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Sample records for r01 par-08-052 r21

  1. Epigenetic regulation of miR-21 in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Angelo; Kontos, Christos K; Boni, Themis; Bantounas, Ioannis; Siakouli, Dimitra; Kosmidou, Vivian; Vlassi, Margarita; Spyridakis, Yannis; Tsipras, Iraklis; Zografos, George; Pintzas, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have uncovered several transcription factors that determine biological alterations in tumor cells to execute the invasion-metastasis cascade, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We sought to investigate the role of miR-21 in colorectal cancer regulation. For this purpose, miR-21 expression was quantified in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines and clinical specimens. High expression was found in cell lines with EMT properties and in the vast majority of human tumor specimens. We demonstrate in a cell-specific manner the occupancy of MIR-21 gene promoter by AP-1 and ETS1 transcription factors and, for the first time, the pattern of histone posttranslational modifications necessary for miR-21 overexpression. We also show that Integrin-β4 (ITGβ4), exclusively expressed in polarized epithelial cells, is a novel miR-21 target gene and plays a role in the regulation of EMT, since it is remarkably de-repressed after transient miR-21 silencing and downregulated after miR-21 overexpression. miR-21-dependent change of ITGβ4 expression significantly affects cell migration properties of colon cancer cells. Finally, in a subgroup of tumor specimens, ROC curve analysis performed on quantitative PCR data sets for miR-21, ITGβ4, and PDCD4 shows that the combination of high miR-21 with low ITGβ4 and PDCD4 expression is able to predict presence of metastasis. In conclusion, miR-21 is a key player in oncogenic EMT, its overexpression is controlled by the cooperation of genetic and epigenetic alterations, and its levels, along with ITGβ4 and PDCD4 expression, could be exploited as a prognostic tool for CRC metastasis. PMID:24149370

  2. miR-21 Is Linked to Glioma Angiogenesis: A Co-Localization Study.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Simon Kjær; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is the most consistently over-expressed microRNA (miRNA) in malignant gliomas. We have previously reported that miR-21 is upregulated in glioma vessels and subsets of glioma cells. To better understand the role of miR-21 in glioma angiogenesis and to characterize miR-21-positive tumor cells, we systematically stained consecutive serial sections from ten astrocytomas for miR-21, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), sex-determining region Y box 2 (Sox2) and CD133. We developed an image analysis-based co-localization approach allowing global alignment and quantitation of the individual markers, and measured the miR-21 in situ hybridization signal against the immunohistochemical staining of the six different markers. miR-21 significantly co-localized with the hypoxia- and angiogenesis-associated markers HIF-1α (p=0.0020) and VEGF (p=0.0096), whereas the putative miR-21 target, PTEN, was expressed independently of miR-21. Expression of stem cell markers Oct4, Sox2 and CD133 was not associated with miR-21. In six glioblastoma cultures, miR-21 did not correlate with the six markers. These findings suggest that miR-21 is linked to glioma angiogenesis, that miR-21 is unlikely to regulate PTEN, and that miR-21-positive tumor cells do not possess stem cell characteristics.

  3. MiR-21 is up-regulated in psoriasis and suppresses T cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Meisgen, Florian; Xu, Ning; Wei, Tianling; Janson, Peter C; Obad, Susanna; Broom, Oliver; Nagy, Nikoletta; Kauppinen, Sakari; Kemény, Lajos; Ståhle, Mona; Pivarcsi, Andor; Sonkoly, Enikö

    2012-04-01

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. Previously, in a genome-wide screen, we found deregulation of microRNA expression in psoriasis skin. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is one of the microRNAs significantly up-regulated in psoriasis skin lesions. To identify the cell type responsible for the increased miR-21 level, we compared expression of miR-21 in epidermal cells and dermal T cells between psoriasis and healthy skin and found elevated levels of miR-21 in psoriasis in both cell types. In cultured T cells, expression of miR-21 increased markedly upon activation. To explore the function of miR-21 in primary human T helper cells, we inhibited miR-21 using a tiny seed-targeting LNA-anti-miR. Specific inhibition of miR-21 increased the apoptosis rate of activated T cells. Our results suggest that miR-21 suppresses apoptosis in activated T cells, and thus, overexpression of miR-21 may contribute to T cell-derived psoriatic skin inflammation.

  4. MiR-21 enhances melanoma invasiveness via inhibition of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 expression: in vivo effects of MiR-21 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Martin del Campo, Sara E; Latchana, Nicholas; Levine, Kala M; Grignol, Valerie P; Fairchild, Ene T; Jaime-Ramirez, Alena Cristina; Dao, Thao-Vi; Karpa, Volodymyr I; Carson, Mary; Ganju, Akaansha; Chan, Anthony N; Carson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive form of this cancer. It is important to understand factors that increase or decrease metastatic activity in order to more effectively research and implement treatments for melanoma. Increased cell invasion through the extracellular matrix is required for metastasis and is enhanced by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3) inhibits MMP activity. It was previously shown by our group that miR-21, a potential regulator of TIMP3, is over-expressed in cutaneous melanoma. It was therefore hypothesized that increased levels of miR-21 expression would lead to decreased expression of TIMP3 and thereby enhance the invasiveness of melanoma cells. miR-21 over-expression in the melanoma cell lines WM1552c, WM793b, A375 and MEL 39 was accomplished via transfection with pre-miR-21. Immunoblot analysis of miR-21-overexpressing cell lines revealed reduced expression of TIMP3 as compared to controls. This in turn led to a significant increase in the invasiveness of the radial growth phase cell line WM1552c and the vertical growth phase cell line WM793b (p < 0.05), but not in the metastatic cell lines A375 or MEL 39. The proliferation and migration of miR-21 over-expressing cell lines was not affected. Reduced expression of TIMP3 was achieved by siRNA knockdown and significantly enhanced invasion of melanoma cell lines, mimicking the effects of miR-21 over-expression. Treatment of tumor cells with a linked nucleic acid antagomir to miR-21 inhibited tumor growth and increased tumor expression of TIMP3 in vivo in 01B74 Athymic NCr-nu/nu mice. Intra-tumoral injections of anti-miR-21 produced similar effects. This data shows that increased expression of miR-21 enhanced the invasive potential of melanoma cell lines through TIMP3 inhibition. Therefore, inhibition of miR-21 in melanoma may reduce melanoma invasiveness.

  5. The critical roles of miR-21 in anti-cancer effects of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiezhong; Xu, Tiefeng; Chen, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Curcumin is a well-known phytochemical that has various anti-cancer effects. Although it has been demonstrated that curcumin can inhibit multiple signalling pathways, the exact mechanisms for its demonstrated anti-cancer effects are not fully understood. Recent studies have revealed that curcumin may affect cancer initiation and progression through regulating microRNAs (miRs). In this review, we focus on the roles of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in the anti-cancer effects of curcumin and regulatory mechanisms for the effects of curcumin on miR-21. MiR-21 mediates various effects of curcumin on cancer cells including proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and anti-cancer drug resistance. Several downstream pathways of miR-21 have been identified including phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and NF-κB pathways. Curcumin decreases miR-21 levels through both increasing miR-21 exosome exclusion from the cells and inhibiting the transcription of the miR-21 gene in the cells by binding to its promoter. PMID:26734640

  6. Targeting miR-21 for the therapy of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Flavie; Gayral, Marion; Lulka, Hubert; Buscail, Louis; Cordelier, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Despite tremendous efforts worldwide from clinicians and cancer scientists, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains a deadly disease for which no cure is available. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key actors in carcinogenesis and we demonstrated that microRNA-21 (miR-21), oncomiR is expressed early during PDA. In the present study, we asked whether targeting miR-21 in human PDA-derived cell lines using lentiviral vectors (LVs) may impede tumor growth. We demonstrated that LVs-transduced human PDA efficiently downregulated miR-21 expression, both in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, cell proliferation was strongly inhibited and PDA-derived cell lines died by apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. In vivo, miR-21 depletion stopped the progression of a very aggressive model of PDA, to induce cell death by apoptosis; furthermore, combining miR-21 targeting and chemotherapeutic treatment provoked tumor regression. We demonstrate herein for the first time that targeting oncogenic miRNA strongly inhibit pancreatic cancer tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. Because miR-21 is overexpressed in most human tumors; therapeutic delivery of miR-21 antagonists may still be beneficial for a large number of cancers for which no cure is available.

  7. The critical roles of miR-21 in anti-cancer effects of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiezhong; Xu, Tiefeng; Chen, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Curcumin is a well-known phytochemical that has various anti-cancer effects. Although it has been demonstrated that curcumin can inhibit multiple signalling pathways, the exact mechanisms for its demonstrated anti-cancer effects are not fully understood. Recent studies have revealed that curcumin may affect cancer initiation and progression through regulating microRNAs (miRs). In this review, we focus on the roles of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in the anti-cancer effects of curcumin and regulatory mechanisms for the effects of curcumin on miR-21. MiR-21 mediates various effects of curcumin on cancer cells including proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and anti-cancer drug resistance. Several downstream pathways of miR-21 have been identified including phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and NF-κB pathways. Curcumin decreases miR-21 levels through both increasing miR-21 exosome exclusion from the cells and inhibiting the transcription of the miR-21 gene in the cells by binding to its promoter.

  8. Aryl amide small-molecule inhibitors of microRNA miR-21 function.

    PubMed

    Naro, Yuta; Thomas, Meryl; Stephens, Matthew D; Connelly, Colleen M; Deiters, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single stranded RNA molecules of ∼22 nucleotides that negatively regulate gene expression. MiRNAs are involved in fundamental cellular processes, such as development, differentiation, proliferation, and survival. MiRNA misregulation has been linked to various human diseases, most notably cancer. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21), a well-established oncomiR, is significantly overexpressed in many types of human cancers, thus rendering miR-21 a potential therapeutic target. Using a luciferase-based reporter assay under the control of miR-21 expression, a high-throughput screen of >300,000 compounds led to the discovery of a new aryl amide class of small-molecule miR-21 inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies resulted in the development of four aryl amide derivatives as potent and selective miR-21 inhibitors. The intracellular levels of various miRNAs in HeLa cells were analyzed by qRT-PCR revealing specificity for miR-21 inhibition over other miRNAs. Additionally, preliminary mechanism of action studies propose a different mode of action compared to previously reported miR-21 inhibitors, thus affording a new chemical probe for future studies.

  9. Traumatic brain injury increases levels of miR-21 in extracellular vesicles: implications for neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Emily B; Hochfelder, Colleen G; Lamberty, Benjamin G; Meays, Brittney M; Morsey, Brenda M; Kelso, Matthew L; Fox, Howard S; Yelamanchili, Sowmya V

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important health concern and effective treatment strategies remain elusive. Understanding the complex multicellular response to TBI may provide new avenues for intervention. In the context of TBI, cell-cell communication is critical. One relatively unexplored form of cell-cell communication in TBI is extracellular vesicles (EVs). These membrane-bound vesicles can carry many different types of cargo between cells. Recently, miRNA in EVs have been shown to mediate neuroinflammation and neuronal injury. To explore the role of EV-associated miRNA in TBI, we isolated EVs from the brain of injured mice and controls, purified RNA from brain EVs, and performed miRNA sequencing. We found that the expression of miR-212 decreased, while miR-21, miR-146, miR-7a, and miR-7b were significantly increased with injury, with miR-21 showing the largest change between conditions. The expression of miR-21 in the brain was primarily localized to neurons near the lesion site. Interestingly, adjacent to these miR-21-expressing neurons were activated microglia. The concurrent increase in miR-21 in EVs with the elevation of miR-21 in neurons, suggests that miR-21 is secreted from neurons as potential EV cargo. Thus, this study reveals a new potential mechanism of cell-cell communication not previously described in TBI. PMID:27516962

  10. Inhibition of miR-21 in glioma cells using catalytic nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Belter, Agnieszka; Rolle, Katarzyna; Piwecka, Monika; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Naskręt-Barciszewska, Mirosława Z.; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Despite tremendous efforts worldwide, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a deadly disease for which no cure is available and prognosis is very bad. Recently, miR-21 has emerged as a key omnipotent player in carcinogenesis, including brain tumors. It is recognized as an indicator of glioma prognosis and a prosperous target for anti-tumor therapy. Here we show that rationally designed hammerhead ribozymes and DNAzymes can target miR-21 and/or its precursors. They decrease miR-21 level, and thus silence this oncomiR functions. We demonstrated that anti-miRNA catalytic nucleic acids show a novel terrific arsenal for specific and effective combat against diseases with elevated cellular miR-21 content, such as brain tumors. PMID:27079911

  11. miR-21 induces myofibroblast differentiation and promotes the malignant progression of breast phyllodes tumors.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chang; Nie, Yan; Qu, Shaohua; Liao, Jian-You; Cui, Xiuying; Yao, Herui; Zeng, Yunjie; Su, Fengxi; Song, Erwei; Liu, Qiang

    2014-08-15

    Phyllodes tumors of breast, even histologically diagnosed as benign, can recur locally and have metastatic potential. Histologic markers only have limited value in predicting the clinical behavior of phyllodes tumors. It remains unknown what drives the malignant progression of phyllodes tumors. We found that the expression of myofibroblast markers, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibroblast activation protein (FAP), and stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), is progressively increased in the malignant progression of phyllodes tumors. Microarray showed that miR-21 was one of the most significantly upregulated microRNAs in malignant phyllodes tumors compared with benign phyllodes tumors. In addition, increased miR-21 expression was primarily localized to α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts. More importantly, α-SMA and miR-21 are independent predictors of recurrence and metastasis, with their predictive value of recurrence better than histologic grading. Furthermore, miR-21 mimics promoted, whereas miR-21 antisense oligos inhibited, the expression of α-SMA, FAP, and SDF-1, as well as the proliferation and invasion of primary stromal cells of phyllodes tumors. The ability of miR-21 to induce myofibroblast differentiation was mediated by its regulation on Smad7 and PTEN, which regulate the migration and proliferation, respectively. In breast phyllodes tumor xenografts, miR-21 accelerated tumor growth, induced myofibroblast differentiation, and promoted metastasis. This study suggests an important role of myofibroblast differentiation in the malignant progression of phyllodes tumors that is driven by increased miR-21.

  12. Endocrine Disruptors Fludioxonil and Fenhexamid Stimulate miR-21 Expression in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yun; Manavalan, Tissa T.; Klinge, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Fenhexamid and fludioxonil are antifungal agents used in agricultural applications, which are present at measurable amounts in fruits and vegetables. Fenhexamid and fludioxonil showed endocrine disruptor activity as antiandrogens in an androgen receptor reporter assay in engineered human breast cancer cells. Little is known about how environmental chemicals regulate microRNA (miRNA) expression. This study examined the effect of fenhexamid and fludioxonil on the expression of the oncomiR miR-21 in MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and downstream targets of miR-21 in MCF-7 cells. Fenhexamid and fludioxonil stimulated miR-21 expression in a concentration-dependent manner and reduced the expression of miR-21 target Pdcd4 protein. Antisense to miR-21 blocked the increase in Pdcd4 protein by fenhexamid and fludioxonil. Fenhexamid and fludioxonil reduced miR-125b and miR-181a, demonstrating specificity of miRNA regulation. Induction of miR-21 was inhibited by the estrogen receptor antagonist fulvestrant, by androgen receptor antagonist bicalutamide, by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, and by inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways. Fenhexamid activation was inhibited by the arylhydrocarbon receptor antagonist α-napthoflavone. Fenhexamid and fludioxonil did not affect dihydrotestosterone-induced miR-21 expression. Fludioxonil, but not fenhexamid, inhibited MCF-7 cell viability, and both inhibited estradiol-induced cell proliferation and reduced cell motility. Together these data indicate that fenhexamid and fludioxonil use similar and distinct mechanisms to increase miR-21 expression with downstream antiestrogenic activity. PMID:23052036

  13. Induction of MiR-21 by Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Contributes to the Pulmonary Fibrotic Response

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ok-Seon; Kim, Keun-Tae; Lee, Eunioo; Kim, Myoungjae; Choi, Seo-Hyun; Li, Henghong; Fornace, Albert J.; Cho, Jae-Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Ji-Seon; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Cha, Hyuk-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung fibrosis, the most serious effect of lung cancer radiotherapy on normal tissue, remains a major technical obstacle to the broader application of radiotherapy to patients with lung cancer. This study describes the use of an image-guided irradiation system in mice mimicking stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to examine the molecular features of chronic fibrotic response after radiation injury. MicroRNA (miR) array analysis of injured pulmonary tissue identified a set of miRs whose expression was significantly increased in damaged lung tissue. In particular, miR-21 expression was increased at the radiation injury site, concurrent with collagen deposition. Although the inhibition of miR-21 by its specific inhibitor anti-miR-21 only marginally affected endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in lung endothelial cells, this inhibition significantly reduced collagen synthesis in lung fibroblasts. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-21 was sufficient to promote a fibrotic response in lung fibroblasts, enhancing Smad2 phosphorylation concurrent with Smad7 downregulation. These findings indicate that the induction of miR-21 expression is responsible for fibrotic responses observed in mesenchymal cells at the injury site through the potentiation of TGF-β signaling. Local targeting of miR-21 at the injured area could have potential therapeutic utility in mitigating radiation-induced lung fibrosis. PMID:27171163

  14. 77 FR 46764 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Products Research Project Grant (R01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... people in the United States per year. B. Research Objectives The goal of FDA's OPD grant program is to...: Register With Electronic Research Administration (eRA) Commons Steps 1 through 5, in detail, can be...

  15. 75 FR 53701 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Products Research Project Grant (R01); Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Federal Register of August 6, 2010 (75 FR 47602). The document announced the availability of grant funds...-7177, email: vieda.hubbard@fda.hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2010-19354, appearing...

  16. Sirt2 suppresses glioma cell growth through targeting NF-κB–miR-21 axis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ya’nan; Dai, Dongwei; Lu, Qiong; Fei, Mingyu; Li, Mengmeng; Wu, Xi

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •Sirt2 expression is down-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. •Sirt2 regresses glioma cell growth and colony formation via inducing apoptosis. •miR-21 is essential for the functions of Sirt2 in glioma cells. •Sirt2 deacetylates p65 to decrease miR-21 expression. -- Abstract: Sirtuins are NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylases that regulate numerous cellular processes including aging, DNA repair, cell cycle, metabolism, and survival under stress conditions. The roles of sirtuin family members are widely studied in carcinogenesis. However, their roles in glioma remain unclear. Here we report that Sir2 was under expressed in human glioma tissues and cell lines. We found that Sirt2 overexpression decreased cell proliferation and colony formation capacity. In addition, Sirt2 overexpression induced cellular apoptosis via up-regulating cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, and down-regulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Sirt2 knockdown obtained opposing results. We showed that Sirt2 overexpression inhibited miR-21 expression, and Sirt2 was not sufficient to reduce cell proliferation and colony formation as well as to induce apoptosis when miR-21 was knocked down in glioma cells. Mechanically, we demonstrated that Sirt2 deacetylated p65 at K310 and blocked p65 binding to the promoter region of miR-21, thus regressing the transcription of miR-21. In summary, Sirt2 is critical in human glioma via NF-κB–miR-21 pathway and Sirt2 activator may serve as candidate drug for glioma therapy.

  17. MiR-21 up-regulation mediates glioblastoma cancer stem cells apoptosis and proliferation by targeting FASLG.

    PubMed

    Shang, Chao; Guo, Yan; Hong, Yang; Liu, Yun-hui; Xue, Yi-xue

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether miR-21 can affect the apoptosis and proliferation of glioblastoma cancer stem cells (GSCs) from down-regulating FASLG. The expression of miRNA-21 was detected by quantitative real-time PCR in normal brain tissue and glioblastoma samples, and the changes of miRNA-21 expression between GSCs and non-GSCs were also detected. The apoptosis and proliferation ability of miR-21 in GSCs were analyzed by MTT and flow cytometry assay after anti-miR-21 transfection. For the regulation mechanism analysis of miR-21, TargetScan, PicTar and microRNA were selected to predict some potential target genes of miR-21. The predicted gene was identified to be the direct and specific target gene of miR-21 by luciferase activities assay and western blot. RNA interference technology was used to confirm the apoptosis and proliferation effects of miR-21 were directly induced by FASLG. The expression of miR-21 increased significantly in glioblastoma contrast to normal brain tissue, and miR-21 up-regulated in GSCs remarkably. The proliferation of GSCs cell could be inhibited with high-expression of miR-21 and this effect could be restored by miR-21 knocked down. Mechanism analysis revealed that FASLG was a specific and direct target gene of miR-21. The advanced effects of anti-miR-21 on GSCs apoptosis and proliferation were mediated by expression of silenced FASLG. In summary, aberrantly expressed miR-21 regulates GSCs apoptosis and proliferation partly through directly down-regulating FASLG protein expression in GSCs and this might offer a new potential therapeutic stratagem for glioblastoma. PMID:25394756

  18. MiR-21 promoted proliferation and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma through negative regulation of Navigator-3

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhipeng; Yang, Huan; Ren, Lei

    2015-09-04

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has been well-established and found to be over-expressed in various human cancers and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-21 involvement in the development and progression of HCC remains to be understood. In the present study, we firstly identified that the Navigator-3 (NAV-3) gene as a novel direct target of miR-21. Knock-down of NAV-3 using shRNA can rescue the effects of anti-miR-21 inhibitor in HCC cell lines, whereas re-expression of miR-21 using transfection with miR-21 mimics phenocopied the NAV-3 knock-down model. Additionally, miR-21 levels inversely correlated with NAV-3 both in HCC cells and tissues. Knock-down of NAV-3 promoted both the proliferation and migration in HCC cells. Together, our findings suggest an important role for miR-21 in the progression of HCC, which negatively regulated Navigator-3 in the migration of HCC. - Highlights: • Navigator-3 (NAV-3) suppresses proliferation, migration and tumorigenesis of HCC cells. • NAV-3 was a novel target of miR-21. • MiR-21 negatively regulates NAV-3 in HCC.

  19. miR-21 modulates resistance of HR-HPV positive cervical cancer cells to radiation through targeting LATS1

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shikai; Song, Lili Zhang, Liang; Zeng, Saitian; Gao, Fangyuan

    2015-04-17

    Although multiple miRNAs are found involved in radioresistance development in HR-HPV positive (+) cervical cancer, only limited studies explored the regulative mechanism of the miRNAs. miR-21 is one of the miRNAs significantly upregulated in HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer is also significantly associated with radioresistance. However, the detailed regulative network of miR-21 in radioresistance is still not clear. In this study, we confirmed that miR-21 overexpression was associated with higher level of radioresistance in HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer patients and thus decided to further explore its role. Findings of this study found miR-21 can negatively affect radiosensitivity of HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer cells and decrease radiation induced G2/M block and increase S phase accumulation. By using dual luciferase assay, we verified a binding site between miR-21 and 3′-UTR of large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1). Through direct binding, miR-21 can regulate LATS1 expression in cervical cancer cells. LATS1 overexpression can reverse miR-21 induced higher colony formation rate and also reduced miR-21 induced S phase accumulation and G2/M phase block reduction under radiation treatment. These results suggested that miR-21-LATS1 axis plays an important role in regulating radiosensitivity. - Highlights: • miR-21 is highly expressed in HR-HPV (+) radioresistant cervical cancer patients. • miR-21 can negatively affect radiosensitivity of HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer cells. • miR-21 can decrease radiation induced G2/M block and increase S phase accumulation. • miR-21 modulates radiosensitivity cervical cancer cell by directly targeting LATS1.

  20. The Type I IFN-Induced miRNA, miR-21

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuan He; Li, Kui; Pfeffer, Susan R.; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    The interferon (IFN) family of cytokines not only has antiviral properties at various steps in the viral replication cycle, but also anticancer activity through multiple pathways that include inhibiting cell proliferation, regulating cellular responses to inducers of apoptosis and modulating angiogenesis and the immune system. IFNs are known to induce their biological activity through the induction of protein encoding IFN-stimulated genes. However, recent studies have established that IFNs also induce the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small endogenous non-coding RNAs that suppress gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs play critical roles in tumorigenesis and have been implicated to act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors in various human cancers. Therefore, IFN-induced miRNAs play an important role, not only in the host response to innate immune response to cancer, but also in the tumorigenic process itself. Furthermore, IFN-induced miRNAs may participate in and/or orchestrate antiviral defense in certain viral infections. In this review, we describe our recent studies on the induction of miR-21 by type I IFN, the role of the STAT3 and NFκB signaling pathways in IFN-induced miR-21 expression, the role of miR-21 in different cancers and the role of miR-21 in regulating the antiviral response. PMID:26610525

  1. ERβ regulates miR-21 expression and inhibits invasion and metastasis in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Junmei; Tu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Wei R.; Gu, Yueqing

    2012-03-01

    In human, estrogens play important roles in many physiological processes, and is also found to be connected with numerous cancers. In these diseases, estrogen mediates its effects through the estrogen receptor (ER), which serves as the basis for many current clinical diagnosis. Two forms of the estrogen receptor have been identified, ERα and ERβ, and show different and specific functions. The two estrogen receptors belong to a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors. Estrogen via ERα stimulates proliferation in the breast, uterus, and developing prostate, while estrogen via ERβ inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation in the prostate, mammary gland, colon, lung, and bone marrow stem cells. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that occur naturally and downregulate protein expression by translational blockade of the target mRNA or by promoting mRNA decay. MiR-21 is one of the most studied miRNAs in cancers. MiR-21 is overexpressed in the most solid tumors, promoting progression and metastasis. The miR-21 gene is located on the chromosome 17, in the 10th intron of a protein-coding gene, TMEM49. While, the function of TMEM49 is currently unknown. Our experiment is designed to identity the relationship between miR-21 and ERβ in cancer progression. The human cancer cells were transfected with ERβ. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression level of miR-21 was significantly inhibited down by ERβ treatment. As MTT assay showed the tumor cell survival rate was also inhibited significantly. Go/Gl phase cell cycle arrest was founded and tumor cell apoptosis was induced in ERβ group.

  2. REST-miR-21-SOX2 axis maintains pluripotency in E14Tg2a.4 embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanjay K.; Marisetty, Anantha; Sathyan, Pratheesh; Kagalwala, Mohamedi; Zhao, Zhaoyang; Majumder, Sadhan

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the regulatory network that maintains pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) is regulated in a context-dependent manner and can be modulated, at least in part, by re-calibration of an intracellular network of pluripotency factors as well as cues arising from the extracellular matrix. The transcriptional repressor REST represses miR-21 and, thus, regulates self-renewal in E14Tg2a.4 mESCs cultured in the absence of mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder cell effects. However, how miR-21 connects to the nuclear regulatory network has not been clear. Here, we show that miR-21, a direct target of REST-mediated repression, directly targets Sox2. Exogenously added miR-21 to mESCs decreases the expression of Sox2, decreasing mESC self-renewal, and this effect of miR-21 on mESC self-renewal can be blocked by expression of exogenous Sox2. Conversely, destabilization of Sox2 by miR-21 can be blocked by anti-miR-21. Thus, the REST-miR-21-Sox2 axis connects REST to the core nuclear pluripotency regulators in E14Tg2a.4 mESCs cultured in the absence of feeder cells. PMID:26209818

  3. MiR-21 inhibits c-Ski signaling to promote the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Li; He, Xie; Yang, Ting; Yang, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we reported that the decrease of endogenous c-Ski expression is implicated in the progression of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation after arterial injury. However, the molecular mechanism of the down-regulation of c-Ski is not clear. In this study, a potential miR-21 recognition element was identified in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of rat c-Ski mRNA. A reporter assay revealed that miR-21 could recognize the miR-21 recognition element of c-Ski mRNA. In A10 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, overexpression of miR-21 significantly inhibited the expression of c-Ski protein and promoted cell proliferation, which could be blocked by inhibition of miR-21 or overexpression of c-Ski. Further investigation demonstrated that the effect of miR-21 on VSMC proliferation resulted from negative regulation of c-Ski to suppress p38-p21/p27 signaling, the downstream pathway of c-Ski in VSMCs. These results indicate that c-Ski is a target gene of miR-21. miR-21 specifically binds to the 3'-untranslated region of c-Ski and negatively regulates c-Ski expression to diminish the protective effects of c-Ski and stimulate VSMC proliferation in the progression of arterial injury.

  4. MiR-21 is under control of STAT5 but is dispensable for mammary development and lactation.

    PubMed

    Feuermann, Yonatan; Kang, Keunsoo; Shamay, Avi; Robinson, Gertraud W; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Development of mammary alveolar epithelium during pregnancy is controlled by prolactin, through the transcription factors STAT5A/B that activate specific sets of target genes. Here we asked whether some of STAT5's functions are mediated by microRNAs. The miR-21 promoter sequence contains a bona-fide STAT5 binding site and miR-21 levels increased in HC11 mammary cells upon prolactin treatment. In vivo miR-21 was abundantly expressed in mammary epithelium at day 6 of pregnancy. Analysis of mice lacking miR-21 revealed that their mammary tissue developed normally during pregnancy and dams were able to nurse their pups. Our study demonstrated that although expression of miR-21 is under prolactin control through the transcription factors STAT5A/B its presence is dispensable for mammary development and lactation. PMID:24497923

  5. MiR-21 Is under Control of STAT5 but Is Dispensable for Mammary Development and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Feuermann, Yonatan; Kang, Keunsoo; Shamay, Avi; Robinson, Gertraud W.; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Development of mammary alveolar epithelium during pregnancy is controlled by prolactin, through the transcription factors STAT5A/B that activate specific sets of target genes. Here we asked whether some of STAT5's functions are mediated by microRNAs. The miR-21 promoter sequence contains a bona-fide STAT5 binding site and miR-21 levels increased in HC11 mammary cells upon prolactin treatment. In vivo miR-21 was abundantly expressed in mammary epithelium at day 6 of pregnancy. Analysis of mice lacking miR-21 revealed that their mammary tissue developed normally during pregnancy and dams were able to nurse their pups. Our study demonstrated that although expression of miR-21 is under prolactin control through the transcription factors STAT5A/B its presence is dispensable for mammary development and lactation. PMID:24497923

  6. Considering Exosomal miR-21 as a Biomarker for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a fatal human disease. Early diagnosis of cancer is the most effective method to prevent cancer development and to achieve higher survival rates for patients. Many traditional diagnostic methods for cancer are still not sufficient for early, more convenient and accurate, and noninvasive diagnosis. Recently, the use of microRNAs (miRNAs), such as exosomal microRNA-21(miR-21), as potential biomarkers was widely reported. This initial systematic review analyzes the potential role of exosomal miR-21 as a general biomarker for cancers. A total of 10 studies involving 318 patients and 215 healthy controls have covered 10 types of cancers. The sensitivity and specificity of pooled studies were 75% (0.70–0.80) and 85% (0.81–0.91), with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), while the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.93. Additionally, we examined and evaluated almost all other issues about biomarkers, including cutoff points, internal controls and detection methods, from the literature. This initial meta-analysis indicates that exosomal miR-21 has a strong potential to be used as a universal biomarker to identify cancers, although as a general biomarker the case number for each cancer type is small. Based on the literature, a combination of miRNA panels and other cancer antigens, as well as a selection of appropriate internal controls, has the potential to serve as a more sensitive and accurate cancer diagnosis tool. Additional information on miR-21 would further support its use as a biomarker in cancer. PMID:27043643

  7. Considering Exosomal miR-21 as a Biomarker for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a fatal human disease. Early diagnosis of cancer is the most effective method to prevent cancer development and to achieve higher survival rates for patients. Many traditional diagnostic methods for cancer are still not sufficient for early, more convenient and accurate, and noninvasive diagnosis. Recently, the use of microRNAs (miRNAs), such as exosomal microRNA-21(miR-21), as potential biomarkers was widely reported. This initial systematic review analyzes the potential role of exosomal miR-21 as a general biomarker for cancers. A total of 10 studies involving 318 patients and 215 healthy controls have covered 10 types of cancers. The sensitivity and specificity of pooled studies were 75% (0.70-0.80) and 85% (0.81-0.91), with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), while the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.93. Additionally, we examined and evaluated almost all other issues about biomarkers, including cutoff points, internal controls and detection methods, from the literature. This initial meta-analysis indicates that exosomal miR-21 has a strong potential to be used as a universal biomarker to identify cancers, although as a general biomarker the case number for each cancer type is small. Based on the literature, a combination of miRNA panels and other cancer antigens, as well as a selection of appropriate internal controls, has the potential to serve as a more sensitive and accurate cancer diagnosis tool. Additional information on miR-21 would further support its use as a biomarker in cancer. PMID:27043643

  8. EMT and induction of miR-21 mediate metastasis development in Trp53-deficient tumours

    PubMed Central

    Bornachea, Olga; Santos, Mirentxu; Martínez-Cruz, Ana Belén; García-Escudero, Ramón; Dueñas, Marta; Costa, Clotilde; Segrelles, Carmen; Lorz, Corina; Buitrago, Agueda; Saiz-Ladera, Cristina; Agirre, Xabier; Grande, Teresa; Paradela, Beatriz; Maraver, Antonio; Ariza, José M.; Prosper, Felipe; Serrano, Manuel; Sánchez-Céspedes, Montse; Paramio, Jesús M.

    2012-01-01

    Missense mutations in TP53 gene promote metastasis in human tumours. However, little is known about the complete loss of function of p53 in tumour metastasis. Here we show that squamous cell carcinomas generated by the specific ablation of Trp53 gene in mouse epidermis are highly metastatic. Biochemical and genome-wide mRNA and miRNA analyses demonstrated that metastases are associated with the early induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and deregulated miRNA expression in primary tumours. Increased expression of miR-21 was observed in undifferentiated, prometastatic mouse tumours and in human tumours characterized by p53 mutations and distant metastasis. The augmented expression of miR-21, mediated by active mTOR and Stat3 signalling, conferred increased invasive properties to mouse keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo, whereas blockade of miR-21 in a metastatic spindle cell line inhibits metastasis development. Collectively these data identify novel molecular mechanisms leading to metastasis in vivo originated by p53 loss in epithelia. PMID:22666537

  9. TGF-β1/Smads and miR-21 in Renal Fibrosis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Mateusz; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis, irrespective of its etiology, is a final common stage of almost all chronic kidney diseases. Increased apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and inflammatory cell infiltration characterize the injured kidney. On the molecular level, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-Smad3 signaling pathway plays a central role in fibrotic kidney disease. Recent findings indicate the prominent role of microRNAs, small noncoding RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression through the posttranscriptional repression of their target mRNAs, in different pathologic conditions, including renal pathophysiology. miR-21 was also shown to play a dynamic role in inflammatory responses and in accelerating injury responses to promote organ failure and fibrosis. Understanding the cellular and molecular bases of miR-21 involvement in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases, including inflammatory reaction, could be crucial for their early diagnosis. Moreover, the possibility of influencing miR-21 level by specific antagomirs may be considered as an approach for treatment of renal diseases. PMID:27610006

  10. TGF-β1/Smads and miR-21 in Renal Fibrosis and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Loboda, Agnieszka; Sobczak, Mateusz; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis, irrespective of its etiology, is a final common stage of almost all chronic kidney diseases. Increased apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and inflammatory cell infiltration characterize the injured kidney. On the molecular level, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-Smad3 signaling pathway plays a central role in fibrotic kidney disease. Recent findings indicate the prominent role of microRNAs, small noncoding RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression through the posttranscriptional repression of their target mRNAs, in different pathologic conditions, including renal pathophysiology. miR-21 was also shown to play a dynamic role in inflammatory responses and in accelerating injury responses to promote organ failure and fibrosis. Understanding the cellular and molecular bases of miR-21 involvement in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases, including inflammatory reaction, could be crucial for their early diagnosis. Moreover, the possibility of influencing miR-21 level by specific antagomirs may be considered as an approach for treatment of renal diseases. PMID:27610006

  11. TGF-β1/Smads and miR-21 in Renal Fibrosis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Mateusz; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis, irrespective of its etiology, is a final common stage of almost all chronic kidney diseases. Increased apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and inflammatory cell infiltration characterize the injured kidney. On the molecular level, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-Smad3 signaling pathway plays a central role in fibrotic kidney disease. Recent findings indicate the prominent role of microRNAs, small noncoding RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression through the posttranscriptional repression of their target mRNAs, in different pathologic conditions, including renal pathophysiology. miR-21 was also shown to play a dynamic role in inflammatory responses and in accelerating injury responses to promote organ failure and fibrosis. Understanding the cellular and molecular bases of miR-21 involvement in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases, including inflammatory reaction, could be crucial for their early diagnosis. Moreover, the possibility of influencing miR-21 level by specific antagomirs may be considered as an approach for treatment of renal diseases.

  12. Targeted inhibition of oncogenic miR-21 maturation with designed RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Fan; Zubovic, Lorena; Pavelitz, Tom; Yang, Wen; Godin, Katherine; Walker, Matthew; Zheng, Suxin; Macchi, Paolo; Varani, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    The RNA recognition motif (RRM) is the largest family of eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins. Engineered RRMs with well-defined specificity would provide valuable tools and an exacting test of the current understanding of specificity. We have redesigned the specificity of an RRM using rational methods and demonstrated retargeting of its activity in cells. We engineered the conserved RRM of human Rbfox proteins to specifically bind to the terminal loop of a microRNA precursor (pre-miR-21) with high affinity and inhibit its processing by Drosha and Dicer. We further engineered Giardia Dicer by replacing its PAZ domain with the designed RRM. The reprogrammed enzyme degrades pre-miR-21 specifically in vitro and suppresses mature miR-21 levels in cells, which results in increased expression of the tumor suppressor PDCD4 and significantly decreased viability for cancer cells. The results demonstrate the feasibility of rationally engineering the sequence-specificity of RRMs and of using this ubiquitous platform for diverse biological applications. PMID:27428511

  13. MiR-21 in Extracellular Vesicles Leads to Neurotoxicity via TLR7 Signaling in SIV Neurological Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yelamanchili, Sowmya V.; Lamberty, Benjamin G.; Rennard, Deborah A.; Morsey, Brenda M.; Hochfelder, Colleen G.; Meays, Brittney M.; Levy, Efrat; Fox, Howard S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have found that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in normal and disease processes. In the present study, we isolated and characterized EVs from the brains of rhesus macaques, both with and without simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) induced central nervous system (CNS) disease. Small RNA sequencing revealed increased miR-21 levels in EVs from SIV encephalitic (SIVE) brains. In situ hybridization revealed increased miR-21 expression in neurons and macrophage/microglial cells/nodules during SIV induced CNS disease. In vitro culture of macrophages revealed that miR-21 is released into EVs and is neurotoxic when compared to EVs derived from miR-21-/- knockout animals. A mutation of the sequence within miR-21, predicted to bind TLR7, eliminates this neurotoxicity. Indeed miR-21 in EV activates TLR7 in a reporter cell line, and the neurotoxicity is dependent upon TLR7, as neurons isolated from TLR7-/- knockout mice are protected from neurotoxicity. Further, we show that EVs isolated from the brains of monkeys with SIV induced CNS disease activates TLR7 and were neurotoxic when compared to EVs from control animals. Finally, we show that EV-miR-21 induced neurotoxicity was unaffected by apoptosis inhibition but could be prevented by a necroptosis inhibitor, necrostatin-1, highlighting the actions of this pathway in a growing number of CNS disorders. PMID:26154133

  14. PSMB4 promotes multiple myeloma cell growth by activating NF-κB-miR-21 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Peihao; Guo, Honggang; Li, Guangchao; Han, Siqi; Luo, Fei; Liu, Yi

    2015-03-06

    Proteasomal subunit PSMB4, was recently identified as potential cancer driver genes in several tumors. However, the regulatory mechanism of PSMB4 on carcinogenesis process remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression and roles of PSMB4 in multiple myeloma (MM). We found a significant up-regulation of PSMB4 in MM plasma and cell lines. Ectopic overexpression of PSMB4 promoted cell growth and colony forming ability of MM cells, whereas inhibition of PSMB4 led to a decrease of such events. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the up-regulation of miR-21 and a positive correlation between the levels of miR-21 and PSMB4 in MM. Re-expression of miR-21 markedly rescued PSMB4 knockdown-mediated suppression of cell proliferation and clone-formation. Additionally, while enforced expression of PSMB4 profoundly increased NF-κB activity and the level of miR-21, PSMB4 knockdown or NF-κB inhibition suppressed miR-21 expression in MM cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PSMB4 regulated MM cell growth in part by activating NF-κB-miR-21 signaling, which may represent promising targets for novel specific therapies. - Highlights: • First reported upregulation of PSMB4 in MM plasma and cell lines. • PSMB4 promoted MM cell growth and colony forming ability. • Further found miR-21 was up-regulated by PSMB4 in MM plasma and cell lines. • PSMB4-induced miR-21 expression was modulated by NF-κB. • PSMB4-NF-κB-miR-21 axis may be potential therapeutic targets of MM.

  15. The role of miR-21 in proliferation and invasion capacity of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Zhu, Yu; Lv, Pin; Li, Longjiang

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cancers, which has the highest incidence in oral maxillofacial malignant tumors. MiR-21 may promote tumorigeness by down-regulating tumor suppressing genes and/or controlling the genes for cell differentiation and apoptosis, and it has been identified as the most expressive and unusual in a number of profiling experiments. The study shows there are high expressions of miR-21 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (Tca8113 and its high metastatic lines), especially in high metastatic lines. miR-21 silencing could suppress the capacity of proliferation, migration and invasion, arrest the cell cycle and induce apoptosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (Tca8113 and its high metastatic lines). All the results indicate that miR-21 will probably open a new path to the gene therapy for oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26191145

  16. miR-21 modulates tumor outgrowth induced by human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Keun Koo; Lee, Ae Lim; Kim, Jee Young; Lee, Sun Young; Bae, Yong Chan; Jung, Jin Sup

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-21 modulates hADSC-induced increase of tumor growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The action is mostly mediated by the modulation of TGF-{beta} signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of miR-21 enhances the blood flow recovery in hindlimb ischemia. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in clinical situations, due principally to their potential use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. However, the therapeutic application of MSCs remains limited, unless the favorable effects of MSCs on tumor growth in vivo, and the long-term safety of the clinical applications of MSCs, can be more thoroughly understood. In this study, we determined whether microRNAs can modulate MSC-induced tumor outgrowth in BALB/c nude mice. Overexpression of miR-21 in human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) inhibited hADSC-induced tumor growth, and inhibition of miR-21 increased it. Downregulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2), but not of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, in hADSCs showed effects similar to those of miR-21 overexpression. Downregulation of TGFBR2 and overexpression of miR21 decreased tumor vascularity. Inhibition of miR-21 and the addition of TGF-{beta} increased the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in hADSCs. Transplantation of miR-21 inhibitor-transfected hADSCs increased blood flow recovery in a hind limb ischemia model of nude mice, compared with transplantation of control oligo-transfected cells. These findings indicate that MSCs might favor tumor growth in vivo. Thus, it is necessary to study the long-term safety of this technique before MSCs can be used as therapeutic tools in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  17. miR-21-3p is a positive regulator of L1CAM in several human carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Doberstein, Kai; Bretz, Niko P; Schirmer, Uwe; Fiegl, Heidi; Blaheta, Roman; Breunig, Christian; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Reimer, Dan; Zeimet, Alain G; Altevogt, Peter

    2014-11-28

    Expression of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) occurs frequently in human cancers and is associated with poor prognosis in cancers such as ovarian, endometrial, breast, renal cell carcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. L1CAM promotes cell motility, invasion, chemoresistance and metastasis formation. Elucidating genetic processes involved in the expression of L1CAM in cancers is of considerable importance. Transcription factors such as SLUG, β-catenin/TCF-LEF, PAX8 and VHL have been implicated in the re-activation of L1CAM in various types of cancers. There is increasing evidence that micro-RNAs can also have strong effects on gene expression. Here we have identified miR-21-3p as a positive regulator of L1CAM expression. Over-expression of miR-21-3p (miR-21*) but not the complementary sequence miR-21-5p (miR-21) could strongly augment L1CAM expression in renal, endometrial and ovarian carcinoma derived cell lines by an unknown mechanism involving transcriptional activation of the L1CAM gene. In patient cohorts from renal, endometrial and ovarian cancers we observed a strong positive correlation of L1CAM and miR-21-3p expressions. Although L1CAM alone was a reliable marker for overall and disease free survival, the combination of L1CAM and miR-21-3p expressions strongly enhanced the predictive power. Our findings shed new light on the complex regulation of L1CAM in cancers and advocate the use of L1CAM/miR-21-3p for diagnostic application. PMID:25149066

  18. WP1066 Sensitizes Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells to Cisplatin by Targeting STAT3/miR-21 axis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuan; Ren, Yu; Liu, Aiqin; Jin, Rui; Jiang, Qingping; Huang, Yuanyuan; Kong, Lingping; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Lun

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that activation of STAT3 and miR-21 contributes to chemoresistance in multiple tumors. We examined the expression of STAT3 and miR-21 in 43 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tumors and classified them into cisplatin sensitive or resistant group. Tca8113 and Tca8113/DDP cells were treated with cisplatin (DDP), WP1066 (STAT3 inhibitor) or in combination. MTT, colony formation, wound healing, 3-D culture, and transwell chamber assays were used to evaluate the malignant phenotype of OSCC cells. We evaluated the effect of WP1066 on the expression of STAT3 and miR-21. A Tca8113/DDP OSCC xenograft tumor model was established to evaluate the therapeutic effect of WP1066 in combination with DDP. The expression of STAT3/miR-21 was significantly increased in DDP-resistant OSCC samples and Tca8113/DDP cells compared to its parental cell. Treatment of DDP combined with WP1066 efficiently inhibited Tca8113 and Tca8113/DDP cell proliferation, migration and invasion. STAT3 mediated OSCC cell survival and DDP resistance through upregulating the expression of miR-21 and downregulating miR-21 downstream targets, including PTEN, TIMP3 and PDCD4. WP1066 plus DDP treatment could inhibit Tca8113 and Tca8113/DDP cell growth by inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation and miR-21 expression. These results indicated that STAT3/miR-21 axis could be a candidate therapeutic target for OSCC chemoresistance. PMID:25514838

  19. miR-21-mediated decreased neutrophil apoptosis is a determinant of impaired coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Rebecca; Terry, Russell; Hutcheson, Brenda; Jadhav, Rashmi; Chaplin, Jennifer; Smith, Erika; Barrington, Robert; Proctor, Spencer D; Rocic, Petra

    2015-06-01

    Coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in metabolic syndrome. microRNA-21 (miR-21) is a proproliferative and antiapoptotic miR, which we showed to be elevated in metabolic syndrome. Here we investigate whether impaired CCG in metabolic syndrome involved miR-21-mediated aberrant apoptosis. Normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) and metabolic syndrome [J. C. Russel (JCR)] rats underwent transient, repetitive coronary artery occlusion [repetitive ischemia (RI)]. Antiapoptotic Bcl-2, phospho-Bad, and Bcl-2/Bax dimers were increased on days 6 and 9 RI, and proapoptotic Bax and Bax/Bax dimers and cytochrome-c release concurrently decreased in JCR versus SD rats. Active caspases were decreased in JCR versus SD rats (~50%). Neutrophils increased transiently on day 3 RI in the collateral-dependent zone of SD rats but remained elevated in JCR rats, paralleling miR-21 expression. miR-21 downregulation by anti-miR-21 induced neutrophil apoptosis and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax dimers (~75%) while increasing Bax/Bax dimers, cytochrome-c release, and caspase activation (~70, 400, and 400%). Anti-miR-21 also improved CCG in JCR rats (~60%). Preventing neutrophil infiltration with blocking antibodies resulted in equivalent CCG recovery, confirming a major role for deregulated neutrophil apoptosis in CCG impairment. Neutrophil and miR-21-dependent CCG inhibition was in significant part mediated by increased oxidative stress. We conclude that neutrophil apoptosis is integral to normal CCG and that inappropriate prolonged miR-21-mediated survival of neutrophils plays a major role in impaired CCG, in part via oxidative stress generation.

  20. Sulindac has strong antifibrotic effects by suppressing STAT3-related miR-21

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xue; Li, You-Jie; Gao, Shu-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Zhi; Wang, Ping-Yu; Yan, Yun-Fei; Xie, Shu-Yang; Lv, Chang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a disease with an unknown cause and a poor prognosis. In this study, we aimed to explore the pathogenesis of PF and the mechanism of sulindac in attenuating bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF. The rat PF model was induced by BLM and verified through histological studies and hydroxyproline assay. The severity of BLM-induced PF in rats and other effects, such as the extent of the wet lung to bw ratios, thickening of alveolar interval or collagen deposition, was obviously ameliorated in sulindac-treated rat lungs compared with BLM-induced lungs. Sulindac also reversed the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inhibited the PF process by restoring the levels of E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) in A549 cells. Our results further demonstrated that the above effects of sulindac might be related to regulating of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) expression, which further affects signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) levels. Moreover, higher miR-21 levels with the decreased E-cadherin and increased α-SMA expressions were found in transforming growth factor-β1-treated A549 cells, which can be reversed by sulindac. Collectively, our results demonstrate that by decreasing IFN-γ-induced STAT3/p-STAT3 expression to down-regulate miR-21, sulindac could significantly reverse EMT in A549 cells and prevent BLM-induced PF. PMID:25704671

  1. Up-Regulation of miR-21 Is Associated with Cervicitis and Human Papillomavirus Infection in Cervical Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bumrungthai, Sureewan; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Evans, Mark Francis; Chopjitt, Peechanika; Tangsiriwatthana, Thumwadee; Patarapadungkit, Natcha; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan; Luanratanakorn, Sanguanchoke; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Worawichawong, Suchin; Pientong, Chamsai

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is recognized as an oncomir and shows up-regulation in many types of human malignancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of miR-21 expression associated with HPV infection in normal and abnormal cervical tissues. Cervical tissue samples with different cytological or histopathological grades were investigated for HPV by PCR and for miR-21 and programmed cell death, protein 4 (PDCD4) expression using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Laser capture microdissection (LCM) of stromal and epithelial tissues and in situ hybridization (ISH) using locked nucleic acid (LNA) probes were performed on a subset of fixed specimens. Cell line experiments were conducted on fibroblasts stimulated in culture media from HeLa cells, which were then assessed for miR-21, PDCD4, IL-6 and α-SMA expression by qRT-PCR. Twenty normal cervical cell, 12 cervicitis, 14 cervical intraepithelial neoplastic I (CIN I), 22 CIN II-III and 43 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) specimens were investigated. miR-21 levels were significantly lower in normal than in abnormal tissues. The expression of miR-21 in HPV negative normal cytology was significantly lower than in HPV positive samples in abnormal tissue and SCC. The miR-21 expression was significantly higher in HPV negative cervicitis than HPV negative normal cells. LCM and ISH data showed that miR-21 is primarily expressed in the tumor-associated stromal cell microenvironment. Fibroblasts treated with HeLa cell culture media showed up-regulated expression of miR-21, which correlated with increased expression of α-SMA and IL-6 and with down-regulation of PDCD4. These results demonstrate that miR-21 is associated with HPV infection and involved in cervical lesions as well as cervicitis and its up-regulation in tumor-stroma might be involved in the inflammation process and cervical cancer progression. PMID:26010154

  2. Cardiac progenitor cell-derived exosomes prevent cardiomyocytes apoptosis through exosomal miR-21 by targeting PDCD4.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Pan, Y; Li, X H; Yang, X Y; Feng, Y L; Tan, H H; Jiang, L; Feng, J; Yu, X Y

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells derived from adult heart have emerged as one of the most promising stem cell types for cardiac protection and repair. Exosomes are known to mediate cell-cell communication by transporting cell-derived proteins and nucleic acids, including various microRNAs (miRNAs). Here we investigated the cardiac progenitor cell (CPC)-derived exosomal miRNAs on protecting myocardium under oxidative stress. Sca1(+)CPCs-derived exosomes were purified from conditional medium, and identified by nanoparticle trafficking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy and western blotting using CD63, CD9 and Alix as markers. Exosomes production was measured by NTA, the result showed that oxidative stress-induced CPCs secrete more exosomes compared with normal condition. Although six apoptosis-related miRNAs could be detected in two different treatment-derived exosomes, only miR-21 was significantly upregulated in oxidative stress-induced exosomes compared with normal exosomes. The same oxidative stress could cause low miR-21 and high cleaved caspase-3 expression in H9C2 cardiac cells. But the cleaved caspase-3 was significantly decreased when miR-21 was overexpressed by transfecting miR-21 mimic. Furthermore, miR-21 mimic or inhibitor transfection and luciferase activity assay confirmed that programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) was a target gene of miR-21, and miR-21/PDCD4 axis has an important role in anti-apoptotic effect of H9C2 cell. Western blotting and Annexin V/PI results demonstrated that exosomes pre-treated H9C2 exhibited increased miR-21 whereas decreased PDCD4, and had more resistant potential to the apoptosis induced by the oxidative stress, compared with non-treated cells. These findings revealed that CPC-derived exosomal miR-21 had an inhibiting role in the apoptosis pathway through downregulating PDCD4. Restored miR-21/PDCD4 pathway using CPC-derived exosomes could protect myocardial cells against oxidative stress-related apoptosis. Therefore

  3. miR-21-3p controls sepsis-associated cardiac dysfunction via regulating SORBS2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Bei, Yihua; Shen, Shutong; Huang, Peipei; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Jialiang; Sun, Qi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yun; Xu, Tianzhao; Kong, Xiangqing; Xiao, Junjie

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac dysfunction with sepsis is a major cause of death in intensive care units. Several lines of evidence have revealed the potential of microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) as biomarkers for detecting sepsis, though direct evidence of their functional roles in septic cardiac dysfunction is still lacking. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce sepsis-associated cardiac dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) and detrimental changes in cardiac contractility, inflammation, and energy metabolism. Microarray analysis and qRT-PCRs revealed that miR-21-3p was significantly induced in heart samples challenged with LPS. Impressively, pharmacological inhibition of miR-21-3p using antagomiR was able to preserve FS and EF and prevent mitochondria ultrastructural damage and autophagy in LPS-treated mice, while forced expression of miR-21-3p using agomiR aggravated that. Besides that, miR-21-3p antagomiR improved the survival of mice treated with LPS. Meanwhile, our data showed that SH3 domain-containing protein 2 (SORBS2) was inversely correlated with miR-21-3p expression level in mice hearts, and was repressed in hearts challenged with LPS, suggesting SORBS2 as a target gene of miR-21-3p. Additionally, plasma miR-21-3p was markedly elevated in septic patients with cardiac dysfunction as compared to septic patients without cardiac dysfunction. The ROC curve showed that plasma miR-21-3p could be a specific predictor of septic patients developing cardiac dysfunction with an area under the curve of 0.939. Collectively, the present study provides strong evidence that miR-21-3p controls sepsis-associated cardiac dysfunction via regulating SORBS2. Inhibition of miR-21-3p might be a protective strategy to treat sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction.

  4. miR-21-3p controls sepsis-associated cardiac dysfunction via regulating SORBS2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Bei, Yihua; Shen, Shutong; Huang, Peipei; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Jialiang; Sun, Qi; Chen, Yuanyuan; Yang, Yun; Xu, Tianzhao; Kong, Xiangqing; Xiao, Junjie

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac dysfunction with sepsis is a major cause of death in intensive care units. Several lines of evidence have revealed the potential of microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) as biomarkers for detecting sepsis, though direct evidence of their functional roles in septic cardiac dysfunction is still lacking. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce sepsis-associated cardiac dysfunction, as evidenced by reduced fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) and detrimental changes in cardiac contractility, inflammation, and energy metabolism. Microarray analysis and qRT-PCRs revealed that miR-21-3p was significantly induced in heart samples challenged with LPS. Impressively, pharmacological inhibition of miR-21-3p using antagomiR was able to preserve FS and EF and prevent mitochondria ultrastructural damage and autophagy in LPS-treated mice, while forced expression of miR-21-3p using agomiR aggravated that. Besides that, miR-21-3p antagomiR improved the survival of mice treated with LPS. Meanwhile, our data showed that SH3 domain-containing protein 2 (SORBS2) was inversely correlated with miR-21-3p expression level in mice hearts, and was repressed in hearts challenged with LPS, suggesting SORBS2 as a target gene of miR-21-3p. Additionally, plasma miR-21-3p was markedly elevated in septic patients with cardiac dysfunction as compared to septic patients without cardiac dysfunction. The ROC curve showed that plasma miR-21-3p could be a specific predictor of septic patients developing cardiac dysfunction with an area under the curve of 0.939. Collectively, the present study provides strong evidence that miR-21-3p controls sepsis-associated cardiac dysfunction via regulating SORBS2. Inhibition of miR-21-3p might be a protective strategy to treat sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:27033308

  5. NFkappaB activation is essential for miR-21 induction by TGFβ1 in high glucose conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Madhyastha, Radha Madhyastha, HarishKumar; Pengjam, Yutthana; Nakajima, Yuichi; Omura, Sayuri; Maruyama, Masugi

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) induces miR-21 in high glucose conditions. • NFkappaB activation and subsequent ROS generation are necessary for TGFβ1’s effect. • TGFβ1 facilitates binding of NFkB p65 to miR-21 promoter. • SMAD proteins bind to R-SBE sites on primary miR-21, in NFkB dependent manner. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) is a pleiotropic growth factor with a very broad spectrum of effects on wound healing. Chronic non-healing wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers express reduced levels of TGFβ1. On the other hand, our previous studies have shown that the microRNA miR-21 is differentially regulated in diabetic wounds and that it promotes migration of fibroblast cells. Although interplay between TGFβ1 and miR-21 are studied in relation to cancer, their interaction in the context of chronic wounds has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined if TGFβ1 could stimulate miR-21 in fibroblasts that are subjected to high glucose environment. MiR-21 was, in fact, induced by TGFβ1 in high glucose conditions. The induction by TGFβ1 was dependent on NFκB activation and subsequent ROS generation. TGFβ1 was instrumental in degrading the NFκB inhibitor IκBα and facilitating the nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 subunit. EMSA studies showed enhanced DNA binding activity of NFκB in the presence of TGFβ1. ChIP assay revealed binding of p65 to miR-21 promoter. NFκB activation was also required for the nuclear translocation of Smad 4 protein and subsequent direct interaction of Smad proteins with primary miR-21 as revealed by RNA-IP studies. Our results show that manipulation of TGFβ1–NFκB–miR-21 pathway could serve as an innovative approach towards therapeutics to heal diabetic ulcers.

  6. Anti-miR21 oligonucleotide enhances chemosensitivity of T98G cell line to doxorubicin by inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Giunti, Laura; da Ros, Martina; Vinci, Serena; Gelmini, Stefania; Iorio, Anna Lisa; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Cardellicchio, Stefania; Castiglione, Francesca; Genitori, Lorenzo; de Martino, Maurizio; Giglio, Sabrina; Genuardi, Maurizio; Sardi, Iacopo

    2015-01-01

    Various signal transduction pathways seem to be involved in chemoresistance mechanism of glioblastomas (GBMs). miR-21 is an important oncogenic miRNA which modulates drug resistance of tumor cells. We analyzed the expression of 5 miRNAs, previously found to be dysregulated in high grade gliomas, in 9 pediatric (pGBM) and in 5 adult (aGBM) GBMs. miR-21 was over-expressed, with a significant difference between pGBMs and aGBMs represented by a 4 times lower degree of expression in the pediatric compared to the adult series (p = 0.001). Doxorubicin (Dox) seems to be an effective anti-glioma agent with high antitumor activity also against glioblastoma stem cells. We therefore evaluated the chemosensitivity to Dox in 3 GBM cell lines (A172, U87MG and T98G). Dox had a cytotoxic effect after 48 h of treatment in A172 and U87MG, while T98G cells were resistant. TUNEL assay verified that Dox induced apoptosis in A172 and U87MG but not in T98G. miR-21 showed a low basal expression in treated cells and was over-expressed in untreated cells. To validate the possible association of miR-21 with drug resistance of T98G cells, we transfected anti-miR-21 inhibitor into the cells. The expression level of miR-21 was significantly lower in T98G transfected cells (than in the parental control cells). Transfected cells showed a high apoptotic rate compared to control after Dox treatment by TUNEL assay, suggesting that combined Dox and miR-21 inhibitor therapy can sensitize GBM resistant cells to anthracyclines by enhancing apoptosis. PMID:25628933

  7. Circulating miR-21 as an independent predictive biomarker for chemoresistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Miyamae, Mahito; Okajima, Wataru; Ohashi, Takuma; Imamura, Taisuke; Kiuchi, Jun; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    Only a few studies indentified the significance of circulating microRNAs in blood as a predictive biomarker for chemoresistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, we tested whether oncogenic miR-21 promoted chemoresistance in ESCC and served as a biomarker for predicting chemoresistance in plasma of patients with ESCC. All consecutive patients underwent the preoperative chemotherapy regimen (JCOG9907 trial) with cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil. As a result, pretreatment plasma concentrations of miR-21 were significantly higher in ESCC patients with a low histopathological response than in those with a high histopathological response (P = 0.0416). Multivariate analysis revealed that a high pretreatment plasma concentration of miR-21 was an independent risk factor of chemoresistance (p = 0.0150; Odds Ratio 9.95 (range: 1.56-63.4)). The expression of miR-21 was also significantly higher in pretreatment ESCC tissues with a low histopathological response than in those with a high histopathological response (P = 0.0409). In vitro, although the growth of KYSE 170 ESCC cells transfected with the control mimics was markedly inhibited by the 5-fluorouracil or cisplatin treatment, the inhibitory effects of 5-FU (P < 0.05) or cisplatin (P < 0.05) were significantly reduced in KYSE170 cells that overexpressed miR-21. Taken together, the overexpression of miR-21 contributed to chemoresistance and circulating miR-21 in plasma of patients with ESCC could be a useful biomarker for predicting chemoresistance. PMID:27508093

  8. Targeting miR-21 enhances the sensitivity of human colon cancer HT-29 cells to chemoradiotherapy in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Jun; Lei, Wan; Fu, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ling; Li, Jun-He; Xiong, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-17

    Highlight: •MiR-21 plays a significant role in 5-FU resistance. •This role might be attributed to targeting of hMSH2 as well as TP and DPD via miR-21 targeted hMSH2. •Indirectly targeted TP and DPD to influence 5-FU chemotherapy sensitivity. -- Abstract: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a classic chemotherapeutic drug that has been widely used for colorectal cancer treatment, but colorectal cancer cells are often resistant to primary or acquired 5-FU therapy. Several studies have shown that miR-21 is significantly elevated in colorectal cancer. This suggests that this miRNA might play a role in this resistance. In this study, we investigated this possibility and the possible mechanism underlying this role. We showed that forced expression of miR-21 significantly inhibited apoptosis, enhanced cell proliferation, invasion, and colony formation ability, promoted G1/S cell cycle transition and increased the resistance of tumor cells to 5-FU and X radiation in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of miR-21 reversed these effects on HT-29 cells and increased the sensitivity of HT-29/5-FU to 5-FU chemotherapy. Finally, we showed that miR-21 targeted the human mutS homolog2 (hMSH2), and indirectly regulated the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). These results demonstrate that miR-21 may play an important role in the 5-FU resistance of colon cancer cells.

  9. Anti-miR21 oligonucleotide enhances chemosensitivity of T98G cell line to doxorubicin by inducing apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Giunti, Laura; da Ros, Martina; Vinci, Serena; Gelmini, Stefania; Iorio, Anna Lisa; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Cardellicchio, Stefania; Castiglione, Francesca; Genitori, Lorenzo; de Martino, Maurizio; Giglio, Sabrina; Genuardi, Maurizio; Sardi, Iacopo

    2015-01-01

    Various signal transduction pathways seem to be involved in chemoresistance mechanism of glioblastomas (GBMs). miR-21 is an important oncogenic miRNA which modulates drug resistance of tumor cells. We analyzed the expression of 5 miRNAs, previously found to be dysregulated in high grade gliomas, in 9 pediatric (pGBM) and in 5 adult (aGBM) GBMs. miR-21 was over-expressed, with a significant difference between pGBMs and aGBMs represented by a 4 times lower degree of expression in the pediatric compared to the adult series (p = 0.001). Doxorubicin (Dox) seems to be an effective anti-glioma agent with high antitumor activity also against glioblastoma stem cells. We therefore evaluated the chemosensitivity to Dox in 3 GBM cell lines (A172, U87MG and T98G). Dox had a cytotoxic effect after 48 h of treatment in A172 and U87MG, while T98G cells were resistant. TUNEL assay verified that Dox induced apoptosis in A172 and U87MG but not in T98G. miR-21 showed a low basal expression in treated cells and was over-expressed in untreated cells. To validate the possible association of miR-21 with drug resistance of T98G cells, we transfected anti-miR-21 inhibitor into the cells. The expression level of miR-21 was significantly lower in T98G transfected cells (than in the parental control cells). Transfected cells showed a high apoptotic rate compared to control after Dox treatment by TUNEL assay, suggesting that combined Dox and miR-21 inhibitor therapy can sensitize GBM resistant cells to anthracyclines by enhancing apoptosis. PMID:25628933

  10. Upregulation of miR-21 in Cisplatin Resistant Ovarian Cancer via JNK-1/c-Jun Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Echevarría-Vargas, Ileabett M.; Valiyeva, Fatma; Vivas-Mejía, Pablo E.

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin has been the most accepted drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer for almost 40 years. Although the majority of patients with ovarian cancer respond to front-line platinum combination chemotherapy, many patients will develop cisplatin-resistance disease, which is extremely rapid and fatal. Although various mechanisms of cisplatin resistance have been postulated, the key molecules involved in such resistance have not been identified. MiRNAs are endogenously expressed small non-coding RNAs, which are evolutionarily conserved and function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Dysregulation of miRNAs have been associated with cancer initiation, progression and drug resistance. The oncogenic miRNA-21, one of the best-studied miRNAs, is upregulated in almost all human cancers. However, the regulation of miR-21 in cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells has not been assessed. In this study, we measured the miR-21 expression by real-time PCR and found upregulation of miR-21 in cisplatin resistant compared with cisplatin sensitive ovarian cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated the association of the c-Jun transcription factor to the pri-mir-21 DNA promoter regions. Blocking the JNK-1, the major activator of c-Jun phosphorylation, reduced the expression of pre-mir-21 and increased the expression of its well-known target gene, PDCD4. Overexpression of miR-21 in cisplatin sensitive cells decreased PDCD4 levels and increased cell proliferation. Finally, targeting miR-21 reduced cell growth, proliferation and invasion of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. These results suggest that the JNK-1/c-Jun/miR-21 pathway contributes to the cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer cells and demonstrated that miR-21 is a plausible target to overcome cisplatin resistance. PMID:24865582

  11. Boiling heat transfer of refrigerant R-21 in upward flow in plate-fin heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. V.; Shamirzaev, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the results of experimental investigation of boiling heat transfer of refrigerant R-21 in upward flow in a vertical plate-fin heat exchanger with transverse size of the channels that is smaller than the capillary constant. The heat transfer coefficients obtained in ranges of small mass velocities and low heat fluxes, which are typical of the industry, have been poorly studied yet. The characteristic patterns of the upward liquid-vapor flow in the heat exchanger channels and the regions of their existence are detected. The obtained data show a weak dependence of heat transfer coefficient on equilibrium vapor quality, mass flow rate, and heat flux density and do not correspond to calculations by the known heat transfer models. A possible reason for this behavior is a decisive influence of evaporation of thin liquid films on the heat transfer at low heat flux.

  12. Stargazing microRNA maps a new miR-21 star for cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Indolfi, Ciro; Curcio, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy is an initial compensatory mechanism in response to cardiac stress that can degenerate into heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRs) regulate several aspects of cardiovascular diseases. In this issue of the JCI, Bang and colleagues identified an exosome-mediated communication mechanism between cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes. Specifically, cardiac fibroblasts secrete miR-enriched exosomes, which are subsequently taken up by cardiomyocytes, in which they alter gene expression. In particular, a passenger strand miR, miR-21*, was identified as a potent paracrine factor that induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy when shuttled through exosomes. These advanced comprehensive analyses represent a major step forward in our understanding of cardiovascular physiopathology, providing a promising adjunctive target for possible therapeutic approaches, namely the miR-mediated paracrine signaling network. PMID:24743143

  13. Stargazing microRNA maps a new miR-21 star for cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Indolfi, Ciro; Curcio, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy is an initial compensatory mechanism in response to cardiac stress that can degenerate into heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs (miRs) regulate several aspects of cardiovascular diseases. In this issue of the JCI, Bang and colleagues identified an exosome-mediated communication mechanism between cardiac fibroblasts and cardiomyocytes. Specifically, cardiac fibroblasts secrete miR-enriched exosomes, which are subsequently taken up by cardiomyocytes, in which they alter gene expression. In particular, a passenger strand miR, miR-21*, was identified as a potent paracrine factor that induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy when shuttled through exosomes. These advanced comprehensive analyses represent a major step forward in our understanding of cardiovascular physiopathology, providing a promising adjunctive target for possible therapeutic approaches, namely the miR-mediated paracrine signaling network. PMID:24743143

  14. PAI-1-regulated miR-21 defines a novel age-associated fibrogenic pathway in muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ardite, Esther; Perdiguero, Eusebio; Vidal, Berta; Gutarra, Susana; Serrano, Antonio L; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of skeletal muscle homeostasis by substitution with fibrotic tissue constitutes the principal cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, yet the implicated fibrogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study identifies the extracellular PAI-1/urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) balance as an important regulator of microribonucleic acid (miR)-21 biogenesis, controlling age-associated muscle fibrosis and dystrophy progression. Genetic loss of PAI-1 in mdx dystrophic mice anticipated muscle fibrosis through these sequential mechanisms: the alteration of collagen metabolism by uPA-mediated proteolytic processing of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in muscle fibroblasts and the activation of miR-21 expression, which inhibited phosphatase and tensin homologue and enhanced AKT signaling, thus endowing TGF-β with a remarkable cell proliferation-promoting potential. Age-associated fibrogenesis and muscle deterioration in mdx mice, as well as exacerbated dystrophy in young PAI-1(-/-) mdx mice, could be reversed by miR-21 or uPA-selective interference, whereas forced miR-21 overexpression aggravated disease severity. The PAI-1-miR-21 fibrogenic axis also appeared dysregulated in muscle of DMD patients, providing a basis for effectively targeting fibrosis and muscular dystrophies in currently untreatable individuals.

  15. Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and National Institutes of Health R01 Research Awards: Is There Evidence of a Double Bind for Women of Color?

    PubMed Central

    Ginther, Donna K.; Kahn, Shulamit; Schaffer, Walter T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, and the probability of being awarded an R01 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Method The authors used data from the NIH Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination grants management database for the years 2000–2006 to examine gender differences and race/ethnicity-specific gender differences in the probability of receiving an R01 Type 1 award. The authors used descriptive statistics and probit models to determine the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, degree, investigator experience, and R01 award probability, controlling for a large set of observable characteristics. Results White women PhDs and MDs were as likely as white men to receive an R01 award. Compared with white women, Asian and black women PhDs and black women MDs were significantly less likely to receive funding. Women submitted fewer grant applications, and blacks and women who were new investigators were more likely to submit only one application between 2000 and 2006. Conclusions Differences by race/ethnicity explain the NIH funding gap for women of color, as white women have a slight advantage over men in receiving Type 1 awards. Findings of a lower submission rate for women and an increased likelihood that they will submit only one proposal are consistent with research showing that women avoid competition. Policies designed to address the racial and ethnic diversity of the biomedical workforce have the potential to improve funding outcomes for women of color. PMID:27306969

  16. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P.; Searles, Charles D.

    2010-03-19

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm{sup 2}) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p < 0.05). The miRNA with the greatest change was miR-21; it was increased 5.2-fold (p = 0.002) in USS-treated versus control cells. Western analysis demonstrated that PTEN, a known target of miR-21, was downregulated in HUVECs exposed to USS or transfected with pre-miR-21. Importantly, HUVECs overexpressing miR-21 had decreased apoptosis and increased eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}}) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO{sup {center_dot}} pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  17. Differential expression of miR-21 and miR-75 in esophageal carcinoma patients and its clinical implication

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Hongbo; He, Zhanao; Wang, Hongjiang; Du, Tongxin; Pang, Zuoliang

    2016-01-01

    In Xinjiang, China, esophageal carcinoma has a high incidence in Kazak and Uighur populations. MicroRNA (miR)-21 and miR-375 are related to esophageal carcinoma. This study thus investigated their potencials in early diagnosis and prognosis in Kazak and Uighur populations, to provide evidences for serum markers of esophageal cancer. A total of 126 Kazak or Uighur esophageal cancer patients were enrolled as the disease group, along with 86 local Han patients as disease control cohort, and 80 healthy Kazak or Uighur individuals. MiRNA expression was detected by in situ hybridization in tissues and by qRT-PCR in serum. ROC approach was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of miRNA on esophageal carcinoma. Cox analysis was performed to screen factors governing prognosis. MiR-21 level was significantly elevated in both tissue and serum samples of esophageal cancer patients, while miR-375 was down-regulated. Such difference was more potent in disease group compared to disease control group. MiR expression was correlated with infiltration depth, TNM stage, vascular invasion, and lymph node metastasis. Elevated expression of miR-21 reduced the sensitivity of radio-therapy, and increased recurrence frequency. The diagnostic value of single assay for miR-21 or miR-375 was lower than the combined assay (AUC=0.812 or 0.739 vs. 0.858). They also affected patient prognosis (OR=1.53 or 0.652). MiR-21 and miR-375 presented abnormal expression in Kazak or Uighur esophageal carcinoma patients and were independent factors affecting prognosis. The combined assay of miR-21 and miR-375 may help to make early diagnosis of esophageal cancer. PMID:27508050

  18. Potential Role of Circulating MiR-21 in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Digestive System Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chengqiang; Zhou, Xiaoying; Dang, Yini; Yan, Jin; Zhang, Guoxin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent evidences indicate that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit aberrant expression in the plasma of patients suffering from cancer compared to normal individuals, suggesting that it may be a useful noninvasion diagnostic method. MiR-21 plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis and can be served as a biomarker for the detection of various cancers. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the potential role of miR-21 for digestive system cancer. By searching the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for publications concerning the diagnostic value of miR-21 for digestive system cancer, total of 23 publications were included in this meta-analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to check the overall test performance. For prognostic meta-analysis, pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of circulating miR-21 for survival were calculated. Totally 23 eligible publications were included in this meta-analysis (15 articles for diagnosis and 8 articles for prognosis). For diagnostic meta-analysis, the summary estimates revealed that the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.76(95% CI = 0.70–0.82) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.78–0.89). Besides, the area under the summary ROC curve (AUC) is 0.87. For prognostic meta-analysis, the pooled HR of higher miR-21 expression in circulation was 1.94 (95% CI = 0.99–3.82, P = 0.055), which indicated higher miR-21 expression could be likely to predict poorer survival in digestive system cancer. The subgroup analysis implied the higher expression of miR-21 was correlated with worse overall survival in the Asian population in digestive system cancer (HR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.21–4.77, P = 0.012). The current evidence suggests circulating miR-21 may be suitable to be a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for digestive system cancer in the Asians. PMID:26683919

  19. Analysis of NIH R01 Application Critiques, Impact and Criteria Scores: Does the Sex of the Principal Investigator Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Kaatz, Anna; Lee, You-Geon; Potvien, Aaron; Magua, Wairimu; Filut, Amarette; Bhattacharya, Anupama; Leatherberry, Renee; Zhu, Xiaojin; Carnes, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Background Prior text analysis of R01 critiques suggested that female applicants may be disadvantaged in NIH peer review, particularly for R01 renewals. NIH altered its review format in 2009. The authors examined R01 critiques and scoring in the new format for differences due to principal investigator (PI) sex. Method The authors analyzed 739 critiques—268 from 88 unfunded and 471 from 153 funded applications for grants awarded to 125 PIs (M = 76, 61% F = 49, 39%) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison between 2010 and 2014. The authors used 7 word categories for text analysis: ability, achievement, agentic, negative evaluation, positive evaluation, research, and standout adjectives. The authors used regression models to compare priority and criteria scores, and results from text analysis for differences due to PI sex and whether the application was for a new (Type 1) or renewal (Type 2) R01. Results Approach scores predicted priority scores for all PIs’ applications (P<.001); but scores and critiques differed significantly for male and female PIs’ Type 2 applications. Reviewers assigned significantly worse priority, approach, and significance scores to female than male PIs’ Type 2 applications, despite using standout adjectives (e.g., “outstanding,” “excellent”) and making references to ability in more of their critiques (P<.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions The authors’ analyses suggest that subtle gender bias may continue to operate in the post-2009 NIH review format in ways that could lead reviewers to implicitly hold male and female applicants to different standards of evaluation, particularly for R01 renewals. PMID:27276003

  20. Expression and significance of miR-21 in multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, J H; Zhou, W W; Liu, B X; Man, D L; Yang, Z D; Liu, F R; Shang, H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the expression level of peripheral mir-21 in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and to determine its clinical significance. MM patients (30), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) patients (14), and normal controls (20) were recruited to determine the serum level of β2-MG, IgA and IgM, IgG, λ, κ, TP, ALB, Hb, LDH, and Ca(2+). Gene expression of mir-21 was quantified by SYBR green real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. We found that the expression level of serum mir-21 in the MM group was significantly higher than the MGUS group and the NC group (P < 0.01). According to the ISS installment, the level of mir-21, lgG, κ, and ALB in the MM group in stage I differed from that in stages II and III. The level of IgA, β2-MG in stage III was higher as compared with stage I and II (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01).The levels of mir-21, κ, (κ+λ), IgG, (IgG + IgA + IgM), and β2-MG in MM patients were positively correlated with ALB (P < 0.01). Based on the results, miR-21 plays an important role as an oncogene. Mir-21 may be important in the occurrence, development, and disease prognosis of MM. PMID:26909911

  1. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Nicolas; Goeke, Friederike; Splittstoesser, Vera; Lankat-Buttgereit, Brigitte; Mueller, Stefan C.; Ellinger, Joerg

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2-T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.

  2. STAT3 pathway regulates lung-derived brain metastasis initiating cell capacity through miR-21 activation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohini; Garg, Neha; Venugopal, Chitra; Hallett, Robin; Tokar, Tomas; McFarlane, Nicole; Mahendram, Sujeivan; Bakhshinyan, David; Manoranjan, Branavan; Vora, Parvez; Qazi, Maleeha; Arpin, Carolynn C; Page, Brent; Haftchenary, Sina; Rosa, David A; Lai, Ping-Shan; Gómez-Biagi, Rodolfo F; Ali, Ahmed M; Lewis, Andrew; Geletu, Mulu; Murty, Naresh K; Hassell, John A; Jurisica, Igor; Gunning, Patrick T; Singh, Sheila K

    2015-09-29

    Brain metastases (BM) represent the most common tumor to affect the adult central nervous system. Despite the increasing incidence of BM, likely due to consistently improving treatment of primary cancers, BM remain severely understudied. In this study, we utilized patient-derived stem cell lines from lung-to-brain metastases to examine the regulatory role of STAT3 in brain metastasis initiating cells (BMICs). Annotation of our previously described BMIC regulatory genes with protein-protein interaction network mapping identified STAT3 as a novel protein interactor. STAT3 knockdown showed a reduction in BMIC self-renewal and migration, and decreased tumor size in vivo. Screening of BMIC lines with a library of STAT3 inhibitors identified one inhibitor to significantly reduce tumor formation. Meta-analysis identified the oncomir microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a target of STAT3 activity. Inhibition of miR-21 displayed similar reductions in BMIC self-renewal and migration as STAT3 knockdown. Knockdown of STAT3 also reduced expression of known downstream targets of miR-21. Our studies have thus identified STAT3 and miR-21 as cooperative regulators of stemness, migration and tumor initiation in lung-derived BM. Therefore, STAT3 represents a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of lung-to-brain metastases. PMID:26314961

  3. Androgens downregulate miR-21 expression in breast cancer cells underlining the protective role of androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Donà, Ada; Rizza, Pietro; Aquila, Saveria; Avena, Paola; Lanzino, Marilena; Pellegrino, Michele; Vivacqua, Adele; Tucci, Paola; Morelli, Catia; Andò, Sebastiano; Sisci, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Although the protective role of androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) is well established, the mechanisms involved remains largely unexplored. MicroRNAs play fundamental roles in many biological processes, including tumor cell development and metastasis. Herein, we report that androgens reduce BC cells proliferation acting as a negative modulator of the onco-miRNA-21. The synthetic androgen miboleron (Mib) decreases BC cell proliferation induced by miR-21 over-expression and AR knockdown evidenced the requirement of AR in the down-regulation of miR-21 expression. These effects seem to be a general mechanism occurring in BC tissues. Chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) analysis disclosed the binding of AR to a specific ARE sequence in miR-21 proximal promoter and recognizes the recruitment of HDAC3 as component for AR-mediated transcriptional repression. Such event is associated to a significantly reduced PolII binding in Mib treated extracts confirming that activated AR is a transcriptional repressor of miR-21 expression, providing further insight into the protective role of androgens in breast cancer cells. Collectively, our data and the widespread AR expression in primary and metastatic breast tumours, suggest a careful examination of the therapeutic potential of androgens also in potentiating the effectiveness of anti-oestrogen adjuvant therapies. PMID:26862856

  4. Androgens downregulate miR-21 expression in breast cancer cells underlining the protective role of androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Casaburi, Ivan; Cesario, Maria Grazia; Donà, Ada; Rizza, Pietro; Aquila, Saveria; Avena, Paola; Lanzino, Marilena; Pellegrino, Michele; Vivacqua, Adele; Tucci, Paola; Morelli, Catia; Andò, Sebastiano; Sisci, Diego

    2016-03-15

    Although the protective role of androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) is well established, the mechanisms involved remains largely unexplored. MicroRNAs play fundamental roles in many biological processes, including tumor cell development and metastasis. Herein, we report that androgens reduce BC cells proliferation acting as a negative modulator of the onco-miRNA-21.The synthetic androgen miboleron (Mib) decreases BC cell proliferation induced by miR-21 over-expression and AR knockdown evidenced the requirement of AR in the down-regulation of miR-21 expression. These effects seem to be a general mechanism occurring in BC tissues.Chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) analysis disclosed the binding of AR to a specific ARE sequence in miR-21 proximal promoter and recognizes the recruitment of HDAC3 as component for AR-mediated transcriptional repression. Such event is associated to a significantly reduced PolII binding in Mib treated extracts confirming that activated AR is a transcriptional repressor of miR-21 expression, providing further insight into the protective role of androgens in breast cancer cells.Collectively, our data and the widespread AR expression in primary and metastatic breast tumours, suggest a careful examination of the therapeutic potential of androgens also in potentiating the effectiveness of anti-oestrogen adjuvant therapies. PMID:26862856

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of miR-21 in the macrophage response to peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Rebecca Elise; Conklin, Daniel J; Ryan, Lindsey; Keskey, Robert C; Ramjee, Vikram; Sepulveda, Ernesto A; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Cheadle, William G

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the role of microRNA-21 in the macrophage response to peritonitis; microRNA-21 expression increases in peritoneal macrophages after lipopolysaccharide stimulation but is delayed until 48 hours after cecal ligation and puncture. MicroRNA-21-null mice and bone marrow-derived cell lines were exposed to cecal ligation and puncture or lipopolysaccharide, and survival, microRNA-21 levels, target messenger RNAs and proteins, and cytokines were assayed. Macrophages were also transfected with microRNA-21 mimics and antagomirs, and similar endpoints were measured. Survival in microRNA-21-null mice was significantly decreased after lipopolysaccharide-induced peritonitis but unchanged after cecal ligation and puncture compared with similarly treated wild-type mice. MicroRNA-21 expression, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, and programmed cell death protein 4 levels were increased after lipopolysaccharide addition in peritoneal cells. Pelino1 and sprouty (SPRY) messenger RNAs were similarly increased early, whereas programmed cell death protein 4 messenger RNA was decreased after lipopolysaccharide, and all microR-21 target messenger RNAs were subsequently decreased by 24 hours after lipopolysaccharide. Transfection with mimics and antagomirs led to appropriate responses in microRNA-21 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Knockdown of microRNA-21 in bone marrow-derived cells showed increased tumor necrosis factor-α and decreased interleukin 10 in response to lipopolysaccharide. Target proteins were unaffected by knockdown as was extracellular signal-regulated kinase; however, the nuclear factor κB p65 subunit was increased after lipopolysaccharide in the microRNA-21 knockout cells. In contrast, there was little change in these parameters after cecal ligation and puncture induction between null and wild-type mice. MicroRNA-21 is beneficial to survival in mice following lipopolysaccharide peritonitis. Overexpression of microRNA-21 decreased tumor necrosis factor

  6. Inhibiting miR-21 attenuates experimental hepatic fibrosis by suppressing both the ERK1 pathway in HSC and hepatocyte EMT.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kaiming; Ye, Changhong; Lin, Lin; Chu, Yimin; Ji, Meng; Dai, Weiping; Zeng, Xin; Lin, Yong

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has emerged as a critical regulatory molecule and an important serum marker in hepatic fibrogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of inhibiting miR-21 on hepatic fibrosis treatment. Serum miR-21 levels in 60 healthy individuals and 180 patients with different stages of liver cirrhosis were examined, miR-21 levels in normal or cirrhotic human liver tissues (n=10 each) were also detected. An adenoviral vector (Ad-TuD-21) carrying the sponging ToughDecoy (TuD)-RNA sequence against miR-21 was constructed to reduce miR-21 expression efficiently in vitro and in vivo Histological and immunohistological examinations were performed to evaluate the inhibitory effects and mechanism of Ad-TuD-21 delivery into carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic fibrosis rats by targeting extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) signalling in hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and hepatocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our results revealed that enhanced miR-21 levels in cirrhotic patients were related to the severity and activity of liver cirrhosis. Ad-TuD-21 administered to liver fibrosis rats could remarkably suppress profibrotic gene expression, cause histological improvements in liver and attenuate hepatic fibrosis significantly. More importantly, after Ad-TuD-21 treatment, inhibition of both the ERK1 signalling pathway in HSC and hepatocyte EMT was confirmed, which paralleled the enhancement of miR-21 target genes-sprouty2 (SPRY2) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α)-expression in vivo These data demonstrated that miR-21 is a key regulator to promote hepatic fibrogenesis, and sponging miR-21 expression may present a novel potentially therapeutic option for hepatic fibrosis.

  7. miR-21 Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in c-kit+ Cardiac Stem Cells In Vitro through PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Long, Xianping; Zhao, Ranzun; Wang, Zhenglong; Liu, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The low survival rate of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in the infarcted myocardium hampers cell therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) and one of its target proteins, PTEN, contribute to the survival and proliferation of many cell types, but their prosurvival effects in c-kit+ CSC remain unclear. Thus, we hypothesized that miR-21 reduces hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced apoptosis in c-kit+ CSC and estimated the contribution of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling to this oxidative circumstance. miR-21 mimics efficiently reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis in c-kit+ CSC, as evidenced by the downregulation of the proapoptosis proteins caspase-3 and Bax and upregulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2. In addition, the gain of function of miR-21 in c-kit+ CSC downregulated the protein level of PTEN although its mRNA level changed slightly; in the meantime, miR-21 overexpression also increased phospho-Akt (p-Akt). The antiapoptotic effects of miR-21 were comparable with Phen (bpV), the selective inhibitor of PTEN, while miR-21 inhibitor or PI3K's inhibitor LY294002 efficiently attenuated the antiapoptotic effect of miR-21. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-H2O2-induced apoptosis effect of miR-21 in c-kit+ CSC is contributed by PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling. miR-21 could be a potential molecule to facilitate the c-kit+ CSC therapy in ischemic myocardium. PMID:27803763

  8. Configurational Reassignment and Improved Preparation of the Competitive IL-6 Receptor Antagonist 20R,21R-Epoxyresibufogenin-3-formate

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Terrence L.; Cheng, Kejun; Greiner, Elisabeth; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Jacobson, Arthur E.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2012-01-01

    20R,21R-Epoxyresibufogenin-3-formate (1) and 20S,21S-epoxyresibufogenin-3-formate (2) were synthesized from commercial resibufogenin (3) using known procedures. The major product (1) was dextrorotatory, as was the major product from the reported synthesis of epoxyresibufogenin-3-formate; however, the literature (+)-compound was assigned the 20S,21S-configuration based on NMR data. We have now unequivocally determined, using single-crystal X-ray structure analyses of the major and minor products of the synthesis and of their derivatives, that the major product from the synthesis was (+)-20R,21R-epoxyresibufogenin-3-formate (1). Our minor synthetic product was determined to have the (-)-20S,21S-configuration (2). The (+)-20R,21R-compound 1 has been found to have high affinity for the IL-6 receptor and to act as an IL-6 antagonist. A greatly improved synthesis of 1 was achieved through oxidation of preformed resibufogenin-3-formate. This has enabled us to prepare, from the very expensive commercial resibufogenin, considerably larger quantities of 1, the only known non-peptide small molecule IL-6 antagonist. PMID:22360661

  9. Identification of a novel PPARβ/δ/miR-21-3p axis in UV-induced skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Degueurce, Gwendoline; D'Errico, Ilenia; Pich, Christine; Ibberson, Mark; Schütz, Frédéric; Montagner, Alexandra; Sgandurra, Marie; Mury, Lionel; Jafari, Paris; Boda, Akash; Meunier, Julien; Rezzonico, Roger; Brembilla, Nicolò Costantino; Hohl, Daniel; Kolios, Antonios; Hofbauer, Günther; Xenarios, Ioannis; Michalik, Liliane

    2016-01-01

    Although excessive exposure to UV is widely recognized as a major factor leading to skin perturbations and cancer, the complex mechanisms underlying inflammatory skin disorders resulting from UV exposure remain incompletely characterized. The nuclear hormone receptor PPARβ/δ is known to control mouse cutaneous repair and UV-induced skin cancer development. Here, we describe a novel PPARβ/δ-dependent molecular cascade involving TGFβ1 and miR-21-3p, which is activated in the epidermis in response to UV exposure. We establish that the passenger miRNA miR-21-3p, that we identify as a novel UV-induced miRNA in the epidermis, plays a pro-inflammatory function in keratinocytes and that its high level of expression in human skin is associated with psoriasis and squamous cell carcinomas. Finally, we provide evidence that inhibition of miR-21-3p reduces UV-induced cutaneous inflammation in ex vivo human skin biopsies, thereby underlining the clinical relevance of miRNA-based topical therapies for cutaneous disorders. PMID:27250636

  10. p-SMAD2/3 and DICER promote pre-miR-21 processing during pressure overload-associated myocardial remodeling.

    PubMed

    García, Raquel; Nistal, J Francisco; Merino, David; Price, Nathan L; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Beaumont, Javier; González, Arantxa; Hurlé, María A; Villar, Ana V

    2015-07-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces miR-21 expression which contributes to fibrotic events in the left ventricle (LV) under pressure overload. SMAD effectors of TGF-β signaling interact with DROSHA to promote primary miR-21 processing into precursor miR-21 (pre-miR-21). We hypothesize that p-SMAD-2 and -3 also interact with DICER1 to regulate the processing of pre-miR-21 to mature miR-21 in cardiac fibroblasts under experimental and clinical pressure overload. The subjects of the study were mice undergoing transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and patients with aortic stenosis (AS). In vitro, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts transfected with pre-miR-21 responded to TGF-β1 stimulation by overexpressing miR-21. Overexpression and silencing of SMAD2/3 resulted in higher and lower production of mature miR-21, respectively. DICER1 co-precipitated along with SMAD2/3 and both proteins were up-regulated in the LV from TAC-mice. Pre-miR-21 was isolated bound to the DICER1 maturation complex. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed co-localization of p-SMAD2/3 and DICER1 in NIH-3T3 and mouse cardiac fibroblasts. DICER1-p-SMAD2/3 protein-protein interaction was confirmed by in situ proximity ligation assay. Myocardial up-regulation of DICER1 constituted a response to pressure overload in TAC-mice. DICER mRNA levels correlated directly with those of TGF-β1, SMAD2 and SMAD3. In the LV from AS patients, DICER mRNA was up-regulated and its transcript levels correlated directly with TGF-β1, SMAD2, and SMAD3. Our results support that p-SMAD2/3 interacts with DICER1 to promote pre-miR-21 processing to mature miR-21. This new TGFβ-dependent regulatory mechanism is involved in miR-21 overexpression in cultured fibroblasts, and in the pressure overloaded LV of mice and human patients.

  11. Tailored Nanoparticle Codelivery of antimiR-21 and antimiR-10b Augments Glioblastoma Cell Kill by Temozolomide: Toward a "Personalized" Anti-microRNA Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ananta, Jeyarama S; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Massoud, Tarik F

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastoma remains an aggressive brain malignancy with poor prognosis despite advances in multimodal therapy that include standard use of Temozolomide. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) and microRNA-10b (miR-10b) are oncomiRs overexpressed in glioblastoma, promoting many aspects of cancer biology. We hypothesized that PLGA nanoparticles carrying antisense miR-21 (antimiR-21) and antisense miR-10b (antimiR-10b) might beneficially knockdown endogenous miR-21 and miR-10b function and reprogram cells prior to Temozolomide treatment. PLGA nanoparticles were effective in intracellular delivery of encapsulated oligonucleotides. Concentrations of delivered antimiR-21 and antimiR-10b were optimized and specifically tailored to copy numbers of intracellular endogenous microRNAs. Coinhibition of miR-21 and miR-10b significantly reduced the number of viable cells (by 24%; p < 0.01) and increased (2.9-fold) cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase upon Temozolomide treatment in U87 MG cells. Cell-tailored nanoparticle-assisted concurrent silencing of miR-21 and miR-10b prior to Temozolomide treatment is an effective molecular therapeutic strategy in cell culture, warranting the need for further studies prior to future in vivo "personalized" medicine applications.

  12. miR-21 Might be Involved in Breast Cancer Promotion and Invasion Rather than in Initial Events of Breast Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease that develops into a large number of varied phenotypes. One of the features used in its classification and therapy selection is invasiveness. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is considered to be an important element of BC invasiveness, and miR-21 levels are frequently increased in different tumor types compared with normal tissue, including the breast. Experimental and literature research has highlighted that miR-21 was always significantly elevated in every study that included invasive breast carcinomas compared with healthy breast tissue. The main goal of this research was to specify the predominant role of miR-21 in the different phases of BC pathogenesis, i.e. whether it was involved in the early (initiation), later (promotion), or late (propagation, progression) phases. Our second goal was to explain the roles of miR-21 targets in BC by an in silico approach and literature review, and to associate the importance of miR-21 with particular phases of BC pathogenesis through the action of its target genes. Analysis has shown that changes in miR-21 levels might be important for the later and/or late phases of breast cancerogenesis rather than for the initial early phases. Targets of miR-21 (TIMP3, PDCD4, PTEN, TPM1 and RECK) are also primarily involved in BC promotion and progression, especially invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. miR-21 expression levels could perhaps be used in conjunction with the standard diagnostic parameters as an indicator of BC presence, and to indicate a phenotype likely to show early invasion/metastasis detection and poor prognosis. PMID:26891730

  13. Human Stem Cells Overexpressing miR-21 Promote Angiogenesis in Critical Limb Ischemia by Targeting CHIP to Enhance HIF-1α Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Zhu, Youming; Zhang, Li; Wu, Tao; Wu, Tingting; Zhang, Wenjie; Decker, Ann Marie; He, Jiacai; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yiqun; Jiang, Xinqun; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Liang, Chaozhao; Zou, Duohong

    2016-04-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a severe blockage in the arteries of the lower extremities. However, the effective and optimal treatment for CLI remains to be elucidated. Previous therapeutic research is mainly focused on proangiogenic growth factors administrations. Recently, miR-21 has been revealed to play a crucial role in angiogenesis. Thus, we hypothesize that miR-21 over-expression in human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs) can effectively treat CLI. Herein, UCBMSCs were transduced with lentivirus-miR-21-Luciferase (Lenti-miR-21) or lentivirus- LacZ-Luciferase (Lenti-LacZ). The results indicated that miR-21 induced UCBMSCs proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro. Subsequently, general observation and laser Doppler perfusion imaging were introduced to detect perfusion in muscles of CLI-nude mice on 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 day postoperation. There was a significant improvement in blood vessels of the ischemic limb in Lenti-miR-21 group at 7 day compared with the saline or Lenti-LacZ groups. At 28 day, histological analysis confirmed that UCBMSCs over-expressing miR-21 increased neovascularization in CLI. Furthermore, carboxyl terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) was found to be the target gene for miR-21-mediated activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in UCBMSCs. In summary, our study demonstrated that over-expressing miR-21 in UCBMSCs could improve neovascularization in CLI through enhancing HIF-1α activity by targeting CHIP, which may hold great therapeutic promise in treating CLI.

  14. Pleiotropic actions of miR-21 highlight the critical role of deregulated stromal microRNAs during colorectal cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Bullock, M D; Pickard, K M; Nielsen, B S; Sayan, A E; Jenei, V; Mellone, M; Mitter, R; Primrose, J N; Thomas, G J; Packham, G K; Mirenzami, A H; Mirnezami, A H

    2013-01-01

    The oncogene microRNA-21 (miRNA; miR-21) is overexpressed in most solid organ tumours; however, a recent examination of stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens suggests this may be a stromal phenomenon and not only a feature of cancer cells. In vitro and in vivo studies show that miR-21 has potent pro-metastatic effects in various malignant carcinoma cell lines. The tumour microenvironment has also been identified as a key actor during the metastatic cascade; however to date the significance of deregulated miR-21 expression within the cancer-associated stroma has not been examined. In the present study, a quantitative RT-PCR-based analysis of laser microdissected tissue confirmed that miR-21 expression is associated with a four-fold mean increase in CRC stroma compared with normal tissue. In situ hybridisation using locked nucleic acid probes localised miR-21 expression predominantly to fibroblasts within tumour-associated stroma. To study the molecular and biological impact of deregulated stromal miR-21 in CRC, stable ectopic expression was induced in immortalised fibroblasts. This resulted in upregulated α-smooth muscle actin expression implying miR-21 overexpression is driving the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation. Conditioned medium from miR-21-overexpressing fibroblasts protected CRC cells from oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis and increased their proliferative capacity. 3D organotypic co-cultures containing fibroblasts and CRC cells revealed that ectopic stromal miR-21 expression was associated with increased epithelial invasiveness. Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs, an inhibitor of matrix-remodelling enzyme MMP2, was significantly downregulated by ectopic miR-21 in established and primary colorectal fibroblasts with a reciprocal rise in MMP2 activity. Inhibition of MMP2 abrogated the invasion-promoting effects of ectopic miR-21. This data, which characterises a novel pro-metastatic mechanism mediated by miR-21 in the

  15. The LPA1/ZEB1/miR-21-activation pathway regulates metastasis in basal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Debashish; Leblanc, Raphael; Grunewald, Thomas G. P.; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Ribeiro, Johnny; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid promoting cancer metastasis. LPA activates a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). While blockage of LPA1 in vivo inhibits breast carcinoma metastasis, down-stream genes mediating LPA-induced metastasis have not been yet identified. Herein we showed by analyzing publicly available expression data from 1488 human primary breast tumors that the gene encoding the transcription factor ZEB1 was the most correlated with LPAR1 encoding LPA1. This correlation was most prominent in basal primary breast carcinomas and restricted to cell lines of basal subtypes. Functional experiments in three different basal cell lines revealed that LPA-induced ZEB1 expression was regulated by the LPA1/Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (Pi3K) axis. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that LPA up-regulated the oncomiR miR-21 through an LPA1/Pi3K/ZEB1-dependent mechanism. Strikingly, treatment with a mirVana miR-21 inhibitor, or silencing LPA1 or ZEB1 completely blocked LPA-induced cell migration in vitro, invasion and tumor cell bone colonization in vivo, which can be restored with a mirVana miR-21 mimic. Finally, high LPAR1 expression in basal breast tumors predicted worse lung-metastasis-free survival. Collectively, our results elucidate a new molecular pathway driving LPA-induced metastasis, thus underscoring the therapeutic potential of targeting LPA1 in patients with basal breast carcinomas. PMID:26098771

  16. The LPA1/ZEB1/miR-21-activation pathway regulates metastasis in basal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Debashish; Leblanc, Raphael; Grunewald, Thomas G P; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Ribeiro, Johnny; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2015-08-21

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid promoting cancer metastasis. LPA activates a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). While blockage of LPA1in vivo inhibits breast carcinoma metastasis, down-stream genes mediating LPA-induced metastasis have not been yet identified. Herein we showed by analyzing publicly available expression data from 1488 human primary breast tumors that the gene encoding the transcription factor ZEB1 was the most correlated with LPAR1 encoding LPA1. This correlation was most prominent in basal primary breast carcinomas and restricted to cell lines of basal subtypes. Functional experiments in three different basal cell lines revealed that LPA-induced ZEB1 expression was regulated by the LPA1/Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (Pi3K) axis. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that LPA up-regulated the oncomiR miR-21 through an LPA1/Pi3K/ZEB1-dependent mechanism. Strikingly, treatment with a mirVana miR-21 inhibitor, or silencing LPA1 or ZEB1 completely blocked LPA-induced cell migration in vitro, invasion and tumor cell bone colonization in vivo, which can be restored with a mirVana miR-21 mimic. Finally, high LPAR1 expression in basal breast tumors predicted worse lung-metastasis-free survival. Collectively, our results elucidate a new molecular pathway driving LPA-induced metastasis, thus underscoring the therapeutic potential of targeting LPA1 in patients with basal breast carcinomas. PMID:26098771

  17. Association of percentile ranking with citation impact and productivity in a large cohort of de novo NIMH-funded R01 grants.

    PubMed

    Doyle, J M; Quinn, K; Bodenstein, Y A; Wu, C O; Danthi, N; Lauer, M S

    2015-09-01

    Previous reports from National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation have suggested that peer review scores of funded grants bear no association with grant citation impact and productivity. This lack of association, if true, may be particularly concerning during times of increasing competition for increasingly limited funds. We analyzed the citation impact and productivity for 1755 de novo investigator-initiated R01 grants funded for at least 2 years by National Institute of Mental Health between 2000 and 2009. Consistent with previous reports, we found no association between grant percentile ranking and subsequent productivity and citation impact, even after accounting for subject categories, years of publication, duration and amounts of funding, as well as a number of investigator-specific measures. Prior investigator funding and academic productivity were moderately strong predictors of grant citation impact. PMID:26033238

  18. [Expressions of miR-21, miR-155 and miR-210 in plasma of patients with lymphoma and its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Ge, Tian-Tian; Liang, Yong; Fu, Rong; Wang, Guo-Jin; Ruan, Er-Bao; Qu, Wen; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Hong; Wu, Yu-Hong; Song, Jia; Wang, Hua-Quan; Xing, Li-Min; Guan, Jing; Li, Li-Juan; Shao, Zong-Hong

    2012-04-01

    This study was purposed to investigate the expressions of miR-21, miR-155 and miR-210 in plasma of patients with lymphoma, and explore their role played in diagnosis, evaluation of chemotherapy effect and prognosis of lymphoma. The expressions of miR-21, miR-155 and miR-210 were assayed by RT-PCR in plasma of 54 cases of lymphoma, 10 cases of lymphonode inflammation and 27 cases of normal controls. The results indicated that the expressions of miR-21, miR-155 and miR-210 in plasma of lymphoma patients were higher than those of control group and lymphonode inflammation group (P < 0.05). The expressions of miR-21 and miR-210 in plasma of control group and lymphonode inflammation group had no significant differences (P > 0.05). The expression of miR-21 in plasma of lymphoma patient group significantly correlated with their serum LDH level. The expressions of miR-21 and miR-210 in plasma of previously untreated lymphoma patient group were higher than those of the patients treated for 6 or more courses (P < 0.05). The diagnostic accuracy of miR-21, miR-155 and miR-210 used for lymphoma patients was 56, 65, 48 respectively, and reached to 83 when combined three of them. It is concluded that the expressions of miR-21, miR-155 and miR-210 in plasma of lymphoma patients were significantly higher. Detection of these 3 miRNA in plasma of patients can contribute to the clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis evaluation of lymphoma.

  19. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) expression in hypothermic machine perfusate may be predictive of early outcomes in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Usman; Ablorsu, Elijah; Szabo, Laszlo; Jenkins, Robert H; Bowen, Timothy; Chavez, Rafael; Fraser, Donald J

    2016-02-01

    Hypothermic machine perfusion is effective in improving outcome following kidney transplantation. Molecular analyses of hypothermic machine perfusate (HMP) have the potential to identify biomarkers of organ viability prior to transplantation, offering significant advantages to the transplant surgeon, and leading to a potential increase in the organ donor pool. MicroRNAs are emerging as important biomarkers in the context of kidney injury and transplantation. Recent data demonstrate increased microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression in the kidney following acute kidney injury. This study investigated the potential of miR-21 detected in HMP to act as a sentinel for early kidney transplant outcomes. MiR-21 was found to be readily detectable in HMP by RT-qPCR. Eleven ECD kidneys were maintained on a hypothermic machine perfusion system for a median 627 (range 117-1027) minutes, and evaluation of flow and resistance characteristics suggested stability on the machine from 60 min post-perfusion. MiR-21 quantification at 60 min post-perfusion correlated with eGFR at 6 and 12 months post-transplantation. These data suggest that miR-21 expression in HMP may be predictive of early outcomes following kidney transplantation. In the era of ECD kidneys, a reliable measure of organ quality is urgently needed, and this study suggests miR-21 may be such a marker.

  20. miR-21 synergizes with BMP9 in osteogenic differentiation by activating the BMP9/Smad signaling pathway in murine multilineage cells

    PubMed Central

    SONG, QILING; ZHONG, LIANG; CHEN, CHU; TANG, ZUCHUAN; LIU, HONGXIA; ZHOU, YIQIN; TANG, MIN; ZHOU, LAN; ZUO, GUOWEI; LUO, JINYONG; ZHANG, YAN; SHI, QIONG; WENG, YAGUANG

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), particularly BMP9, have been shown to promote the osteogenic differentiation of murine multilineage cells (MMCs) and to promote bone formation in bone diseases; however, the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been proven to regulate mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. In this study, we identified a novel mechanism that unravels the functional axis of a key miRNA (miR-21) which contributes to BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. We screened differentially expressed miRNAs in MMCs during BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation and found that miR-21 was significantly upregulated by BMP9 during the osteogenesis of MMCs. Furthermore, miR-21 was confirmed to promote the osteogenic differentiation of the MMCs by suppressing Smad7, which negatively regulates the osteogenic differentiation of MMCs. The upregulation of miR-21 may promote the osteogenic differentiation of MMCs in synergy with BMP9. The findings of our study revealed a novel function of miR-21, and suggest that the overexpression of miR-21 contributes to bone formation by promoting BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation. Our data may provide a molecular basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and other inflammatory bone diseases. PMID:26460584

  1. Curcumin modulates chronic myelogenous leukemia exosomes composition and affects angiogenic phenotype via exosomal miR-21.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Simona; Fontana, Simona; Monteleone, Francesca; Pucci, Marzia; Saieva, Laura; De Caro, Viviana; Cardinale, Valeria Giunta; Giallombardo, Marco; Vicario, Emanuela; Rolfo, Christian; Leo, Giacomo De; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2016-05-24

    Tumor derived exosomes are vesicles which contain proteins and microRNAs that mediate cell-cell communication and are involved in angiogenesis and tumor progression. Curcumin derived from the plant Curcuma longa, shows anticancer effects. Exosomes released by CML cells treated with Curcumin contain a high amount of miR-21 that is shuttled into the endothelial cells in a biologically active form. The treatment of HUVECs with CML Curcu-exosomes reduced RhoB expression and negatively modulated endothelial cells motility. We showed that the addition of CML control exosomes to HUVECs caused an increase in IL8 and VCAM1 levels, but Curcu-exosomes reversed these effects thus attenuating their angiogenic properties. This antiangiogenic effect was confirmed with in vitro and in vivo vascular network formation assays. SWATH analysis of the proteomic profile of Curcu-exosomes revealed that Curcumin treatment deeply changes their molecular properties, in particular, Curcumin induces a release of exosomes depleted in pro-angiogenic proteins and enriched in proteins endowed with anti-angiogenic activity. Among the proteins differential expressed we focused on MARCKS, since it was the most modulated protein and a target of miR-21. Taken together our data indicated that also Curcumin attenuates the exosome's ability to promote the angiogenic phenotype and to modulate the endothelial barrier organization. PMID:27050372

  2. Radiation resistance due to high expression of miR-21 and G2/M checkpoint arrest in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is evidence that the extent of the G2/M arrest following irradiation is correlated with tumour cell survival and hence therapeutic success. We studied the regulation of cellular response to radiation treatment by miR-21-mediated modulation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells and analysed miR-21 expression in breast cancer tissue samples with long-term follow up. Methods The miR-21 expression levels were quantified (qRT-PCR) in a panel of 86 cases of invasive breast carcinomas in relation to metastasis free survival. The cellular radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells after irradiation was determined comparing two cell lines (T47D and MDA-MB-361) by cell proliferation and colony forming assays. The influence of miR-21 overexpression or downregulation on cell cycle progression and G2/M checkpoint arrest after irradiation was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Results The expression of miR-21 was transiently increased 8 hours after irradiation in the radioresistant T47D cells and significantly changed with lower extent in radiosensitive MDA-MB-361 cells. Anti-miR-21 treated breast cancer cells failed to exhibit the DNA damage-G2 checkpoint increase after irradiation. Apoptotic activity was significantly enhanced from 7% to 27% in T47D cells and from 18% to 30% in MDA-MB-361 cells 24 hours after 5 Gy irradiation. Additionally, we characterized expression of miR-21 in invasive breast carcinomas. In comparison to non-cancerous adjacent breast tissue, tumours samples had increased miR-21 expression that inversely correlated with the distant metastases-free survival of patients (p = 0.029). Conclusions Our data indicate that miR-21 expression in breast cancer cells contributes to radiation resistance by compromising cell cycle progression. These data point to the potential of combining radiotherapy with an anti-miR-21 as a potent G2/M check point inhibitor in overcoming radiation resistance of tumours. PMID:23216894

  3. Curcumin inhibits in vitro and in vivo chronic myelogenous leukemia cells growth: a possible role for exosomal disposal of miR-21.

    PubMed

    Taverna, Simona; Giallombardo, Marco; Pucci, Marzia; Flugy, Anna; Manno, Mauro; Raccosta, Samuele; Rolfo, Christian; De Leo, Giacomo; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Exosomes are nanosize vesicles released from cancer cells containing microRNAs that can influence gene expression in target cells. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit antitumor activities in a wide spectrum of human cancer. The addition of Curcumin, to Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) cells, caused a dose-dependent increase of PTEN, target of miR-21. Curcumin treatment also decreased AKT phosphorylation and VEGF expression and release. Colony formation assays indicated that Curcumin affects the survival of CML cells. Some observation suggest a possible cellular disposal of miRNAs by exosomes. To elucidate if Curcumin caused a decrease of miR-21 in CML cells and its packaging in exosomes, we analyzed miR-21 content in K562 and LAMA84 cells and exosomes, after treatment with Curcumin. Furthermore, we showed that addition of Curcumin to CML cells caused a downregulation of Bcr-Abl expression through the cellular increase of miR-196b.The effects of Curcumin was then investigated on a CML xenograft in SCID mice. We observed that animals treated with Curcumin, developed smaller tumors compared to mice control. Real time PCR analysis showed that exosomes, released in the plasma of the Curcumin-treated mice, were enriched in miR-21 with respect control. Taken together, our results suggested that a selective packaging of miR-21 in exosomes may contribute to the antileukemic effect of Curcumin in CML.

  4. Polymer Nanoparticles Mediated Codelivery of AntimiR-10b and AntimiR-21 for Achieving Triple Negative Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The current study shows the therapeutic outcome achieved in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) by simultaneously antagonizing miR-21-induced antiapoptosis and miR-10b-induced metastasis, using antisense-miR-21-PS and antisense-miR-10b-PS delivered by polymer nanoparticles (NPs). We synthesized the antisense-miR-21 and antisense-miR-10b loaded PLGA-b-PEG polymer NPs and evaluated their cellular uptake, serum stability, release profile, and the subsequent synchronous blocking of endogenous miR-21 and miR-10b function in TNBC cells in culture, and tumor xenografts in living animals using molecular imaging. Results show that multitarget antagonization of endogenous miRNAs could be an efficient strategy for targeting metastasis and antiapoptosis in the treatment of metastatic cancer. Targeted delivery of antisense-miR-21 and antisense-miR-10b coloaded urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) targeted polymer NPs treated mice showed substantial reduction in tumor growth at very low dose of 0.15 mg/kg, compared to the control NPs treated mice and 40% reduction in tumor growth compared to scramble peptide conjugated NPs treated mice, thus demonstrating a potential new therapeutic option for TNBC. PMID:25652012

  5. Expression of microRNAs miR-21 and miR-181c in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in canine meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Gaitero, L; Russell, S J; Monteith, G; LaMarre, J

    2016-10-01

    The potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers for canine meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO) was investigated by using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR to determine the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and microRNA-181c (miR-181c) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of dogs. Dogs with MUO (n = 10) had higher levels of expression of miR-21 and miR-181c in the CSF than dogs with non-inflammatory neurological diseases (n = 8). There was a positive correlation between CSF cellularity and expression of miRNAs in the CSF, particularly for miR-21 in the MUO group. PMID:27687938

  6. Expression of microRNAs miR-21 and miR-181c in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in canine meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Gaitero, L; Russell, S J; Monteith, G; LaMarre, J

    2016-10-01

    The potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers for canine meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO) was investigated by using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR to determine the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and microRNA-181c (miR-181c) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of dogs. Dogs with MUO (n = 10) had higher levels of expression of miR-21 and miR-181c in the CSF than dogs with non-inflammatory neurological diseases (n = 8). There was a positive correlation between CSF cellularity and expression of miRNAs in the CSF, particularly for miR-21 in the MUO group.

  7. ERK8 is a novel HuR kinase that regulates tumour suppressor PDCD4 through a miR-21 dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Liwak-Muir, Urszula; Dobson, Christine C.; Naing, Thet; Wylie, Quinlan; Chehade, Lucia; Baird, Stephen D.; Chakraborty, Pranesh K.; Holcik, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is a tumour suppressor implicated in cancer development and progression and was recently identified as a repressor of cap-independent translation of specific genes involved in the regulation of apoptosis. We show that the RNA-binding protein HuR binds to the PDCD4 3′UTR to protect it from miR-21-induced silencing. However, following H2O2 treatment, PDCD4 mRNA is degraded via miR-21 binding. Importantly, we identify HuR as a novel substrate of the ERK8 kinase pathway in response to H2O2 treatment. We show that phosphorylation of HuR by ERK8 prevents it from binding to PDCD4 mRNA and allows miR-21-mediated degradation of PDCD4. PMID:26595526

  8. Circulating miR-21 and miR-29a as Markers of Disease Severity and Etiology in Cholestatic Pediatric Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Imeke; Thum, Thomas; Baumann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs have been investigated as markers of disease severity in a variety of conditions. We examined whether circulating miR-21 and miR-29a could serve as markers of hepatic fibrosis and disease etiology in children with various liver diseases. Circulating miR-21 and miR-29a were determined in 58 children (21 female, age 0.1–17.8 (median 9.8) years)) with chronic liver disease and compared to histological grading of hepatic fibrosis. 22 healthy children served as controls for circulating miRNAs. Levels of circulating miR-21 appeared to be age-dependent in healthy children. Children with biliary atresia had significantly higher levels of miR-21 compared both to healthy controls and to age-matched children with other cholestatic liver disease. Circulating miR-29a levels in biliary atresia children did not differ from healthy controls, but tended to be higher than in age-matched children with other cholestatic liver disease. Neither miR-21 nor miR-29a correlated well with hepatic fibrosis. Circulating miR-21 and miR-29a levels can potentially serve as non-invasive diagnostic markers to differentiate biliary atresia from other cholestatic disease in infancy. They do not appear suitable as non-invasive markers for the degree of hepatic fibrosis in an unselected cohort of children with various liver diseases. The discriminating effect regarding neonatal cholestasis should be followed up in a prospective longitudinal study. PMID:26927196

  9. Deregulation of miR-21 and miR-155 and their putative targets after silibinin treatment in T47D breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Zadeh, Masoud Maleki; Ranji, Najmeh; Motamed, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short RNAs that control the biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis and development. Aberrant expression of miRNAs was determined in the different stages of tumor development and metastasis. To study the effect of silibinin on miRNAs expression, we evaluated quantitative expression of miR-21 and miR-155 as two oncomiRs and several potential targets in silibinin-treated T47D cells. Materials and Methods: The rate of proliferation and apoptosis was measured in silibinin-treated and untreated cells. The expression levels of miR-21 and miR-155 were evaluated in T47D cells treated with silibinin (100 µg/ml). Also, their putative targets were predicted in apoptotic pathways using multiple algorithms; as a confirmation, the transcription level of APAF-1, CASP-9 and BID was evaluated. Results: In silibinin-treated cells, death was occurred in a dose and time-dependent manner. miR-21 and miR-155 was downregulated in cells treated with silibinin (100 µg/ml). It is noticeable that the expression of their potential targets including CASP-9 and APAF-1 was increased in silibinin-treated cells after 48 hr. Conclusion: Our findings showed a correlation between the expression of miR-21 and miR-155 and apoptosis in silibinin treated T47D cells. It seems that miRNAs such as miR-21 and miR-155 were regulated by silibinin. Also, increase in the transcript level of APAF-1 and CASP-9 after downregulation of miR-21 and miR-155 might indicate that these genes were targeted by aforementioned miRNAs in T47D cells. PMID:26877850

  10. Opposing roles of miR-21 and miR-29 in the progression of fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Simona; Gibertini, Sara; Curcio, Maurizio; Savadori, Paolo; Pasanisi, Barbara; Morandi, Lucia; Cornelio, Ferdinando; Mantegazza, Renato; Mora, Marina

    2015-07-01

    Excessive extracellular matrix deposition progressively replacing muscle fibres is the endpoint of most severe muscle diseases. Recent data indicate major involvement of microRNAs in regulating pro- and anti-fibrotic genes. To investigate the roles of miR-21 and miR-29 in muscle fibrosis in Duchenne muscle dystrophy, we evaluated their expression in muscle biopsies from 14 patients, and in muscle-derived fibroblasts and myoblasts. In Duchenne muscle biopsies, miR-21 expression was significantly increased, and correlated directly with COL1A1 and COL6A1 transcript levels. MiR-21 expression was also significantly increased in Duchenne fibroblasts, more so after TGF-β1 treatment. In Duchenne fibroblasts the expression of miR-21 target transcripts PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and SPRY-1 (Sprouty homolog 1) was significantly reduced; while collagen I and VI transcript levels and soluble collagen production were significantly increased. MiR-29a and miR-29c were significantly reduced in Duchenne muscle and myoblasts, and miR-29 target transcripts, COL3A1, FBN1 and YY1, significantly increased. MiR-21 silencing in mdx mice reduced fibrosis in the diaphragm muscle and in both Duchenne fibroblasts and mdx mice restored PTEN and SPRY-1 expression, and significantly reduced collagen I and VI expression; while miR-29 mimicking in Duchenne myoblasts significantly decreased miR-29 target transcripts. These findings indicate that miR-21 and miR-29 play opposing roles in Duchenne muscle fibrosis and suggest that pharmacological modulation of their expression has therapeutic potential for reducing fibrosis in this condition. PMID:25892183

  11. Potential Role of Circulating MiR-21 in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Digestive System Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chengqiang; Zhou, Xiaoying; Dang, Yini; Yan, Jin; Zhang, Guoxin

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidences indicate that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit aberrant expression in the plasma of patients suffering from cancer compared to normal individuals, suggesting that it may be a useful noninvasion diagnostic method. MiR-21 plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis and can be served as a biomarker for the detection of various cancers. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the potential role of miR-21 for digestive system cancer. By searching the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for publications concerning the diagnostic value of miR-21 for digestive system cancer, total of 23 publications were included in this meta-analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to check the overall test performance. For prognostic meta-analysis, pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of circulating miR-21 for survival were calculated. Totally 23 eligible publications were included in this meta-analysis (15 articles for diagnosis and 8 articles for prognosis). For diagnostic meta-analysis, the summary estimates revealed that the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.76 (95% CI = 0.70-0.82) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.78-0.89). Besides, the area under the summary ROC curve (AUC) is 0.87. For prognostic meta-analysis, the pooled HR of higher miR-21 expression in circulation was 1.94 (95% CI = 0.99-3.82, P = 0.055), which indicated higher miR-21 expression could be likely to predict poorer survival in digestive system cancer. The subgroup analysis implied the higher expression of miR-21 was correlated with worse overall survival in the Asian population in digestive system cancer (HR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.21-4.77, P = 0.012). The current evidence suggests circulating miR-21 may be suitable to be a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for digestive system cancer in the Asians.

  12. Human epididymis protein 4 expression positively correlated with miR-21 and served as a prognostic indicator in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Qingquan; Liu, Qicai; Gao, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological malignancy-related mortality. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a useful biomarker for ovarian cancer when either used alone or in combination with carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125). What is more, aberrant expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) has been shown to be involved in oncogenesis, but the relationship between miR-21 and HE4 in ovarian cancer is not clear. Tumor and adjacent tumor tissues from 43 patients with ovarian cancer were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of HE4 in the carcinoma and adjacent tissues. The associations between HE4 and tumor biological characters were discussed. TaqMan(®) MicroRNA (miRNA) assays were employed to detect the expression of miR-21 in the ovarian carcinoma. In ovarian cancer, the expression of HE4 messenger RNA (mRNA) in cancer tissues was higher than adjacent tumor tissues (P < 0.0001), which was 1.299-fold of adjacent tumor tissues. And, the expression of miR-21 was also up-regulated which was significantly different in the ovarian cancer (the positive rate was 76.74 %). There was a significantly positive correlation between miR-21 and HE4 expression (r = 0.283 and P = 0.066 for HE4 mRNA, r = 0.663 and P < 0.0001 for serum HE4). There was also a significant correlation between miR-21 and tumor grade (r = 0.608, P < 0.0001). Significantly, patients with recent recurrence (less than 6 months, n = 17) have a higher miR-21 expression than those with no recent recurrence. Therefore, HE4 and miR-21 may play an important role in the development and progression of ovarian cancer and they may serve as prognostic indicators in ovarian cancer.

  13. Exosomal transfer of stroma-derived miR21 confers paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer cells through targeting APAF1

    PubMed Central

    Au Yeung, Chi Lam; Co, Ngai-Na; Tsuruga, Tetsushi; Yeung, Tsz-Lun; Kwan, Suet-Ying; Leung, Cecilia S.; Li, Yong; Lu, Edward S.; Kwan, Kenny; Wong, Kwong-Kwok; Schmandt, Rosemarie; Lu, Karen H.; Mok, Samuel C.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ovarian cancer usually spreads to the visceral adipose tissue of the omentum. However, the omental stromal cell-derived molecular determinants that modulate ovarian cancer growth have not been characterized. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we identify significantly higher levels of microRNA-21 (miR21) isomiRNAs in exosomes and tissue lysates isolated from cancer-associated adipocytes (CAAs) and fibroblasts (CAFs) than in those from ovarian cancer cells. Functional studies reveal that miR21 is transferred from CAAs or CAFs to the cancer cells, where it suppresses ovarian cancer apoptosis and confers chemoresistance by binding to its direct novel target, APAF1. These data suggest that the malignant phenotype of metastatic ovarian cancer cells can be altered by miR21 delivered by exosomes derived from neighbouring stromal cells in the omental tumour microenvironment, and that inhibiting the transfer of stromal-derived miR21 is an alternative modality in the treatment of metastatic and recurrent ovarian cancer. PMID:27021436

  14. miR-15/miR-16 loss, miR-21 upregulation, or deregulation of their target genes predicts poor prognosis in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bonci, Désirée; De Maria, Ruggero

    2016-07-01

    It is clear that several prostate cancers remain indolent whereas others develop into advanced forms. There is a need to improve patient management by identifying biomarkers for personalized treatment. We demonstrated that miR-15/miR-16 loss, miR-21 upregulation, and deregulation of their target genes represent a promising predictive signature of poor patient prognosis. PMID:27652312

  15. MiR-21-5p Links Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype with Stem-Like Cell Signatures via AKT Signaling in Keloid Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Li; Cao, Rui; Liu, YuanBo; Wang, LianZhao; Pan, Bo; Lv, XiaoYan; Jiao, Hu; Zhuang, Qiang; Sun, XueJian; Xiao, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Keloid is the abnormal wound healing puzzled by the aggressive growth and high recurrence rate due to its unrevealed key pathogenic mechanism. MicroRNAs contribute to a series of biological processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cells stemness involved in fibrotic disease. Here, using microRNAs microarray analysis we found mir-21-5p was significantly up-regulated in keloid epidermis. To investigate the role of miR-21-5p in keloid pathogenesis, we transfected miR-21-5p mimic or inhibitor in keloid keratinocytes and examined the abilities of cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, the expressions of EMT-related markers vimentin and E-cadherin and stem-like cells-associated markers CD44 and ALDH1, and the involvement of PTEN and the signaling of AKT and ERK. Our results demonstrated that up-regulation or knockdown of miR-21-5p significantly increased or decreased the migration, invasion and sphere-forming abilities of keloid keratinocytes, and the phenotype of EMT and cells stemness were enhanced or reduced as well. Furthermore, PTEN and p-AKT were shown to participate in the regulation of miR-21-5p on EMT phenotypes and stemness signatures of keloid keratinocytes, which might account for the invasion and recurrence of keloids. This molecular mechanism of miR-21-5p on keloid keratinocytes linked EMT with cells stemness and implicated novel therapeutic targets for keloids. PMID:27596120

  16. MiR-21-5p Links Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype with Stem-Like Cell Signatures via AKT Signaling in Keloid Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Cao, Rui; Liu, YuanBo; Wang, LianZhao; Pan, Bo; Lv, XiaoYan; Jiao, Hu; Zhuang, Qiang; Sun, XueJian; Xiao, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Keloid is the abnormal wound healing puzzled by the aggressive growth and high recurrence rate due to its unrevealed key pathogenic mechanism. MicroRNAs contribute to a series of biological processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cells stemness involved in fibrotic disease. Here, using microRNAs microarray analysis we found mir-21-5p was significantly up-regulated in keloid epidermis. To investigate the role of miR-21-5p in keloid pathogenesis, we transfected miR-21-5p mimic or inhibitor in keloid keratinocytes and examined the abilities of cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, the expressions of EMT-related markers vimentin and E-cadherin and stem-like cells-associated markers CD44 and ALDH1, and the involvement of PTEN and the signaling of AKT and ERK. Our results demonstrated that up-regulation or knockdown of miR-21-5p significantly increased or decreased the migration, invasion and sphere-forming abilities of keloid keratinocytes, and the phenotype of EMT and cells stemness were enhanced or reduced as well. Furthermore, PTEN and p-AKT were shown to participate in the regulation of miR-21-5p on EMT phenotypes and stemness signatures of keloid keratinocytes, which might account for the invasion and recurrence of keloids. This molecular mechanism of miR-21-5p on keloid keratinocytes linked EMT with cells stemness and implicated novel therapeutic targets for keloids. PMID:27596120

  17. TGF-β regulates TGFBIp expression in corneal fibroblasts via miR-21, miR-181a, and Smad signaling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Il; Jin, Jun-Yup; Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kim, Tae-Im; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2016-03-25

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-induced gene (TGFBI) protein (TGFBIp) is associated with granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). TGFBIp levels can affect GCD2 phenotypes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the involvement of microRNA (miRNA) and TGF-β in the regulation of TGFBIp expression in corneal fibroblasts. Ectopic expression of miR-9, miR-21, and miR-181a significantly decreased TGFBIp levels. Conversely, expression of miR-21 and miR-181a was induced by TGF-β1. Expression of miR-21 was 10-fold higher than that of miR-9 and miR-181a in corneal fibroblasts. Additionally, TGF-β1 expression was significantly higher than that of TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 in corneal fibroblasts, whereas expression of all three TGF-β forms was not significantly different between wild-type (WT) and GCD2 homozygotes (HO) corneal fibroblasts. Taken together, these data indicate that TGFBIp expression is positively regulated by TGF-β, whereas TGF-β-induced miR-21 and miR-181a negatively regulate TGFBIp expression. In conclusion, TGFBIp levels in corneal fibroblasts are controlled via the coordinated activity of miR-21 and miR-181a and by Smad signaling. Pharmacologic modulation of these miRNAs and TGF-β signaling could have therapeutic potential for TGFBI-associated corneal dystrophy, including GCD2.

  18. MiR-21-5p Links Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotype with Stem-Like Cell Signatures via AKT Signaling in Keloid Keratinocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li; Cao, Rui; Liu, Yuanbo; Wang, Lianzhao; Pan, Bo; Lv, Xiaoyan; Jiao, Hu; Zhuang, Qiang; Sun, Xuejian; Xiao, Ran

    2016-09-01

    Keloid is the abnormal wound healing puzzled by the aggressive growth and high recurrence rate due to its unrevealed key pathogenic mechanism. MicroRNAs contribute to a series of biological processes including epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cells stemness involved in fibrotic disease. Here, using microRNAs microarray analysis we found mir-21-5p was significantly up-regulated in keloid epidermis. To investigate the role of miR-21-5p in keloid pathogenesis, we transfected miR-21-5p mimic or inhibitor in keloid keratinocytes and examined the abilities of cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, the expressions of EMT-related markers vimentin and E-cadherin and stem-like cells-associated markers CD44 and ALDH1, and the involvement of PTEN and the signaling of AKT and ERK. Our results demonstrated that up-regulation or knockdown of miR-21-5p significantly increased or decreased the migration, invasion and sphere-forming abilities of keloid keratinocytes, and the phenotype of EMT and cells stemness were enhanced or reduced as well. Furthermore, PTEN and p-AKT were shown to participate in the regulation of miR-21-5p on EMT phenotypes and stemness signatures of keloid keratinocytes, which might account for the invasion and recurrence of keloids. This molecular mechanism of miR-21-5p on keloid keratinocytes linked EMT with cells stemness and implicated novel therapeutic targets for keloids.

  19. Formulation of Anti-miR-21 and 4-Hydroxytamoxifen Co-loaded Biodegradable Polymer Nanoparticles and Their Antiproliferative Effect on Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Devulapally, Rammohan; Sekar, Thillai V; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. The majority of breast tumors are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and hormone-dependent. Neoadjuvant anti-estrogen therapy has been widely employed to reduce tumor mass prior to surgery. Tamoxifen is a broadly used anti-estrogen for early and advanced ER+ breast cancers in women and the most common hormone treatment for male breast cancer. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) is an active metabolite of tamoxifen that functions as an estrogen receptor antagonist and displays higher affinity for estrogen receptors than that of tamoxifen and its other metabolites. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a small noncoding RNA of 23 nucleotides that regulates several apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes and contributes to chemoresistance in numerous cancers, including breast cancer. The present study investigated the therapeutic potential of 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 coadministration in an attempt to combat tamoxifen resistance, a common problem often encountered in anti-estrogen therapy. A biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG-COOH) copolymer was utilized as a carrier to codeliver 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 to ER+ breast cancer cells. 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 co-loaded PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) were developed using emulsion-diffusion evaporation (EDE) and water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion methods. The EDE method was found to be best method for 4-OHT loading, and the w/o/w method proved to be more effective for coloading NPs with anti-miR-21 and 4-OHT. The optimal NPs, which were prepared using the double emulsion method, were evaluated for their antiproliferative and apoptotic effects against MCF7, ZR-75-1, and BT-474 human breast cancer cells as well as against 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that PLGA-b-PEG NP encapsulation significantly extended 4-OHT's stability and biological activity compared to that of free 4-OHT. MTT assays indicated that

  20. Formulation of Anti-miR-21 and 4-Hydroxytamoxifen Co-loaded Biodegradable Polymer Nanoparticles and Their Antiproliferative Effect on Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Devulapally, Rammohan; Sekar, Thillai V; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. The majority of breast tumors are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and hormone-dependent. Neoadjuvant anti-estrogen therapy has been widely employed to reduce tumor mass prior to surgery. Tamoxifen is a broadly used anti-estrogen for early and advanced ER+ breast cancers in women and the most common hormone treatment for male breast cancer. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) is an active metabolite of tamoxifen that functions as an estrogen receptor antagonist and displays higher affinity for estrogen receptors than that of tamoxifen and its other metabolites. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a small noncoding RNA of 23 nucleotides that regulates several apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes and contributes to chemoresistance in numerous cancers, including breast cancer. The present study investigated the therapeutic potential of 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 coadministration in an attempt to combat tamoxifen resistance, a common problem often encountered in anti-estrogen therapy. A biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG-COOH) copolymer was utilized as a carrier to codeliver 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 to ER+ breast cancer cells. 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 co-loaded PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) were developed using emulsion-diffusion evaporation (EDE) and water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion methods. The EDE method was found to be best method for 4-OHT loading, and the w/o/w method proved to be more effective for coloading NPs with anti-miR-21 and 4-OHT. The optimal NPs, which were prepared using the double emulsion method, were evaluated for their antiproliferative and apoptotic effects against MCF7, ZR-75-1, and BT-474 human breast cancer cells as well as against 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that PLGA-b-PEG NP encapsulation significantly extended 4-OHT's stability and biological activity compared to that of free 4-OHT. MTT assays indicated that

  1. Formulation of Anti-miR-21 and 4-Hydroxytamoxifen Co-loaded Biodegradable Polymer Nanoparticles and Their Antiproliferative Effect on Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. The majority of breast tumors are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and hormone-dependent. Neoadjuvant anti-estrogen therapy has been widely employed to reduce tumor mass prior to surgery. Tamoxifen is a broadly used anti-estrogen for early and advanced ER+ breast cancers in women and the most common hormone treatment for male breast cancer. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) is an active metabolite of tamoxifen that functions as an estrogen receptor antagonist and displays higher affinity for estrogen receptors than that of tamoxifen and its other metabolites. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a small noncoding RNA of 23 nucleotides that regulates several apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes and contributes to chemoresistance in numerous cancers, including breast cancer. The present study investigated the therapeutic potential of 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 coadministration in an attempt to combat tamoxifen resistance, a common problem often encountered in anti-estrogen therapy. A biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG-COOH) copolymer was utilized as a carrier to codeliver 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 to ER+ breast cancer cells. 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 co-loaded PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) were developed using emulsion-diffusion evaporation (EDE) and water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion methods. The EDE method was found to be best method for 4-OHT loading, and the w/o/w method proved to be more effective for coloading NPs with anti-miR-21 and 4-OHT. The optimal NPs, which were prepared using the double emulsion method, were evaluated for their antiproliferative and apoptotic effects against MCF7, ZR-75-1, and BT-474 human breast cancer cells as well as against 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that PLGA-b-PEG NP encapsulation significantly extended 4-OHT’s stability and biological activity compared to that of free 4-OHT. MTT assays indicated that

  2. The expression of miR-21 and miR-143 is deregulated by the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein and 17β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gómez, Yazmín; Organista-Nava, Jorge; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; García-Villa, Enrique; Leyva-Vazquez, Marco Antonio; Illades-Aguiar, Berenice; Lambert, Paul F; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Gariglio, Patricio

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate their target mRNAs at a posttranscriptional level, thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. However, little is known about the molecular events that control expression of miRNAs in cervical cancer (CC). HPV16 E7 oncoprotein in conjunction with estrogen are sufficient to produce high grade cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical malignancies in a mouse model. In the present study, we determined the potential role that the E7 oncoprotein and 17β-estradiol (E2) play in the deregulation of miR-21 and miR-143 expression levels by these two risk factors. We found that, while the expression of miR-21 was upregulated and the expression of miR-143 was downregulated by the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein in vivo, and in vitro and that E2 treatment is also implicated in the deregulation of these important miRNAs in vivo. Sustained upregulation of miR-21 resulted in suppression of PTEN expression, and repression of miR-143 increased the mRNA and protein levels from Bcl-2. These results suggested that HPV type 16 E7 oncoprotein and E2 play an important role in regulating miR-21 and miR-143 expression. We have observed similar results in CC patients containing HPV16 sequences, suggesting that these miRNAs could serve as diagnostic biomarkers in CC. The present study highlights the roles of miRNAs in cervical tissue and implicates these important molecules in cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:27278606

  3. Differential expression of miR200a-3p and miR21 in grade II–III and grade IV gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Berthois, Yolande; Delfino, Christine; Metellus, Philippe; Fina, Frederic; Nanni-Metellus, Isabelle; Al Aswy, Hayat; Pirisi, Victor; Ouafik, L’Houcine; Boudouresque, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor and is among the deadliest of human cancers. Dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) expression is an important step in tumor progression as miRNAs can act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes and may affect cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. Whereas the oncogenic miR21 has been shown to be overexpressed in gliomas, the expression and function of the tumor-supressor miR200a in GBMs remains unknown. In this study, we show that miR21 is upregulated in grade IV (GBMs) vs. grade II–III (LGs) gliomas, confirming that miR21 expression level is correlated with tumor grade, and that it may be considered as a marker of tumor progression. Conversely, miR200a is demonstrated for the first time to be downregulated in GBMs compared with LGs, and overexpression of miR200a in GBM cells is shown to promote TMZ-sensitivity. Interestingly, miR200a but not miR21 expression level is significantly higher in TMZ-responsive vs. -unresponsive tumoral glial cells in primary culture. Furthermore, miR200a appears negatively correlated with the expression of the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT), and the inhibition of MGMT activity results in an increase of miR200a expression in GBM cells. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that miR200a is likely to act as a crucial antitumoral factor regarding glioma progression. Interplay between miR200a and MGMT should be considered as potential mechanism involved in therapeutic response. PMID:24755707

  4. The anti-metastatic activity of collagenase-2 in breast cancer cells is mediated by a signaling pathway involving decorin and miR-21.

    PubMed

    Soria-Valles, C; Gutiérrez-Fernández, A; Guiu, M; Mari, B; Fueyo, A; Gomis, R R; López-Otín, C

    2014-06-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been traditionally implicated in cancer progression because of their ability to degrade the extracellular matrix. However, some members of the MMP family have recently been identified as proteases with antitumor properties. Thus, it has been described that collagenase-2 (MMP-8) has a protective role in tumor and metastasis progression, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. We show herein that Mmp8 expression causes a decrease in miR-21 levels that in turn leads to a reduction in tumor growth and lung metastasis formation by MDA-MB-231 (4175) breast cancer cells. By using both in vitro and in vivo models, we demonstrate that the mechanism responsible for these MMP-8 beneficial effects involves cleavage of decorin by MMP-8 and a subsequent reduction of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling that controls miR-21 levels. In addition, miR-21 downregulation induced by MMP-8 increases the levels of tumor suppressors such as programmed cell death 4, which may also contribute to the decrease in tumor formation and metastasis of breast cancer cells overexpressing this metalloproteinase. These findings reveal a new signaling pathway for cancer regulation controlled by MMP-8, and contribute to clarify the molecular mechanisms by which tumor-defying proteases may exert their protective function in cancer and metastasis.

  5. Long noncoding RNA MEG3 is downregulated in cervical cancer and affects cell proliferation and apoptosis by regulating miR-21.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Yao, Tingting; Wang, Yaxian; Yu, Jin; Liu, Yunyun; Lin, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has found that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were involved in various human cancers. However, the role of these lncRNAs in cervical cancer remains unexplored. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the biological function of maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3), a cancer-related lncRNA, and its underlying mechanism in cervical cancer. In this study, MEG3 expression of 108 patients' cervical cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues was detected by quantitative real-time PCR analysis (qRT-PCR), and the functional effect of MEG3 was determined in vitro assays. We observed that MEG3 was downregulated in cervical cancer tissues, compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and was negatively related with FIGO stages, tumor size, lymphatic metastasis, HR-HPV infection and the expression of homo sapiens microRNA-21 (miR-21). Furthermore, we focused on the function and molecular mechanism of MEG3, finding that overexpression of MEG3 reduced the level of miR-21-5p expression, causing inhibition of proliferation and increased apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. In summary, our findings indicate that MEG3 function as a tumor suppressor by regulating miR-21-5p, resulting in the inhibition of tumor growth in cervical cancer. As a result, this study improves our understanding of the function of MEG3 in cervical cancer and will help to provide new potential target sites for cervical cancer treatment.

  6. Serum miR-21, miR-29a and miR-125b are promising biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Atsushi; Horimatsu, Takahiro; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Nishida, Naoshi; Honjo, Hajime; Ida, Hiroshi; Kou, Tadayuki; Kusaka, Toshihiro; Sasaki, Yu; Makato, Yagi; Higurashi, Takuma; Yukawa, Norio; Amanuma, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Osamu; Muto, Manabu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Nakajima, Atsushi; Chiba, Tsutomu; Boland, C. Richard; Goel, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as promising diagnostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer (CRC), but their usefulness for detecting early colorectal neoplasms (CRNs) remains unclear. This study aimed to identify serum miRNA biomarkers for the identification of patients with early CRNs. Experimental Design A cohort of 237 serum samples from 160 patients with early CRNs (148 precancerous lesions and 12 cancers) and 77 healthy subjects was analyzed in a three-step approach that included: a comprehensive literature review for published biomarkers, a screening phase, and a validation phase. RNA was extracted from sera, and levels of miRNAs were examined by real-time RT-PCR. Results Nine miRNAs (miR-18a, miR-19a, miR-19b, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-24, miR-29a, miR-92 and miR-125b) were selected as candidate biomarkers for initial analysis. In the screening phase, serum levels of miR-21, miR-29a and miR-125b were significantly higher in patients with early CRN compared to healthy controls. Elevated levels of miR-21, miR-29a and miR-125b were confirmed in the validation phase using an independent set of subjects. Area under the curve (AUC) values for serum miR-21, miR-29a, miR-125b, and their combined score in discriminating early CRN patients from healthy controls were 0.706, 0.741, 0.806 and 0.827 respectively. Serum levels of miR-29a and miR-125b were significantly higher in patients who only had small CRNs (≤5mm) compared to healthy subjects. Conclusions Since serum levels of miR-21, miR-29a and miR-125b discriminated early CRN patients from healthy controls, our data highlight the potential clinical use of these molecular signatures for noninvasive screening of patients with colorectal neoplasia. PMID:26038573

  7. Down-regulation of miR-21 Induces Differentiation of Chemoresistant Colon Cancer Cells and Enhances Susceptibility to Therapeutic Regimens.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingjie; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2013-04-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous posttranscriptional modulators that negatively control the expression of their target genes and play an important role in the development and progression of many malignancies, including colorectal carcinoma. In particular, expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is greatly increased in chemotherapy-resistant (CR) colon cancer cells that are enriched in undifferentiated cancer stem/stem-like cells (CSCs/CSLCs). We hypothesize that miR-21 plays a critical role in regulating differentiation of CR colon cancer cells. Indeed, we observed that downregulation of miR-21 in CR colon cancer cells (HCT-116 or HT-29) by antisense miR-21 induced differentiation, as evidenced by marked increases in cytokeratin-20 (CK-20) expression and alkaline phosphatase activity. These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of colon CSC/CSLC marker CD44, colonosphere formation, and T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) activity but increased the expression of proapoptotic programmed cell death 4 gene. Induction of differentiation greatly increased sensitivity of CR colon cancer cells to the growth inhibitory properties of all three regimens tested: 5-fluorouracil + oxaliplatin (FUOX), difluorinated curcumin (CDF), and the combination of CDF and FUOX. However, the magnitude of inhibition of growth by either CDF (75%) alone or CDF + FUOX (80%) was much higher than that observed with only FUOX (40%). Growth inhibition by CDF and CDF + FUOX in differentiating CR colon cancer cells was associated with a 98% to 99% reduction in the expression of CD44 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, down-regulation of CK-20 in CR colon cancer cells produced no significant change in cellular growth in the absence or presence of FUOX, when compared with the corresponding controls. The current observation suggests that CDF and CDF + FUOX are highly effective in inhibiting growth and reducing colon CSCs/CSLCs in anti-miR-21-induced

  8. Oxidized LDL triggers pro-oncogenic signaling in human breast mammary epithelial cells partly via stimulation of MiR-21.

    PubMed

    Khaidakov, Magomed; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia and obesity are primary risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis and are also epidemiologically linked to increased susceptibility to a variety of cancers including breast cancer. One of the prominent features of dyslipidemia is enhanced production of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), which has been shown to be implicated in key steps of atherogenesis including inflammatory signaling and proliferation of vascular cells. In this study we analyzed the effects of ox-LDL in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A). MCF10A cells avidly internalized dil-ox-LDL and exhibited increased proliferative response to ox-LDL within the range of 1-50 µg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with 20 µg/ml ox-LDL for 2 and 12 hours was associated with upregulation of LOX-1 and CD36 scavenger receptors while MSR1 and CXLC16 receptors did not change. Ox-LDL-treated cells displayed significant upregulation of NADPH oxidases (subunits P22(phox) and P47(phox)), lipoxygenases-12 and -15, and cytoplasmic, but not mitochondrial, SOD. Ox-LDL also triggered phosphorylation of IκBα coupled with nuclear translocation of NF-κB and stimulated p44/42 MAPK, PI3K and Akt while intracellular PTEN (PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor and target of miR-21) declined. Quantitative PCR revealed increased expression of hsa-miR-21 in ox-LDL treated cells coupled with inhibition of miR-21 target genes. Further, transfection of MCF10A cells with miR-21 inhibitor prevented ox-LDL mediated stimulation of PI3K and Akt. We conclude that, similarly to vascular cells, mammary epithelial cells respond to ox-LDL by upregulation of proliferative and pro-inflammatory signaling. We also report for the first time that part of ox-LDL triggered reactions in MCF10A cells is mediated by oncogenic hsa-miR-21 through inhibition of its target gene PTEN and consequent activation of PI3K/Akt pathway.

  9. Up-regulation of miR-21 and 146a expression and increased DNA damage frequency in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

    PubMed Central

    Salimi-Asl, Mohammad; Mozdarani, Hossein; Kadivar, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a multigenic endocrine disorder, is highly associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, however its etiology remains unclear. In this study, we employed dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-treated mice to reveal the molecular mechanism of inflammation and its correlation with oxidative stress in PCOS patients. Methods: miR-21 and miR-146a expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). DNA strand breakage frequency was measured using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay (comet assay) and micronucleus test (MN). CRP levels were measured by ELISA method and ESR values were measured by means of Micro-Dispette (Fisher No: 02-675-256) tubes according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA in SPSS 21.0 software. Results: Our results showed that miR-21 and miR-146a as inflammation markers were upregulated in the sample group in comparison with control group. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C- reactive protein (CRP) levels were also increased in mouse models of PCOS (p < 0.000). Micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte (MNPCE) rates per 1000 polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) significantly increased in DHEA treated mice (6.22 ± 3.28) in comparison with the controls (2.33 ± 2.23, p < 0.000). Moreover, mean arbitrary unit in DHEA treated animals (277 ± 92) was significantly higher than that in controls (184 ± 76, p = 0.005). Conclusion: To conclude, increased DNA strand breakage frequency and increased expression levels of miR-21 and miR-146a in DHEA administrated animals suggest that low grade chronic inflammation and oxidative stress can act as the main etiologies of PCOS. PMID:27525225

  10. AC1MMYR2 impairs high dose paclitaxel-induced tumor metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Xiao-hui; Wang, Qi-xue; Han, Lei; Song, Xin; Zhu, Zhi-yan; Tian, Wei-ping; Zhang, Lun; Mei, Mei; Kang, Chun-sheng

    2015-07-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a widely used chemo-drug for many solid tumors, while continual taxol treatment is revealed to stimulate tumor dissemination. We previously found that a small molecule inhibitor of miR-21, termed AC1MMYR2, had the potential to impair tumorigenesis and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combining AC1MMYR2 with taxol could be explored as a means to limit tumor metastasis. Here we showed that abnormal activation of miR-21/CDK5 axis was associated with breast cancer lymph node metastasis, which was also contribute to high dose taxol-induced invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and glioblastoma cell line U87VIII. AC1MMYR2 attenuated CDK5 activity by functional targeting CDK5RAP1, CDK5 activator p39 and target p-FAK(ser732). A series of in vitro assays indicated that treatment of AC1MMYR2 combined with taxol suppressed tumor migration and invasion ability in both MDA-MB-231 and U87VIII cell. More importantly, combination therapy impaired high-dose taxol induced invadopodia, and EMT markers including β-catenin, E-cadherin and vimentin. Strikingly, a significant reduction of lung metastasis in mice was observed in the AC1MMYR2 plus taxol treatment. Taken together, our work demonstrated that AC1MMYR2 appeared to be a promising strategy in combating taxol induced cancer metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis, which highlighted the potential for development of therapeutic modalities for better clinic taxol application.

  11. AC1MMYR2 impairs high dose paclitaxel-induced tumor metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Xiao-hui; Wang, Qi-xue; Han, Lei; Song, Xin; Zhu, Zhi-yan; Tian, Wei-ping; Zhang, Lun; Mei, Mei; Kang, Chun-sheng

    2015-07-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a widely used chemo-drug for many solid tumors, while continual taxol treatment is revealed to stimulate tumor dissemination. We previously found that a small molecule inhibitor of miR-21, termed AC1MMYR2, had the potential to impair tumorigenesis and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combining AC1MMYR2 with taxol could be explored as a means to limit tumor metastasis. Here we showed that abnormal activation of miR-21/CDK5 axis was associated with breast cancer lymph node metastasis, which was also contribute to high dose taxol-induced invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and glioblastoma cell line U87VIII. AC1MMYR2 attenuated CDK5 activity by functional targeting CDK5RAP1, CDK5 activator p39 and target p-FAK(ser732). A series of in vitro assays indicated that treatment of AC1MMYR2 combined with taxol suppressed tumor migration and invasion ability in both MDA-MB-231 and U87VIII cell. More importantly, combination therapy impaired high-dose taxol induced invadopodia, and EMT markers including β-catenin, E-cadherin and vimentin. Strikingly, a significant reduction of lung metastasis in mice was observed in the AC1MMYR2 plus taxol treatment. Taken together, our work demonstrated that AC1MMYR2 appeared to be a promising strategy in combating taxol induced cancer metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis, which highlighted the potential for development of therapeutic modalities for better clinic taxol application. PMID:25827073

  12. PIK3R1 targeting by miR-21 suppresses tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing PI3K/AKT signaling and reversing EMT, and predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    YAN, LI-XU; LIU, YAN-HUI; XIANG, JIAN-WEN; WU, QI-NIAN; XU, LEI-BO; LUO, XIN-LAN; ZHU, XIAO-LAN; LIU, CHAO; XU, FANG-PING; LUO, DONG-LAN; MEI, PING; XU, JIE; ZHANG, KE-PING; CHEN, JIE

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that dysregulation of miR-21 functioned as an oncomiR in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which miR-21 regulate breast tumor migration and invasion. We applied pathway analysis on genome microarray data and target-predicting algorithms for miR-21 target screening, and used luciferase reporting assay to confirm the direct target. Thereafter, we investigated the function of the target gene phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (α) (PIK3R1), and detected PIK3R1 coding protein (p85α) by immunohistochemistry and miR-21 by RT-qPCR on 320 archival paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer to evaluate the correlation of their expression with prognosis. First, we found that PIK3R1 suppressed growth, invasiveness, and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. Next, we identified the PIK3R1 as a direct target of miR-21 and showed that it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p85α overexpression phenocopied the suppression effects of antimiR-21 on breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, indicating its tumor suppressor role in breast cancer. On the contrary, PIK3R1 knockdown abrogated antimiR-21-induced effect on breast cancer cells. Notably, antimiR-21 induction increased p85α, accompanied by decreased p-AKT level. Besides, antimiR-21/PIK3R1-induced suppression of invasiveness in breast cancer cells was mediated by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). p85α downregulation was found in 25 (7.8%) of the 320 breast cancer patients, and was associated with inferior 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Taken together, we provide novel evidence that miR-21 knockdown suppresses cell growth, migration and invasion partly by inhibiting PI3K/AKT activation via direct targeting PIK3R1 and reversing EMT in breast cancer. p85α downregulation defined a specific subgroup of breast cancer with shorter 5-year DFS and OS

  13. Inhibition of breast cancer cell motility with a non-cyclooxygenase inhibitory derivative of sulindac by suppressing TGFβ/miR-21 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ruixia; Feng, Xiangling; Li, Wei; Piazza, Gary A.; Xi, Yaguang

    2016-01-01

    Compelling efficacy on intervention of tumorigenesis by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been documented intensively. However, the toxicities related to cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition resulting in suppression of physiologically important prostaglandins limit their clinical use for human cancer chemoprevention. A novel derivative of the NSAID sulindac sulfide (SS), referred as sulindac sulfide amide (SSA), was recently developed, which lacks COX inhibitory activity, yet shows greater suppressive effect than SS on growth of various cancer cells. In this study, we focus on the inhibitory activity of SSA on breast tumor cell motility, which has not been studied previously. Our results show that SSA treatment at non-cytotoxic concentrations can specifically reduce breast tumor cell motility without influencing tumor cell growth, and the mechanism of action involves the suppression of TGFβ signaling by directly blocking Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Moreover, miR-21, a well-documented oncogenic miRNA for promoting tumor cell metastasis, was also found to be involved in inhibitory activity of SSA in breast tumor cell motility through the modulation of TGFβ pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a non-COX inhibitory derivative of sulindac can inhibit breast tumor metastasis by a mechanism involving the TGFβ/miR-21 signaling axis. PMID:26769851

  14. Inhibition of breast cancer cell motility with a non-cyclooxygenase inhibitory derivative of sulindac by suppressing TGFβ/miR-21 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bin; Chang, Hong; Ma, Ruixia; Feng, Xiangling; Li, Wei; Piazza, Gary A; Xi, Yaguang

    2016-02-16

    Compelling efficacy on intervention of tumorigenesis by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been documented intensively. However, the toxicities related to cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition resulting in suppression of physiologically important prostaglandins limit their clinical use for human cancer chemoprevention. A novel derivative of the NSAID sulindac sulfide (SS), referred as sulindac sulfide amide (SSA), was recently developed, which lacks COX inhibitory activity, yet shows greater suppressive effect than SS on growth of various cancer cells. In this study, we focus on the inhibitory activity of SSA on breast tumor cell motility, which has not been studied previously. Our results show that SSA treatment at non-cytotoxic concentrations can specifically reduce breast tumor cell motility without influencing tumor cell growth, and the mechanism of action involves the suppression of TGFβ signaling by directly blocking Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Moreover, miR-21, a well-documented oncogenic miRNA for promoting tumor cell metastasis, was also found to be involved in inhibitory activity of SSA in breast tumor cell motility through the modulation of TGFβ pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a non-COX inhibitory derivative of sulindac can inhibit breast tumor metastasis by a mechanism involving the TGFβ/miR-21 signaling axis.

  15. MiR-21 is an Ngf-modulated microRNA that supports Ngf signaling and regulates neuronal degeneration in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Montalban, Enrica; Mattugini, Nicola; Ciarapica, Roberta; Provenzano, Claudia; Savino, Mauro; Scagnoli, Fiorella; Prosperini, Gianluca; Carissimi, Claudia; Fulci, Valerio; Matrone, Carmela; Calissano, Pietro; Nasi, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    The neurotrophins Ngf, Bdnf, NT-3, NT4-5 have key roles in development, survival, and plasticity of neuronal cells. Their action involves broad gene expression changes at the level of transcription and translation. MicroRNAs (miRs)-small RNA molecules that control gene expression post-transcriptionally-are increasingly implicated in regulating development and plasticity of neural cells. Using PC12 cells as a model system, we show that Ngf modulates changes in expression of a variety of microRNAs, including miRs known to be modulated by neurotrophins-such as the miR-212/132 cluster-and several others, such as miR-21, miR-29c, miR-30c, miR-93, miR-103, miR-207, miR-691, and miR-709. Pathway analysis indicates that Ngf-modulated miRs may regulate many protein components of signaling pathways involved in neuronal development and disease. In particular, we show that miR-21 enhances neurotrophin signaling and controls neuronal differentiation induced by Ngf. Notably, in a situation mimicking neurodegeneration-differentiated neurons deprived of Ngf-this microRNA is able to preserve the neurite network and to support viability of the neurons. These findings uncover a broad role of microRNAs in regulating neurotrophin signaling and suggest that aberrant expression of one or more Ngf-modulated miRs may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. PIK3R1 targeting by miR-21 suppresses tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing PI3K/AKT signaling and reversing EMT, and predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Xu; Liu, Yan-Hui; Xiang, Jian-Wen; Wu, Qi-Nian; Xu, Lei-Bo; Luo, Xin-Lan; Zhu, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Chao; Xu, Fang-Ping; Luo, Dong-Lan; Mei, Ping; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Ke-Ping; Chen, Jie

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that dysregulation of miR-21 functioned as an oncomiR in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which miR-21 regulate breast tumor migration and invasion. We applied pathway analysis on genome microarray data and target-predicting algorithms for miR-21 target screening, and used luciferase reporting assay to confirm the direct target. Thereafter, we investigated the function of the target gene phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (α) (PIK3R1), and detected PIK3R1 coding protein (p85α) by immunohistochemistry and miR-21 by RT-qPCR on 320 archival paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer to evaluate the correlation of their expression with prognosis. First, we found that PIK3R1 suppressed growth, invasiveness, and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. Next, we identified the PIK3R1 as a direct target of miR-21 and showed that it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p85α overexpression phenocopied the suppression effects of antimiR-21 on breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, indicating its tumor suppressor role in breast cancer. On the contrary, PIK3R1 knockdown abrogated antimiR‑21-induced effect on breast cancer cells. Notably, antimiR-21 induction increased p85α, accompanied by decreased p-AKT level. Besides, antimiR-21/PIK3R1-induced suppression of invasiveness in breast cancer cells was mediated by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). p85α downregulation was found in 25 (7.8%) of the 320 breast cancer patients, and was associated with inferior 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Taken together, we provide novel evidence that miR-21 knockdown suppresses cell growth, migration and invasion partly by inhibiting PI3K/AKT activation via direct targeting PIK3R1 and reversing EMT in breast cancer. p85α downregulation defined a specific subgroup of breast cancer with shorter 5-year DFS and OS

  17. Dicer1 imparts essential survival cues in Notch-driven T-ALL via miR-21-mediated tumor suppressor Pdcd4 repression.

    PubMed

    Junker, Fabian; Chabloz, Antoine; Koch, Ute; Radtke, Freddy

    2015-08-20

    The modulatory function of individual microRNAs (miRNAs) in Notch-driven T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) has recently been established. Although protumorigenic and tumor-suppressive miRNAs are implicated in disease onset in murine models of Notch-driven T-cell leukemia, whether Dicer1-processed miRNAs are essential for Notch-driven T-ALL is currently unknown. Here we used conditional and inducible genetic loss-of-function approaches to test whether the development and maintenance of Notch-driven T-ALL was dependent on Dicer1 function. Mice with specific inactivation of both Dicer1 alleles in the T-cell lineage did not develop Notch-driven T-ALL. In contrast, loss of 1 functional Dicer1 allele did not significantly perturb T-ALL onset and tumor progression. Inducible inactivation of Dicer1 in early stage polyclonal T-ALL cells was sufficient to abrogate T-ALL progression in leukemic mice, whereas late-stage monoclonal T-ALL cells were counterselected against loss of Dicer1. Lineage-tracing experiments revealed that Dicer1 deficiency led to the induction of apoptosis in T-ALL cells, whereas cell cycle progression remained unaltered. Through microarray-based miRNA profiling, we identified miR-21 as a previously unrecognized miRNA deregulated in both mouse and human T-ALL. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-21 regulates T-ALL cell survival via repression of the tumor suppressor Pdcd4.

  18. HER2-encoded mir-4728 forms a receptor-independent circuit with miR-21-5p through the non-canonical poly(A) polymerase PAPD5

    PubMed Central

    Newie, Inga; Søkilde, Rolf; Persson, Helena; Jacomasso, Thiago; Gorbatenko, Andrej; Borg, Åke; de Hoon, Michiel; Pedersen, Stine F.; Rovira, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that the human HER2 gene encodes the intronic microRNA mir-4728, which is overexpressed together with its oncogenic host gene and may act independently of the HER2 receptor. More recently, we also reported that the oncogenic miR-21-5p is regulated by 3′ tailing and trimming by the non-canonical poly(A) polymerase PAPD5 and the ribonuclease PARN. Here we demonstrate a dual function for the HER2 locus in upregulation of miR-21-5p; while HER2 signalling activates transcription of mir-21, miR-4728-3p specifically stabilises miR-21-5p through inhibition of PAPD5. Our results establish a new and unexpected oncogenic role for the HER2 locus that is not currently being targeted by any anti-HER2 therapy. PMID:27752128

  19. Silibinin suppresses EMT-driven erlotinib resistance by reversing the high miR-21/low miR-200c signature in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cufí, Sílvia; Bonavia, Rosa; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Visa, Joana; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Joven, Jorge; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim; Micol, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A.

    2013-01-01

    The flavolignan silibinin was studied for its ability to restore drug sensitivity to EGFR-mutant NSCLC xenografts with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-driven resistance to erlotinib. As a single agent, silibinin significantly decreased the tumor volumes of erlotinib-refractory NSCLC xenografts by approximately 50%. Furthermore, the complete abrogation of tumor growth was observed with the co-treatment of erlotinib and silibinin. Silibinin fully reversed the EMT-related high miR-21/low miR-200c microRNA signature and repressed the mesenchymal markers SNAIL, ZEB, and N-cadherin observed in erlotinib-refractory tumors. Silibinin was sufficient to fully activate a reciprocal mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in erlotinib-refractory cells and prevent the highly migratogenic phenotype of erlotinib-resistant NSCLC cells. Given that the various mechanisms of resistance to erlotinib result from EMT, regardless of the EGFR mutation status, a water-soluble, silibinin-rich milk thistle extract might be a suitable candidate therapy for upcoming clinical trials aimed at preventing or reversing NSCLC progression following erlotinib treatment. PMID:23963283

  20. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; Ling, Min; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Liang, Xiao; Jiang, Rongrong; Wang, Bairu; Bian, Qian; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT.

  1. Changes in serum levels of miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 in HER2-positive breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy: a translational research project within the Geparquinto trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Volkmar; Gade, Stephan; Steinbach, Bettina; Loibl, Sibylle; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Untch, Michael; Schwedler, Kathrin; Lübbe, Kristina; Schem, Christian; Fasching, Peter A; Mau, Christine; Pantel, Klaus; Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    Trastuzumab and lapatinib are established treatments for patients with HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)-positive breast cancer with different mechanisms of action. The focus of this study is to investigate, whether altered expression levels of potentially relevant microRNAs (miRs) in serum are associated with response to trastuzumab or lapatinib. Circulating miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 were quantified with TaqMan MicroRNA assays in serum of 127 HER2-postive breast cancer patients before and after neoadjuvant therapy and in 19 healthy controls. Patients received chemotherapy combined with either trastuzumab or lapatinib within the prospectively randomized Geparquinto trial. The association between miR levels and pathological response (pCR) to therapy and type of therapy was examined. Serum levels of miR-21 (p = 5.04e-08, p = 1.43e-10), miR-210 (p = 0.00151, p = 1.6e-05), and miR-373 (p = 7.87e-06, p = 1.75e-07) were significantly higher in patients before and after chemotherapy than in healthy women. Concentrations of miR-21 (p = 5.73e-08), miR-210 (p = 0.000724), and miR-373 (p = 0.00209) increased further after chemotherapy. A significant association of higher serum levels of miR-373 with advanced clinical tumor stage could be detected (p < 0.002). An association of miR-21 levels before (p = 0.0091) and after (p = 0.037) chemotherapy with overall survival of the patients could be detected, independent of type of anti-HER2 therapy. No association of circulating miRs with pCR was found. Our findings demonstrate a specific influence of neoadjuvant therapy on the serum levels of miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 in breast cancer patients together with a prognostic value of miR-21.

  2. Tamoxifen-Induced Cell Death of Malignant Glioma Cells Is Brought About by Oxidative-Stress-Mediated Alterations in the Expression of BCL2 Family Members and Is Enhanced on miR-21 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Harmalkar, Mugdha; Upraity, Shailendra; Kazi, Sadaf; Shirsat, Neelam Vishwanath

    2015-10-01

    High-grade gliomas are refractory to the current mode of treatment primarily due to their inherent resistance to cell death. Tamoxifen has been reported to inhibit growth and induce cell death of glioma cells in vitro, in an estrogen-receptor-independent manner. Delineating the molecular mechanism underlying tamoxifen-induced cell death of human glioma cells would help in identifying pathways/genes that could be targeted to induce tumor-cell-specific cell death. In the present study, tamoxifen was found to bring about autophagic cell death of human glioma cells that was accompanied by oxidative stress induction, JNK activation, downregulation of anti-autophagic BCL2 family members, viz. BCL2 and BCL-XL, and increased expression of the pro-autophagic members BCL-Xs and BAK. Oxidative stress induction appears to be primarily responsible for the tamoxifen-induced cell death since the cell death, JNK activation, and the alterations in the expression levels of BCL2 family members were abrogated on pretreatment with antioxidant vitamin E. MiR-21, an oncogenic miRNA, is known to be highly upregulated in malignant glioma. Inhibition of miR-21 activity was found to enhance tamoxifen-induced cell death of U87 MG malignant glioma cells. Tamoxifen treatment coupled with miR-21 inhibition could therefore be an effective strategy for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

  3. Expression of microRNAs miR21, miR146a, and miR155 in tuberous sclerosis complex cortical tubers and their regulation in human astrocytes and SEGA-derived cell cultures.

    PubMed

    van Scheppingen, J; Iyer, A M; Prabowo, A S; Mühlebner, A; Anink, J J; Scholl, T; Feucht, M; Jansen, F E; Spliet, W G; Krsek, P; Zamecnik, J; Buccoliero, A M; Giordano, F; Genitori, L; Kotulska, K; Jozwiak, S; Jaworski, J; Liszewska, E; van Vliet, E A; Aronica, E

    2016-06-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disease presenting with multiple neurological symptoms including epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism. Abnormal activation of various inflammatory pathways has been observed in astrocytes in brain lesions associated with TSC. Increasing evidence supports the involvement of microRNAs in the regulation of astrocyte-mediated inflammatory response. To study the role of inflammation-related microRNAs in TSC, we employed real-time PCR and in situ hybridization to characterize the expression of miR21, miR146a, and miR155 in TSC lesions (cortical tubers and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, SEGAs). We observed an increased expression of miR21, miR146a, and miR155 in TSC tubers compared with control and perituberal brain tissue. Expression was localized in dysmorphic neurons, giant cells, and reactive astrocytes and positively correlated with IL-1β expression. In addition, cultured human astrocytes and SEGA-derived cell cultures were used to study the regulation of the expression of these miRNAs in response to the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β and to evaluate the effects of overexpression or knockdown of miR21, miR146a, and miR155 on inflammatory signaling. IL-1β stimulation of cultured glial cells strongly induced intracellular miR21, miR146a, and miR155 expression, as well as miR146a extracellular release. IL-1β signaling was differentially modulated by overexpression of miR155 or miR146a, which resulted in pro- or anti-inflammatory effects, respectively. This study provides supportive evidence that inflammation-related microRNAs play a role in TSC. In particular, miR146a and miR155 appear to be key players in the regulation of astrocyte-mediated inflammatory response, with miR146a as most interesting anti-inflammatory therapeutic candidate. PMID:27014996

  4. Impact of miR-21, miR-126 and miR-221 as prognostic factors of clear cell renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Vergho, Daniel Claudius; Kneitz, Susanne; Kalogirou, Charis; Burger, Maximilian; Krebs, Markus; Rosenwald, Andreas; Spahn, Martin; Löser, Andreas; Kocot, Arkadius; Riedmiller, Hubertus; Kneitz, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) characterized by a tumor thrombus (TT) extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) generally indicates poor prognosis. Nevertheless, the risk for tumor recurrence after nephrectomy and thrombectomy varies. An applicable and accurate prediction system to select ccRCC patients with TT of the IVC (ccRCC/TT) at high risk after nephrectomy is urgently needed, but has not been established up to now. To our knowledge, a possible role of microRNAs (miRs) for the development of ccRCC/TT or their impact as prognostic markers in ccRCC/TT has not been explored yet. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of the previously described onco-miRs miR-200c, miR-210, miR-126, miR-221, let-7b, miR-21, miR-143 and miR-141 in a study collective of 74 ccRCC patients. Using the expression profiles of these eight miRs we developed classification systems that accurately differentiate ccRCC from non-cancerous renal tissue and ccRCC/TT from tumors without TT. In the subgroup of 37 ccRCC/TT cases we found that miR-21, miR-126, and miR-221 predicted cancer related death (CRD) accurately and independently from other clinico-pathological features. Furthermore, a combined risk score based on the expression of miR-21, miR-126 and miR-221 was developed and showed high sensitivity and specificity to predict cancer specific survival (CSS) in ccRCC/TT. Using the combined risk score we were able to classify ccRCC/TT patients correctly into high and low risk cases. The risk stratification by the combined risk score (CRS) will benefit from further cohort validation and might have potential for clinical application as a molecular prediction system to identify high- risk ccRCC/TT patients. PMID:25279769

  5. Impact of miR-21, miR-126 and miR-221 as Prognostic Factors of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma with Tumor Thrombus of the Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Vergho, Daniel Claudius; Kneitz, Susanne; Kalogirou, Charis; Burger, Maximilian; Krebs, Markus; Rosenwald, Andreas; Spahn, Martin; Löser, Andreas; Kocot, Arkadius; Riedmiller, Hubertus; Kneitz, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) characterized by a tumor thrombus (TT) extending into the inferior vena cava (IVC) generally indicates poor prognosis. Nevertheless, the risk for tumor recurrence after nephrectomy and thrombectomy varies. An applicable and accurate prediction system to select ccRCC patients with TT of the IVC (ccRCC/TT) at high risk after nephrectomy is urgently needed, but has not been established up to now. To our knowledge, a possible role of microRNAs (miRs) for the development of ccRCC/TT or their impact as prognostic markers in ccRCC/TT has not been explored yet. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of the previously described onco-miRs miR-200c, miR-210, miR-126, miR-221, let-7b, miR-21, miR-143 and miR-141 in a study collective of 74 ccRCC patients. Using the expression profiles of these eight miRs we developed classification systems that accurately differentiate ccRCC from non-cancerous renal tissue and ccRCC/TT from tumors without TT. In the subgroup of 37 ccRCC/TT cases we found that miR-21, miR-126, and miR-221 predicted cancer related death (CRD) accurately and independently from other clinico-pathological features. Furthermore, a combined risk score based on the expression of miR-21, miR-126 and miR-221 was developed and showed high sensitivity and specificity to predict cancer specific survival (CSS) in ccRCC/TT. Using the combined risk score we were able to classify ccRCC/TT patients correctly into high and low risk cases. The risk stratification by the combined risk score (CRS) will benefit from further cohort validation and might have potential for clinical application as a molecular prediction system to identify high- risk ccRCC/TT patients. PMID:25279769

  6. Grant R01CA185301 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA148817 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA164782 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA187027 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA192124 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA169398 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA166011 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA172627 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01AT006860 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA094076 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA190610 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA196762 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA182969 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA166710 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA128134 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA188038 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA200423 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA184926 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA163293 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA187160 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA132927 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA190092 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA197919 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA124481 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA179949 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA158319 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA160880 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA193522 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA179992 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA159976 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA208711 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA166590 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA180949 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA172444 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA163803 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01AT006885 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA148966 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA105266 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA183296 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA133050 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA200795 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA190710 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA196854 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA203950 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA169175 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA195723 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA210370 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA158668 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA157469 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA087546 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA151304 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA152799 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA161534 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA200977 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA026582 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA172517 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA138800 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01EB019337 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01NS046606 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01NR014068 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01AT007429 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA164574 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA182905 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA194617 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA120933 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA177995 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA174683 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA084233 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA205608 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA196692 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA166557 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA162401 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA196639 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA193885 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA195708 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA182284 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA107408 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01AG041869 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA151494 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01AI093723 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA162139 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA180087 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA190776 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA182076 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA168292 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA202936 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA181242 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA172576 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA204345 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA165309 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01AT008108 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA140605 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA132951 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA098286 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA155301 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA154489 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA134620 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA179511 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01AT005295 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA140561 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA155297 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA163103 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA170549 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA177562 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01AT007003 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA163683 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA196200 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA137178 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA184820 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA184027 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA183869 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA080946 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. NCI/DCCPS R21 Program Announcements

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences funds a large portfolio of grants and contracts. The portfolio currently includes approximately 800 grants valued at nearly $450 million. Here we provide a listing of funding opportunities that are currently accepting applications. Please visit this page regularly as new funding opportunities are added upon approval by NCI.

  19. Down-regulation of TGF-b1, TGF-b receptor 2, and TGF-b-associated microRNAs, miR-20a and miR-21, in skin lesions of sulfur mustard-exposed Iranian war veterans.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Mohadeseh; Mirzaei, Behnaz; Tavallaei, Mahmood; Noorani, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mojtaba; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) affects divergent cellular pathways including cell cycle, apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammatory responses. SM-induced lesions in skin include late-onset hyper-pigmentation, xerosis, and atrophy. It seems that TGF-b signaling pathway is a major player for SM pathogenesis. Here, we have employed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach to evaluate the expression alterations of all TGF-b variants and their receptors in skin biopsies obtained from 10 Iran-Iraq war veterans. Using specific LNA primers, the expression alteration of a TGF-bR2 regulator, miR-20a, and TGF-b downstream target, miR-21, was also assessed in the same samples Our real-time PCR data revealed a significant down-regulation of TGF-b1 and TGF-bR2, the major mediators of TGF-b signaling pathway, in skin biopsies of SM-exposed patients (p = 0.0015 and p = 0.0115, respectively). Down-regulation of TGF-b signaling pathway seems to contribute in severe inflammation observed in SM-exposed patients' tissues. MiR-20a and miR-21, as two important TGF-b associated microRNAs (miRNAs), were also down-regulated in SM-exposed skin lesions, compared to those of control group (p = 0.0003). Based on our findings, these miRNAs could be directly or indirectly involve in the pathogenesis of SM. Altogether, our data suggest the suitability of TGF-b1, TGF-bR2, as well as miR-20a and miR-21 as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of SM-exposed patients. PMID:26498464

  20. Grant R21CA191744 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R21CA191761 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R21GM118341 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R21CA208723 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R21CA195394 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R21DE025825 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R21CA169492 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R21CA190028 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R21CA149956 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R21CA182941 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R21CA186000 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R21CA186853 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R21CA206039 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R21CA198963 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R21CA185460 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R21CA184788 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R21CA182111 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R21CA183736 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R21DK105476 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R21CA124606 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R21CA137333 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R21CA196954 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R21CA171316 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R21CA195002 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R21CA181901 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R21CA174541 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R21CA190021 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R21CA182861 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R21CA174594 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R21CA187309 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R21DK108781 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R21CA173263 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R21CA198049 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. [The diagnostic efficacy of Soviet echotomoscope ETS-R-01 in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Fazylova, Z R; Dusmuratov, A M; Azizova, A Ia

    1983-01-01

    Healthy (134) and diseased (852) children at the age of 1 to 15 have been examined using a multi-purpose ultrasonic diagnostic device model eTC-P-01. A special attention has been paid to methodological aspects of echographic examinations of different organs in children as well as to echotomographic semiotics characteristic for diseases of the soft tissues, thyroid gland, liver, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder. Follow-up echographic observations of internal organs have been pointed out to be useful in the course of prescribed therapy. The recommendations are given how to improve echotomoscopes for pediatric studies.

  14. 76 FR 4924 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ...: Psychosocial Stress and Behavior: Integration of Behavioral and Physiological Processes (R01). Date: February... Conceptually- based Measures of Psychosocial Stress (R21). Date: February 25, 2011. Time: 2 p.m. to 6...

  15. 75 FR 47602 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan... program is to support the clinical development of products for use in rare diseases or conditions where no... provides grants for clinical studies on safety and/or effectiveness that will either result in,...

  16. 78 FR 63994 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel; Substance Use Disorders and Molecular Regulation of Brain Energy Utilization (R01) (R21). Date: November 19, 2013. Time: 9:00 a.m. to 5:00...

  17. 75 FR 48976 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, Epi R01s, Data Analysis R21s, and K99 Applications..., National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300,...

  18. 78 FR 77475 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel Conflicts R01R21/K01. Date: February 19, 2014... Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817, (Telephone Conference...

  19. 76 FR 49779 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel, R01/R13/R21 Conflicteds. Date: September 30... Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817, (Telephone Conference...

  20. 75 FR 47254 - Elimination of Firearms Transaction Record, ATF Form 4473 (Low Volume) (2008R-21P)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... provisions of the Gun Control Act of 1968 (``the Act''), 18 U.S.C. chapter 44. Among other things, the Act..., there have been several legislative amendments to the Gun Control Act, which have resulted in...

  1. [Correlation between the levels of miR-21, miR-34c, miR-140 and miR-375 in the sperm from in vitro fertilization patients and the embryo quality].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Liu, Nenghui

    2015-08-01

    目的:通过检测不同胚胎质量的体外受精(in vitro fertilization,IVF)患者精子miRNA-21,miRNA-34c,miRNA-140,miRNA-375的表达情况,探讨精子来源的miRNAs与胚胎质量的相关性。方法:选择2012年9月至12月在中南大学湘雅医院生殖医学中心行IVF治疗原发不育的男性患者44例,收集 IVF取卵当日剩余新鲜精液标本,采用实时荧光定量PCR测定精子miRNAs(miRNA-21,miRNA-34c,miRNA-140,miRNA-375)的表达水平。观察胚胎情况后分组,第3天胚胎评分的平均值<8分为实验组,≥8分为对照组。比较实验组和对照组患者一般情况及实验室资料,分析精子miRNAs表达水平与胚胎质量的相关性。结果:实验组精子miRNA-21,miRNA-34c,miRNA-140,miRNA-375表达水平低于对照组(P<0.01)。实验组与对照组的获卵数、减数分裂II期(metaphase II,MII)卵子数、双原核(dual pronuclear,2PN)受精数、卵裂数、受精率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);实验组卵裂率低于对照组(P<0.05)。精子miRNA-21,miRNA-34c,miRNA-140,miRNA-375表达水平与第2,3天胚胎碎片率呈负相关,与第3天胚胎卵裂球数呈正相关,与胚胎评分呈正相关。结论:精子miRNA-21,miRNA-34c,miRNA-140,miRNA-375的表达水平上升可能影响卵裂期胚胎质量,对胚胎发育可能起一定的积极作用。.

  2. NIH and NCI grant-related changes during fiscal years 2014 and 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Rosemary S. L.

    2015-03-01

    The 2014 fiscal year (FY) continued to be a challenging one for all federal agencies despite the many Congressional strategies proposed to address the U.S. budget deficit. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 passed by the House and Senate in December 2013 approved a two-year spending bill which cancelled the FY2014 and FY2015 required sequestration cuts (i.e., 4-5% National Institute of Health (NIH)/National Cancer Institute (NCI) budget reduction initiated on March 1, 2013), but extended the sequestration period through FY2023. This bill passage helped minimize any further budget reductions and resulted in a final FY2014 NIH budget of 29.9 billion and a NCI budget of 4.9 billion. Both NIH and NCI worked hard to maintain awarding the same number of NIH/NCI investigator-initiated R01 and exploratory R21 grants funded in FY2014 and similar to the level seen in FY2013 and previous years (see Tables 1 and 2). Since Congress only recently passed the 2015 spending bill in December 16, 2014, the final NIH and NCI budget appropriations for FY2015 remains unknown at this time and most likely will be similar to the FY2014 budget level. The NCI overall success and funding rates for unsolicited investigator-initiated R01 applications remained at 15%, while the success rate for exploratory R21 applications was 12% in FY2014 with similar rates seen in FY2013 (see Tables 1 and 2). The success rate for biomedical research applications in the Photodynamic Therapy and laser research field will be provided for the past few years. NIH provides numerous resources to help inform the extramural biomedical research community of new and current grant applicants about new grant policy changes and the grant submission and review processes.

  3. Sex Differences Among Career Development Awardees in the Attainment of Independent Research Funding in a Department of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Clark, Jeanne M.; Weisfeldt, Myron L.; Choi, Terry; MacDonald, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: National data suggest that women are overall less likely than men to attain independent research funding. However, it remains unclear whether such sex differences are also observed in academic institutions that have integrated diversity in the workplace as a priority. Methods: During 1999–2008, all National Institutes of Health (NIH) Career Development (K01, K08, or K23) awardees in the Department of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine were identified to investigate differences in the attainment of independent funding by sex, including NIH Research Project Grant (R01) or equivalent awards, (U01, P01, P50), and any R award (also R03, R21, R34) through 2012. Results: A similar number of men (n = 49) and women (n = 43) received a K award. There were no significant sex differences in attaining an R01/equivalent award or any R award. The median time to attaining the first R01/equivalent award was similar for men and women (5.6 vs. 5.3 years, p = 0.93). The actuarial rate of R01/equivalent award attainment at 10 years was 64% overall (56% among men vs. 74% among women; log-rank p = 0.41). For any R award, the rate was 72% overall (70% among men vs. 76% among women; log-rank p = 0.63). In Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree, and funding period, sex was not an independent predictor of R01/equivalent or any R award attainment. Interestingly, black race and/or Hispanic ethnicity significantly predicted any R award attainment (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–5.37). Conclusions: No sex differences were found in the attainment of independent funding by K awardees in our study. Future studies to investigate the impact of specific diversity initiatives on subsequent success in attaining independent research funding are needed. PMID:26291588

  4. microRNA-21 is upregulated in malignant melanoma and influences apoptosis of melanocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Satzger, Imke; Mattern, Anika; Kuettler, Uta; Weinspach, Dirk; Niebuhr, Margarete; Kapp, Alexander; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2012-07-01

    Overexpression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) has been observed in various cancer types, but little is known about the role of miR-21 in melanoma. In this study, we demonstrate that levels of miR-21 are significantly increased in primary melanoma tissues as compared to benign nevi and in human melanoma cell lines as compared to melanocytic cell preparations. We show that downregulation of miR-21 in melanoma cell lines with high endogenous miR-21 expression induced apoptosis, whereas proliferation was not significantly altered. Upregulation of miR-21 in melanocytes resulted in increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. However, in the MEWO melanoma cells with low endogenous miR-21 expression, upregulation of miR-21 had no functional effects. These findings indicate a potential pathogenetic role of miR-21 upregulation in a subgroup of melanomas.

  5. Tension, cell shape and triple-junction angle anisotropy in the Drosophila germband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Monica; Hutson, M. Shane; Meyer, Christian; McDonald, Xena

    In the field of tissue mechanics, the embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster offers many opportunities for study. One of Drosophila's most crucial morphogenetic stages is the retraction of an epithelial tissue called the germband. During retraction, the segments of the retracting germband, as well as the individual germband cells, elongate in response to forces from a connected tissue, the amnioserosa. Modeling of this elongation, based on tissue responses to laser wounding, has plotted the internal germband tension against the external amnioserosa stress, creating a phase space to determine points and regions corresponding to stable elongation. Although the resulting fits indicate a necessary opposition of internal and external forces, they are inconclusive regarding the exact balance. We will present results testing the model predictions by measuring cell shapes and the correlations between cell-edge directions and triple-junction angles. These measures resolve the ambiguity in pinpointing the internal-external force balance for each germband segment. Research was supported by NIH Grant Numbers 1R01GM099107 and 1R21AR068933.

  6. Dissemination and Implementation Research Funded by the US National Institutes of Health, 2005–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tinkle, Mindy; Kimball, Richard; Haozous, Emily A.; Shuster, George; Meize-Grochowski, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Dissemination and implementation (D&I) research is a growing area of science focused on overcoming the science-practice gap by targeting the distribution of information and adoption of interventions to public health and clinical practice settings. This study examined D&I research projects funded under specific program announcements by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) from 2005 to 2012. The authors described the projects' D&I strategies, funding by NIH Institute, focus, characteristics of the principal investigators (PIs) and their organizations, and other aspects of study design and setting. Results showed 46 R01s, 6 R03s, and 24 R21s funded totaling $79.2 million. The top funders were the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Mental Health, together providing 61% of funding. The majority of PIs were affiliated with Schools of Medicine or large, nonprofit research organizations and think tanks. Only 4% of projects were to PIs with appointments at Schools of Nursing, with 7% of the funding. The most commonly funded projects across all of the studies focused on cancer control and screening, substance abuse prevention and treatment, and mental health services. Typically implemented in community and organizational settings, D&I research provides an excellent opportunity for team science, including nurse scientists and interdisciplinary collaborators. PMID:23606958

  7. Role and mechanism of microRNA-21 in H2O2-induced apoptosis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chen; Hao, Yuehan; Han, Yaxin; Zhang, Wei; Cong, Lin; Shi, Yao; Tu, Guanjun

    2016-05-01

    microRNA-21 (miR-21) contributes to anti-apoptosis, proliferation and migration in many cells, but its role in inhibiting apoptosis in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of miR-21 in H2O2-induced BMSC apoptosis. We used quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to demonstrate the level of miR-21 after treatment of BMSC with H2O2. BMSC apoptosis was induced by different concentrations of H2O2 and was decreased in miR-21-upregulated cells. The expression of PTEN, a functional target gene of miR-21 in BMSC, was regulated by miR-21. The RT-PCR results indicated that miR-21 was significantly up-regulated, and western blot analysis indicated that Bcl-2 was up-regulated, whereas the apoptosis-related genes caspase 3/9 and Bax were down-regulated in miR-21-up-regulated cells. The miR-21-up-regulated cells had significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation, as measured by western blot analysis. LY294002, an inhibitor of Akt activation, abolished the protective effects of miR-21-up-regulated cells. These results suggest that miR-21 contributes to inhibition of apoptosis in BMSC by down-regulating PTEN, potentially via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  8. The MicroRNA-21 in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaowen; Wan, Xiaochun; Ruan, Qingguo

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is an oncomiR and significantly upregulated in a wide range of cancers. It is strongly involved in apoptosis and oncogenesis, since most of its reported targets are tumor suppressors. Recently, miR-21 was found to be correlated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and may play an essential role in regulating autoimmune responses. In particular, miR-21 promotes Th17 cell differentiation, which mediates the development of multiple autoimmune diseases. In this article, we review the current research on the mechanisms that regulate miR-21 expression, the potential of miR-21 as a diagnostic biomarker for autoimmune disease and the mechanisms by which miR-21 promotes the development of autoimmune disease. We also discussed the therapeutic potential of targeting miR-21 in treating patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:27271606

  9. The MicroRNA-21 in Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaowen; Wan, Xiaochun; Ruan, Qingguo

    2016-06-03

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is an oncomiR and significantly upregulated in a wide range of cancers. It is strongly involved in apoptosis and oncogenesis, since most of its reported targets are tumor suppressors. Recently, miR-21 was found to be correlated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and may play an essential role in regulating autoimmune responses. In particular, miR-21 promotes Th17 cell differentiation, which mediates the development of multiple autoimmune diseases. In this article, we review the current research on the mechanisms that regulate miR-21 expression, the potential of miR-21 as a diagnostic biomarker for autoimmune disease and the mechanisms by which miR-21 promotes the development of autoimmune disease. We also discussed the therapeutic potential of targeting miR-21 in treating patients with autoimmune disease.

  10. SU-E-J-09: A Monte Carlo Analysis of the Relationship Between Cherenkov Light Emission and Dose for Electrons, Protons, and X-Ray Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, A; Zhang, R; Gladstone, D; Pogue, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A number of recent studies have proposed that light emitted by the Cherenkov effect may be used for a number of radiation therapy dosimetry applications. Here we investigate the fundamental nature and accuracy of the technique for the first time by using a theoretical and Monte Carlo based analysis. Methods: Using the GEANT4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) and BEAMnrc for phase space file generation, the light yield, material variability, field size and energy dependence, and overall agreement between the Cherenkov light emission and dose deposition for electron, proton, and flattened, unflattened, and parallel opposed x-ray photon beams was explored. Results: Due to the exponential attenuation of x-ray photons, Cherenkov light emission and dose deposition were identical for monoenergetic pencil beams. However, polyenergetic beams exhibited errors with depth due to beam hardening, with the error being inversely related to beam energy. For finite field sizes, the error with depth was inversely proportional to field size, and lateral errors in the umbra were greater for larger field sizes. For opposed beams, the technique was most accurate due to an averaging out of beam hardening in a single beam. The technique was found to be not suitable for measuring electron beams, except for relative dosimetry of a plane at a single depth. Due to a lack of light emission, the technique was found to be unsuitable for proton beams. Conclusions: The results from this exploratory study suggest that optical dosimetry by the Cherenkov effect may be most applicable to near monoenergetic x-ray photon beams (e.g. Co-60), dynamic IMRT and VMAT plans, as well as narrow beams used for SRT and SRS. For electron beams, the technique would be best suited for superficial dosimetry, and for protons the technique is not applicable due to a lack of light emission. NIH R01CA109558 and R21EB017559.

  11. Peptide assemblies: from cell scaffolds to immune adjuvants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Joel

    2011-03-01

    This talk will discuss two interrelated aspects of peptide self-assemblies in biological applications: their use as matrices for regenerative medicine, and their use as chemically defined adjuvants for directing immune responses against engineered antigens. In the first half of the presentation, the design of peptide self-assemblies as analogues for the extracellular matrix will be described, with a focus on self-assemblies displaying multiple different cell-binding peptides. We conducted multi-factorial investigations of peptide co-assemblies containing several different ligand-bearing peptides using statistical ``design of experiments'' (DoE). Using the DoE techniques of factorial experimentation and response surface modeling, we systematically explored how precise combinations of ligand-bearing peptides modulated endothelial cell growth, in the process finding interactions between ligands not previously appreciated. By investigating immune responses against the materials intended for tissue engineering applications, we discovered that the basic self-assembling peptides were minimally immunogenic or non-immunogenic, even when delivered in strong adjuvants. -But when they were appended to an appropriately restricted epitope peptide, these materials raised strong and persistent antibody responses. These responses were dependent on covalent conjugation between the epitope and self-assembling domains of the peptides, were mediated by T cells, and could be directed towards both peptide epitopes and conjugated protein antigens. In addition to their demonstrated utility as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, peptide self-assemblies may also be useful as chemically defined adjuvants for vaccines and immunotherapies. This work was funded by NIH/NIDCR (1 R21 DE017703-03), NIH/NIBIB (1 R01 EB009701-01), and NSF (CHE-0802286).

  12. MicroRNA 21 regulates the proliferation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells and high-fat diet-induced obesity alters microRNA 21 expression in white adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Hwang, Soo Hyun; Cho, Hyun Hwa; Shin, Keun Koo; Bae, Yong Chan; Jung, Jin Sup

    2012-01-01

    A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) differentiation could provide new insights into a number of diseases including obesity. Our previous study demonstrated that microRNA-21 (miR-21) controls the adipogenic differentiation of hASCs. In this study, we determined the expression of miR-21 in white adipose tissues in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity mouse model to examine the relationship between miR-21 and obesity and the effect of miR-21 on hASCs proliferation. Our study showed biphasic changes of miR-21 expression and a correlation between miR-21 level and adipocyte number in the epididymal fat of HFD mice. Over-expression of miR-21 decreased cell proliferation, whereas inhibiting miR-21 with 2'-O-methyl-antisense RNA increased it. Over-expression of miR-21 decreased both protein and mRNA levels of STAT3, whereas inhibiting miR-21 with 2'-O-methyl-antisense RNA increased these levels. The activity of a luciferase construct containing the miR-21 target site from the STAT3 3'UTR was lower in LV-miR21-infected hASCs than in LV-miLacZ infected cells. RNA interference-mediated down-regulation of STAT3 decreased cell proliferation without affecting adipogenic differentiation. These findings provide the evidence of the correlation between miR-21 level and adipocyte number in the white adipose tissue of HFD-induced obese mice, which provides new insights into the mechanisms of obesity.

  13. Apoptosis and the target genes of microRNA-21

    PubMed Central

    Buscaglia, Lindsey E. Becker; Li, Yong

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is frequently up-regulated in cancer and the majority of its reported targets are tumor suppressors. Through functional suppression, miR-21 is implicated in practically every walk of oncogenic life: the promotion of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, genome instability and mutation, inflammation, replicative immortalization, abnormal metabolism, angiogenesis, and evading apoptosis, immune destruction, and growth suppressors. In particular, miR-21 is strongly involved in apoptosis. In this article, we reviewed the experimentally validated targets of miR-21 and found that two thirds are linked to intrinsic and/or extrinsic pathways of cellular apoptosis. This suggests that miR-21 is an Oncogene which plays a key role in resisting programmed cell death in cancer cells and that targeting apoptosis is a viable therapeutic option against cancers expressing miR-21. PMID:21627859

  14. The S100P/RAGE signaling pathway regulates expression of microRNA-21 in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Pimentel, Melania E.; Onyeagucha, Benjamin C.; Li, Qing; Pimentel, Angel C.; Jandova, Jana; Nelson, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    S100P signaling through the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) contributes to colon cancer invasion and metastasis, but the mechanistic features of this process are obscure. Here, we investigate whether activation of S100P/RAGE signaling regulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21). We show that exogenous S100P up-regulates miR-21 levels in human colon cancer cells, whereas knockdown of S100P results in a decrease of miR-21. Furthermore, blockage of RAGE with anti-RAGE antibody suppresses S100P induction of miR-21. In addition, we found that S100P induction of miR-21 expression involves ERK and is suppressed by the MEK inhibitor U0126. Also, S100P treatment stimulates the enrichment of c-Fos, and AP-1 family members, at the miR-21 gene promoter. PMID:26193421

  15. MicroRNA-21 promotes phosphatase gene and protein kinase B/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase expression in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Wei-Zhong; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Tu, Chuan-Tao; He, Juan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore the regulatory mechanism of the target gene of microRNA-21 (miR-21), phosphatase gene (PTEN), and its downstream proteins, protein kinase B (AKT) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression levels of miR-21 and PTEN in HCT116, HT29, Colo32 and SW480 CRC cell lines. Also, the expression levels of PTEN mRNA and its downstream proteins AKT and PI3K in HCT116 cells after downregulating miR-21 were investigated. RESULTS: Comparing the miR-21 expression in CRC cells, the expression levels of miR-21 were highest in HCT116 cells, and the expression levels of miR-21 were lowest in SW480 cells. In comparing miR-21 and PTEN expression in CRC cells, we found that the protein expression levels of miR-21 and PTEN were inversely correlated (P < 0.05); when miR-21 expression was reduced, mRNA expression levels of PTEN did not significantly change (P > 0.05), but the expression levels of its protein significantly increased (P < 0.05). In comparing the levels of PTEN protein and downstream AKT and PI3K in HCT116 cells after downregulation of miR-21 expression, the levels of AKT and PI3K protein expression significantly decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PTEN is one of the direct target genes of miR-21. Thus, phosphatase gene and its downstream AKT and PI3K expression levels can be regulated by regulating the expression levels of miR-21, which in turn regulates the development of CRC. PMID:27350731

  16. Effects of mir-21 on Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells After Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats: Role of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN)/Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng; Liu, Wenwei; Yan, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Hanyun; Zhang, Hongshen; Liu, Jianfei; Yu, Ming; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Ma, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    Background This study investigated how miR-21 expression is reflected in acute myocardial infarction and explored the role of miR-21 and the PTEN/VEGF signaling pathway in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Material/Methods We used an in vivo LAD rat model to simulate acute myocardial infarction. MiR-21 mimics and miR-21 inhibitors were injected and transfected into model rats in order to alter miR-21 expression. Cardiac functions were evaluated using echocardiographic measurement, ELISA, and Masson staining. In addition, lenti-PTEN and VEGF siRNA were transfected into CMEC cells using standard procedures for assessing the effect of PTEN and VEGE on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. MiR-21, PTEN, and VEGF expressions were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. The relationship between miR-21 and PTEN was determined by the luciferase activity assay. Results We demonstrated that miR-21 bonded with the 3′-UTR of PTEN and suppressed PTEN expressions. Established models significantly induced cardiac infarct volume and endothelial injury marker expressions as well as miR-21 and PTEN expressions (P<0.05). MiR-21 mimics exhibited significantly protective effects since they down-regulated both infarction size and injury marker expressions by increasing VEGF expression and inhibiting PTEN expression (P<0.05). In addition, results from in vitro research show that lenti-PTEN and VEGF siRNA can notably antagonize the effect of miR-21 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis (P<0.05). Conclusions MiR-21 exerts protective effects on endothelial injury through the PTEN/VEGF pathway after acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27708252

  17. NFκB-mediated cyclin D1 expression by microRNA-21 influences renal cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bera, Amit; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Dey, Nirmalya; Das, Falguni; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Abboud, Hanna E; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2013-12-01

    MicroRNAs regulate post-transcriptomic landscape in many tumors including renal cell carcinoma. We have recently shown significantly increased expression of miR-21 in renal tumors and that this miRNA contributes to the proliferation of renal cancer cells in culture. However, the mechanism by which miR-21 regulates renal cancer cell proliferation is poorly understood. Addiction to constitutive NFκB activity is hallmark of many cancers including renal cancer. Using miR-21 Sponge in renal cancer cells to block endogenous function of miR-21, we show inhibition of phosphorylation of p65 subunit of NFκB, IKKβ and IκB, which results in attenuation of NFκB transcriptional activity. Subtle reduction in the tumor suppressor PTEN has been linked to various malignancies. We showed previously that miR-21 targeted PTEN in renal cancer cells. Inhibition of PTEN by siRNAs restored miR-21 Sponge-induced suppression of phosphorylation of p65, IKKβ, IκB and NFκB transcriptional activity along with reversal of miR-21 Sponge-reduced phosphorylation of Akt. Expression of constitutively active Akt protected against miR-21 Sponge- and PTEN-mediated decrease in p65/IKKβ/IκB phosphorylation and NFκB transcriptional activity. Furthermore, IKKβ and p65 were required for miR-21-induced renal cancer cell proliferation. Interestingly, miR-21 controlled the expression of cyclin D1 through NFκB-dependent transcription. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-21-regulated renal cancer cell proliferation is mediated by cyclin D1 and CDK4. Together, our results establish a molecular order of a phosphatase-kinase couple involving PTEN/Akt/IKKβ and NFκB-dependent cyclin D1 expression for renal carcinoma cell proliferation by increased miR-21 levels.

  18. 75 FR 34458 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...: Unintentional Poisoning from Prescription Drug Overdoses in Adults (R21), Funding Opportunity Announcement CE10... prevention of unintentional poisonings from drug overdoses in the adult population. Requests for...

  19. MicroRNA-21 directly targets MARCKS and promotes apoptosis resistance and invasion in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tao; Li, Dong; Sha, Jianjun; Sun, Peng; Huang, Yiran

    2009-06-05

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers in men. Recent studies have shown that microRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in various types of cancers including prostate cancer. Studies on glioma, colon cancer cells, hepatocellular cancer cells and breast cancer cells have indicated that miR-21 is involved in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. However, the roles of miR-21 in prostate cancer are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of miR-21 on prostate cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion were examined. In addition, the targets of miR-21 were identified by a reported RISC-coimmunoprecipitation-based biochemical method. Inactivation of miR-21 by antisense oligonucleotides in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC-3 resulted in sensitivity to apoptosis and inhibition of cell motility and invasion, whereas cell proliferation were not affected. We identified myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase c substrate (MARCKS), which plays key roles in cell motility, as a new target in prostate cancer cells. Our data suggested that miR-21 could promote apoptosis resistance, motility, and invasion in prostate cancer cells and these effects of miR-21 may be partly due to its regulation of PDCD4, TPM1, and MARCKS. Gene therapy using miR-21 inhibition strategy may therefore be useful as a prostate cancer therapy.

  20. MicroRNA-21 induces 5-fluorouracil resistance in human pancreatic cancer cells by regulating PTEN and PDCD4.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xueju; Wang, Weibin; Wang, Lanlan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xian; Chen, Mingtai; Wang, Fang; Yu, Jia; Ma, Yanni; Sun, Guotao

    2016-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer patients are often resistant to chemotherapy treatment, which results in poor prognosis. The objective of this study was to delineate the mechanism by which miR-21 induces drug resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human pancreatic cancer cells (PATU8988 and PANC-1). We report that PATU8988 cells resistant to 5-FU express high levels of miR-21 in comparison to sensitive primary PATU8988 cells. Suppression of miR-21 expression in 5-Fu-resistant PATU8988 cells can alleviate its 5-FU resistance. Meanwhile, lentiviral vector-mediated overexpression of miR-21 not only conferred resistance to 5-FU but also promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of PATU8988 and PANC-1 cells. The proresistance effects of miR-21 were attributed to the attenuated expression of tumor suppressor genes, including PTEN and PDCD4. Overexpression of PTEN and PDCD4 antagonized miR-21-induced resistance to 5-FU and migration activity. Our work demonstrates that miR-21 can confer drug resistance to 5-FU in pancreatic cancer cells by regulating the expression of tumor suppressor genes, as the target genes of miR-21, PTEN and PDCD4 can rescue 5-FU sensitivity and the phenotypic characteristics disrupted by miR-21.

  1. MicroRNA-21 Aggravates Cyst Growth in a Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Lakhia, Ronak; Hajarnis, Sachin; Williams, Darren; Aboudehen, Karam; Yheskel, Matanel; Xing, Chao; Hatley, Mark E; Torres, Vicente E; Wallace, Darren P; Patel, Vishal

    2016-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most common monogenetic disorders, is characterized by kidney failure caused by bilateral renal cyst growth. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been implicated in numerous diseases, but the role of these noncoding RNAs in ADPKD pathogenesis is still poorly defined. Here, we investigated the role of miR-21, an oncogenic miR, in kidney cyst growth. We found that transcriptional activation of miR-21 is a common feature of murine PKD. Furthermore, compared with renal tubules from kidney samples of normal controls, cysts in kidney samples from patients with ADPKD had increased levels of miR-21. cAMP signaling, a key pathogenic pathway in PKD, transactivated miR-21 promoter in kidney cells and promoted miR-21 expression in cystic kidneys of mice. Genetic deletion of miR-21 attenuated cyst burden, reduced kidney injury, and improved survival of an orthologous model of ADPKD. RNA sequencing analysis and additional in vivo assays showed that miR-21 inhibits apoptosis of cyst epithelial cells, likely through direct repression of its target gene programmed cell death 4 Thus, miR-21 functions downstream of the cAMP pathway and promotes disease progression in experimental PKD. Our results suggest that inhibiting miR-21 is a potential new therapeutic approach to slow cyst growth in PKD.

  2. MicroRNA-21 Promotes Proliferation of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes through Mediation of NF-κB Nuclear Translocation in a Rat Model of Collagen-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xian, Pei-Feng; Yang, Lu; Wang, Sheng-Xu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-21 on cell proliferation in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA. FLS were primary-cultured from a rat RA model. RA-FLS and normal FLS were infected with lentivirus (anti-miR-21 or pro-miR-21) for overexpression or downregulation of miR-21, respectively. The effects of miR-21 overexpression or inhibition on nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and FLS cell proliferation were evaluated by western blotting and MTT assays. The effects of an inhibitor of NF-κB nuclear translocation (BAY 11-7082) were also evaluated. The results showed that the levels of miR-21 and nucleoprotein NF-κB were increased in FLS of RA model rats compared to the control group. Downregulation of miR-21 in RA FLS led to a significant decrease in nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and cell proliferation rates compared to the antinegative control (NC) group. However, miR-21 overexpression in normal FLS resulted in a significant increase of nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and cell proliferation rates compared to the pro-NC group. The effects of miR-21 overexpression were reversed by BAY 11-7082. We concluded that upregulated miR-21 in FLS in RA model rats may promote cell proliferation by facilitating NF-κB nuclear translocation, thus affecting the NF-κB pathway. PMID:27429986

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone Activation of G-protein-coupled Estrogen Receptor Rapidly Stimulates MicroRNA-21 Transcription in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yun; Radde, Brandie N; Litchfield, Lacey M; Ivanova, Margarita M; Prough, Russell A; Clark, Barbara J; Doll, Mark A; Hein, David W; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2015-06-19

    Little is known about the regulation of the oncomiR miR-21 in liver. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) regulates gene expression as a ligand for a G-protein-coupled receptor and as a precursor for steroids that activate nuclear receptor signaling. We report that 10 nm DHEA increases primary miR-21 (pri-miR-21) transcription and mature miR-21 expression in HepG2 cells in a biphasic manner with an initial peak at 1 h followed by a second, sustained response from 3-12 h. DHEA also increased miR-21 in primary human hepatocytes and Hep3B cells. siRNA, antibody, and inhibitor studies suggest that the rapid DHEA-mediated increase in miR-21 involves a G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30), estrogen receptor α-36 (ERα36), epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent, pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway requiring activation of c-Src, ERK1/2, and PI3K. GPER antagonist G-15 attenuated DHEA- and BSA-conjugated DHEA-stimulated pri-miR-21 transcription. Like DHEA, GPER agonists G-1 and fulvestrant increased pri-miR-21 in a GPER- and ERα36-dependent manner. DHEA, like G-1, increased GPER and ERα36 mRNA and protein levels. DHEA increased ERK1/2 and c-Src phosphorylation in a GPER-responsive manner. DHEA increased c-Jun, but not c-Fos, protein expression after 2 h. DHEA increased androgen receptor, c-Fos, and c-Jun recruitment to the miR-21 promoter. These results suggest that physiological concentrations of DHEA activate a GPER intracellular signaling cascade that increases pri-miR-21 transcription mediated at least in part by AP-1 and androgen receptor miR-21 promoter interaction.

  4. Silencing of MicroRNA-21 confers the sensitivity to tamoxifen and fulvestrant by enhancing autophagic cell death through inhibition of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinfeng; Li, Ruilian; Shi, Wenna; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yufei; Li, Cong; Qu, Xianjun

    2016-02-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM) and fulvestrant (FUL) represent the major adjuvant therapy to estrogen receptor-alpha positive (ER(+)) breast cancer patients. However, endocrine resistance to TAM and FUL is a great impediment for successful treatment. We hypothesized that miR-21 might alter the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to TAM or FUL by regulating cell autophagy. Using the ER(+) breast cancer cells, we knockdown miR-21.by transfection with miR-21 inhibitor, then the cells were exposed to TAM or FUL and the percentages of apoptosis and autophagy were determined. Knockdown of miR-21 significantly increased the TAM or FUL-induced apoptosis in ER(+) breast cancer cells. Further, silencing of miR-21 in MCF-7 cells enhanced cell autophagy at both basal and TAM or FUL-induced level. The increase of autophagy in miR-21-knockdown MCF-7 cells was also indicated by increase of beclin-1, LC3-II and increased GFP-LC3 dots. Importantly, knockdown of miR-21 contributed to autophagic cell death, which is responsible for part of TAM induced cell death in miR-21 inhibitor-transfected cells. Further analysis suggested that miR-21 inhibitor enhance autophagic cell death through inhibition of PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. MiR-21 coordinated the function of autophagy and apoptosis by targeting Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) through inhibition of PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. In conclusion, silencing of miR-21 increased the sensitivity of ER(+) breast cancer cells to TAM or FUL by increasing autophagic cell death. Targeting autophagy-related miRNAs is a potential strategy for overcoming endocrine resistance to TAM and FUL.

  5. Inhibition of microRNA-21 decreases the invasiveness of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis via TGFβ/Smads signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Gaoxin; Huang, Zhang; Jiang, Hua; Pan, Zhengjun; Xie, Jie; Wang, Shuangli

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): MicroRNA-21 (miR21) is aberrantly elevated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, the significance of this microRNA in RA pathogenesis and treatment, however, has not been investigated. In this study, by using RA-derived fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLS) cells as a model, we investigated the effect and corresponding mechanism of miR21 inhibition on FLSs invasion. Materials and Methods: miR21 expression in synovial tissue and FLSs in RA patients and non-RA controls were determined by stem-loop RT-PCR. The effect of miR21 on FLSs viability and invasiveness were evaluated using miR21 inhibition. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay and the expression of genes at mRNA and protein levels was determined by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results: Our results showed that miR21 expression was highly increased in synovial tissue and FLSs in RA patients. Also, we reported that miR21 inhibitor treatment could significantly suppress the invasiveness of FLSs without affecting cell viability. The decreased FLSs invasion by miR21 inhibition was associated with down-regulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP3, and MMP13. Further analysis revealed that miR21 inhibition could suppress the expression of TGFβ1 and Smad4, but promote that of Smad7. Moreover, suppression of FLS invasion and MMPs expression by miR21 treatment could be counteracted by additional TGFβ1 treatment. Conclusion: Our results indicated that miR21 inhibition can down-regulate the expression of MMP1, MMP3, and MMP13 and consequently suppress the invasiveness of FLS, which is achieved through TGFβ1/Smad4/7 signaling pathway. The findings of this study could offer a novel approach for RA treatment. PMID:27635204

  6. MicroRNA-21 Promotes Proliferation of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes through Mediation of NF-κB Nuclear Translocation in a Rat Model of Collagen-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Xian, Pei-Feng; Yang, Lu; Wang, Sheng-Xu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-21 on cell proliferation in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA. FLS were primary-cultured from a rat RA model. RA-FLS and normal FLS were infected with lentivirus (anti-miR-21 or pro-miR-21) for overexpression or downregulation of miR-21, respectively. The effects of miR-21 overexpression or inhibition on nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and FLS cell proliferation were evaluated by western blotting and MTT assays. The effects of an inhibitor of NF-κB nuclear translocation (BAY 11-7082) were also evaluated. The results showed that the levels of miR-21 and nucleoprotein NF-κB were increased in FLS of RA model rats compared to the control group. Downregulation of miR-21 in RA FLS led to a significant decrease in nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and cell proliferation rates compared to the antinegative control (NC) group. However, miR-21 overexpression in normal FLS resulted in a significant increase of nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and cell proliferation rates compared to the pro-NC group. The effects of miR-21 overexpression were reversed by BAY 11-7082. We concluded that upregulated miR-21 in FLS in RA model rats may promote cell proliferation by facilitating NF-κB nuclear translocation, thus affecting the NF-κB pathway.

  7. Extracellular miRNA-21 as a novel biomarker in glioma: evidence from meta-analysis, clinical validation and experimental investigations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian; Wang, Zhixin; Tai, Minghui; Meng, Fandi; Zhang, Jingyao; Wan, Yong; Mao, Ping; Dong, Xiaoqun; Liu, Chang; Niu, Wenquan; Dong, Shunbin

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating highlighting the importance of extracellular miRNA as a novel biomarker for diagnosing various kinds of malignancies. MiR-21 is one of the most studied miRNAs and is over-expressed in cancer tissues. To explore the clinical implications and secretory mechanisms of extracellular miR-21, we firstly meta-analyzed the diagnostic efficiency of extracellular miR-21 in different cancer types. Eighty-one studies based on 59 articles were finally included. In our study, extracellular miR-21 was observed to exhibit an outstanding diagnostic accuracy in detecting brain cancer (area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve or AUC = 0.94), and this accuracy was more obvious in glioma diagnosis (AUC = 0.95). Our validation study (n = 45) further confirmed the diagnostic and prognostic role of miR-21 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for glioma. These findings inspired us to explore the biological function of miR-21. We next conducted mechanistic investigations to explain the secretory mechanisms of extracellular miR-21 in glioma. TGF-β/Smad3 signaling was identified to participate in mediating the release of miR-21 from glioma cells. Further targeting TGF-β/Smad3 signaling using galunisertib, an inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor kinase, can attenuate the secretion of miR-21 from glioma cells. Taken together, CSF-based miR-21 might serve as a potential biomarker for diagnosing brain cancer, especially for patients with glioma. Moreover, extracellular levels of miR-21 were affected by exogenous TGF-β activity and galunisertib treatment. PMID:27166186

  8. Extracellular miRNA-21 as a novel biomarker in glioma: Evidence from meta-analysis, clinical validation and experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Qu, Kai; Lin, Ting; Pang, Qing; Liu, Tian; Wang, Zhixin; Tai, Minghui; Meng, Fandi; Zhang, Jingyao; Wan, Yong; Mao, Ping; Dong, Xiaoqun; Liu, Chang; Niu, Wenquan; Dong, Shunbin

    2016-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating highlighting the importance of extracellular miRNA as a novel biomarker for diagnosing various kinds of malignancies. MiR-21 is one of the most studied miRNAs and is over-expressed in cancer tissues. To explore the clinical implications and secretory mechanisms of extracellular miR-21, we firstly meta-analyzed the diagnostic efficiency of extracellular miR-21 in different cancer types. Eighty-one studies based on 59 articles were finally included. In our study, extracellular miR-21 was observed to exhibit an outstanding diagnostic accuracy in detecting brain cancer (area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve or AUC = 0.94), and this accuracy was more obvious in glioma diagnosis (AUC = 0.95). Our validation study (n = 45) further confirmed the diagnostic and prognostic role of miR-21 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for glioma. These findings inspired us to explore the biological function of miR-21. We next conducted mechanistic investigations to explain the secretory mechanisms of extracellular miR-21 in glioma. TGF-β/Smad3 signaling was identified to participate in mediating the release of miR-21 from glioma cells. Further targeting TGF-β/Smad3 signaling using galunisertib, an inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor kinase, can attenuate the secretion of miR-21 from glioma cells. Taken together, CSF-based miR-21 might serve as a potential biomarker for diagnosing brain cancer, especially for patients with glioma. Moreover, extracellular levels of miR-21 were affected by exogenous TGF-β activity and galunisertib treatment.

  9. Nanoparticle-Delivered Antisense MicroRNA-21 Enhances the Effects of Temozolomide on Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ananta, Jeyarama S; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Massoud, Tarik F

    2015-12-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) generally exhibits high IC50 values for its standard drug treatment, temozolomide (TMZ). MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is an oncomiR overexpressed in GBM, thus controlling important aspects of glioma biology. We hypothesized that PLGA nanoparticles carrying antisense miR-21 to glioblastoma cells might beneficially knock down endogenous miR-21 prior to TMZ treatment. PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating antisense miR-21 were effective in intracellular delivery and sustained silencing (p < 0.01) of miR-21 function in U87 MG, LN229, and T98G cells. Prior antisense miR-21 delivery significantly reduced the number of viable cells (p < 0.001), and increased (1.6-fold) cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase upon TMZ treatment in U87 MG cells. There was overexpression of the miR-21 target genes PTEN (by 67%) and caspase-3 (by 15%) upon cotreatment. This promising PLGA nanoparticle-based platform for antisense miR-21 delivery to GBM is an effective cotherapeutic strategy in cell culture, warranting the need for further studies prior to future clinical translation. PMID:26559642

  10. Puupehanol, a Sesquiterpene-Dihydroquinone Derivative from the Marine Sponge Hyrtios sp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puupehanol (1), a new sesquiterpene-dihydroquinone derivative, was isolated from the marine sponge Hyrtios sp., along with the known compounds puupehenone (2) and chloropuupehenone (3). The structure of 1 was established as (20R,21R)-21-hydroxy-20,21-dihydropuupehenone by interpretation of spectros...

  11. Fibroproliferative effect of microRNA-21 in hypertrophic scar derived fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangzao; Zhou, Renpeng; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Banghong; Wu, Qingkai; Wang, Chen

    2016-07-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a fibroproliferative disorder caused by abnormal wound healing, which is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) secreted by fibroblasts. We previous have found that expression of microRNA-21(miR-21) was increased in tissues and fibroblasts of HS. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be further elucidated. In this study, we identified the miR-21 was a marker for the phenotype of HS fibroblasts, as anti-miR-21 reduced expression of fibrosis markers such as Col1A1, Col3A1, Fn and α-SMA in fibroblasts and overexpression of miR-21 promoted fibroproliferative expression in fibroblasts. Furthermore, we also found that miR-21 promoted TGF-β1 induced fibroproliferative expression by repressing Smad7 expression in vitro. In addition, the miR-21 inhibitor inhibited the growth of hypertrophic scar tissue in vivo (nude mice experimental model). These results indicated that miR-21 was a critical regulator for HS formation and TGF- β1/miR-21/Smad7 pathway could be a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of HS. PMID:27207585

  12. MicroRNA 21 is a homeostatic regulator of macrophage polarization and prevents prostaglandin E2-mediated M2 generation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Brandt, Stephanie; Medeiros, Alexandra; Wang, Soujuan; Wu, Hao; Dent, Alexander; Serezani, C Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages dictate both initiation and resolution of inflammation. During acute inflammation classically activated macrophages (M1) predominate, and during the resolution phase alternative macrophages (M2) are dominant. The molecular mechanisms involved in macrophage polarization are understudied. MicroRNAs are differentially expressed in M1 and M2 macrophages that influence macrophage polarization. We identified a role of miR-21 in macrophage polarization, and found that cross-talk between miR-21 and the lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a determining factor in macrophage polarization. miR-21 inhibition impairs expression of M2 signature genes but not M1 genes. PGE2 and its downstream effectors PKA and Epac inhibit miR-21 expression and enhance expression of M2 genes, and this effect is more pronounced in miR-21-/- cells. Among potential targets involved in macrophage polarization, we found that STAT3 and SOCS1 were enhanced in miR-21-/- cells and further enhanced by PGE2. We found that STAT3 was a direct target of miR-21 in macrophages. Silencing the STAT3 gene abolished PGE2-mediated expression of M2 genes in miR-21-/- macrophages. These data shed light on the molecular brakes involved in homeostatic macrophage polarization and suggest new therapeutic strategies to prevent inflammatory responses.

  13. Fibroproliferative effect of microRNA-21 in hypertrophic scar derived fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangzao; Zhou, Renpeng; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Banghong; Wu, Qingkai; Wang, Chen

    2016-07-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a fibroproliferative disorder caused by abnormal wound healing, which is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) secreted by fibroblasts. We previous have found that expression of microRNA-21(miR-21) was increased in tissues and fibroblasts of HS. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be further elucidated. In this study, we identified the miR-21 was a marker for the phenotype of HS fibroblasts, as anti-miR-21 reduced expression of fibrosis markers such as Col1A1, Col3A1, Fn and α-SMA in fibroblasts and overexpression of miR-21 promoted fibroproliferative expression in fibroblasts. Furthermore, we also found that miR-21 promoted TGF-β1 induced fibroproliferative expression by repressing Smad7 expression in vitro. In addition, the miR-21 inhibitor inhibited the growth of hypertrophic scar tissue in vivo (nude mice experimental model). These results indicated that miR-21 was a critical regulator for HS formation and TGF- β1/miR-21/Smad7 pathway could be a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of HS.

  14. SU-E-QI-19: Evaluation of a Clinical 1.5T MRI for Prostate Cancer MRS Imaging Using a In Vivo Tumor Model

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X; Chen, L; Hensley, H; Cvetkovic, D; Fan, J; Ma, C; Zhang, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) imaging may provide important bio-markers to distinguish normal/cancerous prostate tissue. While MRS imaging requires a high uniform magnetic field, the ability of a clinical 1.5T MRI to achieve a comparable MRS signal is of interest for radiation treatment planning/assessment. This study is to evaluate the MRS imaging of a 1.5T clinical MRI for prostate cancers by comparing with a small animal 7T MRS scanner. Methods: A tumor model was developed by implanting LNCaP tumor cells in nude mice prostates. Tumor was monitored 3 weeks after implantation using MRI, and MRS imaging was performed on the tumor area when the tumor reached around 1cm in diameter. The 1.5T GE clinical MR scanner and the 7T Bruker small animal MR scanner were used for each mouse. MR spectrums acquired with these scanners were analyzed and compared. The signals of Choline and Citrate were considered. Results: The prostate tumor MR spectrum under the 1.5T clinical MRI showed a similar spectrum pattern to that acquired using the 7T animal MRI. The Choline signal (3.2ppm) is clear and there is no clear peak for Citrate (2.6ppm). However, the signal magnitude for Choline is not dominant compared to the background signal under 1.5T MRI. Typical cancerous prostate tissue MR spectrum with an increased Choline signal and a reduced Citrate signal was observed. In addition, signal variation is noticeable between repeated spectrum scans. The average of these scans showed a comparable and consistent spectrum to those under 7T MRI. Conclusion: The clinical 1.5T MRI is able to acquire a MR spectrum for prostate cancer comparable to those acquired using a dedicated 7T MRS scanner. However, to achieve a consistent and reliable spectrum, multiple repeated scans were necessary to get a statistical result and reduce the noise-induced artifact. This work was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute Grant R21 CA131979 and R01CA172638.

  15. TH-C-17A-03: Dynamic Visualization and Dosimetry of IMRT and VMAT Treatment Plans by Video-Rate Imaging of Cherenkov Radiation in Pure Water

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, A; Andreozzi, J; Davis, S; Zhang, R; Fox, C; Gladstone, D; Pogue, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A novel optical dosimetry technique for the QA and verification of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) radiotherapy plans was investigated for the first time by capturing images of the induced Cherenkov radiation in water. Methods: An intensified CCD camera (ICCD) was used to acquire a two-dimensional (2D) projection image of the Cherenkov radiation induced by IMRT and VMAT plans, based on the Task Group 119 C-Shape geometry. Plans were generated using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and delivered using 6 MV x-rays from a Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator (Linac) incident on a water tank. The ICCD acquisition was gated to the Linac, operated for single pulse imaging, and binned to a resolution of 512×512 pixels. The resulting videos were analyzed temporally for regions of interest (ROI) covering the planning target volume (PTV) and organ at risk (OAR) and summed to obtain an overall light distribution, which was compared to the expected dose distribution from the TPS using a gammaindex analysis. Results: The chosen camera settings resulted in data at 23.5 frames per second. Temporal intensity plots of the PTV and OAR ROIs confirmed the preferential delivery of dose to the PTV versus the OAR, and the gamma analysis yielded 95.2% and 95.6% agreement between the light distribution and expected TPS dose distribution based upon a 3% / 3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criterion for the IMRT and VMAT plans respectively. Conclusion: The results from this initial study demonstrate the first documented use of Cherenkov radiation for optical dosimetry of dynamic IMRT and VMAT treatment plans. The proposed modality has several potential advantages over alternative methods including the real-time nature of the acquisition, and upon future refinement may prove to be a robust and novel dosimetry method with both research and clinical applications. NIH R01CA109558 and R21EB017559.

  16. TH-A-18C-02: An Electrostatic Model for Assessment of Joint Space Morphology in Cone-Beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Q; Thawait, G; Gang, G; Zbijewski, W; Riegel, T; Demehri, S; Siewerdsen, J

    2014-06-15

    , rheumatoid arthritis, and injury risk assessment. Research supported by R01 and R21 grants from the National Institutes of Health, academic-industry partnership with Carestream Health, and a grant from the US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center.

  17. TU-C-12A-09: Modeling Pathologic Response of Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer to Chemo-Radiotherapy Using Quantitative PET/CT Features, Clinical Parameters and Demographics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H; Chen, W; Kligerman, S; D’Souza, W; Suntharalingam, M; Lu, W; Tan, S; Kim, G

    2014-06-15

    including quantitative PET/CT features accurately and precisely predicted pathologic tumor response to CRT in esophageal cancer. This work was supported in part by National Cancer Institute Grant R21 CA131979 and R01 CA172638. Shan Tan was supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China 60971112 and 61375018, and by Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities 2012QN086.

  18. TU-A-9A-07: X-Ray Acoustic Computed Tomography (XACT): 100% Sensitivity to X-Ray Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, L; Ahmad, M; Nikoozadeh, A; Pratx, G; Khuri-Yakub, B; Xing, L

    2014-06-15

    gratefully acknowledge the Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Research Programs W81XWH-13-1-0481 (LX), the National Institutes of Health 1R01 CA133474 and 1R21 A153587, and SRFDP (20124407120012) for funding.

  19. TH-C-17A-01: Imaging Sensor Comparison for Real-Time Cherenkov Signal Detection From Tissue for Treatment Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Andreozzi, J; Zhang, R; Glaser, A; Pogue, B; Jarvis, L; Gladstone, D

    2014-06-15

    during treatment. Funding is from grants from the NIH numbers R01CA109558 and R21EB017559.

  20. Effect of microRNA-21 on the proliferation of human degenerated nucleus pulposus by targeting programmed cell death 4

    PubMed Central

    Chen, B.; Huang, S.G.; Ju, L.; Li, M.; Nie, F.F.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y.H.; Chen, X.; Gao, F.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of microRNA-21 (miR-21) on the proliferation of human degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP) by targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor. NP tissues were collected from 20 intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) patients, and from 5 patients with traumatic spine fracture. MiR-21 expressions were tested. NP cells from IDD patients were collected and divided into blank control group, negative control group (transfected with miR-21 negative sequences), miR-21 inhibitor group (transfected with miR-21 inhibitors), miR-21 mimics group (transfected with miR-21 mimics) and PDCD4 siRNA group (transfected with PDCD4 siRNAs). Cell growth was estimated by Cell Counting Kit-8; PDCD4, MMP-2,MMP-9 mRNA expressions were evaluated by qRT-PCR; PDCD4, c-Jun and p-c-Jun expressions were tested using western blot. In IDD patients, the expressions of miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA were respectively elevated and decreased (both P<0.05). The miR-21 expressions were positively correlated with Pfirrmann grades, but negatively correlated with PDCD4 mRNA (both P<0.001). In miR-21 inhibitor group, cell growth, MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expressions, and p-c-Jun protein expressions were significantly lower, while PDCD4 mRNA and protein expressions were higher than the other groups (all P<0.05). These expressions in the PDCD4 siRNA and miR-21 mimics groups was inverted compared to that in the miR-21 inhibitor group (all P<0.05). MiR-21 could promote the proliferation of human degenerated NP cells by targeting PDCD4, increasing phosphorylation of c-Jun protein, and activating AP-1-dependent transcription of MMPs, indicating that miR-21 may be a crucial biomarker in the pathogenesis of IDD. PMID:27240294

  1. Emerging role of microRNA-21 in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yin-Hsun; Tsao, Chao-Jung

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of single-stranded RNA molecules of 15–27 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression at the post-translational level. miR-21 is one of the earliest identified cancer-promoting ‘oncomiRs’, targeting numerous tumor suppressor genes associated with proliferation, apoptosis and invasion. The regulation of miR-21 and its role in carcinogenesis have been extensively investigated. Recent studies have focused on the diagnostic and prognostic value of miR-21 as well as its implication in the drug resistance of human malignancies. The further use of miR-21 as a biomarker and target for cancer treatments is likely to improve the outcome for patients with cancer. The present review highlights recent findings associated with the importance of miR-21 in hematological and non-hematological malignancies. PMID:27699004

  2. MicroRNA-21 promotes cell proliferation and down-regulates the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Qing; Xu, Hui; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2009-10-23

    MicroRNAs are involved in cancer-related processes. The microRNA-21(miR-21) has been identified as the only miRNA over-expressed in a wide variety of cancers, including cervical cancer. However, the function of miR-21 is unknown in cervical carcinomas. In this study, we found that the inhibition of miR-21 in HeLa cervical cancer cells caused profound suppression of cell proliferation, and up-regulated the expression of the tumor suppressor gene PDCD4. We also provide direct evidence that PDCD4-3'UTR is a functional target of miR-21 and that the 18 bp putative target site can function as the sole regulatory element in HeLa cells. These results suggest that miR-21 may play an oncogenic role in the cellular processes of cervical cancer and may serve as a target for effective therapies.

  3. Emerging role of microRNA-21 in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yin-Hsun; Tsao, Chao-Jung

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of single-stranded RNA molecules of 15–27 nucleotides in length that regulate gene expression at the post-translational level. miR-21 is one of the earliest identified cancer-promoting ‘oncomiRs’, targeting numerous tumor suppressor genes associated with proliferation, apoptosis and invasion. The regulation of miR-21 and its role in carcinogenesis have been extensively investigated. Recent studies have focused on the diagnostic and prognostic value of miR-21 as well as its implication in the drug resistance of human malignancies. The further use of miR-21 as a biomarker and target for cancer treatments is likely to improve the outcome for patients with cancer. The present review highlights recent findings associated with the importance of miR-21 in hematological and non-hematological malignancies.

  4. Antagonism of miRNA-21 Sensitizes Human Gastric Cancer Cells to Paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bo; Liu, Yanping; Wang, Haijiang

    2015-05-01

    The development of drug resistance has largely limited the clinical outcome of anti-cancer treatment. Recent work has highlighted the involvement of non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), in cancer development. The present study aimed to investigate the role of miR-21 in the development of drug resistance to paclitaxel in gastric cancer cells. Our study found that the expression of miR-21 upregulated in the paclitaxel resistant cell line SGC7901/paclitaxel compared to its parental line SGC7901. Moreover, over-expression of miR-21 significantly decreased antiproliferative effects and apoptosis induced by paclitaxel, while knockdown of miR-21 dramatically increased antiproliferative effects and apoptosis induction by paclitaxel. Moreover, our results demonstrated that miR-21 may modulate the sensitivity to PTX, at least in part, by regulating the expression of P-glycoprotein. PMID:27040946

  5. Significance of serum microRNA-21 in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): clinical analyses of patients and an HCC rat model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing; Zhang, Juan; Zhou, Liang; Lu, Peng; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Sun, Wei; Wang, Jian-Lin; Yang, Xi-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Lei; Xia, Ning; Zhang, Ning; Dou, Ke-Feng

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with human carcinogenesis and tumor development. Moreover, serum miRNAs can reflect the level of tissue miRNAs and be potential tumor markers. Serum microRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in many human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, how serum miR-21 changes during the HCC formation and whether miR-21 plays a regulatory role in this whole process are unknown. The current study evaluated the prognostic and diagnostic potential of serum miR-21 in HCC patients. Next, we established a HCC rat model and collected the blood and liver tissues at regular time points. AFP from the serum, RNA from the serum and liver tissues were collected and quantified separately. The results revealed that tissue and serum miR-21 was upregulated significantly in the groups of cirrhosis, early and advanced HCC compared with normal and fibrosis groups. The AFP levels were increased in early and advanced HCC compared with other groups. Then, the changes of miR-21 downstream proteins (i.e., programmed cell death 4 [PDCD4] and phosphatase and tensin homolog [PTEN]) in the liver tissues were measured. PDCD4 and PTEN expression was decreased gradually after tumor induction and negatively correlated with miR-21 expression. All these results suggested that serum miR-21 was associated with the prognosis of HCC; the changes in serum miR-21 were earlier and more accurately reflected the pathogenesis of HCC than AFP; therefore, it could be used as an early diagnostic marker for HCC. Our in vivo experiments further confirmed that miR-21 plays an important role in promoting the occurrence and development of HCC by regulating PDCD4 and PTEN. PMID:25973032

  6. Identification of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport-I (ESCRT-I) as an important modulator of anti-miR uptake by cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Timothy R; Tolstykh, Tatiana; Shi, Chaomei; Jiang, Lan; Zhang, JingXin; Li, Zhifang; Yu, Qunyan; Qu, Hui; Sun, Fangxian; Cao, Hui; Pollard, Jack; Dai, Shujia; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Bailin; Arlt, Heike; Cindhuchao, May; Hoffmann, Dietmar; Light, Madelyn; Jensen, Karin; Hopke, Joern; Newcombe, Richard; Garcia-Echeverria, Carlos; Winter, Christopher; Zabludoff, Sonya; Wiederschain, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of unassisted delivery of RNA therapeutics, including inhibitors of microRNAs, remain poorly understood. We observed that the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SKHEP1 retains productive free uptake of a miR-21 inhibitor (anti-miR-21). Uptake of anti-miR-21, but not a mismatch (MM) control, induces expression of known miR-21 targets (DDAH1, ANKRD46) and leads to dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. To elucidate mechanisms of SKHEP1 sensitivity to anti-miR-21, we conducted an unbiased shRNA screen that revealed tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101), a component of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT-I), as an important determinant of anti-proliferative effects of anti-miR-21. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of TSG101 and another ESCRT-I protein, VPS28, improved uptake of anti-miR-21 in parental SKHEP1 cells and restored productive uptake to SKHEP1 clones with acquired resistance to anti-miR-21. Depletion of ESCRT-I in several additional cancer cell lines with inherently poor uptake resulted in improved activity of anti-miR-21. Finally, knockdown of TSG101 increased uptake of anti-miR-21 by cancer cells in vivo following systemic delivery. Collectively, these data support an important role for the ESCRT-I complex in the regulation of productive free uptake of anti-miRs and reveal potential avenues for improving oligonucleotide free uptake by cancer cells.

  7. Exosome-shuttling microRNA-21 promotes cell migration and invasion-targeting PDCD4 in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liao, Juan; Liu, Ran; Shi, Ya-Juan; Yin, Li-Hong; Pu, Yue-Pu

    2016-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates that exosomes can mediate certain microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in a series of biological functions in tumor occurrence and development. Our previous studies showed that microRNA-21 (miR-21) was abundant in both esophageal cancer cells and their corresponding exosomes. The present study explored the function of exosome-shuttling miR-21 involved in esophageal cancer progression. We found that exosomes could be internalized from the extracellular space to the cytoplasm. The exosome-derived Cy3-labeled miR-21 mimics could be transported into recipient cells in a neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2)-dependent manner. miR-21 overexpression from donor cells significantly promoted the migration and invasion of recipient cells by targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) and activating its downstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway after co-cultivation. Our population plasma sample analysis indicated that miR-21 was upregulated significantly in plasma from esophageal cancer patients and showed a significant risk association for esophageal cancer. Our data demonstrated that a close correlation existed between exosome-shuttling miR-21 and esophageal cancer recurrence and distant metastasis. Thus, exosome-shuttling miR-21 may become a potential biomarker for prognosis among esophageal cancer patients. PMID:27035745

  8. MicroRNA-21 accelerates hepatocyte proliferation in vitro via PI3K/Akt signaling by targeting PTEN

    SciTech Connect

    Yan-nan, Bai; Zhao-yan, Yu; Li-xi, Luo; Jiang, Yi; Qing-jie, Xia

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •miRNAs-expression patterns of primary hepatocytes under proliferative status. •miR-21 expression level peaked at 12 h after stimulated by EGF. •miR-21 drive rapid S phase entry of primary hepatocytes. •PI3K/Akt signaling was modulated via targeting PTEN by miR-21. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in controlling hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. In this study, we established the miRNAs-expression patterns of primary hepatocytes in vitro under stimulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and found that microRNA-21 (miR-21) was appreciably up-regulated and peaked at 12 h. In addition, we further presented evidences indicating that miR-21 promotes primary hepatocyte proliferation through in vitro transfecting with miR-21 mimics or inhibitor. We further demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol 3′-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling was altered accordingly, it is, by targeting phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10, PI3K/Akt signaling is activated by miR-21 to accelerate hepatocyte rapid S-phase entry and proliferation in vitro.

  9. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengchao; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Ruiwen; Chen, Tianzhi; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3' UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5. PMID:27347933

  10. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengchao; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Ruiwen; Chen, Tianzhi; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3′ UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5. PMID:27347933

  11. TGF-β1 promotes scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulating MicroRNA-21.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Li, Yue; Li, Ning; Teng, Wen; Wang, Min; Zhang, Yingbo; Xiao, Zhibo

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β1, upregulated in keloid tissue, promotes the proliferation, collagen formation and differentiation of dermal fibroblasts. miR-21 is one of microRNAs first found in human genome. The aim of our study is to explore the mechanisms of miR-21 in TGF-β1-induced scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation. In the present study, first we found that TGF-β1 promoted scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulating miR-21 expression, which could be attenuated when miR-21 was inhibited. Overexpression of miR-21 had similar effect as TGF-β1 on proliferation and transdifferentiation. Additionally, TGF-β1 increased the expressions and activities of MMP2 and MMP9 in keloid fibroblasts, which was suppressed by miR-21 inhibition. Finally, the results demonstrated that PTEN/AKT signaling pathway played important role in TGF-β1-induced transdifferentiation. In conclusion, our study suggests that TGF-β1 promotes keloid fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulation of miR-21 and PTEN/AKT signalling pathway plays important role in this process, which provides a potential theoretical basis for clinical treatment of skin scars. PMID:27554193

  12. Decreased expression of microRNA-21 is associated with increased cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Mazloom, Hossein; Alizadeh, Samira; Esfahani, Ensieh Nasli; Razi, Farideh; Meshkani, Reza

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-21 in inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of type 2 diabetic (T2D) and healthy subjects. 20 healthy and 20 T2D subjects were enrolled in the study. miR-21 expression in PBMCs of the subjects was measured using real-time PCR. IL-6 and TNF-α levels in culture supernatants were quantified using ELISA. miR-21 expression was not significantly different between the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. A downregulation of miR-21 expression was observed in PBMCs of obese subjects in both diabetic and nondiabetic groups. In addition, miR-21 expression was negatively correlated with weight, waist circumference, body mass index, and triglyceride in both the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Our results also demonstrated that the PBMCs of obese subjects significantly secreted a higher level of IL-6 and TNF-α in comparison with the PBMCs of nonobese subjects. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between miR-21 expression and TNF-α and IL-6 production from the PBMCs was observed. These data suggest that miR-21 expression is decreased in PBMCs of obese subjects and reduced expression appears to be associated with increased secreted cytokine level in media of PBMCs of obese subjects. PMID:27370645

  13. Decreased expression of microRNA-21 is associated with increased cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of obese type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Mazloom, Hossein; Alizadeh, Samira; Esfahani, Ensieh Nasli; Razi, Farideh; Meshkani, Reza

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-21 in inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of type 2 diabetic (T2D) and healthy subjects. 20 healthy and 20 T2D subjects were enrolled in the study. miR-21 expression in PBMCs of the subjects was measured using real-time PCR. IL-6 and TNF-α levels in culture supernatants were quantified using ELISA. miR-21 expression was not significantly different between the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. A downregulation of miR-21 expression was observed in PBMCs of obese subjects in both diabetic and nondiabetic groups. In addition, miR-21 expression was negatively correlated with weight, waist circumference, body mass index, and triglyceride in both the diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Our results also demonstrated that the PBMCs of obese subjects significantly secreted a higher level of IL-6 and TNF-α in comparison with the PBMCs of nonobese subjects. Furthermore, a significant inverse correlation between miR-21 expression and TNF-α and IL-6 production from the PBMCs was observed. These data suggest that miR-21 expression is decreased in PBMCs of obese subjects and reduced expression appears to be associated with increased secreted cytokine level in media of PBMCs of obese subjects.

  14. MicroRNA-21 expression and its pathogenetic significance in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Gerald; Potter, Linda; Lee, Yee Shin; Watson, Sophie; Shendge, Priya; Pringle, James H

    2016-02-01

    Identification of prognostic biomarkers is timely for melanoma as clinicians seek ways to stratify patients for molecular therapy. MicroRNAs are promising as tissue biomarkers because they can be assayed directly from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical samples. We previously reported that microRNA-21 (miR-21) was strongly expressed in melanoma relative to naevi and now sought to further assess the significance of this by assessing its relationship with its putative target, PTEN. Clinical melanoma samples were analysed by immunohistochemical analysis for PTEN, stem-loop qRT-PCR for miR-21 and PCR for BRAF/NRAS mutation status. Cell lines were investigated for the effect of anti-miR-21 on PTEN. A total of 81 clinical melanocytic tumour samples were investigated, with uniformly high PTEN expression in the nucleus and cytoplasm of naevi and with preferential loss of PTEN expression in the nucleus of melanoma cells. miR-21 expression was inversely associated with nuclear PTEN expression but not with cytoplasmic PTEN expression. An anti-miR-21 preferentially altered nuclear PTEN in melanoma cell lines. The presence of a BRAF or NRAS mutation had no significant effect on miR-21 expression. These data suggest miR-21 may exert an oncogenic effect in melanoma by favouring redistribution of PTEN to the nucleus.

  15. TGF-β1 promotes scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulating MicroRNA-21

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Li, Yue; Li, Ning; Teng, Wen; Wang, Min; Zhang, Yingbo; Xiao, Zhibo

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β1, upregulated in keloid tissue, promotes the proliferation, collagen formation and differentiation of dermal fibroblasts. miR-21 is one of microRNAs first found in human genome. The aim of our study is to explore the mechanisms of miR-21 in TGF-β1-induced scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation. In the present study, first we found that TGF-β1 promoted scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulating miR-21 expression, which could be attenuated when miR-21 was inhibited. Overexpression of miR-21 had similar effect as TGF-β1 on proliferation and transdifferentiation. Additionally, TGF-β1 increased the expressions and activities of MMP2 and MMP9 in keloid fibroblasts, which was suppressed by miR-21 inhibition. Finally, the results demonstrated that PTEN/AKT signaling pathway played important role in TGF-β1-induced transdifferentiation. In conclusion, our study suggests that TGF-β1 promotes keloid fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulation of miR-21 and PTEN/AKT signalling pathway plays important role in this process, which provides a potential theoretical basis for clinical treatment of skin scars. PMID:27554193

  16. microRNA 21-mediated suppression of Sprouty1 by Pokemon affects liver cancer cell growth and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiu-Li; Sun, Qin-Sheng; Liu, Feng; Yang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Min; Liu, Hong-Xia; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yu-Yang

    2013-07-01

    Transcriptional repressor Pokemon is a critical factor in embryogenesis, development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and oncogenesis, thus behaving as an oncogene. Oncomine database suggests a potential correlation between the expressions of Pokemon and Sprouty1. This study investigated the regulatory role of Pokemon in Sprouty1 expression and the effect on liver cancer cell growth and proliferation, revealing a novel miR-21-mediated regulatory circuit. In normal (HL-7702) and cancer (QGY-7703) liver cell lines, Sprouty1 expression is inversely correlated with Pokemon levels. Targeted expression or siRNA-mediated silencing showed that Pokemon is a repressor of Sprouty1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, but Pokemon cannot affect the promoter activity of Sprouty1. Sprouty1 is a target of miR-21 and interestingly, we found that miR-21 is up-regulated by Pokemon in liver cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Pokemon up-regulated miR-21 transcription in a dose-dependent manner, and ChIP assay exhibited a direct binding of Pokemon to the miR-21 promoter at -747 to -399 bp. Site-directed mutagenesis of the GC boxes at -684 to -679 bp and -652 to -647 bp of miR-21 promoter abolished the regulatory activity by Pokemon. Furthermore, we found that the modulation of Pokemon and miR-21 expression affected the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells QGY-7703. In summary, our findings demonstrate that Pokemon suppresses Sprouty1 expression through a miR-21-mediated mechanism, affecting the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells. This study recognized miR-21 and Sprouty1 as novel targets of the Pokemon regulatory network. PMID:23355454

  17. microRNA 21-mediated suppression of Sprouty1 by Pokemon affects liver cancer cell growth and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiu-Li; Sun, Qin-Sheng; Liu, Feng; Yang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Min; Liu, Hong-Xia; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yu-Yang

    2013-07-01

    Transcriptional repressor Pokemon is a critical factor in embryogenesis, development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and oncogenesis, thus behaving as an oncogene. Oncomine database suggests a potential correlation between the expressions of Pokemon and Sprouty1. This study investigated the regulatory role of Pokemon in Sprouty1 expression and the effect on liver cancer cell growth and proliferation, revealing a novel miR-21-mediated regulatory circuit. In normal (HL-7702) and cancer (QGY-7703) liver cell lines, Sprouty1 expression is inversely correlated with Pokemon levels. Targeted expression or siRNA-mediated silencing showed that Pokemon is a repressor of Sprouty1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, but Pokemon cannot affect the promoter activity of Sprouty1. Sprouty1 is a target of miR-21 and interestingly, we found that miR-21 is up-regulated by Pokemon in liver cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Pokemon up-regulated miR-21 transcription in a dose-dependent manner, and ChIP assay exhibited a direct binding of Pokemon to the miR-21 promoter at -747 to -399 bp. Site-directed mutagenesis of the GC boxes at -684 to -679 bp and -652 to -647 bp of miR-21 promoter abolished the regulatory activity by Pokemon. Furthermore, we found that the modulation of Pokemon and miR-21 expression affected the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells QGY-7703. In summary, our findings demonstrate that Pokemon suppresses Sprouty1 expression through a miR-21-mediated mechanism, affecting the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells. This study recognized miR-21 and Sprouty1 as novel targets of the Pokemon regulatory network.

  18. Target-triggered triple isothermal cascade amplification strategy for ultrasensitive microRNA-21 detection at sub-attomole level.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang-Fang; Jiang, Nan; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Hu, Lihui; Chen, Xiaojun; Jiang, Li-Ping; Abdel-Halim, E S; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2016-11-15

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a promising diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer screening and disease progression, thus the method for the sensitive and selective detection of miR-21 is vital to its clinical diagnosis. Herein, we develop a novel method to quantify miR-21 levels as low as attomolar sensitivity by a target-triggered triple isothermal cascade amplification (3TICA) strategy. An ingenious unimolecular DNA template with three functional parts has been designed: 5'-fragment as the miR-21 recognition unit, middle fragment as the miR-21 analogue amplification unit, and 3'-fragment as the 8-17 DNAzyme production unit. Triggered by miR-21 and accompanied by polymerase-nicking enzyme cascade, new miR-21 analogues autonomously generated for the successive re-triggering and cleavage process. Simultaneously, the 8-17 DNAzyme-contained sequence could be exponentially released and activated for the second cyclic cleavage toward a specific ribonucleotide (rA)-contained substrate, inducing a remarkably amplified generation of HRP-mimicking DNAzyme in the presence of hemin. Finally, the amperometric technique was used to record the catalytic reduction current of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2. The increase in the steady-state current was proportional with the increase of the miR-21 concentration from 1 aM to 100 pM. An ultra-low detection limit of 0.5 aM with an excellent selectivity for even discriminating differences between 1-base mismatched target and miR-21 was achieved. This simple and cost-effective 3TICA strategy is promising for the detection of any short oligonucleotides, simply by altering the target recognition unit in the template sequence.

  19. MicroRNA-21 Orchestrates High Glucose-induced Signals to TOR Complex 1, Resulting in Renal Cell Pathology in Diabetes*

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Nirmalya; Das, Falguni; Mariappan, Meenalakshmi M.; Mandal, Chandi Charan; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia induces a wide array of signaling pathways in the kidney that lead to hypertrophy and matrix expansion, eventually culminating in progressive kidney failure. High glucose-induced reduction of the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted in chromosome 10 (PTEN) contributes to renal cell hypertrophy and matrix expansion. We identified microRNA-21 (miR-21) as the molecular link between high glucose and PTEN suppression. Renal cortices from OVE26 type 1 diabetic mice showed significantly elevated levels of miR-21 associated with reduced PTEN and increased fibronectin content. In renal mesangial cells, high glucose increased the expression of miR-21, which targeted the 3′-UTR of PTEN mRNA to inhibit PTEN protein expression. Overexpression of miR-21 mimicked the action of high glucose, which included a reduction in PTEN expression and a concomitant increase in Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, expression of miR-21 Sponge, to inhibit endogenous miR-21, prevented down-regulation of PTEN and phosphorylation of Akt induced by high glucose. Interestingly, high glucose-stimulated miR-21 inactivated PRAS40, a negative regulator of TORC1. Finally, miR-21 enhanced high glucose-induced TORC1 activity, resulting in renal cell hypertrophy and fibronectin expression. Thus, our results identify a previously unrecognized function of miR-21 that is the reciprocal regulation of PTEN levels and Akt/TORC1 activity that mediate critical pathologic features of diabetic kidney disease. PMID:21613227

  20. 75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... the following individual research announcements: (1) ] CE 10 001 Preventing Unintentional Childhood... Preventing Violence and Violence- Related Injury (R01) Agenda items are subject to change as...

  1. Single Institution Feasibility Trials - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    Within the CIP program, the current R21 mechanism provides potential funding for small, single institution feasibility trials. The current announcement is titled In Vivo Cancer Imaging Exploratory/Developmental Grants.

  2. Discovery of 3-(5'-Substituted)-Benzimidazole-5-(1-(3,5-dichloropyridin-4-yl)ethoxy)-1H-indazoles as Potent Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Wang, Xinyi; Dai, Yang; Zhao, Bin; Yang, Xinying; Fan, Jun; Gao, Yinglei; Meng, Fanwang; Wang, Yuming; Luo, Cheng; Ai, Jing; Geng, Meiyu; Duan, Wenhu

    2016-07-28

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) represents an attractive oncology target for cancer therapy in view of its critical role in promoting cancer formation and progression, as well as causing resistance to approved therapies. In this article, we describe the identification of the potent pan-FGFR inhibitor (R)-21c (FGFR1-4 IC50 values of 0.9, 2.0, 2.0, and 6.1 nM, respectively). Compound (R)-21c exhibited excellent in vitro inhibitory activity against a panel of FGFR-amplified cell lines. Western blot analysis demonstrated that (R)-21c suppressed FGF/FGFR and downstream signaling pathways at nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, (R)-21c provided nearly complete inhibition of tumor growth (96.9% TGI) in NCI-H1581 (FGFR1-amplified) xenograft mice model at the dose of 10 mg/kg/qd via oral administration. PMID:27348537

  3. Rapid atrial pacing induces myocardial fibrosis by down-regulating Smad7 via microRNA-21 in rabbit.

    PubMed

    He, Xuyu; Zhang, Kunyi; Gao, Xiuren; Li, Liwen; Tan, Hong; Chen, Jiyan; Zhou, Yingling

    2016-10-01

    Tachycardia-induced atrial fibrosis is a hallmark of the structural remodeling of atrial fibrillation (AF). The mechanisms underlying tachycardia-induced atrial fibrosis remain unclear. In our previous study, we found that Smad7-downregulation promoted the development of atrial fibrosis in AF. Fibroblasts are enriched in microRNA-21 (miR-21), which contributes to the development of fibrosis and heart failure in the cardiovascular system. Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that miR-21 reinforces the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway in AF-induced atrial fibrosis by down-regulating Smad7. Rapid atrial pacing (RAP, 1000 ppm) was applied to the left atrium of the rabbit heart to induce atrial fibrillation and fibrosis. qRT-PCR and northern blot analysis revealed that RAP caused a marked increase in the expression of miR-21. Transfection with a miR-21 inhibitor significantly increased the expression of Smad7, while the expression of collagen I/III significantly decreased. These changes were implicated in the AF-induced release of miR-21 and down-regulation of Smad7. Adult rat cardiac fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1 showed increased miR-21 expression and decreased Smad7 expression. Pretreatment with a TGF-β1 inhibitor reduced the TGF-β1-induced up-regulation of miR-21. Pretreatment with pre-miR-21 and a miR-21 inhibitor significantly decreased and increased Smad7 expression, respectively. This result was negatively correlated with the expression of collagen I/III in fibroblasts. Moreover, the results of a luciferase activity assay suggest that Smad7 is a validated miR-21 target in CFs. Our results provide compelling evidence that the miR-21 specific degradation of Smad7 may decrease the inhibitory feedback regulation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling and serves as a new insight of the mechanism of atrial fibrosis in atrial fibrillation.

  4. Rapid atrial pacing induces myocardial fibrosis by down-regulating Smad7 via microRNA-21 in rabbit.

    PubMed

    He, Xuyu; Zhang, Kunyi; Gao, Xiuren; Li, Liwen; Tan, Hong; Chen, Jiyan; Zhou, Yingling

    2016-10-01

    Tachycardia-induced atrial fibrosis is a hallmark of the structural remodeling of atrial fibrillation (AF). The mechanisms underlying tachycardia-induced atrial fibrosis remain unclear. In our previous study, we found that Smad7-downregulation promoted the development of atrial fibrosis in AF. Fibroblasts are enriched in microRNA-21 (miR-21), which contributes to the development of fibrosis and heart failure in the cardiovascular system. Our study was designed to test the hypothesis that miR-21 reinforces the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway in AF-induced atrial fibrosis by down-regulating Smad7. Rapid atrial pacing (RAP, 1000 ppm) was applied to the left atrium of the rabbit heart to induce atrial fibrillation and fibrosis. qRT-PCR and northern blot analysis revealed that RAP caused a marked increase in the expression of miR-21. Transfection with a miR-21 inhibitor significantly increased the expression of Smad7, while the expression of collagen I/III significantly decreased. These changes were implicated in the AF-induced release of miR-21 and down-regulation of Smad7. Adult rat cardiac fibroblasts treated with TGF-β1 showed increased miR-21 expression and decreased Smad7 expression. Pretreatment with a TGF-β1 inhibitor reduced the TGF-β1-induced up-regulation of miR-21. Pretreatment with pre-miR-21 and a miR-21 inhibitor significantly decreased and increased Smad7 expression, respectively. This result was negatively correlated with the expression of collagen I/III in fibroblasts. Moreover, the results of a luciferase activity assay suggest that Smad7 is a validated miR-21 target in CFs. Our results provide compelling evidence that the miR-21 specific degradation of Smad7 may decrease the inhibitory feedback regulation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling and serves as a new insight of the mechanism of atrial fibrosis in atrial fibrillation. PMID:26968995

  5. Role of the Tet38 Efflux Pump in Staphylococcus aureus Internalization and Survival in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Truong-Bolduc, Q. C.; Bolduc, G. R.; Medeiros, H.; Vyas, J. M.; Wang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified the protein Tet38 as a chromosomally encoded efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus that confers resistance to tetracycline and certain unsaturated fatty acids. Tet38 also contributes to mouse skin colonization. In this study, we discovered a novel regulator of tet38, named tetracycline regulator 21 (TetR21), that bound specifically to the tet38 promoter and repressed pump expression. A ΔtetR21 mutant showed a 5-fold increase in tet38 transcripts and an 8-fold increase in resistance to tetracycline and fatty acids. The global regulator MgrA bound to the tetR21 promoter and indirectly repressed the expression of tet38. To further assess the full role of Tet38 in S. aureus adaptability, we tested its effect on host cell invasion using A549 (lung) and HMEC-1 (heart) cell lines. We used S. aureus RN6390, its Δtet38, ΔtetR21, and ΔmgrA mutants, and a Δtet38 ΔtetR21 double mutant. After 2 h of contact, the Δtet38 mutant was internalized in 6-fold-lower numbers than RN6390 in A549 and HMEC-1 cells, and the ΔtetR21 mutant was internalized in 2-fold-higher numbers than RN6390. A slight increase of 1.5-fold in internalization was found for the ΔmgrA mutant. The growth patterns of RN6390 and the ΔmgrA and ΔtetR21 mutants within A549 cells were similar, while no growth was observed for the Δtet38 mutant. These data indicate that the Tet38 efflux pump is regulated by TetR21 and contributes to the ability of S. aureus to internalize and replicate within epithelial cells. PMID:26324534

  6. Enforced expression of microRNA-21 influences the replication of varicella-zoster virus by triggering signal transducer and activator of transcription 3.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wu, Rina; Liu, Zhongrong; Fan, Jianyong; Yang, Huilan

    2014-05-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes chronic pain and serious complications, including zoster paresis. However, the mechanism of VZV replication, a critical part of VZV pathogenesis, remains largely unknown and was investigated in the present study. The upregulation of microRNA-21 (miR-21) was identified following VZV infection in vitro by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The hypothesis that the overexpression of miR-21 activates the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway was validated by measuring the mRNA expression levels of STAT3 and the anti-apoptotic protein survivin in human malignant melanoma (MeWo) and human embryonic lung fibroblast (HELF) cell lines transfected with miR-21-mimic and comparing them with those in cells transfected with miR-control. To further study the interaction of miR-21, STAT3 and VZV replication, the effects of miR-21 overexpression and STAT3 knockdown were evaluated. Higher virus titers were detected when miR-21 was upregulated in vitro. Moreover, it was identified that significantly lower virus titers were present in MeWo cells in which STAT3 was knocked down. In addition, the overexpression of miR-21 did not stimulate VZV replication in the MeWo cell line when the STAT3 gene was silenced. Therefore, the observations of the present study indicate that the enforced expression of miR-21 promotes the replication of VZV by activating STAT3 in vitro.

  7. Combination of microRNA-21 and microRNA-146a Attenuates Cardiac Dysfunction and Apoptosis During Acute Myocardial Infarction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Tian, Shan-Shan; Hang, Peng-Zhou; Sun, Chuan; Guo, Jing; Du, Zhi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed the cytoprotective roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-21 and miR-146a against ischemic cardiac injuries. While these studies investigated each of these miRNAs as an independent individual factor, our previous study has suggested the possible interaction between these two miRNAs. The present study was designed to investigate this possibility by evaluating the effects of miR-21 and miR-146a combination on cardiac ischemic injuries and the underlying mechanisms. MiR-21 and miR-146a synergistically decreased apoptosis under ischemia/hypoxic conditions in cardiomyocytes compared with either miR-21 or miR-146a alone. Mice coinjected with agomiR-21 and agomiR-146a had decreased infarct size, increased ejection fraction (EF), and fractional shortening (FS). These effects were greater than those induced by either of the two agomiRs. Furthermore, greater decreases in p38 mitogen-associated protein kinase phosphorylation (p-p38 MAPK) were observed with miR-21: miR-146a combination as compared to application of either of the miRNAs. These data suggest that combination of miR-21 and miR-146a has a greater protective effect against cardiac ischemia/hypoxia-induced apoptosis as compared to these miRNAs applied individually. This synergistic action is mediated by enhanced potency of inhibition of cardiomyocyte apoptosis by the miR-21—PTEN/AKT—p-p38—caspase-3 and miR-146a—TRAF6—p-p38—caspase-3 signal pathways. PMID:26978580

  8. MicroRNA-21 Contributes to Liver Regeneration by Targeting PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Song, Meiyi; Chen, Wei; Dimitrova-Shumkovska, Jasmina; Zhao, Yingying; Cao, Yan; Song, Yang; Yang, Wenzhuo; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Yang; Yang, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), including miR-21, have been documented to be critical regulators of liver regeneration, but the mechanism underlying their roles in hepatocyte proliferation and cell cycle progression is still far from understood. Material/Methods miR-21 levels were determined using qRT-PCRs in mouse livers at 48 h after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH-48 h). Cell proliferation was determined by use of a cell-counting kit-8 (CCK-8), EdU incorporation staining, and flow cytometry. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expressions were determined using qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. PTEN siRNA was used to perform the rescue experiment. Results A marked upregulation of miR-21 was observed in mouse livers at 48 h after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH-48 h) compared to 0 h after PH (PH-0 h). Overexpression of miR-21 was associated with increased proliferation and a rapid G1-to-S phase transition of the cell cycle in BNL CL.2 normal liver cells in vitro. In addition, we showed that PTEN expression was inversely correlated with miR-21 in BNL CL.2 cells and demonstrated that PTEN expression is lower in mouse livers at PH-48 h. Moreover, the presence of PTEN siRNA significantly abolished the suppressive effect of miR-21 inhibitor on hepatocyte proliferation. Conclusions miR-21 overexpression contributes to liver regeneration and hepatocyte proliferation by targeting PTEN. Upregulation of miR-21 might be a useful therapeutic strategy to promote liver regeneration. PMID:26744142

  9. An ultrasensitive label-free electrochemical biosensor for microRNA-21 detection based on a 2'-O-methyl modified DNAzyme and duplex-specific nuclease assisted target recycling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Wu, Dongzhi; Liu, Zhijing; Cai, Shuxian; Zhao, Yanping; Chen, Mei; Xia, Yaokun; Li, Chunyan; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Jinghua

    2014-10-21

    Based on a highly efficient 2'-O-methyl modified G-quadruplex-hemin DNAzyme and duplex-specific nuclease (DSN) assisted target recycling, a novel label-free electrochemical biosensor for microRNA-21 (miR-21) detection is developed here. By employing the strategy, this DNA biosensor can detect as low as 8 aM miR-21 and exhibits high discrimination ability even against a single-base mismatch.

  10. Exosomal levels of miRNA-21 from cerebrospinal fluids associated with poor prognosis and tumor recurrence of glioma patients.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rui; Wang, Pei-Yin; Li, Xin-Yi; Chen, Jian-Xin; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xin-Zhong; Zhang, Chen-Guang; Jiang, Tao; Li, Wen-Bin; Ding, Wei; Cheng, Shu-Jun

    2015-09-29

    Glioma is a most common type of primary brain tumors. Extracellular vesicles, in the form of exosomes, are known to mediate cell-cell communication by transporting cell-derived proteins and nucleic acids, including various microRNAs (miRNAs). Here we examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with recurrent glioma for the levels of cancer-related miRNAs, and evaluated the values for prognosis by comparing the measures of CSF-, serum-, and exosome-contained miR-21 levels. Samples from seventy glioma patients following surgery were compared with those from brain trauma patients as a non-tumor control group. Exosomal miR-21 levels in the CSF of glioma patients were found significantly higher than in the controls; whereas no difference was detected in serum-derived exosomal miR-21 expression. The CSF-derived exosomal miR-21 levels correlated with tumor spinal/ventricle metastasis and the recurrence with anatomical site preference. From additional 198 glioma tissue samples, we verified that miR-21 levels associated with tumor grade of diagnosis and negatively correlated with the median values of patient overall survival time. We further used a lentiviral inhibitor to suppress miR-21 expression in U251 cells. The results showed that the levels of miR-21 target genes of PTEN, RECK and PDCD4 were up-regulated at protein levels. Therefore, we concluded that the exosomal miR-21 levels could be demonstrated as a promising indicator for glioma diagnosis and prognosis, particularly with values to predict tumor recurrence or metastasis. PMID:26284486

  11. MicroRNA-21 Down-regulates Rb1 Expression by Targeting PDCD4 in Retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Fengmei; Mo, Meng-Hsuan; Chen, Liang; An, Shejuan; Tan, Xiaohui; Fu, Yebo; Rezaei, Katayoon; Wang, Zuoren; Zhang, Lin; Fu, Sidney W.

    2014-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is a children's ocular cancer caused by mutated retinoblastoma 1 (Rb1) gene on both alleles. Rb1 and other related genes could be regulated by microRNAs (miRNA) via complementarily pairing with their target sites. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) possesses the oncogenic potential to target several tumor suppressor genes, including PDCD4, and regulates tumor progression and metastasis. However, the mechanism of how miR-21 regulates PDCD4 is poorly understood in RB. We investigated the expression of miRNAs in RB cell lines and identified that miR-21 is one of the most deregulated miRNAs in RB. Using qRT-PCR, we verified the expression level of several miRNAs identified by independent microarray assays, and analyzed miRNA expression patterns in three RB cell lines, including Weri-Rb1, Y79 and RB355. We found that miR-19b, -21, -26a, -195 and -222 were highly expressed in all three cell lines, suggesting their potential role in RB tumorigenesis. Using the TargetScan program, we identified a list of potential target genes of these miRNAs, of which PDCD4 is one the targets of miR-21. In this study, we focused on the regulatory mechanism of miR-21 on PDCD4 in RB. We demonstrated an inverse correlation between miR-21 and PDCD4 expression in Weri-Rb1 and Y79 cells. These data suggest that miR-21 down-regulates Rb1 by targeting PDCD4 tumor suppressor. Therefore, miR-21 could serve as a therapeutic target for retinoblastoma. PMID:25520758

  12. Long Term Ablation of Protein Kinase A (PKA)-mediated Cardiac Troponin I Phosphorylation Leads to Excitation-Contraction Uncoupling and Diastolic Dysfunction in a Knock-in Mouse Model of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy*

    PubMed Central

    Dweck, David; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A.; Chang, Audrey N.; Dulce, Raul A.; Badger, Crystal-Dawn; Koutnik, Andrew P.; Ruiz, Edda L.; Griffin, Brittany; Liang, Jingsheng; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Fincham, Frank D.; Hare, Joshua M.; Overton, J. Michael; Pinto, Jose R.

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac troponin I (cTnI) R21C (cTnI-R21C) mutation has been linked to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and renders cTnI incapable of phosphorylation by PKA in vivo. Echocardiographic imaging of homozygous knock-in mice expressing the cTnI-R21C mutation shows that they develop hypertrophy after 12 months of age and have abnormal diastolic function that is characterized by longer filling times and impaired relaxation. Electrocardiographic analyses show that older R21C mice have elevated heart rates and reduced cardiovagal tone. Cardiac myocytes isolated from older R21C mice demonstrate that in the presence of isoproterenol, significant delays in Ca2+ decay and sarcomere relaxation occur that are not present at 6 months of age. Although isoproterenol and stepwise increases in stimulation frequency accelerate Ca2+-transient and sarcomere shortening kinetics in R21C myocytes from older mice, they are unable to attain the corresponding WT values. When R21C myocytes from older mice are treated with isoproterenol, evidence of excitation-contraction uncoupling is indicated by an elevation in diastolic calcium that is frequency-dissociated and not coupled to shorter diastolic sarcomere lengths. Myocytes from older mice have smaller Ca2+ transient amplitudes (2.3-fold) that are associated with reductions (2.9-fold) in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content. This abnormal Ca2+ handling within the cell may be attributed to a reduction (2.4-fold) in calsequestrin expression in conjunction with an up-regulation (1.5-fold) of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger. Incubation of permeabilized cardiac fibers from R21C mice with PKA confirmed that the mutation prevents facilitation of mechanical relaxation. Altogether, these results indicate that the inability to enhance myofilament relaxation through cTnI phosphorylation predisposes the heart to abnormal diastolic function, reduced accessibility of cardiac reserves, dysautonomia, and hypertrophy. PMID:24973218

  13. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3/MicroRNA-21 Feedback Loop Contributes to Atrial Fibrillation by Promoting Atrial Fibrosis in a Rat Sterile Pericarditis Model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhengrong; Chen, Xiao-jun; Qian, Cheng; Dong, Qian; Ding, Dan; Wu, Qiong-feng; Li, Jing; Wang, Hong-fei; Li, Wei-hua; Xie, Qiang; Cheng, Xiang; Liao, Yu-hua

    2016-01-01

    Background— Postoperative atrial fibrillation is a frequent complication in cardiac surgery. The aberrant activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) contributes to the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) promotes atrial fibrosis. Recent studies support the existence of reciprocal regulation between STAT3 and miR-21. Here, we test the hypothesis that these 2 molecules might form a feedback loop that contributes to postoperative atrial fibrillation by promoting atrial fibrosis. Methods and Results— A sterile pericarditis model was created using atrial surfaces dusted with sterile talcum powder in rats. The inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, transforming growth factor-β, and tumor necrosis factor-α, along with STAT3 and miR-21, were highly upregulated in sterile pericarditis rats. The inhibition of STAT3 by S3I-201 resulted in miR-21 downregulation, which ameliorated atrial fibrosis and decreased the expression of the fibrosis-related genes, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen-1, and collagen-3; reduced the inhomogeneity of atrial conduction; and attenuated atrial fibrillation vulnerability. Meanwhile, treatment with antagomir-21 decreased STAT3 phosphorylation, alleviated atrial remodeling, abrogated sterile pericarditis–induced inhomogeneous conduction, and prevented atrial fibrillation promotion. The culturing of cardiac fibroblasts with IL-6 resulted in progressively augmented STAT3 phosphorylation and miR-21 levels. S3I-201 blocked IL-6 induced the expression of miR-21 and fibrosis-related genes in addition to cardiac fibroblast proliferation. Transfected antagomir-21 decreased the IL-6–induced cardiac fibroblast activation and STAT3 phosphorylation. The overexpression of miR-21 in cardiac fibroblasts caused the upregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation, enhanced fibrosis-related genes, and increased cell numbers. Conclusions— Our results have uncovered a novel reciprocal loop between STAT3

  14. Micro-RNA 21 inhibition of SMAD7 enhances fibrogenesis via leptin-mediated NADPH oxidase in experimental and human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dattaroy, Diptadip; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Das, Suvarthi; Alhasson, Firas; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Michelotti, Gregory A.; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the common pathophysiological process resulting from chronic liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Although significant research has been carried out on the role of leptin-induced NADPH oxidase in fibrogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that connect the leptin-NADPH oxidase axis in upregulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling have been unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of leptin-mediated upregulation of NADPH oxidase and its subsequent induction of micro-RNA 21 (miR21) in fibrogenesis. Human NASH livers and a high-fat (60% kcal) diet-fed chronic mouse model, where hepatotoxin bromodichloromethane was used to induce NASH, were used for this study. To prove the role of the leptin-NADPH oxidase-miR21 axis, mice deficient in genes for leptin, p47phox, and miR21 were used. Results showed that wild-type mice and human livers with NASH had increased oxidative stress, increased p47phox expression, augmented NF-κB activation, and increased miR21 levels. These mice and human livers showed increased TGF-β, SMAD2/3-SMAD4 colocalizations in the nucleus, increased immunoreactivity against Col1α, and α-SMA with a concomitant decrease in protein levels of SMAD7. Mice that were deficient in leptin or p47phox had decreased activated NF-κB and miR21 levels, suggesting the role of leptin and NADPH oxidase in inducing NF-κB-mediated miR21 expression. Further miR21 knockout mice had decreased colocalization events of SMAD2/3-SMAD4 in the nucleus, increased SMAD7 levels, and decreased fibrogenesis. Taken together, the studies show the novel role of leptin-NADPH oxidase induction of miR21 as a key regulator of TGF-β signaling and fibrogenesis in experimental and human NASH. PMID:25501551

  15. MicroRNA-21 dysregulates the expression of MEF2C in neurons in monkey and human SIV/HIV neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Yelamanchili, S V; Chaudhuri, A Datta; Chen, L-N; Xiong, Huangui; Fox, H S

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in regulating a plethora of physiological and pathophysiogical processes including neurodegeneration. In both HIV associated dementia in humans and its monkey model SIV encephalitis we find miR-21, a miRNA largely known for its link to oncogenesis, to be significantly upregulated in the brain. In situ hybridization of the diseased brain sections revealed induction of miR-21 in neurons. MiR-21 can be induced in neurons by prolonged N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor stimulation, an excitotoxic process active in HIV and other neurodegenerative diseases. Introduction of miR-21 into human neurons leads to pathological functional defects. Furthermore, we show that miR-21 specifically targets the mRNA of myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), a transcription factor crucial for neuronal function, and reduces its expression. MEF2C is dramatically downregulated in neurons of HIV-associated dementia patients as well as monkeys with SIVE. Together, this study elucidates a novel role for miR-21 in the brain, not only as a potential signature of neurological disease but also as a crucial effector of HIV induced neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration.

  16. MicroRNA-21 promotes proliferation, invasion and suppresses apoptosis in human osteosarcoma line MG63 through PTEN/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chen; Hao, Yuehan; Tu, Guanjun

    2016-07-01

    Osteosarcoma, which accounts for 5 % of pediatric tumor, remains the major cause of death among orthopedic malignancies. However, the factors associated with its malignant biological behavior are still poorly understood. MicroRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs, which have been considered to associate with malignant progression including cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and distant metastasis. In our research, we found that microRNA-21 (miR-21) was significantly overexpressed in human osteosarcoma cell line MG63 compared to human fetal osteoblastic cell line hFOB1.19 by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Moreover, miR-21 overexpression in MG63 caused a significant raise in cell proliferation and invasion and a significant reduction in cell apoptosis. However, miR-21 underexpression in MG63 caused an opposite result. Western blotting displayed that proteins related with proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion were significantly changed in different groups, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PTEN may be a potential target of miR-21 in MG63 cells and miR-21 could activate PI3K/Akt pathway by suppressing PTEN expression. In summary, our findings suggested that miR-21 played an active role in osteosarcoma and it could predict the occurrence and development of osteosarcoma.

  17. MicroRNA-Offset RNA Alters Gene Expression and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin; Schnitzler, Gavin R.; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; Aronovitz, Mark J.; Baur, Wendy E.; Karas, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-offset RNAs (moRs) were first identified in simple chordates and subsequently in mouse and human cells by deep sequencing of short RNAs. MoRs are derived from sequences located immediately adjacent to microRNAs (miRs) in the primary miR (pri-miR). Currently moRs are considered to be simply a by-product of miR biosynthesis that lack biological activity. Here we show for the first time that a moR is biologically active. We demonstrate that endogenous or over-expressed moR-21 significantly alters gene expression and inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In addition, we find that miR-21 and moR-21 may regulate different genes in a given pathway and can oppose each other in regulating certain genes. We report that there is a “seed region” of moR-21 as well as a “seed match region” in the target gene 3’UTR that are indispensable for moR-21-mediated gene down-regulation. We further demonstrate that moR-21-mediated gene repression is Argonaute 2 (Ago2) dependent. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that microRNA offset RNA alters gene expression and is biologically active. PMID:27276022

  18. Colony stimulating factor-1 receptor signaling networks inhibit mouse macrophage inflammatory responses by induction of microRNA-21.

    PubMed

    Caescu, Cristina I; Guo, Xingyi; Tesfa, Lydia; Bhagat, Tushar D; Verma, Amit; Zheng, Deyou; Stanley, E Richard

    2015-02-19

    Macrophage polarization between the M2 (repair, protumorigenic) and M1 (inflammatory) phenotypes is seen as a continuum of states. The detailed transcriptional events and signals downstream of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) that contributes to amplification of the M2 phenotype and suppression of the M1 phenotype are largely unknown. Macrophage CSF-1R pTyr-721 signaling promotes cell motility and enhancement of tumor cell invasion in vitro. Combining analysis of cellular systems for CSF-1R gain of function and loss of function with bioinformatic analysis of the macrophage CSF-1R pTyr-721-regulated transcriptome, we uncovered microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a downstream molecular switch controlling macrophage activation and identified extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and nuclear factor-κB as CSF-1R pTyr-721-regulated signaling nodes. We show that CSF-1R pTyr-721 signaling suppresses the inflammatory phenotype, predominantly by induction of miR-21. Profiling of the miR-21-regulated messenger RNAs revealed that 80% of the CSF-1-regulated canonical miR-21 targets are proinflammatory molecules. Additionally, miR-21 positively regulates M2 marker expression. Moreover, miR-21 feeds back to positively regulate its own expression and to limit CSF-1R-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and nuclear factor-κB. Consistent with an anti-inflammatory role of miRNA-21, intraperitoneal injection of mice with a miRNA-21 inhibitor increases the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and enhances the peritoneal monocyte/macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide. These results identify the CSF-1R-regulated miR-21 network that modulates macrophage polarization.

  19. Improving the osteogenesis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets by microRNA-21-loaded chitosan/hyaluronic acid nanoparticles via reverse transfection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongshan; Wu, Guangsheng; Wei, Mengying; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Jian; Qin, Tian; Feng, Xiaoke; Liu, Huan; Feng, Zhihong; Zhao, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Cell sheet engineering has emerged as a novel approach to effectively deliver seeding cells for tissue regeneration, and developing human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMMSC) sheets with high osteogenic ability is a constant requirement from clinics for faster and higher-quality bone formation. In this work, we fabricated biocompatible and safe chitosan (CS)/hyaluronic acid (HA) nanoparticles (NPs) to deliver microRNA-21 (miR-21), which has been proved to accelerate osteogenesis in hBMMSCs; then, the CS/HA/miR-21 NPs were cross-linked onto the surfaces of culture plates with 0.2% gel solution to fabricate miR-21-functionalized culture plates for reverse transfection. hBMMSC sheets were induced continuously for 14 days using a vitamin C-rich method on the miR-21-functionalized culture plates. For the characterization of CS/HA/miR-21 NPs, the particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, and gel retardation were sequentially investigated. Then, the biological effects of hBMMSC sheets on the miR-21-functionalized culture plates were evaluated. The assay results demonstrated that the hBMMSC sheets could be successfully induced via the novel reverse transfection approach, and miR-21 delivery significantly enhanced the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of hBMMSC sheets in terms of upregulating calcification-related gene expression and enhancing alkaline phosphatase production, collagen secretion, and mineralized nodule formation. The enhanced osteogenic activity of hBMMSC sheets might promisingly lead to more rapid and more robust bone regeneration for clinical use. PMID:27274237

  20. Improving the osteogenesis of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell sheets by microRNA-21-loaded chitosan/hyaluronic acid nanoparticles via reverse transfection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhongshan; Wu, Guangsheng; Wei, Mengying; Liu, Qian; Zhou, Jian; Qin, Tian; Feng, Xiaoke; Liu, Huan; Feng, Zhihong; Zhao, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    Cell sheet engineering has emerged as a novel approach to effectively deliver seeding cells for tissue regeneration, and developing human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hBMMSC) sheets with high osteogenic ability is a constant requirement from clinics for faster and higher-quality bone formation. In this work, we fabricated biocompatible and safe chitosan (CS)/hyaluronic acid (HA) nanoparticles (NPs) to deliver microRNA-21 (miR-21), which has been proved to accelerate osteogenesis in hBMMSCs; then, the CS/HA/miR-21 NPs were cross-linked onto the surfaces of culture plates with 0.2% gel solution to fabricate miR-21-functionalized culture plates for reverse transfection. hBMMSC sheets were induced continuously for 14 days using a vitamin C-rich method on the miR-21-functionalized culture plates. For the characterization of CS/HA/miR-21 NPs, the particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, and gel retardation were sequentially investigated. Then, the biological effects of hBMMSC sheets on the miR-21-functionalized culture plates were evaluated. The assay results demonstrated that the hBMMSC sheets could be successfully induced via the novel reverse transfection approach, and miR-21 delivery significantly enhanced the in vitro osteogenic differentiation of hBMMSC sheets in terms of upregulating calcification-related gene expression and enhancing alkaline phosphatase production, collagen secretion, and mineralized nodule formation. The enhanced osteogenic activity of hBMMSC sheets might promisingly lead to more rapid and more robust bone regeneration for clinical use. PMID:27274237

  1. Effect of Site-directed Mutagenesis of Methylglyoxal- Modifiable Arginine Residues on the Structure and Chaperone Function of Human αA-crystallin

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Ashis; Miller, Antonia; Oya-Ito, Tomoko; Santhoshkumar, Puttur; Bhat, Manjunatha; Nagaraj, Ram H.

    2008-01-01

    We reported previously that chemical modification of human αA-crystallin by a metabolic dicarbonyl compound, methylglyoxal (MGO), enhances its chaperone-like function, a phenomenon which we attributed to formation of argpyrimidine at arginine residues (R) 21, 49 and 103. This structural change removes the positive charge on the arginine residues. To explore this mechanism further, we replaced these three R residues with a neutral alanine (A) residue one at time or in combination and examined the impact on the structure and chaperone function. Measurement of intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and near-UV CD spectra revealed alteration of the microenvironment of aromatic amino acid residue in mutant proteins. When compared to wild type (wt) αA-crystallin, the chaperone function of R21A and R103A mutants increased 20% and 18% as measured by the insulin aggregation assay, and increased it as much as 39% and 28% when measured by the citrate synthase (CS) aggregation assay. While the R49A mutant lost most of its chaperone function, R21A/R103A and R21A/R49A/R103A mutants had slightly better function (6–14% and 10–14%) than the wt protein in these assays. R21A and R103A mutants had higher surface hydrophobicity than wt αA-crystallin, but the R49A mutant had lower hydrophobicity. R21A and R103A mutants, but not the R49A mutant, were more efficient than wt protein in refolding guanidine hydrochloride-treated malate dehydrogenase to its native state. Our findings indicate that the positive charges on R21, R49 and R103 are important determinants of the chaperone function of αA-crystallin and suggest that chemical modification of arginine residues may play a role in protein aggregation during lens aging and cataract formation. PMID:16584192

  2. Endothelial lineage differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells is regulated by microRNA-21 and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2) pathways.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardini, Elisabetta; Campagnolo, Paola; Margariti, Andriana; Zampetaki, Anna; Karamariti, Eirini; Hu, Yanhua; Xu, Qingbo

    2014-02-01

    Finding a suitable cell source for endothelial cells (ECs) for cardiovascular regeneration is a challenging issue for regenerative medicine. In this paper, we describe a novel mechanism regulating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) differentiation into ECs, with a particular focus on miRNAs and their targets. We first established a protocol using collagen IV and VEGF to drive the functional differentiation of iPSCs into ECs and compared the miRNA signature of differentiated and undifferentiated cells. Among the miRNAs overrepresented in differentiated cells, we focused on microRNA-21 (miR-21) and studied its role in iPSC differentiation. Overexpression of miR-21 in predifferentiated iPSCs induced EC marker up-regulation and in vitro and in vivo capillary formation; accordingly, inhibition of miR-21 produced the opposite effects. Importantly, miR-21 overexpression increased TGF-β2 mRNA and secreted protein level, consistent with the strong up-regulation of TGF-β2 during iPSC differentiation. Indeed, treatment of iPSCs with TGFβ-2 induced EC marker expression and in vitro tube formation. Inhibition of SMAD3, a downstream effector of TGFβ-2, strongly decreased VE-cadherin expression. Furthermore, TGFβ-2 neutralization and knockdown inhibited miR-21-induced EC marker expression. Finally, we confirmed the PTEN/Akt pathway as a direct target of miR-21, and we showed that PTEN knockdown is required for miR-21-mediated endothelial differentiation. In conclusion, we elucidated a novel signaling pathway that promotes the differentiation of iPSC into functional ECs suitable for regenerative medicine applications.

  3. Colony stimulating factor-1 receptor signaling networks inhibit mouse macrophage inflammatory responses by induction of microRNA-21

    PubMed Central

    Caescu, Cristina I.; Guo, Xingyi; Tesfa, Lydia; Bhagat, Tushar D.; Verma, Amit; Zheng, Deyou

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage polarization between the M2 (repair, protumorigenic) and M1 (inflammatory) phenotypes is seen as a continuum of states. The detailed transcriptional events and signals downstream of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) that contributes to amplification of the M2 phenotype and suppression of the M1 phenotype are largely unknown. Macrophage CSF-1R pTyr-721 signaling promotes cell motility and enhancement of tumor cell invasion in vitro. Combining analysis of cellular systems for CSF-1R gain of function and loss of function with bioinformatic analysis of the macrophage CSF-1R pTyr-721–regulated transcriptome, we uncovered microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a downstream molecular switch controlling macrophage activation and identified extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and nuclear factor-κB as CSF-1R pTyr-721–regulated signaling nodes. We show that CSF-1R pTyr-721 signaling suppresses the inflammatory phenotype, predominantly by induction of miR-21. Profiling of the miR-21–regulated messenger RNAs revealed that 80% of the CSF-1–regulated canonical miR-21 targets are proinflammatory molecules. Additionally, miR-21 positively regulates M2 marker expression. Moreover, miR-21 feeds back to positively regulate its own expression and to limit CSF-1R–mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and nuclear factor-κB. Consistent with an anti-inflammatory role of miRNA-21, intraperitoneal injection of mice with a miRNA-21 inhibitor increases the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and enhances the peritoneal monocyte/macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide. These results identify the CSF-1R–regulated miR-21 network that modulates macrophage polarization. PMID:25573988

  4. Mir-21–Sox2 Axis Delineates Glioblastoma Subtypes with Prognostic Impact

    PubMed Central

    Sathyan, Pratheesh; Zinn, Pascal O.; Marisetty, Anantha L.; Liu, Bin; Kamal, Mohamed Mostafa; Singh, Sanjay K.; Bady, Pierre; Lu, Li; Wani, Khalida M.; Veo, Bethany L.; Gumin, Joy; Kassem, Dina Hamada; Robinson, Frederick; Weng, Connie; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Suki, Dima; Colman, Howard; Bhat, Krishna P.; Sulman, Erik P.; Aldape, Ken; Colen, Rivka R.; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; Lu, Zhimin; Fuller, Gregory N.; Huang, Suyun; Lang, Frederick F.; Sawaya, Raymond; Hegi, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive human brain tumor. Although several molecular subtypes of GBM are recognized, a robust molecular prognostic marker has yet to be identified. Here, we report that the stemness regulator Sox2 is a new, clinically important target of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in GBM, with implications for prognosis. Using the MiR-21–Sox2 regulatory axis, approximately half of all GBM tumors present in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and in-house patient databases can be mathematically classified into high miR-21/low Sox2 (Class A) or low miR-21/high Sox2 (Class B) subtypes. This classification reflects phenotypically and molecularly distinct characteristics and is not captured by existing classifications. Supporting the distinct nature of the subtypes, gene set enrichment analysis of the TCGA dataset predicted that Class A and Class B tumors were significantly involved in immune/inflammatory response and in chromosome organization and nervous system development, respectively. Patients with Class B tumors had longer overall survival than those with Class A tumors. Analysis of both databases indicated that the Class A/Class B classification is a better predictor of patient survival than currently used parameters. Further, manipulation of MiR-21–Sox2 levels in orthotopic mouse models supported the longer survival of the Class B subtype. The MiR-21–Sox2 association was also found in mouse neural stem cells and in the mouse brain at different developmental stages, suggesting a role in normal development. Therefore, this mechanism-based classification suggests the presence of two distinct populations of GBM patients with distinguishable phenotypic characteristics and clinical outcomes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Molecular profiling-based classification of glioblastoma (GBM) into four subtypes has substantially increased our understanding of the biology of the disease and has pointed to the heterogeneous nature of GBM. However, this classification is not

  5. Transforming growth factor-β-sphingosine kinase 1/S1P signaling upregulates microRNA-21 to promote fibrosis in renal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Quan; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Yanyan; Zou, Xin; Xu, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is a progressive pathological change characterized by tubular cell apoptosis, tubulointerstitial fibroblast proliferation, and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). miR-21 has been implicated in transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-stimulated tissue fibrosis. Recent studies showed that sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (SphK/S1P) are also critical for TGF-β-stimulated tissue fibrosis; however, it is not clear whether SphK/S1P interacts with miR-21 or not. In this study, we hypothesized that SphK/S1P signaling is linked to upregulation of miR-21 by TGF-β. To verify this hypothesis, we first determined that miR-21 was highly expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells (TECs) stimulated with TGF-β by using qRT-PCR and Northern blotting. Simultaneously, inhibition of miR-21, mediated by the corresponding antimir, markedly decreased the expression and deposition of type I collagen, fibronectin (Fn), cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1), α-smooth muscle actin, and fibroblast-specific protein1 in TGF-β-treated TECs. ELISA and qRT-PCR were used to measure the S1P and SphK1 levels in TECs. S1P production was induced by TGF-β through activation of SphK1. Furthermore, it was observed that TGF-β-stimulated upregulation of miR-21 was abolished by SphK1 siRNA and was restored by the addition of exogenous S1P. Blocking S1PR2 also inhibited upregulation of miR-21. Additionally, miR-21 overexpression attenuated the repression of TGF-β-stimulated ECM deposition and epithelial–mesenchymal transition by SphK1 and S1PR2 siRNA. In summary, our study demonstrates a link between SphK1/S1P and TGF-β-induced miR-21 in renal TECs and may represent a novel therapeutic target in renal fibrosis. PMID:26376826

  6. Label-free microRNA detection based on terbium and duplex-specific nuclease assisted target recycling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Dongzhi; Chen, QiuXiang; Chen, Mei; Xia, Yaokun; Cai, Shuxian; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Fang; Chen, Jinghua

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel label-free fluorescence method for microRNA-21 (miR-21) detection based on terbium (Tb(3+)) and duplex-specific nuclease (DSN) assisted target recycling. Capture probes (Cps), containing a target-binding part and a signal-output part, are immobilized on magnetic beads (MBs). In the presence of the target miR-21, it hybridizes with the target-binding part of a Cp to form a DNA-RNA heteroduplex. Due to the considerable cleavage preference for DNA in DNA-RNA hybrids, DSN hydrolyzes the target-binding part of the Cp while liberating the intact target miR-21 to hybridize with a new Cp and initiate the second cycle of hydrolysis. Eventually, through magnetic separation, only the signal-output part of the Cp could remain in solution and function as a signalling flare to increase the fluorescence intensity of Tb(3+) dramatically. By employing the above strategy, this approach can gain an amplified fluorescent signal and detect as low as 8 fM miR-21 under the optimized conditions. Moreover, due to the high selectivity of DSN, the method shows little cross-hybridization among the closely related miRNA family members even at the single-base-mismatched level. Successful attempts were made in applying the approach to detect miR-21 in human cell lysate samples of breast cancer patients.

  7. 75 FR 29772 - Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... 2009 Limited Competition: Prospect Studies--Building New Clinical Infrastructure for CE (R01... disclosure under the above-cited statutes. SEP Meeting on: Recovery Act 2009 Limited Competition:...

  8. 78 FR 58325 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Bariatric Surgery-- Related Ancillary Studies (R01s). Date... Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel, Regulatory Mechanisms in Intestinal Motility...

  9. 78 FR 37557 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, R01 Grant... Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...

  10. 77 FR 74676 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation Grants and Cooperative Agreements (R34, R01, U01... Program Nos. 93.855, Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation Research; 93.856, Microbiology...

  11. 78 FR 21960 - National Institute of Allergy And Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Panel; NIAID Clinical Trial Planning and Implementation Grants and Cooperative Agreements (R34, R01, U01..., Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 8, 2013....

  12. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special...: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research Special Emphasis Panel; Review of R01 &...

  13. Energy utilization in phonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Michael

    2015-11-01

    A control volume analysis of energy utilization in phonation is presented. Conversion of subglottal airstream potential energy into work done vibrating the vocal folds, air flowing through the glottis, and radiating sound are described. An approximate numerical model is used to compute the contributions of each of these mechanisms, as a function of subglottal pressure, for normal phonation. An efficiency measure for each energy conversion mechanism is proposed. Acknowledge NIH grant 2R01 2R01DC005642.

  14. Correlates of video game screen time among males: body mass, physical activity, and other media use.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Mary; Gray, Melissa; Reilly, Jenny; Noggle, Matthew

    2009-08-01

    This study examined the correlations between media use, body mass variables, and physical activity among 116 male undergraduates (white n=106; African American n=5, Latin American n=1, Asian American n=2, and 2 others). Length of video game play during one sitting was positively related to body mass index (BMI; r=.27, p<.01) and negatively correlated with frequency of exercise (r=-.21, p<.05) and days of walking (r=-.22, p<.05). Frequency of video game play was negatively correlated with length of exercising (r=-.21, p<.05). Years of video game play was negatively correlated with length of exercise (r=-.21, p<.05). These results were stronger among those who play online games. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that video game use predicted BMI, accounting for 6.9% of the variance. The implications of the results are discussed. PMID:19665099

  15. Effects of microRNA-21 and microRNA-24 inhibitors on neuronal apoptosis in ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wansheng; Chen, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of our study was aimed to investigate the effects of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and microRNA-24 (miR-24) inhibitors on ischemic stroke. Methods: MiR-21 inhibitor or miR-24 inhibitor was delivered to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by continuous intracerebroventricular infusion. Two days later, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to induce ischemic stroke. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to confirm transfection efficiency. The number of apoptotic neurons was detected using TUNEL method. Besides, primary hippocampal or cortical neuronal cultures were prepared from embryonic day 16-18 C57BL/6 mice. These cells were transfected with miR-21 inhibitor, miR-24 inhibitor, or negative scramble RNA. Then the cell viability was detected after transfection, as well as the protein levels of Caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-xL, and heat shock protein (HSP) 70. Results: Both the levels of miR-21 and miR-24 were significantly reduced by transfection with inhibitors compared to control group or scramble RNA group (both P < 0.05). The apoptosis was significantly reduced in both hippocampal neuron and cortical neuron by miR-24 inhibitor rather than miR-21 inhibitor (P < 0.05), while the cell viability was significantly increased compared to the control group or the scramble group (P < 0.05). In addition, the levels of Bcl-xL and HSP70 were significantly increased, and the levels of Caspase-3 were statistically decreased by transfection with miR-24 inhibitor. Conclusion: MiRNA-24 but not miR-21 inhibitor prevents apoptosis in ischemic stroke by regulation of Bcl-xL, Caspase-3 and HSP70. PMID:27508039

  16. An immobilization-free electrochemical impedance biosensor based on duplex-specific nuclease assisted target recycling for amplified detection of microRNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Dong-Zhi; Cai, Shu-Xian; Chen, Mei; Xia, Yao-Kun; Wu, Fang; Chen, Jing-Hua

    2016-01-15

    An immobilization-free electrochemical impedance biosensor for microRNA detection was developed in this work, which was based on both the duplex-specific nuclease assisted target recycling (DSNATR) and capture probes (Cps) enriched from the solution to electrode surface via magnetic beads (MBs). In the absence of miR-21, Cps cannot be hydrolyzed due to the low activity of duplex-specific nuclease (DSN) against ssDNA. Therefore, the intact Cps could be attached to the surface of magnetic glass carbon electrode (MGCE), resulting in a compact negatively charged layer as well as a large charge-transfer resistance. While in the presence of miR-21, it hybridized with Cp to form a DNA-RNA heteroduplex. Due to the considerable cleavage preference for DNA in DNA-RNA hybrids, DSN hydrolyzed the target-binding part of the Cp while liberating the intact miR-21 to hybridize with a new Cp and initiate the second cycle of hydrolysis. In this way, a single miR-21 was able to trigger the permanent hydrolysis of multiple Cps. Finally, all Cps were digested. Thus, the negatively charged layer could not be formed, resulting in a small charge-transfer resistance. By employing the above strategy, the proposed biosensor achieved ultrahigh sensitivity toward miR-21 with a detection limit of 60aM. Meanwhile, the method showed little cross-hybridization among the closely related miRNA family members even at the single-base-mismatched level. Successful attempts were made in applying the approach to detect miR-21 in human serum samples of breast cancer patients.

  17. Competing Interactions between Micro-RNAs Determine Neural Progenitor Survival and Proliferation after Ethanol Exposure: Evidence from an Ex Vivo Model of the Fetal Cerebral Cortical Neuroepithelium

    PubMed Central

    Sathyan, Pratheesh; Golden, Honey B.; Miranda, Rajesh C.

    2010-01-01

    The fetal brain is sensitive to a variety of teratogens, including ethanol. We showed previously that ethanol induced mitosis and stem cell maturation, but not death, in fetal cerebral cortex-derived progenitors. We tested the hypothesis that micro-RNAs (miRNAs) could mediate the teratogenic effects of ethanol in a fetal mouse cerebral cortex-derived neurosphere culture model. Ethanol, at a level attained by alcoholics, significantly suppressed the expression of four miRNAs, miR-21, -335, -9, and -153, whereas a lower ethanol concentration, attainable during social drinking, induced miR-335 expression. A GABAA receptor-dependent mechanism mediated miR-21, but not miR-335 suppression, suggesting that divergent mechanisms regulate ethanol-sensitive miRNAs. Antisense-mediated suppression of miR-21 expression resulted in apoptosis, suggesting that miR-21 is an antiapoptotic factor. miR-335 knockdown promoted cell proliferation and prevented death induced by concurrently suppressing miR-21, indicating that miR-335 is a proapoptotic, antimitogenic factor whose actions are antagonistic to miR-21. Computational analyses identified two genes, Jagged-1, a Notch-receptor ligand, and embryonic-lethal abnormal vision, Drosophila-like 2 (ELAVL2), a brain-specific regulator of RNA stability, as presumptive targets of three of four ethanol-sensitive micro-RNAs. Combined knockdown of miR-335, -21, and -153 significantly increased Jagged-1 mRNA. Furthermore, ethanol induced both Jagged-1 and ELAVL2 mRNA. The collective suppression of micro-RNAs is consistent with ethanol induction of cell cycle and neuroepithelial maturation in the absence of apoptosis. These data identify a role for micro-RNAs as epigenetic intermediaries, which permit teratogens to shape complex, divergent developmental processes, and additionally demonstrate that coordinately regulated miRNAs exhibit both functional synergy and antagonism toward each other. PMID:17687032

  18. Earth Rotation Parameters from DSN VLBI: 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steppe, J. A.; Oliveau, S. H.; Sovers, O. J.

    1996-01-01

    A despcription of the DSN VLBI data set and of most aspects of the data analysis can be found in the IERS Technical Note 17, pp. R-19 to R-32 (see also IERS Technical Note 19, pp. R-21 to R-27). The main changes in this year's analysis form last year's are simply due to including another year's data.

  19. 78 FR 14797 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... (NIH), grant R56 MH066078, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), NIH, grants F31 DA032152 and R21... Induced Changes in Neural Patterns During Task-Switching.'' Organization for Human Brain Mapping, San... categories in Figure 9. 3. Falsified data in J Neurosci. 2010 and mislabeled brain images to show...

  20. Nickel may contribute to EGFR mutation and synergistically promotes tumor invasion in EGFR-mutated lung cancer via nickel-induced microRNA-21 expression.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Yu-Hu; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wong, Ruey-Hong; Chen, Chih-Yi; Lee, Huei

    2015-08-19

    We recently reported that nickel accumulation in lung tissues may be associated with an increased in p53 mutation risk via reduced DNA repair activity. Here, we hypothesized that nickel accumulation in lung tissues could contribute to EGFR mutations in never-smokers with lung cancer. We enrolled 76 never-smoking patients to evaluate nickel level in adjacent normal lung tissues by ICP-MS. The prevalence of EGFR mutations was significantly higher in the high-nickel subgroup than in the low-nickel subgroup. Intriguingly, the OR for the occurrence of EGFR mutations in female, adenocarcinoma, and female adenocarcinoma patients was higher than that of all patients. Mechanistically, SPRY2 and RECK expressions were decreased by nickel-induced miR-21 via activation of the EGFR/NF-κB signaling pathway, which promoted invasiveness in lung cancer cells, and particularly in the cells with EGFR L858R expression vector transfection. The patients' nickel levels were associated with miR-21 expression levels. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed poorer overall survival (OS) and shorter relapse free survival (RFS) in the high-nickel subgroup than in low-nickel subgroup. The high-nickel/high-miR-21 subgroup had shorter OS and RFS periods when compared to the low-nickel/low-miR-21 subgroup. Our findings support previous epidemiological studies indicating that nickel exposure may not only contribute to cancer incidence but also promote tumor invasion in lung cancer.

  1. Builders Challenge High Performance Builder Spotlight: Artistic Homes, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-22

    Building America Builders Challenge fact sheet on Artistic Homes of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Standard features of their homes include advanced framed 2x6 24-inch on center walls, R-21 blown insulation in the walls, and high-efficiency windows.

  2. Reciprocal interplay between thyroid hormone and microRNA-21 regulates hedgehog pathway–driven skin tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Di Girolamo, Daniela; Ambrosio, Raffaele; De Stefano, Maria A.; Mancino, Giuseppina; Porcelli, Tommaso; Luongo, Cristina; Di Cicco, Emery; Scalia, Giulia; Vecchio, Luigi Del; Colao, Annamaria; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.; Missero, Caterina; Salvatore, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid hormone–inactivating (TH-inactivating) enzyme type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) is an oncofetal protein that is rarely expressed in adult life but has been shown to be reactivated in the context of proliferation and neoplasms. D3 terminates TH action within the tumor microenvironment, thereby enhancing cancer cell proliferation. However, the pathological role of D3 and the contribution of TH metabolism in cancer have yet to be fully explored. Here, we describe a reciprocal regulation between TH action and the cancer-associated microRNA-21 (miR21) in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) skin tumors. We found that, besides being negatively regulated by TH at the transcriptional level, miR21 attenuates the TH signal by increasing D3 levels. The ability of miR21 to positively regulate D3 was mediated by the tumor suppressor gene GRHL3, a hitherto unrecognized D3 transcriptional inhibitor. Finally, in a BCC mouse model, keratinocyte-specific D3 depletion markedly reduced tumor growth. Together, our results establish TH action as a critical hub of multiple oncogenic pathways and provide functional and mechanistic evidence of the involvement of TH metabolism in BCC tumorigenesis. Moreover, our results identify a miR21/GRHL3/D3 axis that reduces TH in the tumor microenvironment and has potential to be targeted as a therapeutic approach to BCC. PMID:27159391

  3. 78 FR 26379 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... Special Emphasis Panel; NCI Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant Program (NCI Omnibus R21). Date: June... Conference Call). Contact Person: David G. Ransom, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Research Programs Review....D., Scientific Review Officer, Research Programs Review Branch, Division of Extramural...

  4. 75 FR 31450 - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section... experts in fields related to health care research who are invited by the Agency for Healthcare Research...: Optimizing Prevention and Healthcare Management for Complex Patients (R21) applications are to be...

  5. 76 FR 61707 - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... collection project: ``Evaluation of the Technical Assistance to ARRA Complex Patient Grantees Project.'' In... Evaluation of the Technical Assistance to ARRA Complex Patient Grantees Project Under the American Recovery... support the R21 and R24 complex patient grantees, AHRQ funded a Learning Network and Technical...

  6. RNA-binding protein HuR sequesters microRNA-21 to prevent translation repression of proinflammatory tumor suppressor gene programmed cell death 4.

    PubMed

    Poria, D K; Guha, A; Nandi, I; Ray, P S

    2016-03-31

    Translation control of proinflammatory genes has a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory response and preventing chronic inflammation, including a transition to cancer. The proinflammatory tumor suppressor protein programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is important for maintaining the balance between inflammation and tumorigenesis. PDCD4 messenger RNA translation is inhibited by the oncogenic microRNA, miR-21. AU-rich element-binding protein HuR was found to interact with the PDCD4 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and prevent miR-21-mediated repression of PDCD4 translation. Cells stably expressing miR-21 showed higher proliferation and reduced apoptosis, which was reversed by HuR expression. Inflammatory stimulus caused nuclear-cytoplasmic relocalization of HuR, reversing the translation repression of PDCD4. Unprecedentedly, HuR was also found to bind to miR-21 directly, preventing its interaction with the PDCD4 3'-UTR, thereby preventing the translation repression of PDCD4. This suggests that HuR might act as a 'miRNA sponge' to regulate miRNA-mediated translation regulation under conditions of stress-induced nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of HuR, which would allow fine-tuned gene expression in complex regulatory environments.

  7. 77 FR 72367 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... Health Literacy (R21). Date: December 5, 2012. Time: 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed...

  8. 75 FR 20371 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... and Safety Training; 93.143, NIEHS Superfund Hazardous Substances--Basic Research and Education; 93... Panel; R21 Exploratory Research Grant Award. Date: May 5, 2010. Time: 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: NIEHS, Keystone Building, 530 Davis Drive, 2128,...

  9. 77 FR 20841 - Notice of Availability of the Greater Natural Buttes Final Environmental Impact Statement, Uintah...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... 1976, and associated regulations, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Final... of the Greater Natural Buttes proposal to develop natural gas in Uintah County, Utah. This notice...-23 E. T. 11 S., R. 21-22 E. Kerr-McGee Oil & Gas Onshore LP (KMG), a wholly-owned subsidiary...

  10. MicroRNA-21: a central regulator of fibrotic diseases via various targets.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; He, Yong; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that diversely regulate physiological and pathophysiological processes by specifically binding to different regions of targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Fibrosis is characterized by the abnormal proliferation of fibroblasts and the deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Both clinical and experimental animal studies have revealed that aberrant expression of miRNAs is closely associated with the development of fibrotic diseases. microRNA-21 (miR-21) is a ubiquitously expressed miRNA that is traditionally considered to be an oncogenic miRNA (oncomiR). Recent studies have demonstrated that elevated expression of miR-21 may play a vital role in the development of fibrosis by promoting the proliferation of interstitial fibroblasts and increasing the abnormal deposition of the ECM. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the role of miR-21 in tissue fibrosis. Furthermore, we highlight miR-21 as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker and therapeutic target for fibrosis diseases.

  11. Reciprocal interplay between thyroid hormone and microRNA-21 regulates hedgehog pathway-driven skin tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Daniela; Ambrosio, Raffaele; De Stefano, Maria A; Mancino, Giuseppina; Porcelli, Tommaso; Luongo, Cristina; Di Cicco, Emery; Scalia, Giulia; Vecchio, Luigi Del; Colao, Annamaria; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Missero, Caterina; Salvatore, Domenico; Dentice, Monica

    2016-06-01

    The thyroid hormone-inactivating (TH-inactivating) enzyme type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (D3) is an oncofetal protein that is rarely expressed in adult life but has been shown to be reactivated in the context of proliferation and neoplasms. D3 terminates TH action within the tumor microenvironment, thereby enhancing cancer cell proliferation. However, the pathological role of D3 and the contribution of TH metabolism in cancer have yet to be fully explored. Here, we describe a reciprocal regulation between TH action and the cancer-associated microRNA-21 (miR21) in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) skin tumors. We found that, besides being negatively regulated by TH at the transcriptional level, miR21 attenuates the TH signal by increasing D3 levels. The ability of miR21 to positively regulate D3 was mediated by the tumor suppressor gene GRHL3, a hitherto unrecognized D3 transcriptional inhibitor. Finally, in a BCC mouse model, keratinocyte-specific D3 depletion markedly reduced tumor growth. Together, our results establish TH action as a critical hub of multiple oncogenic pathways and provide functional and mechanistic evidence of the involvement of TH metabolism in BCC tumorigenesis. Moreover, our results identify a miR21/GRHL3/D3 axis that reduces TH in the tumor microenvironment and has potential to be targeted as a therapeutic approach to BCC. PMID:27159391

  12. 77 FR 46765 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Early-Stage Innovative Technology Development for Cancer Research (R21). Date: October 17, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review...

  13. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Tom Walsh & Co.

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-02-01

    Tom Walsh & Company’s homes in an urban infill project in Portland achieved meets 2012 IECC insulation requirements in the marine climate with R-21 fiberglass batt walls, R-25 slab insulation and R-49 spray foam and cellulose attic floors.

  14. microRNA-21-induced dissociation of PDCD4 from rictor contributes to Akt-IKKβ-mTORC1 axis to regulate renal cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Bera, Amit; Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Abboud, Hanna E; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2014-10-15

    Renal cancer metastasis may result from oncogenic forces that contribute to the primary tumor. We have recently identified microRNA-21 as an oncogenic driver of renal cancer cells. The mechanism by which miR-21 controls renal cancer cell invasion is poorly understood. We show that miR-21 directly downregulates the proapoptotic protein PDCD4 to increase migration and invasion of ACHN and 786-O renal cancer cells as a result of phosphorylation/activation of Akt and IKKβ, which activate NFκB-dependent transcription. Constitutively active (CA) Akt or CA IKKβ blocks PDCD4-mediated inhibition and restores renal cancer cell migration and invasion. PDCD4 inhibits mTORC1 activity, which was reversed by CA IKKβ. Moreover, CA mTORC1 restores cell migration and invasion inhibited by PDCD4 and dominant negative IKKβ. Moreover, PDCD4 negatively regulates mTORC2-dependent Akt phosphorylation upstream of this cascade. We show that PDCD4 forms a complex with rictor, an exclusive component of mTORC2, and that this complex formation is reduced in renal cancer cells due to increased miR-21 expression resulting in enhanced phosphorylation of Akt. Thus our results identify a previously unrecognized signaling node where high miR-21 levels reduce rictor-PDCD4 interaction to increase phosphorylation of Akt and contribute to metastatic fitness of renal cancer cells.

  15. Spaceflight alters expression of microRNA during T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Chang, Tammy T; Martinez, Emily M; Li, Chai-Fei

    2015-12-01

    Altered immune function has been demonstrated in astronauts during spaceflights dating back to Apollo and Skylab; this could be a major barrier to long-term space exploration. We tested the hypothesis that spaceflight causes changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression. Human leukocytes were stimulated with mitogens on board the International Space Station using an onboard normal gravity control. Bioinformatics showed that miR-21 was significantly up-regulated 2-fold during early T-cell activation in normal gravity, and gene expression was suppressed under microgravity. This was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR (n = 4). This is the first report that spaceflight regulates miRNA expression. Global microarray analysis showed significant (P < 0.05) suppression of 85 genes under microgravity conditions compared to normal gravity samples. EGR3, FASLG, BTG2, SPRY2, and TAGAP are biologically confirmed targets and are co-up-regulated with miR-21. These genes share common promoter regions with pre-mir-21; as the miR-21 matures and accumulates, it most likely will inhibit translation of its target genes and limit the immune response. These data suggest that gravity regulates T-cell activation not only by transcription promotion but also by blocking translation via noncoding RNA mechanisms. Moreover, this study suggests that T-cell activation itself may induce a sequence of gene expressions that is self-limited by miR-21. PMID:26276131

  16. Spaceflight alters expression of microRNA during T-cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Chang, Tammy T; Martinez, Emily M; Li, Chai-Fei

    2015-12-01

    Altered immune function has been demonstrated in astronauts during spaceflights dating back to Apollo and Skylab; this could be a major barrier to long-term space exploration. We tested the hypothesis that spaceflight causes changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression. Human leukocytes were stimulated with mitogens on board the International Space Station using an onboard normal gravity control. Bioinformatics showed that miR-21 was significantly up-regulated 2-fold during early T-cell activation in normal gravity, and gene expression was suppressed under microgravity. This was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR (n = 4). This is the first report that spaceflight regulates miRNA expression. Global microarray analysis showed significant (P < 0.05) suppression of 85 genes under microgravity conditions compared to normal gravity samples. EGR3, FASLG, BTG2, SPRY2, and TAGAP are biologically confirmed targets and are co-up-regulated with miR-21. These genes share common promoter regions with pre-mir-21; as the miR-21 matures and accumulates, it most likely will inhibit translation of its target genes and limit the immune response. These data suggest that gravity regulates T-cell activation not only by transcription promotion but also by blocking translation via noncoding RNA mechanisms. Moreover, this study suggests that T-cell activation itself may induce a sequence of gene expressions that is self-limited by miR-21.

  17. The C2238/αANP Variant Is a Negative Modulator of Both Viability and Function of Coronary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rubattu, Speranza; Marchitti, Simona; Bianchi, Franca; Di Castro, Sara; Stanzione, Rosita; Cotugno, Maria; Bozzao, Cristina; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Volpe, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Background Abnormalities of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute to development of vascular disease. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) exerts important effects on VSMCs. A common ANP molecular variant (T2238C/αANP) has recently emerged as a novel vascular risk factor. Objectives We aimed at identifying effects of CC2238/αANP on viability, migration and motility in coronary artery SMCs, and the underlying signaling pathways. Methods and Results Cells were exposed to either TT2238/αANP or CC2238/αANP. At the end of treatment, cell viability, migration and motility were evaluated, along with changes in oxidative stress pathway (ROS levels, NADPH and eNOS expression), on Akt phosphorylation and miR21 expression levels. CC2238/αANP reduced cell vitality, increased apoptosis and necrosis, increased oxidative stress levels, suppressed miR21 expression along with consistent changes of its molecular targets (PDCD4, PTEN, Bcl2) and of phosphorylated Akt levels. As a result of increased oxidative stress, CC2238/αANP markedly stimulated cell migration and increased cell contraction. NPR-C gene silencing with specific siRNAs restored cell viability, miR21 expression, and reduced oxidative stress induced by CC2238/αANP. The cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway, driven by NPR-C activation, significantly contributed to both miR21 and phosphoAkt reduction upon CC2238/αANP. miR21 overexpression by mimic-hsa-miR21 rescued the cellular damage dependent on CC2238/αANP. Conclusions CC2238/αANP negatively modulates viability through NPR-C/cAMP/PKA/CREB/miR21 signaling pathway, and it augments oxidative stress leading to increased migratory and vasoconstrictor effects in coronary artery SMCs. These novel findings further support a damaging role of this common αANP variant on vessel wall and its potential contribution to acute coronary events. PMID:25401746

  18. Diagnostic, prognostic and predictive value of MicroRNA-21 in breast cancer patients, their daughters and healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Usmani, Ambreen; Shoro, Amir Ali; Memon, Zahida; Hussain, Mehvish; Rehman, Rehana

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) located on 17q23.1 expressed in breast cancer has anti-apoptotic ability and causes tumor cell growth. It is also involved in functions such as signal transduction pathways effecting normal cell growth and differentiation. The primary objective of the study was to identify presence of miR-21 in the serum levels of stage III invasive ductal carcinoma patients and compare its expression with age matched healthy individuals and daughters of index cases. The secondary objective was to evaluate the significance of serum miR-21 gene expression with histologically proven estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) proteins. A total of 132 subjects were recruited: 50 (cases) of stage III invasive ductal carcinoma patients who had not undergone any chemotherapy or surgery were randomly picked with exclusion of females with other types of breast carcinoma. Age-matched, 50 healthy individuals (control A) were selected by purposive sampling after confirmation of no palpable lump/s in their breasts together with 32 daughters of index cases (control B). Serum tests were run on Real Time quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR, threshold cycle was determined and fold change calculated.Normality of continuous variables was assessed by Shapiro-Wilk’s test, groups compared by student t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Fisher exact test, P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. We observed that miR-21 was significantly higher in cases as compared to control A and B (P = 0.001) however control B showed significant gene expression as compared to control A (P = 0.001). The cases were also divided as positive or negative for ER, PR and HER2. High expression of miR-21 in females with stage III invasive ductal carcinoma had been calculated as compared to its age matched healthy subjects. It was observed that triple negative cases showed a greater expression of gene as compared to other groups (P = 0

  19. Study of microRNAs-21/221 as potential breast cancer biomarkers in Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Motawi, Tarek Mohamed Kamal; Sadik, Nermin Abdel Hamid; Shaker, Olfat Gamil; El Masry, Maha Rafik; Mohareb, Fady

    2016-09-30

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in cancer prognosis. They are small molecules, approximately 17-25 nucleotides in length, and their high stability in human serum supports their use as novel diagnostic biomarkers of cancer and other pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of miR-21 and miR-221 in the serum from a total of 100 Egyptian female subjects with breast cancer, fibroadenoma, and healthy control subjects. Using microarray-based expression profiling followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction validation, we compared the levels of the two circulating miRNAs in the serum of patients with breast cancer (n=50), fibroadenoma (n=25), and healthy controls (n=25). The miRNA SNORD68 was chosen as the housekeeping endogenous control. We found that the serum levels of miR-21 and miR-221 were significantly overexpressed in breast cancer patients compared to normal controls and fibroadenoma patients. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that miR-21 has greater potential in discriminating between breast cancer patients and the control group, while miR-221 has greater potential in discriminating between breast cancer and fibroadenoma patients. Classification models using k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), Naïve Bayes (NB), and Random Forests (RF) were developed using expression levels of both miR-21 and miR-221. Best classification performance was achieved by NB Classification models, reaching 91% of correct classification. Furthermore, relative miR-221 expression was associated with histological tumor grades. Therefore, it may be concluded that both miR-21 and miR-221 can be used to differentiate between breast cancer patients and healthy controls, but that the diagnostic accuracy of serum miR-21 is superior to miR-221 for breast cancer prediction. miR-221 has more diagnostic power in discriminating between breast cancer and fibroadenoma patients. The overexpression of miR-221 has been associated with the

  20. Study of microRNAs-21/221 as potential breast cancer biomarkers in Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Motawi, Tarek Mohamed Kamal; Sadik, Nermin Abdel Hamid; Shaker, Olfat Gamil; El Masry, Maha Rafik; Mohareb, Fady

    2016-09-30

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in cancer prognosis. They are small molecules, approximately 17-25 nucleotides in length, and their high stability in human serum supports their use as novel diagnostic biomarkers of cancer and other pathological conditions. In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of miR-21 and miR-221 in the serum from a total of 100 Egyptian female subjects with breast cancer, fibroadenoma, and healthy control subjects. Using microarray-based expression profiling followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction validation, we compared the levels of the two circulating miRNAs in the serum of patients with breast cancer (n=50), fibroadenoma (n=25), and healthy controls (n=25). The miRNA SNORD68 was chosen as the housekeeping endogenous control. We found that the serum levels of miR-21 and miR-221 were significantly overexpressed in breast cancer patients compared to normal controls and fibroadenoma patients. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that miR-21 has greater potential in discriminating between breast cancer patients and the control group, while miR-221 has greater potential in discriminating between breast cancer and fibroadenoma patients. Classification models using k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), Naïve Bayes (NB), and Random Forests (RF) were developed using expression levels of both miR-21 and miR-221. Best classification performance was achieved by NB Classification models, reaching 91% of correct classification. Furthermore, relative miR-221 expression was associated with histological tumor grades. Therefore, it may be concluded that both miR-21 and miR-221 can be used to differentiate between breast cancer patients and healthy controls, but that the diagnostic accuracy of serum miR-21 is superior to miR-221 for breast cancer prediction. miR-221 has more diagnostic power in discriminating between breast cancer and fibroadenoma patients. The overexpression of miR-221 has been associated with the

  1. MicroRNA-21 links epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inflammatory signals to confer resistance to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Nuciforo, Paolo G.; Di Tommaso, Luca; Giovannetti, Elisa; Peg, Vicente; Losurdo, Agnese; Pérez-Garcia, José; Masci, Giovanna; Corsi, Fabio; Cortés, Javier; Seoane, Joan; Calin, George A.; Santarpia, Libero

    2015-01-01

    Patients with primary HER2-positive breast cancer benefit from HER2-targeted therapies. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of these patients die of disease progression due to mechanisms of drug resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as critical core regulators of drug resistance that act by modulating the epithelial- to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer-related immune responses. In this study, we investigated the association between the expression of a specific subset of 14 miRNAs involved in EMT processes and immune functions and the response to neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy in 52 patients with HER2-overexpressing breast tumors. The expression of only a single miRNA, miR-21, was significantly associated with residual disease (p = 0.030) and increased after trastuzumab-chemotherapy (p = 0.012). A target prediction analysis coupled with in vitro and in vivo validations revealed that miR-21 levels inversely correlated with the expression of PTEN (rs = −0.502; p = 0.005) and PDCD4 (rs = −0.426; p = 0.019), which differentially influenced the drug sensitivity of HER2-positive breast cancer cells. However, PTEN expression was only marginally associated with residual disease. We further demonstrated that miR-21 was able to affect the response to both trastuzumab and chemotherapy, triggering an IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB-mediated signaling loop and activating the PI3K pathway. Our findings support the ability of miR-21 signaling to sustain EMT and shape the tumor immune microenvironment in HER2-positive breast cancer. Collectively, these data provide a rationale for using miR-21 expression as a biomarker to select trastuzumab-chemotherapy-resistant HER2-positive breast cancer patients who may benefit from treatments containing PI3K inhibitors or immunomodulatory drugs. PMID:26452030

  2. Circulating Plasma Levels of MicroRNA-21 and MicroRNA-221 Are Potential Diagnostic Markers for Primary Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kemeny, Nancy; Kingham, T. Peter; Allen, Peter J.; D’Angelica, Michael I.; DeMatteo, Ronald P.; Betel, Doron; Klimstra, David; Jarnagin, William R.; Ventura, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers in various malignancies. We aim to characterize miRNA expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and identify circulating plasma miRNAs with potential diagnostic and prognostic utility. Methods Using deep-sequencing techniques, miRNA expression between tumor samples and non-neoplastic liver parenchyma were compared. Overexpressed miRNAs were measured in plasma from an independent cohort of patients with cholangiocarcinoma using RT-qPCR and compared with that healthy volunteers. The discriminatory ability of the evaluated plasma miRNAs between patients and controls was evaluated with receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Small RNAs from 12 ICC and 11 tumor-free liver samples were evaluated. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using the miRNA expression data showed clear grouping of ICC vs. non-neoplastic liver parenchyma. We identified 134 down-regulated and 128 upregulated miRNAs. Based on overexpression and high fold-change, miR21, miR200b, miR221, and miR34c were measured in plasma from an independent cohort of patients with ICC (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 7). Significant overexpression of miR-21 and miR-221 was found in plasma from ICC patients. Furthermore, circulating miR-21 demonstrated a high discriminatory ability between patients with ICC and healthy controls (AUC: 0.94). Conclusion Among the differentially expressed miRNAs in ICC, miR-21 and miR-221 are overexpressed and detectable in the circulation. Plasma expression levels of these miRNAs, particularly miR-21, accurately differentiates patients with ICC from healthy controls and could potentially serve as adjuncts in diagnosis. Prospective validation and comparison with other hepatobiliary malignancies is required to establish their potential role as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. PMID:27685844

  3. Diagnostic Potential of Cell-Free and Exosomal MicroRNAs in the Identification of Patients with High-Risk Colorectal Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, Takahito; Kawamura, Mikio; Hiro, Junichiro; Kobayashi, Minako; Tanaka, Koji; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Mohri, Yasuhiko; Mori, Takao; Kato, Toshio; Goel, Ajay; Kusunoki, Masato

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there is a growing interest in developing circulating microRNA (miRNA) as noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for the detection of high-risk colorectal adenomas and early-stage CRCs, but the comparative diagnostic significance of serum vs. exosomal miRNAs remains unexplored. Methods Based upon published literature, we performed an initial discovery step by investigating the expression of a miRNA panel in 20 normal colonic mucosa, 27 adenomas, and 19 CRC tissues. We performed subsequent validation by quantifying expression of candidate miRNAs in total serum and in exosomes from 26 adenoma patients and 47 healthy controls, and evaluated their clinical significance and potential diagnostic value in colorectal adenomas. Results We observed that the expression of four miRNAs, miR-21, miR-29a, miR-92a, and miR-135b, was significantly higher in colorectal adenomas vs. normal colonic mucosa. During validation, expression of miR-21, miR-29a and miR-92a in serum was significantly higher in adenomas vs. healthy controls, significantly correlated with adenoma size and total adenoma number within the colorectum, and significantly discriminated patients with advanced adenomas. In contrast, although exosomal miR-21 and miR-29a levels in adenoma patients were significantly higher than those of healthy volunteers, only exosomal miR-21 significantly correlated with adenoma size and total adenoma number, and could discriminate patients with high-risk adenomas. Conclusion Compared to exosomal miRNAs, serum levels of miR-21, miR-29a and miR-92a are superior diagnostic biomarkers in patients with high-risk adenomatous polyps. PMID:27760147

  4. The histone demethylase PHF8 is an oncogenic protein in human non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yuzhou; Pan, Xufeng; Zhao, Heng

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • PHF8 overexpresses in human NSCLC and predicts poor survival. • PHF8 regulates lung cancer cell growth and transformation. • PHF8 regulates apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. • PHF8 promotes miR-21 expression in human lung cancer. • MiR-21 is critically essential for PHF8 function in human lung cancer cells. - Abstract: PHF8 is a JmjC domain-containing protein and erases repressive histone marks including H4K20me1 and H3K9me1/2. It binds to H3K4me3, an active histone mark usually located at transcription start sites (TSSs), through its plant homeo-domain, and is thus recruited and enriched in gene promoters. PHF8 is involved in the development of several types of cancer, including leukemia, prostate cancer, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Herein we report that PHF8 is an oncogenic protein in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PHF8 is up-regulated in human NSCLC tissues, and high PHF8 expression predicts poor survival. Our in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrate that PHF8 regulates lung cancer cell proliferation and cellular transformation. We found that PHF8 knockdown induces DNA damage and apoptosis in lung cancer cells. PHF8 promotes miR-21 expression in human lung cancer, and miR-21 knockdown blocks the effects of PHF8 on proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells. In summary, PHF8 promotes lung cancer cell growth and survival by regulating miR-21.

  5. Kallistatin inhibits TGF-β-induced endothelial-mesenchymal transition by differential regulation of microRNA-21 and eNOS expression.

    PubMed

    Guo, Youming; Li, Pengfei; Bledsoe, Grant; Yang, Zhi-Rong; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2015-09-10

    Kallistatin, an endogenous protein, consists of two structural elements: active site and heparin-binding domain. Kallistatin exerts beneficial effects on fibrosis by suppressing transforming growth factor (TGF)-β synthesis in animal models. TGF-β is the most potent inducer of endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), which contributes to fibrosis and cancer. MicroRNA (miR)-21 is an important player in organ fibrosis and tumor invasion. Here we investigated the potential role of kallistatin in EndMT via modulation of miR-21 in endothelial cells. Human kallistatin treatment blocked TGF-β-induced EndMT, as evidenced by morphological changes as well as increased endothelial and reduced mesenchymal marker expression. Kallistatin also inhibited TGF-β-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and NADPH oxidase expression and activity. Moreover, kallistatin antagonized TGF-β-induced miR-21 and Snail1 synthesis, Akt phosphorylation, NF-κB activation, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) synthesis and activation. Kallistatin via its heparin-binding site blocked TGF-β-induced miR-21, Snail1 expression, and ROS formation, as wild-type kallistatin, but not heparin-binding site mutant kallistatin, exerted the effect. Conversely, kallistatin through its active site stimulated the synthesis of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and forkhead box O1 (FoxO1); however, these effects were blocked by genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. This is the first study to demonstrate that kallistatin's heparin-binding site is crucial for preventing TGF-β-induced miR-21 and oxidative stress, while its active site is key for stimulating the expression of antioxidant genes via interaction with an endothelial surface tyrosine kinase. These findings reveal novel mechanisms of kallistatin in protection against fibrosis and cancer by suppressing EndMT.

  6. How Criterion Scores Predict the Overall Impact Score and Funding Outcomes for National Institutes of Health Peer-Reviewed Applications

    PubMed Central

    Eblen, Matthew K.; Wagner, Robin M.; RoyChowdhury, Deepshikha; Patel, Katherine C.; Pearson, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the factors associated with successful funding outcomes of research project grant (R01) applications is critical for the biomedical research community. R01 applications are evaluated through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) peer review system, where peer reviewers are asked to evaluate and assign scores to five research criteria when assessing an application’s scientific and technical merit. This study examined the relationship of the five research criterion scores to the Overall Impact score and the likelihood of being funded for over 123,700 competing R01 applications for fiscal years 2010 through 2013. The relationships of other application and applicant characteristics, including demographics, to scoring and funding outcomes were studied as well. The analyses showed that the Approach and, to a lesser extent, the Significance criterion scores were the main predictors of an R01 application’s Overall Impact score and its likelihood of being funded. Applicants might consider these findings when submitting future R01 applications to NIH. PMID:27249058

  7. Upregulation of Mir-21 Levels in the Vitreous Humor Is Associated with Development of Proliferative Vitreoretinal Disease.

    PubMed

    Usui-Ouchi, Ayumi; Ouchi, Yasuo; Kiyokawa, Masatoshi; Sakuma, Toshiro; Ito, Rei; Ebihara, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression by post-transcriptional inhibition of mRNA translation. Dysregulation of miRNAs, including circulating miRNAs, has been reported to play an important role in the development of various diseases, including fibrotic diseases. Aberrant expression of miRNAs in the vitreous humor of vitreoretinal diseased eyes has been reported. However, the expression pattern of miRNAs present in the vitreous humor of proliferative vitreoretinal disease (PVD) patients, including proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), remains unknown. To investigate the factors important for the development of PVD, we characterized the miRNAs present in the vitreous humor of PVD patients and analyzed the expression profiles of 377 miRNAs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based miRNA arrays. The expression of a specific subset of miRNAs, previously reported to be associated with the development of angiogenesis and fibrosis, was significantly altered in the vitreous of PVD patients. Among these miRNAs, we identified miR-21 as a candidate fibrotic miRNA with an important role in the pathogenesis of PVD. Increased miR-21 levels in the vitreous were associated with retinal fibrosis, including PVR and PDR. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPECs) plays a critical role in retinal fibrosis, the expression of miR-21 in human RPECs was determined. Its expression in RPECs was induced by transforming growth factor-β, a key growth factor involved in fibrogenesis, and was enhanced by high glucose culture conditions, suggesting that miR-21 expression positively correlates with disease progression. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that miR-21 promoted cell proliferation and migration of ARPE-19 cells without affecting EMT-related gene expression. Together, our studies have identified miR-21 as a potential disease-modifying mi

  8. Correlation of MicroRNA-16, MicroRNA-21 and MicroRNA-101 Expression with Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Angiogenic Factors in Cirrhotic and Noncirrhotic Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wenjiao; van den Berg, Anke; Huitema, Sippie; Gouw, Annette S. H.; Molema, Grietje; de Jong, Koert P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a classical example of inflammation-linked cancer and is characterized by hypervascularity suggesting rich angiogenesis. Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a potent mediator of inflammation and is considered to upregulate angiogenesis. The aims of the study are (1) to analyze expression of Cox-2 mRNA, Cox-2 protein, miR-16, miR-21 and miR-101 in HCC and adjacent liver parenchyma in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic liver, (2) to investigate the relation between COX-2 expression, miR-21 expression and angiogenic factors in these tissues and (3) to investigate the association between miR-16 and miR-101 and COX-2 expression. Methods Tissue samples of HCC and adjacent liver parenchyma of 21 noncirrhotic livers and 20 cirrhotic livers were analyzed for COX-2 expression at the mRNA level (qRT-PCR) and at the protein level by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Gene expression of VEGFA, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie-2 were correlated with COX-2 levels. miR-16, miR-21 and miR-101 gene expression levels were quantified in HCC tumor tissue. Results COX-2 mRNA and protein levels were lower in HCC as compared to adjacent liver parenchyma both in cirrhotic and noncirrhotic liver. COX-2 protein localized mainly in vascular and sinusoidal endothelial cells and in Kupffer cells. At the mRNA level but not at the protein level, COX-2 correlated with mRNA levels of angiogenic factors VEGFR1, Ang-1, and Tie2. miR-21 expression was higher in cirrhotic tissues versus noncirrhotic tissues. MiR-101 expression was lower in cirrhotic versus noncirrhotic adjacent liver parenchyma. None of the miRNAs correlelated with COX-2 expression. miR-21 correlated negatively with Tie-2 receptor in adjacent liver parenchyma. Conclusions In human HCC, COX-2 mRNA but not COX-2 protein levels are associated with expression levels of angiogenic factors. MiR-21 levels are not associated with angiogenic molecules. MiR-16 and miR-101 levels do not correlate with COX-2 m

  9. Effect of fermented oatmeal soup on the cholesterol level and the Lactobacillus colonization of rat intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Molin, G; Andersson, R; Ahrné, S; Lönner, C; Marklinder, I; Johansson, M L; Jeppsson, B; Bengmark, S

    1992-04-01

    Rats were fed with freeze-dried oatmeal soup fermented by six different Lactobacillus strains from rat and man; the formula is intended for enteral feeding. The serum cholesterol levels after 10 d were lower for rats eating oatmeal as compared to a commercial product, Biosorb Sond. Colonizing ability of the administered strains were evaluated in vivo. Only Lactobacillus reuteri R21c were able to, effectively, colonizing the mucosa; it represented about 30% of the Lactobacillus population 24 d after termination of the administration. L. reuteri R21c was easily recognized by the ability to produce a yellow pigment on agar plates. The identity was confirmed by carbohydrate fermentations (API 50CH), plasmid pattern and endonuclease restriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA. PMID:1519914

  10. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of a ring (21) in a patient with partial trisomy 21 and megakaryocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, C.G.; Blouin, J.L.; Bull, M.J. |

    1995-07-17

    We describe a patient with an asymmetric double ring 21 in mosaic form, 45,XX,-21/46,X,-21,+r(21), who has limited manifestations of Down syndrome and who developed acute myelofibrosis and megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL), FAB M7, a hematologic disorder particularly common in Down syndrome patients. In situ hybridization studies, gene dosage, and DNA polymorphism analysis showed that the ring chromosome carries a duplicated region which extends from D21S406 on the centromeric side and includes marker D21S3 on the telomeric side. FISH studies indicate two sizes of ring 21 in the patient. The origin of the supernumerary chromosome 21 in the proband was paternal; furthermore, the r(21) probably was formed postzygotically. Included in the duplicated segment are the candidate genes for leukemia AML-1, ETS, and ERG. The potential significance of disomic homozygosity of loci on 21q in M7 megakaryocytic leukemia is discussed. 35 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Effect of fermented oatmeal soup on the cholesterol level and the Lactobacillus colonization of rat intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Molin, G; Andersson, R; Ahrné, S; Lönner, C; Marklinder, I; Johansson, M L; Jeppsson, B; Bengmark, S

    1992-04-01

    Rats were fed with freeze-dried oatmeal soup fermented by six different Lactobacillus strains from rat and man; the formula is intended for enteral feeding. The serum cholesterol levels after 10 d were lower for rats eating oatmeal as compared to a commercial product, Biosorb Sond. Colonizing ability of the administered strains were evaluated in vivo. Only Lactobacillus reuteri R21c were able to, effectively, colonizing the mucosa; it represented about 30% of the Lactobacillus population 24 d after termination of the administration. L. reuteri R21c was easily recognized by the ability to produce a yellow pigment on agar plates. The identity was confirmed by carbohydrate fermentations (API 50CH), plasmid pattern and endonuclease restriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA.

  12. Tetramethylpyrazine enhances functional recovery after contusion spinal cord injury by modulation of MicroRNA-21, FasL, PDCD4 and PTEN expression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiang-Hu; Cao, Yong; Zeng, Lei; Wang, Guan; Cao, Min; Lu, Hong-Bin; Hu, Jian-Zhong

    2016-10-01

    Our previous study showed Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has protective effects against SCI. In this study, we aimed to uncover the mechanism underlying the protective effects of TMP in SCI. SCI was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with a modified weight-drop device. One group was subjected to SCI in combination with TMP administration at a dose of 200mg/kgd, for 3 days. Concurrently, another group received SCI in combination with an equal volume of 0.9% saline. Locomotor functional recovery was assessed during the 4 weeks post-injury by performing the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) rating procedure. Lesion size and spared tissue were measured by cresyl violet staining. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) expression was determined by real-time PCR and in situ hybridization. FasL, PDCD4, and PTEN are direct targets of miR-21 in many diseases and cell types; their levels were analyzed by western blot. Immunohistochemistry was performed to observe the expression of PDCD4 and PTEN. Cell apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining and DNA laddering. TMP treatment after contusion SCI significantly improved functional recovery, decreased lesion size, and increased tissue sparing and miR-21 levels; expression of FasL, PDCD4, and PTEN was decreased. TMP treatment also reduced apoptosis after SCI. Thus, TMP administration improved functional recovery and reduced cell apoptosis. Its protective effect may partly based on increasing the expression of miR-21 and decreasing the expression of FasL, PDCD4, and PTEN. These could serve as new exploratory targets for SCI treatment. PMID:27431939

  13. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: John Hubert Associates — EXIT-0 House, North Cape May, NJ

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-09-01

    This house is the first DOE Zero Energy Ready Home for this builder and won a Custom Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards. The 1,871-ft2 home features advanced-framed above-grade walls with R-21 fiberglass batt plus an R-3.6-insulated coated OSB sheathing, R-18 rigid-foam-insulated crawlspace walls, solar water heating, a high-efficiency heat pump, an HRV, and mostly LED lighting.

  14. Changes in the expression of IL-6-Mediated MicroRNAs in the dorsal root ganglion under neuropathic pain in mice.

    PubMed

    Hori, Naosuke; Narita, Michiko; Yamashita, Akira; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Hamada, Yusuke; Kondo, Takashige; Watanabe, Moe; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Kawata, Miho; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Mitsuaki; Kuzumaki, Naoko; Inada, Eiichi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Iseki, Masako; Mori, Tomohisa; Narita, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    A multiplex analysis for profiling the expression of candidate microRNAs (miRNAs), which are small noncoding RNAs that function as key post-transcriptional regulators, may lead to a better understanding of the complex machinery of neuropathic pain. In the present study, we performed a miRNA array analysis using tissues of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), a primary site for pain processing, obtained from mice with partial sciatic nerve ligation. Among 1135 total miRNAs, 26 miRNAs showed up-regulation (more than 2-fold change) and only 4 miRNAs showed down-regulation (less than 0.5-fold change) in the DRG of nerve-ligated mice. In a RT-qPCR assay, the levels of miR-21, miR-431, and miR-511-3p were significantly increased on the ipsilateral side of the DRG from 3 to 7 days after sciatic nerve ligation. These elevations were almost absent in IL-6 knockout mice. Furthermore, the expression level of miR-21, but not those of miR-431 or miR511-3p, was significantly increased in exosomes extracted from blood of nerve-ligated mice. These findings suggest that the increased expression of IL-6-regulated miR-21, miR-431, and miR-511-3p in the DRG and increased exosomal miR-21 extracted from blood after sciatic nerve ligation may play at least a partial role in neuropathic pain. Synapse 70:317-324, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. DOE ZERH Case Study: Palo Duro Homes, Via del Cielo, Santa Fe, NM

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning production home in the mixed-dry climate that got a HERS 48 without PV, with 2x6 24” on center walls with R-21 blown fiberglass; slab foundation with R-10 under slab and R-5rigid foam at slab edge; vented attic with R-75 blown fiberglass; ducted minisplit heat pump 16.5 SEER, 9.5 HSPF.

  16. DOE ZERH Case Study: Mutual Housing California, Mutual Housing at Spring Lake, Woodland, CA

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning multifamily project of 62 affordable-housing apartment home in the hot-dry climate that exceeded CA Title 24-2008 by 35%, with 2x4 16” on center walls with R-21 fiberglass bass walls, uninsulated salb on grade foundation; vented attic with R-44 blown fiberglass; air to water heat pumps.

  17. Kinetic properties of a MNB/DYRK1A mutant suitable for the elucidation of biochemical pathways.

    PubMed

    Adayev, Tatyana; Chen-Hwang, Mo-Chou; Murakami, Noriko; Wegiel, Jerzy; Hwang, Yu-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Minibrain kinase/dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (MNB/DYRK1A) is a proline/arginine-directed serine/threonine kinase implicated in the learning deficits of Down syndrome. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major tea polyphenolic compound, is a potent MNB/DYRK1A inhibitor. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of EGCG inhibition of MNB/DYRK1A using a combination of genetic and biochemical approaches. In the testing system using MNB/DYRK1A-promoted Gli 1-dependent transcription as the readout, NIH3T3 cells expressing EGCG resistant MNB/DYRK1A mutant R21 were found to acquire EGCG resistance for a wide range of drug concentrations. Mutant R21 harbors a single K465R substitution, which produces a 3-fold gain in the EGCG resistance in vitro. However, the gain in the EGCG resistance alone cannot fully interpret the effectiveness of mutant R21 in suppressing EGCG in cultured cells. Kinetic analysis suggests that EGCG functions as a noncompetitive inhibitor against ATP. Interestingly, the K465R mutation changes the mode of EGCG inhibition on MNB/DYRK1A so that it becomes a competitive inhibitor against ATP. This competitive mode of EGCG inhibition coupled with high intracellular ATP concentrations and an elevated EGCG resistance are likely to be the basis for the resistant property of mutant R21 in cultured cells. The K465R mutation apparently transforms the intramolecular interactions required for MNB/DYRK1A catalysis. This mutant would also be valuable for the elucidation of the mechanisms of MNB/DYRK1A-catalyzed reaction. PMID:17002300

  18. Induction of Specific MicroRNAs Inhibits Cutaneous Wound Healing*

    PubMed Central

    Pastar, Irena; Khan, Aly Azeem; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Lebrun, Elizabeth A.; Medina, Mayrin Correa; Brem, Harold; Kirsner, Robert S.; Jimenez, Joaquin J.; Leslie, Christina; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    Chronic nonhealing wounds, such as venous ulcers (VUs), are a widespread and serious medical problem with high morbidity and mortality. The molecular pathology of VUs remains poorly understood, impeding the development of effective treatment strategies. Using mRNA expression profiling of VUs biopsies and computational analysis, we identified a candidate set of microRNAs with lowered target gene expression. Among these candidates, miR-16, -20a, -21, -106a -130a, and -203 were confirmed to be aberrantly overexpressed in a cohort study of 10 VU patients by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridizations. These microRNAs were predicted to target multiple genes important for wound healing, including early growth response factor 3, vinculin, and leptin receptor (LepR). Overexpression of the top up-regulated miRNAs, miR-21 and miR-130a, in primary human keratinocytes down-regulated expression of the endogenous LepR and early growth response factor 3. The luciferase reporter assay verified LepR as a direct target for miR-21 and miR-130a. Both miR-21 and miR-130a delayed epithelialization in an acute human skin wound model. Furthermore, in vivo overexpression of miR-21 inhibited epithelialization and granulation tissue formation in a rat wound model. Our results identify a novel mechanism in which overexpression of specific set of microRNAs inhibits wound healing, resulting in new potential molecular markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22773832

  19. 75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... senior scientist, Discovery Research, Women's Health, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, engaged in research... Respondent engaged in misconduct in science, 42 CFR 50.102, in NIDDK, NIH, grant application 1 R01 DK072026... importance to women's health. Dr. Cheskis' team identified an adapter protein, MNAR, that...

  20. 76 FR 2913 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel R01. Date: February 4, 2011. Time: 12 p.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Library of Medicine,...

  1. 77 FR 38632 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ..., P30 ES01247, and R01 ES10791 and the intramural program at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA... neurons in brains of several mice and rats by copying a single data file from a previous experiment and... Exposure to the Widely Used Herbicide, Atrazine: Altered Function and Loss of Neurons in Brain...

  2. 76 FR 66732 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel, NEI Genomic Research Grant R01 Applications on... Officer, Division of Extramural Research, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health,...

  3. MULTIMEDIA COMPANION TO AN ORGANIZATIONAL GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION ( CD-ROM )

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Companion Multimedia CD-ROM: An Organizational Guide to Pollution Prevention provides videos and slides of a three-day workshop series conducted in each of the ten US EPA Regions, and based on the publication EPA/625/R-01/003. It has been produced to assist in training tho...

  4. 77 FR 17490 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... patentable materials, and personal information concerning individuals associated with the grant applications... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel, Conflict R01/K99/K22. Date: May 17,...

  5. 78 FR 50428 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; NIDDK Ancillary R01 Studies on Liver Diseases PAR-12-265. Date..., begumn@niddk.nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and...

  6. 76 FR 14676 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary Study (R01). Date: April 1, 2011. Time: 3:30 p.m. to 5... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Cognitive Function in Chronic...

  7. 75 FR 73084 - Findings of Misconduct in Science

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., Department of Chemistry, CU, engaged in misconduct in science in research funded by National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), grant R01 GM60326....

  8. 75 FR 24703 - Findings of Misconduct in Science

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AI057005-01 (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases , NIH) 1 R01 DE014149-01 (National... submitted to Science entitled ``A persistent reservoir of HIV-1 in pulmonary macrophages'' and as figures in... Diseases 83:1466, 2001, as inguinal lymph nodes from an untreated AIDS patient using in situ PCR to...

  9. 75 FR 51808 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

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    ... Facilities; State of Rhode Island and State of Massachusetts. Notice of Self-Certification Program... Control Act (TSCA), 15 U.S.C. 2684(a), and 40 CFR 745.324(d)(2), to administer and enforce requirements..., identified by docket control number, EPA-R01-OPPT- 2010-0470 must be received on or before October 7,...

  10. 77 FR 3220 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Massachusetts; Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...-3222] [FR Doc No: 2012-1223] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R01-OAR-2011-0960; A-1... approval of the RFP plan and contingency measures for the Western Massachusetts area. (See 75 FR 57221... for these actions? On April 30, 2004 (69 FR 23857), EPA designated as nonattainment any area that...

  11. 77 FR 11538 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), grants R01 AA07568... presentation at the 2009 Research Society on Alcoholism. Falsified the figure legends and/or text in a... that gestational alcohol exposure had an effect on brain development by affecting the way...

  12. COMPARISON AND EVALUATION OF LABORATORY PERFORMANCE ON A METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details the interlaboratory validation of a method for the determination of perchlorate in fertilizers. In this method (EPA/600/R-01/026), a solid sample of fertilizer is first ground. subsequently, the ground material is either leached with deionized water to dissolv...

  13. 77 FR 41993 - Privacy Act of 1974; Proposed New Routine Use-HUD's Routine Use Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... of records. The Department published on September 14, 2007 at 72 FR 52572 a notice to establish 1..., Federal Agency Responsibilities for Maintaining Records about Individuals, dated June 25, 1993 (58 FR... Management System/ Integrated Real Estate Management System. HUD/PD&R-01 HUD Veterans Homelessness...

  14. 77 FR 39246 - Center for Scientific Review; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Research Relevant to the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (R01). Date: July 20, 2012. Time... Special Emphasis Panel; Muscle Small Business. Date: July 23, 2012. ] Time: 1 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. Agenda: To... Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel; Member Conflict: AIDS and AIDS Related Research. Date: July...

  15. 76 FR 59415 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Institute on Drug Abuse Special Emphasis Panel, Multisites Applications (R01) Review... Extramural Affairs, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Room 4234, MSC 9550, 6001 Executive...

  16. 2015 New Grantee Workshop Overview

    Cancer.gov

    At the 2014 New Grantee Workshop, the Division of Cancer Control & Population Sciences (DCCPS) brought together approximately forty new investigators who received their first R01 in 2012 and 2013 to build a strong and vibrant cancer control research program and to help advance their careers.

  17. 78 FR 41941 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; PAR12-265 Ancillary Studies in Kidney Disease and Complications... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special, Emphasis Panel; CRIC Ancillary Studies... Digestive and Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; PAR 12-265: NIDDK Ancillary R01 Applications....

  18. 76 FR 28443 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Panel, Ancillary Studies in Immunomodulation Clinical Trials (R01). Date: June 9, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to...: Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and AIDS Initial Review Group, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research... Research; 93.856, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research, National Institutes of Health, HHS)...

  19. 78 FR 11212 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Collaborative Interdisciplinary Team Science (R24). Date: March 28, 2013. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; R01 Clinical Ancillary Studies. Date: March 29, 2013. Time:...

  20. 77 FR 72365 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; Conflict R01/K99/K22. Date: January 25, 2013... Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817, (Telephone Conference...

  1. 76 FR 77242 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel, Conflict R01/K99. Date: January 25, 2012... Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817, (Telephone Conference Call). Contact...

  2. 78 FR 55265 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; Conflicts R01/K22. Date: October 30, 2013... Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817 (Telephone Conference...

  3. 78 FR 9932 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; R01 Grant Applications. Date: March 1, 2013. Time: 12:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National...

  4. 76 FR 73955 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Maine; Regional Haze

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Columbia and the U.S. Virgin Islands failed to submit this required implementation plan. (74 FR 2392, (Jan... addresses the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) and EPA's rules that require States to prevent any.... Mail: ``Docket Identification Number EPA-R01-OAR-2010-1043 Anne Arnold, U.S. Environmental...

  5. Earth and sky orientation results from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C.; Himwich, W.; Caprette, D.

    1989-06-01

    Mark III VLBI data acquired since 1979 by the NASA Crustal Dynamics project and the NGS POLARIS/IRIS programs have been analyzed for Earth orientation parameters. The complete Earth orientation time series is designated ERP(GSFC)89 R 01.

  6. 76 FR 63310 - National Center On Minority and Health Disparities Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center On Minority and Health Disparities Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Health Disparities Research (R01). Date: November 7-8, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 5...

  7. 75 FR 66114 - National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NCMHD Health Disparities Research on Minority and Underserved Population (R01)....

  8. 75 FR 29357 - National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Center on Minority and Health Disparities; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities Special NCMHD Health Disparities Research on Minority and Underserved Population (R01). Date: June 16-18,...

  9. 77 FR 61611 - National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... Disparities Special Emphasis Panel; NIMHD Social, Behavioral, Health Services, and Policy Research on Minority Health and Health Disparities (R01). Date: November 7-9, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. Agenda: To review... Minority Health and Health ] Disparities, National Institutes of Health, 6707 Democracy Blvd., Suite...

  10. 75 FR 69685 - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Special Emphasis Panel; Innate Immunity and Experimental Crohn's Disease. Date: December 17, 2010. Time... Diseases; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as... Kidney Diseases Special Emphasis Panel; Special Emphasis Panel for R01 Applications. Date: December...

  11. Ineffective delivery of diet-derived microRNAs to recipient animal organisms.

    PubMed

    Snow, Jonathan W; Hale, Andrew E; Isaacs, Stephanie K; Baggish, Aaron L; Chan, Stephen Y

    2013-07-01

    Cross-kingdom delivery of specific microRNAs to recipient organisms via food ingestion has been reported recently. However, it is unclear if such delivery of microRNAs occurs frequently in animal organisms after typical dietary intake. We found substantial levels of specific microRNAs in diets commonly consumed orally by humans, mice, and honey bees. Yet, after ingestion of fruit replete with plant microRNAs (MIR156a, MIR159a, and MIR169a), a cohort of healthy athletes did not carry detectable plasma levels of those molecules. Similarly, despite consumption of a diet with animal fat replete in endogenous miR-21, negligible expression of miR-21 in plasma or organ tissue was observed in miR-21 -/- recipient mice. Correspondingly, when fed vegetarian diets containing the above plant microRNAs, wild-type recipient mice expressed insignificant levels of these microRNAs. Finally, despite oral uptake of pollen containing these plant microRNAs, negligible delivery of these molecules was observed in recipient honeybees. Therefore, we conclude that horizontal delivery of microRNAs via typical dietary ingestion is neither a robust nor a frequent mechanism to maintain steady-state microRNA levels in a variety of model animal organisms, thus defining the biological limits of these molecules in vivo. PMID:23669076

  12. Genetic Variants of Neurotransmitter-Related Genes and miRNAs in Egyptian Autistic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Ahmed M.; Ismail, Samira; Zarouk, Waheba A.; Abdul Baky, Olwya; Sayed, Ahmed A.; Abd El-Hamid, Sawsan; Salem, Sohair

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with indisputable evidence for a genetic component. This work studied the association of autism with genetic variations in neurotransmitter-related genes, including MAOA uVNTR, MAOB rs1799836, and DRD2 TaqI A in 53 autistic patients and 30 healthy individuals. The study also analyzed sequence variations of miR-431 and miR-21. MAOA uVNTR was genotyped by PCR, MAOB and DRD2 polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR-based RFLP, and miR-431 and miR-21 were sequenced. Low expressing allele of MAOA uVNTR was frequently higher in female patients compared to that in controls (OR = 2.25). MAOB G allele frequency was more significantly increased in autistic patients than in controls (P < 0.001 for both males and females). DRD2 A1+ genotype increased autism risk (OR = 5.1). Severity of autism tends to be slightly affected by MAOA/B genotype. Plasma MAOB activity was significantly reduced in G than in A allele carrying males. There was no significant difference in patients and maternal plasma MAOA/B activity compared to controls. Neither mutations nor SNPs in miR-431 and miR-21 were found among studied patients. This study threw light on some neurotransmitter-related genes suggesting their potential role in Autism pathogenesis that warrants further studies and much consideration. PMID:24453887

  13. Silencing of microRNA-21 in vivo ameliorates autoimmune splenomegaly in lupus mice

    PubMed Central

    Garchow, Barry G; Bartulos Encinas, Oscar; Leung, Yiu Tak; Tsao, Patricia Y; Eisenberg, Robert A; Caricchio, Roberto; Obad, Susanna; Petri, Andreas; Kauppinen, Sakari; Kiriakidou, Marianthi

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in B cell lineage commitment, regulation of T cell differentiation, TCR signalling, regulation of IFN signalling, and numerous other immunological processes. However, their function in autoimmunity, and specifically in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), remains poorly understood. B6.Sle123 is a spontaneous genetic mouse model of SLE characterized by autoantibody production, lymphosplenomegaly, and glomerulonephritis. We identified several differentially regulated miRNAs in B and T lymphocytes of B6.Sle123 mice. We found that miR-21 expression in lupus B and T cells is up-regulated and that in vivo silencing of miR-21 using a tiny seed-targeting LNA reversed splenomegaly, one of the cardinal manifestations of autoimmunity in B6.Sle123 mice, and de-repressed PDCD4 expression in vivo and in vitro. In addition, treatment with anti-miR-21 altered CD4/CD8 T cell ratios and reduced Fas receptor-expressing lymphocyte populations. Our study shows that tiny LNAs can be used to efficiently antagonize endogenous miRNAs in peripheral lymphocytes in vivo and in primary lymphocytes cultured ex vivo and can alter the course of a spontaneous genetic disease in mice. PMID:21882343

  14. Signaling by the Matrix Proteoglycan Decorin Controls Inflammation and Cancer through PDCD4 and microRNA-21

    PubMed Central

    Merline, Rosetta; Moreth, Kristin; Beckmann, Janet; Nastase, Madalina V.; Zeng-Brouwers, Jinyang; Tralhão, José Guilherme; Lemarchand, Patricia; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Schaefer, Roland M.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Schaefer, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms linking immune responses and inflammation with tumor development are not well understood. Here we show that the soluble form of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan decorin controls inflammation and tumor growth through PDCD4 (programmed cell death 4) and microRNA (miR) 21 by two mechanisms. First, decorin acted as an endogenous ligand of Toll-like receptor-2 and −4 and stimulated production of proinflammatory molecules, including PDCD4, in macrophages. Second, decorin prevented translational repression of PDCD4 by decreasing the activity of transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 and the abundance of oncogenic miR-21, a translational inhibitor of PDCD4. Moreover, increased PDCD4 resulted in decreased release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10, thereby making the cytokine profile more proinflammatory. This pathway operates in both pathogen-mediated and sterile inflammation as shown here for sepsis and growth retardation of established tumor xenografts. In sepsis, decorin is an early response gene evoked by septic inflammation and decorin concentrations were increased in plasma of septic patients and mice. In cancer, decorin mediated the reduced abundance of anti-inflammatory molecules and increased that of pro-inflammatory molecules, thereby shifting the immune response to a more proinflammatory state that was associated with reduced tumor growth. Thus, by stimulating pro-inflammatory PDCD4 and decreasing the abundance of miR-21, decorin signaling boosts inflammatory activity in sepsis and suppresses tumor growth. PMID:22087031

  15. Plasma miRNA levels correlate with sensitivity to bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiu; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Qin; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In our study, we detect the levels of three micro-RNAs (miRNAs; miR-21, miR-133a and miR-146a) in the plasma of 120 Chinese postmenopausal women who were divided into three groups (normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis) according to the T-scores. Downregulation of miR-21, as well as upregulation of miR-133a, was validated in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients versus the normal group. The difference in expression regarding the miR-146a level in plasma among the three groups was not significant (p > 0.01). The circulating miRNA expression levels and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined during a multiple correlation analysis as a dependent variable after adjusting for age, weight and height. We have demonstrated that specific miRNAs species are significantly changed in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients and correlated with the BMD. Our study suggested a potential use of miR-21 and miR-133a as sensitive and plasma biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  16. MicroRNA-21 as a potential diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer patients: a pooled analysis of individual studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Cai, Qiliang; Huang, Yubei; Li, Shu; Yang, Hongxi; Sun, Li; Chen, Kexin; Wang, Yaogang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has been reported as the potential novel diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer in several studies, but their results were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a systematic analysis to evaluate the diagnostic value of miR-21 in detecting breast cancer. A comprehensive electronic and manual search was conducted for relevant literatures through several databases up to November 9, 2015. QUADAS-2 was used to assess the quality of the studies included in the study. All statistical analyses were performed using Meta-Disc 1.4 and Stata 12.0. Eleven studies with a total of 918 breast cancer patients and 613 controls were included. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 0.72 (95% CI: 0.69–0.75), 0.80 (95% CI: 0.77–0.83), 3.37 (95% CI: 2.24–5.07), 0.30 (95% CI: 0.19–0.50), and 11.79 (95% CI: 5.23–26.57), respectively. The area under the curve of SROC was 0.8517. In conclusion, our analyses suggested that miR-21 is a promising biomarker in diagnosing breast cancer. For clinical purpose, further large-scale studies are warranted to validate its clinical application. PMID:27153564

  17. Regulation of Ethanol-Related Behavior and Ethanol Metabolism by the Corazonin Neurons and Corazonin Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Kai; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Im, Jeongdae; Lee, Gyunghee G.; Loeffler, Frank; Park, Jae H.

    2014-01-01

    Impaired ethanol metabolism can lead to various alcohol-related health problems. Key enzymes in ethanol metabolism are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH); however, neuroendocrine pathways that regulate the activities of these enzymes are largely unexplored. Here we identified a neuroendocrine system involving Corazonin (Crz) neuropeptide and its receptor (CrzR) as important physiological regulators of ethanol metabolism in Drosophila. Crz-cell deficient (Crz-CD) flies displayed significantly delayed recovery from ethanol-induced sedation that we refer to as hangover-like phenotype. Newly generated mutant lacking Crz Receptor (CrzR01) and CrzR-knockdown flies showed even more severe hangover-like phenotype, which is causally associated with fast accumulation of acetaldehyde in the CrzR01 mutant following ethanol exposure. Higher levels of acetaldehyde are likely due to 30% reduced ALDH activity in the mutants. Moreover, increased ADH activity was found in the CrzR01 mutant, but not in the Crz-CD flies. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed transcriptional upregulation of Adh gene in the CrzR01. Transgenic inhibition of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) also results in significantly increased ADH activity and Adh mRNA levels, indicating PKA-dependent transcriptional regulation of Adh by CrzR. Furthermore, inhibition of PKA or cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in CrzR cells leads to comparable hangover-like phenotype to the CrzR01 mutant. These findings suggest that CrzR-associated signaling pathway is critical for ethanol detoxification via Crz-dependent regulation of ALDH activity and Crz-independent transcriptional regulation of ADH. Our study provides new insights into the neuroendocrine-associated ethanol-related behavior and metabolism. PMID:24489834

  18. Pulmonary microRNA profiling in a mouse model of ventilator-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Vergadi, Eleni; Kaniaris, Evangelos; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Lagoudaki, Eleni; Georgopoulos, Dimitrios; Zapol, Warren M.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Iliopoulos, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes induced by high tidal volume ventilation (HVTV) in pulmonary expression of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and identify potential target genes and corresponding miRNA-gene networks. Using a real-time RT-PCR-based array in RNA samples from lungs of mice subjected to HVTV for 1 or 4 h and control mice, we identified 65 miRNAs whose expression changed more than twofold upon HVTV. An inflammatory and a TGF-β-signaling miRNA-gene network were identified by in silico pathway analysis being at highest statistical significance (P = 10−43 and P = 10−28, respectively). In the inflammatory network, IL-6 and SOCS-1, regulated by miRNAs let-7 and miR-155, respectively, appeared as central nodes. In TGF-β-signaling network, SMAD-4, regulated by miR-146, appeared as a central node. The contribution of miRNAs to the development of lung injury was evaluated in mice subjected to HVTV treated with a precursor or antagonist of miR-21, a miRNA highly upregulated by HVTV. Lung compliance was preserved only in mice treated with anti-miR-21 but not in mice treated with pre-miR-21 or negative-control miRNA. Both alveolar-arterial oxygen difference and protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage were lower in mice treated with anti-miR-21 than in mice treated with pre-miR-21 or negative-control miRNA (DA-a: 66 ± 27 vs. 131 ± 22, 144 ± 10 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.001; protein concentration: 1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.3 ± 1, 2.1 ± 0.4 mg/ml, respectively, P < 0.01). Our results show that HVTV induces changes in miRNA expression in mouse lungs. Modulation of miRNA expression can affect the development of HVTV-induced lung injury. PMID:22659882

  19. Silibinin-Induced Apoptosis and Downregulation of MicroRNA-21 and MicroRNA-155 in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zadeh, Masoud Maleki; Ranji, Najmeh; Majidi, Mohammad; Falahi, Fahimeh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have received much attention owing to their aberrant expression in various stages of cancer. In many biological processes, miRNAs negatively regulate gene expression, and may be useful in therapeutic strategies. The present study evaluated the effects of silibinin (silybin), a natural flavonoid, on miRNA expression and attempted to elucidate therapeutic targets in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Methods The rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined in silibinin-treated and untreated MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, the expression levels of miR-21 and miR-155 were measured in MCF-7 cells after incubation with silibinin (100 µg/mL), and the putative targets of the miRNAs within the apoptotic pathways were predicted using bioinformatic approaches. The expression levels of some of these targets were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results Silibinin induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. qRT-PCR analysis revealed a decrease in miR-21 and miR-155 expression levels in silibinin-treated cells relative to the levels in the untreated cells. Potential miR-21 and miR-155 targets within the apoptotic pathways, such as CASP-9, BID, APAF-1, CASP-3, CASP-8, and PDCD4, were predicted by in silico analysis. qRT-PCR analysis showed upregulation of some of these potential targets including caspase-9 (CASP-9) and BID after silibinin treatment for 48 hours. Conclusion Our results suggest a correlation between the expression of miR-21 and miR-155, and MCF-7 cell proliferation. The antiproliferative activity of silibinin may partly be attributable to the downregulation of miR-21 and miR-155, and the upregulation of their apoptotic targets. Furthermore, the upregulation of CASP-9 and BID indicates that silibinin induces apoptosis through both the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. PMID:27066095

  20. Diagnostic value of microRNA-21 in the diagnosis of lung cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis involving 11 studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Renjie; Jiang, Yingjiu; Wu, Qingcheng; Li, Qiang; Cheng, Dan; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ming; Ye, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Molecular biomarkers that can be detected in easily accessible body fluids have been proposed as non-invasive, cost-effective, and useful tools for cancer diagnosis. Recently, extensive research has explored the involvement of the aberrant expression of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21, miR-21) in lung cancer. Inconsistent results, however, have prevented its widespread use in diagnosis. In light of this situation, our meta-analysis aimed to systematically determine whether aberrant miR-21 expression can distinguish patients with lung cancer from cancer-free controls with a high level of diagnostic accuracy. A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies published before December 23, 2013 was conducted in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and three Chinese databases. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and other parameters were used to assess the overall performance of miR-21-based assays. Statistical analysis was conducted using the STATA 11.0 software. Eleven research articles involving 676 patients with lung cancer and 529 healthy controls were considered eligible for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The following summary parameters were calculated from all the included studies: sensitivity of 0.66 (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.74), specificity of 0.82 (95 % CI: 0.74-0.88), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) of 3.70 (95 % CI: 2.50-5.60), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) of 0.42 (95 % CI: 0.32-0.54); diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of 9.00 (95 % CI: 5.00-16.00), and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.81 (95 % CI: 0.77-0.84). In addition, we added two pre-specified covariates (ethnicity and specimen types) to the bivariate model to assess their impact on the diagnostic value of miR-21 for lung cancer. Similar results were also observed in subgroup analyses, indicating a relatively low level of accuracy. The current meta-analysis indicates that a single miR-21 may not be sufficient to identify lung cancer and that more miRNAs should be used to detect

  1. Age-Associated Differences in MiRNA Signatures Are Restricted to CD45RO Negative T Cells and Are Associated with Changes in the Cellular Composition, Activation and Cellular Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Teteloshvili, Nato; Kluiver, Joost; van der Geest, Kornelis S. M.; van der Lei, Roelof Jan; Jellema, Pytrick; Pawelec, Graham; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; van den Berg, Anke

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important players in the regulation of T-cell functionality. However, comprehensive insight into the extent of age-related miRNA changes in T cells is lacking. We established miRNA expression patterns of CD45RO- naïve and CD45RO+ memory T-cell subsets isolated from peripheral blood cells from young and elderly individuals. Unsupervised clustering of the miRNA expression data revealed an age-related clustering in the CD45RO- T cells, while CD45RO+ T cells clustered based on expression of CD4 and CD8. Seventeen miRNAs showed an at least 2-fold up- or downregulation in CD45RO- T cells obtained from young as compared to old donors. Validation on the same and independent samples revealed a statistically significant age-related upregulation of miR-21, miR-223 and miR-15a. In a T-cell subset analysis focusing on known age-related phenotypic changes, we showed significantly higher miR-21 and miR-223 levels in CD8+CD45RO-CCR7- TEMRA compared to CD45RO-CCR7+ TNAIVE-cells. Moreover, miR-21 but not miR-223 levels were significantly increased in CD45RO-CD31- post-thymic TNAIVE cells as compared to thymic CD45RO-CD31+ TNAIVE cells. Upon activation of CD45RO- TNAIVE cells we observed a significant induction of miR-21 especially in CD4+ T cells, while miR-223 levels significantly decreased only in CD4+ T cells. Besides composition and activation-induced changes, we showed a borderline significant increase in miR-21 levels upon an increasing number of population doublings in CD4+ T-cell clones. Together, our results show that ageing related changes in miRNA expression are dominant in the CD45RO- T-cell compartment. The differential expression patterns can be explained by age related changes in T-cell composition, i.e. accumulation of CD8+ TEMRA and CD4+ post-thymic expanded CD31- T cells and by cellular ageing, as demonstrated in a longitudinal clonal culture model. PMID:26360056

  2. MicroRNAs in stool samples as potential screening biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Yu; Sun, Yong-Wei; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Jun-Feng; Li, Jiao; Hua, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) accounts for approximately 90-95% exocrine malignant tumors of the pancreas. The high prevalence of metastasis and the difficulty of early diagnosis lead to a dismal prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in extensive biological processes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of stool miRNAs as novel biomarker for PDAC screening. MiRNAs were extracted from clinical specimens which included cancer and matched adjacent benign pancreatic tissues of 30 PDAC patients, pancreatic juice of 20 from the 30 PDAC patients and 10 chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients, stool samples of the 30 PDAC patients, the 10 CP patients and 15 healthy volunteers. Relative expression of a panel of 5 dysregulated miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-196a, miR-216 and miR-217) was analyzed with qRT-PCR. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the diagnosing value of stool miRNAs in PDAC patients. The study showed that our methods of extracting and detecting miRNAs from pancreatic juice and stool specimens had high reproducibility. Compared to matched adjacent benign pancreatic tissues and pancreatic juice of CP patients, the expression of miR-21 (P = 0.0021 and P = 0.0027) as well as miR-155 (P = 0.0087 and P = 0.0067) was significantly higher and the expression of miR-216 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0044) was significantly lower in primary tumor tissues and pancreatic juice of PDAC patients. PDAC patients had a significantly higher stool miR-21 and miR-155 (P = 0.0049 and P = 0.0112) and lower miR-216 level (P = 0.0002) compared to normal controls. The same results were obtained in the expression levels of stool miR-21, miR-155 and miR-216 between PDAC and CP patients (P = 0.0337, P = 0.0388 and P = 0.0117, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis by using stool miRNAs expression indicated that combination of miR-21 and miR-155 had best sensitivity of 93.33% while the

  3. Phonatory sound sources in terms of Lagrangian Coherent Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhail, Michael; Krane, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) are used to identify sound sources in phonation. Currently, it is difficult to causally relate changes in airflow topology from voice disorders to changes in voiced sound production. LCS reveals a flow's topology by decomposing the flow into regions of distinct dynamics. The aeroacoustic sources can be written in terms of the motion of these regions in terms of the motion of the boundaries of the distinct regions. Breaking down the flow into constituent parts shows how each distinct region contributes to sound production. This approach provides a framework to connect changes in anatomy from a voice disorder to measurable changes in the resulting sound. This approach is presented for simulations of some canonical cases of vortex sound generation, and a two-dimensional simulation of phonation. Acknowledge NIH grant 2R01 2R01DC005642.

  4. Simple Physics in Diseases and Embryonic Development of the Eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirinifard, Abbas

    2011-03-01

    While molecular-level regulation within cells during embryonic development is highly complex, the physical mechanisms which translate this intracellular information into multicellular physical structure at the tissue level are often surprisingly simple. I will discuss an example where regulation of cell-cell contact energies is primarily responsible for robust and evolvable regular patterns, the organization of the ommatidia and supporting cells into the regular tiling characteristic of the Drosophila eye and another example where adhesion failures in the human retina result in choroidal neovascularization leading to blindness. In both cases, simulations based on materials-science techniques can help us understand the patterning mechanisms and the reasons for their robustness and failures. Such simulations are easy to extend to other developmental phenomena and to development-related diseases like cancer. EPA grant ``The Texas-Indiana Virtual STAR Center'' and NIH grants R01 GM76692 and R01 GM077138.

  5. Polymorphic transformation of dense ZnO nanoparticles: Implications for chair/boat-type Peierls distortions of AB semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.-Y.; Shen Pouyan; Jiang Jianzhong

    2004-12-08

    Peierls distortion path was proved experimentally for dense ZnO nanoparticles prepared by static compression. Electron irradiation caused rock salt (R) to wurtzite (W) transition, following preferential (11-bar1){sub R}//(01-bar11){sub W}; [011]{sub R}//[1-bar21-bar3]{sub W} and then transformation strain induced (111-bar){sub R}//(1-bar011){sub W}; [011]{sub R}//[011-bar1]{sub W}. The two relationships can be rationalized by specified extent of chair- and boat-type Peierls distortions accompanied with band gap opening and intermediate {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub R} slip for energetically favorable {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub R}/(01-bar11){sub W} match.

  6. A musculo-mechanical model of esophageal transport based on an immersed boundary-finite element approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Wenjun; Griffith, Boyce E.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-11-01

    This work extends a fiber-based immersed boundary (IB) model of esophageal transport by incorporating a continuum model of the deformable esophageal wall. The continuum-based esophagus model adopts finite element approach that is capable of describing more complex and realistic material properties and geometries. The leakage from mismatch between Lagrangian and Eulerian meshes resulting from large deformations of the esophageal wall is avoided by careful choice of interaction points. The esophagus model, which is described as a multi-layered, fiber-reinforced nonlinear elastic material, is coupled to bolus and muscle-activation models using the IB approach to form the esophageal transport model. Cases of esophageal transport with different esophagus models are studied. Results on the transport characteristics, including pressure field and esophageal wall kinematics and stress, are analyzed and compared. Support from NIH grant R01 DK56033 and R01 DK079902 is gratefully acknowledged. BEG is supported by NSF award ACI 1460334.

  7. Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying B | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying Biomarkers for Early Detection and Risk Assessment. This application addresses Program Announcement PA-09-197: Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hematopoietic Malignancies (R01). The overall aim of this project is to identify novel biomarkers that may be used to diagnose and treat patients with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). LCH occurs with similar frequency as other rare malignancies including Hodgkin's lymphoma and AML. |

  8. Healing the NIH-Funded Biomedical Research Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Germain, Ronald N

    2015-06-18

    Many feel that the R01 grant system supporting biomedical research in the U.S. is broken, discouraging entry of young investigators into the system and inadequately supporting more established investigators. Here, I argue for a "person-not-project"-based scheme that would permit creative, unfettered research by new investigators, better tie ongoing research contributions to continued funding, and help match the number of investigators seeking support with available funds. PMID:26091028

  9. Cell death pathway modification induced by radiation: the role of microRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guangming; Hu, Wentao; He, Jinpeng; Xu, Shuai; Ding, Nan; Yao, Bin; Wu, Xin; Pei, Hailong; Hua, Junrui; Wang, Jufang

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as global negative regulators of gene expression and target one third of protein encoding genes. Even after exposure to low dose irradiation, miRNA expression patterns experience profound alteration in a variety of cell types. Therefore, miRNAs are certainly involved in cellular response to space radiation. It has become a very hot field to investigate the role of miRNAs in space radiation research in the past one decade. Basing on the published literature directly connected to radiation research, miR-21 and miR-34a are the best studied miRNAs whereas PTEN and ATM are the most interesting target genes. ATM is a general target for miR-18a, miR-26a/b, miR27a, miR-100, miR-101 and miR421. However, it also regulates the transcription of miRNAs including miR-21 and miR-125b. miR-21 is a widely studied miRNA and targets PDCD4, Big-h3, hMSH2 and PTEN. PTEN is an important tumor suppressor and its expression is also regulated by miR-22, miR-141, miR-205 and miR221/222. It is worthy to notice that ATM influences the expression of PTEN through miR-21. Another well-known tumor suppressor gene is p53, which is a target of miR-125b. As an important transcriptional factor, p53 regulates the expression of miR-34 family. The members of miR-34 family target Bcl-2, an anti-apoptosis gene. These factors compose a miRNA regulatory network modulating the cellular response to radiation via cell death pathway. Through this network, up-regulation of miR-21 and miR-34a increases the radiosensitivity of various types of cells, and changing the levels of the member of this network might develop a new strategy for radiosensitization. Our work focuses on the function of miR-185 and miR-663, two miRNAs drastically down-regulated by radiation. We have demonstrated ATR and TGF-beta as their targets, respectively. ATR is one of the key factors regulating cellular response to radiation and its reduction by miR-185 sensitizes cells to radiation by accelerating cell

  10. Involvement of miRNAs in the Differentiation of Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aldaz, Beatriz; Sagardoy, Ainara; Nogueira, Lorena; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Grande, Lara; Huse, Jason T.; Aznar, Maria A.; Díez-Valle, Ricardo; Tejada-Solís, Sonia; Alonso, Marta M.; Fernandez-Luna, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM)-initiating cells (GICs) represent a tumor subpopulation with neural stem cell-like properties that is responsible for the development, progression and therapeutic resistance of human GBM. We have recently shown that blockade of NFκB pathway promotes terminal differentiation and senescence of GICs both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that induction of differentiation may be a potential therapeutic strategy for GBM. MicroRNAs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of GBM, but a high-throughput analysis of their role in GIC differentiation has not been reported. We have established human GIC cell lines that can be efficiently differentiated into cells expressing astrocytic and neuronal lineage markers. Using this in vitro system, a microarray-based high-throughput analysis to determine global expression changes of microRNAs during differentiation of GICs was performed. A number of changes in the levels of microRNAs were detected in differentiating GICs, including over-expression of hsa-miR-21, hsa-miR-29a, hsa-miR-29b, hsa-miR-221 and hsa-miR-222, and down-regulation of hsa-miR-93 and hsa-miR-106a. Functional studies showed that miR-21 over-expression in GICs induced comparable cell differentiation features and targeted SPRY1 mRNA, which encodes for a negative regulator of neural stem-cell differentiation. In addition, miR-221 and miR-222 inhibition in differentiated cells restored the expression of stem cell markers while reducing differentiation markers. Finally, miR-29a and miR-29b targeted MCL1 mRNA in GICs and increased apoptosis. Our study uncovers the microRNA dynamic expression changes occurring during differentiation of GICs, and identifies miR-21 and miR-221/222 as key regulators of this process. PMID:24155920

  11. Encapsulation of Mentha Oil in Chitosan Polymer Matrix Alleviates Skin Irritation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nidhi; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Yadav, Kuldeep Singh; Sinha, Priyam; Kanaujia, Archana; Chanda, Debabrata; Jakhmola, Apurva; Saikia, Dharmendra; Yadav, Narayan Prasad

    2016-04-01

    Mentha spicata L. var. viridis oil (MVO) is a potent antifungal agent, but its application in the topical treatment is limited due to its irritancy and volatility. It was aimed to develop more efficient, chitosan-incrusted MVO microspheres with reduced volatility and lesser irritancy and to dispense it in the form of ointment. Simple coacervation technique was employed to microencapsulate MVO in chitosan matrix. Morphological properties and polymer cross-linking were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. Optimization was carried out on the basis of entrapment efficiency (EE) using response surface methodology. Well-designed microspheres having smooth surface and spherical shape were observed. EE (81.20%) of optimum batch (R21) was found at 1.62% w/v of cross-linker, 5.4:5 of MVO to chitosan ratio and at 1000 rpm. R21 showed 69.38 ± 1.29% in vitro MVO release in 12 h and 96.92% retention of MVO in microspheres even after 8 week. Ointments of PEG 4000 and PEG 400 comprising MVO (F1) and R21 (F2) were developed separately. F2 showed comparatively broader zone of growth inhibition (13.33 ± 1.76-18.67 ± 0.88 mm) and less irritancy (PII 0.5833, irritation barely perceptible) than that of F1. F2 was able to avoid the direct contact of mild irritant MVO with the skin and to reduce its rapid volatility. Controlled release of MVO helped in lengthening the duration of availability of MVO in agar media and hence improved its therapeutic efficacy. In conclusion, a stable and non-irritant formulation with improved therapeutic potential was developed.

  12. Circulating microRNAs, miR-939, miR-595, miR-519d and miR-494, Identify Cirrhotic Patients with HCC

    PubMed Central

    Fornari, Francesca; Ferracin, Manuela; Trerè, Davide; Milazzo, Maddalena; Marinelli, Sara; Galassi, Marzia; Venerandi, Laura; Pollutri, Daniela; Patrizi, Clarissa; Borghi, Alberto; Foschi, Francesco G.; Stefanini, Giuseppe F.; Negrini, Massimo; Bolondi, Luigi; Gramantieri, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The performance of circulating biomarkers for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is sub-optimal. In this study we tested circulating microRNAs as biomarkers for HCC in cirrhotic patients by performing a two stage study: a discovery phase conducted by microarray and a validation phase performed by qRT-PCR in an independent series of 118 patients. Beside miRNAs emerged from the discovery phase, miR-21, miR-221, miR-519d were also tested in the validation setting on the basis of literary and tissue findings. Deregulated microRNAs were assayed in HCC-derived cells in the intracellular compartment, cell culture supernatant and exosomal fraction. Serum and tissue microRNA levels were compared in 14 patients surgically treated for HCC. From the discovery study, it emerged that seven circulating microRNAs were differentially expressed in cirrhotic patients with and without HCC. In the validation set, miR-939, miR-595 and miR-519d were shown to differentiate cirrhotic patients with and without HCC. MiR-939 and miR-595 are independent factors for HCC. ROC curves of miR-939, miR-595 and miR-519d displayed that AUC was higher than AFP. An exosomal secretion of miR-519d, miR-21, miR-221 and miR-1228 and a correlation between circulating and tissue levels of miR-519d, miR-494 and miR-21 were found in HCC patients. Therefore, we show that circulating microRNAs deserve attention as non-invasive biomarkers in the diagnostic setting of HCC and that exosomal secretion contributes to discharging a subset of microRNAs into the extracellular compartment. PMID:26509672

  13. [Effect of xenobiotics on microRNA expression in rat liver].

    PubMed

    Gulyaeva, L F; Chanyshev, M D; Kolmykov, S K; Ushakov, D S; Nechkin, S S

    2016-01-01

    Using bioinformatics analysis we selected microRNAs which could bind 3'-UTR-region of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Three microRNA miR-21, -221, -222, their potential targets might be mRNA for CYP1A1, and two microRNA miR-143, miR-152 for CYP2B1 accordingly were selected for experimental verification. Expression level of these microRNAs in rat liver upon benzo(a)pyrene (BP), phenobarbital (PB), and DDT induction was determined using RT-qPCR method. In rats treated by both BP, and DDT the hepatic content of miR-21, -221, -222 significantly demonstrated a 2-3-fold decrease. The decrease in miR expression was accompanied by a considerable (5.5-8.7-fold) increase in the CYP1A1-mediated EROD activity. The expression of miR-143 remained unchanged after the PB treatment, while the expression of miR-152 increased by 2 times, however, the (10.5-fold) increase in PROD activity of CYP2B was much higher. In the DDT-treated liver PROD activity increased by 20 times, the expression of miR-152 didn't change, and the expression of miR-143 increased by 2 times. The bioinformatics analysis of interactions between microRNAs and targets showed that the studied miRs can potentially bind 3'-end of AhR, ESR1, GR, CCND1, PTEN mRNA. Thus, the expression profile of miR-21, -221, -222, -143, -152 might change under the xenobiotics exposure. In silico analysis confirmed, that microRNAs target not only cytochrome P450 mRNA but also other genes, including those involved in hormonal carcinogenesis, they also can be regulated with studied miRs. PMID:27143372

  14. MiRNA-21 silencing mediated by tumor-targeted nanoparticles combined with sunitinib: A new multimodal gene therapy approach for glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro M; Cardoso, Ana L; Custódia, Carlos; Cunha, Pedro; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C

    2015-06-10

    Malignant brain tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM), are among the most lethal human cancers, due to their tremendous invasive capacity and limited therapeutic options. Despite remarkable advances in cancer theranostics, which resulted in significant improvement of clinical outcomes, GBM relapse is very frequent and patient survival remains under one year. The elucidation of the role of abnormally-expressed miRNAs in different steps of GBM pathogenesis and in tumor resistance to therapy paved the way for the development of new miRNA-based therapeutic approaches targeting this disease, aiming at increasing specific tumor cell killing and, ultimately, cancer eradication. Here, we demonstrate that intravenously-administered chlorotoxin (CTX)-coupled (targeted) stable nucleic acid lipid particle (SNALP)-formulated anti-miR-21 oligonucleotides accumulate preferentially within brain tumors and promote efficient miR-21 silencing, which results in increased mRNA and protein levels of its target RhoB, while showing no signs of systemic immunogenicity. Decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor size, as well as enhanced apoptosis activation and, to a lesser extent, improvement of animal survival, were also observed in GBM-bearing mice upon systemic delivery of targeted nanoparticle-formulated anti-miR-21 oligonucleotides and exposure to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. Overall, our results provide evidence that CTX-coupled SNALPs are a reliable and efficient system for systemic delivery of anti-miRNA oligonucleotides. Moreover, although further studies are still necessary to demonstrate a therapeutic benefit in a clinical context, our findings suggest that miRNA modulation by the targeted nanoparticles combined with anti-angiogenic chemotherapy may hold promise as an attractive approach towards GBM treatment.

  15. Physcion 8-O-β-glucopyranoside induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells via suppressing survivin expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-dong; Xiong, Shi-jiang; Tan, Fei; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: A previous study has shown that physcion 8-O-β-glucopyranoside (PG) derived from Rumex japonicusHoutt causes apoptosis and blocks cell cycle progression in human lung cancer cells. In the present study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying PG-induced cancer cell apoptosis. Methods: Human OSCC-derived cell line KB was treated PG (10, 20, 50 μg/mL). Cell apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and release of cytochome C from mitochondria were measured; the expression of relevant signaling proteins was analyzed using Western blotting or qRT-PCR. For evaluation of in vivo anticancer action, nude mice grafted with KB cells were treated with PG (10, 20, 40 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 24 days. Results: PG dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in KB cells. PG-induced apoptosis was mediated via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, as evidenced by the decreased Bcl-2, increased Bax and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as well as the loss of MMP, caspase-9 activation, and increased cytosolic cytochrome c. Furthermore, PG suppressed the expression of survivin, whereas overexpression of survivin markedly attenuated PG-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile PG increased the expression of tumor suppressor PTEN, and decreased p-Akt, p-GSK3β and miR-21 levels. Pharmacological activation of Akt/GSK3β signaling or transfection with miR-21 mimic abolished PG-induced survivin reduction and cell apoptosis. Similar results were observed in PG-treated nude mice grafted with KB cells. Conclusion: Physcion 8-O-β-glucopyranoside induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of human OSCC cells by suppressing survivin expression via miR-21/PTEN/Akt/GSK3β signaling pathway. PMID:27063218

  16. MiRNA-21 silencing mediated by tumor-targeted nanoparticles combined with sunitinib: A new multimodal gene therapy approach for glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro M; Cardoso, Ana L; Custódia, Carlos; Cunha, Pedro; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C

    2015-06-10

    Malignant brain tumors, including glioblastoma (GBM), are among the most lethal human cancers, due to their tremendous invasive capacity and limited therapeutic options. Despite remarkable advances in cancer theranostics, which resulted in significant improvement of clinical outcomes, GBM relapse is very frequent and patient survival remains under one year. The elucidation of the role of abnormally-expressed miRNAs in different steps of GBM pathogenesis and in tumor resistance to therapy paved the way for the development of new miRNA-based therapeutic approaches targeting this disease, aiming at increasing specific tumor cell killing and, ultimately, cancer eradication. Here, we demonstrate that intravenously-administered chlorotoxin (CTX)-coupled (targeted) stable nucleic acid lipid particle (SNALP)-formulated anti-miR-21 oligonucleotides accumulate preferentially within brain tumors and promote efficient miR-21 silencing, which results in increased mRNA and protein levels of its target RhoB, while showing no signs of systemic immunogenicity. Decreased tumor cell proliferation and tumor size, as well as enhanced apoptosis activation and, to a lesser extent, improvement of animal survival, were also observed in GBM-bearing mice upon systemic delivery of targeted nanoparticle-formulated anti-miR-21 oligonucleotides and exposure to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. Overall, our results provide evidence that CTX-coupled SNALPs are a reliable and efficient system for systemic delivery of anti-miRNA oligonucleotides. Moreover, although further studies are still necessary to demonstrate a therapeutic benefit in a clinical context, our findings suggest that miRNA modulation by the targeted nanoparticles combined with anti-angiogenic chemotherapy may hold promise as an attractive approach towards GBM treatment. PMID:25861727

  17. Stratifying risk of recurrence in stage II colorectal cancer using deregulated stromal and epithelial microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Marc D; Pickard, Karen; Mitter, Richard; Sayan, A Emre; Primrose, John N; Ivan, Cristina; Calin, George A; Thomas, Gareth J; Packham, Graham K; Mirnezami, Alex H

    2015-03-30

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) enable colonic epithelial cells to acquire malignant characteristics and metastatic capabilities. Recently, cancer relevant miRNAs deregulated during disease progression have also been identified in tumor-associated stroma.By combining laser-microdissection (LMD) with high-throughput screening and high-sensitivity quantitation techniques, miRNA expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens and paired normal colonic tissue was independently characterized in stromal and epithelial tissue compartments. Notably, deregulation of the key oncogene miR-21 was identified exclusively as a stromal phenomenon and miR-106a, an epithelial phenomenon in the malignant state.MiRNAs identified in this study successfully distinguished CRC from normal tissue and metastatic from non-metastatic tumor specimens. Furthermore, in a separate cohort of 50 consecutive patients with CRC, stromal miR-21 and miR-556 and epithelial miR-106a expression predicted short disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in stage II disease: miR-21 (DFS: HR = 2.68, p = 0.015; OS: HR = 2.47, p = 0.029); miR-556 (DFS: HR = 2.60, p = 0.018); miR-106a (DFS: HR = 2.91, p = 0.008; OS: HR = 2.25, p = 0.049); combined (All High vs. All Low. DFS: HR = 5.83, p = 0.002; OS: HR = 4.13, p = 0.007).These data support the notion that stromal as well as epithelial miRNAs play important roles during disease progression, and that mapping patterns of deregulated gene expression to the appropriate tumor strata may be a valuable aid to therapeutic decision making in CRC. PMID:25788261

  18. RASSF1A inactivation unleashes a tumor suppressor/oncogene cascade with context-dependent consequences on cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Ram, Rosalyn R; Mendiratta, Saurabh; Bodemann, Brian O; Torres, Michael J; Eskiocak, Ugur; White, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    The RASSF1A gene is one of the most frequently inactivated genes in over 30 different types of cancers (H. Donninger, M. D. Vos, and G. J. Clark, J. Cell Sci. 120:3163-3172, 2007, http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.010389). Despite the prevalence of RASSF1A silencing in human cancer, the mechanism by which RASSF1A functions as a tumor suppressor is not well understood. Characterization of the consequences of RASSF1A loss on epithelial cell proliferation revealed that RASSF1A expression suppresses both microRNA 21 (miR-21) expression and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation. The mechanism of the former is through restraint of SCF(βTrCP)-dependent destruction of the repressor element 1 silencing transcription factor (REST) tumor suppressor and consequent inhibition of miR-21 promoter activation. The mechanism of the latter is through physical sequestration of MST2, which results in accumulation of inactivating S259 phosphorylation of RAF1. Whether or not inactivation of these RASSF1A regulatory relationships can unleash enhanced proliferative capacity is dependent upon the coupling of SCF(βTrCP) and miR-21 to suppression of SKP2 protein translation and stability. Airway epithelial cultures retain this coupling and therefore respond to RASSF1A inactivation by p27-dependent cell cycle arrest. In contrast, colonic crypt-derived epithelial cells have uncoupled SCF(βTrCP) from SKP2 and respond to RASSF1A inactivation by enhanced proliferation rates. These observations help account for context-specific molecular etiology of oncogenic transformation and suggest intervention strategies for recently developed SKP2 inhibitors. PMID:24732797

  19. Circulating and renal vein levels of microRNAs in patients with renal artery stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moo Yong; Herrmann, Sandra M.; Saad, Ahmed; Widmer, Robert Jay; Tang, Hui; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Lerman, Amir; Textor, Stephen C.; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2015-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that are important regulators of gene expression and have been implicated in atherosclerosis. Kidney injury distal to atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) is aggravated by atherosclerosis. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that renal miR expression would be altered in patients with ARAS. Methods Patients with essential hypertension (EH; n = 13) or ARAS (n = 13) underwent a 3-day protocol study under controlled conditions. For miR levels, blood samples were collected from EH and ARAS renal vein (RV) and inferior vena cava or peripheral vein of matched normotensive healthy volunteers (HV; n = 13) and patients with coronary atherosclerosis (CA; n = 11). Single-renal blood flow was measured in EH and ARAS using computer tomography to calculate renal gradients and release of miRs. Results Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was lower in ARAS compared with the other groups. Systemic levels of most miRs were elevated in CA. RV miR levels were lower than systemic levels in both ARAS and EH. GFR-adjusted RV levels of miR-21, 155 and 210 were reduced only in ARAS patients compared with systemic levels in HV, although cross-kidney gradients were not different from EH. RV levels of miR-21, 126, 155 and 210 correlated with GFR. Conclusions Levels of atherosclerosis-related miR-21, 126, 155 and 210 are decreased in the stenotic-kidney vein of ARAS compared with EH patients, likely due to decreased GFR. Yet, these miRs might be implicated in modulating renal injury in ARAS, and their RV level may be a marker reflecting their renal expression. PMID:25362000

  20. Dicer Knockdown Inhibits Endothelial Cell Tumor Growth via MicroRNA 21a-3p Targeting of Nox-4*

    PubMed Central

    Gordillo, Gayle M.; Biswas, Ayan; Khanna, Savita; Pan, Xueliang; Sinha, Mithun; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miR) are emerging as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in tumor management. Endothelial cell tumors are the most common soft tissue tumors in infants, yet little is known about the significance of miR in regulating their growth. A validated mouse endothelial cell (EOMA) tumor model was used to demonstrate that post-transcriptional gene silencing of dicer, the enzyme that converts pre-miR to mature miR, can prevent tumor formation in vivo. Tumors were formed in eight of eight mice injected with EOMA cells transfected with control shRNA but formed in only four of ten mice injected with EOMA cells transfected with dicer shRNA. Tumors that formed in the dicer shRNA group were significantly smaller than tumors in the control group. This response to dicer knockdown was mediated by up-regulated miR 21a-3p activity targeting the nox-4 3′-UTR. EOMA cells were transfected with miR 21a-3p mimic and luciferase reporter plasmids containing either intact nox-4 3′-UTR or with mutation of the proposed 3′-UTR miR21a-3p binding sites. Mean luciferase activity was decreased by 85% in the intact compared with the site mutated vectors (p < 0.01). Attenuated Nox-4 activity resulted in decreased cellular hydrogen peroxide production and decreased production of oxidant-inducible monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which we have previously shown to be critically required for endothelial cell tumor formation. These findings provide the first evidence establishing the significance of dicer and microRNA in promoting endothelial cell tumor growth in vivo. PMID:24497637

  1. DECISION TREE CLASSIFIERS FOR STAR/GALAXY SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vasconcellos, E. C.; Ruiz, R. S. R.; De Carvalho, R. R.; Capelato, H. V.; Gal, R. R.; LaBarbera, F. L.; Frago Campos Velho, H.; Trevisan, M.

    2011-06-15

    We study the star/galaxy classification efficiency of 13 different decision tree algorithms applied to photometric objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven (SDSS-DR7). Each algorithm is defined by a set of parameters which, when varied, produce different final classification trees. We extensively explore the parameter space of each algorithm, using the set of 884,126 SDSS objects with spectroscopic data as the training set. The efficiency of star-galaxy separation is measured using the completeness function. We find that the Functional Tree algorithm (FT) yields the best results as measured by the mean completeness in two magnitude intervals: 14 {<=} r {<=} 21 (85.2%) and r {>=} 19 (82.1%). We compare the performance of the tree generated with the optimal FT configuration to the classifications provided by the SDSS parametric classifier, 2DPHOT, and Ball et al. We find that our FT classifier is comparable to or better in completeness over the full magnitude range 15 {<=} r {<=} 21, with much lower contamination than all but the Ball et al. classifier. At the faintest magnitudes (r > 19), our classifier is the only one that maintains high completeness (>80%) while simultaneously achieving low contamination ({approx}2.5%). We also examine the SDSS parametric classifier (psfMag - modelMag) to see if the dividing line between stars and galaxies can be adjusted to improve the classifier. We find that currently stars in close pairs are often misclassified as galaxies, and suggest a new cut to improve the classifier. Finally, we apply our FT classifier to separate stars from galaxies in the full set of 69,545,326 SDSS photometric objects in the magnitude range 14 {<=} r {<=} 21.

  2. Stem Cell-Derived, microRNA-Carrying Extracellular Vesicles: A Novel Approach to Interfering with Mesangial Cell Collagen Production in a Hyperglycaemic Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Giusy; Rossetti, Alberto; Rosso, Arturo; Dentelli, Patrizia; Togliatto, Gabriele; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Taverna, Daniela; Camussi, Giovanni; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are derived from stem cells are proving to be promising therapeutic options. We herein investigate the therapeutic potential of EVs that have been derived from different stem cell sources, bone-marrow (MSC) and human liver (HLSC), on mesangial cells (MCs) exposed to hyperglycaemia. By expressing a dominant negative STAT5 construct (ΔNSTAT5) in HG-cultured MCs, we have demonstrated that miR-21 expression is under the control of STAT5, which translates into Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ) expression and collagen production. A number of approaches have been used to show that both MSC- and HLSC-derived EVs protect MCs from HG-induced damage via the transfer of miR-222. This resulted in STAT5 down-regulation and a decrease in miR-21 content, TGFβ expression and matrix protein synthesis within MCs. Moreover, we demonstrate that changes in the balance between miR-21 and miR-100 in the recipient cell, which are caused by the transfer of EV cargo, further contribute to providing beneficial effects. Interestingly, these effects were only detected in HG-cultured cells. Finally, it was found that HG reduced the expression of the nuclear encoded mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) components, CoxIV. It is worth noting that EV administration can rescue CoxIV expression in HG-cultured MCs. These results thus demonstrate that both MSC- and HLSC-derived EVs transfer the machinery needed to preserve MCs from HG-mediated damage. This occurs via the horizontal transfer of functional miR-222 which directly interferes with damaging cues. Moreover, our data indicate that the release of EV cargo into recipient cells provides additional therapeutic advantages against harmful mitochondrial signals. PMID:27611075

  3. MicroRNA-214 Antagonism Protects against Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ramdas, Vasudev; Lu, Ruifang; Conway, Bryan R.; Grant, Jennifer S.; Dickinson, Brent; Aurora, Arin B.; McClure, John D.; Kipgen, David; Delles, Christian; van Rooij, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the common end point of progressive renal disease. MicroRNA (miR)-214 and miR-21 are upregulated in models of renal injury, but the function of miR-214 in this setting and the effect of its manipulation remain unknown. We assessed the effect of inhibiting miR-214 in an animal model of renal fibrosis. In mice, genetic deletion of miR-214 significantly attenuated interstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Treatment of wild-type mice with an anti-miR directed against miR-214 (anti-miR-214) before UUO resulted in similar antifibrotic effects, and in vivo biodistribution studies demonstrated that anti–miR-214 accumulated at the highest levels in the kidney. Notably, in vivo inhibition of canonical TGF-β signaling did not alter the regulation of endogenous miR-214 or miR-21. Whereas miR-21 antagonism blocked Smad 2/3 activation, miR-214 antagonism did not, suggesting that miR-214 induces antifibrotic effects independent of Smad 2/3. Furthermore, TGF-β blockade combined with miR-214 deletion afforded additional renal protection. These phenotypic effects of miR-214 depletion were mediated through broad regulation of the transcriptional response to injury, as evidenced by microarray analysis. In human kidney tissue, miR-214 was detected in cells of the glomerulus and tubules as well as in infiltrating immune cells in diseased tissue. These studies demonstrate that miR-214 functions to promote fibrosis in renal injury independent of TGF-β signaling in vivo and that antagonism of miR-214 may represent a novel antifibrotic treatment in the kidney. PMID:24158985

  4. microRNA-17 Is the Most Up-Regulated Member of the miR-17-92 Cluster during Early Colon Cancer Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Kirsten Nguyen; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Lindebjerg, Jan; Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Holst, René; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated microRNAs play a role in the development and progression of colon cancer, but little is known about their tissue and cell distribution in the continuum of normal mucosa through the premalignant adenoma to invasive adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine the expression pattern of the miR-17-92 cluster (miR-17, miR-18, miR-19, miR-20 and miR-92) as well as miR-21, miR-31, miR-135b, and miR-145 in early clinically diagnosed colon cancer. MicroRNAs were analysed by chromogenic in situ hybridisation in the normal-adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence of nine adenocarcinomas developed in mucosal colon polyps. Subsequently, the expression of selected microRNAs was validated in 24 mucosal colon cancer polyps. Expression of miR-17 was confined to the epithelial cells, and the expression levels increased in the transitional zone from normal to adenomatous tissue. The miR-17-92 cluster members, miR-19b, miR-20a, and miR-92a, followed the same expression pattern, but miR-17 was the most predominant. An increased expression of miR-21 was found in the tumour-associated stroma with the most dramatic increase from adenoma to adenocarcinoma, while the number of positive miR-145 fibroblast-like cells in the normal lamina propria (stroma) decreased in a stepwise manner throughout the normal-adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence. It is concluded that the expression of miR-17, miR-21, and miR-145 changes at early stages of the normal-adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence. Thus, these microRNAs may play a role in the development of colon cancer. PMID:26465597

  5. Context-dependent bidirectional regulation of the MutS homolog 2 by transforming growth factor β contributes to chemoresistance in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Yujun; Ren, Xiubao; Tsuyada, Akihiro; Li, Arthur; Liu, Liguang James; Wang, Shizhen Emily

    2010-12-01

    The TGF-β, a tumor suppressive cytokine in normal cells, is abused in cancer to promote the malignancy. In this study, we reported that TGF-β downregulated the mutS homolog 2 (MSH2), a central component of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system, in HER2-transformed MCF10A mammary epithelial cells and in breast cancer (BC) cells. This was mediated by a TGF-β-induced micro RNA (miRNA), miR-21, which targeted the 3' untranslated region of MSH2 mRNA and downregulated its expression. A negative correlation between the expression of TGF-β1 and MSH2 was also detected in primary breast tumors. In contrast, TGF-β upregulated MSH2 in nontransformed cells through Smad-mediated, p53-dependent promoter activation, which was absent in BC cells with impaired p53 function. Although this upregulating mechanism also existed in MCF10A/HER2 and p53-proficient BC cells, both basal and TGF-β-induced MSH2 promoter activities were significantly lower than those in MCF10A. Moreover, the basal and TGF-β-induced miR-21 levels were markedly higher in transformed cells, suggesting that the preset levels of miR-21 and MSH2 promoter activity, which is affected by the p53 status, determine the outputs of the bidirectional regulation of MSH2 by TGF-β in a certain cellular context. We further found that by downregulating MSH2, TGF-β contributed to resistance to DNA-damaging chemotherapy agents in cancer cells. Our results indicated a regulatory antagonism between promoter activation and miRNA-mediated posttranscriptional inhibition underlying a dual effect of TGF-β on the DNA repair machinery, which may influence the genomic stability in a context-dependent manner and contribute to chemoresistance in cancer.

  6. Pluronic-based micelle encapsulation potentiates myricetin-induced cytotoxicity in human glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiang-Jun; Huang, Kuan-Ming; Gui, Hui; Wang, Jun-Jie; Lu, Jun-Ti; Dai, Long-Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    As one of the natural herbal flavonoids, myricetin has attracted much research interest, mainly owing to its remarkable anticancer properties and negligible side effects. It holds great potential to be developed as an ideal anticancer drug through improving its bioavailability. This study was performed to investigate the effects of Pluronic-based micelle encapsulation on myricetin-induced cytotoxicity and the mechanisms underlying its anticancer properties in human glioblastoma cells. Cell viability was assessed using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay and a real-time cell analyzer. Immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction techniques were used for determining the expression levels of related molecules in protein and mRNA. The results indicated that myricetin-induced cytotoxicity was highly potentiated by the encapsulation of myricetin. Mitochondrial apoptotic pathway was demonstrated to be involved in myricetin-induced glioblastoma cell death. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/PI3K/Akt pathway located in the plasma membrane and cytosol and the RAS-ERK pathway located in mitochondria served as upstream and downstream targets, respectively, in myricetin-induced apoptosis. MiR-21 inhibitors interrupted the expression of EGFR, p-Akt, and K-Ras in the same fashion as myricetin-loaded mixed micelles (MYR-MCs) and miR-21 expression were dose-dependently inhibited by MYR-MCs, indicating the interaction of miR-21 with MYR-MCs. This study provided evidence supportive of further development of MYR-MC formulation for preferentially targeting mitochondria of glioblastoma cells. PMID:27757032

  7. Systemic Delivery of Anti-miRNA for Suppression of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Utilizing RNA Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Shu, Dan; Li, Hui; Shu, Yi; Xiong, Gaofeng; Carson, William E; Haque, Farzin; Xu, Ren; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-10-27

    MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating the gene expression and life cycle of cancer cells. In particular, miR-21, an oncogenic miRNA is a major player involved in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in several cancers, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, delivery of therapeutic miRNA or anti-miRNA specifically into cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miR-21 to block the growth of TNBC in orthotopic mouse models. The 15 nm therapeutic RNA nanoparticles contains the 58-nucleotide (nt) phi29 pRNA-3WJ as a core, a 8-nt sequence complementary to the seed region of miR-21, and a 39-nt epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting aptamer for internalizing RNA nanoparticles into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. The RNase resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection into mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 h postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses. The observed specific cancer targeting and tumor regression is a result of several key attributes of RNA nanoparticles: anionic charge which disallows nonspecific passage across negatively charged cell membrane; "active" targeting using RNA aptamers which increases the homing of RNA nanoparticles to cancer cells; nanoscale size and shape which avoids rapid renal clearance and engulfment by lung macrophages and liver Kupffer cells; favorable biodistribution profiles with little accumulation in healthy organs, which minimizes nonspecific side effects; and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles with extended in vivo half-life. The results demonstrate the clinical potentials of RNA nanotechnology based platform to deliver miRNA based therapeutics for cancer treatment.

  8. Systemic Delivery of Anti-miRNA for Suppression of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Utilizing RNA Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs play important roles in regulating the gene expression and life cycle of cancer cells. In particular, miR-21, an oncogenic miRNA is a major player involved in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in several cancers, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, delivery of therapeutic miRNA or anti-miRNA specifically into cancer cells in vivo without collateral damage to healthy cells remains challenging. We report here the application of RNA nanotechnology for specific and efficient delivery of anti-miR-21 to block the growth of TNBC in orthotopic mouse models. The 15 nm therapeutic RNA nanoparticles contains the 58-nucleotide (nt) phi29 pRNA-3WJ as a core, a 8-nt sequence complementary to the seed region of miR-21, and a 39-nt epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) targeting aptamer for internalizing RNA nanoparticles into cancer cells via receptor mediated endocytosis. The RNase resistant and thermodynamically stable RNA nanoparticles remained intact after systemic injection into mice and strongly bound to tumors with little or no accumulation in healthy organs 8 h postinjection, and subsequently repressed tumor growth at low doses. The observed specific cancer targeting and tumor regression is a result of several key attributes of RNA nanoparticles: anionic charge which disallows nonspecific passage across negatively charged cell membrane; “active” targeting using RNA aptamers which increases the homing of RNA nanoparticles to cancer cells; nanoscale size and shape which avoids rapid renal clearance and engulfment by lung macrophages and liver Kupffer cells; favorable biodistribution profiles with little accumulation in healthy organs, which minimizes nonspecific side effects; and favorable pharmacokinetic profiles with extended in vivo half-life. The results demonstrate the clinical potentials of RNA nanotechnology based platform to deliver miRNA based therapeutics for cancer treatment. PMID:26387848

  9. Stem Cell-Derived, microRNA-Carrying Extracellular Vesicles: A Novel Approach to Interfering with Mesangial Cell Collagen Production in a Hyperglycaemic Setting.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Sara; Gili, Maddalena; Lombardo, Giusy; Rossetti, Alberto; Rosso, Arturo; Dentelli, Patrizia; Togliatto, Gabriele; Deregibus, Maria Chiara; Taverna, Daniela; Camussi, Giovanni; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are derived from stem cells are proving to be promising therapeutic options. We herein investigate the therapeutic potential of EVs that have been derived from different stem cell sources, bone-marrow (MSC) and human liver (HLSC), on mesangial cells (MCs) exposed to hyperglycaemia. By expressing a dominant negative STAT5 construct (ΔNSTAT5) in HG-cultured MCs, we have demonstrated that miR-21 expression is under the control of STAT5, which translates into Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFβ) expression and collagen production. A number of approaches have been used to show that both MSC- and HLSC-derived EVs protect MCs from HG-induced damage via the transfer of miR-222. This resulted in STAT5 down-regulation and a decrease in miR-21 content, TGFβ expression and matrix protein synthesis within MCs. Moreover, we demonstrate that changes in the balance between miR-21 and miR-100 in the recipient cell, which are caused by the transfer of EV cargo, further contribute to providing beneficial effects. Interestingly, these effects were only detected in HG-cultured cells. Finally, it was found that HG reduced the expression of the nuclear encoded mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) components, CoxIV. It is worth noting that EV administration can rescue CoxIV expression in HG-cultured MCs. These results thus demonstrate that both MSC- and HLSC-derived EVs transfer the machinery needed to preserve MCs from HG-mediated damage. This occurs via the horizontal transfer of functional miR-222 which directly interferes with damaging cues. Moreover, our data indicate that the release of EV cargo into recipient cells provides additional therapeutic advantages against harmful mitochondrial signals. PMID:27611075

  10. Temperature imaging with speed of ultrasonic transmission tomography for medical treatment control: A physical model-based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Zhe-Qi; Yuan, Jie; Stephen, Z. Pinter; Oliver, D. Kripfgans; Wang, Xue-Ding; Paul, L. Carson; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Hyperthermia is a promising method to enhance chemo and radiation therapy of breast cancer. In the process of hyperthermia, temperature monitoring is of great importance to assure the effectiveness of treatment. The transmission speed of ultrasound in biomedical tissue changes with temperature. However, when mapping the speed of sound directly to temperature in each pixel as desired for using all speeds of ultrasound data, temperature bipolar edge enhancement artifacts occur near the boundary of two tissues with different speeds of ultrasound. After the analysis of the reasons for causing these artifacts, an optimized method is introduced to rebuild the temperature field image by using the continuity constraint as the judgment criterion. The significant smoothness of the rebuilding image in the transitional area shows that our proposed method can build a more precise temperature image for controlling the medical thermal treatment. Project supported in part by DoD/BCRP Idea Award, BC095397P1, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61201425), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20131280), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Provincial Higher Education Institutions, China, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of United States (Grant Nos. R01AR060350, R01CA91713, and R01AR055179).

  11. Circulating MicroRNAs Are Not Eliminated by Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julius; Schmidt, Mascha; Broll, Michael; Görzig, Yvonne; Kielstein, Jan T.; Thum, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNAs are stably detectable in serum/plasma and other body fluids. In patients with acute kidney injury on dialysis therapy changes of miRNA patterns had been detected. It remains unclear if and how the dialysis procedure itself affects circulating microRNA level. Methods We quantified miR-21 and miR-210 by quantitative RT-PCR in plasma of patients with acute kidney injury requiring dialysis and measured pre- and post-dialyser miRNA levels as well as their amount in the collected spent dialysate. Single treatments using the following filters were studied: F60 S (1.3 m2, Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO): 30 kDa, n = 8), AV 1000 S (1.8 m2, MWCO: 30 kDa, n = 6) and EMiC 2 (1.8 m2, MWCO: 40 kDa, n = 6). Results Circulating levels of miR-21 or -210 do not differ between pre- and post-dialyzer blood samples independently of the used filter surface and pore size: miR-21: F60S: p = 0.35, AV 1000 S p = 1.0, EMiC2 p = 1.0; miR-210: F60S: p = 0.91, AV 1000 S p = 0.09, EMiC2 p = 0.31. Correspondingly, only traces of both miRNAs could be found in the collected spent dialysate and ultrafiltrate. Conclusions In patients with acute kidney injury circulating microRNAs are not removed by dialysis. As only traces of miR-21 and -210 are detected in dialysate and ultrafiltrate, microRNAs in the circulation are likely to be transported by larger structures such as proteins and/or microvesicles. As miRNAs are not affected by dialysis they might be more robust biomarkers of acute kidney injury. PMID:22715378

  12. Gravity Survey on the Glass Buttes Geothermal Exploration Project Lake County, Oregon

    DOE Data Explorer

    John Akerley

    2011-10-12

    This report covers data acquisition, instrumentation and processing of a gravity survey performed on the Glass Buttes Geothermal Exploration Project, located in Lake County, Oregon for ORMAT Technologies Inc. The survey was conducted during 21 June 2010 to 26 June 2010. The survey area is located in T23S, R21-23E and lies within the Glass Buttes, Hat Butte, and Potato Lake, Oregon 1:24,000 topographic sheets. A total of 180 gravity stations were acquired along five profile lines.

  13. The influence of three-dimensional capillary-porous coatings on heat transfer at liquid boiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surtaev, A. S.; Pavlenko, A. N.; Kalita, V. I.; Kuznetsov, D. V.; Komlev, D. I.; Radyuk, A. A.; Ivannikov, A. Yu.

    2016-04-01

    The process of heat transfer at pool boiling of liquid (Freon R21) on tubes with three-dimensional plasma-deposited capillary-porous coatings of various thicknesses has been experimentally studied. Comparative analysis of experimental data showed that the heat transfer coefficient for a heater tube with a 500-μm-thick porous coating is more than twice as large as that in liquid boiling on an otherwise similar uncoated tube. At the same time, no intensification of heat exchange in the regime of bubble boiling is observed on a tube with a 100-μm-thick porous coating.

  14. The construction and validation of a measure of Ethno-cultural Identity Conflict.

    PubMed

    Ward, Colleen; Stuart, Jaimee; Kus, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    The research describes the construction and validation of the Ethno-cultural Identity Conflict Scale (EICS) based on 3 independent samples totaling 975 immigrants, international students, and members of ethnic minority groups. The convergent validity of the 20-item scale was supported by its correlations with Self-Concept Clarity (r = -.65), Sense of Coherence (r = -.58), Identity Distress (r = .48), and the Cultural Conflict (r = .62) and Cultural Distance (r = .21) components of the Bicultural Identity Integration Scale. EICS was also linked to contemporary acculturation research with integrated migrants experiencing less conflict than those who were separated, assimilated, or marginalized. PMID:21859286

  15. MASTER OT J000008.72-334156.5 is probably a M-star flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Y.; Blagorodnova, N.; Cenko, S. B.; MIll, A.

    2015-10-01

    Following ATel #8166, we obtained a 300sec R-band image at the location of MASTER OT J000008.72-334156.5 with DEIMOS mounted on the Keck 2 telescope on 2015-10-18 UT and found a point-like source with R=21.7 mag. We also noticed a source at the same location in WISE with W1=16.6 mag. Therefore, we conclude that MASTER OT J000008.72-334156.5 is probably a galactic M-star flare.

  16. Circulating microRNAs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: association with locoregional staging and survival

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing-Xin; Yu, Qi; Shi, Ze-Liang; Li, Ping; Fu, Shen

    2015-01-01

    Locoregional staging and prognostic information play a critical role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treatment strategies. Although microRNA (miRNA) is a promising marker for cancer detection, the relationship between circulating plasma miRNAs and ESCC remains unclear. Our study aims to investigate the association between circulating plasma miRNAs and tumor diagnosis or prognosis in ESCC patients. Plasma levels of miR-16, miR-21, miR-22, miR-126, miR-148b, miR-185, miR-221, miR-223, and miR-375 were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays from 38 ESCC patients prior to treatment and 19 healthy subjects. Differences in selected miRNAs and their diagnostic and prognostic value were examined. Levels of four of the selected miRNAs were found to be significantly higher in ESCC patients than in controls; namely, miR-16, miR-21, miR-185, and miR-375 (P < 0.050). In addition, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for miR-375 was 0.921 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.817-0.976). Moreover, the expression levels of miR-16 were higher in patients with T3-4 tumors than in patients with T1-2 tumors (P = 0.020). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that high expression levels of miR-16 and miR-21 in the plasma correlated significantly with shortened progression-free survival (PFS; P = 0.031 and P = 0.038, respectively) and overall survival (OS; P = 0.022 and P = 0.041, respectively) in ESCC patients. Four plasma miRNAs were identified that could potentially serve as novel diagnostic biomarkers for ESCC. Moreover, specific miRNAs, such as miR-16 and miR-21, can predict poor survival in ESCC. PMID:26221263

  17. Dysregulated Serum MiRNA Profile and Promising Biomarkers in Dengue-infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Xiaoxi; Jiang, Xin; Gu, Dayong; Zhang, Yaou; Kong, S.K.; Jiang, Chaoxin; Xie, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Pathological biomarkers and mechanisms of dengue infection are poorly understood. We investigated a new serum biomarker using miRNAs and performed further correlation analysis in dengue-infected patients. Methods: Expression levels of broad-spectrum miRNAs in serum samples from three patients with dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) and three healthy volunteers were separately analyzed using miRNA PCR arrays. The expressions of the five selected miRNAs were verified by qRT-PCR in the sera of 40 DENV-1 patients and compared with those from 32 healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the potential of these miRNAs for the diagnosis of dengue infection. Results: MiRNA PCR arrays revealed that 41 miRNAs were upregulated, whereas 12 miRNAs were down-regulated in the sera of DENV-1 patients compared with those in healthy controls. Among these miRNAs, qRT-PCR validation showed that serum hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-590-5p, hsa-miR-188-5p, and hsa-miR-152-3p were upregulated, whereas hsa-miR-146a-5p was down-regulated in dengue-infected patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curves showed serum hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-146a-5p could distinguish dengue-infected patients with preferable sensitivity and specificity. Correlation analysis indicated that expression levels of serum hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-146a-5p were negative and positively correlated with the number of white blood cells and neutrophils, respectively. Functional analysis of target proteins of these miRNAs in silico indicated their involvement in inflammation and cell proliferation. Conclusion: Dengue-infected patients have a broad “fingerprint” profile with dysregulated serum miRNAs. Among these miRNAs, serum hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-146a-5p, hsa-miR-590-5p, hsa-miR-188-5p, and hsa-miR-152-3p were identified as promising serum indicators for dengue infection. PMID:26941580

  18. Olmesartan restores the protective effect of remote ischemic perconditioning against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin; Bi, Yan-Wen; Chen, Ke-Biao

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Remote ischemic perconditioning is the newest technique used to lessen ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, its effect in hypertensive animals has not been investigated. This study aimed to examine the effect of remote ischemic perconditioning in spontaneously hypertensive rats and determine whether chronic treatment with Olmesartan could influence the effect of remote ischemic perconditioning. METHODS: Sixty rats were randomly divided into six groups: vehicle-sham, vehicle-ischemia/reperfusion injury, vehicle-remote ischemic perconditioning, olmesartan-sham, olmesartan-ischemia/reperfusion and olmesartan-remote ischemic perconditioning. The left ventricular mass index, creatine kinase concentration, infarct size, arrhythmia scores, HIF–1α mRNA expression, miR-21 expression and miR-210 expression were measured. RESULTS: Olmesartan significantly reduced the left ventricular mass index, decreased the creatine kinase concentration, limited the infarct size and reduced the arrhythmia score. The infarct size, creatine kinase concentration and arrhythmia score during reperfusion were similar for the vehicle-ischemia/reperfusion group and vehicle-remote ischemic perconditioning group. However, these values were significantly decreased in the olmesartan-remote ischemic perconditioning group compared to the olmesartan-ischemia/reperfusion injury group. HIF–1α, miR-21 and miR-210 expression were markedly down-regulated in the Olmesartan-sham group compared to the vehicle-sham group and significantly up-regulated in the olmesartan-remote ischemic perconditioning group compared to the olmesartan-ischemia/reperfusion injury group. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that 1 the protective effect of remote ischemic perconditioning is lost in vehicle-treated rats and that chronic treatment with Olmesartan restores the protective effect of remote ischemic perconditioning; 2 chronic treatment with Olmesartan down-regulates HIF–1α, miR-21 and miR-210 expression and

  19. A preliminary analysis of microRNA-21 expression alteration after antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Dong; Sun, Xin-Yang; Niu, Wei; Kong, Ling-Ming; He, Ming-Jun; Fan, Hui-Min; Li, Wan-Shuai; Zhong, Ai-Fang; Zhang, Li-Yi; Lu, Jim

    2016-10-30

    Schizophrenia is a severe and debilitating psychiatric disorder of unknown etiology, and its diagnosis is essentially based on clinical symptoms. Despite growing evidence on the relation of altered expression of miRNAs and schizophrenia, most patients with schizophrenia usually had an extensive antipsychotic treatment history before miRNA expression profile analysis, and the pharmacological effects on miRNA expression are largely unknown. To overcome these impediments, miRNA microarray analysis was performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from patients with schizophrenia who were not on antipsychotic medication and healthy controls. Then, using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we verified the top 10 miRNAs with the highest fold-change values from microarray analysis in 82 patients with schizophrenia and 43 healthy controls, and nine miRNAs demonstrated significant differences in expression levels. Finally, we compared these nine miRNA profiles before and after antipsychotic treatment. Our results revealed that serum miR-21 expression decreased strikingly in patients after antipsychotic treatment. The change of miR-21 expression was negatively correlated with improvement of positive, general psychopathology, and aggressiveness symptoms. This study preliminarily analyzed the possible changes in circulating miRNAs expression in response to antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia, and the molecular mechanisms of this needs to be further explored. PMID:27512922

  20. Identification of Suitable Endogenous Normalizers for qRT-PCR Analysis of Plasma microRNA Expression in Essential Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Solayman, Mohamed Hassan M; Langaee, Taimour; Patel, Archanakumari; El-Wakeel, Lamia; El-Hamamsy, Manal; Badary, Osama; Johnson, Julie A

    2016-03-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for many diseases. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a gold standard for miRNA expression profiling that requires proper data normalization. Since there is no universal normalizer, it is recommended to evaluate normalizers under every experimental condition. This study describes the identification of suitable endogenous normalizer(s) (ENs) for plasma miRNA expression in essential hypertension. Expression levels of 5 candidate ENs and 2 plasma quality markers were determined by qRT-PCR in plasma samples from 18 hypertensive patients and 10 healthy controls. NormFinder, GeNorm, and DataAssist software programs were used to select the best EN(s). Expression levels of the 5 candidate ENs were also analyzed in urine samples from hypertensive patients and compared to the plasma samples of the hypertensive patients. Among the analyzed candidates, hsa-miR-92a-3p was identified as the best EN, and hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-16-5p as the next best. Moreover, hsa-miR-92a-3p showed the most consistent expression between plasma and urine. In conclusion, this study showed that hsa-miR-92a-3p, hsa-miR-21-5p, and hsa-miR-16-5p may be used as normalizers for plasma miRNA expression data in essential hypertension studies.