce undesirable chemical reactions with the nitric acid. The resin beads must be removed from the bulk material and treated by another process. An effective bead separation method must extract 95% of the resin bead mass without entraining more than 5% of the other sludge component mass. The test plan I-INF-2729, ``Organic Ion Exchange Resin Separation Methods Evaluation,`` proposed the evaluation of air lift, hydro cyclone, agitated slurry and elutriation resin bead separation methods. This follows the testing strategy outlined in section 4.1 of BNF-2574, ``Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process``. Engineering study BNF-3128, ``Separation of Organic Ion Exchange Resins from Sludge,`` Rev. 0, focused the evaluation tests on a method that removed the fine sludge particles by a sieve and then extracted the beads by means of a elutriation column. Ninety-nine percent of the resin beads are larger than 125 microns and 98.5 percent are 300 microns and larger. Particles smaller than 125 microns make up the largest portion of sludge in the K Basins. Eliminating a large part of the sludge`s non-bead component will reduce the quantity that is lifted with the resin beads in the elutriation column. Resin bead particle size distribution measurements are given in Appendix A The Engineering Testing Laboratory conducted measurements of a elutriation column`s ability to extract resin beads from a sieved, non-radioactive sludge

  6. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000×). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the restorations were removed out leaving only middle part. One side of the cavity was finished with course diamond bur and the other was air-abraded with 50 μm Al2O3. They were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10) to receive: Group 1: Adper Single Bond 2; Group 2: All Bond 3; Group 3: ClearfilSE; Group 4: BeautiBond, before being repaired with the same resin composite (Filtek Z250). The specimens were re-thermocycled (1000×), sealed with nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsin, sectioned mesiodistally and photographed digitally. The extent of dye penetration was measured by image analysis software (ImageJ) for both bur-finished and air-abraded surfaces at resin-tooth and resin-resin interfaces. The data were analyzed statistically. Results: BeautiBond exhibited the most microleakage at every site. Irrespective of adhesive and initial composite type, air-abrasion showed less microleakage except for BeautiBond. The type of initial repaired restorative material did not affect the microleakage. BeautiBond adhesive may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. Conclusions: Surface treatment with air-abrasion produced the lowest microleakage scores, independent of the adhesive systems and the pre-existing resin composite type. Pre-existing composite type does not affect the microleakage issue. All-in-one adhesive resin (BeautiBond) may not be preferred in resin composite repair in terms of microleakage prevention. PMID:25713491

  7. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    PubMed

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  8. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polysulfone resins. 177.1655 Section 177.1655 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1655 Polysulfone resins. Polysulfone resins... purpose of this section, polysulfone resins are: (1)...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this... the terpene resins identified in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as components...

  10. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680... Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane resins identified in paragraph (a) of..., polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of the isocyanates listed in paragraph (a)(1) of...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this... the terpene resins identified in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as components...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polysulfone resins. 177.1655 Section 177.1655 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1655 Polysulfone resins. Polysulfone resins... purpose of this section, polysulfone resins are: (1)...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin applicator. 872.3140 Section 872.3140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application...

  14. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this... the terpene resins identified in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as components...

  15. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3930 Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this... the terpene resins identified in paragraph (b) of this section may be safely used as components...

  16. 21 CFR 178.3930 - Terpene resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terpene resins. 178.3930 Section 178.3930 Food and... Terpene resins. The terpene resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as components of polypropylene film intended for use in contact with food, and the terpene resins identified...

  17. Chromatography resin support

    DOEpatents

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  18. Indirect resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Aesthetic dentistry continues to evolve through innovations in bonding agents, restorative materials, and conservative preparation techniques. The use of direct composite restoration in posterior teeth is limited to relatively small cavities due to polymerization stresses. Indirect composites offer an esthetic alternative to ceramics for posterior teeth. This review article focuses on the material aspect of the newer generation of composites. This review was based on a PubMed database search which we limited to peer-reviewed articles in English that were published between 1990 and 2010 in dental journals. The key words used were ‘indirect resin composites,’ composite inlays,’ and ‘fiber-reinforced composites.’ PMID:21217945

  19. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOEpatents

    Chum, H.L.; Black, S.K.; Diebold, J.P.; Kreibich, R.E.

    1993-08-10

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  20. Resole resin products derived from fractionated organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials

    DOEpatents

    Chum, Helena L.; Black, Stuart K.; Diebold, James P.; Kreibich, Roland E.

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing phenol-formaldehyde resole resins by fractionating organic and aqueous condensates made by fast-pyrolysis of biomass materials while using a carrier gas to move feed into a reactor to produce phenolic-containing/neutrals in which portions of the phenol normally contained in said resins are replaced by a phenolic/neutral fractions extract obtained by fractionation.

  1. Resin polymerization problems--are they caused by resin curing lights, resin formulations, or both?

    PubMed

    Christensen, R P; Palmer, T M; Ploeger, B J; Yost, M P

    1999-01-01

    Negative effects of rapid, high-intensity resin curing have been predicted for both argon lasers and plasma-arc curing lights. To address these questions, six different resin restorative materials were cured with 14 different resin curing lights representing differences in intensities ranging from 400 mW/cm2 to 1,900 mW/cm2; delivery modes using constant, ramped, and stepped methods; cure times ranging from 1 second to 40 seconds; and spot sizes of 6.7 mm to 10.9 mm. Two lasers, five plasma-arc lights, and seven halogen lights were used. Shrinkage, modulus, heat generation, strain, and physical changes on the teeth and resins during strain testing were documented. Results showed effects associated with lights were not statistically significant, but resin formulation was highly significant. Microfill resins had the least shrinkage and the lowest modulus. An autocure resin had shrinkage and modulus as high as or higher than the light-cured hybrid resins. Lasers and plasma-arc lights produced the highest heat increases on the surface (up to 21 degrees C) and within the resin restorations (up to 14 degrees C), and the halogen lights produced the most heat within the pulp chamber (up to 2 degrees C). Strain within the tooth was least with Heliomolar and greatest with Z100 Restorative and BISFIL II autocure resin. Clinical effects of strain relief were evident as white lines at the tooth-resin interface and cracks in enamel adjacent to the margins. This work implicates resin formulation, rather than light type or curing mode, as the important factor in polymerization problems. Lower light intensity and use of ramped and stepped curing modes did not provide significant lowering of shrinkage, modulus, or strain, and did not prevent enamel cracking adjacent to margins and formation of "white line" defects at the margins. Until materials with lower shrinkage and modulus are available, use of low-viscosity surface sealants as a final step in resin placement is suggested to

  2. Flammability screening tests of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arhart, R. W.; Farrar, D. G.; Hughes, B. M.

    1979-01-01

    Selected flammability characteristics of glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins are evaluated. A protocol for the evaluation of the flammability hazards presented by glass cloth laminates of thermosetting resins and the usefulness of that protocol with two laminates are presented. The glass laminates of an epoxy resin, M-751 are evaluated for: (1) determination of smoke generation from the laminates; (2) analysis of products of oxidative degradation of the laminates; (3) determination of minimum oxygen necessary to maintain flaming oxidation; (4) evaluation of toxicological hazards.

  3. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Alexandratos, Spiro; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1997-01-01

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  4. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    DOEpatents

    Trochimcznk, A.W.; Gatrone, R.C.; Alexandratos, S.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-04-08

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorus. The pendent groups have the formula as shown in the patent wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R{sup 1} is hydrogen or an C{sub 1}-C{sub 2} alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange resin are also disclosed.

  5. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.; Jones, R. J.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    High temperature resin matrices suitable for use in advanced graphite fiber composites for jet engine applications were evaluated. A series of planned, sequential screening experiments with resin systems in composite form were performed to reduce the number of candidates to a single A-type polyimide resin that repetitively produced void-free, high strength and modulus composites acceptable for use in the 550 F range for 1000 hours. An optimized processing procedure was established for this system. Extensive mechanical property studies characterized this single system, at room temperature, 500 F, 550 F and 600 F, for various exposure times.

  6. Grafted methylenediphosphonate ion exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Trochimcznk, Andrzej W.; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Alexandratos, Spiro; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1998-01-27

    An ion exchange resin is disclosed that is comprised of an insoluble copolymer onto which are grafted pendent groups that provide 1.0 to about 10 mmol/g dry weight phosphorous. The pendent groups have the formula ##STR1## wherein R is hydrogen, a cation or mixtures thereof; and R.sup.1 is hydrogen or an C.sub.1 -C.sub.2 alkyl group. The resin also contains zero to about 5 mmol/g dry weight of pendent aromatic sulfonate groups. Processes for making and using an ion exchange-resin are also disclosed.

  7. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  8. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  9. Commiphora molmol extracts as plant molluscicide against Lymnaea natalensis.

    PubMed

    Massoud, Ahmad M; El-Shazly, Atef M; Nagaty, Ibrahim Maged; Morsy, Tosson A

    2007-08-01

    Two extracts from the herbal plant, Commiphora molmol showed a high molluscicidal effect against Lymnaea natalensis. The oil extract was more potent than the oleo-resin. A concentration of 10 ppm of the oil extract killed 100% of L. natalensis after 5th day, but the oleo-resin extract killed 100% of them at a concentration 20 ppm after 5th day. PMID:17985579

  10. Oxygen inhibition in dental resins.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, M A; Stangel, I; Ellis, T H; Zhu, X X

    2005-08-01

    Oxygen inhibits free radical polymerization and yields polymers with uncured surfaces. This is a concern when thin layers of resin are being polymerized, or in circumstances where conventional means of eliminating inhibition are inappropriate. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that viscosity, filler content, and polymerization temperature modify oxygen diffusion in the resin or the reactivity of radical species, and affect the degree of conversion near the surface. Confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy was used to measure monomer conversion from the surface to the bulk of cured resins. Increased viscosity was shown to limit oxygen diffusion and increase conversion near the surface, without necessarily modifying the depth of inhibition. The filler material was shown to increase, simultaneously, oxygen diffusivity and the viscosity of the resin, which have opposite effects on conversion. Polymerization at a temperature above approximately 110 degrees C was shown to eliminate oxygen inhibition.

  11. Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

  12. Regenerating Water-Sterilizing Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Iodine-dispensing resin can be regenerated after iodine content has been depleted, without being removed from water system. Resin is used to make water potable by killing bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Regeneration technique may be come basis of water purifier for very long space missions. Enough crystalline iodine for multiple regenerations during mission can be stored in one small cartridge. Cartridge could be inserted in waterline as necessary on signal from iodine monitor or timer.

  13. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    SciTech Connect

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  14. Solvent impregnated resin for isolation of U(VI) from industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Karve, M.; Rajgor, R.V.

    2008-07-01

    A solid-phase extraction method based upon impregnation of Cyanex 302 (bis(2,4,4- trimethylpentyl)mono-thio-phosphinic acid) on Amberlite XAD-2 resin is proposed for isolation of U(VI) from uranmicrolite ore tailing samples and industrial effluent samples. U(VI) was sorbed from nitric acid media on the solvent-impregnated resin (SIR) and was recovered completely with 1.0 M HCl. Based upon sorption behavior of U(VI) with Cyanex 302, it was quantitatively sorbed on the SIR in a dynamic method, while the other metal ions were not sorbed by the modified resin. The preparation of impregnated resin is simple, based upon physical interaction of the extractant and solid support, has good sorption capacity for U(VI), and is also reliable for detection of traces of U(VI). (authors)

  15. Rapid Column Extraction Methods for Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-09

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  16. Separation and Purification of Two Flavone Glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth with Macroporous Resins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Scutellarein-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (SG) and apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (AG) are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2 > 0.95). Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34% in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials. PMID:19918373

  17. Treatment of a Vertical Root Fracture Using Dual-Curing Resin Cement: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Moradi Majd, Nima; Akhtari, Farshid; Araghi, Solmaz; Homayouni, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Vertical root fracture (VRF) is one of the most frustrating complications of root canal treatment. The prognosis of the root with VRF is poor therefore tooth extraction and root amputation are usually the only treatment options. However, bonding of the fracture line with adhesive resin cement during the intentional replantation procedure was recently suggested as an alternative to tooth extraction. Methods. A vertically fractured left maxillary incisor was carefully extracted, fracture line was treated with adhesive resin cement, a retrograde cavity was produced and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and tooth was replanted. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The size of periapical radiolucency was noticeably reduced and there was no clinical sign of ankylosis. Conclusion. Using adhesive resin cement to bond the fracture lines extraorally in roots with VRF and intentional replantation of the reconstructed teeth could be considered as an alternative to tooth extraction, especially for anterior teeth. PMID:23316397

  18. Treatment of a vertical root fracture using dual-curing resin cement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moradi Majd, Nima; Akhtari, Farshid; Araghi, Solmaz; Homayouni, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Vertical root fracture (VRF) is one of the most frustrating complications of root canal treatment. The prognosis of the root with VRF is poor therefore tooth extraction and root amputation are usually the only treatment options. However, bonding of the fracture line with adhesive resin cement during the intentional replantation procedure was recently suggested as an alternative to tooth extraction. Methods. A vertically fractured left maxillary incisor was carefully extracted, fracture line was treated with adhesive resin cement, a retrograde cavity was produced and filled with calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, and tooth was replanted. Results. After 12 months the tooth was asymptomatic. The size of periapical radiolucency was noticeably reduced and there was no clinical sign of ankylosis. Conclusion. Using adhesive resin cement to bond the fracture lines extraorally in roots with VRF and intentional replantation of the reconstructed teeth could be considered as an alternative to tooth extraction, especially for anterior teeth. PMID:23316397

  19. Dual ambroxal and chlorpheniramine resinate as an alternative carrier in concurrent resinate administration.

    PubMed

    Akkaramongkolporn, P; Ngawhirunpat, T

    2003-03-01

    Two classical resinates, ambroxal (AMX) resinate and chlorpheniramine (CPM) resinate, and a novel formulation of dual AMX and CPM resinate were prepared by the batch method. The dissolution behavior of the drug from the classical resinates, a mixture of two classical resinates, and the dual-drug resinate in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was examined and compared. The equilibrium of drug on to the resin and the re-exchange of the drug on to the resinate were also investigated. The drug release pattern from the resinate followed the particle diffusion process. The type of dissolution medium affected the amount of drug released from the resinate. The amount of drug released from the dual AMX and CPM resinate was not significantly different from that from the classical AMX resinate or CPM resinate (p < 0.05), but was considerably higher than that from the concurrent administration of two classical resinates (p > 0.05). These results indicated that the concurrent administration of the resinates affected drug release from the resinate, and the dual-drug resinate can be used as an alternative carrier for an ion-exchange delivery system.

  20. Repeated use of ion-exchange resin membranes in calcareous soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, Jayne; Miller, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the consistency of nutrient extraction among repeated cycles of ion-exchange resin membrane use. Two sandy calcareous soils and different equilibration temperatures were tested. No single nutrient retained consistent values from cycle to cycle in all treatments, although both soil source and temperature conferred some influence. It was concluded that the most conservative use of resin membranes is single-use.

  1. FB-Line resin testing final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.

    1992-01-23

    The Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-Xl2 resin samples are both strong acid cation materials in the hydrogen form. Each material has a water retention capacity characteristic of its respective marketed degree of cross-linking. Dowex 21K gives confirmatory responses to tests for a strong anion exchange resin in the nitrate form. All three resins have the manufacturer's specified ionic type and form, and the Dowex 50W resins have characteristic water retention capacities. These tests conclude that the ion exchange resins in use in FB-Line meet the approved safety document criteria for cross-linking, ionic form, and resin type.

  2. FB-Line resin testing final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.

    1992-01-23

    The Dowex 50W-X8 and 50W-Xl2 resin samples are both strong acid cation materials in the hydrogen form. Each material has a water retention capacity characteristic of its respective marketed degree of cross-linking. Dowex 21K gives confirmatory responses to tests for a strong anion exchange resin in the nitrate form. All three resins have the manufacturer`s specified ionic type and form, and the Dowex 50W resins have characteristic water retention capacities. These tests conclude that the ion exchange resins in use in FB-Line meet the approved safety document criteria for cross-linking, ionic form, and resin type.

  3. Disposal of bead ion exchange resin wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.L.; Granthan, L.F.

    1985-12-17

    Bead ion exchange resin wastes are disposed of by a process which involves spray-drying a bead ion exchange resin waste in order to remove substantially all of the water present in such waste, including the water on the surface of the ion exchange resin beads and the water inside the ion exchange resin beads. The resulting dried ion exchange resin beads can then be solidified in a suitable solid matrix-forming material, such as a polymer, which solidifies to contain the dried ion exchange resin beads in a solid monolith suitable for disposal by burial or other conventional means.

  4. Low Melt Viscosity Resins for Resin Transfer Molding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, resin transfer molding (RTM) has become one of the methods of choice for high performance composites. Its cost effectiveness and ease of fabrication are major advantages of RTM. RTM process usually requires resins with very low melt viscosity (less than 10 Poise). The optimum RTM resins also need to display high thennal-oxidative stability, high glass transition temperature (T(sub g)), and good toughness. The traditional PMR-type polyimides (e.g. PMR-15) do not fit this requirement, because the viscosities are too high and the nadic endcap cures too fast. High T(sub g), low-melt viscosity resins are highly desirable for aerospace applications and NASA s Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program. The objective of this work is to prepare low-melt viscosity polyimide resins for RTM or resin film infusion (RFI) processes. The approach involves the synthesis of phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers. These materials have been designed to minimize their melt viscosity so that they can be readily processed. During the cure, the oligomers undergo both chain extension and crosslinking via the thermal polymerization of the phenylethynyl groups. The Phenylethynyl endcap is preferred over the nadic group due to its high curing temperature, which provides broader processing windows. This work involved the synthesis and polymerization of oligomers containing zig-zag backbones and twisted biphenyl structures. Some A-B type precursors which possessed both nitro and anhydride functionality, or both nitro and amine functionality, were also synthesized in order to obtain the well defined oligomers. The resulting zig-zag structured oligomers were then end-capped with 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) for further cure. The properties of these novel imide oligomers are evaluated.

  5. Selective flotation of fossil resin from Western coal. Final report, July 1, 1990--May 25, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1992-05-25

    The proof-of-concept test program was designed to clarify a number of concerns that have been raised by coal companies who own the valuable resin resource. First, from laboratory bench-scale flotation experiments, a froth product from cleaner flotation containing more than 80% hexane-extractable resin at higher than 80% recovery can be produced. Pilot-plant testing was initiated to demonstrate the selective flotation of fossil resin and to establish a better confidence level in the new technology. Second, pilot-plant testing was designed to evaluate the effect and impact of random variation in slurry solids concentration and feed grade on this new selective fossil resin flotation technology. The flotation performance obtained under these industrial conditions is more realistic for process evaluation. Third, more accurate operating cost data was to be obtained for economic analysis. Fourth, sufficient quantities of the fossil resin concentrate were to be produced from the test program for evaluation by potential industrial users. Fifth, and finally, optimum levels for the operating variables were to be established. Such information was required for eventual scale-up and design of a fossil resin flotation plant. The pilot-plant proof-of-concept testing of selective resinate flotation has demonstrated that: (1) technically, the new flotation technologies discovered at the University of Utah and then improved upon by Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. provide a highly efficient means to selectively recover fossil resin from coal. The proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit (about 0.1 tph) resulted in fossil resin recovery with the same separation efficiency as was obtained from laboratory bench-scale testing (more than 80% recovery at about 80% concentrate grade); and (2) economically, the selective flotation process has been shown to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry based on this new flotation process.

  6. Soluble high molecular weight polyimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. J.; Lubowitz, H. R.

    1970-01-01

    High molecular weight polyimide resins have greater than 20 percent /by weight/ solubility in polar organic solvents. They permit fabrication into films, fibers, coatings, reinforced composite, and adhesive product forms. Characterization properties for one typical polyimide resin are given.

  7. Plasmid DNA purification using a multimodal chromatography resin.

    PubMed

    Matos, Tiago; Queiroz, João A; Bülow, Leif

    2014-04-01

    Multimodal chromatography is widely used for isolation of proteins because it often results in improved selectivity compared to conventional separation resins. The binding potential and chromatographic behavior of plasmid DNA have here been examined on a Capto Adhere resin. Capto Adhere is a recent multimodal chromatography material allowing molecular recognition between the ligand and target molecule, which is based on combined ionic and aromatic interactions. Capto Adhere proved to offer a very strong binding of nucleic acids. This property could be used to isolate plasmid DNA from a crude Escherichia coli extract. Using a stepwise NaCl gradient, pure plasmid DNA could be obtained without protein and endotoxin contaminations. The RNA fraction bound most strongly to the resin and could be eluted only at very high salt concentrations (2.0 M NaCl). The chromatographic separation behavior was very robust between pH values 6 and 9, and the dynamic binding capacity was estimated to 60 µg/ml resin.

  8. Resin collection and social immunity in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Simone, Michael; Evans, Jay D; Spivak, Marla

    2009-11-01

    Diverse animals have evolved an ability to collect antimicrobial compounds from the environment as a means of reducing infection risk. Honey bees battle an extensive assemblage of pathogens with both individual and "social" defenses. We determined if the collection of resins, complex plant secretions with diverse antimicrobial properties, acts as a colony-level immune defense by honey bees. Exposure to extracts from two sources of honey bee propolis (a mixture of resins and wax) led to a significantly lowered expression of two honey bee immune-related genes (hymenoptaecin and AmEater in Brazilian and Minnesota propolis, respectively) and to lowered bacterial loads in the Minnesota (MN) propolis treated colonies. Differences in immune expression were also found across age groups (third-instar larvae, 1-day-old and 7-day-old adults) irrespective of resin treatment. The finding that resins within the nest decrease investment in immune function of 7-day-old bees may have implications for colony health and productivity. This is the first direct evidence that the honey bee nest environment affects immune-gene expression.

  9. Evaluation of TEGDMA leaching from four resin cements by HPLC

    PubMed Central

    Altintas, Subutay Han; Usumez, Aslihan

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the elution of TEGDMA from dual cured resin cements, used for bonding of ceramic restoration by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Forty freshly extracted caries and restoration free molar teeth used in this study. Standardized Class I preparations were prepared in all teeth. Ceramic inlays were cemented with one of the dual cured resin cements (Variolink II, Rely X ARC, Rely X Unicem and Resilute). After cementation, specimens were stored in 75% ethanol solution. HPLC was used to analyze the amounts of TEGDMA in different time intervals. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests were used to evaluate the results (P<.05). Results: The amount of TEGDMA eluted from Resilute was the highest and the amount of TEG-DMA eluted from Rely X Unicem was the lowest (P<.05). The total amount of monomers was the highest after 21 days (P<.05). Conclusion: In the case of resin cements, elution of TEGDMA was the highest in Resilute and lowest in Rely X Unicem. The amount of TEGDMA eluted from resin cements was influenced by the time. PMID:22904653

  10. Tensile strength of restorative resins.

    PubMed

    Zidan, O; Asmussen, E; Jørgensen, K D

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of the present work was to measure the tensile strength of restorative resins and to study the effect of the method of measurement on the recorded results. A direct pull method using dumb-bell shaped specimens was used. The tensile strength of the resins was also tested using the diametral compression method suggested by the A.D.A. It was found that the method of testing affects the results. Although the diametral compression method is a simple method, it cannot be considered reliable for all types of material. The tensile strength of the conventional composites was significantly higher than the tensile strength of the microfilled composites.

  11. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  12. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  13. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  14. 21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyarylate resins. 177.1555 Section 177.1555 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1555 Polyarylate resins. Polyarylate resins... contact with food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Identity. Polyarylate...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyetherimide resin. 177.1595 Section 177.1595... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1595 Polyetherimide resin. The polyetherimide resin identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of an...

  16. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  18. 21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyaryletherketone resins. 177.1556 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1556 Polyaryletherketone resins. The poly...) resins (CAS Reg. No. 55088-54-5 and CAS Reg. No. 60015-05-6 and commonly referred to...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section... Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as acrylosilane resins (PMNs P-95-1024/1040) are...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane...) For the purpose of this section, polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane...) For the purpose of this section, polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polycarbonate resins. 177.1580 Section 177.1580... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1580 Polycarbonate resins. Polycarbonate resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for use in...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section... Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as acrylosilane resins (PMNs P-95-1024/1040) are...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1585 - Polyestercarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyestercarbonate resins. 177.1585 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1585 Polyestercarbonate resins. Polyestercarbonate resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for use in...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1556 - Polyaryletherketone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyaryletherketone resins. 177.1556 Section 177... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1556 Polyaryletherketone resins. The poly...) resins (CAS Reg. No. 55088-54-5 and CAS Reg. No. 60015-05-6 and commonly referred to...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1550 - Perfluorocarbon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Perfluorocarbon resins. 177.1550 Section 177.1550... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1550 Perfluorocarbon resins. Perfluorocarbon resins identified in this section may be safely used as articles or components of...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyetherimide resin. 177.1595 Section 177.1595... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1595 Polyetherimide resin. The polyetherimide resin identified in this section may be safely used as an article or component of an...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyarylate resins. 177.1555 Section 177.1555 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1555 Polyarylate resins. Polyarylate resins... contact with food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Identity. Polyarylate...

  10. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN..., Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely...

  11. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and... Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The food additive is the betapinene polymer obtained by polymerizing...

  12. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and..., Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used... polymer obtained by polymerizing terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood. It has a softening point of...

  13. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Terpene resin. 172.280 Section 172.280 Food and..., Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used... polymer obtained by polymerizing terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood. It has a softening point of...

  14. Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Kaliora, Andriana C; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papapeorgiou, Vassilios P

    2003-05-01

    Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chiosmastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin 'liquid collection', P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses. PMID:12748987

  15. Process for curing bismaleimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, John A. (Inventor); OTHY S.imides alone. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to vinyl pyridine group containing compounds and oligomers, their advantageous copolymerization with bismaleimide resins, and the formation of reinforced composites based on these copolymers. When vinyl pyridines including vinyl stilbazole materials and vinyl styrylpyridine oligomer materials are admixed with bismaleimides and cured to form copolymers the cure temperatures of the copolymers are substantially below the cure temperatures of the bismaleimides alone.

  16. Synthesis of improved phenolic resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.; Mcleod, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty seven addition cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to give char residues comparable to state-of-the-art phenolic resins. Cyanate, epoxy, allyl, acrylate, methacrylate and ethynyl derivatized phenolic oligomers were investigated. The novolac-cyanate and propargyl-novolac resins provided anaerobic char yields at 800 C of 58 percent. A 59 percent char yield was obtained from modified epoxy novolacs. A phosphonitrilic derivative was found to be effective as an additive for increasing char yields. The novolac-cyanate, epoxy-novolac and methacrylate-epoxy-novolac systems were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. All three resins showed good potential as composite matrices. The free radical cured methacrylate-epoxy-novolac graphite composite provided short beam shear strengths at room temperature of 93.3 MPa (13.5 ksi). The novolac-cyanate graphite composite produced a short beam shear strength of 74 MPa (10.7 ksi) and flexural strength of 1302 MPa (189 ksi) at 177 C. Air heat aging of the novolac-cyanate and epoxy novolac based composites for 12 weeks at 204 C showed good property retention.

  17. Fiber reinforced composite resin systems.

    PubMed

    Giordano, R

    2000-01-01

    The Targis/Vectris and Sculpture/FibreKor systems were devised to create a translucent maximally reinforced resin framework for fabrication of crowns, bridges, inlays, and onlays. These materials are esthetic, have translucency similar to castable glass-ceramics such as OPC and Empress, and have fits that are reported to be acceptable in clinical and laboratory trials. These restorations rely on proper bonding to the remaining tooth structure; therefore, careful attention to detail must be paid to this part of the procedure. Cementation procedures should involve silane treatment of the cleaned abraded internal restoration surface, application of bonding agent to the restoration as well as the etched/primed tooth, and finally use of a composite resin. Each manufacturer has a recommended system which has been tested for success with its resin system. These fiber reinforced resins are somewhat different than classical composites, so not all cementation systems will necessarily work with them. Polishing of the restoration can be accomplished using diamond or alumina impregnated rubber wheels followed by diamond paste. The glass fibers can pose a health risk. They are small enough to be inhaled and deposited in the lungs, resulting in a silicosis-type problem. Therefore, if fibers are exposed and ground on, it is extremely important to wear a mask. Also, the fibers can be a skin irritant, so gloves also should be worn. If the fibers become exposed intraorally, they can cause gingival inflammation and may attract plaque. The fibers should be covered with additional composite resin. If this cannot be accomplished, the restoration should be replaced. The bulk of these restorations are formed using a particulate filled resin, similar in structure to conventional composite resins. Therefore, concerns as to wear resistance, color stability, excessive expansion/contraction, and sensitivity remain until these materials are proven in long-term clinical trials. They do hold the

  18. Oxygen index tests of thermosetting resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The flammability characteristics of nine thermosetting resins under evaluation for use in aircraft interiors are described. These resins were evaluated using the Oxygen Index (ASTM 2863) testing procedure. The test specimens consisted of both neat resin and glass reinforced resin. When testing glass-reinforced samples it was observed that Oxygen Index values varied inversely with resin content. Oxygen values were also obtained on specimens exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. All specimens experienced a decline in Oxygen Index when tested at an elevated temperature.

  19. Fractionation and utilization of gossypol resin

    SciTech Connect

    Tursunov, A.K.; Dzhailov, A.T.; Fatkhullaev, E.; Sadykov, A.A.

    1985-10-01

    Gossypol resin is formed as a secondary waste product during distillation of fatty acides isolated from cottonseed oil soap stocks; it is insoluble in water but soluble in products of petroleum distillation. For fractionation, gossypol resin was saponified with caustic soda or caustic potash. Using this method, the resin was separated into unsaponifiable (21-24%) and saponifiable (76-79%) parts. Details of the individual fractions of gossypol resin are presented. The unsaponifiable fraction contains hydrocarbons, alcohols, beta-sito-sterol, beta-amyrin, and vitamin E. The fatty acid fraction of the resin is a mixture of fatty acids and lactones.

  20. A Method for Characterizing PMR-15 Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. D.; Lauver, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative analysis technique based on reverse-phase, highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and paired-ion chromatography (PIC) developed for PMR-15 resins. In reverse-phase HPLC experiment, polar solvent containing material to be analyzed passed through column packed with nonpolar substrate. Composition of PMR-15 Resin of 50 weight percent changes as resin ages at room temperature. Verification of proper resin formulation and analysis of changes in resin composition during storage important to manufacturers of PMR-15 polymer matrix composite parts. Technique especially suitable for commercial use by manufacturers of high-performance composite components.

  1. Light-curing acrylic resin as an orthodontic baseplate material.

    PubMed

    Brown, J; Kerr, W J

    1998-08-01

    Heat-curing autopolymerizing (self-cure or cold-cure), thermoplastic, and light-curing acrylic resin are the most commonly used orthodontic baseplate materials. While cured acrylic resins present few problems to the patient, in the laboratory acrylic resin has to be sprayed, mixed, or packed in a fume-extraction unit because of the harmful fumes emitted by the raw inflammable chemicals. Light-curing material, on the other hand, is virtually nonflammable and has virtually no aroma. A light-cure technique for the construction of orthodontic baseplates is described. While buildup of the baseplate is slightly slower than for self-cured material, the shorter time involved in trimming and polishing means that overall construction is faster. It is easier to obtain a uniform thickness with light-cured material, and it provides superior fit. These results, however, are subject to more extensive clinical trials. The only apparent disadvantage is the fine powder produced during trimming. Even with a bench equipped with an extraction unit, it is advisable to use a face mask to prevent the inhalation of dust.

  2. Evaluation of extractables in processed and unprocessed polymer materials used for pharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Stults, Cheryl L M; Ansell, Jennifer M; Shaw, Arthur J; Nagao, Lee M

    2015-02-01

    Polymeric materials are often used in pharmaceutical packaging, delivery systems, and manufacturing components. There is continued concern that chemical entities from polymeric components may leach into various dosage forms, particularly those that are comprised of liquids such as parenterals, injectables, ophthalmics, and inhalation products. In some cases, polymeric components are subjected to routine extractables testing as a control measure. To reduce the risk of discovering leachables during stability studies late in the development process, or components that may fail extractables release criteria, it is proposed that extractables testing on polymer resins may be useful as a screening tool. Two studies have been performed to evaluate whether the extractables profile generated from a polymer resin is representative of the extractables profile of components made from that same resin. The ELSIE Consortium pilot program examined polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene, and another study evaluated polypropylene and a copolymer of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The test materials were comprised of polymer resin and processed resin or molded components. Volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile chemical profiles were evaluated after headspace sampling and extraction with solvents of varying polarity and pH. The findings from these studies indicate that there may or may not be differences between extractables profiles obtained from resins and processed forms of the resin depending on the type of material, the compounds of interest, and extraction conditions used. Extractables testing of polymer resins is useful for material screening and in certain situations may replace routine component testing. PMID:25227309

  3. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Jensen, B. J.; Havens, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    As part of an effort on tougher/solvent resistant matrix resins for composites, research was directed towards exploring methods to improve the solvent resistance of linear amorphous thermoplastics. Ethyl reactive groups were placed on the ends of oligomers and pendent along the polymer chain and subsequently thermally reacted to provide crosslinking and thus improvement in solvent resistance. This concept is extended to another thermoplastic, a phenoxy resin. A commercially available phenoxy resin (PKHH) was systematically modified by reaction of the pendent hydroxyl groups on the phenoxy resin with various amounts of 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride. As the pendent ethynyl group content in the phenoxy resin increased, the cured resin exhibited a higher glass transition temperature, better solvent resistance and less flexibility. The solvent resistance was further improved by correcting a low molecular weight diethynyl compound, 2,2-bis(4-ethynylbenzoyloxy-4'-phenyl)propane, with a phenoxy resin containing pendent ethynyl groups.

  4. Photoacoustic analysis of dental resin polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloiano, E. C. R.; Rocha, R.; Martin, A. A.; da Silva, M. D.; Acosta-Avalos, D.; Barja, P. R.

    2005-06-01

    In this work, we use the photoacoustic technique to monitor the curing process of diverse dental materials, as the resins chemically activated (RCA). The results obtained reveal that the composition of a determined RCA significantly alters its activation kinetics. Photoacoustic data also show that temperature is a significant parameter in the activation kinetics of resins. The photoacoustic technique was also applied to evaluate the polymerization kinetics of photoactivated resins. Such resins are photoactivated by incidence of continuous light from a photodiode. This leads to the polymerization of the resin, modifying its thermal properties and, consequently, the level of the photoacoustic signal. Measurements show that the polymerization of the resin changes the photoacoustic signal amplitude, indicating that photoacoustic measurements can be utilized to monitor the polymerization kinetic and the degree of polymerization of photoactivated dental resins.

  5. Margin designs and fracture resistance of incisal resin composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Tan, D E; Tjan, A H

    1992-02-01

    This study measured the resistance to fracture of Class IV resin composite restorations prepared with either butt joints, bevels, or chamfer margins. Seventy extracted intact, non-carious maxillary central incisors, of approximately the same size, were collected and randomly divided into the following seven groups: 90 degrees butt joint (control)), 1 and 2 mm 45 degrees bevels, 1 and 2 mm 60 degrees bevels, and 1 and 2 mm chamfer margins. The teeth were restored with a hybrid resin composite and tested in an Instron Universal testing machine in a compressive mode at 45 degrees to the long axis. Statistical analysis indicated that there were no significant differences between the control group and any of the 1 mm bevel or chamfer margins and that the 2 mm bevel and chamfer margins yielded the highest fracture resistance. PMID:1524737

  6. Evaluating Resin-Dentin Bond by Microtensile Bond Strength Test: Effects of Various Resin Composites and Placement Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Moosavi, Horieh; Maleknejad, Fatemeh; Forghani, Maryam; Afshari, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study evaluated the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of a methacrylate-based compared to a silorane-based resin composite in Class I cavity using different placement techniques. Materials and Methods: Class I cavities with dimension of (4 mm long, 4 mm wide, 3 mm deep) were prepared in extracted sound human molars. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups. The first three groups were filled with Filtek P90 using three methods of insertion; bulk, incremental and snow-plow, and the remaining three groups were filled with Clearfil AP-X using the same three placement techniques. After 24 hours of storage in water at 37°C, the specimens were thermocycled to 1000 cycles. Specimens were prepared for MTBS testing by creating bonded beams obtained from the pulpal floor. Statistical analysis used: Statistical analyses of data were performed by two-way ANOVA/Tukey (α=.05). Results: The experiment showed significant differences between the two resin composites with regard to filling techniques (P<0.05). The MTBS was significantly higher in each of Filtek P90 subgroup compared to Clearfil AP-X ones (P<0.05). With respect to filling technique in both resin composites, bulk insertion showed the significantly lowest MTBS (P<0.05), while no significant difference was found between the outcome of incremental and snow-plow techniques (P>0.05). Conclusion: Silorane-based resin composite as opposed to methacrylate based resin composite and layering placements in contrast to bulk filling method had higher microtensile bond strength. PMID:26966466

  7. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  8. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    Druschel, Greg K; Schoonen, Martin AA; Nordstrom, D Kirk; Ball, James W; Xu, Yong; Cohn, Corey A

    2003-01-01

    A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad™ AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site 1C analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab) and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern) and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan). Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad™ AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns.

  9. Sulfur geochemistry of hydrothermal waters in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. III. An anion-exchange resin technique for sampling and preservation of sulfoxyanions in natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Druschel, G.K.; Schoonen, M.A.A.; Nordstorm, D.K.; Ball, J.W.; Xu, Y.; Cohn, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    A sampling protocol for the retention, extraction, and analysis of sulfoxyanions in hydrothermal waters has been developed in the laboratory and tested at Yellowstone National Park and Green Lake, NY. Initial laboratory testing of the anion-exchange resin Bio-Rad??? AG1-X8 indicated that the resin was well suited for the sampling, preservation, and extraction of sulfate and thiosulfate. Synthetic solutions containing sulfate and thiosulfate were passed through AG1-X8 resin columns and eluted with 1 and 3 M KCl, respectively. Recovery ranged from 89 to 100%. Comparison of results for water samples collected from five pools in Yellowstone National Park between on-site IC analysis (U.S. Geological Survey mobile lab) and IC analysis of resin-stored sample at SUNY-Stony Brook indicates 96 to 100% agreement for three pools (Cinder, Cistern, and an unnamed pool near Cistern) and 76 and 63% agreement for two pools (Sulfur Dust and Frying Pan). Attempts to extract polythionates from the AG1-X8 resin were made using HCl solutions, but were unsuccessful. Bio-Rad??? AG2-X8, an anion-exchange resin with weaker binding sites than the AG1-X8 resin, is better suited for polythionate extraction. Sulfate and thiosulfate extraction with this resin has been accomplished with KCl solutions of 0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively. Trithionate and tetrathionate can be extracted with 4 M KCl. Higher polythionates can be extracted with 9 M hydrochloric acid. Polythionate concentrations can then be determined directly using ion chromatographic methods, and laboratory results indicate recovery of up to 90% for synthetic polythionate solutions using AG2-X8 resin columns. ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Division of Geochemistry of the American Chemical Society 2003.

  10. Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, David P.

    2005-04-01

    The historical uses of ion-exchange resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchange process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange resins are provided. The utility of these agents to stabilize drugs are evaluated. Commonly occurring chemical and physical incompatibilities are reviewed. Ion-exchange resins have found applicability as inactive pharmaceutical constituents, particularly as disintegrants (inactive tablet ingredient whose function is to rapidly disrupt the tablet matrix on contact with gastric fluid). One of the more elegant approaches to improving palatability of ionizable drugs is the use of ion-exchange resins as taste-masking agents. The selection, optimization of drug:resin ratio and particle size, together with a review of scaleup of typical manufacturing processes for taste-masked products are provided. Ion-exchange resins have been extensively utilized in oral sustained-release products. The selection, optimization of drug:resin ratio and particle size, together with a summary of commonly occurring commercial sustained-release products are discussed. Ion-exchange resins have also been used in topical products for local application to the skin, including those where drug flux is controlled by a differential electrical current (ionotophoretic delivery). General applicability of ion-exchange resins, including ophthalmic delivery, nasal delivery, use as drugs in their own right (e.g., colestyramine, formerly referred to as cholestyramine), as well as measuring gastrointestinal transit times, are discussed. Finally, pharmaceutical monographs for ion-exchange resins are reviewed.

  11. Application of inverse gas chromatography in physicochemical characterization of phenolic resin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Strzemiecka, Beata; Voelkel, Adam; Hinz, Mateusz; Rogozik, Mateusz

    2014-11-14

    One of the most important stages during production of abrasive tools is their hardening. The degree of hardening is very important and influence toughness of the final product. During hardening process the cross-linking of the phenolic resins, used as a binder, occurs. Nowadays, there is no standard, accurate and simple method for the estimation of the hardening degree of abrasive tools. The procedure of the determination of hardening degree of the binder (phenolic resins) by means of inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was presented in this paper. Results obtained by use of IGC derived method was verified by Soxhlet extraction and by FTIR method. Good agreement was found for results from IGC and Soxhlet extraction whereas those from FTIR were much lower. FTIR method supplies data concerning bulk properties not the surface as in case of IGC and Soxhlet methods. These results indicate that resins are more cross-linked on the surface than inside the material.

  12. Phloroglucinols from anti-microbial deposit-resins of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria).

    PubMed

    Massaro, C Flavia; Smyth, Thomas J; Smyth, W Franklin; Heard, Tim; Leonhardt, Sara D; Katouli, Mohammad; Wallace, Helen M; Brooks, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Stingless bees accumulate deposits of plant resins that are mixed with beeswax to produce propolis. Previous studies have reported anti-microbial constituents of stingless bee (Tetragonula carbonaria) propolis from East Australia, but several components remained to be characterized. In the search of natural products yet unreported for Australian propolis, four bee deposit-resins of T. carbonaria bees were analysed by gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with accurate mass measurements. Ethanolic extracts of the deposit-resins were tested in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25983 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 by the agar diffusion method. Phloroglucinols, flavonoids and isoprenoids were identified in samples. The crude extracts showed strong anti-staphylococcal effects but were less active against the Gram-negative bacterium. The diagnostic data enabled the identification of markers that can be used for profiling other Australian propolis sources and to target the isolation of bioactive phloroglucinols in future studies against antibiotic resistant S. aureus strains.

  13. The presence of dichloromethane on cleaned XAD-2 resin: A potential problem and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Holdren, M.W. ); Wilson, N.K. )

    1990-06-01

    Preparation of XAD-2 resin for indoor air sampling with commonly used cleaning methods, such as Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) followed by vacuum drying and nitrogen purging, can lead to elevated DCM levels (> 100 ppb) in the sampled indoor air, which result from DCM remaining in the resin after cleaning. Since DCM is a suspect human carcinogen, indoor human exposure to DCM should be minimized. Several procedures to remove residual DCM after Soxhlet extraction were evaluated. Removal by fluidizing the XAD-2 resin bed in a drying column with a nitrogen stream at 40{degree}C was best. The effectiveness of this procedure was demonstrated in parallel air sampling with a syringe sampler and with a prototype quiet sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter and an XAD-2 cartridge in series. Sampling was conducted in an office and in residence. With the modified procedures, indoor DCM levels were at typical indoor values. (< 10 ppb).

  14. Presence of dichloromethane on cleaned XAD-2 resin: A potential problem and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, J.C.; Holdren, M.W.; Wilson, N.K.

    1990-01-01

    Preparation of XAD-2 resin for indoor air sampling with commonly used cleaning methods, such as Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) followed by vacuum drying and nitrogen purging, can lead to elevated DCM levels (>100 ppb) in the sampled indoor air, which result from DCM remaining in the resin after cleaning. Since DCM is a suspect human carcinogen, indoor human exposure to DCM should be minimized. Several procedures to remove residual DCM after Soxhlet extraction were evaluated. Removal by fluidizing the XAD-2 resin bed in a drying column with a nitrogen stream at 40C was best. The effectiveness of this procedure was demonstrated in parallel air sampling with a syringe sampler and with a prototype quiet sampler equipped with a quartz fiber filter and an XAD-2 cartridge in series. Sampling was conducted in an office and in residences. With the modified procedures, indoor DCM levels were at typical indoor values (<10 ppb).

  15. [Purification technology of manninotirose in Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata by D-101 microporous adsorption resin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-xing; Qian, Jun; Wu, Yun; Yan, Bing-peng; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    This paper was aim to optimize the purification technology of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata extract with macroporous adsorption resin. With the content of manninotriose as index, the absorptive flow and time were investigated, as well as kinds, amount, flow of eluent. D-101 type macroporous adsorption resin was the best choice for the purification of manninotriose. The optimized parameters were as follows: the content of manninotriose at 161.16-53.72 mg x g(-1), absorption time 240 min, eluting solvent of purified water, volume flow at 1.5 BV x h(-1), and eluant volume at 6 BV. D-101 type macroporous adsorption resin could significantly increase the purity of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata extract with the advantage of high absorption, remove most part of impurity, and the effect of semi-works production was better. PMID:26591521

  16. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    High temperature resins containing phenylethynyl groups that are processable by transfer molding have been prepared. These phenylethynyl containing oligomers were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynlphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form a mixture of imide compounds in one step. This synthetic approach is advantageous since the products are a mixture of compounds and consequently exhibit a relatively low melting temperature. In addition, these materials exhibit low melt viscosities which are stable for several hours at 210-275 C, and since the thermal reaction of the phenylethynyl group does not occur to any appreciable extent at temperatures below 300 C, these materials have a broad processing window. Upon thermal cure at approximately 300-350 C, the phenylethynyl groups react to provide a crosslinked resin system. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  17. Advanced thermoplastic resins, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. M.; Hill, S. G.; Falcone, A.

    1991-01-01

    High temperature structural resins are required for use on advanced aerospace vehicles as adhesives and composite matrices. NASA-Langley developed polyimide resins were evaluated as high temperature structural adhesives for metal to metal bonding and as composite matrices. Adhesive tapes were prepared on glass scrim fabric from solutions of polyamide acids of the semicrystalline polyimide LARC-CPI, developed at the NASA-Langley Research Center. Using 6Al-4V titanium adherends, high lap shear bond strengths were obtained at ambient temperature (45.2 MPa, 6550 psi) and acceptable strengths were obtained at elevated temperature (14.0 MPa, 2030 psi) using the Pasa-Jell 107 conversion coating on the titanium and a bonding pressure of 1.38 MPa (200 psi). Average zero degree composite tensile and compressive strengths of 1290 MPa (187 ksi) and 883 MPa (128 ksi) respectively were obtained at ambient temperature with unsized AS-4 carbon fiber reinforcement.

  18. Soil bacteria are differentially affected by the resin of the medicinal plant Pseudognaphalium vira vira and its main component kaurenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Gil, F; De la Iglesia, R; Mendoza, L; González, B; Wilkens, M

    2006-07-01

    The diterpenoid kaurenoic acid is the main component of the resin from the medicinal plant Pseudognaphalium vira vira. As some diterpenoids have antimicrobial properties, the effect of this resin and the kaurenoic acid on soil bacteria was studied. The resin of P. vira vira and purified kaurenoic acid were two to four times more effective as antibacterial agents with Gram-positive than with Gram-negative soil isolates. The chemical stability of kaurenoic acid and the antibacterial activity of both the resin and the diterpenoid were studied in microcosms containing plant-associated soil. After 15 days of incubation, the diterpenoid was stable, as determined by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and thin-layer chromatography, and soil extracts still exhibited antibacterial activity. However, after 30 days of incubation, loss of antibacterial activity of soil extracts correlated with removal or chemical modification of kaurenoic acid. The effect of the resin or this diterpenoid on the soil bacteria community was analyzed by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms technique. After 15 days of incubation, the resin and the pure compound caused significant changes in the soil bacterial community. The relative abundance of specific bacterial groups was differentially affected by the resin components, being the effects with the resin stronger than with the kaurenoic acid. After 30 days of incubation, these changes mostly reverted. These results indicate that a plant resin containing diterpenoid compounds plays a significant role controlling specific groups of microorganisms in the soil associated with the plant.

  19. Phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Flame-resistant reinforced bodies are disclosed which are composed of reinforcing fibers, filaments or fabrics in a cured body of bis- and tris-imide resins derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, or of addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a mono-imide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride.

  20. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used... fluoride resins consist of basic resins produced by the polymerization of vinylidene fluoride. (b)...

  1. Synthesis of improved polyester resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, A. H.; Delano, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    Eighteen aromatic unsaturated polyester prepolymers prepared by a modified interfacial condensation technique were investigated for their solubility in vinyl monomers and ability to provide high char yield forming unsaturated polyester resins. The best resin system contained a polyester prepolymer of phthalic, fumaric and diphenic acids reacted with 2,7-naphthalene diol and 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene. This prepolymer is very soluble in styrene, divinyl benzene, triallyl cyanurate, diallyl isophthalate and methylvinylpyridine. It provided anaerobic char yields as high as 41 percent at 800 C. The combination of good solubility and char yield represents a significant improvement over state-of-the-art unsaturated polyester resins. The majority of the other prepolymers had only low or no solubility in vinyl monomers. Graphite composites from this prepolymer with styrene were investigated. The cause for the observed low shear strengths of the composites was not determined, however 12-week aging of the composites at 82 C showed that essentially no changes in the composites had occurred.

  2. ELUTION OF URANIUM FROM RESIN

    DOEpatents

    McLEan, D.C.

    1959-03-10

    A method is described for eluting uranium from anion exchange resins so as to decrease vanadium and iron contamination and permit recycle of the major portion of the eluats after recovery of the uranium. Diminution of vanadium and iron contamination of the major portion of the uranium is accomplished by treating the anion exchange resin, which is saturated with uranium complex by adsorption from a sulfuric acid leach liquor from an ore bearing uranium, vanadium and iron, with one column volume of eluant prepared by passing chlorine into ammonium hydroxide until the chloride content is about 1 N and the pH is about 1. The resin is then eluted with 8 to 9 column volumes of 0.9 N ammonium chloride--0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution. The eluants are collected separately and treated with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate which is filtered therefrom. The uranium salt from the first eluant is contaminated with the major portion of ths vanadium and iron and is reworked, while the uranium recovered from the second eluant is relatively free of the undesirable vanadium and irons. The filtrate from the first eluant portion is discarded. The filtrate from the second eluant portion may be recycled after adding hydrochloric acid to increase the chloride ion concentration and adjust the pH to about 1.

  3. Comparisons of sorption of aquatic humic matter by DAX-8 and XAD-8 resins from solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy's point of view.

    PubMed

    Peuravuori, J; Ingman, P; Pihlaja, K; Koivikko, R

    2001-10-31

    Aquatic humic solutes were separated in parallel by the non-ionic macroporous DAX-8 and XAD-8 resins from four different fresh water sources. On average, the sorptive power of the DAX-8 resin does not differ systematically from that of the XAD-8 resin. The DAX-8 resin seems to have more precise column characteristics compared with the XAD-8 resin. There was no significant difference between the major elemental compositions of the parallel humic-solute bulks obtained by these two resins. According to the (13)C NMR spectroscopy the content and quality of aliphatic carbons, especially those representing terminal methyl groups or methylene carbons, were the most systematic and powerful discriminating factors between the humic extracts obtained by these two resins. Generally speaking the DAX-8 and XAD-8 resins seem to isolate humic-solute bulks almost equally, although the content of aliphatics is slightly greater for the former, producing mixtures with similar structural compositions for general purposes. The structural composition and quantity of the humic-solute mixture isolable with a weakly basic DEAE-cellulose anion exchange resin differs partially from any humic fraction obtained by non-ionic sorbing solids. The environmental impact was also visible on the quality of the structural fine-chemistry of the different humic isolates obtained both by the DAX-8 and XAD-8 resins. PMID:18968420

  4. Restored viability and function of dental pulp cells on poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resin supplemented with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC).

    PubMed

    Kojima, N; Yamada, M; Paranjpe, A; Tsukimura, N; Kubo, K; Jewett, A; Ogawa, T

    2008-12-01

    This study examines cytotoxicity of poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based dental temporary filling resin to dental pulp cells, and the potential amelioration of the toxicity with an anti-oxidant amino-acid, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Dental pulp cells extracted from rat maxillary incisors were cultured on the resin material with or without NAC incorporation, or on the polystyrene. The cultures were supplied with osteoblastic media, containing dexamethasone. Forty five percent of cells on the PMMA dental resin were necrotic at 24h after seeding. However, this percentage was reduced to 27% by incorporating NAC in the resin, which was the level equivalent to that in the culture on polystyrene. The culture on the untreated resin was found to be negative for alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity at days 5 and 10 or von Kossa mineralized nodule formation at day 20. In contrast, some areas of the cultures on NAC-incorporated resin substrates were ALP and von Kossa positive. Collagen I and dentin sialoprotein genes were barely expressed in day 7 culture on the untreated resin. However, those genes were expressed in the culture on the resin with NAC. These results suggest that the decreased cell viability and the nearly completely suppressed odontoblast-like cell phenotype of dental pulp cells cultured on PMMA dental resin can be salvaged to a biologically significant degree by the incorporation of NAC in the resin.

  5. Evaluation of adhesion of reline resins to the thermoplastic denture base resin for non-metal clasp denture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hye; Choe, Han Cheol; Son, Mee Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tensile and transverse bond strength of chairside reline resins (Tokuyama Rebase II, Mild Rebaron LC) to a thermoplastic acrylic resin (Acrytone) used for non metal clasp denture. The results were compared with those of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin (Paladent 20) and a thermoplastic polyamide resin (Biotone). The failure sites were examined by scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the mode of failure. As results, the bond strength of reline resins to a thermoplastic acrylic resin was similar to the value of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin. However, thermoplastic polyamide resin showed the lowest value. The results of this study indicated that a thermoplastic acrylic resin for non metal clasps denture allows chairside reline and repair. It was also found that the light-polymerized reline resin had better bond strength than the autopolymerizing reline resin in relining for a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin and a thermoplastic acrylic resin.

  6. New modified hydrocarbon resins; An alternative to styrenated terpene resins in hot melts

    SciTech Connect

    Carper, J.D. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports on the development of two hydrocarbon-based resin formulations that could be used with different thermoplastic block copolymers to formulate pressure-sensitive adhesives. Results are examined with one of these resins in formulations with styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) and styrene-butadiene (SB) compounds. The new modified hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 98{degrees} C, matches the adhesive performance of a terpene resin with a softening point of 105{degrees} C. The resin performs as well as the modified terpene in SIS-, SB-, and EVA-based adhesives. The new hydrocarbon resin is especially well suited for hot-melt adhesives. It exhibits low volatility, good color stability, and excellent melt viscosity stability. Since the new resin is based on petroleum hydrocarbon feedstocks, it should be available at moderate, stable prices. The other hydrocarbon resin, with a softening point of 85{degrees} C, produced comparable results.

  7. Development of tough, moisture resistant laminating resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, R. A.; Harrison, E. S.

    1982-01-01

    Tough, moisture resistant laminating resins for employment with graphite fibers were developed. The new laminating resins exhibited cost, handleability and processing characteristics equivalent to 394K (250 F) curing epoxies. The laminating resins were based on bisphenol A dicyanate and monofunctional cyanates with hydrophobic substituents. These resins sorb only small quantities of moisture at equilibrium (0.5% or less) with minimal glass transition temperature depression and represent an improvement over epoxies which sorb around 2% moisture at equilibrium. Toughening was accomplished by the precipitation of small diameter particles of butadiene nitrile rubber throughout the resin matrix. The rubber domains act as microcrack termini and energy dissipation sites, allowing increased stress accommodation prior to catastrophic failure. A unique blend of amine terminated butadiene nitrile elastomer (MW 2,000) and a high nitrile content butadiene nitrile rubber yielded the desired resin morphology.

  8. Adsorption characteristics and preparative separation of chaetominine from Aspergillus fumigatus mycelia by macroporous resin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changqing; Jiao, Ruihua; Yao, Lingyun; Zhang, Yupeng; Lu, Yanhua; Tan, Renxiang

    2016-03-15

    Chaetominine (CHA) is a quinazolinone alkaloid with strong anti-cancer activity produced by Aspergillus fumigatus CY018. For recovering CHA from A. fumigates efficiently, adsorption and desorption capacities of eight macroporous resins were tested in this work. Based on batch experiments, XAD-16 resin was revealed the best adsorption and desorption performance among all the tested resins. Then, adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms were constructed on XAD-16 resin, and the experimental data were fitted well to the pseudo first-order kinetics and Freundlick isotherm model. In the dynamic adsorption and desorption, the purity of CHA increased from 0.0314% (w/w) in the crude extract to 57.86% in the final product with recovery yield of 70.56% by a one-step treatment. Moreover, the experiments were also performed in a lab scale-up scale, in which the purity and recovery of CHA were 56.12% (w/w) and 68.02%, respectively. In addition, XAD-16 resin could be recycled 3 times for CHA separation after regeneration without adverse effects on adsorption/desorption performance. These results suggested that XAD-16 resin adsorption could act as a useful and economic method for recovering CHA from A. fumigatus.

  9. DNA changes in tissues entrapped in plant resins (the precursors of amber).

    PubMed

    Rogers, S O; Langenegger, K; Holdenrieder, O

    2000-02-01

    There have been many reports characterizing DNA from amber, which is a fossil version of plant resin. Here we report an investigation of the effects of plant resin (from Pseudotsuga menziesii) and drying conditions on the preservation of DNA in biological tissues. We examined the degree of degradation of the DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis of extracted DNA, by polymerase chain reaction, and by DNA sequencing. The plant resin alone appeared to cause little or no damage to DNA. Tissue immersed in plant resin that dried rapidly (exposed to sunlight) contained DNA with little apparent damage. Tissue immersed in the resin that was dried slowly (in shade without sunlight) contained DNA with some degradation (3.5% nucleotide changes). The tissue that was immersed in the resin that was constantly hydrated (by immersion in water) yielded DNA that was severely damaged (50-62% nucleotide changes). Transversions outnumbered transitions in these samples by a ratio of 1.4 : 1. A piece of Baltic amber immersed in water for 5 days appeared to be impervious to the water. Thus amber inclusions that initially dried rapidly have the potential to yield undamaged DNA. Those that dried slowly may contain damaged DNA and may be unsuitable for phylogenetic and other studies.

  10. Adsorption properties and preparative separation of phenylethanoid glycosides from Cistanche deserticola by use of macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boyan; Ouyang, Jie; Yuan, Xiaofan; Wang, Liwei; Zhao, Bing

    2013-10-15

    A simple and efficient chromatographic method for large-scale preparative separation of phenylethanoid glycosides (mainly contain echinacoside and acteoside) from Cistanche deserticola was developed. The adsorption properties of eight macroporous resins were evaluated. Three selected resins were further screened depending on the adsorption kinetics curves, in which HPD300 resin showed the best separation efficiency. The adsorption isotherm data on HPD300 resin were fitted to the Freundlich equation in certain concentration range. The dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out on columns packed with HPD300 resin to optimize the separation process. The breakthrough curves showed that acteoside had a higher affinity to the resin than echinacoside. The contents of echinacoside and acteoside in the product increased from 1.79% and 1.43% in the crude extracts to 16.66% and 15.17%, with recovery yields of 80.41% and 90.17%, respectively. The purity of total phenylethanoid glycosides in the product was 76.58%. PMID:24022055

  11. Evaluation of cuspal deflection in premolar teeth restored with low shrinkable resin composite (in vitro study)

    PubMed Central

    Labib, Labib Mohamed; Nabih, Sameh Mahmoud; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated cuspal deflection in premolar teeth restored with low shrinkable resin composite. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 human premolars were used for cuspal deflection evaluation in this study. Each group was divided into four equal groups according to the type of resin composite and the adhesive used as follows: group A: Using low shrinkable resin composite (silorane) with its adhesive system; group B: Using low shrinkable composite (silorane) with G-bond; group C: Using Filtek Z350 composite with G-bond; and group D: Using Filtek Z350 composite with AdheSE. Cusp deflection was detected using Universal measuring microscope and laser horizontal metroscope. Results: This study was done to investigate the effect of polymerization shrinkage stresses of two resin composite materials (Filtek Z350 and Filtek P90) on cuspal deflection of mesio-occluso-distal restoration. For this study, the extracted non-carious maxillary second premolars were selected. Forty teeth that showed no more than 5% variation in their dimensions were used. A significant increase in cuspal deflection of cavities restored with the methacrylate-based (Filtek Z350) compared with the silorane (P90) resin-based composites was obtained. Conclusion: The change in the organic matrix or materials formulation of the resin composite using silorane has a positive effect on controlling the cusp deflection. PMID:26759800

  12. RAPID MEASUREMENTS OF NEPTUNIUM OXIDATION STATES USING CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESINS

    SciTech Connect

    Diprete, D; C Diprete, C; Mira Malek, M; Eddie Kyser, E

    2009-03-24

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) H-Canyon facility uses ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) to separate impure neptunium (Np) from a high sulfate feed stream. The material is processed using a two-pass solvent extraction purification which relies on CAN to oxidize neptunium to Np(VI) during the first pass prior to extraction. Spectrophotometric oxidation-state analyses normally used to validate successful oxidation to Np(VI) prior to extraction were compromised by this feed stream matrix. Therefore, a rapid chromatographic method to validate successful Np oxidation was developed using Eichrom Industries TRU and TEVA{reg_sign} resins. The method was validated and subsequently transferred to existing operations in the process analytical laboratories.

  13. Resin selection criteria for tough composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Resin selection criteria are derived using a structured methodology consisting of an upward integrated mechanistic theory and its inverse (top-down structured theory). These criteria are expressed in a "criteria selection space" which are used to identify resin bulk properties for improved composite "toughness". The resin selection criteria correlate with a variety of experimental data including laminate strength, elevated temperature effects and impact resistance.

  14. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  15. Advanced resin systems for graphite epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W. J.; Jayarajan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The value of resin/carbon fiber composites as lightweight structures for aircraft and other vehicle applications is dependent on many properties: environmental stability, strength, toughness, resistance to burning, smoke produced when burning, raw material costs, and complexity of processing. A number of woven carbon fiber and epoxy resin composites were made. The epoxy resin was commercially available tetraglycidylmethylene dianiline. In addition, composites were made using epoxy resin modified with amine and carboxyl terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer. Strength and toughness in flexure as well as oxygen index flammability and NBS smoke chamber tests of the composites are reported.

  16. Conservative full-mouth resin renewal.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M J

    1999-12-01

    The treatment of this patient involved the coordination of periodontal, orthodontic, restorative, and aesthetic considerations. It was unique because it involved only resin as the primary restorative material, which allowed for conservative preparations and restorations. In the posterior, the use of direct and indirect resins resulted in the removal of little or no healthy tooth structure. In the anterior, the use of direct resin veneers required minimal removal of enamel, while still achieving proper function and aesthetics. Resin restorations in this particular case allowed for an acceptable clinical result and a highly satisfied patient.

  17. Resin composites in minimally invasive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The concept of minimally invasive dentistry will provide favorable conditions for the use of composite resin. However, a number of factors must be considered when placing composite resins in conservatively prepared cavities, including: aspects on the adaptation of the composite resin to the cavity walls; the use of adhesives; and techniques for obtaining adequate proximal contacts. The clinician must also adopt an equally conservative approach when treating failed restorations. The quality of the composite resin restoration will not only be affected by the outline form of the preparation but also by the clinician's technique and understanding of the materials.

  18. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  19. Characterization of PMR polyimide resin and prepreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindenmeyer, P. H.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for the chemical characterization of PMR-15 resin solutions and graphite-reinforced prepregs were developed, and a chemical data base was established. In addition, a basic understanding of PMR-15 resin chemistry was gained; this was translated into effective processing procedures for the production of high quality graphite composites. During the program the PMR monomers and selected model compounds representative of postulated PMR-15 solution chemistry were acquired and characterized. Based on these data, a baseline PMR-15 resin was formulated and evaluated for processing characteristics and composite properties. Commercially available PMR-15 resins were then obtained and chemically characterized. Composite panels were fabricated and evaluated.

  20. Sand control with resin and explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, J.M.; Begnaud, W.J.; Sahr, N.L.

    1992-09-08

    This patent describes a method for treating a well having perforated casing to prevent solids movement through the perforations and into the wellbore. It comprises positioning a quantity of liquid resin solution such that the solution occupies the interval of the casing having perforations; positioning an explosive in proximity with the liquid resin solution; detonating the explosive; displacing the liquid resin solution remaining in the wellbore after step (c) through the perforations with a displacing fluid; and injecting a chemical solution through the perforations to cause the resin to polymerize to form a consolidated permeable matrix.

  1. Bending rigidity of composite resin coating clasps.

    PubMed

    Ikebe, K; Kibi, M; Ono, T; Nokubi, T

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the bending profiles of composite resin coating cast clasps. The cobalt-chromium alloy cast clasps were made using tapered wax pattern. Silane coupling method (Silicoater MD, Kulzer Co.) was used to attach composite resin to metal surface. The breakage and the bending rigidity of composite resin coating clasps were evaluated. Results were as follows: 1) After the repeated bending test to the tips of clasp arm at 10,000 times in 0.25 mm deflection, neither crack on composite resin surface nor separation at resin/metal interface was observed in any specimen. 2) There was no significant difference in the bending rigidity of clasp arms between before and after composite resin coating. From these results, it was demonstrated that the composite resin coating cast clasp was available in clinical cases and coating with composite resin had little influence on the bending rigidity of clasp arms. Therefore, it was suggested that our clasp designing and fabricating system to control the bending rigidity of clasp arms could be applied to composite resin coating clasps. PMID:8935086

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity of self-curing acrylic resins of different colors

    PubMed Central

    Retamoso, Luciana Borges; da Cunha, Taís de Morais Alves; Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Martins, Fernanda Otaviano; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of acrylic resins of different colors over time. Methods Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n = 6) according to the color of the acrylic resin (Orto Class, Clássico, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil): Group 1: clear acrylic resin; group 2: pink acrylic resin; group 3: blue acrylic resin and group 4: green acrylic resin. All specimens were fabricated according to the mass manipulation technique and submitted to mechanical polishing protocol. The control was performed with an amalgam specimen (C+), a glass specimen (C-) and cell control (CC). Specimens were immersed in Minimum Eagle's Medium (MEM) and incubated for 24 h at 37ºC. The extracts from the experimental material were filtered and mixed with L929 fibroblast. Cytotoxicity was evaluated at 4 different times, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h. After contact, cells were incubated for 24 h and added to 100 µ of 0.01% neutral red dye. The cells were incubated for 3 h for pigment incorporation and fixed. Cells viability was determined by a spectroscopic (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA) with a 492-nm wavelength λ=492 nm). Results There were no statistical differences between the experimental groups and the CC and C- groups. Conclusion Clear, pink, blue and green self-curing acrylic resins fabricated by means of the mass manipulation technique and mechanically polished are not cytotoxic. Neither the pigment added to the self-curing acrylic resin nor the factor of time influenced the cytotoxicity of the material. PMID:25279523

  3. Isolation of lactoperoxidase using different cation exchange resins by batch and column procedures.

    PubMed

    Fweja, Leonard Wt; Lewis, Michael J; Grandison, Alistair S

    2010-08-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LP) was isolated from whey protein by cation-exchange using Carboxymethyl resin (CM-25C) and Sulphopropyl Toyopearl resin (SP-650C). Both batch and column procedures were employed and the adsorption capacities and extraction efficiencies were compared. The resin bed volume to whey volume ratios were 0.96:1.0 for CM-25C and 0.64:1.0 for SP-650 indicating higher adsorption capacity of SP-650 compared with CM-25C. The effluent LP activity depended on both the enzyme activity in the whey and the amount of whey loaded on the column within the saturation limits of the resin. The percentage recovery was high below the saturation point and fell off rapidly with over-saturation. While effective recovery was achieved with column extraction procedures, the recovery was poor in batch procedures. The whey-resin contact time had little impact on the enzyme adsorption. SDS PAGE and HPLC analyses were also carried out, the purity was examined and the proteins characterised in terms of molecular weights. Reversed phase HPLC provided clear distinction of the LP and lactoferrin (LF) peaks. The enzyme purity was higher in column effluents compared with batch effluents, judged on the basis of the clarity of the gel bands and the resolved peaks in HPLC chromatograms.

  4. Microleakage in class V gingiva-shaded composite resin restorations

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Chiesa, Marco; Dagna, Alberto; Colombo, Marco; Scribante, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage in Class V cavities restored with a new gingiva-shaded microhybrid composite resin and with a conventional microhybrid composite resin using three different dentin bonding systems (DBS). Class V cavities were prepared in sixty freshly extracted human teeth with the incisal margin in enamel and the apical margin in dentin/cementum. Restored specimens, after thermocycling, were placed in 2% methylene blue solution for 24 hours. Longitudinal sections were obtained and studied with a stereomicroscope for assessment of the microleakage according to degree of dye penetration (scale 0–3). Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test and with Mann-Whitney U-test. In this study there was no leakage in enamel: all the cavities showed no dye penetration at the incisal margins (located in enamel). None of the DBS used eliminated microleakage in apical margins (located in dentin or cementum): three-step total-etch and single-step self-etch were more effective in reducing microleakage in dentin margins when compared with two-step total-etch. This in vitro study concluded that microleakage in Class V cavities restored with the composite resins tested is similar. PMID:22783451

  5. Calysolins I-IV, resin glycosides from Calystegia soldanella.

    PubMed

    Takigawa, Ayako; Muto, Haruka; Kabata, Kiyotaka; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru

    2011-11-28

    Four new resin glycosides having intramolecular cyclic ester structures (jalapins), named calysolins I-IV (1-4), were isolated from the methanol extract of leaves, stems, and roots of Calystegia soldanella , along with one known jalapin (5) derivative. The structures of 1-4 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. They fall into two types, one having a 22-membered ring (1 and 4) and the other with a 27-membered ring (2 and 3). The sugar moieties of 1-4 were partially acylated by some organic acids. Compound 4 is the first example of a hexaglycoside of jalapin.

  6. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy (IME) resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are presented. State of the art epoxy resin, MY720, was used. Three aromatic bisimide amines and one aromatic aliphatic BIA were evaluated. BIA's derived from 6F anhydride (3,3 prime 4,4 prime-(hexafluoro isopropyl idene) bis (phthalic anhydride) and diamines, 3,3 prime-diam nodiphenyl sulfone (3,3 prime-DDS), 4,4 prime-diamino diphenyl sulfone (4,4 prime-DDS), 1.12-dodecane diamine (1,12-DDA) were used. BIA's were abbreviated 6F-3,3 prime-DDS, 6F-4,4 prime-DDS, 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime DDS, and 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA corresponding to 6F anhydride and diamines mentioned. Epoxy resin and BIA's (MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA and a 50:50 mixture of a BIA and parent diamine, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-4,4 prime-DDS/3,3 prime-DDS, MY720/6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA/3,3 prime-DDS were studied to determine effect of structure and composition. Effect of the addition of two commercial epoxies, glyamine 200 and glyamine 100 on the properties of several formulations was evaluated. Bisimide amine cured epoxies were designated IME's (imide modified epoxy). Physical, thermal and mechanical properties of these resins were determined. Moisture absorption in boiling water exhibited by several of the IME's was considerably lower than the state of the art epoxies (from 3.2% for the control and state of the art to 2.0 wt% moisture absorption). Char yields are increased from 20% for control and state of the art epoxies to 40% for IME resins. Relative toughness characteristics of IME resins were measured by 10 deg off axis tensile tests of Celion 6000/IME composites. Results show that IME's containing 6F-3,3 prime-DDS or 6F-3,3 prime-DDS-1,12-DDA improved the "toughness" characteristics of composites by about 35% (tensile strength), about 35% (intralaminar shear

  7. Effect of filler size on wear resistance of resin cement.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, K; Suzuki, S; Katoh, Y

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of filler size on the wear of resin cements. Materials tested included four experimental dual-cure resin cements (Kuraray) consisting of different-sized filler particles. A rectangular box cavity was prepared on the flattened occlusal surface of extracted human molars. Ceramic inlays for the cavities were fabricated using the Cerec 2 system. The Cerec inlays were cemented with the respective cements and adhesive systems according to the manufacturer's directions. The restored surface was finished by wet-grinding with an 800-grit silicon carbide paper. Six specimens were prepared for each resin cement. Half of the specimens were subjected to a three-body wear test for 200,000 cycles, and the others were subjected to a toothbrush abrasion test for 30,000 cycles. The worn surface of each restoration was scanned by a profilometer (Surfcom 475 A) at eight different points for each restoration. The wear value was determined by measuring the vertical gap depth on the profilometric tracings. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe's test. The results showed that, with increase of filler size, the wear value decreased in the toothbrush test and increased in the three-body wear test. The cement with 0.04-microm filler exhibited the lowest wear value among the materials in the three-body wear test, and the same wear value as the cement with 0.97-microm filler in the toothbrush test. Based upon the results of this study, it is concluded that the wear of resin cements was affected by the filler size as well as the mode of wear test.

  8. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... condensation of xylene-formaldehyde resin and 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to... include resins produced by the condensation of allyl ether of mono-, di-, or trimethylol phenol and...

  9. Input to Resin Column Structural Analysis if Autocatalytic Resin Reaction Occurs in HB-Line Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, D.F.

    2001-07-10

    Solutions of plutonium in nitric acid are purified and concentrated using anion resin prior to precipitation. There have been instances of resin column explosions caused by autocatalytic reactions of anion resins in nitric acid within the DOE complex

  10. Effect of resin rheology on macro- and micro-flows in resin transfer molding

    SciTech Connect

    Chih-Hsin Shih; Lee, L.J.; Koelling, K.

    1996-12-31

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a relatively new and high potential process for near net shape composite manufacturing because of its short cycle time, low labor requirements and low equipment cost. The major material variables in the RTM process are the resin rheology and the fiber reinforcement structure. The presence of low profile additives or fillers tends to change the resin mixture from a Newtonian fluid to a Non-Newtonian fluid. Different fiber architectures may result in different flow patterns that will influence the mold filling and curing processes. This paper will discuss how the resin rheology and fiber structure effect the resin transfer molding process.

  11. Flexure fatigue of 10 commonly used denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Johnston, E P; Nicholls, J I; Smith, D E

    1981-11-01

    The flexure fatigue properties of 10 denture base resins (four different types) were tested. Each specimen underwent two-way testing in a water bath maintained at 37 degrees +/- 1 degree C. A load of 3,650 gm was applied a 342 flexures per minute until the specimen broke. The resin types listed in order of increasing resistance to flexure fatigue are polymethylmethacrylate (PMM) pour resins, PMM thermosetting resins, vinyl resins, and a PMM grafted resin. Although small samples size and scatter of results limit broad application of this data, it is of some significance that the grafted resin Lucitone 199 tended to withstand repeated flexure when compared to the other resins.

  12. Phosphorus-containing imide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Cured polymers of bis and tris-imides derived from tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides by reaction with maleic anhydride or its derivatives, and addition polymers of such imides, including a variant in which a monoimide is condensed with a dianhydride and the product is treated with a further quantity of maleic anhydride prior to curing are disclosed and claimed. Such polymers are flame resistant. Also disclosed are an improved method of producing tris(m-aminophenyl) phosphine oxides from the nitro analogues by reduction with hydrazine hydrate using palladized charcoal or Raney nickel as the catalyst and fiber reinforced cured resin composites.

  13. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as

  14. Optical and color stabilities of paint-on resins for shade modification of restorative resins.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Kanie, Takahito; Fujii, Koichi; Ban, Seiji; Homma, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hideo

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the optical and color stabilities of the paint-on resin used for shade modification of restorative resins. Three shades of paint-on resin and two crown and bridge resins were used. The light transmittance characteristics of the materials during accelerated aging tests such as water immersion, toothbrush abrasion, ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation, and staining tests were measured. Discolorations of materials resulting from tests were also determined. There were no significant effects of water immersion, toothbrush abrasion and UV light irradiation on the light transmittance and visible color change of paint-on resins, whereas the staining tests significantly decreased the light transmittance and increased color change of the translucent shades of materials. Our results indicate that the paint-on resins exhibit stable optical properties and color appearance, which are at least as good as the crown and bridge resins.

  15. Fluorinated diamond bonded in fluorocarbon resin

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Gene W.

    1982-01-01

    By fluorinating diamond grit, the grit may be readily bonded into a fluorocarbon resin matrix. The matrix is formed by simple hot pressing techniques. Diamond grinding wheels may advantageously be manufactured using such a matrix. Teflon fluorocarbon resins are particularly well suited for using in forming the matrix.

  16. TMI-2 purification demineralizer resin study

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J D; Osterhoudt, T R

    1984-05-01

    Study of the Makeup and Purification System demineralizers at TMI-2 has established that fuel quantities in the vessels are low, precluding criticality, that the high radioactive cesium concentration on the demineralizer resins can be chemically removed, and that the demineralizer resins can probably be removed from the vessels by sluicing through existing plant piping. Radiation measurements from outside the demineralizers establishing that there is between 1.5 and 5.1 (probably 3.3) lb of fuel in the A vessel and less than that amount in the B vessel. Dose rates up to 2780 R per hour were measured on contact with the A demineralizer. Remote visual observation of the A demineralizer showed a crystalline crust overlaying amber-colored resins. The cesium activity in solid resin samples ranged from 220 to 16,900 ..mu..Ci/g. Based on this information, researchers concluded that the resins cannot be removed through the normal pathway in their present condition. Studies do show that the resins will withstand chemical processing designed to rinse and elute cesium from the resins. The process developed should work on the TMI-2 resins.

  17. VOLUMETRIC POLYMERIZATION SHRINKAGE OF CONTEMPORARY COMPOSITE RESINS

    PubMed Central

    Nagem, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire) to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (á=0.05) was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01) and Definite (1.89±0.01) shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06), Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03), and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02) presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation. PMID:19089177

  18. 21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-4′-(1-methylethylidine) bis(phenol)) are formed by melt polycondensation of bisphenol-A with... contact with food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Identity. Polyarylate resins... of polymer units derived from diphenylterephthalate. (2) Polyarylate resins shall have a...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1555 - Polyarylate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-4′-(1-methylethylidine) bis(phenol)) are formed by melt polycondensation of bisphenol-A with... contact with food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Identity. Polyarylate resins... of polymer units derived from diphenylterephthalate. (2) Polyarylate resins shall have a...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resin applicator. 872.3140 Section 872.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... percent by weight of resin) Water 95percent ethyl alcohol Ethyl acetate Benzene 1. Nylon 66 resins 1.14... chapter, except those containing more than 8 percent alcohol, under conditions of use B through H... percent alcohol (by volume) at temperatures not to exceed 49 °C (120 °F) (conditions of use E, F, and G...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... percent by weight of resin) Water 95percent ethyl alcohol Ethyl acetate Benzene 1. Nylon 66 resins 1.14... chapter, except those containing more than 8 percent alcohol, under conditions of use B through H... percent alcohol (by volume) at temperatures not to exceed 49 °C (120 °F) (conditions of use E, F, and G...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... percent by weight of resin) Water 95percent ethyl alcohol Ethyl acetate Benzene 1. Nylon 66 resins 1.14... chapter, except those containing more than 8 percent alcohol, under conditions of use B through H... percent alcohol (by volume) at temperatures not to exceed 49 °C (120 °F) (conditions of use E, F, and G...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1500 - Nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... percent by weight of resin) Water 95percent ethyl alcohol Ethyl acetate Benzene 1. Nylon 66 resins 1.14... chapter, except those containing more than 8 percent alcohol, under conditions of use B through H... percent alcohol (by volume) at temperatures not to exceed 49 °C (120 °F) (conditions of use E, F, and G...

  5. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    SciTech Connect

    Gula, M.; Harvey, J.

    1996-12-31

    Shortcomings of chelating resins have been addressed by a new class of ion exchange resins called dual mechanism bifunctional polymers (DMBPs). DMBPs use hydrophilic cation exchange ligands with rapid uptake kinetics and use chelating ligands for selectivity for one or more metals; result is a resin that quickly recognizes and removes targeted metals from waste, remediation, and process streams. Eichrom`s Diphonix {reg_sign} resin is the first DMBP to be widely released as a commercial product; it is polystyrene based. Objective of this work is to synthesize commercial quantities of a silica-based ion exchange resin with the same or better metal ion selectivity, metal uptake kinetics, and acid stability as Diphonix. Feasibility was determined, however the process needs to be optimized. Studies at Eichrom and ANL of the performance of Diphonix resin over a broad range of HNO3 and HCl conditions and inorganic salt loadings are discussed together with the proposed method of incorporating similar characteristics into a silica-based resin. The new, silica-based resin functionalized with diphosphonic acid ligands can be used in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving processing of low-level, transuranic, and high-level radioactive wastes; it can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste including wastes contaminated with organic compounds.

  6. 40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section 721.9495 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section 721.9495 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9495 - Acrylosilane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acrylosilane resins. 721.9495 Section 721.9495 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9495 Acrylosilane resins. (a)...

  9. Dental resin cure monitoring by inherent fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qun; Zhou, Jack X.; Li, Qingxiong; Wang, Sean X.

    2008-02-01

    It is demonstrated that the inherent fluorescence of a dental composite resin can be utilized to monitor the curing status, i.e. degree of conversion of the resin. The method does not require any sample preparation and is potentially very fast for real time cure monitoring. The method is verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis.

  10. High-yield resin fractionation using a liquid/liquid centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanat, Stan F.; Rahman, M. D.; Narasimhan, Balaji; McKenzie, Douglas S.; Cook, Michelle M.

    2000-06-01

    Resins used in photoresist manufacturing are often relatively expensive once processing steps (fractionation e.g.) and yield losses are factored into the net cost. We have previously reported on the merits of using an economically more attractive fractionation process using a liquid/liquid centrifuge. Further refinements of this method indicate that waste streams could be reduced by recycling the extractant phase and that lower molecular weight fractions removed from the starting resin might be used in making other resist ingredients [speed enhancers, photoactive compound (PAC) backbones e.g.]. Both of these improvements would reduce the overall manufacturing costs of making resist raw materials and the final products made with them.

  11. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh K.; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A.; Pant, Aditya B.

    2012-01-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined. PMID:23293458

  12. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbein, Meyer

    1939-01-01

    A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

  13. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, T. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new analytical model for simulating chemoviscosity of thermosetting resin was formulated. The model is developed by modifying the Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) theory in polymer rheology for thermoplastic materials. By assuming a linear relationship between the glass transition temperature and the degree of cure of the resin system under cure, the WLF theory can be modified to account for the factor of reaction time. Temperature dependent functions of the modified WLF theory constants were determined from the isothermal cure data of Lee, Loos, and Springer for the Hercules 3501-6 resin system. Theoretical predictions of the model for the resin under dynamic heating cure cycles were shown to compare favorably with the experimental data reported by Carpenter. A chemoviscosity model which is capable of not only describing viscosity profiles accurately under various cure cycles, but also correlating viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with the structural transformations of the thermosetting resin systems during cure was established.

  14. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A; Pant, Aditya B

    2012-09-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined.

  15. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques were developed that provided thermo-oxidatively stable A-type polyimide/graphite fiber composites using the approach of in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on reinforcing fibers, rather than employing separately prepared prepolymer varnish. This was accomplished by simply mixing methylene dianiline and two ester-acids and applying this solution to the fibers for subsequent molding. Five different formulated molecular weight resins were examined, and an optimized die molding procedure established for the 1500 formulated molecular weight system. Extensive ultrasonic inspection of composites was successfully utilized as a technique for monitoring laminate quality. Composite mechanical property studies were conducted with this polyimide resin at room temperature and after various time exposures in a thermo-oxidative environment at 561 K (550 F), 589 K (600 F) and 617 K (650 F). It was determined that such composites have a long term life in the temperature range of 561 K to 589 K. The final phase involved the fabrication and evaluation of a series of demonstration airfoil specimens.

  16. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative /sup 137/Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either /sup 85/Sr or /sup 60/Co. Release rates of /sup 137/Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. /sup 137/Cs, /sup 85/Sr, and /sup 60/Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement.

  17. Use of EIChroM TRU RESIN in the determination of Americium, Plutonium and Uranium in air filter and water samples

    SciTech Connect

    Berne, Anna

    1995-03-01

    TRU Resin, an extraction chromatographic material ((octyl (phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphene oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP)) manufactured by EIChroM Industries, was tested for its actinide sorption and desorption characteristics. A study was initiated to demonstrate the effectiveness of extracting plutonium, americium and uranium from water and air filter samples from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory’s Quality Assessment Program (QAP), and the effectiveness of subsequent desorption of one chemical species at a time in order to prepare each of them for spectrometry. Crossover of plutonium into the americium fraction with the TRU Resin was observed and could not be eliminated while using TRU Resin only. However, prior extraction of plutonium using an anion exchange resin can overcome this problem. A method for the determination of americium is proposed which combines the extraction of plutonium onto Bio-Rad AG 1-X8 anion exchange resin with the extraction of americium using the TRU Resin. This method was tested on three triplicate sets of QAP air filters and two triplicate sets of QAP water samples. The recoveries ranged from 70 to 90 percent, and the results were identical to those obtained by the existing methods. The time required to perform the analysis for americium was shortened from 5 weeks to 1 week.

  18. Use of EIChroM`s TRU resin in the determination of americium, plutonium and uranium in air filter and water samples

    SciTech Connect

    Berne, A.

    1995-12-01

    TRU Resin, an extraction chromatographic material (octyl (phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoyl-methylphosphene oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tributyl phosphate (TBP)) manufactured by EIChroM Industries, was tested for its actinide sorption and desorption characteristics. A study was initiated to demonstrate the effectiveness of extracting plutonium, americium and uranium from water and air filter samples from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Quality Assessment Program (QAP), and the effectiveness of subsequent desorption of one chemical species at a time in order to prepare each of them for a spectrometry. Crossover of plutonium into the americium fraction with the TRU Resin was observed and could not be eliminated while using TRU Resin only. However, prior extraction of plutonium using an anion exchange resin can overcome this problem. A method for the determination of americium is proposed which combines the extraction of plutonium onto Bio-Rad AG 1-X8 anion exchange resin with the extraction of americium using the TRU Resin. This method was tested on three triplicate sets of QAP air filters and two triplicate sets of QAP water samples. The recoveries ranged from 70 to 90 percent, and the results were identical to those obtained by the existing methods. The time required to perform the analysis for americium was shortened from 5 weeks to 1 week.

  19. Structure Property Relationships of Biobased Epoxy Resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorana, Anthony Surraht

    The thesis is about the synthesis, characterization, development, and application of epoxy resins derived from sustainable feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose, plant oils, and other non-food feedstocks. The thesis can be divided into two main topics 1) the synthesis and structure property relationship investigation of new biobased epoxy resin families and 2) mixing epoxy resins with reactive diluents, nanoparticles, toughening agents, and understanding co-curing reactions, filler/matrix interactions, and cured epoxy resin thermomechanical, viscoelastic, and dielectric properties. The thesis seeks to bridge the gap between new epoxy resin development, application for composites and advanced materials, processing and manufacturing, and end of life of thermoset polymers. The structures of uncured epoxy resins are characterized through traditional small molecule techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance, high resolution mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopy. The structure of epoxy resin monomers are further understood through the process of curing the resins and cured resins' properties through rheology, chemorheology, dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile testing, fracture toughness, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and notched izod impact testing. It was found that diphenolate esters are viable alternatives to bisphenol A and that the structure of the ester side chain can have signifi-cant effects on monomer viscosity. The structure of the cured diphenolate based epoxy resins also influence glass transition temperature and dielectric properties. Incorporation of reactive diluents and flexible resins can lower viscosity, extend gel time, and enable processing of high filler content composites and increase fracture toughness. Incorpora-tion of high elastic modulus nanoparticles such as graphene can provide increases in physical properties such as elastic modulus and fracture toughness. The synthesis

  20. Phytochemical and anti-staphylococcal biofilm assessment of Dracaena draco L. Spp. draco resin

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, V. Di; Pitonzo, R.; Schillaci, D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dracaena draco L. ssp. draco is known as the “dragon's blood tree” and it is endemic from the Canary Islands and Morocco. Objective: Carry out phytochemical investigation of acetonic extracts of red resin obtained from the trunk of D. draco, to obtain to the isolation of the most abundant resin constituents, belonging to the class of flavonoids: flavans, along with homoisoflavans and homoisoflavanones. Materials and Methods: The structures of the isolated compounds were established by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry data and comparison with literature data. The acetonic extract was evaluated for its anti-staphylococcal properties against two reference strains. Results: The acetonic extracts resulted inactive at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 μg/ml against free living forms of tested staphylococci, but they showed a very interesting activity in the prevention of a biofilm formation at a concentration equal to 200 μg/ml against S. aureus ATCC 25923. PMID:24991124

  1. [Determination of residual organic solvents and macroporous resin residues in Akebia saponin D].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiao-han; Yang, Xiao-lin; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Ding, Gang; Huang, Wen-zhe; Yang, Zhong-lin

    2015-05-01

    According to ICH, Chinese Pharmacopoeia and supplementary requirements on the separation and purification of herbal extract with macroporous adsorption resin by SFDA, hexane, acetidine, ethanol, benzene, methyl-benzene, o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene, styrene, diethyl-benzene and divinyl-benzene of residual organic solvents and macroporous resin residues in Akebia saponin D were determined by headspace capillary GC. Eleven residues in Akebia saponin D were completely separated on DB-wax column, with FID detector, high purity nitrogen as the carry gases. The calibration curves were in good linearity (0.999 2-0.999 7). The reproducibility was good (RSD < 10%). The average recoveries were 80.0% -110%. The detection limit of each component was far lower than the limit concentration. The method is simple, reproducible, and can be used to determine the residual organic solvents and macroporous resin residues in Akebia saponin D. PMID:26390656

  2. Acidic resin-catalysed conversion of fructose into furan derivatives in low boiling point solvents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Cao, Quan; Li, Chunhu; Mu, Xindong

    2011-09-27

    Conversion of fructose into furan derivatives 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 5-methoxymethylfurfural (MMF) is performed in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and methanol-organic solvent systems, catalysed by an acidic resin Amberlyst-15. The melted fructose can be converted into HMF on the surface of the solid resin catalyst in the presence of THF as an extracting phase, which is a good solvent for HMF and other by-products. The solid resin catalyst can be reused eleven times without losing its catalytic ability, with an average HMF yield of approximately 50%. Upon the addition of methanol, the generated HMF can further react with methanol to form MMF, and the total yield of HMF and MMF could be promoted to 65%. GC-MS analysis confirms the formation of a small amount of methyl levulinate in methanolorganic solvent system.

  3. Literature search on the use of resins for treatment of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    AlMahamid, I.; Smith, B.M.

    1997-10-01

    Over 100 commercial providers with mixed-waste treatability capabilities exist in the US. The maturity level of these technologies varies from a bench scale to a pilot or a commercial scale. The techniques include deactivation, chemical oxidation, recovery of metals, stabilization, vitrification, incineration, biodegradation, and chemical extraction. This report focuses on the use of resins to remove actinides and heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Only the literature that described resins with high removing efficiency are presented here. The majority of the literature reviewed are proceedings and national or international reports ordered through the Berkeley Lab Library. Some of the reports that the authors requested have not yet arrived. Only a few papers were found in the open literature (journals or magazines). Although this report does not include all existing references, it provides an accurate assessment of efficient resins to be considered for waste minimization procedures. 70 refs.

  4. Mineralogy of fossil resins in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdasarov, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The investigation is focused on identification and origin of fossil resins from the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments of Northern Eurasia on the basis of detailed study of their physical and chemical characteristics: morphology; size; mass; density; optical, mechanical, and thermal properties; chemical composition; etc. The composition of amorphous organic minerals with polymeric structure, fossil resins included, is studied with IR spectrometry, the EPR method, derivatography at low heating rates, XRD, chemical analysis, emission spectrometry, etc. The results of investigation summarized for the Baltic-Dnieper, North Siberian, and Far East amber-bearing provinces show some similarity of fossil resins in combination with specific features inherent to each province. Resins from the Baltic-Dnieper province should be termed as amber (succinite). Their variety is the most characteristic of Northern and Eastern Europe. Amber-like fossil resins from the North Siberian and Far East provinces are irrelevant to succinite. They usually occur as brittle resins, namely, retinite and gedanite, without jewelry value. Viscous fossil resin rumänite with an expected high economic value occurs in the Far East, on the shore of Sakhalin Island.

  5. Effect of pre-heating resin composite on restoration microleakage.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Warren C; Aksu, Mert N; Asku, Mert N; Neme, Ann-Marie L; Linger, Jackson B; Pink, Frank E; Walker, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Improving the adaptation of resin composites during placement is necessary to increase durability and reduce microleakage. Flowable resin liners have been introduced to improve adaptation in composite restorations. In addition, a device that lowers the viscosity of regular dental composites has been introduced (Calset, AdDent Inc, Danbury, CT, USA). This device lowers the viscosity of composites by preheating them to 54.4 degrees C, which should lead to improved adaptation. This study compared microleakage in Class II composite restorations prepared using: 1) preheated resin composite, 2) unheated composite and 3) a flowable liner followed by unheated composite. Class II cavities were prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of extracted third molars. Ten preparations were restored with resin composite (Esthet-X, Dentsply, York, PA, USA) for each of the following four techniques: Control (Esthet-X with Prime & Bond NT, Dentsply), Flowable (f) (as Control but used Esthet-X Flow liner), Preheated (p) (as Control but with preheating composite to 54.4 degrees C) and Delay (d) (as Preheated but followed by a 15-second delay before curing). The teeth were restored, finished, stored in distilled water for 24 hours, then thermocycled between water bath temperatures of 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with a one-minute dwell time for 1000 cycles. Tooth apices were sealed with epoxy and varnish was applied to within 1 mm of the restoration margins. The teeth were placed in 0.5% basic fuschin dye for 24 hours, rinsed, then embedded in self-curing resin. The embedded teeth were sectioned mesiodistally with a slow-speed diamond saw, providing multiple sections per restoration. Microleakage was rated by two evaluators using a 0-4 ordinal scale at the occlusal and cervical margins of each restoration and light microscopy (40x). The data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and pairwise testing with the Sign test (alpha=0.05). No statistical differences were observed among

  6. 49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section 173.165... Polyester resin kits. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft, polyester resin kits consisting of a base.... Additionally, unless otherwise excepted in this subchapter, polyester resin kits must be packaged...

  7. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1, 2010... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy....

  8. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32 Section... Ingredients § 181.32 Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. (a) Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins listed in... of the vinyl chloride resin) resin—for use only in contact with oleomargarine. (iv)...

  9. 21 CFR 177.2490 - Polyphenylene sulfide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyphenylene sulfide resins. 177.2490 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2490 Polyphenylene sulfide resins. Polyphenylene sulfide resins (poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) resins) may be safely used as coatings or components...

  10. 21 CFR 177.2260 - Filters, resin-bonded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Filters, resin-bonded. 177.2260 Section 177.2260... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2260 Filters, resin-bonded. Resin-bonded filters may... of this section. (a) Resin-bonded filters are prepared from natural or synthetic fibers to which...

  11. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be...) Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins are produced by the polymerization of acrylamide with partial hydrolysis or...

  12. Resin/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavano, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Processing techniques were developed for the fabrication of both polyphenylquinoxaline and polyimide composites by the in situ polymerization of monomeric reactants directly on the graphite reinforcing fibers, rather than using previously prepared prepolymer varnishes. Void-free polyphenylquinoxaline composites were fabricated and evaluated for room and elevated flexure and shear properties. The technology of the polyimide system was advanced to the point where the material is ready for commercial exploitation. A reproducible processing cycle free of operator judgment factors was developed for fabrication of void-free composites exhibiting excellent mechanical properties and a long time isothermal life in the range of 288 C to 316 C. The effects of monomer reactant stoichiometry and process modification on resin flow were investigated. Demonstration of the utility and quality of this polyimide system was provided through the successful fabrication and evaluation of four complex high tip speed fan blades.

  13. Molecular composition and paleobotanical origin of Eocene resin from northeast India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Arka; Dutta, Suryendu; Raju, Srinivasan V.

    2014-06-01

    The molecular composition of fossil resins from early to middle Eocene coal from northeast India, has been analyzed for the first time to infer their paleobotanical source. The soluble component of fossil resin was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The resin extracts are composed of cadalene-based C15 sesquiterpenoids and diagenetically altered triterpenoids. The macromolecular composition was investigated using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The major pyrolysis products are C15 bicyclic sesquiterpenoids, alkylated naphthalenes, benzenes and a series of C17-C34 n-alkene- n-alkane pairs. Spectroscopic analysis revealed the dominance of aliphatic components. The presence of cadalene-based sequiterpenoids confirms the resin to be Class II or dammar resin, derived from angiosperms of Dipterocarpaceae family. These sesquiterpenoids are often detected in many SE Asian fluvio-deltaic oils. Dipterocarpaceae are characteristic of warm tropical climate suggesting the prevalence of such climate during early Eocene in northeast India.

  14. The quantification and characterization of endocrine disruptor bisphenol-A leaching from epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Bae, B; Jeong, J H; Lee, S J

    2002-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), a known endocrine disruptor, is a main building block of epoxy resin which has been widely used as a surface coating agent on residential water storage tanks. Therefore, BPA leaching from the epoxy resin can adversely affect human health. In this study, BPA leaching from three epoxy resins were quantified at 20, 50, 75 and 100 degrees C both in deionized water and the specified test water, respectively. BPA leached to the test water was identified using GC-MS and quantified with GC-FID after a sequential extraction and concentration. The results showed that BPA leaching has occurred in all three samples tested. The quantity of BPA from unit area of epoxy resin coating was in the range of 01.68-273. 12 microg/m2 for sample A, 29.74-1734.05 microg/m2 for sample B and 52.86-548.78 microg/m2 for sample C depending on the test temperature, respectively. In general, the amount of BPA leashing increased as the water temperature increases. This result implies a higher risk of BPA leaching to drinking water during a summer season. In addition, microbial growth, measured by colony forming units, in epoxy coated water tanks was higher than that in a stainless steel tank. The results suggest that compounds leaching from epoxy resin may support the growth of microorganisms in a residential water holding tank.

  15. Epoxy resin synthesis using low molecular weight lignin separated from various lignocellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Asada, Chikako; Basnet, Sunita; Otsuka, Masaya; Sasaki, Chizuru; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2015-03-01

    A low molecular weight lignin from various lignocellulosic materials was used for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resins. The lignin extracted with methanol from steam-exploded samples (steaming time of 5 min at steam pressure of 3.5 MPa) from different biomasses (i.e., cedar, eucalyptus, and bamboo) were functionalized by the reaction with epichlorohydrin, catalyzed by a water-soluble phase transfer catalyst tetramethylammonium chloride, which was further reacted with 30 wt% aqueous NaOH for ring closure using methyl ethyl ketone as a solvent. The glycidylated products of the lignin with good yields were cured to epoxy polymer networks with bio-based curing agents i.e., lignin itself and a commercial curing agent TD2131. Relatively good thermal properties of the bio-based epoxy network was obtained and thermal decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss (Td5) of cedar-derived epoxy resin was higher than that derived from eucalyptus and bamboo. The bio-based resin satisfies the stability requirement of epoxy resin applicable for electric circuit boards. The methanol-insoluble residues were enzymatically hydrolyzed to produce glucose. This study indicated that the biomass-derived methanol-soluble lignin may be a promising candidate to be used as a substitute for petroleum-based epoxy resin derived from bisphenol A, while insoluble residues may be processed to give a bioethanol precursor i.e., glucose.

  16. Epoxy resin synthesis using low molecular weight lignin separated from various lignocellulosic materials.

    PubMed

    Asada, Chikako; Basnet, Sunita; Otsuka, Masaya; Sasaki, Chizuru; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2015-03-01

    A low molecular weight lignin from various lignocellulosic materials was used for the synthesis of bio-based epoxy resins. The lignin extracted with methanol from steam-exploded samples (steaming time of 5 min at steam pressure of 3.5 MPa) from different biomasses (i.e., cedar, eucalyptus, and bamboo) were functionalized by the reaction with epichlorohydrin, catalyzed by a water-soluble phase transfer catalyst tetramethylammonium chloride, which was further reacted with 30 wt% aqueous NaOH for ring closure using methyl ethyl ketone as a solvent. The glycidylated products of the lignin with good yields were cured to epoxy polymer networks with bio-based curing agents i.e., lignin itself and a commercial curing agent TD2131. Relatively good thermal properties of the bio-based epoxy network was obtained and thermal decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss (Td5) of cedar-derived epoxy resin was higher than that derived from eucalyptus and bamboo. The bio-based resin satisfies the stability requirement of epoxy resin applicable for electric circuit boards. The methanol-insoluble residues were enzymatically hydrolyzed to produce glucose. This study indicated that the biomass-derived methanol-soluble lignin may be a promising candidate to be used as a substitute for petroleum-based epoxy resin derived from bisphenol A, while insoluble residues may be processed to give a bioethanol precursor i.e., glucose. PMID:25572718

  17. Separation and enrichment of major quinolizidine type alkaloids from Sophora alopecuroides using macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Zhang, Liyan; Zhu, Guihua; Li, Li

    2014-01-15

    Matrine (MT), oxymatrine (OM) and sophoridine (SP) are three bioactive alkaloids in Sophora alopecuroides. In the present study, the chromatographic characteristics of six widely used macroporous resins, namely NKA, NKA-9, HPD-100, HPD-722, HPD-750, and AB-8, respectively, towards the separation and enrichment of the three alkaloids from the aqueous extract of S. alopecuroides are critically evaluated. The results indicated that AB-8 resin offered the best absorption and desorption capacity and its adsorption data fitted best to the Freundlich isotherm. Dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments on packed columns of AB-8 resin have been investigated for optimization of chromatographic parameters. The adsorption of the alkaloids on the resin was best achieved by 5 bed volume (BV) of sample solution of pH 10 with a flow rate of 2BV/h. The desorption of the compounds from the resin was effectively completed by using 5BV of 80% ethanol in water at a flow rate of 2BV/h. After one run of adsorption and desorption, the contents of MT, OM, and SP were increased from 9.30, 8.39 and 9.84% to 22.22, 21.44 and 28.02%, the recovery were 69.4, 78.3 and 72.6%, respectively. This method would provide useful information to the industrial production of the alkaloids from S. alopecuroides. PMID:24321756

  18. Fracture resistance of teeth restored with class II bonded composite resin.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S

    1986-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether composite resin bonded to enamel or to both enamel and dentin can increase the fracture resistance of teeth with Class II cavity preparations. Extracted maxillary pre-molars with MOD slot preparations were restored with composite resin bonded to enamel (P-30 and Enamel Bond) or composite resin bonded to enamel and dentin (P-30 and Scotch-bond). Teeth in a control group were prepared but left unrestored. All teeth were loaded occlusally in a universal testing machine until they fractured. Means of forces required to fracture teeth in each of the three groups were statistically compared (one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni t test). Teeth restored with combined enamel- and dentin-bonded composite resins were significantly more resistant to fracture than were similarly prepared but unrestored teeth and also than teeth restored with enamel-bonded composite resin (p less than 0.05). A significant difference was not demonstrated between the enamel-bonded group and the unrestored group. Further testing is needed to determine the durability of the bonds between tooth and restoration in the clinical setting. PMID:3511111

  19. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  20. Chemical Characterization of Phenol/Formaldehyde Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brayden, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Report discusses tests of commercial phenol/formaldehyde resins to establish relationships among composition before use, behavior during curing, and strength after curing. Resin used in carbon/carbon laminates. In curing process, two molecules of phenol joined together in sequence of reactions involving molecule of formaldehyde. Last step of sequence, molecule of water released. Sequence repeats until one of ingredients used up, leaving solidified thermoset plastic. Issues to be resolved: number and relative abundances of ingredients, presence of certain chemical groups, heat-producing ability of resin, and range of molecular weights present.

  1. Improved microbial-check-valve resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1980-01-01

    Improved microbial-check-valve resins have been tested for their microbicidal effectiveness and long-term stability. Resins give more-stable iodine concentrations than previous preparations and do not impart objectionable odor or taste to treated water. Microbial check valve is small cylindrical device, packed with iodide-saturated resin, that is installed in water line where contamination by micro-organisms is to be prevented. Prototype microbial check valve was tested for stability and performance under harsh environmental conditions. Effectiveness was 100 percent at 35 deg, 70 deg, and 160 deg F (2 deg, 21 deg, and 71 deg C).

  2. Class II Resin Composites: Restorative Options.

    PubMed

    Patel, Minesh; Mehta, Shamir B; Banerji, Subir

    2015-10-01

    Tooth-coloured, resin composite restorations are amongst the most frequently prescribed forms of dental restoration to manage defects in posterior teeth. The attainment of a desirable outcome when placing posterior resin composite restorations requires the clinician to have a good understanding of the benefits (as well as the limitations) posed by this material, together with a sound knowledge of placement technique. Numerous protocols and materials have evolved to assist the dental operator with this type of demanding posterior restoration. With the use of case examples, four techniques available are reported here. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This article explores varying techniques for the restoration of Class II cavities using resin composite.

  3. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing

  4. Accurate determination of ¹²⁹I concentrations and ¹²⁹I/¹³⁷Cs ratios in spent nuclear resins by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bourlès, Didier; Arnold, Maurice; Bertaux, Maité

    2014-04-01

    Determining long-lived radionuclide concentrations in radioactive waste has fundamental implications for the long-term management of storage sites. This paper focuses on the measurement of low (129)I contents in ion exchange resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR). Iodine-129 concentrations were successfully determined using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) following a chemical procedure which included (1) acid digestion of resin samples in HNO3/HClO4, (2) radioactive decontamination by selective iodine extraction using a new chromatographic resin (CL Resin), and (3) AgI precipitation. Measured (129)I concentrations ranged from 4 to 12 ng/g, i.e. from 0.03 to 0.08 Bq/g. The calculation of (129)I/(137)Cs activity ratios used for routine waste management produced values in agreement with the few available data for PWR resin samples. PMID:24525301

  5. Adsorption/desorption characteristics and separation of anthocyanins from muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) juice pomace by use of macroporous adsorbent resins.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gu, Liwei

    2013-02-20

    In this study, the adsorption/desorption characteristics of anthocyanins on five Amberlite resins (FPX-66, XAD-7HP, XAD-16N, XAD-1180, and XAD-761) were evaluated. FPX-66 and XAD-16N showed the highest adsorption and desorption capacities and ratios for anthocyanins from muscadine pomace extract, while XAD-7HP had the lowest adsorption and desorption capacities and ratios. On the basis of static adsorption and desorption tests, three resins (FPX-66, XAD-16N, and XAD-1180) were selected for adsorption kinetics and isotherms. The adsorption mechanism was better explained by the pseudo-first-order kinetics for FPX-66 and XAD-16N; however, for XAD-1180, pseudo-second-order kinetics was the most suitable model. The experimental data fitted best to Langmuir isotherm model for all three resins. Dynamic testing was done on a column packed with FPX-66 resin and breakthrough volume was reached at 17 bed volumes of muscadine pomace water extract during adsorption. Three bed volumes of aqueous ethanol (70%) resulted in complete desorption. Resin adsorption resulted in a concentrated pomace extract that contained 13% (w/w) anthocyanins with no detectable sugars. PMID:23368425

  6. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins....

  7. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4â²-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins....

  8. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  9. Method for regenerating magnetic polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-07-29

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  10. Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups and cured resins obtained therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups, the process for preparing the same, and the cured resin products obtained therefrom are disclosed. Upon the application of heat, the ethynyl groups react to provide branching and crosslinking with the cure temperature being lowered by using a catalyst if desired but not required. The cured phenoxy resins containing pendent ethynyl groups have improved solvent resistance and higher use temperature than linear uncrosslinked phenoxy resins and are applicable for use as coatings, films, adhesives, composited matrices and molding compounds.

  11. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum.

  12. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum. PMID:25822408

  13. Chemical derivatization of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde resin leading to enhanced chemical/oxidative stability of the resin

    SciTech Connect

    Hubler, T.L.; Franz, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (R-F) resin is a candidate regenerable ion-exchange resin for removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline waste tank supernates at both the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Our previous investigations into the structure/function relationships of R-F resin have shown that the R-F resin undergoes facile oxidation to produce, para-bisquinones, with loss of ion-exchange sites, hence lowered performance of the resin for cesium ion-exchange. Our studies have also shown that Phenol-Formaldehyde (P-F) resin has a substantially lower capacity compared to R-F resin, based on predicted values, because over half the ion-exchange sites of the P-F resin undergo etherification during the standard synthetic procedures used for preparation of these resins. In this report, we present our studies into rational synthetic solutions to enhance the chemical/oxidative stability of R-F resin.

  14. Antiectoparasitic activity of the gum resin, gum haggar, from the East African plant, Commiphora holtziana.

    PubMed

    Birkett, Michael A; Abassi, Sate Al; Kröber, Thomas; Chamberlain, Keith; Hooper, Antony M; Guerin, Patrick M; Pettersson, Jan; Pickett, John A; Slade, Robin; Wadhams, Lester J

    2008-05-01

    The mechanism of ixodid tick (Acari: Ixodidae) repellency by gum haggar, a resin produced by Commiphora holtziana (Burseraceae), was investigated by evaluating activity against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus. In an arena bioassay, a hexane extract of the resin of C. holtziana exhibited a repellent effect lasting up to 5h. The hydrocarbon fraction of the resin extract was shown to account for the repellent activity, and was analysed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were tentatively identified as germacrene-D, delta-elemene and beta-bourbonene. The identity and stereochemistry of the former compound was confirmed as the (+)-isomer by peak enhancement using enantioselective GC, whereas the latter 2 compounds, which are most likely degradation products of germacrene-type precursors, were identified through isolation by preparative gas chromatography followed by microprobe-NMR spectroscopy. GC comparison of gum haggar with another resin, C. myrrha, which was inactive in the tick bioassay, showed that the latter contained much lower levels of these hydrocarbons. To assess the suitability of the gum haggar resin as a general acarine repellent, further tests were made on a major acarine pest of European and US animal husbandry systems, the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae). Gum haggar extract, and the isolated hydrocarbon fraction, showed strong repellent effects in an olfactometer assay, and again gum myrrh showed no effect. These findings provide a scientific basis for the observed anti-tick properties of gum haggar, and demonstrate the potential for its development as a general acarine repellent for use in animal husbandry systems.

  15. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  16. Improved high-temperature resistant matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. E.; Chang, G. E.; Wright, W. F.; Ueda, K.; Orell, M. K.

    1989-01-01

    A study was performed with the objective of developing matrix resins that exhibit improved thermo-oxidative stability over state-of-the-art high temperature resins for use at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and air pressures up to 0.7 MPa (100 psia). The work was based upon a TRW discovered family of polyimides currently licensed to and marketed by Ethyl Corporation as EYMYD(R) resins. The approach investigated to provide improved thermo-oxidative properties was to use halogenated derivatives of the diamine, 2, 2-bis (4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane (4-BDAF). Polyimide neat resins and Celion(R) 12,000 composites prepared from fluorine substituted 4-BDAF demonstrated unexpectedly lower glass transition temperatures (Tg) and thermo-oxidative stabilities than the baseline 4-BDAF/PMDA polymer.

  17. [Characterization of resin-containing glass ionomers].

    PubMed

    Gladys, S; Van Meerbeek, B; Braem, M; Lambrechts, P; Vanherle, G

    1996-01-01

    Recently, several new resin-modified glassionomers have been introduced on the dental market. At the moment a real confusion exists over the right terminology of the products and its limits in use. Therefore, an in vitro and in vivo study with simultaneously a comparison with conventional glassionomers and composite resins was really necessary. This study revealed that resin-modified glassionomers have physico-mechanical properties that are situated between those of conventional glassionomers and composite resins. The manufacturers have a different approach concerning the particle size distribution. The new materials give a rough surface. They are not indicated for posterior restorations, because their surface hardness is too low compared to that of enamel, and their fatigue resistance is insufficient. The elasticity decreases during setting and maturation. Consequently, they are mainly indicated in situations that require a moderate strength and esthetics, for patients with a high caries activity and when ease in use is requested.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... optional adjuvant substances required in the production of the resins; or by (2) The reaction of molten 4,4′-iso-propylidenediphenol with molten diphenyl carbonate in the presence of the disodium salt of...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1580 - Polycarbonate resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... optional adjuvant substances required in the production of the resins; or by (2) The reaction of molten 4,4′-iso-propylidenediphenol with molten diphenyl carbonate in the presence of the disodium salt of...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of tooth shade material. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from...

  3. Silicone modified resins for graphite fiber laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, L. W.; Bower, G. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of silicon modified resins for graphite fiber laminates which will prevent the dispersal of graphite fibers when the composites are burned is discussed. Eighty-five silicone modified resins were synthesized and evaluated including unsaturated polyesters, thermosetting methacrylates, epoxies, polyimides, and phenolics. Neat resins were judged in terms of Si content, homogeneity, hardness, Char formation, and thermal stability. Char formation was estimated by thermogravimetry to 1,000 C in air and in N2. Thermal stability was evaluated by isothermal weight loss measurements for 200 hrs in air at three temperatures. Four silicone modified epoxies were selected for evaluation in unidirectional filament wound graphite laminates. Neat samples of these resins had 1,000 C char residues of 25 to 50%. The highest flexural values measured for the laminates were a strength of 140 kpsi and a modulus of 10 Mpsi. The highest interlaminar shear strength was 5.3 kpsi.

  4. Indirect composite resin materials for posterior applications.

    PubMed

    Shellard, E; Duke, E S

    1999-12-01

    Indirect composite resin restorations were introduced a number of years ago as possible alternatives to traditional metallic or ceramic-based indirect restorations. However, the earlier formulations did not provide evidence of improvement in mechanical and physical properties over chairside-placed direct composite resin materials. Because they required more tooth structure removal than direct restorations, their use became unpopular and was abandoned by most clinicians. Over the past few years, a new class of composite resin indirect materials has surfaced in the profession. Various technologies have been suggested as reinforcement mechanisms. Fibers, matrix modifications, and an assortment of innovations have been proposed for enhancing indirect composite resin restorations. Applications are from inlay restorations all the way to multi-unit fixed prostheses. This manuscript summarizes some of the progress made in this area. When available, data is presented to provide clinicians with guidelines and indications for the use of these materials.

  5. Separation and purification of amygdalin from thinned bayberry kernels by macroporous adsorption resins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lu, Shengmin; Xia, Qile; Fang, Zhongxiang; Johnson, Stuart

    2015-01-15

    To utilize the low-value thinned bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc) kernels (TBKs) waste, an efficient method using macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) for separation and purification of amygdalin from TBKs crude extracts was developed. An aqueous crude sample was prepared from a methanol TBK extract, followed by resin separation. A series of MARs were initially screened for adsorption/desorption of amygdalin in the extract, and D101 was selected for characterization and method development. The static adsorption data of amygdalin on D101 was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The solute affinity toward D101 at 30 °C was described and the equilibrium experimental data were well-fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Through one cycle of dynamic adsorption/desorption, the purity of amygdalin in the extract, determined by HPLC, increased about 17-fold from 4.8% to 82.0%, with 77.9% recovery. The results suggested that D101 resin effectively separate amygdalin from TBKs. PMID:25438243

  6. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polysulfone resins. 177.1655 Section 177.1655 Food... (CAS Reg. No. 25154-01-2) consisting of basic resins produced when the disodium salt of 4,4...; or (2) 1,1′-Sulfonylbis polymer with 4,4′-(1-methylethylidene)bis (minimum 92 percent) and...

  7. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1995-08-15

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

  8. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, Jane P.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

  9. Contraction stresses of composite resin filling materials.

    PubMed

    Hegdahl, T; Gjerdet, N R

    1977-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resin filling materials and the tensile stresses developed when the shrinkage is restrained were measured in an in vitro experiment. This allows an estimation to be made of the forces exerted upon the enamel walls of cavities filled with the resin in the acid etch technique. The results indicate that the stresses acting on the enamel are low compared to the tensile strength of the enamel.

  10. Reduction of polyester resin shrinkage by means of epoxy resin—I. Epoxy resin modified with acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzak, M.; Brzostowski, A.

    An attempt was made to decrease the shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resin, taking place during radiation-induced curing, by the addition of epoxy resin. In order to combine chemically both resins, the epoxy component was modified with cinnamic and acrylic acids. A composition of 90 parts of polyesster resin, 10 parts of epoxy resin modified with cinnamic acid, and 150 parts of a silica filler showed a volume shrinkage of 1.2%.

  11. Used powdex resin for liquid waste processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.J.; Bramblett, J.W.

    1995-05-01

    Powdex resin has traditionally been used on the Secondary side for condensate polishing. The resins on these polishers are backwashed periodically based on chemical breakthrough or high differential pressure. Upon the backwash, the ion exchange capacity on the powdex resin is not completely exhausted. In the past, this partially used powdex resin was sluiced to a liner and treated as waste for disposal. In an effort to reduce radioactivity being released from segregated, high chemical concentration wastes, the idea of trying used powdex resin was initiated. In 1992, Duke Power Company began processing problem liquid waste streams with used Secondary powdex and subsequent decanting of the waste water for release. the results have shown significant reductions in the activity of this water. This paper will detail the history, method, and the results of using Secondary powdex for liquid radwaste processing. It will also describe the benefits, such as: (1) Processing waste streams not suitable for bead resin demineralizers. (2) Ability to process large volumes of waste water in a short period of time. (3) Recycling media thought to be useless. (4) > 80% Reduction in activity of water processed. (5) Overall curies reduction. (6) Improved bead demineralizer performance.

  12. Ion Exchange Temperature Testing with SRF Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Brown, Garrett N.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-03-01

    Ion exchange using the Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection for use in the Pretreatment Facility of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in an at-tank deployment for removing 137Cs. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues prior to reaching the ion exchange columns may be required. Therefore, it is important to understand the behavior of SRF resin performance under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes. This research examined the impact of elevated temperature on resin loading and resin degradation during extended solution flow using elevated temperature (45°, 50°, 55°, 60°, 65°, 75°C). Testing for extended times at elevated temperatures showed that the resin does degrade and loading capacity is reduced at and above 45°C. Above 60°C the resin appears to not load at all.

  13. The influences of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the cytotoxicity and mechanical properties of Poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resin

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Yang, Yanwei; Li, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the influences of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on cytotoxicity and mechanical properties of Poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) dental resins. Methods. Experimental PMMA resin was prepared by incorporating various concentrations of NAC (0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 wt.%). MTT assay was performed to investigate viability of human dental pulp cells after exposure to extract of PMMA resin with or without NAC. Cell adhesion on resin specimens was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Degree of conversion was studied with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Flexural strength, microhardness and surface roughness was evaluated using a universal testing machine, microhardness tester and optical profilometer, respectively. Results. Incorporation of NAC into PMMA resin significantly reduced its cytotoxicity and enhanced cell adhesion on its surface. NAC induced negative influences on the mechanical and physical properties of PMMA resin in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of conversion for all experimental PMMA resins reached as high as 72% after 24 h of polymerization. All the tested properties were maintained when the concentration of incorporated NAC was 0.15 wt.%. Conclusion. The addition of 0.15 wt.% NAC remarkably improved biocompatibility of PMMA resin without exerting significant negative influence on its mechanical and physical properties. PMID:25922788

  14. The influences of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on the cytotoxicity and mechanical properties of Poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resin.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Yang, Yanwei; Li, Meng; Chen, Jihua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the influences of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on cytotoxicity and mechanical properties of Poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) dental resins. Methods. Experimental PMMA resin was prepared by incorporating various concentrations of NAC (0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 wt.%). MTT assay was performed to investigate viability of human dental pulp cells after exposure to extract of PMMA resin with or without NAC. Cell adhesion on resin specimens was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Degree of conversion was studied with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Flexural strength, microhardness and surface roughness was evaluated using a universal testing machine, microhardness tester and optical profilometer, respectively. Results. Incorporation of NAC into PMMA resin significantly reduced its cytotoxicity and enhanced cell adhesion on its surface. NAC induced negative influences on the mechanical and physical properties of PMMA resin in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of conversion for all experimental PMMA resins reached as high as 72% after 24 h of polymerization. All the tested properties were maintained when the concentration of incorporated NAC was 0.15 wt.%. Conclusion. The addition of 0.15 wt.% NAC remarkably improved biocompatibility of PMMA resin without exerting significant negative influence on its mechanical and physical properties.

  15. Effect of resin cement, aging process and root level on the bond strength of the resin-fiber posts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuhim, Khalid Salman

    Background. Little is known about the long-term clinical bonding effectiveness of the Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts cemented with self-etch adhesive systems. Bond stability and longevity of the cemented post are adversely affected by physical and chemical factors over time, such as expansion and contraction stresses caused by thermal changes and occlusal load. This clinical condition can be simulated in vitro by thermocyclic loading; and bonding effectiveness can be evaluated by applying the micropush out test. Therefore, more in vitro studies are needed to evaluate the bond strength of the fiber posts cemented with different resin cement systems after simulating the artificial aging induced by thermocycling. The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bond strength of two different resin cement systems (total etch, and self-etch resin cement system) used for cementation of fiber reinforced composite posts in three different aging periods using thermocycling. Methods. Following IRB approval, sixty freshly extracted bicuspid single rooted natural teeth were endodontically treated, and the post-spaces were prepared to receive a fiber-post cemented with either a total etch resin cement (Rely-X Ultimate) or with a self-etch resin cement (Rely-X Unicem). No thermocycling, 20,000 and 40,000 cycles was used to age the specimens. Teeth were randomly allocated into six different groups: G1 - Control: Rely-X Ultimate cement with no thermocycling. G2: Rely-X Ultimate cement with 20,000 thermocycling. G3: Rely-X Ultimate cement with 40,000 thermocycling. G4: Rely-X Unicem cement. G5: Rely-X Unicem cement. G6: Rely-X Unicem cement. Microtensile bond strength determined using a micropush out test on a universal testing machine (MTS). Additionally, the failure mode of each specimen was observed under a stereomicroscope (Olympus) at 40x magnification. Finally, one representative sample was randomly selected from each of the five failure modes for scanning

  16. Anomalous effects in the character of the carbonyl absorption (ca. 1700 cm/sup -1/) in the infrared spectra of petroleum resins and asphaltenes

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.; Moschopedis, S.E.

    1981-09-01

    The presence of the carbonyl functional groups in asphaltenes and resins were detected by ir spectroscopy following saponification. By following the spectra through a reaction sequence, the bituminous extracts from fresh oil sands showed the presence of esters and carboxylic acids. The extracts from a hot water process showed either carboxylic acids or esters. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  17. Preparation and cured properties of novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resins

    SciTech Connect

    Tokizawa, Makoto; Okada, Hiroyoshi; Wakabayashi, Nobukatsu; Kimura, Tomiaki . Research Center)

    1993-10-20

    Preparation and characterization of novel cycloaliphatic epoxy resins, which are derived from octadienyl compounds, were studied. From a model peracetic acid epoxidation reaction using 2,7-octadienyl acetate-1, the structure of the liquid resins is estimated to be mainly terminal epoxides and some amount of inner epoxide depending on the epoxide content. The epoxy resins offer lower toxicity and lower vapor pressure. The reactivity of the resin with acid anhydrides is moderate but faster than that of traditional cyclohexane epoxide-type resins and slower than that of the glycidyl ester-type resins. This reactivity was also examined using model compounds. The heat deflection temperature of the hexahydro-phthalic anhydride-cured resins is shown to be directly proportional to the number of epoxy groups in the molecules. The flexural strength of the cured resins is nearly equivalent to that of the commercial resins, although the flexural elongation of the resins is larger than that of the rigid cyclohexane epoxide-type resins. The thermal stability of the cured resins is compared to typical rigid cycloaliphatic resins; furthermore, high water resistance of the cured resins is suggested to be attributed to the hydrophobic character of the C[sub 8] chain by cross-linking.

  18. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  19. Utilization of Methacrylates and Polymer Matrices for the Synthesis of Ion Specific Resins

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwinski, Kenneth

    2013-10-29

    Disposal, storage, and/or transmutation of actinides such as americium (Am) will require the development of specific separation schemes. Existing efforts focus on solvent extraction systems for achieving suitable separation of actinide from lanthanides. However, previous work has shown the feasibility of ion-imprinting polymer-based resins for use in ion-exchange-type separations with metal ion recognition. Phenolic-based resins have been shown to function well for Am-Eu separations, but these resins exhibited slow kinetics and difficulties in the imprinting process. This project addresses the need for new and innovative methods for the selective separation of actinides through novel ion-imprinted resins. The project team will explore incorporation of metals into extended frameworks, including the possibility of 3D polymerized matrices that can serve as a solid-state template for specific resin preparation. For example, an anhydrous trivalent f-element chain can be formed directly from a metal carbonate, and methacrylic acid from water. From these simple coordination complexes, molecules of discrete size or shape can be formed via the utilization of coordinating ligands or by use of an anionic multi-ligand system incorporating methacrylate. Additionally, alkyl methyl methacrylates have been used successfully to create template nanospaces, which underscores their potential utility as 3D polymerized matrices. This evidence provides a unique route for the preparation of a specific metal ion template for the basis of ion-exchange separations. Such separations may prove to be excellent discriminators of metal ions, even between f-elements. Resins were prepared and evaluated for sorption behavior, column properties, and proton exchange capacity.

  20. Haemostatic agents on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin

    PubMed Central

    Anil, Akansha; Sekhar, Anand; Ginjupalli, Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentin surface contaminated with haemostatic agents can interfere with the bonding of self-adhesive resin cement. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of various haemostatic agents such as Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate and Tannic acid on the shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin luting agent. Material and Methods The buccal surfaces of extracted premolars were flattened to expose the dentine. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups. In Group I Aluminium Chloride was applied on the flattened dentinal surface, in Group II Ferric Sulphate was applied to exposed dentin surface, in Group III tannic acid was applied on to the dentinal surface, and the control group, i.e. Group IV was rinsed with saline. After the surface treatment, all the teeth were air dried. Then a predetermined dimension of RelyX™ U200 self-adhesive resin cement was bonded to the pretreated dentin surfaces. The samples were then stored under 370C in distilled water for 24 hours under 100 % humidity. Following this each sample was tested for shear bond strength with an Instron testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min. Results There was significant difference in the shear bond strength of control and tannic acid contaminated group (p<0.05), whereas there was no significant differences between the shear bond strength between control and aluminium chloride and ferric sulphate groups (p>0.05). Conclusions The usage of haemostatic agent can negatively affect the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X) on to the dentin surface. As per the study Tannic acid significantly weakened the bond between the self-adhesive resin and dentin. Key words:Aluminium chloride, Ferric sulphate, haemostatic agent, self-adhesive resin cement, shear bond strength, Tannic acid. PMID:26330930

  1. Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

  2. Thermal cycling effects on adhesion of resin-bovine enamel junction among different composite resins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Shih, Chi-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Thermal cycling is used to mimic the changes in oral cavity temperature experienced by composite resins when used clinically. The purpose of this study is to assess the thermal cycling effects of in-house produced composite resin on bonding strength. The dicalcium phosphate anhydrous filler surfaces are modified using nanocrystals and silanization (w/NP/Si). The resin is compared with commercially available composite resins Filtek Z250, Z350, and glass ionomer restorative material GIC Fuji-II LC (control). Different composite resins were filled into the dental enamel of bovine teeth. The bond force and resin-enamel junction graphical structures of the samples were determined after thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. After thermal cycling, the w/NP/Si 30wt%, 50wt% and Filtek Z250, Z350 groups showed higher shear forces than glass ionomer GIC, and w/NP/Si 50wt% had the highest shear force. Through SEM observations, more of the fillings with w/NP/Si 30wt% and w/NP/Si 50wt% groups flowed into the enamel tubule, forming closed tubules with the composite resins. The push-out force is proportional to the resin flow depth and uniformity. The push-out tubule pore and resin shear pattern is the most uniform and consistent in the w/NP/Si 50wt% group. Accordingly, this developed composite resin maintains great mechanical properties after thermal cycling. Thus, it has the potential to be used in a clinical setting when restoring non-carious cervical lesions.

  3. 76 FR 42114 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy, 76 FR 39896 (July 7, 2011), and USITC Publication 4240... International Trade Administration Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``PTFE resin'') from Italy...

  4. Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.

    PubMed

    Piver, W T

    1976-10-01

    A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics.

  5. Diffusion of residual monomer in polymer resins.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1976-01-01

    A simplified mathematical model which made use of Fick's laws of diffusion written in spherical coordinates was developed to describe the rate of diffusion of residual monomers from polymer resins. The properties of the monomer-polymer system which influenced the amount of monomer remaining in the polymer as a function of time were the diffusivity and solubility of the monomer in the polymer, and the particle size of the polymer resin. This model was used to analyze literature data on the diffusion of residual vinyl chloride monomer in polyvinyl chloride resins made by the suspension process. It was concluded that particle size of the resin was a significant parameter which should be taken advantage of in process equipment designed to remove residual monomer from PVC resins. The diffusivity of the monomer in the polymer was a function of the solubility of the monomer in the polymer. Monomer solubility can be determined from Henry's law. It was suggested that this model could be adapted to describe diffusion of monomers from any monomer-polymer system, and would be a useful approach to modeling the transport of nonreactive chemical additives from plastics. PMID:1026410

  6. Characterization of Polyimide Matrix Resins and Prepregs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maximovich, M. G.; Galeos, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Graphite/polyimide composite materials are attractive candidates for a wide range of aerospace applications. They have many of the virtues of graphite/epoxies, i.e., high specific strengths and stiffness, and also outstanding thermal/oxidative stability. Yet they are not widely used in the aerospace industry due to problems of procesability. By their nature, modern addition polyimide (PI) resins and prepregs are more complex than epoxies; the key to processing lies in characterizing and understanding the materials. Chemical and rheological characterizations are carried out on several addition polyimide resins and graphite reinforced prepregs, including those based on PMR-15, LARC 160 (AP 22), LARC 160 (Curithane 103) and V378A. The use of a high range torque transducer with a Rheometrics mechanical spectrometer allows rheological data to be generated on prepreg materials as well as neat resins. The use of prepreg samples instead of neat resins eliminates the need for preimidization of the samples and the data correlates well with processing behavior found in the shop. Rheological characterization of the resins and prepregs finds significant differences not readily detected by conventional chemical characterization techniques.

  7. Development of a heterogeneous laminating resin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, T. F.; Hopper, L. C.

    1985-01-01

    The factors which effect the impact resistance of laminating resin systems and yet retain equivalent performance with the conventional 450 K curing epoxy matrix systems in other areas were studied. Formulation work was conducted on two systems, an all-epoxy and an epoxy/bismaleimide, to gain fundamental information on the effect formulation changes have upon neat resin and composite properties. The all-epoxy work involved formulations with various amounts and combinations of eight different epoxy resins, four different hardeners, fifteen different toughening agents, a filler, and a catalyst. The epoxy/bismaleimide effort improved formulations with various amounts and combinations of nine different resins, four different hardeners, eight different toughening agents, four different catalysts, and a filler. When a formulation appeared to offer the proper combination of properties required for a laminating resin Celion 3K-70P fabric was prepregged. Initial screening tests on composites primarily involved Gardner type impact and measurement of short beam shear strengths under dry and hot/wet conditions.

  8. Four new triterpenoids isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Min; Liu, Qun-Fang; Zhao, Yi-Wu; Liu, Shuang-Zhu; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Ru-Jun; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    Four new triterpenoids, 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (1), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (2), 2-O-acetyl-3-O-(3',4'-O-diacetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosylmaslinic acid (3), and 3-O-(3'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (4), together with six known triterpenoids, 3-O-(4'-O-acetyl)-α-l-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), 2-O-acetylmaslinic acid (7), 3-O-acetylmaslinic acid (8), betulinic acid (9), and 2α-hydroxy-3β-O-acetylbetulinic acid (10), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data and chemical methods. PMID:24392659

  9. Microleakage in MOD resin composite with three dentin bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Eakle, W S; Nakamoto, D K

    1989-11-01

    The extent of microleakage under MOD composites was studied when an aluminum oxalate dentin bonding agent (Tenure), a phosphonated resin bonding agent (Bondlite), and a glass-ionomer cement (Ketac Silver) were used. Three groups of 10 extracted molars were prepared with MOD cavities; one box ended on enamel, the other on cementum. In Group 1, Bondlite was applied to dentin and etched enamel before the sample was restored with a light-cured hybrid composite. In Group 2, a 2-mm increment of Ketac Silver was placed in each box before Bondlite and composite. In Group 3, Tenure was applied to dentin before being restored. Teeth were thermal-cycled, stained in silver nitrate, sectioned, and scored for microleakage. Microleakage along the gingival floor was significantly less at enamel margins than at cementum margins in all three groups. All groups showed severe marginal microleakage on cementum. PMID:2700971

  10. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  11. Ponderosa pine resin defenses and growth: metrics matter.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) cause widespread tree mortality in coniferous forests worldwide. Constitutive and induced host defenses are important factors in an individual tree's ability to survive an attack and in bottom-up regulation of bark beetle population dynamics, yet quantifying defense levels is often difficult. For example, in Pinus spp., resin flow is important for resistance to bark beetles but is extremely variable among individuals and within a season. While resin is produced and stored in resin ducts, the specific resin duct metrics that best correlate with resin flow remain unclear. The ability and timing of some pine species to produce induced resin is also not well understood. We investigated (i) the relationships between ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson & C. Lawson) resin flow and axial resin duct characteristics, tree growth and physiological variables, and (ii) if mechanical wounding induces ponderosa pine resin flow and resin ducts in the absence of bark beetles. Resin flow increased later in the growing season under moderate water stress and was highest in faster growing trees. The best predictors of resin flow were nonstandardized measures of resin ducts, resin duct size and total resin duct area, both of which increased with tree growth. However, while faster growing trees tended to produce more resin, models of resin flow using only tree growth were not statistically significant. Further, the standardized measures of resin ducts, density and duct area relative to xylem area, decreased with tree growth rate, indicating that slower growing trees invested more in resin duct defenses per unit area of radial growth, despite a tendency to produce less resin overall. We also found that mechanical wounding induced ponderosa pine defenses, but this response was slow. Resin flow increased after 28 days, and resin duct production did not increase until the following year. These slow induced responses may allow

  12. REDFORD CORE MAKING MACHINE. RESIN IMPREGNATED SAND IS BLOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REDFORD CORE MAKING MACHINE. RESIN IMPREGNATED SAND IS BLOWN INTO THE HEATED CORE BOX THAT SETS THE RESIN CREATING THE HARDENED CORE SHOWN HERE. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Core Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  13. Performance Properties of Graphite Reinforced Composites with Advanced Resin Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1980-01-01

    This article looks at the effect of different resin matrices on thermal and mechanical properties of graphite composites, and relates the thermal and flammability properties to the anaerobic char yield of the resins. The processing parameters of graphite composites utilizing graphite fabric and epoxy or other advanced resins as matrices are presented. Thermoset resin matrices studied were: aminecured polyfunctional glycidyl aminetype epoxy (baseline), phenolicnovolac resin based on condensation of dihydroxymethyl-xylene and phenol cured with hexamine, two types of polydismaleimide resins, phenolic resin, and benzyl resin. The thermoplastic matrices studied were polyethersulfone and polyphenylenesulfone. Properties evaluated in the study included anaerobic char yield, limiting oxygen index, smoke evolution, moisture absorption, and mechanical properties at elevated temperatures including tensile, compressive, and short-beam shear strengths. Generally, it was determined that graphite composites with the highest char yield exhibited optimum fire-resistant properties.

  14. Additive effects on the toughening of unsaturated polyester resins

    SciTech Connect

    Suspene, L.; Yang, Y.S.; Pascault, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    An elastomer additive, carboxy-terminated acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer, was used for toughening in the free radical cross-linking copolymerization of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins. For molded parts, Charpy impact behavior was generally enhanced and the number of catastrophic failures was reduced. The miscibility and interfacial properties of additive and resin blends play important roles in the toughening process. Phase-diagram studies showed that the elastomer additive is immiscible with the UP resin and is phase-separated from the resin matrix during curing. This phase-separation phenomenon is similar to that in the low-profile mechanism of UP resins. Additive-resin system miscibility greatly influences curing morphology. Microvoids occurred in the additive phase of cured resin because of shrinkage stress. The intrinsic inhomogeneity of the polyester network and the existence of microvoids in the final product limit the toughening effect of additives on unsaturated polyester resins. 49 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Standard tests for toughened resin composites, revised edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Several toughened resin systems are evaluated to achieve commonality for certain kinds of tests used to characterize toughened resin composites. Specifications for five tests were standardized; these test standards are described.

  16. Try-in Pastes Versus Resin Cements: A Color Comparison.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Edenize Cristina; Vaz, Maysa Magalhães; Rodrigues Gonçalves de Oliveira, Maria Beatriz; Takano, Alfa Emília; de Carvalho Cardoso, Paula; de Torres, Érica Miranda; Gonzaga Lopes, Lawrence

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the color of ceramic veneer restorations using different shades of try-in pastes and resin cement. Researchers found no differences between try-in pastes and resin cements after cementation. PMID:27213935

  17. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conditions: (a) The modified polyacrylamide resin is produced by the copolymerization of acrylamide with not... polyacrylamide resin contains not more than 0.05 percent residual acrylamide. (c) The modified...

  18. The Creep of Laminated Synthetic Resin Plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkuhn, H

    1941-01-01

    The long-time loading strength of a number of laminated synthetic resin plastics was ascertained and the effect of molding pressure and resin content determined. The best value was observed with a 30 to 40 percent resin content. The long-time loading strength also increases with increasing molding pressure up to 250 kg/cm(exp 2); a further rise in pressure affords no further substantial improvement. The creep strength is defined as the load which in the hundredth hour of loading produces a rate of elongation of 5 X 10(exp -4) percent per hour. The creep strength values of different materials were determined and tabulated. The effect of humidity during long-term tests is pointed out.

  19. Composite resin in medicine and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Stein, Pamela S; Sullivan, Jennifer; Haubenreich, James E; Osborne, Paul B

    2005-01-01

    Composite resin has been used for nearly 50 years as a restorative material in dentistry. Use of this material has recently increased as a result of consumer demands for esthetic restorations, coupled with the public's concern with mercury-containing dental amalgam. Composite is now used in over 95% of all anterior teeth direct restorations and in 50% of all posterior teeth direct restorations. Carbon fiber reinforced composites have been developed for use as dental implants. In medicine, fiber-reinforced composites have been used in orthopedics as implants, osseous screws, and bearing surfaces. In addition, hydroxyapatite composite resin has become a promising alternative to acrylic cement in stabilizing fractures and cancellous screw fixation in elderly and osteoporotic patients. The use of composite resin in dentistry and medicine will be the focus of this review, with particular attention paid to its physical properties, chemical composition, clinical applications, and biocompatibility.

  20. Treatment of Methaqualone overdose with resin hemoperfusion.

    PubMed

    Baggish, D; Gray, S; Jatlow, P; Bia, M J

    1981-01-01

    We recently utilized the technique of resin hemoperfusion (employing an Amberlite XAD-4 resin cartridge) to remove drug from a patient i deep coma after an estimated ingestion of greater than 4.5 grams of methaqualone. At plasma flow rates of 204 ml/min, the mean value for plasma clearance of methaqualone was 179 ml/min. The amount of methaqualone recovered from the cartridge at the end of the 10-hour procedure was 1,565 mg measured by gas chromatography. The patient became responsive to deep pain by the end of the procedure. The only complication encountered was a transient decrease in the formed blood elements. The present study verifies that a large, pharmacologically significance quantity of methaqualone can be removed in a short time using resin hemoperfusion.

  1. [Allergic contact eczema from epoxy resin].

    PubMed

    Calzado, Leticia; Ortiz-de Frutos, Francisco J; del Prado Sánchez-Caminero, María; Galera, Carmen María; Valverde, Ricardo; Vanaclocha, Francisco

    2005-11-01

    Epoxy resins are plastics that are widely used as electrical insulation, in coatings, and as adhesives and paints. They have strong sensitizing power and are one of the main causes of allergic contact eczema, both in the workplace and elsewhere. We present the case of a worker at a plastics/chemical plant, who handled aeronautical components in the process of manufacturing fuselage parts. He consulted his physician because of eczematous lesions on his fingers, hands and forearms which had developed over a two-year period and were clearly related to his work. The standard battery of skin tests was performed, along with the plastics and adhesives series and tests using the products from his workplace. Positivity was shown to epoxy resins (standard battery) and to the products from his workplace, which included different fiberglass and carbon fiber sheets impregnated with epoxy resins and epoxy adhesives.

  2. Improved high temperature resistant matrix resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, G. E.; Powell, S. H.; Jones, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The objective was to develop organic matrix resins suitable for service at temperatures up to 644 K (700 F) and at air pressures up to 0.4 MPa (60 psia) for time durations of a minimum of 100 hours. Matrix resins capable of withstanding these extreme oxidative environmental conditions would lead to increased use of polymer matrix composites in aircraft engines and provide significant weight and cost savings. Six linear condensation, aromatic/heterocyclic polymers containing fluorinated and/or diphenyl linkages were synthesized. The thermo-oxidative stability of the resins was determined at 644 K and compressed air pressures up to 0.4 MPa. Two formulations, both containing perfluoroisopropylidene linkages in the polymer backbone structure, exhibited potential for 644 K service to meet the program objectives. Two other formulations could not be fabricated into compression molded zero defect specimens.

  3. Investigations of toughening mechanisms of epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, T.

    1986-01-01

    Composite material technology was applied to the solid rocket booster by the development of a carbon filament-epoxy resin case which yields a net increase of 4000 lbs. in payload in the shuttle. The question of reusability of the new composite tanks has not yet been answered and will depend on the toughness of the matrix resin. The present study was aimed at providing conditions whereby test specimens of the epoxy resin (EPON/85) and curing agents of systematically varied structures could be produced in a controlled manner. Three sets of conditions were found that might allow the isolation of the structural effects on toughness from the cure effects. The kinetic methods leading to the determination of these conditions are described.

  4. Jetted mixtures of particle suspensions and resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoath, S. D.; Hsiao, W.-K.; Hutchings, I. M.; Tuladhar, T. R.

    2014-10-01

    Drop-on-demand (DoD) ink-jetting of hard particle suspensions with volume fraction Φ ˜ 0.25 has been surveyed using 1000 ultra-high speed videos as a function of particle size (d90 = 0.8—3.6 μm), with added 2 wt. % acrylic (250 kDa) or 0.5 wt. % cellulose (370 kDa) resin, and also compared with Newtonian analogues. Jet break-off times from 80 μm diameter nozzles were insensitive (120 ± 10 μs) to particle size, and resin jet break-off times were not significantly altered by >30 wt. % added particles. Different particle size grades can be jetted equally well in practice, while resin content effectively controls DoD break-off times.

  5. Influence of curing rate of resin composite on the bond strength to dentin.

    PubMed

    Benetti, A R; Asmussen, E; Peutzfeldt, A

    2007-01-01

    This study determined whether the strength with which resin composite bonds to dentin is influenced by variations in the curing rate of resin composites. Resin composites were bonded to the dentin of extracted human molars. Adhesive (AdheSE, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied and cured (10 seconds @ 1000 mW/cm2) for all groups. A split Teflon mold was clamped to the treated dentin surface and filled with resin composite. The rate of cure was varied, using one of four LED-curing units of different power densities. The rate of cure was also varied using the continuous or pulse-delay mode. In continuous curing mode, in order to give an energy density totaling 16 J/cm2, the power densities (1000, 720, 550, 200 mW/cm2) emitted by the various curing units were compensated for by the light curing period (16, 22, 29 or 80 seconds). In the pulse-delay curing mode, two seconds of light curing at one of the four power densities was followed by a one-minute interval, after which light cure was completed (14, 29, 27 or 78 seconds), likewise, giving a total energy density of 16 J/cm2. The specimens produced for each of the eight curing protocols and two resin composites (Tetric EvoCeram, Ivoclar Vivadent; Filtek Supreme XT, 3M ESPE) were stored in water at 37 degrees C for seven days. The specimens were then either immediately subjected to shear bond strength testing or subjected to artificial aging (6,000 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C baths) prior to testing. Failure modes were also assessed. The shear bond strengths were submitted to factorial analysis of variance, and the failure modes were submitted to a Chi-square test (alpha = 0.05). All but power density (curing mode, resin composite material and mode of aging) significantly affected shear bond strength. The curing mode and resin composite material also influenced the failure mode. At the selected constant energy density, pulse-delay curing reduced bonding of the resin composite to dentin.

  6. 40 CFR 63.5714 - How do I demonstrate compliance if I use filled resins?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... filled resins? (a) If you are using a filled production resin or filled tooling resin, you must.... ER22au01.015 Where: PVF = The as-applied MACT model point value for a filled production resin or tooling... resin is used as a production resin and the value of PVF calculated by equation 1 of this section...

  7. 40 CFR 63.5714 - How do I demonstrate compliance if I use filled resins?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... filled resins? (a) If you are using a filled production resin or filled tooling resin, you must.... ER22au01.015 Where: PVF = The as-applied MACT model point value for a filled production resin or tooling... resin is used as a production resin and the value of PVF calculated by equation 1 of this section...

  8. 40 CFR 414.50 - Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thermosetting resins subcategory. 414.50 Section 414.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Thermosetting Resins § 414.50 Applicability; description of the thermosetting resins subcategory. The provisions... the products classified under SIC 28214 thermosetting resins including those resins and resin...

  9. 40 CFR 414.40 - Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... thermoplastic resins subcategory. 414.40 Section 414.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Thermoplastic Resins § 414.40 Applicability; description of the thermoplastic resins subcategory. The provisions... the products classified under SIC 28213 thermoplastic resins including those resins and resin...

  10. Biphenyl liquid crystalline epoxy resin as a low-shrinkage resin-based dental restorative nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chang, Yuan-Ling; Chen, Min-Huey; Cheng, Kuo-Chung; Su, Wei-Fang

    2012-11-01

    Low-shrinkage resin-based photocurable liquid crystalline epoxy nanocomposite has been investigated with regard to its application as a dental restoration material. The nanocomposite consists of an organic matrix and an inorganic reinforcing filler. The organic matrix is made of liquid crystalline biphenyl epoxy resin (BP), an epoxy resin consisting of cyclohexylmethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate (ECH), the photoinitiator 4-octylphenyl phenyliodonium hexafluoroantimonate and the photosensitizer champhorquinone. The inorganic filler is silica nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm). The nanoparticles were modified by an epoxy silane of γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane to be compatible with the organic matrix and to chemically bond with the organic matrix after photo curing. By incorporating the BP liquid crystalline (LC) epoxy resin into conventional ECH epoxy resin, the nanocomposite has improved hardness, flexural modulus, water absorption and coefficient of thermal expansion. Although the incorporation of silica filler may dilute the reinforcing effect of crystalline BP, a high silica filler content (∼42 vol.%) was found to increase the physical and chemical properties of the nanocomposite due to the formation of unique microstructures. The microstructure of nanoparticle embedded layers was observed in the nanocomposite using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. This unique microstructure indicates that the crystalline BP and nanoparticles support each other and result in outstanding mechanical properties. The crystalline BP in the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite was partially melted during exothermic photopolymerization, and the resin expanded via an order-to-disorder transition. Thus, the post-gelation shrinkage of the LC epoxy resin-based nanocomposite is greatly reduced, ∼50.6% less than in commercialized methacrylate resin-based composites. This LC epoxy nanocomposite demonstrates good physical and chemical properties and good biocompatibility

  11. Experimental salivary pellicles formed on the surface of self-curing resin.

    PubMed

    Yoo, J-H; Kho, H-S; Kim, Y-K; Lee, S-W; Chung, S-C

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the salivary components present in the pellicles formed on self-curing resin and to investigate the qualitative variations in adsorbed salivary pellicle compositions according to different exposure time to saliva. Experimental pellicles were formed by the incubation of polymerized resin particles with fresh human parotid or submandibular-sublingual saliva for either 20 min or 2 h. Pellicles were extracted using formic acid and lyophilized, they were then subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting to identify the adsorbed salivary components. The amino acid profiles of the 2 h-pellicles were analysed and compared with those of fresh glandular salivas. There was a difference in the 2 h-pellicle components on the self-curing resin compared with those of other dental materials as well as tooth enamel. The amino acid profiles of the 2 h-pellicles were also different from those of fresh glandular salivas. In the case of submandibular-sublingual saliva, the components of the 2 h-pellicle showed a different pattern compared with those of the 20 min-pellicle. However, there was no significant difference between the components of the 2 h- and 20 min-pellicles in the case of parotid saliva. A distinct difference was found in the surface binding affinities of immunoglobulin (IgA) from different glandular salivas. The findings of this study provide information concerning the initial bacterial adhesion on the surfaces of self-curing resin.

  12. Technical assessment for quality control of resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosnell, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    Survey visits to companies involved in the manufacture and use of graphite-epoxy prepregs were conducted to assess the factors which may contribute to variability in the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy composites. In particular, the purpose was to assess the contributions of the epoxy resins to variability. Companies represented three segments of the composites industry - aircraft manufacturers, prepreg manufacturers, and epoxy resin manufacturers. Several important sources of performance variability were identified from among the complete spectrum of potential sources which ranged from raw materials to composite test data interpretation.

  13. New phosphorus-containing bisimide resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varma, I. K.; Fohlen, G. M.; Hsu, M.-T.; Parker, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Phosphorus-based flame retardants have been effectively used in a wide variety of polymeric materials. Such additives, however, may either influence the decomposition reaction in polymers or lack durability due to a tendency to be leached out by solvents. Attention is given to the synthesis, characterization, thermal stability and degradation mechanisms of bisimide resins, and an evaluation is conducted of the flammability and mechanical properties of graphite cloth-reinforced laminates fabricated from one of the six phosphorus-containing bisimide resins considered.

  14. Advances in the history of composite resins.

    PubMed

    Minguez, Nieves; Ellacuria, Joseba; Soler, José Ignacio; Triana, Rodrigo; Ibaseta, Guillermo

    2003-11-01

    The use of composite resins as direct restoration material in posterior teeth has demonstrated a great increase, due to esthetic requirements and the controversy regarding the mercury content in silver amalgams. In this article, we have reviewed the composition modifications which have occurred in materials based on resins since their introduction over a half a century ago which have enabled great improvements in their physical and mechanical properties. Likewise, we have highlighted current lines of research, centered on finding the ideal material for replacing silver amalgam as a direct filling material.

  15. Clinical guidelines for indirect resin restorations.

    PubMed

    Shannon, A

    1997-06-01

    Ongoing advances in adhesive dentistry have made it possible to successfully and predictably bond tooth-supporting restorations using conservative preparation techniques. Improvements in the durability and esthetic properties of tooth-colored restorative materials have also increased the range of available treatment options. However, dentists have been slow to accept both direct and indirect posterior esthetics. This article provides a step-by-step technique for practitioners who choose to treat their patients with indirect resin esthetic restorations. It will not discuss other posterior restorative treatment techniques or materials (i.e. gold, porcelain, amalgam, bonded amalgam, or direct resin).

  16. Occupational dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins.

    PubMed

    Geraut, Christian; Tripodi, Dominique; Brunet-Courtois, Béatrice; Leray, Fabrice; Geraut, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins are the most frequent contact dermatoses due to plastics, in particular in the form of airborne dermatitis. The chemical formulas of the various components of these resins and their additives are complex and the patch tests available in the trade are insufficient and often arrive at a late stage in the progress of industry, in particular in advanced technologies like aeronautical engineering, shipbuilding or the new floor and wall coverings in buildings. This article is a review of the actions to be taken with these allergies, as well as with regards to their diagnosis, prevention and medico-legal compensation. PMID:19349256

  17. Electronic structure and optical properties of resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Zhi-Fan; Zhou, Rong-Feng

    2013-03-01

    We used the density of functional theory (DFT) to study the electronic structure and density of states of resin by ab initio calculation. The results show the band gap of resin is 1.7 eV. The covalent bond is combined C/O atoms with H atoms. The O 2p orbital is the biggest effect near the Fermi level. The results of optical properties show the reflectivity is low, and the refractive index is 1.7 in visible light range. The highest absorption coefficient peak is in 490 nm and the value is 75,000.

  18. Resin transfer molding of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falcone, Anthony; Dursch, Harry; Nelson, Karl; Avery, William

    1993-01-01

    The design and manufacture of textile composite panels, tubes, and angle sections that were provided to NASA for testing and evaluation are documented. The textile preform designs and requirements were established by NASA in collaboration with Boeing and several vendors of textile reinforcements. The following four types of preform architectures were used: stitched uniweave, 2D-braids, 3D-braids, and interlock weaves. The preforms consisted primarily of Hercules AS4 carbon fiber; Shell RSL-1895 resin was introduced using a resin transfer molding process. All the finished parts were inspected using ultrasonics.

  19. Extraction of cesium from an alkaline leaching solution of spent catalysts using an ion-exchange column

    SciTech Connect

    Dumont, N.; Favre-Reguillon, A.; Dunjic, B.; Lemaire, M.

    1996-04-01

    The selective extraction of cesium from an alkaline leaching solution of spent catalysts using phenolic resins was studied. The resins were synthesized by alkaline polycondensation of formaldehyde by phenol, resorcinol, catechol, and phloroglucinol. Their ionoselectivities for five alkali metals were evaluated with a solid-liquid extraction, and their ion-exchange capacities were compared. The resin with the best selectivity for cesium was tested with a real solution at different pH values. An on-column extraction is proposed to obtain cesium with high purity.

  20. Pistacia atlantica Resin Has a Dose-Dependent Effect on Angiogenesis and Skin Burn Wound Healing in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Haghdoost, Faraidoon; Baradaran Mahdavi, Mohammad Mehdi; Zandifar, Alireza; Sanei, Mohammad Hossein; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Pistacia atlantica resin extract on the rat skin burn wound healing. Methods. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups and treated by vehicle, 5%, 10%, and 20% concentration of Pistacia atlantica resin extract for 14 days (G1, G2, G3, and G4, resp.). The efficacy of treatment was assessed based on reduction of burn wound size and histological and molecular characteristics. Results. α-Pinene (46.57%) was the main content of essential oil of resin. There were no statistically significant differences between groups according to wound size analysis. The mean histological wound healing scores were not statistically different. Capillary counts of G2 and G3 were significantly higher than those of the G1 (P = 0.042 and 0.032, resp.). NO concentration in wound fluids on the 5th day of study was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.468). But bFGF concentration in G2 and G3 and PDGF concentration in G3 were significantly higher in comparison to G1 (P = 0.043, 0.017, and 0.019, resp.). Conclusion. Our results revealed that Pistacia atlantica resin extract has a concentration-dependent effect on the healing of burn wounds after 14 days of treatment by increasing the concentration of bFGF and PDGF and also through improving the angiogenesis. PMID:24285978

  1. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600..., carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface of...) For the purpose of this section, carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins consist of basic...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600..., carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface of...) For the purpose of this section, carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins consist of basic...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  10. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  17. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  18. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  19. 21 CFR 177.2430 - Polyether resins, chlorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyether resins, chlorinated. 177.2430 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2430 Polyether resins, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyether resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175... Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins identified in this section may be safely used as components of food-contact coatings...

  2. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  6. 21 CFR 181.32 - Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. 181.32...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.32 Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins. (a) Acrylonitrile copolymers and resins listed in this section, containing less than 30 percent acrylonitrile and complying with...

  7. 21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Poly(aryletherketone) resins. 177.2415 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2415 Poly(aryletherketone) resins. Poly(aryletherketone) resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as articles or...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  10. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyphenylene sulfone resins. 177.2500 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2500 Polyphenylene sulfone resins. The polyphenylene sulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 31833-61-1) identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  12. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Molecular sieve resins. 173.40 Section 173.40 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used in the processing of food under the following prescribed conditions:...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device intended for use in a two-step dental mold fabricating... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings....

  16. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings....

  17. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings....

  18. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device intended for use in a two-step dental mold fabricating... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified... paragraph (b) of this section are not applicable to carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins used in...

  20. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Modified polyacrylamide resin. 173.10 Section 173... Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.10 Modified polyacrylamide resin. Modified polyacrylamide resin may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9499 - Modified silicone resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified silicone resin. 721.9499... Substances § 721.9499 Modified silicone resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified silicone resin (PMN P-96-1649)...

  3. 21 CFR 173.40 - Molecular sieve resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Molecular sieve resins. 173.40 Section 173.40 Food... Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.40 Molecular sieve resins. Molecular sieve resins may be safely used in the processing of food under the following prescribed conditions:...

  4. 40 CFR 721.2752 - Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxy resin containing phosphorus... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2752 Epoxy resin containing phosphorus (generic). (a) Chemical substance... epoxy resin containing phosphorus (PMN P-00-912) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  7. 21 CFR 173.5 - Acrylate-acrylamide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylate-acrylamide resins. 173.5 Section 173.5... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.5 Acrylate-acrylamide resins. Acrylate-acrylamide resins may be safely used in food under the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  10. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section 176... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 21 CFR 177.2430 - Polyether resins, chlorinated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyether resins, chlorinated. 177.2430 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2430 Polyether resins, chlorinated. Chlorinated polyether resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated use...

  13. 21 CFR 177.2500 - Polyphenylene sulfone resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyphenylene sulfone resins. 177.2500 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2500 Polyphenylene sulfone resins. The polyphenylene sulfone resins (CAS Reg. No. 31833-61-1) identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used...

  14. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175... Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins identified in this section may be safely used as components of food-contact coatings...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4380 - Modified hydrocarbon resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified hydrocarbon resin. 721.4380... Substances § 721.4380 Modified hydrocarbon resin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified hydrocarbon resin (P-91-1418)...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3670 - Resin impression tray material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin impression tray material. 872.3670 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3670 Resin impression tray material. (a) Identification. Resin impression tray material is a device intended for use in a two-step dental mold...

  17. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated...

  18. 21 CFR 173.10 - Modified polyacrylamide resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Modified polyacrylamide resin. 173.10 Section 173... CONSUMPTION Polymer Substances and Polymer Adjuvants for Food Treatment § 173.10 Modified polyacrylamide resin. Modified polyacrylamide resin may be safely used in food in accordance with the following...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3135 - Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphorous modified epoxy resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3135 Phosphorous modified epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... phosphorous modified epoxy resin (PMNs P-00-992 and P-01-471) is subject to reporting under this section...

  20. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan (53 FR 32267). On August 30, 1988, Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy (53 FR 33163... orders on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (70 FR 76026)....

  1. 40 CFR 721.2673 - Aromatic epoxide resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.2673 Aromatic epoxide resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aromatic epoxide resin (PMN...

  2. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2755 - Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic... Substances § 721.2755 Cycloaliphatic epoxy resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as cycloaliphatic epoxy resin...

  4. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be safely used as the food-contact surface of...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3300 - Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. 872.3300... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3300 Hydrophilic resin coating for dentures. (a) Identification. A hydrophilic resin coating for dentures is a device that consists of a...

  6. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3310 - Coating material for resin fillings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coating material for resin fillings. 872.3310... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3310 Coating material for resin fillings. (a) Identification. A coating material for resin fillings is a device intended to be applied to...

  8. 21 CFR 177.2415 - Poly(aryletherketone) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly(aryletherketone) resins. 177.2415 Section 177... Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2415 Poly(aryletherketone) resins. Poly(aryletherketone) resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as articles or...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1600 - Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. 177.1600... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1600 Polyethylene resins, carboxyl modified. Carboxyl-modified polyethylene resins may be safely used as the food-contact surface...

  10. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  11. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  12. 21 CFR 573.120 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. 573.120 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.120 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resin... acrylamide with partial hydrolysis, or by copolymerization of acrylamide and acrylic acid with the...

  13. 21 CFR 176.110 - Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. 176.110 Section... Substances for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.110 Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins. Acrylamide-acrylic acid resins may be safely used as components of articles intended for use in...

  14. 21 CFR 177.2450 - Polyamide-imide resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., each having such resin-coated surface area of 100 square inches. The cured-resin film coatings shall be... spaced, coated stainless steel plates, exposed to the respective food simulating solvents. The resin...) Distilled water at 250 °F for 2 hours: Not to exceed 0.01 milligram per square inch. (2) Three...

  15. ELUTION OF URANIUM VALUES FROM ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, R.H.

    1959-11-24

    A process is described for eluting complex uranium ions absorbed on ion exchange resins. The resin is subjected to the action of an aqueous eluting solution contuining sulfuric acid and an alkali metal, ammonium, or magnesium chloride or nitrate, the elution being carried out until the desired amount of the uranium is removed from the resin.

  16. Synthesis and toughness properties of resins and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    Tensile and shear moduli of four ACEE (Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program) resins are presented along with ACEE composite material modulus predictions based on micromechanics. Compressive strength and fracture toughness of the resins and composites were discussed. In addition, several resin synthesis techniques are reviewed.

  17. Bismaleimide resins for flame resistant honeycomb sandwich panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A 60 kg batch of Resin M751 was produced in pilot plant scale. The resin was delivered to the prepreg company as an NMP solution. 100 kg of glass-fabric prepregs were fabricated. Prepreg characteristics and curing cycles for laminate fabrication were provided. A new batch of Resin M756 (Code M756 - 2) was synthesized.

  18. Photosensitive filler minimizes internal stresses in epoxy resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, J. N.

    1967-01-01

    Photosensitive filler is added to curable epoxy resins to minimize stress from internal shrinkage during curing or polymerization. Cinnamic acid resins and cinnamal ketones may be added in the amount of 1 to 3 percent by weight of the resin mixture.

  19. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely used as...

  20. 21 CFR 177.2355 - Mineral reinforced nylon resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mineral reinforced nylon resins. 177.2355 Section... Repeated Use § 177.2355 Mineral reinforced nylon resins. Mineral reinforced nylon resins identified in... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section the...