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Sample records for r01 par-08-052 r21

  1. NCI will no longer support investigator-initiated phase III clinical trials through R01 and P01s grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI has traditionally provided support for all phases of clinical trials and interventions via grants and cooperative agreements (including the R03, R21, R01, P01, U01, U10, and UM1 mechanisms). Historically, the majority of early phase trials have been conducted under R03, R21, R01, P01, U01, and UM1 activity codes, whereas most Phase III clinical trials have been conducted under the U10 activity code, with a limited number of Phase III clinical trials performed under the R01, P01, and U01 activity codes... |

  2. Both cancerous miR-21 and stromal miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma are related to tumour progression.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Rena; Uozaki, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Yoshinao; Kumagai, Arisa; Aso, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Masato; Watabe, Shiori; Muto, Satoru; Yamaguchi, Raizo

    2016-12-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a globally common cancer. miR-21 appears to be important in the tumorigenesis of almost all types of human cancer. However, its precise localization and significance in UC have yet to be clarified. The aim of this study was to examine miR-21 expression in UC and reveal its clinicopathological importance. Tissue arrays of 232 UCs were examined for miR-21 by the use of in-situ hybridization. One hundred and forty-eight transurethral resection specimens and 84 surgically resected specimens were used. After miR-21 positivity had been evaluated separately in tumour cells and the tumour stroma, it was compared with clinicopathological factors and overall survival. miR-21 was strongly expressed in tumour cells in 9% of cases and in the tumour stroma in 6% of cases. Stromal miR-21 positivity was lower than that of cancerous miR-21. Both miR-21s were correlated with each other and related to tumour stage, locus, and histological grade. In addition, strong positivity of miR-21 in cancer and the stroma was significantly related to poorer prognosis among surgically resected cases. In a Cox proportional hazard model, cancerous miR-21 was the only independent prognostic factor except for tumour stage. miR-21 in both cancer and stromal cells is closely related to tumour progression in UC. miR-21 may be a prognostic marker for cancer progression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Citation impact of NHLBI R01 grants funded through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act as compared to R01 grants funded through a standard payline.

    PubMed

    Danthi, Narasimhan S; Wu, Colin O; DiMichele, Donna M; Hoots, W Keith; Lauer, Michael S

    2015-02-27

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to fund R01 grants that fared less well on peer review than those funded by meeting a payline threshold. It is not clear whether the sudden availability of additional funding enabled research of similar or lesser citation impact than already funded work. To compare the citation impact of ARRA-funded de novo National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 grants with concurrent de novo National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 grants funded by standard payline mechanisms. We identified de novo (type 1) R01 grants funded by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute in fiscal year 2009: these included 458 funded by meeting Institute's published payline and 165 funded only because of ARRA funding. Compared with payline grants, ARRA grants received fewer total funds (median values, $1.03 versus $1.87 million; P<0.001) for a shorter duration (median values including no-cost extensions, 3.0 versus 4.9 years; P<0.001). Through May 2014, the payline R01 grants generated 3895 publications, whereas the ARRA R01 grants generated 996. Using the InCites database from Thomson-Reuters, we calculated a normalized citation impact for each grant by weighting each article for the number of citations it received normalizing for subject, article type, and year of publication. The ARRA R01 grants had a similar normalized citation impact per $1 million spent as the payline grants (median values [interquartile range], 2.15 [0.73-4.68] versus 2.03 [0.75-4.10]; P=0.61). The similar impact of the ARRA grants persisted even after accounting for potential confounders. Despite shorter durations and lower budgets, ARRA R01 grants had comparable citation outcomes per $million spent to that of contemporaneously funded payline R01 grants. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Adrenaline inhibits osteogenesis via repressing miR-21 expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Danying; Wang, Zuolin

    2017-01-01

    Sympathetic signaling is involved in bone homeostasis; however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we found that the psychological stress mediator adrenaline inhibited osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stem cells (hMSC) by reducing microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression. Briefly, adrenaline significantly inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, as observed with both Alizarin red staining and maker gene expression (RUNX2, OSX, OCN, and OPN). During this process, miR-21 was suppressed by adrenaline via inhibition of histone acetylation, as verified by H3K9Ac chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. MiR-21 was confirmed to promote hMSC osteogenic differentiation, and overexpression of miR-21 reversed the impeditive effect of adrenaline on hMSC osteogenic differentiation. Our results demonstrate that down-regulation of miR-21 is responsible for the adrenaline-mediated inhibition of hMSC osteogenic differentiation. These findings indicate a regulation of bone metabolism by psychological stress and also provide a molecular basis for psychological stress-associated bone diseases.

  5. Targeting miR-21 to treat psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Guinea-Viniegra, Juan; Jiménez, María; Schonthaler, Helia B; Navarro, Raquel; Delgado, Yolanda; Concha-Garzón, María José; Tschachler, Erwin; Obad, Susanna; Daudén, Esteban; Wagner, Erwin F

    2014-02-26

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease with limited treatment options that is characterized by a complex interplay between keratinocytes, immune cells, and inflammatory mediators. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of gene expression and play critical roles in many human diseases. A number of miRNAs have been described to be up-regulated in psoriasis, but their causal contribution to disease development has not been demonstrated. We confirm that miR-21 expression is increased in epidermal lesions of patients with psoriasis and that this leads to reduced epidermal TIMP-3 (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 3) expression and activation of TACE (tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme)/ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17). Using patient-derived skin samples and mouse models of psoriasis, we demonstrate that increased miR-21 may be a consequence of impaired transcriptional activity of Jun/activating protein 1 (AP-1), leading to activation of the interleukin-6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) pathway. Inhibition of miR-21 by locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified anti-miR-21 compounds ameliorated disease pathology in patient-derived psoriatic skin xenotransplants in mice and in a psoriasis-like mouse model. Targeting miR-21 may represent a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of psoriasis.

  6. miR-21: a small multi-faceted RNA

    PubMed Central

    Krichevsky, Anna M; Gabriely, Galina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract More than 1000 microRNAs (miRNAs) are expressed in human cells, some tissue or cell type specific, others considered as house-keeping molecules. Functions and direct mRNA targets for some miRNAs have been relatively well studied over the last years. Every miRNA potentially regulates the expression of numerous protein-coding genes (tens to hundreds), but it has become increasingly clear that not all miRNAs are equally important; diverse high-throughput screenings of various systems have identified a limited number of key functional miRNAs over and over again. Particular miRNAs emerge as principal regulators that control major cell functions in various physiological and pathophysiological settings. Since its identification 3 years ago as the miRNA most commonly and strongly up-regulated in human brain tumour glioblastoma [1], miR-21 has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields, such as development, oncology, stem cell biology and aging, becoming one of the most studied miRNAs, along with let-7, miR-17–92 cluster (‘oncomir-1’), miR-155 and a few others. However, an miR-21 knockout mouse has not yet been generated, and the data about miR-21 functions in normal cells are still very limited. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge of miR-21 functions in human disease, with an emphasis on its regulation, oncogenic role, targets in human cancers, potential as a disease biomarker and novel therapeutic target in oncology. PMID:19175699

  7. Difference in R01 Grant Funding Among Osteopathic and Allopathic Emergency Physicians over the Last Decade.

    PubMed

    Antony, Martina; Savino, Jennifer; Ashurst, John

    2017-06-01

    Receiving an R01 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) is regarded as a major accomplishment for the physician researcher and can be used as a means of scholarly activity for core faculty in emergency medicine (EM). However, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires that a grant must be obtained for it to count towards a core faculty member's scholarly activity, while the American Osteopathic Association states that an application for a grant would qualify for scholarly activity whether it is received or not. The aim of the study was to determine if a medical degree disparity exists between those who successfully receive an EM R01 grant and those who do not, and to determine the publication characteristics of those recipients. We queried the NIH RePORTER search engine for those physicians who received an R01 grant in EM. Degree designation was then determined for each grant recipient based on a web-based search involving the recipient's name and the location where the grant was awarded. The grant recipient was then queried through PubMed central for the total number of publications published in the decade prior to receiving the grant. We noted a total of 264 R01 grant recipients during the study period; of those who received the award, 78.03% were allopathic physicians. No osteopathic physician had received an R01 grant in EM over the past 10 years. Of those allopathic physicians who received the grant, 44.17% held a dual degree. Allopathic physicians had an average of 48.05 publications over the 10 years prior to grant receipt and those with a dual degree had 51.62 publications. Allopathic physicians comprise the majority of those who have received an R01 grant in EM over the last decade. These physicians typically have numerous prior publications and an advanced degree.

  8. Epigenetic regulation of miR-21 in colorectal cancer: ITGB4 as a novel miR-21 target and a three-gene network (miR-21-ITGΒ4-PDCD4) as predictor of metastatic tumor potential.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Angelo; Kontos, Christos K; Boni, Themis; Bantounas, Ioannis; Siakouli, Dimitra; Kosmidou, Vivian; Vlassi, Margarita; Spyridakis, Yannis; Tsipras, Iraklis; Zografos, George; Pintzas, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have uncovered several transcription factors that determine biological alterations in tumor cells to execute the invasion-metastasis cascade, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We sought to investigate the role of miR-21 in colorectal cancer regulation. For this purpose, miR-21 expression was quantified in a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines and clinical specimens. High expression was found in cell lines with EMT properties and in the vast majority of human tumor specimens. We demonstrate in a cell-specific manner the occupancy of MIR-21 gene promoter by AP-1 and ETS1 transcription factors and, for the first time, the pattern of histone posttranslational modifications necessary for miR-21 overexpression. We also show that Integrin-β4 (ITGβ4), exclusively expressed in polarized epithelial cells, is a novel miR-21 target gene and plays a role in the regulation of EMT, since it is remarkably de-repressed after transient miR-21 silencing and downregulated after miR-21 overexpression. miR-21-dependent change of ITGβ4 expression significantly affects cell migration properties of colon cancer cells. Finally, in a subgroup of tumor specimens, ROC curve analysis performed on quantitative PCR data sets for miR-21, ITGβ4, and PDCD4 shows that the combination of high miR-21 with low ITGβ4 and PDCD4 expression is able to predict presence of metastasis. In conclusion, miR-21 is a key player in oncogenic EMT, its overexpression is controlled by the cooperation of genetic and epigenetic alterations, and its levels, along with ITGβ4 and PDCD4 expression, could be exploited as a prognostic tool for CRC metastasis.

  9. miR-21 deficiency inhibits osteoclast function and prevents bone loss in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Cheng-Hu; Sui, Bing-Dong; Du, Fang-Ying; Shuai, Yi; Zheng, Chen-Xi; Zhao, Pan; Yu, Xiao-Rui; Jin, Yan

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs emerge as critical post-transcriptional regulators in bone metabolism. We have previously reported in vitro that miR-21 promotes osteogenesis, while studies have also revealed miR-21 as a regulator of osteoclastogenesis and a promoter of osteoclast differentiation in vitro. However, in vivo data are still lacking in identifying skeletal function of miR-21, particularly its effects on osteoporosis. Here, using miR-21 knockout (miR-21−/−) mice, we investigated effects of miR-21 on bone development, bone remodeling and bone loss. Unexpectedly, miR-21−/− mice demonstrated normal skeletal phenotype in development and maintained osteoblastogenesis in vivo. Besides, miR-21−/− mice showed increased receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and decreased osteoprotegerin (OPG) through miR-21 targeting Sprouty 1 (Spry1). Nevertheless, interestingly, miR-21 deficiency promoted trabecular bone mass accrual physiologically. Furthermore, in pathological states, the protection of bone mass was prominent in miR-21−/− mice. These skeletal effects were attributed to inhibition of bone resorption and osteoclast function by miR-21 deficiency through miR-21 targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), despite the existence of RANKL. As far as we know, this is the first in vivo evidence of a pro-osteoclastic microRNA. Together, these findings clarified function of miR-21 in bone metabolism, particularly uncovering osteo-protective potential of miR-21 inactivation in osteoporosis. PMID:28240263

  10. miR-21 promotes keratinocyte migration and re-epithelialization during wound healing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; Wang, Jun; Guo, Shui-Long; Fan, Kai-Ji; Li, Jun; Wang, You-Liang; Teng, Yan; Yang, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs involved in keratinocyte migration and wound healing are largely unknown. Here, we revealed the indispensable role of miR-21 in keratinocyte migration and in re-epithelialization during wound healing in mice. In HaCaT cell, miR-21 could be upregulated by TGF-β1. Similar to the effect of TGF-β1, miR-21 overexpression promoted keratinocyte migration. Conversely, miR-21 knockdown attenuated TGF-β1-induced keratinocyte migration, suggesting that miR-21 was essential for TGF-β-driven keratinocyte migration. Furthermore, we found that miR-21 was upregulated during wound healing, coincident with the temporal expression pattern of TGF-β1. Consistently, knockdown of endogenous miR-21 using a specific antagomir dramatically delayed re-epithelialization possibly due to the reduced keratinocyte migration. TIMP3 and TIAM1, direct targets of miR-21, were verified to be regulated by miR-21 in vitro and in vivo, indicating that these two molecules might contribute to miR-21-induced keratinocyte migration. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-21 promotes keratinocyte migration and boosts re-epithelialization during skin wound healing.

  11. Targeting miR-21 with AS-miR-21 suppresses aggressive growth of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Zhu, Yu; Lv, Pin; Li, Longjiang

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in many human malignant tumors. Notably, miR-21 was identified to contribute to tumorigenicity. To investigate the repressive effect of targeting miR-21 with AS-miR-21 on proliferation of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). We established the Tca8113-luc cell line with stable luciferase expression using pGL6-luciferase (pGL6-luc) plasmid transfection. TSCC xenograft models were characterized by high tumorigenicity rate and stable growth. Intratumor injection of Oligofectamine™-mediated AS-miR-21 significantly inhibited TSCC growth. The suppression of malignant phenotype was also accompanied by decreased photon signals, rare necrosis foci, smaller nucleuses, weakly stained nucleuses, atypia reversal and tumor angiogenesis reduction. Additionally, miR-21 expression was markedly decreased in TSCC xenografts and the apoptotic index was increased. Intratumor injection of AS-miR-21 into TSCC xenografts could reduce expression of miR-21, promote apoptosis of TSCC cells and inhibit TSCC proliferation. PMID:26191167

  12. The Role of miR-21 in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Susan R; Yang, Chuan He; Pfeffer, Lawrence M

    2015-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous noncoding RNAs that suppress gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. In the past decade, miRNAs have been extensively studied in a number of different human cancers. MiRNAs have been identified to act both as oncogenes and as tumor suppressors. In addition, miRNAs are associated with the intrinsic resistance of cancer to various forms of therapy, and they are implicated in both tumor progression and metastasis. The characterization of the specific alterations in the patterns of miRNA expression in cancer has great potential for identifying biomarkers for early cancer detection, as well as for potential therapeutic intervention in cancer treatment. In this chapter, we describe the ever-expanding role of miR-21 and its target genes in different cancers, and provide insight into how this oncogenic miRNA regulates cancer cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis by suppressing the expression of tumor suppressors.

  13. Downregulation of miR-21 increases cisplatin sensitivity of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liyun; Huang, Yanyan; Chen, Dongdong; He, Jianying; Zhu, Wangyu; Zhang, Yongkui; Liu, Xiaoguang

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that plasma miR-21 is a biomarker of chemotherapeutic response in lung cancer, but the influence of miR-21 on the sensitivity of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to cisplatin (DDP) has not been confirmed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of miR-21 in NSCLC sensitivity to DDP in vitro and in vivo. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect miR-21 expression in lung cancer cell lines. Synthesized locked nucleic acid (LNA) anti-miR-21 was transiently transfected into A549 cells and pre-miR-21 was transfected into SK-MES-1 cells. We also investigated the effects of miR-21 downregulation and upregulation on growth and colony formation in DDP-treated cells. Finally, the effect of miR-21 downregulation on in vivo sensitivity of A549 cells to DDP was determined in BALB/c nude mice. miR-21 expression was significantly higher in A549 than in other lung cancer cell lines. LNA-based knockdown of miR-21 significantly inhibited growth and induced death in A549 cells, possibly via apoptotic signaling. Pre-miR-21 significantly promoted growth and inhibited death in SK-MES-1 cells. Moreover, ectopic suppression of miR-21 sensitized A549 cells to DDP in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that miR-21 suppression enhances the sensitivity of lung cancer cells to DDP in vitro and in vivo.

  14. STAT5 induces miR-21 expression in cutaneous T cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Lise M.; Fredholm, Simon; Joseph, Claudine; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Jønson, Lars; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Gluud, Maria; Blümel, Edda; Petersen, David L.; Sibbesen, Nina; Hu, Tengpeng; Nastasi, Claudia; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Jæhger, Ditte; Persson, Jenny L.; Mongan, Nigel; Wasik, Mariusz A.; Litvinov, Ivan V.; Sasseville, Denis; Koralov, Sergei B.; Bonefeld, Charlotte M.; Geisler, Carsten; Woetmann, Anders; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Iversen, Lars; Odum, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL), miR-21 is aberrantly expressed in skin and peripheral blood and displays anti-apoptotic properties in malignant T cells. It is, however, unclear exactly which cells express miR-21 and what mechanisms regulate miR-21. Here, we demonstrate miR-21 expression in situ in both malignant and reactive lymphocytes as well as stromal cells. qRT-PCR analysis of 47 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary Syndrome (SS) confirmed an increased miR-21 expression that correlated with progressive disease. In cultured malignant T cells miR-21 expression was inhibited by Tofacitinib (CP-690550), a clinical-grade JAK3 inhibitor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis showed direct binding of STAT5 to the miR-21 promoter. Cytokine starvation ex vivo triggered a decrease in miR-21 expression, whereas IL-2 induced an increased miR-21 expression in primary SS T cells and cultured cytokine-dependent SS cells (SeAx). siRNA-mediated depletion of STAT5 inhibited constitutive- and IL-2-induced miR-21 expression in cytokine-independent and dependent T cell lines, respectively. IL-15 and IL-2 were more potent than IL-21 in inducing miR-21 expression in the cytokine-dependent T cells. In conclusion, we provide first evidence that miR-21 is expressed in situ in CTCL skin lesions, induced by IL-2 and IL-15 cytokines, and is regulated by STAT5 in malignant T cells. Thus, our data provide novel evidence for a pathological role of IL-2Rg cytokines in promoting expression of the oncogenic miR-21 in CTCL. PMID:27329723

  15. miR-21 coordinates tumor growth and modulates KRIT1 levels.

    PubMed

    Orso, Francesca; Balzac, Fiorella; Marino, Marco; Lembo, Antonio; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Taverna, Daniela

    2013-08-16

    miR-21 is overexpressed in tumors and it displays oncogenic activity. Here, we show that expression of miR-21 in primary tumors anticorrelates with KRIT1/CCM1, an interacting partner of the Ras-like GTPase Rap1, involved in Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCM). We present evidences that miR-21 silences KRIT1 by targeting its mRNA 3'UTR and that this interaction is involved in tumor growth control. In fact, miR-21 over-expression or KRIT1 knock-down promote anchorage independent tumor cell growth compared to controls, whereas the opposite is observed when anti-miR-21 or KRIT1 overexpression are employed. Our findings suggest that miR-21 promotes tumor cell growth, at least in part, by down-modulating the potential tumor suppressor KRIT1.

  16. miR-21 coordinates tumor growth and modulates KRIT1 levels

    PubMed Central

    Orso, Francesca; Balzac, Fiorella; Marino, Marco; Lembo, Antonio; Retta, Saverio Francesco; Taverna, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    miR-21 is overexpressed in tumors and it displays oncogenic activity. Here, we show that expression of miR-21 in primary tumors anticorrelates with KRIT1/CCM1, an interacting partner of the Ras-like GTPase Rap1, involved in Cerebral Cavernous Malformations (CCM). We present evidences that miR-21 silences KRIT1 by targeting its mRNA 3′UTR and that this interaction is involved in tumor growth control. In fact, miR-21 over-expression or KRIT1 knock-down promote anchorage independent tumor cell growth compared to controls, whereas the opposite is observed when anti-miR-21 or KRIT1 overexpression are employed. Our findings suggest that miR-21 promotes tumor cell growth, at least in part, by down-modulating the potential tumor suppressor KRIT1. PMID:23872064

  17. Histone demethylase RBP2 decreases miR-21 in blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Minran; Zeng, Jiping; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Xiangyu; Huang, Tao; Fu, Yue; Sun, Ting; Jia, Jihui; Chen, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia in the blastic phase (CML-BP) responds poorly to clinical treatments and is usually fatal. In this study, we found that the histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylase RBP2 (also called JARID1A and KDM5A) is underexpressed in CML-BP. The RBP2 histone demethylase stimulates leukemia cell differentiation and inhibits cell proliferation. We identified miR-21 was directly downregulated by RBP2 and found that miR-21 downregulated PDCD4 expression in leukemia cells. By binding to miR-21 promoter and by demethylating of trimethylated H3K4 at the miR-21 locus, RBP2 downregulated miR-21 expression. This in turn activated PDCD4. In conclusion, RBP2 epigenetically downregulated miR-21 in blast transformation of CML. PMID:25575817

  18. Delayed ischemic preconditioning contributes to renal protection by upregulation of miR-21

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xialian; Kriegel, Alison J.; Liu, Yong; Usa, Kristie; Mladinov, Domagoj; Liu, Hong; Fang, Yi; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Liang, Mingyu

    2013-01-01

    Delayed ischemic preconditioning effectively protects kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury but the mechanism underlying renal protection remains poorly understood. Here we examined the in vivo role of microRNA miR-21 in the renal protection conferred by delayed ischemic preconditioning in mice. A 15 minute renal ischemic preconditioning significantly increased the expression of miR-21 by 4 hours and substantially attenuated ischemia-reperfusion injury induced 4 days later. A locked nucleic acid-modified anti-miR-21 given at the time of ischemic preconditioning knocked down miR-21 and significantly exacerbated subsequent ischemia-reperfusion injury in the mouse kidney. Knockdown of miR-21 resulted in significant upregulation of programmed cell death protein 4, a pro-apoptotic target gene of miR-21, and substantially increased tubular cell apoptosis. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α in the kidney was activated after ischemic preconditioning and blockade of its activity with a decoy abolished the up-regulation of miR-21 in cultured human renal epithelial cells treated with the inducer cobalt chloride. In the absence of ischemic preconditioning, knockdown of miR-21 alone did not significantly affect ischemia-reperfusion injury in the mouse kidney. Thus, upregulation of miR-21 contributes to the protective effect of delayed ischemic preconditioning against subsequent renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:22785173

  19. Targeting miR-21-3p inhibits proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Báez-Vega, Perla M; Echevarría Vargas, Ileabett M; Valiyeva, Fatma; Encarnación-Rosado, Joel; Roman, Adriana; Flores, Josean; Marcos-Martínez, María J; Vivas-Mejía, Pablo E

    2016-06-14

    MicroRNA-21 is overexpressed in most cancers and has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Accumulating evidence supports a central role for the miR-21 guide strand (miR-21-5p) in ovarian cancer initiation, progression, and chemoresistance. However, there is limited information regarding the biological role of the miR-21 passenger strand (miR-21-3p) in ovarian cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-21-3p and its target genes in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Expression profiling of miR-21-5p and miR-21-3p was performed in a panel of cancer cells by qPCR. Colony formation and invasion assays were carried out on ovarian and prostate cancer cells transfected with miR-21-5p and miR-21-3p inhibitors. Dual luciferase reporter assays were used to identify the miR-21-3p target genes in ovarian cancer cells. Our results show that miR-21-5p had higher expression levels compared to miR-21-3p on a panel of cancer cells. Moreover, inhibition of miR-21-5p or miR-21-3p resulted in a significant decrease in ovarian and prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Luciferase reporter assays identify RNA Binding Protein with Multiple Splicing (RBPMS), Regulator of Chromosome Condensation and POZ Domain Containing Protein 1 (RCBTB1), and Zinc Finger protein 608 (ZNF608) as miR-21-3p target genes. SiRNA-induced RBPMS silencing reduced the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin treatment. Immunohistochemical analyses of serous ovarian cancer patient samples suggest a significant decrease of RBMPS levels when compared to normal ovarian epithelium. Taken together, the data generated in this study suggests a functional role for miR-21-3p in ovarian cancer and other solid tumors.

  20. miR-21: A gene of dual regulation in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunfu; Liu, Kui; Li, Tao; Fang, Jie; Ding, Yanling; Sun, Lingxian; Tu, Tao; Jiang, Xinyi; Du, Shanmei; Hu, Jiabo; Zhu, Wei; Chen, Huabiao; Sun, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is characterized by an elevated capacity for tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis, but the cause remains to be determined. Recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate the evolution of malignant behavior by regulating multiple target genes. A key oncomir in carcinogenesis is miR-21, which is consistently upregulated in a wide range of cancers. However, few functional studies are available for miR-21, and few targets have been identified. In this study, we explored the role of miR-21 in human breast cancer cells and searched for miR-21 targets.Total RNA from breast cancer tissue and corresponding adjacent normal tissue was extracted and used to detect miR-21 expression by quantificational real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), followed by analysis of the correlation between gonad hormone indices in peripheral blood and miR-21 expression in cancerous tissues from the same patients. Cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion were then examined to determine the role of miR-21 in regulating breast cancer cells. Finally, western blotting was performed to determine if miR-21 regulated expression of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3), and assays of cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion were performed to examine the role of STAT3 in regulation of breast cancer cells. We found that expression of miR-21 increased from normal through benign to cancerous breast tissues. Enhanced miR-21 expression was associated with serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, β-human chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone and prolactin in patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion were increased after overexpression of miR-21 in breast cancer cells and reduced by miR-21 suppression. In addition, we identified a putative miR-21 binding site in the 3'-untranslated region of the STAT3 gene using an online bioinformatical

  1. Targeting miR-21-3p inhibits proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Vega, Perla M.; Vargas, Ileabett M. Echevarría; Valiyeva, Fatma; Encarnación-Rosado, Joel; Roman, Adriana; Flores, Josean; Marcos-Martínez, María J.; Vivas-Mejía, Pablo E.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 is overexpressed in most cancers and has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Accumulating evidence supports a central role for the miR-21 guide strand (miR-21-5p) in ovarian cancer initiation, progression, and chemoresistance. However, there is limited information regarding the biological role of the miR-21 passenger strand (miR-21-3p) in ovarian cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-21-3p and its target genes in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Expression profiling of miR-21-5p and miR-21-3p was performed in a panel of cancer cells by qPCR. Colony formation and invasion assays were carried out on ovarian and prostate cancer cells transfected with miR-21-5p and miR-21-3p inhibitors. Dual luciferase reporter assays were used to identify the miR-21-3p target genes in ovarian cancer cells. Our results show that miR-21-5p had higher expression levels compared to miR-21-3p on a panel of cancer cells. Moreover, inhibition of miR-21-5p or miR-21-3p resulted in a significant decrease in ovarian and prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Luciferase reporter assays identify RNA Binding Protein with Multiple Splicing (RBPMS), Regulator of Chromosome Condensation and POZ Domain Containing Protein 1 (RCBTB1), and Zinc Finger protein 608 (ZNF608) as miR-21-3p target genes. SiRNA-induced RBPMS silencing reduced the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin treatment. Immunohistochemical analyses of serous ovarian cancer patient samples suggest a significant decrease of RBMPS levels when compared to normal ovarian epithelium. Taken together, the data generated in this study suggests a functional role for miR-21-3p in ovarian cancer and other solid tumors. PMID:27166999

  2. Effects of miR-21 downregulation and silibinin treatment in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jahanafrooz, Zohreh; Motamed, Nasrin; Bakhshandeh, Behnaz

    2017-03-20

    Silibinin is a natural polyphenol with high antioxidant and anticancer properties, which causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in most cancer cell types including breast cancer, but the in-line mechanisms, are still unknown. Silibinin significantly downregulated oncomiR miR-21 expression in breast cancer cells. Here the effect of anti-miR-21 on cell viability, apoptotic induction, cell cycle distribution, and the expression levels of downstream targets of miR-21 were investigated in MCF-7 and T47D cells. MiR-21 mimic transfection was also applied in silibinin treated samples to evaluate functional role of miR-21downregulation on silibinin effects. It was found that after anti-miR-21 transfection, no significant changes were detected in cell viability, apoptosis (except early apoptosis), and cell cycle in MCF-7 and T47D cells. Compared to silibinin, miR-21 mimic transfection in combination with silibinin caused a slight modulation in some of the examined silibinin effects including apoptosis, Bcl2 mRNA and PTEN mRNA and protein levels. Silibinin slightly changed luciferase activity from reporters containing the miR-21 recognition elements from PTEN-3'UTR and Bcl2-3'UTR in both cell lines. Together these data demonstrated negligible cancer-progression impact of miR-21 and limited roles of miR-21 downregulation in examined silibinin effects, and strengthened the anti-cancer pathways of silibinin other than miR-21downregulation in MCF-7 and T47D cells.

  3. Therapeutic miR-21 Silencing Ameliorates Diabetic Kidney Disease in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kölling, Malte; Kaucsar, Tamas; Schauerte, Celina; Hübner, Anika; Dettling, Angela; Park, Joon-Keun; Busch, Martin; Wulff, Xaver; Meier, Matthias; Scherf, Kristian; Bukosza, Nóra; Szénási, Gábor; Godó, Mária; Sharma, Amit; Heuser, Michael; Hamar, Peter; Bang, Claudia; Haller, Hermann; Thum, Thomas; Lorenzen, Johan M

    2017-01-04

    Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of end-stage renal disease. MicroRNAs are powerful regulators of the genome, and global expression profiling revealed miR-21 to be among the most highly regulated microRNAs in kidneys of mice with diabetic nephropathy. In kidney biopsies of diabetic patients, miR-21 correlated with tubulointerstitial injury. In situ PCR analysis showed a specific enrichment of miR-21 in glomerular cells. We identified cell division cycle 25a (Cdc25a) and cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) as novel miR-21 targets in mesangial cells. miR-21-mediated repression of Cdc25a and Cdk6 resulted in impaired cell cycle progression and subsequent mesangial cell hypertrophy. miR-21 increased podocyte motility by regulating phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten). miR-21 antagonism in vitro and in vivo in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice decreased mesangial expansion, interstitial fibrosis, macrophage infiltration, podocyte loss, albuminuria, and fibrotic- and inflammatory gene expression. In conclusion, miR-21 antagonism rescued various functional and structural parameters in mice with diabetic nephropathy and, thus, might be a viable option in the treatment of patients with diabetic kidney disease.

  4. MiR-21 Protected Cardiomyocytes against Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis by Targeting BTG2

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhongyi; Jiang, Bimei; Wu, Yanyang; Liu, Yanjuan; Li, Yuanbin; Gao, Min; Jiang, Yu; Lv, Qinglan; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline drug with a wide spectrum of antineoplastic activities. However, it causes cardiac cytotoxicity, and this limits its clinical applications. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) plays a vital role in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. While miR-21 is preferentially expressed in adult cardiomyocytes and involved in cardiac development and heart disease, little is known regarding its biological functions in responding to DOX-induced cardiac cytotoxicity. In this study, the effects of DOX on mouse cardiac function and the expression of miR-21 were examined in both mouse heart tissues and rat H9C2 cardiomyocytes. The results showed that the cardiac functions were more aggravated in chronic DOX injury mice compared with acute DOX-injury mice; DOX treatment significantly increased miR-21 expression in both mouse heart tissue and H9C2 cells. Over-expression of miR-21 attenuated DOX-induced apoptosis in cardiamyocytes whereas knocking down its expression increased DOX-induced apoptosis. These gain- and loss- of function experiments showed that B cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) was a target of miR-21. The expression of BTG2 was significantly decreased both in myocardium and H9C2 cells treated with DOX. The present study has revealed that miR-21 protects mouse myocardium and H9C2 cells against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity probably by targeting BTG2. PMID:26132560

  5. The Oncogenic MicroRNA miR-21 Promotes Regulated Necrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaodong; Conklin, Daniel J.; Li, Fenge; Dai, Zhongping; Hua, Xiang; Li, Yan; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y.; Young, Ken H.; Xiong, Wei; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Sithu, Srinivas D.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate apoptosis, yet their role in regulated necrosis remains unknown. miR-21 is overexpressed in nearly all human cancer types and its role as an oncogene is suggested to largely depend on its anti-apoptotic action. Here we show that miR-21 is overexpressed in a murine model of acute pancreatitis, a pathologic condition involving RIP3-dependent regulated necrosis (necroptosis). Therefore, we investigate the role of miR-21 in acute pancreatitis injury and necroptosis. miR-21 deficiency protects against caerulein- or L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. miR-21 inhibition using locked-nucleic-acid-modified oligonucleotide effectively reduces pancreatitis severity. miR-21 deletion is also protective in tumor necrosis factor-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These data suggest that miRNAs are critical participants in necroptosis, and miR-21 enhances cellular necrosis by negatively regulating tumor suppressor genes associated with the death-receptor-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway and could be a therapeutic target for preventing pathologic necrosis. PMID:25990308

  6. Plasma and saliva miR-21 expression in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sazanov, A A; Kiselyova, E V; Zakharenko, A A; Romanov, M N; Zaraysky, M I

    2016-12-02

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) expression was quantified by real-time qRT-PCR in peripheral blood and saliva samples obtained from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) of varying degrees of malignancy and healthy volunteers. All patients had adenocarcinoma located in the distal colon at different stages. Significant differences were detected between the control group and the total experimental group of CRC patients (plasma, P = 0.0001; saliva, P = 5e-12). MiR-21 expression was also significantly different in certain subgroups of patients with CRC disease stages II-IV as compared to the control group. No correlation of miR-21 expression was found with regard to gender and age of patents. Also, there were no significant individual correlations and linear regression of miR-21 expression in the plasma and saliva. The estimated diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of miR-21 expression were respectively 65 and 85% in the plasma, and 97 and 91% in the saliva. Our data suggest that miR-21 in both the saliva and plasma could be a proper biomarker for CRC screening, although the saliva miR-21 expression test looks preferable due to its higher sensitivity, specificity, and technical simplicity.

  7. The critical roles of miR-21 in anti-cancer effects of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiezhong; Xu, Tiefeng; Chen, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Curcumin is a well-known phytochemical that has various anti-cancer effects. Although it has been demonstrated that curcumin can inhibit multiple signalling pathways, the exact mechanisms for its demonstrated anti-cancer effects are not fully understood. Recent studies have revealed that curcumin may affect cancer initiation and progression through regulating microRNAs (miRs). In this review, we focus on the roles of microRNA-21 (miR-21) in the anti-cancer effects of curcumin and regulatory mechanisms for the effects of curcumin on miR-21. MiR-21 mediates various effects of curcumin on cancer cells including proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and anti-cancer drug resistance. Several downstream pathways of miR-21 have been identified including phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and NF-κB pathways. Curcumin decreases miR-21 levels through both increasing miR-21 exosome exclusion from the cells and inhibiting the transcription of the miR-21 gene in the cells by binding to its promoter.

  8. Inflammation and MiR-21 pathways functionally interact to downregulate PDCD4 in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Oliver; Lee, Andrew C; Cameron, Fraser; Tarbox, Rebecca; Vafadar-Isfahani, Natasha; Tufarelli, Cristina; Lund, Jonathan N

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation plays a direct role in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression; however the molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are unclear. The inflammation induced cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme required for the production of Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), can promote colorectal cancer by decreasing expression of the tumour suppressor gene Programmed Cell Death 4 (PDCD4). As PDCD4 is also a direct target of the oncogene microRNA-21 (miR-21) we investigated the relationship between the COX-2 and miR-21 pathways in colorectal cancer progression. Gene expression profile in tumour and paired normal mucosa from 45 CRC patients demonstrated that up-regulation of COX-2 and miR-21 in tumour tissue correlates with worse Dukes' stage. In vitro studies in colonic adenocarcinoma cells revealed that treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS398 significantly decreased miR-21 levels (p = 0.0067) and increased PDCD4 protein levels (p<0.001), whilst treatment with PGE2 up-regulated miR-21 expression (p = 0.019) and down-regulated PDCD4 protein (p<0.05). These findings indicate that miR-21 is a component of the COX-2 inflammation pathway and that this pathway promotes worsening of disease stage in colorectal cancer by inducing accumulation of PGE2 and increasing expression of miR-21 with consequent downregulation of the tumour suppressor gene PDCD4.

  9. Role of miR-21 in alkalinity stress tolerance in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Wu, Jun-Wei; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Jin-Liang

    2016-02-26

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short, evolutionary conserved non-coding RNA molecules, which are shown as the key regulators of many biological functions. External stress can alter miRNA expression levels, thereby changing the expression of mRNA target genes. Here, we show that miR-21 is involved in the regulation of alkalinity tolerance in Nile tilapia. Alkalinity stress results in a marked reduction in miR-21 levels. miR-21 loss of function could affect ion balance regulation, ROS production, and antioxidant enzyme activity in vivo. Moreover, miR-21 knockdown protects cell against alkalinity stress-induced injury in vitro. miR-21 directly regulates VEGFB and VEGFC expression by targeting the 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of their mRNAs, and inhibition of miR-21 significantly increases the levels of VEGFB and VEGFC expression in vivo. Taken together, our study reveals that miR-21 knockdown plays a protective role in alkalinity tolerance in tilapia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Quantitative Linguistic Analysis of National Institutes of Health R01 Application Critiques from Investigators at One Institution

    PubMed Central

    Kaatz, Anna; Magua, Wairimu; Zimmerman, David R.; Carnes, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Career advancement in academic medicine often hinges on the ability to garner research funds, and the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) R01 award is the “gold standard” of an independent research program. Studies show inconsistencies in R01 reviewers’ scoring and in award outcomes for certain applicant groups. Consistent with the NIH recommendation to examine potential bias in R01 peer review, the authors performed a text analysis of R01 reviewers’ critiques. Method The authors collected 454 critiques (262 from 91 unfunded and 192 from 67 funded applications) from 67 of 76 (88%) R01 investigators at the University of Wisconsin-Madison with initially unfunded applications subsequently funded between December 2007 and May 2009. To analyze critiques the authors developed positive and negative grant application evaluation word categories and selected 5 existing categories relevant to grant review. The authors analyzed results with linear mixed effects models for differences due to applicant and application characteristics. Results Critiques of funded applications contained more positive descriptors and superlatives and fewer negative evaluation words than critiques of unfunded applications. Experienced investigators’ critiques contained more references to competence. Critiques showed differences due to applicant sex despite similar application scores or funding outcomes: more praise for applications from female investigators; greater reference to competence/ability for funded applications from female experienced investigators; and more negative evaluation words for applications from male investigators (Ps < .05). Conclusions Results suggest that text analysis is a promising tool for assessing consistency in R01 reviewers’ judgments and gender stereotypes may operate in R01 review. PMID:25140529

  11. Inhibition of miR-21 in glioma cells using catalytic nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Belter, Agnieszka; Rolle, Katarzyna; Piwecka, Monika; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Naskręt-Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-04-15

    Despite tremendous efforts worldwide, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a deadly disease for which no cure is available and prognosis is very bad. Recently, miR-21 has emerged as a key omnipotent player in carcinogenesis, including brain tumors. It is recognized as an indicator of glioma prognosis and a prosperous target for anti-tumor therapy. Here we show that rationally designed hammerhead ribozymes and DNAzymes can target miR-21 and/or its precursors. They decrease miR-21 level, and thus silence this oncomiR functions. We demonstrated that anti-miRNA catalytic nucleic acids show a novel terrific arsenal for specific and effective combat against diseases with elevated cellular miR-21 content, such as brain tumors.

  12. Inhibition of miR-21 in glioma cells using catalytic nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Belter, Agnieszka; Rolle, Katarzyna; Piwecka, Monika; Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Naskręt-Barciszewska, Mirosława Z.; Barciszewski, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Despite tremendous efforts worldwide, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a deadly disease for which no cure is available and prognosis is very bad. Recently, miR-21 has emerged as a key omnipotent player in carcinogenesis, including brain tumors. It is recognized as an indicator of glioma prognosis and a prosperous target for anti-tumor therapy. Here we show that rationally designed hammerhead ribozymes and DNAzymes can target miR-21 and/or its precursors. They decrease miR-21 level, and thus silence this oncomiR functions. We demonstrated that anti-miRNA catalytic nucleic acids show a novel terrific arsenal for specific and effective combat against diseases with elevated cellular miR-21 content, such as brain tumors. PMID:27079911

  13. Berberine sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin through miR-21/PDCD4 axis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiguo; Fang, Yue; Shen, Huiling; Xu, Wenlin; Li, Hao

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that microRNA-21 (miR-21) contributes to tumor resistance to chemotherapy. Interestingly, we have found that berberine could inhibit miR-21 expression in several cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated whether berberine could modulate the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin and explored the mechanism. The cisplatin-resistant SKOV3 cells that were incubated with berberine combined with cisplatin had a significantly lower survival than the cisplatin alone group and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Berberine could inhibit miR-21 expression and function in ovarian cancer, as shown by an enhancement of its target PDCD4, an important tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer. The results suggested that berberine could modulate the sensitivity of cisplatin via regulating miR-21/PDCD4 axis in the ovarian cancer cells.

  14. MiR-21/RASA1 axis affects malignancy of colon cancer cells via RAS pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Bo; Liu, Wan-Wei; Nie, Wen-Jing; Li, Dong-Feng; Xie, Zi-Jun; Liu, Chao; Liu, Yan-Hui; Mei, Ping; Li, Zi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine how the oncogene miR-21 regulates the RAS signaling pathways and affects colon cancer cell behaviors. METHODS: RAS p21 GTPase activating protein 1 (RASA1) protein expression in six colon cancer cell lines was assessed by Western blot. Colon cancer RKO cells were chosen for transfection because they are KRAS wild type colon cancer cells whose RASA1 expression is significantly decreased. RKO cells were transfected with vectors overexpressing or down-regulating either miR-21 or RASA1. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter assay was used to determine whether RASA1 is a gene target of miR-21. Then, changes in mRNA and protein levels of RASA1, RAS-GTP, and other components of the RAS signaling pathways were assessed in transfected RKO cells by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot and immunoprecipitation. Finally, cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and tumor formation ability were assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye assay, flow cytometry, transwell assay, and animal experiment, respectively. RESULTS: RASA1 protein levels were significantly decreased in RKO cells compared with the other 5 colon cancer cell lines, and RASA1 was confirmed as a target gene of miR-21. Interestingly, RASA1 mRNA and protein levels in pre-miR-21-LV (up-regulation of miR-21) cells were lower than those in anti-miR-21-LV (down-regulation of miR-21) cells (P < 0.05). In addition, pre-miR-21-LV or siRASA1 (down-regulation of RASA1) cells showed higher cell proliferation, reduced apoptosis, increased expression of RAS-GTP, p-AKT, Raf-1, KRAS, and p-ERK1/2, and higher invasion and tumor formation ability, compared with control, anti-miR-21-LV or pcDNA3.1-RASA1 (up-regulation of RASA1) cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: RASA1 is a target gene of miR-21, which promotes malignant behaviors of RKO cells through regulation of RASA1 expression. PMID:25663768

  15. Down-regulation of miR-21 biogenesis by estrogen action contributes to osteoclastic apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sugatani, Toshifumi; Hruska, Keith A

    2013-06-01

    Estrogen inhibits osteoclastogenesis and induces osteoclastic apoptosis; however, the molecular mechanisms remain controversial. Recently, a group has demonstrated that osteoclasts are a direct target for estrogen because estrogen stimulates transcription of the Fas Ligand (FasL) gene in osteoclasts, which in turn causes cell death through an autocrine mechanism. In contrast, other groups have shown that the cells are an indirect target for estrogen because estrogen fails to stimulate the transcription of that in osteoclasts. Thus, two quite different molecular mechanisms have been suggested to explain the effects of estrogen in osteoclastic apoptosis. Here we show that the proapoptotic effect of estrogen during osteoclastogenesis is regulated by a posttranscriptional increase in FasL production by down-regulated microRNA-21 (miR-21) biogenesis. Previously, we reported that miR-21 is highly expressed in osteoclastogenesis. We found that estrogen down-regulates miR-21 biogenesis so that FasL, the targets of miR-21, protein levels are posttranscriptionally increased that induce osteoclastic apoptosis. Moreover, the gain-of-function of miR-21 rescued the apoptosis. In addition, we failed to detect estrogen-enhanced FasL levels at mRNA levels. Thus, osteoclastic survival is controlled by autocrine actions of FasL regulated by estrogen and miR-21 plays a central role during estrogen-controlled osteoclastogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. miR-21 ablation and obeticholic acid ameliorate nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro M; Afonso, Marta B; Simão, André L; Carvalho, Catarina C; Trindade, Alexandre; Duarte, António; Borralho, Pedro M; Machado, Mariana V; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Rodrigues, Cecília Mp; Castro, Rui E

    2017-04-13

    microRNAs were recently suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a disease lacking specific pharmacological treatments. In that regard, nuclear receptors are arising as key molecular targets for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Here we show that, in a typical model of NASH-associated liver damage, microRNA-21 (miR-21) ablation results in a progressive decrease in steatosis, inflammation and lipoapoptosis, with impairment of fibrosis. In a complementary fast food (FF) diet NASH model, mimicking features of the metabolic syndrome, miR-21 levels increase in both liver and muscle, concomitantly with decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a key miR-21 target. Strikingly, miR-21 knockout mice fed the FF diet supplemented with farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) display minimal steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress and cholesterol accumulation. In addition, lipoprotein metabolism was restored, including decreased fatty acid uptake and polyunsaturation, and liver and muscle insulin sensitivity fully reinstated. Finally, the miR-21/PPARα axis was found amplified in liver and muscle biopsies, and in serum, of NAFLD patients, co-substantiating its role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. By unveiling that miR-21 abrogation, together with FXR activation by OCA, significantly improves whole body metabolic parameters in NASH, our results highlight the therapeutic potential of nuclear receptor multi-targeting therapies for NAFLD.

  17. Macrophage deficiency of miR-21 promotes apoptosis, plaque necrosis, and vascular inflammation during atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Rotllan, Noemi; Zhang, Xinbo; Fernández-Fuertes, Marta; Ramírez-Hidalgo, Cristina; Araldi, Elisa; Daimiel, Lidia; Busto, Rebeca; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Suárez, Yajaira

    2017-09-01

    Atherosclerosis, the major cause of cardiovascular disease, is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells in the artery wall. Aberrant expression of microRNAs has been implicated in the pathophysiological processes underlying the progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we define the contribution of miR-21 in hematopoietic cells during atherogenesis. Interestingly, we found that miR-21 is the most abundant miRNA in macrophages and its absence results in accelerated atherosclerosis, plaque necrosis, and vascular inflammation. miR-21 expression influences foam cell formation, sensitivity to ER-stress-induced apoptosis, and phagocytic clearance capacity. Mechanistically, we discovered that the absence of miR-21 in macrophages increases the expression of the miR-21 target gene, MKK3, promoting the induction of p38-CHOP and JNK signaling. Both pathways enhance macrophage apoptosis and promote the post-translational degradation of ABCG1, a transporter that regulates cholesterol efflux in macrophages. Altogether, these findings reveal a major role for hematopoietic miR-21 in atherogenesis. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. Induction of MiR-21 by Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Contributes to the Pulmonary Fibrotic Response

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ok-Seon; Kim, Keun-Tae; Lee, Eunioo; Kim, Myoungjae; Choi, Seo-Hyun; Li, Henghong; Fornace, Albert J.; Cho, Jae-Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Ji-Seon; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Cha, Hyuk-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced lung fibrosis, the most serious effect of lung cancer radiotherapy on normal tissue, remains a major technical obstacle to the broader application of radiotherapy to patients with lung cancer. This study describes the use of an image-guided irradiation system in mice mimicking stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to examine the molecular features of chronic fibrotic response after radiation injury. MicroRNA (miR) array analysis of injured pulmonary tissue identified a set of miRs whose expression was significantly increased in damaged lung tissue. In particular, miR-21 expression was increased at the radiation injury site, concurrent with collagen deposition. Although the inhibition of miR-21 by its specific inhibitor anti-miR-21 only marginally affected endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in lung endothelial cells, this inhibition significantly reduced collagen synthesis in lung fibroblasts. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-21 was sufficient to promote a fibrotic response in lung fibroblasts, enhancing Smad2 phosphorylation concurrent with Smad7 downregulation. These findings indicate that the induction of miR-21 expression is responsible for fibrotic responses observed in mesenchymal cells at the injury site through the potentiation of TGF-β signaling. Local targeting of miR-21 at the injured area could have potential therapeutic utility in mitigating radiation-induced lung fibrosis. PMID:27171163

  19. Prognostic Value of miR-21 in Various Cancers: An Updating Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zebo; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Wei; Shu, Yongqian; Liu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, more and more studies investigated the value of microRNA (miRNA) as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker in various cancers. MiR-21 was found dysregulated in almost all types of cancers. While the prognostic role of miR-21 in many cancers has been studied, the results were not consistent. Methods We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the correlation between miR-21 and survival of general cancers by calculating pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The pooled results of 63 published studies showed that elevated miR-21 was a predictor for poor survival of general carcinomas, with pooled HR of 1.91 (95%CI: 1.66–2.19) for OS, 1.42 (95% CI: 1.16–1.74) for DFS and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.64–2.96) for RFS/CSS. MiR-21 was also a prognostic biomarker in the patients who received adjuvant therapy, with pooled HR of 2.4 (95%CI: 1.18–4.9) for OS. Conclusions Our results showed that miR-21 could act as a significant biomarker in the prognosis of various cancers. Further studies are warranted before the application of the useful biomarker in the clinical. PMID:25019505

  20. Bioluminescence-based detection of microRNA, miR21 in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cissell, Kyle A; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Shrestha, Suresh; Hunt, Eric A; Deo, Sapna K

    2008-04-01

    A hybridization assay for the detection of microRNA, miR21 in cancer cells using the bioluminescent enzyme Renilla luciferase (Rluc) as a label, has been developed. MicroRNAs are small RNAs found in plants, animals, and humans that perform key functions in gene silencing and affect early-stage cell development, cell differentiation, and cell death. miRNAs are considered useful early diagnostic and prognostic markers of cancer, candidates for therapeutic intervention, and targets for basic biomedical research. However, methods for highly sensitive and rapid detection of miRNA directly from samples such as cells that can serve as a suitable diagnostics platform are lacking. In that regard, the utilization of the bioluminescent label, Rluc, that offers the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio, allows for the development of highly sensitive assays for the determination of miRNA in a variety of matrixes. In this paper, we have described the development of a competitive oligonucleotide hybridization assay for the detection of miR21 using the free miR21 and Rluc-labeled miR21 that competes to bind to an immobilized miR21 complementary probe. The miR21 microRNA chosen for this study is of biomedical significance because its levels are elevated in a variety of cancers. Using the optimized assay, a detection limit of 1 fmol was obtained. The assay was employed for the detection of miR21 in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and nontumorigenic epithelial MCF-10A cells. The comparison of miR21 expression level in two cell lines demonstrated higher expression of miR21 in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 compared to the nontumorigenic MCF-10A cells. Further, using the assay developed, the miR21 quantification could be performed directly in cell extracts. The hybridization assay was developed in a microplate format with a total assay time of 1.5 h and without the need for sample PCR amplification. The need for early molecular markers and their detection methods in cancer

  1. 75 FR 47602 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Products Research Project Grant (R01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... substantially contribute to, market approval of these products. Applicants must include in the application's... proposed study will either help support product approval or provide essential data needed for...

  2. 77 FR 46764 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Products Research Project Grant (R01) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... substantially contribute to, market approval of these products. Applicants must include in the application's... either help support product approval or provide essential data needed for product development....

  3. Sirt2 suppresses glioma cell growth through targeting NF-κB–miR-21 axis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ya’nan; Dai, Dongwei; Lu, Qiong; Fei, Mingyu; Li, Mengmeng; Wu, Xi

    2013-11-22

    Highlights: •Sirt2 expression is down-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. •Sirt2 regresses glioma cell growth and colony formation via inducing apoptosis. •miR-21 is essential for the functions of Sirt2 in glioma cells. •Sirt2 deacetylates p65 to decrease miR-21 expression. -- Abstract: Sirtuins are NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylases that regulate numerous cellular processes including aging, DNA repair, cell cycle, metabolism, and survival under stress conditions. The roles of sirtuin family members are widely studied in carcinogenesis. However, their roles in glioma remain unclear. Here we report that Sir2 was under expressed in human glioma tissues and cell lines. We found that Sirt2 overexpression decreased cell proliferation and colony formation capacity. In addition, Sirt2 overexpression induced cellular apoptosis via up-regulating cleaved caspase 3 and Bax, and down-regulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Sirt2 knockdown obtained opposing results. We showed that Sirt2 overexpression inhibited miR-21 expression, and Sirt2 was not sufficient to reduce cell proliferation and colony formation as well as to induce apoptosis when miR-21 was knocked down in glioma cells. Mechanically, we demonstrated that Sirt2 deacetylated p65 at K310 and blocked p65 binding to the promoter region of miR-21, thus regressing the transcription of miR-21. In summary, Sirt2 is critical in human glioma via NF-κB–miR-21 pathway and Sirt2 activator may serve as candidate drug for glioma therapy.

  4. Overexpression of miR-21 promotes the proliferation and migration of cervical cancer cells via the inhibition of PTEN.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingjie; Zhang, Wei; Lv, Qiongying; Zhu, Dingjun

    2015-06-01

    The oncogenic miR-21 has been widely recognized to promote the development and progression of various types of malignant tumors, but not cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of miR-21 and PTEN in cervical cancer specimens using quantitative PCR. The miR-21 level was then manipulated in the cervical cancer lines and the regulation of miR-21 on the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells was determined. Additionally, we determined the role of PTEN in the miR-21-regulated proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. miR-21 was upregulated in the cervical cancer specimens, negatively correlating with the PTEN mRNA level. Transfection of the miR-21 mimics was markedly promoted, whereas the miR-21 inhibitor suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, with a significant inhibition of PTEN expression. In addition, the overexpression of PTEN markedly inhibited the proliferation and migration of the cervical cancer cells. The present study showed the upregulation of miR-21 in invasive cervical cancers, and confirmed the promotion of miR-21 with regard to the proliferation, migration and invasion in cervical cancer cells via inhibiting the PTEN expression. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm that the miR-21/PTEN pathway promotes cervical cancer.

  5. Selective inhibition of miR-21 by phage display screened peptide

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Debojit; Nahar, Smita; Rai, Manish Kumar; Ray, Arjun; Chakraborty, Kausik; Maiti, Souvik

    2015-01-01

    miRNAs are nodal regulators of gene expression and deregulation of miRNAs is causally associated with different diseases, including cancer. Modulation of miRNA expression is thus of therapeutic importance. Small molecules are currently being explored for their potential to downregulate miRNAs. Peptides have shown to have better potency and selectivity toward their targets but their potential in targeting and modulating miRNAs remain unexplored. Herein, using phage display we found a very selective peptide against pre-miR-21. Interestingly, the peptide has the potential to downregulate miR-21, by binding to pre-miR-21 and hindering Dicer processing. It is selective towards miR-21 inside the cell. By antagonising miR-21 function, the peptide is able to increase the expression of its target proteins and thereby increase apoptosis and suppress cell proliferation, invasion and migration. This peptide can further be explored for its anti-cancer activity in vivo and may be even extended to clinical studies. PMID:25824952

  6. MiR-21 is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shuai; Ding, Nan; Pei, Hailong; Hu, Wentao; Wei, Wenjun; Zhang, Xurui; Zhou, Guangming; Wang, Jufang

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects are well-established phenomena, in which DNA damage responses are induced not only in the directly irradiated cells but also in the non-irradiated bystander cells through intercellular signal transmission. Recent studies hint that bystander effects are possibly mediated via small non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs. Thus, more details about the roles of microRNA in bystander effects are urgently needed to be elucidated. Here we demonstrated that bystander effects were induced in human fetal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts through medium-mediated way by different types of radiation. We identified a set of differentially expressed microRNAs in the cell culture medium after irradiation, among which the up-regulation of miR-21 was further verified with qRT-PCR. In addition, we found significant upregulation of miR-21 in both directly irradiated cells and bystander cells, which was confirmed by the expression of miR-21 precursor and its target genes. Transfection of miR-21 mimics into non-irradiated MRC-5 cells caused bystander-like effects. Taken together, our data reveals that miR-21 is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects. Elucidation of such a miRNA-mediated bystander effect is of utmost importance in understanding the biological processes related to ionizing radiation and cell-to-cell communication.

  7. MiR-21 is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shuai; Ding, Nan; Pei, Hailong; Hu, Wentao; Wei, Wenjun; Zhang, Xurui; Zhou, Guangming; Wang, Jufang

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects are well-established phenomena, in which DNA damage responses are induced not only in the directly irradiated cells but also in the non-irradiated bystander cells through intercellular signal transmission. Recent studies hint that bystander effects are possibly mediated via small non-coding RNAs, especially microRNAs. Thus, more details about the roles of microRNA in bystander effects are urgently needed to be elucidated. Here we demonstrated that bystander effects were induced in human fetal lung MRC-5 fibroblasts through medium-mediated way by different types of radiation. We identified a set of differentially expressed microRNAs in the cell culture medium after irradiation, among which the up-regulation of miR-21 was further verified with qRT-PCR. In addition, we found significant upregulation of miR-21 in both directly irradiated cells and bystander cells, which was confirmed by the expression of miR-21 precursor and its target genes. Transfection of miR-21 mimics into non-irradiated MRC-5 cells caused bystander-like effects. Taken together, our data reveals that miR-21 is involved in radiation-induced bystander effects. Elucidation of such a miRNA-mediated bystander effect is of utmost importance in understanding the biological processes related to ionizing radiation and cell-to-cell communication. PMID:25483031

  8. [Advances in Research on miR-21 and Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, He; Zhang, Yulong; Zou, Linglin

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is a malignant tumor from normal breast epithelial. In recent years, many literature reports sought to determine the expression of predicted target genes of microRNA and their potential function, pathways and networks, which are involved in the tumorigenesis, metastasis and prognosis of breast cancer. The miR-21 has recently been found to be highly expressed in solid tumors than normal tissue, and it has exposed some layers of gene expression regulation that becomes a hot topic of breast cancer. This paper briefly reviews advances in research on miR-21 in breast cancer.

  9. MiR-21 promoted proliferation and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma through negative regulation of Navigator-3

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhipeng; Yang, Huan; Ren, Lei

    2015-09-04

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has been well-established and found to be over-expressed in various human cancers and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-21 involvement in the development and progression of HCC remains to be understood. In the present study, we firstly identified that the Navigator-3 (NAV-3) gene as a novel direct target of miR-21. Knock-down of NAV-3 using shRNA can rescue the effects of anti-miR-21 inhibitor in HCC cell lines, whereas re-expression of miR-21 using transfection with miR-21 mimics phenocopied the NAV-3 knock-down model. Additionally, miR-21 levels inversely correlated with NAV-3 both in HCC cells and tissues. Knock-down of NAV-3 promoted both the proliferation and migration in HCC cells. Together, our findings suggest an important role for miR-21 in the progression of HCC, which negatively regulated Navigator-3 in the migration of HCC. - Highlights: • Navigator-3 (NAV-3) suppresses proliferation, migration and tumorigenesis of HCC cells. • NAV-3 was a novel target of miR-21. • MiR-21 negatively regulates NAV-3 in HCC.

  10. miR-21 modulates resistance of HR-HPV positive cervical cancer cells to radiation through targeting LATS1

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shikai; Song, Lili Zhang, Liang; Zeng, Saitian; Gao, Fangyuan

    2015-04-17

    Although multiple miRNAs are found involved in radioresistance development in HR-HPV positive (+) cervical cancer, only limited studies explored the regulative mechanism of the miRNAs. miR-21 is one of the miRNAs significantly upregulated in HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer is also significantly associated with radioresistance. However, the detailed regulative network of miR-21 in radioresistance is still not clear. In this study, we confirmed that miR-21 overexpression was associated with higher level of radioresistance in HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer patients and thus decided to further explore its role. Findings of this study found miR-21 can negatively affect radiosensitivity of HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer cells and decrease radiation induced G2/M block and increase S phase accumulation. By using dual luciferase assay, we verified a binding site between miR-21 and 3′-UTR of large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1). Through direct binding, miR-21 can regulate LATS1 expression in cervical cancer cells. LATS1 overexpression can reverse miR-21 induced higher colony formation rate and also reduced miR-21 induced S phase accumulation and G2/M phase block reduction under radiation treatment. These results suggested that miR-21-LATS1 axis plays an important role in regulating radiosensitivity. - Highlights: • miR-21 is highly expressed in HR-HPV (+) radioresistant cervical cancer patients. • miR-21 can negatively affect radiosensitivity of HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer cells. • miR-21 can decrease radiation induced G2/M block and increase S phase accumulation. • miR-21 modulates radiosensitivity cervical cancer cell by directly targeting LATS1.

  11. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Postharvest Fungus Penicillium expansum R21

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuliang; Hua, Sui Sheng T.; Yu, Jiujiang; Bu, Lijing; Pennerman, Kayla K.; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Bennett, Joan W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Blue mold is the vernacular name of a common postharvest disease of stored apples, pears, and quince that is caused by several common species of Penicillium. This study reports the draft genome sequence of Penicillium expansum strain R21, which was isolated from a red delicious apple in 2011 in Pennsylvania. PMID:28209811

  12. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Postharvest Fungus Penicillium expansum R21.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Yuliang; Hua, Sui Sheng T; Yu, Jiujiang; Bu, Lijing; Pennerman, Kayla K; Huang, Qixing; Guo, Anping; Bennett, Joan W

    2017-02-16

    Blue mold is the vernacular name of a common postharvest disease of stored apples, pears, and quince that is caused by several common species of Penicillium This study reports the draft genome sequence of Penicillium expansum strain R21, which was isolated from a red delicious apple in 2011 in Pennsylvania.

  13. Cardamonin Regulates miR-21 Expression and Suppresses Angiogenesis Induced by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fu-Sheng; Tian, Sha-Sha; Lu, Jin-Jian; Ding, Xing-Hong; Qian, Chao-Dong; Ding, Bin; Ding, Zhi-Shan; Jin, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Cardamonin has promising potential in cancer prevention and therapy by interacting with proteins and modifying the expressions and activities, including factors of cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. In our precious study, we have demonstrated that cardamonin suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF-) induced angiogenesis as evaluated in the mouse aortic ring assay. It is also known that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in angiogenesis. Herein, we hypothesized whether antiangiogenesis effect of cardamonin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) triggered by VEGF was associated with miRNAs. We found that cardamonin reduced the miR-21 expression induced by VEGF in HUVECs. Treatment with miR-21 mimics abolished the effects of cardamonin on VEGF-induced cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in HUVECs. However, treatment with miR-21 inhibitors presented the opposite effects, indicating the vital role of miR-21 in this process. Our study provides a new insight of the preliminary mechanism of anti-VEGF-induced angiogenesis by cardamonin in HUVECs. PMID:26266258

  14. Genome sequencing and analyses of the postharvest fungus Penicillium expansum R21

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blue mold is the vernacular name of a common postharvest disease of stored apples, pears and quince that is caused by several common species of Penicillium. This study reports the draft genome sequence of Penicillium expansum strain R21, a strain isolated from a Red Delicious apple in 2011 in Pennsy...

  15. A feedback regulatory loop between HIF-1α and miR-21 in response to hypoxia in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Nie, Honggang; Zhang, Kuikui; Ma, Dan; Yang, Guang; Zheng, Zhilei; Liu, Kai; Yu, Bo; Zhai, Changlin; Yang, Shuang

    2014-08-25

    Accumulating evidence suggests that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) regulates numerous miRNAs and is crucial for cellular response to hypoxia. However, the relationship between HIF-1α and miR-21 in hypoxic cardiomyocytes is little known. We found that hypoxia induced HIF-1α and miR-21 expression. HIF-1α knockdown increased cell apoptosis and reduced miR-21 expression. Furthermore, we found that HIF-1α transcriptionally enhanced miR-21 promoter activity by binding to its promoter, which required the recruitment of CBP/p300. In addition, we found that miR-21 inhibition increased cell apoptosis and reduced HIF-1α expression, and modulated the PTEN/Akt pathway. Our results indicate that HIF-1α-miR-21 feedback contributes to the adaptation of cardiomyocytes to hypoxia, and has potential as therapeutic target for myocardial ischemia.

  16. ERβ regulates miR-21 expression and inhibits invasion and metastasis in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Junmei; Tu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Wei R.; Gu, Yueqing

    2012-03-01

    In human, estrogens play important roles in many physiological processes, and is also found to be connected with numerous cancers. In these diseases, estrogen mediates its effects through the estrogen receptor (ER), which serves as the basis for many current clinical diagnosis. Two forms of the estrogen receptor have been identified, ERα and ERβ, and show different and specific functions. The two estrogen receptors belong to a family of ligand-regulated transcription factors. Estrogen via ERα stimulates proliferation in the breast, uterus, and developing prostate, while estrogen via ERβ inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation in the prostate, mammary gland, colon, lung, and bone marrow stem cells. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that occur naturally and downregulate protein expression by translational blockade of the target mRNA or by promoting mRNA decay. MiR-21 is one of the most studied miRNAs in cancers. MiR-21 is overexpressed in the most solid tumors, promoting progression and metastasis. The miR-21 gene is located on the chromosome 17, in the 10th intron of a protein-coding gene, TMEM49. While, the function of TMEM49 is currently unknown. Our experiment is designed to identity the relationship between miR-21 and ERβ in cancer progression. The human cancer cells were transfected with ERβ. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression level of miR-21 was significantly inhibited down by ERβ treatment. As MTT assay showed the tumor cell survival rate was also inhibited significantly. Go/Gl phase cell cycle arrest was founded and tumor cell apoptosis was induced in ERβ group.

  17. Characterization and effects of miR-21 expression in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wen, S-W; Zhang, Y-F; Li, Y; Liu, Z-X; Lv, H-L; Li, Z-H; Xu, Y-Z; Zhu, Y-G; Tian, Z-Q

    2015-08-03

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of miR-21 in esophageal cancer and the impact of miR-21 on apoptosis, invasion, and the expression of target genes in esophageal cancer cells. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the expression of miR-21 in human esophageal tissues, adjacent tissues, and an esophageal cancer cell line (TE-13). The antisense miR-21 oligonucleotide was generated commercially using the solid-phase chemical synthesis method. Transient transfection was used to transfect esophageal cancer cells (TE-13 antisense and TE-13 control cells). Flow cytometry and Transwell cell assays were used to detect the apoptosis and invasion of esophageal cancer cells, respectively. The western blot method was used to detect the expression of PTEN, PDCD4, and K-ras proteins. These analyses determined that mir-21 expression significantly increased in esophageal cancer tissues and in TE-13 cells, and that this phenomenon was not associated with staging or lymph node metastasis. The apoptosis rate of TE-13 control cells was lower than that of antisense TE-13 cells indicating an enhanced invasive ability. In tissues adjacent to esophageal cancer and in TE-13 antisense cells, the expression of PTEN and PDCD4 was found to be higher than that in the control group, whereas the expression of K-ras showed the opposite pattern. Together, these results suggest that miR- 21 might be involved in the development and metastasis of esophageal cancer, through interaction with its PDCD4 and K-ras target genes.

  18. Down-regulation of PTEN expression modulated by dysregulated miR-21 contributes to the progression of esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Mao, Wei-Min; Zheng, Zhi-Guo; Dong, Zi-Ming; Ling, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    miR-21, a putative tumor oncomiR, is a frequently overexpressed miRNA in a variety of tumors. Because it targets tumor-suppressor genes it has been linked to tumor progression. In this study we investigated the role of miR-21 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and its possible mechanism. Expression of miR-21 was detected by stem-loop RT-PCR in tissue from 76 invasive ESCC at stage I-IV and in their corresponding para-cancerous histological normal tissues (PCHNT). Thirty endoscopic esophageal mucosal biopsy specimens from non-tumor patients were used as controls. Expression of PTEN in 76 paired ESCC and PCHNT was investigated by real-time RT-PCR and an immunohistochemical method, respectively. Paired tumor and PCHNT specimens of 20 ESCC cases were randomly selected for western blot analysis. The effect of miR-21 on PTEN expression was assessed in the ESCC cell line with an miR-21 inhibitor to reduce miR-21 expression. Furthermore, the roles of miR-21 in cell biology were analyzed by use of miR-21 inhibitor-transfected cells. Stem-loop RT-PCR revealed miR-21 was significantly overexpressed in ESCC tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of miR-21 correlated with tumor status, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage. We demonstrated that knockdown of miR-21 significantly increased expression of PTEN protein. Consequent PTEN expression reduced cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. Our findings suggest that miR-21 could be a potential oncomiR, probably by regulation of PTEN, and a novel prognostic factor for ESCC patients.

  19. [Down-regulation of miR-21 expression enhances the radiosensitivity of TE-1 cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqing; Chen, Xin; Huang, Shan; Che, Shaomin; Zhang, Xiaozhi

    2012-11-01

    To study the effect of miR-21 down-regulation on the radiosensitivity of TE-1 cells in vitro. TE-1 cells were transfected via lentivirus with a vector containing the antisense oligonucleotides of miR21, and the subclones with stable down-regulation of miR21 expression were selected with puromycin and designated as TE-1-miR21(-), whose expression level of miR21 was determined using real-time quantitative PCR. The radiosensitivity of TE-1 and TE-1-miR21(-) cells were evaluated with colony formation assay, and the expressions of β-catenin was determined using Western blotting and RT-PCR. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the proportion of p75NTR(+) cells in TE-1 and TE-1-miR21(-) cells. A cell subclone stably expressing a low level of miR21 was obtained and verified by real-time quantitative PCR. Colony formation assay showed an enhanced the radiosensitivity of TE-1-miR21(-) cells compared to parental TE-1 cells. RT-PCR revealed no significant changes in β-catenin mRNA expression in TE-1-miR21(-) cells, whereas its β-catenin protein expression was markedly suppressed by high-dose (8 and 10 Gy) irradiation. Flow cytometry assay showed a decreased proportion of p75NTR(+) cells in TE-1-miR21(-) cells compared to that in TE-1 cells. Down-regulation of miR21 can enhance the radiosensitivity of TE-1 cells, which might result from the inactivation of wnt/β-catenin signal pathway and a decreased p75NTR(+) cell proportion.

  20. MYCN-mediated miR-21 overexpression enhances chemo-resistance via targeting CADM1 in tongue cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guopei; Li, Nan; Jia, Xiaoting; Peng, Cong; Luo, Liyun; Deng, Yingen; Yin, Jiang; Song, Ying; Liu, Hao; Lu, Minying; Zhang, Zhijie; Gu, Yixue; He, Zhimin

    2016-10-01

    Chemo-resistance is still a major obstacle in successful cancer treatment. Previously, we found that miR-21 (miR-21-5p) was upregulated in drug-resistant tongue cancer (TC) cell line Tca8113/PYM. However, the mechanisms for miR-21 upregulation and its role in chemo-resistance in TC remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that functional inhibition of miR-21 sensitized TC cells to chemotherapy. In agreement, overexpressed miR-21 enhanced chemo-resistance in TC cells. We found that miR-21 directly targeted CADM1 expression, which was downregulated in drug-resistant TC cells. Restored CADM1 expression sensitized TC cells to chemotherapy, but CADM1 knockdown induced chemo-resistance. Mechanically, CADM1 interacted with BMI1 to inhibit its nuclear translocation. Moreover, MYCN which was overexpressed in drug-resistant TC cells directly bound to the miR-21 promoter to upregulated miR-21 expression in TC cells. Importantly, the expression levels of miR-21 and CADM1 negatively correlated, but MYCN and miR-21 positively correlated in TC tissues. High levels of miR-21 and MYCN and low level of CADM1 were associated with poor prognosis in TC patients. In conclusion, our study suggests an important role of the MYCN/miR-21/CADM1 axis in chemo-resistance in TC patients and may lead to promising prognostic biomarkers and novel treatment strategies to improve the chemotherapeutic efficacy for TC patients.

  1. Mutation of miR-21 targets endogenous lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Ping; Li, Hong-Jue; Nie, Jiao; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic disorder characterized by hepatic fat accumulation and abnormal lipid metabolism. Although miR-21 has been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, it is unknown whether miR-21 could function as a therapeutic target. Here, we perform transfection analysis of miR-21 mimic or control mimic to evaluate the effects of miR-21 expression levels on human HepG2 nonalcoholic fatty liver cells. We used siRNA techniques to knock down miR-21 in HepG2 and control 293T cell lines, and then monitored lipid production and the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The effects of miR-21 expression levels on LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) expression were evaluated using qRT-PCR and western blot analyses. Luciferase reporter assays were conducted to confirm the effects of miR-21 expression levels on LRP6. The results indicated that transfection of miR-21 mimic induced changes in the expression levels of lipogenic enzymes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), stearoyl CoA desaturase (1SCD1), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα). Transfection of miR-21 mimic suppressed the transcription and translation of LRP6 at the mRNA and protein levels, whereas miR-21 knockdown increased the expression levels of LRP6. Transfection of miR-21 mimic in HepG2 cells also induced lipid production and triggered the expression of critical lipid metabolic enzymes. These data suggest that mutation of miR-21 may be a new therapeutic strategy to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases by targeting endogenous LRP6.

  2. Mutation of miR-21 targets endogenous lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-Ping; Li, Hong-Jue; Nie, Jiao; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Xian

    2017-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic disorder characterized by hepatic fat accumulation and abnormal lipid metabolism. Although miR-21 has been implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, it is unknown whether miR-21 could function as a therapeutic target. Here, we perform transfection analysis of miR-21 mimic or control mimic to evaluate the effects of miR-21 expression levels on human HepG2 nonalcoholic fatty liver cells. We used siRNA techniques to knock down miR-21 in HepG2 and control 293T cell lines, and then monitored lipid production and the expression levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism. The effects of miR-21 expression levels on LDL receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) expression were evaluated using qRT-PCR and western blot analyses. Luciferase reporter assays were conducted to confirm the effects of miR-21 expression levels on LRP6. The results indicated that transfection of miR-21 mimic induced changes in the expression levels of lipogenic enzymes, including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), stearoyl CoA desaturase (1SCD1), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα). Transfection of miR-21 mimic suppressed the transcription and translation of LRP6 at the mRNA and protein levels, whereas miR-21 knockdown increased the expression levels of LRP6. Transfection of miR-21 mimic in HepG2 cells also induced lipid production and triggered the expression of critical lipid metabolic enzymes. These data suggest that mutation of miR-21 may be a new therapeutic strategy to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases by targeting endogenous LRP6. PMID:28337300

  3. miR-21 modulates resistance of HR-HPV positive cervical cancer cells to radiation through targeting LATS1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shikai; Song, Lili; Zhang, Liang; Zeng, Saitian; Gao, Fangyuan

    2015-04-17

    Although multiple miRNAs are found involved in radioresistance development in HR-HPV positive (+) cervical cancer, only limited studies explored the regulative mechanism of the miRNAs. miR-21 is one of the miRNAs significantly upregulated in HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer is also significantly associated with radioresistance. However, the detailed regulative network of miR-21 in radioresistance is still not clear. In this study, we confirmed that miR-21 overexpression was associated with higher level of radioresistance in HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer patients and thus decided to further explore its role. Findings of this study found miR-21 can negatively affect radiosensitivity of HR-HPV (+) cervical cancer cells and decrease radiation induced G2/M block and increase S phase accumulation. By using dual luciferase assay, we verified a binding site between miR-21 and 3'-UTR of large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1). Through direct binding, miR-21 can regulate LATS1 expression in cervical cancer cells. LATS1 overexpression can reverse miR-21 induced higher colony formation rate and also reduced miR-21 induced S phase accumulation and G2/M phase block reduction under radiation treatment. These results suggested that miR-21-LATS1 axis plays an important role in regulating radiosensitivity.

  4. MiR-21 alleviates secondary blood-brain barrier damage after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xintong; Han, Zhaoli; Chen, Fanglian; Wang, Haichen; Zhang, Baoliang; Jiang, Rongcai; Lei, Ping; Zhang, Jianning

    2015-04-07

    Our recent studies have identified increased expression of miR-21 in brain following traumatic brain injury (TBI), which alleviated brain edema that related to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage. To analyze the potential effect of miR-21 on secondary BBB damage after TBI, we employed the fluid percussion injury rat model and manipulated the expression level of miR-21 in brain. We found that miR-21 level in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) in lesioned cerebral cortex can be upregulated or downregulated by intracerebroventricular infusion of miR-21 agomir or antagomir. Upregulated miR-21 level conferred a better neurological outcome of TBI, and alleviated TBI-induced secondary BBB damage and loss of tight junction proteins. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying this protective effect, we detected the impact of miR-21 on the expression of Angiopoietin-1(Ang-1) and Tie-2, which can promote the expression of tight junction proteins and amplify BBB stabilization. We found that miR-21 exerts the protective effect on BBB by activating the Ang-1/Tie-2 axis in BMVECs. Thus, miR-21 could be a potential therapeutic target for interventions of secondary BBB damage after TBI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aberrant upregulation of miR-21 in placental tissues of macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Wu, W; Zhang, M; Li, J; Peng, Y; Miao, T-T; Zhu, H; Xu, G

    2014-09-01

    With China's rapid economic growth in the past 3 decades, an increase in rate of macrosomia has been reported in China. Fetal growth is a result of multiple factors including genetic potential for growth, maternal nutrition, maternal metabolism, endocrine factors and placental perfusion and function. However, the detailed mechanism of how macrosomia happened remains poorly known. Recent studies showed that the expression of a number of microRNAs (miRNAs) in placentas is involved in fetal growth. We hypothesized that aberrant expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and microRNA-16 (miR-16) in placenta is associated with macrosomia. Using quantitative real time PCR, we analyzed the expression level of miR-21 and miR-16 in terminal placentas of macrosomia pregnancies (n=35) and normal controls (n=35). Potential target genes of miRNA were predicted using TargetScan, miRanda and PicTar. Target genes were mapped to KEGG pathways using KEGG Mapper with an in-house Perl script with KEGG Gene IDs. MiR-21 showed significant up-regulation in macrosomia (P=0.037). After controlling the potential confounders, multivariable logistic regression analysis suggested the risk of macrosomia increased, multivariable adjusted ORs of macrosomia for those in the highest tertile was 3.931 (95%CI: 1.049-14.736) compared with those in the lowest tertile in terms of miR-21 level. The target genes of miR-21 were involved in eight possible signaling pathways. They were pathways in P53 signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway, TGF-beta signaling pathway and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway (P<0.001), Wnt signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway and mTOR signaling pathway (P<0.05). Our study is the first to investigate the association between placental miRNA expression and macrosomia. Our results indicate that the expression level of miR-21 in placental tissue may be involved in the development of macrosomia.

  6. miR-21 down-regulation promotes apoptosis and inhibits invasion and migration abilities of OVCAR3 cells.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yanhui; Cui, Zhumei; Wang, Fuling; Yang, Xingsheng; Qian, Jinhua

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the influence of miR-21 down-regulation on cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration of ovarian papillary adenocarcinoma cell lines (OVCAR3). Short-hairpin RNA (shRNA), specifically targeting miR-21, was constructed and transfected into OVCAR3 cells using the pSIREN-RetroQ linear vector (pSIREN-miR-21). The expression of miR-21 was detected with stem-loop real-time RT-PCR in OVCAR3 cells. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were monitored using the MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Cell migration and invasion were assessed using the transwell migration and scratch-wound assay, respectively. Western-bloting was used for PDCD4 protein expression. pSIREN-miR-21 suppressed miR-21 expression in OVCAR3 cells. miR-21 expression levels in pSIREN-miR-21 cells was 0.3 ± 0.1, which was significantly lower when compared with pSIREN-miR-21-Neg and control groups (P < 0.01). Cell inhibition rate in the pSIREN-miR-21 group was higher than the control group (29.4% vs 9.0%, P < 0.01), as was the percentage of apoptotic and necrotic cells. By transwell migration assay, the number of cells migrating in the pSIREN-miR-21 group was significantly lower than in the control group. In addition, fewer cells were observed in the wounded area of the pSIREN-miR-21 group following the scratch-wound assay. PDCD4 expression was increased in OVCAR-3 cells transfected by pSIREN-miR-21 compared with vector-control transfected cells. Moreover, the optical density of the transfected cells was significantly lower than the two control groups. Down-regulation of miR-21 dramatically increased apoptotic cell death and decreased cell proliferation, invasion and migration in OVCAR3 cells. MiR-21 may play an important role in the biological behaviors of epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells through negative control of the expression of PDCD4.

  7. [miR-21 promotes pulmonary fibrosis in rats via down-regulating the expression of ADAMTS-1].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijing; Yin, Huiming; Huang, Minjiang; He, Jianbin; Yi, Gaozhong; Wang, Zaiyan; Qian, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Objective To observe the effect of miR-21 on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats, and explore the related mechanism. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients (n=20) and healthy adults (n=20). Fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR was then used to measure miR-21 expression. Forty-five SD rats were randomly divided into control group, miR-21 agomir group and miR-21 antagomir group. Each group included 15 rats. After establishment of pulmonary fibrosis models by intratracheal administration with bleomycin A5, rats in control group, miR-21 agomir group and miR-21 antagomir group were injected at caudal vein with normal saline, miR21 agomir and miR21 antagomir, respectively. All rats were sacrificed on day 28 after modeling. Subsequently, the pulmonary tissues were removed for HE and Masson staining. The mRNA and protein expressions of a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif (ADAMTS-1), collagen type 1 (Col1) and collagen type 3 (Col3) were detected by fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Serum was separated to examine procollagen type 1 carboxyterminal propeptide (P1CP) and procollagen type 3 aminoterminal propeptide (P3NP) concentrations by ELISA. Results The level of miR-21 in peripheral blood was higher in IPF patients than in healthy adults. The alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis extent in miR-21 agomir group was heavier than that in the control group. However, the alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis extent in miR-21 antagomir group was improved when compared with the control group. In comparison with the control group, ADAMTS-1 mRNA and protein expression was significantly downregulated, whereas the mRNA and protein expressions of Col1 and Col3 were significantly upregulated and serum P1CP and P3NP concentrations were elevated in miR-21 agomir group. On the contrary, the level of ADAMTS-1 mRNA and protein expression in miR-21 antagomir group was

  8. [Influence of knock-down of miR-21 expression on the radiosensitivity of glioma SHG-44 cells].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ju-ying; Zhou, Chong; Wang, Li-li; Xu, Xiao-ting; Qin, Song-bing

    2011-10-01

    To explore the influence of knock-down of miR-21 expression on the radiosensitivity of radioresistant glioma SHG-44 cells and its mechanism. Radioresistant cell line SHG-44(R) cells were established from radiosensitive parental SHG-44 glioma cells. Then the expression levels of miR-21 in SHG-44(R) and SHG-44 were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. The effect of miR-21 on the radiosensitivity was assessed in SHG-44(R) with miR-21 inhibitor to decrease the miR-21 expression. miR-21 was up-regulated 1.49-fold in SHG-44(R) cells relative to the SHG-44 cells. But after transfection with As-miR-21, the miR-21 expression in SHG-44(R) cells was knocked down significantly. As-miR-21 combined with radiation could synergistically enhanced mitotic death and apoptosis of SHG-44(R) cells, with SER of D(0) and D(q) being equal to 1.48 and 1.54, respectively. Expression levels of caspase-3 in the radiation group, AS-miR-21 transfection group and combination group were 2.24 ± 0.14, 2.05 ± 0.19 and 5.72 ± 0.45, respectively, and its expression in the combination group was higher than that in the other two groups. miR-21 may be involved in the formation of radioresistance of glioma cells and as a potential target for enhancing the response of radioresistant-glioma cells to radiotheapy.

  9. The serum miR-21 level serves as a predictor for the chemosensitivity of advanced pancreatic cancer, and miR-21 expression confers chemoresistance by targeting FasL.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zhuang, Liping; Zhang, Juan; Fan, Jie; Luo, Jianmin; Chen, Hao; Wang, Kun; Liu, Luming; Chen, Zhen; Meng, Zhiqiang

    2013-06-01

    miR-21 expression in cancer tissue has been reported to be associated with the clinical outcome and activity of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer. However, resection is possible in only a minority of patients due to the advanced stages often present at the time of diagnosis, and safely obtaining sufficient quantities of pancreatic tumor tissue for molecular analysis is difficult at the unresectable stages. In this study, we investigated whether the serum level of miR-21 could be used as a predictor of chemosensitivity. We tested the levels of serum miR-21 in a cohort of 177 cases of advanced pancreatic cancer who received gemcitabine-based palliative chemotherapy. We found that a high level of miR-21 in the serum was significantly correlated with a shortened time-to-progression (TTP) and a lower overall survival (OS). The serum miR-21 level was an independent prognostic factor for both the TTP and the OS (HR 1.920; 95% CI, 1.274-2.903, p = 0.002 for TTP and HR 1.705; 95% CI, 1.147-2.535, p = 0.008 for OS). The results from a functional study showed that gemcitabine exposure down-regulated miR-21 expression and up-regulated FasL expression. The increased FasL expression following gemcitabine treatment induced cancer cell apoptosis, whereas the ectopic expression of miR-21 partially protected the cancer cells from gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Additionally, we confirmed that FasL was a direct target of miR-21. Therefore, the serum level of miR-21 may serve as a predictor of chemosensitivity in advanced pancreatic cancer. Additionally, we identified a new mechanism of chemoresistance mediated by the effects of miR-21 on the FasL/Fas pathway.

  10. Considering Exosomal miR-21 as a Biomarker for Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian

    2016-03-29

    Cancer is a fatal human disease. Early diagnosis of cancer is the most effective method to prevent cancer development and to achieve higher survival rates for patients. Many traditional diagnostic methods for cancer are still not sufficient for early, more convenient and accurate, and noninvasive diagnosis. Recently, the use of microRNAs (miRNAs), such as exosomal microRNA-21(miR-21), as potential biomarkers was widely reported. This initial systematic review analyzes the potential role of exosomal miR-21 as a general biomarker for cancers. A total of 10 studies involving 318 patients and 215 healthy controls have covered 10 types of cancers. The sensitivity and specificity of pooled studies were 75% (0.70-0.80) and 85% (0.81-0.91), with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs), while the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.93. Additionally, we examined and evaluated almost all other issues about biomarkers, including cutoff points, internal controls and detection methods, from the literature. This initial meta-analysis indicates that exosomal miR-21 has a strong potential to be used as a universal biomarker to identify cancers, although as a general biomarker the case number for each cancer type is small. Based on the literature, a combination of miRNA panels and other cancer antigens, as well as a selection of appropriate internal controls, has the potential to serve as a more sensitive and accurate cancer diagnosis tool. Additional information on miR-21 would further support its use as a biomarker in cancer.

  11. Urtica dioica extract suppresses miR-21 and metastasis-related genes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ali; Hashemzadeh, Shahriar; Shirjang, Solmaz; Baradaran, Ali; Asadi, Milad; Doustvandi, Mohammad Amin; Baradaran, Behzad

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer has a high prevalence among women worldwide. Tumor invasion and metastasis still remains an open issue that causes most of the therapeutic failures and remains the prime cause of patient mortality. Hence, there is an unmet need to develop the most effective therapeutic approach with the lowest side effects and highest cytotoxicity that will effectively arrest or eradicate metastasis. An MTT assay and scratch test were used to assess the cytotoxicity and migration effects of Urtica dioica on the breast cancer cells. The QRT-PCR was used to study the expression levels of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, CXCR4, vimentin, and E-cadherin. The results of gene expression in tumoral groups confirmed the overexpression of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4, and the lower expression of E-cadherin compared to control groups (P<0.05). Moreover, the results of the MTT assay show that Urtica dioica significantly inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, findings from the scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica on the migration of breast cancer cell lines. Urtica dioica extract could inhibit cancer cell migration by regulating miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, CXCR4, and E-Cadherin. Moreover, our findings demonstrated that the extract could decrease miR-21 expression, which substantially lessens the overexpressed MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4 and increases E-cadherin in the tumoral group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Combination of miR-21 with Circulating Tumor Cells Markers Improve Diagnostic Specificity of Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingwang; Wang, Xiaoming; Shen, Hongyan; Deng, Rong; Xue, Kecheng

    2015-09-01

    Circulating miR-21 is upregulated in breast cancer. However, correlation of miR-21 expression with clinic pathologic characteristics remains questionable. In this study, we investigate whether combination of circulation miR-21 with circulating tumor cells (CTCs) marker (EpCAM, MUS1, HER2) could improve diagnostic specificity of metastatic breast cancer. Total 223 breast cancer patients were included. 89 % patients were associated with upregulation of miR-21 compared with health control. 20 % patients were detected for CTCs marker positive. For higher specificity purpose, triple marker positive samples were selected as true CTCs positive, which only occupied 59.5 % of total metastatic breast cancer patients. Specificity of detection of CTCs was 96.7 %. Furthermore, 59.5 % metastatic breast cancer patients were shown both abnormal miR-21 and true CTCs positive according to distribution of true CTCs positive and abnormal miR-21; Combination of miR-21 and CTCs was increased specificity of metastatic detection to 100 %. Our findings suggested that combination of miR-21 with CTCs marker could be used for better diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer in the future.

  13. The function of MiR-21 expression differences and pathogenesis on familial and triple negative breast Cancer serum.

    PubMed

    Song, Ningning; Liang, Bing; Wang, Dandan

    2016-03-01

    This paper is to detect the expression differences of serum miR-21 in breast cancer, in order to further clarify the function of miR-21 in familial and TNBC pathogenesis of breast cancer. The serum had been collected for healthy check-up females, women with high risk of breast cancer and different types of breast cancer patients. Nematodes were taken as the external reference, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR detection were taken for expression level of miR-21 in 77 cases of serum. The miR-21 expression level of familial breast cancer group, TNBC group and breast cancer high risk group were significantly higher than that in normal control group and other breast cancer group, P<0.01. Serum miR-21 expression level was associated with lymph node metastasis and Ki67 high expression, P<0.01. Results had proved that serum miR-21 expression quantity increased in familial breast cancer and TNBC and was correlated with lymph node metastasis and Ki67 expression. Serum miR-21 was closed related with TNBC and familial breast cancer. The relative expression quantity of miR-21 in breast cancer serum had no obvious relation with unilateral or bilateral tumor and menstrual situation. Its increased expression might be correlated to the breast cancer hereditary, malignant degree and prognosis judgement and its mechanism required further research.

  14. MiR-21 inhibits c-Ski signaling to promote the proliferation of rat vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Li; He, Xie; Yang, Ting; Yang, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Previously, we reported that the decrease of endogenous c-Ski expression is implicated in the progression of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation after arterial injury. However, the molecular mechanism of the down-regulation of c-Ski is not clear. In this study, a potential miR-21 recognition element was identified in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of rat c-Ski mRNA. A reporter assay revealed that miR-21 could recognize the miR-21 recognition element of c-Ski mRNA. In A10 rat aortic smooth muscle cells, overexpression of miR-21 significantly inhibited the expression of c-Ski protein and promoted cell proliferation, which could be blocked by inhibition of miR-21 or overexpression of c-Ski. Further investigation demonstrated that the effect of miR-21 on VSMC proliferation resulted from negative regulation of c-Ski to suppress p38-p21/p27 signaling, the downstream pathway of c-Ski in VSMCs. These results indicate that c-Ski is a target gene of miR-21. miR-21 specifically binds to the 3'-untranslated region of c-Ski and negatively regulates c-Ski expression to diminish the protective effects of c-Ski and stimulate VSMC proliferation in the progression of arterial injury.

  15. MiR-21 mediates sorafenib resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inhibiting autophagy via the PTEN/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Changjun; Dong, Xuesong; Zhai, Bo; Jiang, Xian; Dong, Deli; Li, Baoxin; Jiang, Hongchi; Xu, Shidong; Sun, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib resistance remains a major obstacle for the effective treatments of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent studies indicate that activated Akt contributes to the acquired resistance to sorafenib, and miR-21 dysregulates phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which inhibits Akt activation. Sorafenib-resistant HCC cells were shown to be refractory to sorafenib-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Akt and its downstream factors were highly activated and/or upregulated in sorafenib-resistant cells. Inhibition of autophagy decreased the sensitivity of sorafenib-resistant cells to sorafenib, while its induction had the opposite effect. Differential screening of miRNAs showed higher levels of miR-21 in sorafenib-resistant HCC cells. Exposure of HCC cells to sorafenib led to an increase in miR-21 expression, a decrease in PTEN expression and sequential Akt activation. Transfection of miR-21 mimics in HCC cells restored sorafenib resistance by inhibiting autophagy. Anti-miR-21 oligonucleotides re-sensitized sorafenib-resistant cells by promoting autophagy. Inhibition of miR-21 enhances the efficacy of sorafenib in treating sorafenib-resistant HCC tumors in vivo. We conclude that miR-21 participates in the acquired resistance of sorafenib by suppresing autophagy through the Akt/PTEN pathway. MiR-21 could serve as a therapeutic target for overcoming sorafenib resistance in the treatment of HCC. PMID:26311740

  16. Association of miR-21 with esophageal cancer prognosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, S-W; Zhang, Y-F; Li, Y; Liu, Z-X; Lv, H-L; Li, Z-H; Xu, Y-Z; Zhu, Y-G; Tian, Z-Q

    2015-06-12

    The present study aimed to explore the relationship between miRNA expression and survival in patients with esophageal cancer (EC) using meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, Wanfang, and ISI Web of Science databases without time restrictions, and extracted relevant data, such as the name of first author, publication year, age, gender, number of case, etc. from the studies included. We calculated the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) using the RevMan 5.2 software. A total of five studies involving 504 subjects were included in the meta-analysis, with the purpose of analyzing the association of miRNA-21 expression with EC prognosis. The pooled HR of elevated versus decreased miR-21 expression in EC was 1.87 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37-2.55, P < 0.001], with elevated miR-21 expression being associated with poorer prognosis for patients with EC. Our results support a prognostic role for miR-21 in EC.

  17. TGF-β1/Smads and miR-21 in Renal Fibrosis and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Mateusz; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis, irrespective of its etiology, is a final common stage of almost all chronic kidney diseases. Increased apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and inflammatory cell infiltration characterize the injured kidney. On the molecular level, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-Smad3 signaling pathway plays a central role in fibrotic kidney disease. Recent findings indicate the prominent role of microRNAs, small noncoding RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression through the posttranscriptional repression of their target mRNAs, in different pathologic conditions, including renal pathophysiology. miR-21 was also shown to play a dynamic role in inflammatory responses and in accelerating injury responses to promote organ failure and fibrosis. Understanding the cellular and molecular bases of miR-21 involvement in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases, including inflammatory reaction, could be crucial for their early diagnosis. Moreover, the possibility of influencing miR-21 level by specific antagomirs may be considered as an approach for treatment of renal diseases. PMID:27610006

  18. EMT and induction of miR-21 mediate metastasis development in Trp53-deficient tumours

    PubMed Central

    Bornachea, Olga; Santos, Mirentxu; Martínez-Cruz, Ana Belén; García-Escudero, Ramón; Dueñas, Marta; Costa, Clotilde; Segrelles, Carmen; Lorz, Corina; Buitrago, Agueda; Saiz-Ladera, Cristina; Agirre, Xabier; Grande, Teresa; Paradela, Beatriz; Maraver, Antonio; Ariza, José M.; Prosper, Felipe; Serrano, Manuel; Sánchez-Céspedes, Montse; Paramio, Jesús M.

    2012-01-01

    Missense mutations in TP53 gene promote metastasis in human tumours. However, little is known about the complete loss of function of p53 in tumour metastasis. Here we show that squamous cell carcinomas generated by the specific ablation of Trp53 gene in mouse epidermis are highly metastatic. Biochemical and genome-wide mRNA and miRNA analyses demonstrated that metastases are associated with the early induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and deregulated miRNA expression in primary tumours. Increased expression of miR-21 was observed in undifferentiated, prometastatic mouse tumours and in human tumours characterized by p53 mutations and distant metastasis. The augmented expression of miR-21, mediated by active mTOR and Stat3 signalling, conferred increased invasive properties to mouse keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo, whereas blockade of miR-21 in a metastatic spindle cell line inhibits metastasis development. Collectively these data identify novel molecular mechanisms leading to metastasis in vivo originated by p53 loss in epithelia. PMID:22666537

  19. Targeted inhibition of oncogenic miR-21 maturation with designed RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Fan; Zubovic, Lorena; Pavelitz, Tom; Yang, Wen; Godin, Katherine; Walker, Matthew; Zheng, Suxin; Macchi, Paolo; Varani, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) is the largest family of eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins. Engineered RRMs with new specificity would provide valuable tools and an exacting test of our understanding of specificity. We have achieved the first successful re-design of the specificity of an RRM using rational methods and demonstrated re-targeting of activity in cells. We engineered the conserved RRM of human Rbfox proteins to specifically bind to the terminal loop of miR-21 precursor with high affinity and inhibit its processing by Drosha and Dicer. We further engineered Giardia Dicer by replacing its PAZ domain with the designed RRM. The reprogrammed enzyme degrades pre-miR-21 specifically in vitro and suppresses mature miR-21 levels in cells, which results in increased expression of PDCD4 and significantly decreased viability for cancer cells. The results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sequence-specificity of RRMs and of using this ubiquitous platform for diverse biological applications. PMID:27428511

  20. Antisense-miR-21 enhances differentiation/apoptosis and reduces cancer stemness state on anaplastic thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Haghpanah, Vahid; Fallah, Parviz; Tavakoli, Rezvan; Naderi, Mahmood; Samimi, Hilda; Soleimani, Masoud; Larijani, Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive malignancy in thyroid cancers. Resistance to current therapies is still a challenge. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, regulating gene expression. MiR-21 is an oncomiR that is overexpressed in nearly all cancers including ATC. Accumulating evidence suggested that miR-21 has a role in cancer stemness state, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and differentiation. Therefore, we evaluated the application of Off-miR-21 to sequester the microRNA for therapeutic purposes on ATC cell lines. In this study, C643 and SW1736 were transducted by hsa-miR-21 antagomir (Off-miR-21). PTEN gene expression was performed as a known target of miR-21. Stemness state in cancer stem cells (CSCs) was evaluated by the changes of CSC biomarkers including Oct-4 and ABCG2. Apoptosis was assessed by PDCD4 and Mcl-1 gene expression and flow cytometry. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and thyroglobulin (TG) were measured as ATC differentiation markers. In addition, cell cycle progression was investigated via the alterations of p21 gene expression and flow cytometry. Specific downregulation of miR-21 induced the differentiation and apoptosis in C643 and SW1736. Inversely, the treatment inhibited stemness state and cell cycle progression. Knockdown of miR-21 significantly increased the expression of PDCD4, p21, NIS, and TG while leading to decreased expression of Oct-4, ABCG2, and Mcl-1.Taken together, the results suggest that miR-21, as an oncomiR, has a role not only in stemness state but also in tumor growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Hence, suppression of miR-21 could pave the way for ATC therapy.

  1. Oxidative stress upregulates PDCD4 expression in patients with gastric cancer via miR-21.

    PubMed

    Tu, Honglei; Sun, Haibing; Lin, Yan; Ding, Jie; Nan, Kejun; Li, Zongfang; Shen, Qiang; Wei, Yongchang

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a key role in carcinogenesis by aberrantly inducing signaling networks that initiatiate tumorigenesis and stimulate tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a novel class of endogenous, small, noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate approximately 30% of the genes in a cell via degradation or translational inhibition of their target mRNAs. However, the effects of ROS on miRNAs expression and the role of miRNAs in ROS-mediated injury on carcinogenesis are uncertain. Using UV spectrophotometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we examined tissues from human gastric cancers and tissues adjascent to gastric cancer and normal gastric tissues and found that total anti-oxidation competence (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) concentrations were lower in gastric cancer patients compared to the control subjects, while the concentrations of DNA oxidative damage product 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was higher. To determine the potential role of miRNA in gastric carcinogenesis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis was performed. We found that human 8-oxoguanine DNA N-glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) mRNA and miR-21 expression were significantly upregulated in gastric cancer tissues than in the adjacent normal gastric tissues. Furthermore, the expression of programmed cell death 4 protein (PDCD4) in gastric cancer tissues was significantly lower than in adjacent normal gastric tissues. The expression of miR-21 and PDCD4 was highly correlated with the degree of differentiation, tumor staging, local lymphatic node metastasis and remote metastasis. Expression of miR-21 was negatively correlated with T-AOC, SOD and CAT, but positively correlated with 8-OHdG and hOGG1mRNA. In addition, the relative expression of PDCD4 was negatively correlated with miR-21. These results suggest that the defensive balance of oxidation and antioxidant system in patients with GC was impaired, resulting in

  2. Are Race, Ethnicity, and Medical School Affiliation Associated With NIH R01 Type Award Probability for Physician Investigators?

    PubMed Central

    Ginther, Donna K.; Haak, Laurel L.; Schaffer, Walter T.; Kington, Raynard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the relationship among NIH R01 Type 1 applicant degree, institution type, and race/ethnicity, and application award probability. Method The authors used 2000–2006 data from the NIH IMPAC II grants database and other sources to determine which individual and institutional characteristics of applicants may affect the probability of applications being awarded funding. They used descriptive statistics and probit models to estimate correlations between race/ethnicity, degree (MD or PhD), and institution type (medical school or other institution), and application award probability, controlling for a large set of observable characteristics. Results Applications from medical schools were significantly more likely than those from other institutions to receive funding, as were applications from MDs versus PhDs. Overall, applications from blacks and Asians were less likely than those from whites to be awarded funding; however, among applications from MDs at medical schools, there was no difference in funding probability between whites and Asians and the difference between blacks and whites decreased to 7.8 percentage points. The inclusion of human subjects significantly decreased the likelihood of receiving funding. Conclusions Compared with applications from whites, applications from blacks have a lower probability of being awarded R01 Type 1 funding, regardless of the investigator’s degree. However, funding probability is increased for applications with MD investigators and for those from medical schools. To some degree, these advantages combine so that applications from black MDs at medical schools have the smallest difference in funding probability compared with those from whites. PMID:23018334

  3. PSMB4 promotes multiple myeloma cell growth by activating NF-κB-miR-21 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Peihao; Guo, Honggang; Li, Guangchao; Han, Siqi; Luo, Fei; Liu, Yi

    2015-03-06

    Proteasomal subunit PSMB4, was recently identified as potential cancer driver genes in several tumors. However, the regulatory mechanism of PSMB4 on carcinogenesis process remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression and roles of PSMB4 in multiple myeloma (MM). We found a significant up-regulation of PSMB4 in MM plasma and cell lines. Ectopic overexpression of PSMB4 promoted cell growth and colony forming ability of MM cells, whereas inhibition of PSMB4 led to a decrease of such events. Furthermore, our results demonstrated the up-regulation of miR-21 and a positive correlation between the levels of miR-21 and PSMB4 in MM. Re-expression of miR-21 markedly rescued PSMB4 knockdown-mediated suppression of cell proliferation and clone-formation. Additionally, while enforced expression of PSMB4 profoundly increased NF-κB activity and the level of miR-21, PSMB4 knockdown or NF-κB inhibition suppressed miR-21 expression in MM cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PSMB4 regulated MM cell growth in part by activating NF-κB-miR-21 signaling, which may represent promising targets for novel specific therapies. - Highlights: • First reported upregulation of PSMB4 in MM plasma and cell lines. • PSMB4 promoted MM cell growth and colony forming ability. • Further found miR-21 was up-regulated by PSMB4 in MM plasma and cell lines. • PSMB4-induced miR-21 expression was modulated by NF-κB. • PSMB4-NF-κB-miR-21 axis may be potential therapeutic targets of MM.

  4. miR-21 Expression in Cancer Cells may Not Predict Resistance to Adjuvant Trastuzumab in Primary Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Balslev, Eva; Poulsen, Tim Svenstrup; Nielsen, Dorte; Møller, Trine; Mortensen, Christiane Ehlers; Holmstrøm, Kim; Høgdall, Estrid

    2014-01-01

    Trastuzumab is established as standard care for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer both in the adjuvant and metastatic setting. However, 50% of the patients do not respond to the trastuzumab therapy, and therefore new predictive biomarkers are highly warranted. MicroRNAs (miRs) constitute a new group of biomarkers and their cellular expression can be determined in tumor samples by in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis. miR-21 is highly prevalent and up-regulated in breast cancer and has been linked to drug resistance in clinical and in vitro settings. To determine expression patterns of miR-21 in high-grade breast cancers, we examined miR-21 expression in 22 HER2-positive tumors and 15 HER2-negative high-grade tumors by ISH. The histological examination indicated that patient samples could be divided into three major expression patterns: miR-21 predominantly in tumor stroma, predominantly in cancer cells, or in both stromal and cancer cells. There was no obvious difference between the HER2-positive and HER2-negative tumors in terms of the miR-21 expression patterns and intensities. To explore the possibility that miR-21 expression levels and/or cellular localization could predict resistance to adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2-positive breast cancer patients, we analyzed additional 16 HER2-positive tumors from patients who were treated with trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting. Eight of the 16 patients showed clinical recurrence and were considered resistant. Examination of the miR-21 expression patterns and intensities revealed no association between the miR-21 scores in the cancer cell population (p = 0.69) or the stromal cells population (p = 0.13) and recurrent disease after adjuvant trastuzumab. Thus, our findings show that elevated miR-21 expression does not predict resistance to adjuvant trastuzumab.

  5. miR-21 functionally interacts with the 3'UTR of chemokine CCL20 and down-regulates CCL20 expression in miR-21 transfected colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vicinus, Benjamin; Rubie, Claudia; Faust, Sabrina K; Frick, Vilma Oliveira; Ghadjar, Pirus; Wagner, Mathias; Graeber, Stefan; Schilling, Martin K

    2012-03-01

    As deregulation of miRNAs and chemokine CCL20 was shown to play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC) pathogenesis, we analyzed the functional interactions of candidate miRNAs with CCL20 mRNA. After target prediction software programs indicated a role for miR-21 in CCL20 regulation, we applied the luciferase reporter assay system to demonstrate that miR-21 functionally interacts with the 3'UTR of CCL20 mRNA and down-regulates CCL20 in miR-21 mimic transfected CRC cell lines (Caco-2, SW480 and SW620). Thus, regulation of CCL20 expression by miR-21 might be a regulatory mechanism involved in progression of CRC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender Differences in Receipt of National Institutes of Health R01 Grants Among Junior Faculty at an Academic Medical Center: The Role of Connectivity, Rank, and Research Productivity.

    PubMed

    Warner, Erica T; Carapinha, René; Weber, Griffin M; Hill, Emorcia V; Reede, Joan Y

    2017-08-03

    To determine whether there were gender differences in likelihood of receiving a first National Institutes of Health (NIH) R01 award among 5445 instructors and assistant professors at Harvard Medical School (HMS). Data on R01 award principal investigators were obtained from NIH ExPORTER and linked with faculty data. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, we examined the association of gender with receipt of first R01 award between 2008 and 2015 accounting for demographics, research productivity metrics, and professional characteristics. Compared to males, females had fewer publications, lower h-index, smaller coauthor networks and were less likely to be assistant professors (p < 0.0001). Four hundred and thirteen of 5445 faculty (7.6%) received their first R01 award during the study period. There was no gender difference in receipt of R01 awards in age-adjusted (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70-1.08) or multivariable-adjusted models (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.86-1.34). Compared to white males, there was a nonsignificant 10%, 18%, and 30% lower rate of R01 receipt among white, Asian or Pacific Islander, and underrepresented minority females, respectively. These differences were eliminated in the multivariable-adjusted model. Network reach, age, HMS start year, h-index, academic rank, previous K award, terminal degree, and HMS training were all significant predictors of receiving an R01 award. A relatively small proportion of HMS junior faculty obtained their first NIH R01 award during the study period. There was no significant gender difference in likelihood of award. However, we are unable to distinguish faculty that never applied from those who applied and were not successful.

  7. The role of miR-21 in proliferation and invasion capacity of human tongue squamous cell carcinoma in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Zhu, Yu; Lv, Pin; Li, Longjiang

    2015-01-01

    Tongue squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cancers, which has the highest incidence in oral maxillofacial malignant tumors. MiR-21 may promote tumorigeness by down-regulating tumor suppressing genes and/or controlling the genes for cell differentiation and apoptosis, and it has been identified as the most expressive and unusual in a number of profiling experiments. The study shows there are high expressions of miR-21 in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (Tca8113 and its high metastatic lines), especially in high metastatic lines. miR-21 silencing could suppress the capacity of proliferation, migration and invasion, arrest the cell cycle and induce apoptosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (Tca8113 and its high metastatic lines). All the results indicate that miR-21 will probably open a new path to the gene therapy for oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26191145

  8. Sulindac has strong antifibrotic effects by suppressing STAT3-related miR-21

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xue; Li, You-Jie; Gao, Shu-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Zhi; Wang, Ping-Yu; Yan, Yun-Fei; Xie, Shu-Yang; Lv, Chang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a disease with an unknown cause and a poor prognosis. In this study, we aimed to explore the pathogenesis of PF and the mechanism of sulindac in attenuating bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF. The rat PF model was induced by BLM and verified through histological studies and hydroxyproline assay. The severity of BLM-induced PF in rats and other effects, such as the extent of the wet lung to bw ratios, thickening of alveolar interval or collagen deposition, was obviously ameliorated in sulindac-treated rat lungs compared with BLM-induced lungs. Sulindac also reversed the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inhibited the PF process by restoring the levels of E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) in A549 cells. Our results further demonstrated that the above effects of sulindac might be related to regulating of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) expression, which further affects signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) levels. Moreover, higher miR-21 levels with the decreased E-cadherin and increased α-SMA expressions were found in transforming growth factor-β1-treated A549 cells, which can be reversed by sulindac. Collectively, our results demonstrate that by decreasing IFN-γ-induced STAT3/p-STAT3 expression to down-regulate miR-21, sulindac could significantly reverse EMT in A549 cells and prevent BLM-induced PF. PMID:25704671

  9. miR-21 regulates triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by targeting HMGCR.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuanzheng; Huang, Feizhou; Liu, Xunyang; Xiao, Xuefei; Yang, Mingshi; Hu, Gui; Liu, Huaizheng; Liao, Liangkan

    2015-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a public health issue with a prevalence of 15-30% in Western populations and 6-25% in Asian populations. Certain studies have revealed the alteration of microRNA (miRNA or miR) profiles in NAFLD and it has been suggested that miR-21 is associated with NAFLD. In the present study, we measured the serum levels of miR-21 in patients with NAFLD and also performed in vitro experiments using a cellular model of NAFLD to further investigate the effects of miR-21 on triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, a novel target through which miR-21 exerts its effects on NAFLD was identified. The results revealed that the serum levels of miR-21 were lower in patients with NAFLD compared with the healthy controls. In addition, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-co-enzyme A reductase (HMGCR) expression was increased in the serum of patients with NAFLD both at the mRNA and protein level. To mimic the NAFLD condition in vitro, HepG2 cells were treated with palmitic acid (PA) and oleic acid (OA). Consistent with the results obtained in the in vivo experiments, the expression levels of miR-21 were decreased and those of HMGCR were increased in the in vitro model of NAFLD. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that HMGCR was a direct target of miR-21 and that miR-21 exerted an effect on both HMGCR transcript degradation and protein translation. Furthermore, the results from the in vitro experiments revealed that miR-21 decreased the levels of triglycerides (TG), free cholesterol (FC) and total cholesterol (TC) in the PA/OA-treated HepG2 cells and that this effect was attenuated by HMGCR overexpression. Taken together, to the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to report that miR-21 regulates triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism in an in vitro model of NAFLD, and that this effect is achieved by the inhibition of HMGCR expression. We speculate that miR-21 may be a useful biomarker for the diagnosis and

  10. Relevance of miR-21 in regulation of tumor suppressor gene PTEN in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Deas, Jessica; Meneses-Acosta, Angélica; De la O-Gómez, Faustino; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria; Gómez-Cerón, Claudia; Benítez-Boijseauneau, Odelia; Burguete-García, Ana; Torres-Poveda, Kirvis; Bermúdez-Morales, Victor Hugo; Madrid-Marina, Vicente; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Pérez-Plasencia, Carlos

    2016-03-14

    Expression of the microRNA miR-21 has been found to be altered in almost all types of cancers and it has been classified as an oncogenic microRNA or oncomir. Due to the critical functions of its target proteins in various signaling pathways, miR-21 is an attractive target for genetic and pharmacological modulation in various cancers. Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in women worldwide and persistent HPV infection is the main etiologic agent. This malignancy merits special attention for the development of new treatment strategies. In the present study we analyze the role of miR-21 in cervical cancer cells. To identify the downstream cellular target genes of upstream miR-21, we silenced endogenous miR-21 expression in a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-derived cell lines using siRNAs. The effect of miR-21 on gene expression was assessed in cervical cancer cells transfected with the siRNA expression plasmid pSIMIR21. We identified the tumor suppressor gene PTEN as a target of miR-21 and determined the mechanism of its regulation throughout reporter construct plasmids. Using this model, we analyzed the expression of miR-21 and PTEN as well as functional effects such as autophagy and apoptosis induction. In SiHa cells, there was an inverse correlation between miR-21 expression and PTEN mRNA level as well as PTEN protein expression in cervical cancer cells. Transfection with the pSIMIR21 plasmid increased luciferase reporter activity in construct plasmids containing the PTEN-3'-UTR microRNA response elements MRE21-1 and MRE21-2. The role of miR-21 in cell proliferation was also analyzed in SiHa and HeLa cells transfected with the pSIMIR21 plasmid, and tumor cells exhibited markedly reduced cell proliferation along with autophagy and apoptosis induction. We conclude that miR-21 post-transcriptionally down-regulates the expression of PTEN to promote cell proliferation and cervical cancer cell survival. Therefore, it may be a potential

  11. WP1066 Sensitizes Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells to Cisplatin by Targeting STAT3/miR-21 axis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuan; Ren, Yu; Liu, Aiqin; Jin, Rui; Jiang, Qingping; Huang, Yuanyuan; Kong, Lingping; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Lun

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence reveals that activation of STAT3 and miR-21 contributes to chemoresistance in multiple tumors. We examined the expression of STAT3 and miR-21 in 43 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tumors and classified them into cisplatin sensitive or resistant group. Tca8113 and Tca8113/DDP cells were treated with cisplatin (DDP), WP1066 (STAT3 inhibitor) or in combination. MTT, colony formation, wound healing, 3-D culture, and transwell chamber assays were used to evaluate the malignant phenotype of OSCC cells. We evaluated the effect of WP1066 on the expression of STAT3 and miR-21. A Tca8113/DDP OSCC xenograft tumor model was established to evaluate the therapeutic effect of WP1066 in combination with DDP. The expression of STAT3/miR-21 was significantly increased in DDP-resistant OSCC samples and Tca8113/DDP cells compared to its parental cell. Treatment of DDP combined with WP1066 efficiently inhibited Tca8113 and Tca8113/DDP cell proliferation, migration and invasion. STAT3 mediated OSCC cell survival and DDP resistance through upregulating the expression of miR-21 and downregulating miR-21 downstream targets, including PTEN, TIMP3 and PDCD4. WP1066 plus DDP treatment could inhibit Tca8113 and Tca8113/DDP cell growth by inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation and miR-21 expression. These results indicated that STAT3/miR-21 axis could be a candidate therapeutic target for OSCC chemoresistance. PMID:25514838

  12. Serum miR-21 level: a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Long; Xu, Qin-Fu; Zhao, Yu-Miao; Shi, Xiao-Ya; Xu, Ai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Because lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among both men and women, focused efforts are necessary to identify and develop biomarkers that aid in the detection and treatment of this serious disease. Recent research has been aimed at understanding the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumorigenesis and their utility as cancer biomarkers. Here, miR-21 was investigated as a potential serum biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The relative expression level of miR-21 was detected by real-time PCR in the sera of 80 NSCLC patients; sera were also collected from 60 healthy people as a control. The most suitable cut-off value and the prognostic value of serum miR-21 levels were analyzed using a receiver-operating curve. The relative serum miR-21 level in NSCLC patients was significantly higher than that in healthy people (P<0.05). For relative miR-21 expression, the area under the ROC curve was 0.812 (95% CI: 0.736-0.888) with a sensitivity of 73.8% and a specificity of 71.7%, based on a cut-off value of 1.22. NSCLC patients were divided into two groups based on miR-21 expression; those with higher relative expression (≥1.22) had significantly lower survival time than those in the lower expression group (P<0.05). Further, serum miR-21 level and survival time were negatively correlated in NSCLC patients (P<0.05). Thus, miR-21 may be useful as a diagnostic and prognostic indicator of NSCLC.

  13. miR-21 modulates tumor outgrowth induced by human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Keun Koo; Lee, Ae Lim; Kim, Jee Young; Lee, Sun Young; Bae, Yong Chan; Jung, Jin Sup

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-21 modulates hADSC-induced increase of tumor growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The action is mostly mediated by the modulation of TGF-{beta} signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of miR-21 enhances the blood flow recovery in hindlimb ischemia. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in clinical situations, due principally to their potential use in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications. However, the therapeutic application of MSCs remains limited, unless the favorable effects of MSCs on tumor growth in vivo, and the long-term safety of the clinical applications of MSCs, can be more thoroughly understood. In this study, we determined whether microRNAs can modulate MSC-induced tumor outgrowth in BALB/c nude mice. Overexpression of miR-21 in human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) inhibited hADSC-induced tumor growth, and inhibition of miR-21 increased it. Downregulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2), but not of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, in hADSCs showed effects similar to those of miR-21 overexpression. Downregulation of TGFBR2 and overexpression of miR21 decreased tumor vascularity. Inhibition of miR-21 and the addition of TGF-{beta} increased the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-6 in hADSCs. Transplantation of miR-21 inhibitor-transfected hADSCs increased blood flow recovery in a hind limb ischemia model of nude mice, compared with transplantation of control oligo-transfected cells. These findings indicate that MSCs might favor tumor growth in vivo. Thus, it is necessary to study the long-term safety of this technique before MSCs can be used as therapeutic tools in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  14. miR-21-3p is a positive regulator of L1CAM in several human carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Doberstein, Kai; Bretz, Niko P; Schirmer, Uwe; Fiegl, Heidi; Blaheta, Roman; Breunig, Christian; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Reimer, Dan; Zeimet, Alain G; Altevogt, Peter

    2014-11-28

    Expression of L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) occurs frequently in human cancers and is associated with poor prognosis in cancers such as ovarian, endometrial, breast, renal cell carcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. L1CAM promotes cell motility, invasion, chemoresistance and metastasis formation. Elucidating genetic processes involved in the expression of L1CAM in cancers is of considerable importance. Transcription factors such as SLUG, β-catenin/TCF-LEF, PAX8 and VHL have been implicated in the re-activation of L1CAM in various types of cancers. There is increasing evidence that micro-RNAs can also have strong effects on gene expression. Here we have identified miR-21-3p as a positive regulator of L1CAM expression. Over-expression of miR-21-3p (miR-21*) but not the complementary sequence miR-21-5p (miR-21) could strongly augment L1CAM expression in renal, endometrial and ovarian carcinoma derived cell lines by an unknown mechanism involving transcriptional activation of the L1CAM gene. In patient cohorts from renal, endometrial and ovarian cancers we observed a strong positive correlation of L1CAM and miR-21-3p expressions. Although L1CAM alone was a reliable marker for overall and disease free survival, the combination of L1CAM and miR-21-3p expressions strongly enhanced the predictive power. Our findings shed new light on the complex regulation of L1CAM in cancers and advocate the use of L1CAM/miR-21-3p for diagnostic application.

  15. miR-21-mediated decreased neutrophil apoptosis is a determinant of impaired coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Rebecca; Terry, Russell; Hutcheson, Brenda; Jadhav, Rashmi; Chaplin, Jennifer; Smith, Erika; Barrington, Robert; Proctor, Spencer D.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in metabolic syndrome. microRNA-21 (miR-21) is a proproliferative and antiapoptotic miR, which we showed to be elevated in metabolic syndrome. Here we investigate whether impaired CCG in metabolic syndrome involved miR-21-mediated aberrant apoptosis. Normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) and metabolic syndrome [J. C. Russel (JCR)] rats underwent transient, repetitive coronary artery occlusion [repetitive ischemia (RI)]. Antiapoptotic Bcl-2, phospho-Bad, and Bcl-2/Bax dimers were increased on days 6 and 9 RI, and proapoptotic Bax and Bax/Bax dimers and cytochrome-c release concurrently decreased in JCR versus SD rats. Active caspases were decreased in JCR versus SD rats (∼50%). Neutrophils increased transiently on day 3 RI in the collateral-dependent zone of SD rats but remained elevated in JCR rats, paralleling miR-21 expression. miR-21 downregulation by anti-miR-21 induced neutrophil apoptosis and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax dimers (∼75%) while increasing Bax/Bax dimers, cytochrome-c release, and caspase activation (∼70, 400, and 400%). Anti-miR-21 also improved CCG in JCR rats (∼60%). Preventing neutrophil infiltration with blocking antibodies resulted in equivalent CCG recovery, confirming a major role for deregulated neutrophil apoptosis in CCG impairment. Neutrophil and miR-21-dependent CCG inhibition was in significant part mediated by increased oxidative stress. We conclude that neutrophil apoptosis is integral to normal CCG and that inappropriate prolonged miR-21-mediated survival of neutrophils plays a major role in impaired CCG, in part via oxidative stress generation. PMID:25840830

  16. miR-21-mediated decreased neutrophil apoptosis is a determinant of impaired coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hutcheson, Rebecca; Terry, Russell; Hutcheson, Brenda; Jadhav, Rashmi; Chaplin, Jennifer; Smith, Erika; Barrington, Robert; Proctor, Spencer D; Rocic, Petra

    2015-06-01

    Coronary collateral growth (CCG) is impaired in metabolic syndrome. microRNA-21 (miR-21) is a proproliferative and antiapoptotic miR, which we showed to be elevated in metabolic syndrome. Here we investigate whether impaired CCG in metabolic syndrome involved miR-21-mediated aberrant apoptosis. Normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) and metabolic syndrome [J. C. Russel (JCR)] rats underwent transient, repetitive coronary artery occlusion [repetitive ischemia (RI)]. Antiapoptotic Bcl-2, phospho-Bad, and Bcl-2/Bax dimers were increased on days 6 and 9 RI, and proapoptotic Bax and Bax/Bax dimers and cytochrome-c release concurrently decreased in JCR versus SD rats. Active caspases were decreased in JCR versus SD rats (~50%). Neutrophils increased transiently on day 3 RI in the collateral-dependent zone of SD rats but remained elevated in JCR rats, paralleling miR-21 expression. miR-21 downregulation by anti-miR-21 induced neutrophil apoptosis and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax dimers (~75%) while increasing Bax/Bax dimers, cytochrome-c release, and caspase activation (~70, 400, and 400%). Anti-miR-21 also improved CCG in JCR rats (~60%). Preventing neutrophil infiltration with blocking antibodies resulted in equivalent CCG recovery, confirming a major role for deregulated neutrophil apoptosis in CCG impairment. Neutrophil and miR-21-dependent CCG inhibition was in significant part mediated by increased oxidative stress. We conclude that neutrophil apoptosis is integral to normal CCG and that inappropriate prolonged miR-21-mediated survival of neutrophils plays a major role in impaired CCG, in part via oxidative stress generation.

  17. Mechanism of serum miR-21 in the pathogenesis of familial and triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Feng, Y; Qi, P; Xu, S; Zhou, Y

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of miR-21 in familial and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) by exploring the expression of serum miR-21. The sera were collected from healthy women at high risk of breast cancer. miR-39 was employed as the external reference, and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of serum miR-21 in 77 subjects. The miR-21 expression of the familial breast cancer group, TNBC group, and breast cancer high risk group were significantly higher than those in the normal control group and other breast cancer groups (P less than 0.01). A high serum miR-21 expression level was associated with lymph node metastasis and Ki67 expression (P less than 0.01). Serum miR-21 was closely associated with TNBC and familial breast cancer, and its expression was associated with genetic expression, degree of malignancy, and prognosis.

  18. NFkappaB activation is essential for miR-21 induction by TGFβ1 in high glucose conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Madhyastha, Radha Madhyastha, HarishKumar; Pengjam, Yutthana; Nakajima, Yuichi; Omura, Sayuri; Maruyama, Masugi

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) induces miR-21 in high glucose conditions. • NFkappaB activation and subsequent ROS generation are necessary for TGFβ1’s effect. • TGFβ1 facilitates binding of NFkB p65 to miR-21 promoter. • SMAD proteins bind to R-SBE sites on primary miR-21, in NFkB dependent manner. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) is a pleiotropic growth factor with a very broad spectrum of effects on wound healing. Chronic non-healing wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers express reduced levels of TGFβ1. On the other hand, our previous studies have shown that the microRNA miR-21 is differentially regulated in diabetic wounds and that it promotes migration of fibroblast cells. Although interplay between TGFβ1 and miR-21 are studied in relation to cancer, their interaction in the context of chronic wounds has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined if TGFβ1 could stimulate miR-21 in fibroblasts that are subjected to high glucose environment. MiR-21 was, in fact, induced by TGFβ1 in high glucose conditions. The induction by TGFβ1 was dependent on NFκB activation and subsequent ROS generation. TGFβ1 was instrumental in degrading the NFκB inhibitor IκBα and facilitating the nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 subunit. EMSA studies showed enhanced DNA binding activity of NFκB in the presence of TGFβ1. ChIP assay revealed binding of p65 to miR-21 promoter. NFκB activation was also required for the nuclear translocation of Smad 4 protein and subsequent direct interaction of Smad proteins with primary miR-21 as revealed by RNA-IP studies. Our results show that manipulation of TGFβ1–NFκB–miR-21 pathway could serve as an innovative approach towards therapeutics to heal diabetic ulcers.

  19. Toward Independence: Resubmission Rate of Unfunded National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 Research Grant Applications Among Early Stage Investigators.

    PubMed

    Boyington, Josephine E A; Antman, Melissa D; Patel, Katherine C; Lauer, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    The current, budget-driven low rate of National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for biomedical research has raised concerns about new investigators' ability to become independent scientists and their willingness to persist in efforts to secure funding. The authors sought to determine resubmission rates for unfunded National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) early stage investigator (ESI) independent research grant (R01) applications and to identify resubmission predictors. The authors used a retrospective cohort study design and retrieved applications submitted in fiscal years 2010-2012 from NIH electronic research administrative sources. They defined ESI applicants as those who have received no prior R01 (or equivalent) funding and are within 10 years of completion of their terminal research degree or medical residency training. ESI applications at the NHLBI were eligible for special funding consideration if they scored above, but within 10 points of, the payline. The primary outcome was application resubmission after failing to secure funding with the first R01 submission. Over half of the unfunded applications were resubmitted. Some of these were discussed and "percentiled." Among percentiled applications, the only significant predictor of resubmission was the percentile score. Over half (59%) of the ESI R01 grants funded by NHLBI in fiscal years 2010-2012 had percentile scores above but within 10 points of the NHLBI payline, and benefited from the special funding considerations. The only independent predictor of resubmission of NHLBI ESI R01 grant applications was percentile score; applicant demographics and institutional factors were not predictive of resubmission.

  20. Boiling heat transfer of refrigerant R-21 in upward flow in plate-fin heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. V.; Shamirzaev, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the results of experimental investigation of boiling heat transfer of refrigerant R-21 in upward flow in a vertical plate-fin heat exchanger with transverse size of the channels that is smaller than the capillary constant. The heat transfer coefficients obtained in ranges of small mass velocities and low heat fluxes, which are typical of the industry, have been poorly studied yet. The characteristic patterns of the upward liquid-vapor flow in the heat exchanger channels and the regions of their existence are detected. The obtained data show a weak dependence of heat transfer coefficient on equilibrium vapor quality, mass flow rate, and heat flux density and do not correspond to calculations by the known heat transfer models. A possible reason for this behavior is a decisive influence of evaporation of thin liquid films on the heat transfer at low heat flux.

  1. Sulindac has strong antifibrotic effects by suppressing STAT3-related miR-21.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue; Li, You-Jie; Gao, Shu-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Zhi; Wang, Ping-Yu; Yan, Yun-Fei; Xie, Shu-Yang; Lv, Chang-Jun

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a disease with an unknown cause and a poor prognosis. In this study, we aimed to explore the pathogenesis of PF and the mechanism of sulindac in attenuating bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF. The rat PF model was induced by BLM and verified through histological studies and hydroxyproline assay. The severity of BLM-induced PF in rats and other effects, such as the extent of the wet lung to bw ratios, thickening of alveolar interval or collagen deposition, was obviously ameliorated in sulindac-treated rat lungs compared with BLM-induced lungs. Sulindac also reversed the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inhibited the PF process by restoring the levels of E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) in A549 cells. Our results further demonstrated that the above effects of sulindac might be related to regulating of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) expression, which further affects signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) levels. Moreover, higher miR-21 levels with the decreased E-cadherin and increased α-SMA expressions were found in transforming growth factor-β1-treated A549 cells, which can be reversed by sulindac. Collectively, our results demonstrate that by decreasing IFN-γ-induced STAT3/p-STAT3 expression to down-regulate miR-21, sulindac could significantly reverse EMT in A549 cells and prevent BLM-induced PF. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  2. Targeting miR-21 enhances the sensitivity of human colon cancer HT-29 cells to chemoradiotherapy in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Jun; Lei, Wan; Fu, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ling; Li, Jun-He; Xiong, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-17

    Highlight: •MiR-21 plays a significant role in 5-FU resistance. •This role might be attributed to targeting of hMSH2 as well as TP and DPD via miR-21 targeted hMSH2. •Indirectly targeted TP and DPD to influence 5-FU chemotherapy sensitivity. -- Abstract: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a classic chemotherapeutic drug that has been widely used for colorectal cancer treatment, but colorectal cancer cells are often resistant to primary or acquired 5-FU therapy. Several studies have shown that miR-21 is significantly elevated in colorectal cancer. This suggests that this miRNA might play a role in this resistance. In this study, we investigated this possibility and the possible mechanism underlying this role. We showed that forced expression of miR-21 significantly inhibited apoptosis, enhanced cell proliferation, invasion, and colony formation ability, promoted G1/S cell cycle transition and increased the resistance of tumor cells to 5-FU and X radiation in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of miR-21 reversed these effects on HT-29 cells and increased the sensitivity of HT-29/5-FU to 5-FU chemotherapy. Finally, we showed that miR-21 targeted the human mutS homolog2 (hMSH2), and indirectly regulated the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). These results demonstrate that miR-21 may play an important role in the 5-FU resistance of colon cancer cells.

  3. IL-6 Inhibits the Targeted Modulation of PDCD4 by miR-21 in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Biao; Shi, Zhihao; Wang, Jiaping; Wu, Jing; Yang, Zhaoqing; Fang, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the Unites States. The cytokine IL-6 activates several prostate cancer pathways, but its upstream trans-signaling pathway remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the role of IL-6 in PDCD4 gene expression and how the microRNA miR-21 regulates this process in prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. The expression pattern of PDCD4 from samples from human prostate cancer, precancerous lesions, and benign prostatic hyperplasia was investigated by immunohistochemistry. PDCD4 transcription and translation were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. The targeted modulation of PDCD4 by miR-21 was analyzed in PC-3 and LNCaP cells, and the effect of IL-6 on the expression of PDCD4 was studied in vitro. PDCD4 expression in samples from the 3 tissue types progressively increased, and the expression levels of PDCD4 and prostate-specific antigen were negatively correlated. The levels of PDCD4 mRNA and protein in PC-3 and LNCaP cells transfected with anti-miR-21 constructs were lower than those in control cells. The expression of PDCD4 was inhibited by IL-6, but this effect was weakened in cell lines with low expression of miR-21. Our study demonstrates that the regulation of PDCD4 by miR-21 is targeted and IL-6 inhibits expression of the PDCD4 gene in PC-3 and LNCaP cells through the targeted function of miR-21 on PDCD4. These findings support the feasibility of future efforts for diagnosis and gene therapy for prostate cancer that are based on IL-6, miR-21, and PDCD4.

  4. Upregulation of miR-21 in cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer via JNK-1/c-Jun pathway.

    PubMed

    Echevarría-Vargas, Ileabett M; Valiyeva, Fatma; Vivas-Mejía, Pablo E

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin has been the most accepted drug for the treatment of ovarian cancer for almost 40 years. Although the majority of patients with ovarian cancer respond to front-line platinum combination chemotherapy, many patients will develop cisplatin-resistance disease, which is extremely rapid and fatal. Although various mechanisms of cisplatin resistance have been postulated, the key molecules involved in such resistance have not been identified. MiRNAs are endogenously expressed small non-coding RNAs, which are evolutionarily conserved and function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Dysregulation of miRNAs have been associated with cancer initiation, progression and drug resistance. The oncogenic miRNA-21, one of the best-studied miRNAs, is upregulated in almost all human cancers. However, the regulation of miR-21 in cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells has not been assessed. In this study, we measured the miR-21 expression by real-time PCR and found upregulation of miR-21 in cisplatin resistant compared with cisplatin sensitive ovarian cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated the association of the c-Jun transcription factor to the pri-mir-21 DNA promoter regions. Blocking the JNK-1, the major activator of c-Jun phosphorylation, reduced the expression of pre-mir-21 and increased the expression of its well-known target gene, PDCD4. Overexpression of miR-21 in cisplatin sensitive cells decreased PDCD4 levels and increased cell proliferation. Finally, targeting miR-21 reduced cell growth, proliferation and invasion of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. These results suggest that the JNK-1/c-Jun/miR-21 pathway contributes to the cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer cells and demonstrated that miR-21 is a plausible target to overcome cisplatin resistance.

  5. miR-21 in the Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) of Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): A Platform for Glioblastoma Biomarker Development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ryan; Skog, Johan; Nakano, Ichiro; Pingle, Sandeep; Kalinina, Juliya; Hua, Wei; Kesari, Santosh; Mao, Ying; Breakefield, Xandra O.; Hochberg, Fred H.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Carter, Bob S.; Chen, Clark C.

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma cells secrete extra-cellular vesicles (EVs) containing microRNAs (miRNAs). Analysis of these EV miRNAs in the bio-fluids of afflicted patients represents a potential platform for biomarker development. However, the analytic algorithm for quantitative assessment of EV miRNA remains under-developed. Here, we demonstrate that the reference transcripts commonly used for quantitative PCR (including GAPDH, 18S rRNA, and hsa-miR-103) were unreliable for assessing EV miRNA. In this context, we quantitated EV miRNA in absolute terms and normalized this value to the input EV number. Using this method, we examined the abundance of miR-21, a highly over-expressed miRNA in glioblastomas, in EVs. In a panel of glioblastoma cell lines, the cellular levels of miR-21 correlated with EV miR-21 levels (p<0.05), suggesting that glioblastoma cells actively secrete EVs containing miR-21. Consistent with this hypothesis, the CSF EV miR-21 levels of glioblastoma patients (n=13) were, on average, ten-fold higher than levels in EVs isolated from the CSF of non-oncologic patients (n=13, p<0.001). Notably, none of the glioblastoma CSF harbored EV miR-21 level below 0.25 copies per EV in this cohort. Using this cut-off value, we were able to prospectively distinguish CSF derived from glioblastoma and non-oncologic patients in an independent cohort of twenty-nine patients (Sensitivity=87%; Specificity=93%; AUC=0.91, p<0.01). Our results suggest that CSF EV miRNA analysis of miR-21 may serve as a platform for glioblastoma biomarker development. PMID:24205116

  6. Circulating miR-21 as an independent predictive biomarker for chemoresistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Miyamae, Mahito; Okajima, Wataru; Ohashi, Takuma; Imamura, Taisuke; Kiuchi, Jun; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    Only a few studies indentified the significance of circulating microRNAs in blood as a predictive biomarker for chemoresistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, we tested whether oncogenic miR-21 promoted chemoresistance in ESCC and served as a biomarker for predicting chemoresistance in plasma of patients with ESCC. All consecutive patients underwent the preoperative chemotherapy regimen (JCOG9907 trial) with cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil. As a result, pretreatment plasma concentrations of miR-21 were significantly higher in ESCC patients with a low histopathological response than in those with a high histopathological response (P = 0.0416). Multivariate analysis revealed that a high pretreatment plasma concentration of miR-21 was an independent risk factor of chemoresistance (p = 0.0150; Odds Ratio 9.95 (range: 1.56-63.4)). The expression of miR-21 was also significantly higher in pretreatment ESCC tissues with a low histopathological response than in those with a high histopathological response (P = 0.0409). In vitro, although the growth of KYSE 170 ESCC cells transfected with the control mimics was markedly inhibited by the 5-fluorouracil or cisplatin treatment, the inhibitory effects of 5-FU (P < 0.05) or cisplatin (P < 0.05) were significantly reduced in KYSE170 cells that overexpressed miR-21. Taken together, the overexpression of miR-21 contributed to chemoresistance and circulating miR-21 in plasma of patients with ESCC could be a useful biomarker for predicting chemoresistance. PMID:27508093

  7. MiR-21 down-regulation suppresses cell growth, invasion and induces cell apoptosis by targeting FASL, TIMP3, and RECK genes in esophageal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zhang, Chao-Qi; He, Jia-Huan; Duan, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Ji, Xiang; Zang, Wen-Qiao; Li, Min; Ma, Yun-Yun; Wang, Tao; Zhao, Guo-Qiang

    2013-07-01

    miR-21 is overexpressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and is thought to be correlated with the development of the cancer. The target gene of miR-21 including FASL, TIMP3 and RECK is revealed by researchers. miR-21 may be involved in the tumorgenesis of ESCC by targeting FASL, TIMP3 and RECK. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of miR-21 in the development of ESCC. miR-21 expression in ESCC and the matched non-malignant adjacent tissues (NMATs) was examined by qRT-PCR. Cell growth, cell apoptosis and cell invasion ability of EC9706 and EC-1 cells was examined after the cells were transfected with miR-21 inhibitor. The potential target genes of miR-21 including FASL, TIMP3 and RECK were examined by western blot and Luciferase reporter assay. miR-21 expression was increased significantly in ESCC tissues compared with NMAT. miR-21 down-regulation inhibits cell growth, cell invasion and induces cells to apoptosis. FASL, TIMP3 and RECK are direct targets of miR-21. miR-21 down-regulation inhibits cell growth, invasion and induces cells to apoptosis by targeting FASL, TIMP3 and RECK genes.

  8. [Construction of a recombined adenovirus vector carrying pri-miR-21 gene and research on it's target gene TLR4].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Xu, Guang-xian; Jia, Wei; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Yi-lin; Zhao, Zhi-jun; Wei, Jun

    2012-02-01

    To construct the recombined adenovirus vector carrying pri-miR-21 gene, which can express mature miR-21 efficiently, and to study the interaction of miR- 21 with its target gene TLR4. Using healthy mouse's gDNA as template, the primary miR-21 coding sequence was amplified by PCR and cloned into a shuttle vector pAdTrack-CMV. Constructed plasmid was sequenced and linearized for homologous recombination with pAdEasy-1 vector in BJ5183 bacteria. The recombined adenovirus vector carrying pri-miR-21 gene was used to challenge HeLa cell. The candidate target gene of miR-21 was determined by miRNA analysis databases. The expression level of TLR4 protein was detected by western blotting. Through the PCR, restriction enzyme digestion, DNA sequencing and expression of GFP, recombinant adenoviral vector pri-miR-21 gene was constructed successfully. Bioinformatic analysis suggested a few possible binding sites between miR-21 and TLR4. Results showed that miR-21 down-regulated TLR4 at protein levels. The recombinant adenoviral vector containing pri- miR-21 was successfully constructed. miR-21 gene interfered with the expression of TLR4 target gene.

  9. Targeting miR-21 enhances the sensitivity of human colon cancer HT-29 cells to chemoradiotherapy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jun; Lei, Wan; Fu, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ling; Li, Jun-He; Xiong, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-17

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a classic chemotherapeutic drug that has been widely used for colorectal cancer treatment, but colorectal cancer cells are often resistant to primary or acquired 5-FU therapy. Several studies have shown that miR-21 is significantly elevated in colorectal cancer. This suggests that this miRNA might play a role in this resistance. In this study, we investigated this possibility and the possible mechanism underlying this role. We showed that forced expression of miR-21 significantly inhibited apoptosis, enhanced cell proliferation, invasion, and colony formation ability, promoted G1/S cell cycle transition and increased the resistance of tumor cells to 5-FU and X radiation in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Furthermore, knockdown of miR-21 reversed these effects on HT-29 cells and increased the sensitivity of HT-29/5-FU to 5-FU chemotherapy. Finally, we showed that miR-21 targeted the human mutS homolog2 (hMSH2), and indirectly regulated the expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD). These results demonstrate that miR-21 may play an important role in the 5-FU resistance of colon cancer cells.

  10. Association of a peptoid ligand with the apical loop of pri-miR-21 inhibits cleavage by Drosha.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Jason P; Chirayil, Rachel; Chirayil, Sara; Tom, Martin; Head, Katie J; Luebke, Kevin J

    2014-04-01

    We have found a small molecule that specifically inhibits cleavage of a precursor to the oncogenic miRNA, miR-21, by the microprocessor complex of Drosha and DGCR8. We identified novel ligands for the apical loop of this precursor from a screen of 14,024 N-substituted oligoglycines (peptoids) in a microarray format. Eight distinct compounds with specific affinity were obtained, three having affinities for the targeted loop in the low micromolar range and greater than 15-fold discrimination against a closely related hairpin. One of these compounds completely inhibits microprocessor cleavage of a miR-21 primary transcript at concentrations at which cleavage of another miRNA primary transcript, pri-miR-16, is little affected. The apical loop of pri-miR-21, placed in the context of pri-miR-16, is sufficient for inhibition of microprocessor cleavage by the peptoid. This compound also inhibits cleavage of pri-miR-21 containing the pri-miR-16 apical loop, suggesting an additional site of association within pri-miR-21. The reported peptoid is the first example of a small molecule that inhibits microprocessor cleavage by binding to the apical loop of a pri-miRNA.

  11. Association of a peptoid ligand with the apical loop of pri-miR-21 inhibits cleavage by Drosha

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Jason P.; Chirayil, Rachel; Chirayil, Sara; Tom, Martin; Head, Katie J.; Luebke, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    We have found a small molecule that specifically inhibits cleavage of a precursor to the oncogenic miRNA, miR-21, by the microprocessor complex of Drosha and DGCR8. We identified novel ligands for the apical loop of this precursor from a screen of 14,024 N-substituted oligoglycines (peptoids) in a microarray format. Eight distinct compounds with specific affinity were obtained, three having affinities for the targeted loop in the low micromolar range and greater than 15-fold discrimination against a closely related hairpin. One of these compounds completely inhibits microprocessor cleavage of a miR-21 primary transcript at concentrations at which cleavage of another miRNA primary transcript, pri-miR-16, is little affected. The apical loop of pri-miR-21, placed in the context of pri-miR-16, is sufficient for inhibition of microprocessor cleavage by the peptoid. This compound also inhibits cleavage of pri-miR-21 containing the pri-miR-16 apical loop, suggesting an additional site of association within pri-miR-21. The reported peptoid is the first example of a small molecule that inhibits microprocessor cleavage by binding to the apical loop of a pri-miRNA. PMID:24497550

  12. Argonaute 2 immunoprecipitation revealed large tumor suppressor kinase 1 as a novel proapoptotic target of miR-21 in T cells.

    PubMed

    Teteloshvili, Nato; Smigielska-Czepiel, Katarzyna; Yuan, Ye; Seitz, Annika; de Jong, Debora; Rutgers, Bea; Jellema, Pytrick; van der Lei, Roelof Jan; Slezak-Prochazka, Izabella; Brouwer, Elisabeth; Boots, Annemieke M H; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; van den Berg, Anke; Kluiver, Joost

    2017-02-01

    MicroRNA (miR)-21 is an important suppressor of T-cell apoptosis that is also overexpressed in many types of cancers. The exact mechanisms underlying the antiapoptotic effects of miR-21 are not well understood. In this study, we used the Jurkat T-cell line as a model to identify apoptosis-associated miR-21 target genes. We showed that expression of miR-21 rapidly increases upon αCD3/αCD28 activation of Jurkat cells. Inhibition of miR-21 reduced cell growth which could be explained by an increase in apoptosis. MicroRNA target gene identification by AGO2 RNA-immunoprecipitation followed by gene expression microarray (RIP-Chip) resulted in the identification of 72 predicted miR-21 target genes that were at least twofold enriched in the AGO2-IP fraction of miR-21 overexpressing cells. Of these, 71 were at least twofold more enriched in the AGO2-IP fraction of miR-21 overexpressing cells as compared to AGO2-IP fraction of control cells. The target gene for which the AGO2-IP enrichment was most prominently increased upon miR-21 overexpression was the proapoptotic protein LATS1. Luciferase reporter assays and western blot analysis confirmed targeting of LATS1 by miR-21. qRT-PCR analysis in primary T cells showed an inverse expression pattern between LATS1 transcript levels and miR-21 upon T-cell stimulation. Finally, LATS1 knockdown partially rescued the miR-21 inhibition-induced impaired cell growth. Collectively, these data identify LATS1 as a miR-21 target important for the antiapoptotic function of miR-21 in T cells and likely also in many types of cancer.

  13. Difluorinated-curcumin (CDF) restores PTEN expression in colon cancer cells by down-regulating miR-21.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sanchita; Yu, Yingjie; Padhye, Subhash B; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advancement in medicine, nearly 50% of patients with colorectal cancer show recurrence of the disease. Although the reasons for the high relapse are not fully understood, the presence of chemo- and radiotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells, where many oncomirs like microRNA-21 (miR-21) are upregulated, could be one of the underlying causes. miR-21 regulates the processes of invasion and metastasis by downregulating multiple tumor/metastatic suppressor genes including PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog). Tumor suppressor protein PTEN controls self-renewal of stem cells. Indeed, our current data demonstrate a marked downregulation of PTEN in SCID mice xenografts of miR-21 over-expressing colon cancer HCT116 cells. Colonospheres that are highly enriched in cancer stem/stem like cells reveal increased miR-21 expression and decreased PTEN. Difluorinated curcumin (CDF), a novel analog of the dietary ingredient curcumin, which has been shown to inhibit the growth of 5-Flurouracil + Oxaliplatin resistant colon cancer cells, downregulated miR-21 in chemo-resistant colon cancer HCT116 and HT-29 cells and restored PTEN levels with subsequent reduction in Akt phosphorylation. Similar results were also observed in metastatic colon cancer SW620 cells. Since PTEN-Akt confers drug resistance to different malignancies including colorectal cancer, our observation of normalization of miR-21-PTEN-Akt pathway by CDF suggests that the compound could be a potential therapeutic agent for chemotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer.

  14. MiR-21 is induced in endothelial cells by shear stress and modulates apoptosis and eNOS activity

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Martina; Baker, Meredith B.; Moore, Jeffrey P.; Searles, Charles D.

    2010-03-19

    Mechanical forces associated with blood flow play an important role in regulating vascular signaling and gene expression in endothelial cells (ECs). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate the expression of genes involved in diverse cell functions, including differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. miRNAs are known to have an important role in modulating EC biology, but their expression and functions in cells subjected to shear stress conditions are unknown. We sought to determine the miRNA expression profile in human ECs subjected to unidirectional shear stress and define the role of miR-21 in shear stress-induced changes in EC function. TLDA array and qRT-PCR analysis performed on HUVECs exposed to prolonged unidirectional shear stress (USS, 24 h, 15 dynes/cm{sup 2}) identified 13 miRNAs whose expression was significantly upregulated (p < 0.05). The miRNA with the greatest change was miR-21; it was increased 5.2-fold (p = 0.002) in USS-treated versus control cells. Western analysis demonstrated that PTEN, a known target of miR-21, was downregulated in HUVECs exposed to USS or transfected with pre-miR-21. Importantly, HUVECs overexpressing miR-21 had decreased apoptosis and increased eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO{sup {center_dot}}) production. These data demonstrate that shear stress forces regulate the expression of miRNAs in ECs, and that miR-21 influences endothelial biology by decreasing apoptosis and activating the NO{sup {center_dot}} pathway. These studies advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which shear stress forces modulate vascular homeostasis.

  15. Differential expression of miR-21 and miR-75 in esophageal carcinoma patients and its clinical implication

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Hongbo; He, Zhanao; Wang, Hongjiang; Du, Tongxin; Pang, Zuoliang

    2016-01-01

    In Xinjiang, China, esophageal carcinoma has a high incidence in Kazak and Uighur populations. MicroRNA (miR)-21 and miR-375 are related to esophageal carcinoma. This study thus investigated their potencials in early diagnosis and prognosis in Kazak and Uighur populations, to provide evidences for serum markers of esophageal cancer. A total of 126 Kazak or Uighur esophageal cancer patients were enrolled as the disease group, along with 86 local Han patients as disease control cohort, and 80 healthy Kazak or Uighur individuals. MiRNA expression was detected by in situ hybridization in tissues and by qRT-PCR in serum. ROC approach was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of miRNA on esophageal carcinoma. Cox analysis was performed to screen factors governing prognosis. MiR-21 level was significantly elevated in both tissue and serum samples of esophageal cancer patients, while miR-375 was down-regulated. Such difference was more potent in disease group compared to disease control group. MiR expression was correlated with infiltration depth, TNM stage, vascular invasion, and lymph node metastasis. Elevated expression of miR-21 reduced the sensitivity of radio-therapy, and increased recurrence frequency. The diagnostic value of single assay for miR-21 or miR-375 was lower than the combined assay (AUC=0.812 or 0.739 vs. 0.858). They also affected patient prognosis (OR=1.53 or 0.652). MiR-21 and miR-375 presented abnormal expression in Kazak or Uighur esophageal carcinoma patients and were independent factors affecting prognosis. The combined assay of miR-21 and miR-375 may help to make early diagnosis of esophageal cancer. PMID:27508050

  16. Estrogen Downregulates miR-21 Expression and Induces Inflammatory Infiltration of Macrophages in Polymyositis: Role of CXCL10.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wang; Chen, Caijing; Chen, Huimin

    2017-04-01

    This study was aimed to explore the role of estrogen in inducing inflammatory infiltration of macrophages in polymyositis (PM) through downregulation of miR-21, which could further inhibit the expression of C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10). Biopsies were collected from 20 PM patients before and after treatment of glucocorticoid. Additionally, peritoneal macrophages were isolated from male SD model rats (n = 40). Creatine kinase (CK) and CXCL10 and nuclear factor-kappa (NF-κB) expressions were tested using immunosorbent and immunocytochemical assays. We also conducted transwell assay to observe invasive abilities of cells; RT-PCR and western blot were intended to semi-quantify miR-21 and CXCL10 expressions in vitro and in vivo. Compared with the control group, serum creatine kinase (S-CK) was upregulated in PM subjects, but its content decreased after treatment of immunosuppressive substances (e.g., glucocorticoids). Moreover, hormone treatment can significantly increase miR-21 expressions in PM patients (P < 0.05). However, CXCL10 expressions had an opposite tendency compared to miR-21expressions. Results drawn from rat model were consistent with those discovered in PM patients. Moreover, miR-21 transfection could significantly decrease the relative luciferase activity when it was integrated with CXCL10 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) in macrophage. Estrogen treatment can also upregulate the expression of NF-κB in macrophage nucleus. Nonetheless, the upregulated tendency was inhibited by either miR-21 mimics or anti-CXCL10 mAb (P < 0.05). Both macrophage migration and CXCL10 expressions were significantly decreased after applying miR-21 treatments compared with the control group, yet estrogen could enhance macrophage migration and increase CXCL10 expressions (P < 0.05). Immune inhibitors such as glucocorticoids can significantly downregulate miR-21 and upregulate CXCL10, ultimately eliciting the inflammatory infiltration of macrophage.

  17. Ghrelin inhibition of ethanol-induced gastric epithelial cell apoptosis is mediated by miR-21

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Miao; Gao, Peng-Fei; Li, Huan-Qing; Tian, Pei-Ying; Fan, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the underlying mechanism of ghrelin-induced gastro-protection in a cell culture model of ethanol-induced gastric epithelial cell injury. Methods: The human gastric epithelial cell line GES-1 was incubated with ghrelin (0.01-1 µM), 1 µM ghrelin and 1 µM D-Lys3-growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), or 1 µM ghrelin and 400 nM antagomiR-21 for 24 h, followed by treatment with 8% ethanol for 3 h to induce apoptosis. Cell viability was determined by MTT assays and flow cytometry was used for detection of apoptosis rates. miR-21 transcription was analyzed by qRT-PCR and Akt, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase 3 expressions were measured by Western blot. Results: Flow cytometry and a quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the expression of miR-21 showed that ghrelin inhibited apoptosis in a dose dependent manner through a signaling pathway that was both growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and miR-21 dependent, as the antiapoptotic effect of ghrelin was blocked by both D-Lys3-GHRP-6 and antagomiR-21, respectively. Western blotting of Akt, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase 3 showed that the levels of the antiapoptotic proteins, Akt and Bcl-2, in the cells pretreated with ghrelin alone were higher than those in the cells pretreated with D-Lys3-GHRP-6 or antagomiR-21. By contrast, the levels of the proapoptotic proteins, Bax and caspase 3, in the cells pretreated with ghrelin alone were lower than those in the cells pretreated with D-Lys3-GHRP-6 or antagomiR-21. Conclusion: Ghrelin inhibits GES-1 cell apoptosis through GHS-R-dependent signaling in which miR-21 activates the PI3K/Akt pathway, which upregulates Bcl-2 and downregulates Bax and caspase 3 expression. PMID:26191156

  18. Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and National Institutes of Health R01 Research Awards: Is There Evidence of a Double Bind for Women of Color?

    PubMed

    Ginther, Donna K; Kahn, Shulamit; Schaffer, Walter T

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, and the probability of being awarded an R01 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The authors used data from the NIH Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination grants management database for the years 2000-2006 to examine gender differences and race/ethnicity-specific gender differences in the probability of receiving an R01 Type 1 award. The authors used descriptive statistics and probit models to determine the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, degree, investigator experience, and R01 award probability, controlling for a large set of observable characteristics. White women PhDs and MDs were as likely as white men to receive an R01 award. Compared with white women, Asian and black women PhDs and black women MDs were significantly less likely to receive funding. Women submitted fewer grant applications, and blacks and women who were new investigators were more likely to submit only one application between 2000 and 2006. Differences by race/ethnicity explain the NIH funding gap for women of color, as white women have a slight advantage over men in receiving Type 1 awards. Findings of a lower submission rate for women and an increased likelihood that they will submit only one proposal are consistent with research showing that women avoid competition. Policies designed to address the racial and ethnic diversity of the biomedical workforce have the potential to improve funding outcomes for women of color.

  19. MiR-21 inhibitor suppressed the progression of retinoblastoma via the modulation of PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Gui, Fu; Hong, Zhengdong; You, Zhipeng; Wu, Hongxi; Zhang, Yulan

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) was reported to act as an oncogene during the development of many human tumors. However, little was revealed about the function of miR-21 in retinoblastoma (RB). In this study, we examined the expression of miR-21 in RB tissues and explored the relationship between miR-21 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K)/AKT signal. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that the level of miR-21 in RB tissues was higher than that in retinal normal tissues. In Weri-Rb-1 cells, miR-21 inhibitor suppressed the expression of miR-21 and cell viability, but improved cell apoptotic rates by modulating the levels of PDCD4, Bax, and Bcl-2. Meanwhile, miR-21 inhibitor suppressed cell migration and invasion via inhibiting the protein levels of MMP2 and MMP9 and significantly affected the expression of PTEN, PI3K, and p-AKT. Taken together, miR-21 inhibitor suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signal. These findings revealed the molecular basis of miR-21 functioning in the progression of RB and provided a new means for cell therapy in RB.

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone-induces miR-21 transcription in HepG2 cells through estrogen receptor β and androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yun; Litchfield, Lacey M.; Ivanova, Margarita M.; Prough, Russell A.; Clark, Barbara J.; Klinge, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Although oncomiR miR-21 is highly expressed in liver and overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its regulation is uncharacterized. We examined the effect of physiologically relevant nanomolar concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S) on miR-21 expression in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. 10 nM DHEA and DHEA-S increase pri-miR-21 transcription in HepG2 cells. Dietary DHEA increased miR-21 in vivo in mouse liver. siRNA and inhibitor studies suggest that DHEA-S requires desulfation for activity and that DHEA-induced pri-miR-21 transcription involves metabolism to androgen and estrogen receptor (AR and ER) ligands. Activation of ERβ and AR by DHEA metabolites androst-5-ene-3,17-dione (ADIONE), androst-5-ene-3β,17β-diol (ADIOL), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and 5α-androstane-3β,17β-diol (3β-Adiol) increased miR-21 transcription. DHEA-induced miR-21 increased cell proliferation and decreased Pdcd4 protein, a bona fide miR-21. Estradiol (E2) inhibited miR-21 expression via ERα. DHEA increased ERβ and AR recruitment to the miR-21 promoter within the VMP1/TMEM49 gene, with possible significance in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:24845419

  1. Mel-18 negatively regulates stem cell-like properties through downregulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Rui-Xi; Du, Yi-Qun; Huang, Ming-Zhu; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Yu Fang; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Mel-18, a polycomb group protein, has been reported to act as a tumor suppressor and be down-regulated in several human cancers including gastric cancer. It was also found that Mel-18 negatively regulates self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). This study aimed to clarify its role in gastric CSCs and explore the mechanisms. We found that low-expression of Mel-18 was correlated with poor prognosis and negatively correlated with overexpression of stem cell markers Oct4, Sox2, and Gli1 in 101 gastric cancer tissues. Mel-18 was down-regulated in cultured spheroid cells, which possess CSCs, and overexpression of Mel-18 inhibits cells sphere-forming ability and tumor growth in vivo. Besides, Mel-18 was lower-expressed in ovary metastatic lesions compared with that in primary lesions of gastric cancer, and Mel-18 overexpression inhibited the migration ability of gastric cancer cells. Interestingly, overexpression of Mel-18 resulted in down-regulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer cells and the expression of Mel-18 was negatively correlated with the expression of miR-21 in gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, miR-21 overexpression partially restored sphere-forming ability, migration potential and chemo-resistance in Mel-18 overexpressing gastric cancer cells. These results suggests Mel-18 negatively regulates stem cell-like properties through downregulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer cells. PMID:27542229

  2. Androgens downregulate miR-21 expression in breast cancer cells underlining the protective role of androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Donà, Ada; Rizza, Pietro; Aquila, Saveria; Avena, Paola; Lanzino, Marilena; Pellegrino, Michele; Vivacqua, Adele; Tucci, Paola; Morelli, Catia; Andò, Sebastiano; Sisci, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Although the protective role of androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) is well established, the mechanisms involved remains largely unexplored. MicroRNAs play fundamental roles in many biological processes, including tumor cell development and metastasis. Herein, we report that androgens reduce BC cells proliferation acting as a negative modulator of the onco-miRNA-21. The synthetic androgen miboleron (Mib) decreases BC cell proliferation induced by miR-21 over-expression and AR knockdown evidenced the requirement of AR in the down-regulation of miR-21 expression. These effects seem to be a general mechanism occurring in BC tissues. Chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) analysis disclosed the binding of AR to a specific ARE sequence in miR-21 proximal promoter and recognizes the recruitment of HDAC3 as component for AR-mediated transcriptional repression. Such event is associated to a significantly reduced PolII binding in Mib treated extracts confirming that activated AR is a transcriptional repressor of miR-21 expression, providing further insight into the protective role of androgens in breast cancer cells. Collectively, our data and the widespread AR expression in primary and metastatic breast tumours, suggest a careful examination of the therapeutic potential of androgens also in potentiating the effectiveness of anti-oestrogen adjuvant therapies. PMID:26862856

  3. Androgens downregulate miR-21 expression in breast cancer cells underlining the protective role of androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Casaburi, Ivan; Cesario, Maria Grazia; Donà, Ada; Rizza, Pietro; Aquila, Saveria; Avena, Paola; Lanzino, Marilena; Pellegrino, Michele; Vivacqua, Adele; Tucci, Paola; Morelli, Catia; Andò, Sebastiano; Sisci, Diego

    2016-03-15

    Although the protective role of androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) is well established, the mechanisms involved remains largely unexplored. MicroRNAs play fundamental roles in many biological processes, including tumor cell development and metastasis. Herein, we report that androgens reduce BC cells proliferation acting as a negative modulator of the onco-miRNA-21.The synthetic androgen miboleron (Mib) decreases BC cell proliferation induced by miR-21 over-expression and AR knockdown evidenced the requirement of AR in the down-regulation of miR-21 expression. These effects seem to be a general mechanism occurring in BC tissues.Chromatin immune-precipitation (ChIP) analysis disclosed the binding of AR to a specific ARE sequence in miR-21 proximal promoter and recognizes the recruitment of HDAC3 as component for AR-mediated transcriptional repression. Such event is associated to a significantly reduced PolII binding in Mib treated extracts confirming that activated AR is a transcriptional repressor of miR-21 expression, providing further insight into the protective role of androgens in breast cancer cells.Collectively, our data and the widespread AR expression in primary and metastatic breast tumours, suggest a careful examination of the therapeutic potential of androgens also in potentiating the effectiveness of anti-oestrogen adjuvant therapies.

  4. Mel-18 negatively regulates stem cell-like properties through downregulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Hua, Rui-Xi; Du, Yi-Qun; Huang, Ming-Zhu; Liu, Yong; Cheng, Yu Fang; Guo, Wei-Jian

    2016-09-27

    Mel-18, a polycomb group protein, has been reported to act as a tumor suppressor and be down-regulated in several human cancers including gastric cancer. It was also found that Mel-18 negatively regulates self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). This study aimed to clarify its role in gastric CSCs and explore the mechanisms. We found that low-expression of Mel-18 was correlated with poor prognosis and negatively correlated with overexpression of stem cell markers Oct4, Sox2, and Gli1 in 101 gastric cancer tissues. Mel-18 was down-regulated in cultured spheroid cells, which possess CSCs, and overexpression of Mel-18 inhibits cells sphere-forming ability and tumor growth in vivo. Besides, Mel-18 was lower-expressed in ovary metastatic lesions compared with that in primary lesions of gastric cancer, and Mel-18 overexpression inhibited the migration ability of gastric cancer cells. Interestingly, overexpression of Mel-18 resulted in down-regulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer cells and the expression of Mel-18 was negatively correlated with the expression of miR-21 in gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, miR-21 overexpression partially restored sphere-forming ability, migration potential and chemo-resistance in Mel-18 overexpressing gastric cancer cells. These results suggests Mel-18 negatively regulates stem cell-like properties through downregulation of miR-21 in gastric cancer cells.

  5. 75 FR 47254 - Elimination of Firearms Transaction Record, ATF Form 4473 (Low Volume) (2008R-21P)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives 27 CFR Part 478 RIN 1140-AA34 Elimination of Firearms Transaction Record, ATF Form 4473 (Low Volume) (2008R-21P) AGENCY: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and... Justice is proposing to amend the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  6. STAT3 pathway regulates lung-derived brain metastasis initiating cell capacity through miR-21 activation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohini; Garg, Neha; Venugopal, Chitra; Hallett, Robin; Tokar, Tomas; McFarlane, Nicole; Mahendram, Sujeivan; Bakhshinyan, David; Manoranjan, Branavan; Vora, Parvez; Qazi, Maleeha; Arpin, Carolynn C; Page, Brent; Haftchenary, Sina; Rosa, David A; Lai, Ping-Shan; Gómez-Biagi, Rodolfo F; Ali, Ahmed M; Lewis, Andrew; Geletu, Mulu; Murty, Naresh K; Hassell, John A; Jurisica, Igor; Gunning, Patrick T; Singh, Sheila K

    2015-09-29

    Brain metastases (BM) represent the most common tumor to affect the adult central nervous system. Despite the increasing incidence of BM, likely due to consistently improving treatment of primary cancers, BM remain severely understudied. In this study, we utilized patient-derived stem cell lines from lung-to-brain metastases to examine the regulatory role of STAT3 in brain metastasis initiating cells (BMICs). Annotation of our previously described BMIC regulatory genes with protein-protein interaction network mapping identified STAT3 as a novel protein interactor. STAT3 knockdown showed a reduction in BMIC self-renewal and migration, and decreased tumor size in vivo. Screening of BMIC lines with a library of STAT3 inhibitors identified one inhibitor to significantly reduce tumor formation. Meta-analysis identified the oncomir microRNA-21 (miR-21) as a target of STAT3 activity. Inhibition of miR-21 displayed similar reductions in BMIC self-renewal and migration as STAT3 knockdown. Knockdown of STAT3 also reduced expression of known downstream targets of miR-21. Our studies have thus identified STAT3 and miR-21 as cooperative regulators of stemness, migration and tumor initiation in lung-derived BM. Therefore, STAT3 represents a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of lung-to-brain metastases.

  7. Expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) and miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Nicolas; Goeke, Friederike; Splittstoesser, Vera; Lankat-Buttgereit, Brigitte; Mueller, Stefan C.; Ellinger, Joerg

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tumor suppressor gene PDCD4 is down-regulated in many tumorous entities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the impact of PDCD4 and its regulating factor miR-21 in urothelial carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We confirm PDCD4 as a tumor suppressor gene and it could be a diagnostic marker for this tumor. -- Abstract: Background: We investigated the role of the programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) tumor suppressor gene in specimens of transitional cell carcinoma and of healthy individuals. Methods: PDCD4 immunohistochemical expression was investigated in 294 cases in histologically proven transitional cell carcinoma in different tumorous stages (28 controls, 122 non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma, stages Tis-T1, 119 invasive transitional cell carcinoma stages T2-T4 and 25 metastases). MiR-21 expression, an important PDCD4 regulator, was assessed with real-time PCR analysis and showed inverse correlation to tissue PDCD4 expression. Results: Nuclear and cytoplasmatic PDCD4 immunostaining decreased significantly with histopathological progression of the tumor (p < 0001). Controls showed strong nuclear and cytoplasmatic immunohistochemical staining. MiR-21 up regulation in tissue corresponded to PDCD4 suppression. Conclusions: These data support a decisive role for PDCD4 down regulation in transitional cell carcinoma and confirm miR-21 as a negative regulator for PDCD4. Additionally, PDCD4 immunohistochemical staining turns out to be a possible diagnostic marker for transitional cell carcinoma.

  8. miR-375 ameliorates sepsis by downregulating miR-21 level via inhibiting JAK2-STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Bo; Zhao, Lei; Zang, Xuefeng; Zhen, Jie; Chen, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Accumulating evidences have confirmed that miRNAs have important roles in sepsis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) enhance late sepsis development through immunosuppression in mice. Here, the functions and mechanisms of miR-375 in sepsis were revealed. We found that miR-375 level was downregulated but miR-21 level was upregulated in sepsis patients and that their levels were correlated negatively. Importantly, ectopic expression of miR-375 could decrease the number of sepsis Gr1+CD11b+ MDSCs in mice. Mechanistically, miR-375 could target Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and further impaired signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in sepsis Gr1+CD11b+ MDSC. Gain and loss of function of experiments showed that upregulation or downregulation of miR-375 level could decrease or increase miR-21 level. Moreover, pretreatment of JAK2 overexpressing vector could abolish the effects of miR-375 on miR-21 level and the amount of sepsis Gr1+CD11b+ MDSCs. Therefore, our results demonstrate that miR-375 could block JAK2-STAT3 pathway and thus modulate miR-21 level, which is involved in regulation of late sepsis.

  9. PDGF-B-mediated downregulation of miR-21: new insights into PDGF signaling in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Pedro M.; Cardoso, Ana L.; Pereira de Almeida, Luis F.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Canoll, Peter; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C.

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly heterogeneous type of tumor characterized by genomic and signaling abnormalities affecting pathways involved in control of cell fate, including tumor-suppressor- and growth factor-regulated pathways. An aberrant miRNA expression has been observed in GBM, being associated with impaired cellular functions resulting in malignant transformation, proliferation and invasion. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), a potent angiogenic growth factor involved in GBM development and progression, promotes downregulation of pro-oncogenic (miR-21) and anti-oncogenic (miR-128) miRNAs, as well as upregulation/downregulation of several miRNAs involved in GBM pathology. Retrovirally mediated overexpression of PDGF-B in U87 human GBM cells or their prolonged exposure, as well as that of F98 rat glioma cells to this ligand, resulted in decreased miR-21 and miR-128 levels, which was associated with increased cell proliferation. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated PDGF-B silencing led to increased levels of miR-21 and miR-128, while miRNA modulation through overexpression of miR-21 did not alter the levels of PDGF-B. Finally, we demonstrate that modulation of tumor suppressors PTEN and p53 in U87 cells does not affect the decrease in miR-21 levels associated with PDGF-B overexpression. Overall, our findings suggest that, besides its role in inducing GBM tumorigenesis, PDGF-B may enhance tumor proliferation by modulating the expression of oncomiRs and tumor suppressor miRNAs in U87 human GBM cells. PMID:22922228

  10. Solasodine inhibits invasion of human lung cancer cell through downregulation of miR-21 and MMPs expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kun-Hung; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Chang, Chia-Wei; Weng, Yu-Ting; Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2017-03-07

    Solasodine, a naturally occurring aglycone of glycoalkaloid in eggplant (Solanum melongena), was found to inhibit proliferation in various tumor cells. However, the effect of solasodine on cancer cell metastasis remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of solasodine on motility of human lung cancer cell A549 in vitro. Results show that solasodine reduces viability of A549 cells. Treatment with non-toxic doses of solasodine suppresses markedly cell invasion. Solasodine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN), but increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), as well as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. Immunoblotting assays indicate that solasodine is effective in suppressing PI3K and Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, solasodine downregulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21), which has been known to target RECK. Downregulation of miR-21 by miR-21 inhibitor increases RECK expression and decreases cell invasion, suggesting that downregulation of miR-21 by solasodine may contribute to elevate RECK expression and subsequently inhibiting cell invasion. Taken together, the results reveal that inhibition of A549 cell invasion by solasodine may be, at least in part, through blocking MMP expression. Solasodine also reduces PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and downregulates expression of miR-21. These findings demonstrate an attractive therapeutic potential for solasodine in lung cancer anti-metastatic therapy.

  11. MiR-9 and miR-21 as prognostic biomarkers for recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sondermann, Adriana; Andreghetto, Flavia Maziero; Moulatlet, Ana Carolina Bernardini; da Silva Victor, Elivane; de Castro, Marilia Germanos; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Brandão, Lenine Garcia; Severino, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Despite low mortality rates, nodal recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma occurs in up to 20 % of patients. Emerging evidences indicate that dysregulated microRNAs are implicated in the process of metastasis. In the present study, we investigated whether miR-9, miR-10b, miR-21 and miR-146b levels are predictive of papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence. Using macro-dissection followed by quantitative real-time PCR, we measured miR-9, miR-10b, miR-21 and miR-146b expression levels in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of 66 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma categorized into two groups: the recurrent group (n = 19) and the non-recurrent group (n = 47). All patients underwent total thyroidectomy and were followed for at least 120 months after surgery to be considered recurrence-free. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model in order to identify associations between multiple clinical variables and microRNA expression levels and papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence. MiR-9 and miR-21 expression levels were found to be significant prognostic factors for recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (HR = 1.48; 95 % CI 1.24-1.77, p < 0.001; and HR = 1.52; 95 % CI 1.18-1.94, p = 0.001; respectively). Multivariate analysis involving the expression level of miR-9 and miR-21 and various clinical parameters identified the expression of these microRNAs as independent prognostic factors for papillary thyroid cancer patients. In conclusion, our results support the potential clinical value of miR-9 and miR-21 as prognostic biomarkers for recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  12. Controlling RECK miR21 Promotes Tumor Cell Invasion and Is Related to Biochemical Recurrence in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Katia R. M.; Reis, Sabrina T.; Viana, Nayara; Morais, Denis R.; Moura, Caio M.; Silva, Iran A.; Pontes, José; Katz, Betina; Srougi, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The search for biomarkers to characterize prostate cancer aggressiveness has been the objective for the majority of researchers involved with the most prevalent tumor in men. MiRNAs are important for the control of many cellular functions and their deregulation is involved with tumor development and progression. To find miRNAs differentially expressed in prostate cancer and their relation to prognostic factors and biochemical recurrence we studied 53 surgical specimens from men who underwent radical prostatectomy, through a microarray analysis using the microarray platform (GeneChip® miRNA Array - Affymetrix) with more than 46,000 probes and 847 mature human miRNAs and transcripts. We defined different as an expression level greater or less than 1.1 with p<0.05. The validation study using qRT-PCR had confirmed miR21 as overexpressed in tumor that have recurred with a risk of 2.5. Transfection of miR-21 using lipid based assay in DU145 cell line, showed decrease in expression of RECK resulting in increase in expression of MMP9. Invasion assay with Matrigel showed increase in tumor cell invasion after miR-21 transfection. We conclude that miR-21 overexpression is related to increased biochemical recurrence after surgical treatment of prostate cancer. And the negative control of RECK results in overexpression of MMP9 promotes increasing tumor cell invasion supporting miR-21 as an oncomiR related to aggressiveness in prostate cancer. PMID:25663948

  13. Gga-miR-21 inhibits chicken pre-adipocyte proliferation in part by down-regulating Kruppel-like factor 5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weishi; Cheng, Min; Qiao, Shupei; Wang, Yuxiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Gga-miR-21 is abundantly expressed in chicken pre-adipocytes, but its role is unclear. The present study investigated the role of gga-miR-21 in chicken pre-adipocyte proliferation. Cell proliferation assay and gene expression analysis of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) showed that the gga-miR-21 mimic inhibited pre-adipocyte proliferation. In contrast, the gga-miR-21 inhibitor enhanced pre-adipocyte proliferation. The subsequent investigation identified Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) mRNA as a target of gga-miR-21. The gga-miR-21 mimic inhibited KLF5 3(')UTR reporter activity and decreased endogenous KLF5 expression in primary pre-adipocytes. KLF5 knockdown using RNAi had a similar effect to that of the gga-miR-21 mimic on cell proliferation. The promoting effect of the gga-miR-21 inhibitor on pre-adipocyte proliferation was partially attenuated by KLF5 knockdown. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-21 inhibits chicken pre-adipocyte proliferation, at least in part, by targeting KLF5.

  14. MiR-21 promotes intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma proliferation and growth in vitro and in vivo by targeting PTPN14 and PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Juan; He, Chen-Chen; Sui, Xin; Cai, Meng-Jiao; Zhou, Cong-Ya; Ma, Jin-Lu; Wu, Lei; Wang, Hao; Han, Su-Xia; Zhu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) constitutes the second-most common primary hepatic malignancy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of ICC. However, the clinical significance of miR-21 levels in ICC remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of miR-21 in ICC and found that its expression was significantly upregulated in serum of ICC patients. Serum miR-21 levels robustly distinguished ICC patients from control subjects. Further experiments showed that inhibition of miR-21 suppressed ICC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Specifically, inhibition of miR-21 induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, PTPN14 and PTEN were identified as direct and functional targets of miR-21. Finally, we showed high expression levels of miR-21 were closely related to adverse clinical features, diminished survival, and poor prognosis in ICC patients. This study revealed functional and mechanistic links between miR-21 and tumor suppressor genes, PTPN14 and PTEN, in the pathogenesis of ICC. MiR-21 not only plays important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and tumor growth in ICC, but is also a diagnostic and prognostic marker, and a potential therapeutic target for ICC. PMID:25803229

  15. Percentile ranking and citation impact of a large cohort of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded cardiovascular R01 grants.

    PubMed

    Danthi, Narasimhan; Wu, Colin O; Shi, Peibei; Lauer, Michael

    2014-02-14

    Funding decisions for cardiovascular R01 grant applications at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) largely hinge on percentile rankings. It is not known whether this approach enables the highest impact science. Our aim was to conduct an observational analysis of percentile rankings and bibliometric outcomes for a contemporary set of funded NHLBI cardiovascular R01 grants. We identified 1492 investigator-initiated de novo R01 grant applications that were funded between 2001 and 2008 and followed their progress for linked publications and citations to those publications. Our coprimary end points were citations received per million dollars of funding, citations obtained <2 years of publication, and 2-year citations for each grant's maximally cited paper. In 7654 grant-years of funding that generated $3004 million of total National Institutes of Health awards, the portfolio yielded 16 793 publications that appeared between 2001 and 2012 (median per grant, 8; 25th and 75th percentiles, 4 and 14; range, 0-123), which received 2 224 255 citations (median per grant, 1048; 25th and 75th percentiles, 492 and 1932; range, 0-16 295). We found no association between percentile rankings and citation metrics; the absence of association persisted even after accounting for calendar time, grant duration, number of grants acknowledged per paper, number of authors per paper, early investigator status, human versus nonhuman focus, and institutional funding. An exploratory machine learning analysis suggested that grants with the best percentile rankings did yield more maximally cited papers. In a large cohort of NHLBI-funded cardiovascular R01 grants, we were unable to find a monotonic association between better percentile ranking and higher scientific impact as assessed by citation metrics.

  16. Towards Independence: Resubmission Rate of Unfunded National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 Research Grant Applications among Early Stage Investigators

    PubMed Central

    Boyington, Josephine E.A.; Antman, Melissa D.; Patel, Katherine C.; Lauer, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The current, budget-driven low rate of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for biomedical research has raised concerns about the ability of new investigators to become independent scientists and their willingness to persist in efforts to secure funding. The authors sought to determine resubmission rates for unfunded National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) early stage investigator (ESI) independent research grant (RO1) applications and to identify predictors of resubmission. Method The authors used a retrospective cohort study design and retrieved applications submitted in fiscal years 2010–2012 from NIH electronic research administrative sources. They defined ESI applicants as those who have received no prior R01 (or equivalent) funding and were within 10 years of completion of their terminal research degree or medical residency training. ESI applications at the NHLBI were eligible for special funding consideration if they scored above, but within ten points of, the payline. The primary outcome was application resubmission after failing to secure funding with the first R01 submission. Results Over half of the unfunded applications were resubmitted. Some of these were discussed and “percentiled,” and among these applications, the only significant predictor of resubmission was the percentile score. Over half (59%) of the ESI R01grants funded by NHLBI in FY-2010–2012 had percentile scores above, but within ten points of the NHLBI payline, and benefitted from the special funding considerations. Conclusions The only independent predictor of resubmission of NHLBI ESI R01 grant applications was percentile score; applicant demographics and institutional factors were not predictive of resubmission. PMID:26650674

  17. Perspective: is NIH funding the "best science by the best scientists"? A critique of the NIH R01 research grant review policies.

    PubMed

    Costello, Leslie C

    2010-05-01

    Clinical and experimental biomedical research provides the foundation for advances in medicine, health, and the welfare of the public. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the major agency providing funding for biomedical research. The stated objectives of the NIH for funding research grants (R01s) are to "fund the best science, by the best scientists" and "to see that NIH grant applications receive fair, independent, expert, and timely reviews-free from inappropriate influences-so NIH can fund the most promising research." The NIH recently reviewed and identified issues involved with the study section peer review process that compromise the achievement of these laudable and important objectives. Consequently, the NIH has and continues to issue new guidelines and requirements relating to the R01 grant review process. The author argues that some of these NIH directives conflict with and counteract the achievement of the NIH's stated objectives. The author further contends that the directives introduce discrimination into the review process. Such conditions impede the funding of the best science by the best scientists, while funding lesser-quality research. The NIH should eliminate all directives that prevent R01 grants from being awarded solely to the highest-quality research. This is in the best interest of the biomedical community and the health and welfare of the public at large.

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of miR-21 in the macrophage response to peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Rebecca Elise; Conklin, Daniel J; Ryan, Lindsey; Keskey, Robert C; Ramjee, Vikram; Sepulveda, Ernesto A; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Cheadle, William G

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the role of microRNA-21 in the macrophage response to peritonitis; microRNA-21 expression increases in peritoneal macrophages after lipopolysaccharide stimulation but is delayed until 48 hours after cecal ligation and puncture. MicroRNA-21-null mice and bone marrow-derived cell lines were exposed to cecal ligation and puncture or lipopolysaccharide, and survival, microRNA-21 levels, target messenger RNAs and proteins, and cytokines were assayed. Macrophages were also transfected with microRNA-21 mimics and antagomirs, and similar endpoints were measured. Survival in microRNA-21-null mice was significantly decreased after lipopolysaccharide-induced peritonitis but unchanged after cecal ligation and puncture compared with similarly treated wild-type mice. MicroRNA-21 expression, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, and programmed cell death protein 4 levels were increased after lipopolysaccharide addition in peritoneal cells. Pelino1 and sprouty (SPRY) messenger RNAs were similarly increased early, whereas programmed cell death protein 4 messenger RNA was decreased after lipopolysaccharide, and all microR-21 target messenger RNAs were subsequently decreased by 24 hours after lipopolysaccharide. Transfection with mimics and antagomirs led to appropriate responses in microRNA-21 and tumor necrosis factor-α. Knockdown of microRNA-21 in bone marrow-derived cells showed increased tumor necrosis factor-α and decreased interleukin 10 in response to lipopolysaccharide. Target proteins were unaffected by knockdown as was extracellular signal-regulated kinase; however, the nuclear factor κB p65 subunit was increased after lipopolysaccharide in the microRNA-21 knockout cells. In contrast, there was little change in these parameters after cecal ligation and puncture induction between null and wild-type mice. MicroRNA-21 is beneficial to survival in mice following lipopolysaccharide peritonitis. Overexpression of microRNA-21 decreased tumor necrosis factor

  19. miR-21 inhibitor suppresses proliferation and migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through down-regulation of BCL2 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Yumei; Yan, Limei; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Hui; Chen, Wei; Hu, Nan; Ou, Hesheng

    2014-01-01

    This study is to investigate the expression of miR-21 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells, and the effect of miR-21 in the biological behavior and expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) in NPC cells. Paired NPC and adjacent non-tumor tissues were obtained from 53 patients who underwent primary surgical resection of NPC tissues. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to test whether BCL2 is a direct target of miR-21. Methylthiazolyl blue tetrazolium assay and colony assay were used to evaluate the effect of miR-21 on NPC cell proliferation. Transwell and wound-healing assays were carried out to test the effect of low expression of miR-21 on cancer cell migration and invasion. QRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to measure the levels of mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Tumor tissues showed a positive correlation between the levels of miR-21 and BCL2 protein expression. Cells transfected with miR-21 inhibitor healed slower compared the control (P < 0.05). In addition, cell migration was notably inhibited by the down-regulation of miR-21 in vitro (P < 0.05). The reduction in miR-21 expression showed a remarkable effect on the biological behavior of NPC cell clone formation (P < 0.05). Low expression of miR-21 by transfection with miRNA expression plasmid led to a decrease in BCL2 expression, which was accompanied by reduced migration and proliferation of the cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that miR-21 inhibitor down-regulated BCL2 expression level, suggesting that BCL2 might be a target gene for the initiation and development of NPC cells.

  20. miR-21 induces cell cycle at S phase and modulates cell proliferation by down-regulating hMSH2 in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhiwei; Dong, Zhuo; Yang, Lihua; Gong, Zhaohui

    2012-10-01

    MicroRNAs regulate critical genes associated with lung cancer. Human mutS homolog 2 (hMSH2), one of the core mismatch repair genes, is affected in lung cancer development. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of miR-21 in hMSH2 gene expression and the effect of miR-21 on cell proliferation and cell cycle in lung cancer. The targets of miR-21 were predicted by a bioinformatics tool, and hMSH2 was validated as a direct target of miR-21 by luciferase activity assay. MiRNA mimics or inhibitors were used to stimulate or attenuate the effect of endogenous miR-21 on hMSH2 expression. MiR-21 and hMSH2 expressions were assessed with real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry, and cell growth was analyzed by MTT assay and real-time cell analysis system. MiR-21 expression was inversely correlated with hMSH2 expression in human lung cancer cell lines. Further validation showed hMSH2 was directly regulated by miR-21. The up-regulation of miR-21 significantly promoted cell proliferation and revealed a higher proportion of cells at S phase. However, knockdown of miR-21 expression resulted in cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and inhibited cell proliferation. These data suggest miR-21 is a key regulator of hMSH2 and modulates cell cycle and proliferation by targeting hMSH2 in human lung cancer.

  1. miR-21 increases c-kit+ cardiac stem cell proliferation in vitro through PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Long, Xianping; Zhao, Ranzun; Wang, Yan; Chen, Wenming; Xu, Guanxue; Sheng, Jin; Wang, Dongmei; Cao, Song

    2017-01-01

    The low survival rate of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in the ischemic myocardium is one of the obstacles in ischemic cardiomyopathy cell therapy. The MicroRNA (miR)-21 and one of its target protein, the tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), contributes to the proliferation of many kinds of tissues and cell types. It is reported that miR-21 promotes proliferation through PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway, but its effects on c-kit+ CSC remain unclear. The authors hypothesized that miR-21 promotes the proliferation in c-kit+ CSC, and evaluated the involvement of PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway in vitro. miR-21 up-regulation with miR-21 efficiently mimics accelerated cell viability and proliferation in c-kit+ CSC, which was evidenced by the CCK-8, EdU and cell cycle analyses. In addition, the over-expression of miR-21 in c-kit+ CSCs notably down-regulated the protein expression of PTEN although the mRNA level of PTEN showed little change. Gain-of-function of miR-21 also increased the phosphor-Akt (p-Akt) level. Phen, the selective inhibitor of PTEN, reproduced the pro-proliferation effects of miR-21, while PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, totally attenuated the pro-survival effect of miR-21. These results indicate that miR-21 is efficient in promoting proliferation in c-kit+ CSCs, which is contributed by the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway. miR-21 holds the potential to facilitate CSC therapy in ischemic myocardium. PMID:28168101

  2. AKT Axis, miR-21, and RECK Play Pivotal Roles in Dihydroartemisinin Killing Malignant Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Tao-Lan; Wu, Lan-Xiang; Zou, He-Cun; Li, Shuang; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, is known to play important roles in inhibiting proliferation rate, inducing apoptosis, as well as hindering the metastasis and invasion of glioma cells, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear so far. In this study, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT), colony-forming, wound healing, invasion, and apoptosis assays were performed to investigate the effect of DHA on malignant glioma cells. Results showed that DHA induced apoptosis of malignant glioma cells through Protein Kinase B (AKT) axis, induced death of malignant glioma cells by downregulating miR-21, and inhibited the invasion of malignant glioma cells corresponding with up-regulation of the reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK). These results revealed that AKT axis, miR-21, and RECK play pivotal roles in DHA killing malignant glioma cells, suggesting that DHA is a potential agent for treating glioma. PMID:28208619

  3. MicroRNA signature in diabetic wound healing: promotive role of miR-21 in fibroblast migration.

    PubMed

    Madhyastha, R; Madhyastha, H; Nakajima, Y; Omura, S; Maruyama, M

    2012-08-01

    A major complication of diabetes mellitus is the disruption of normal wound repair process, characterised by insufficient production of growth factors. A molecular genetic approach wherein resident cells synthesise and deliver the growth factors to the wound site would be a powerful therapeutic strategy to treat diabetic wounds. One such molecular approach could be the application of microRNAs (miRNAs). This study reports differential expression of miRNAs related to cell development and differentiation, during wound healing in diabetic mice. Comparison of skin tissue from normal and diabetic mice showed that 14 miRNAs were differentially expressed in diabetic skin; miR-146b and miR-21 were the most noteworthy. Expression pattern of these miRNAs was also altered during healing of diabetic wounds. A subset of miRNAs (miR-20b, miR-10a, miR-10b, miR-96, miR-128, miR-452 and miR-541) exhibited similar basal levels in normal and diabetic skins, but displayed dysregulation during healing of diabetic wounds. Amongst the miRNAs studied, miR-21 showed a distinct signature with increased expression in diabetic skin but decreased expression during diabetic wound healing. We analysed the role of miR-21 in fibroblast migration, because migration of fibroblasts into the wound area is an important landmark facilitating secretion of growth factors and migration of other cell types into the wound, thus enhancing the healing process. Using gain-of and loss-of function approaches, we show that miR-21 is involved in fibroblast migration. Our preliminary studies implicate an important role for miRNAs in the pathogenesis of diabetic wounds. © 2011 The Authors. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  4. miR-21 normalizes vascular smooth muscle proliferation and improves coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Rebecca; Chaplin, Jennifer; Hutcheson, Brenda; Borthwick, Faye; Proctor, Spencer; Gebb, Sarah; Jadhav, Rashmi; Smith, Erika; Russell, James C.; Rocic, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate cell proliferation is considered a major causative factor for impaired coronary collateral growth (CCG). Proangiogenic growth factors (GFs) stimulate cell proliferation, but their administration does not promote CCG in patients. These GFs are increased in patients with metabolic syndrome and in animal models, where CCG is impaired. Here, we investigated whether excessive cell proliferation underlies impaired CCG in metabolic syndrome. Normal [Sprague-Dawley (SD)] and metabolic syndrome [James C. Russell (JCR)] rats underwent repetitive ischemia (RI; transient, repetitive coronary artery occlusion and myocardial ischemia). We have shown that CCG was maximal at d 9 of RI in SD rats but did not occur in JCR rats. The increase in cell proliferation (PCNA, Ki-67, cyclin A, phospho- cdc2, p21Waf, p27Kip) was transient (∼4-fold, d 3 RI) in SD rats but greater and sustained in JCR rats (∼8- to 6-fold, d 3–9 RI). In JCR rats, this was associated with increased and sustained miR-21 expression and accumulation of proliferating synthetic vascular smooth muscle cells in the lumen of small arterioles, which failed to undergo outward expansion. Administration of anti-miR-21 blocked RI-induced cell proliferation and significantly improved CCG in JCR rats (∼60%). miR-21-dependent excessive cell proliferation in the later stages of collateral remodeling correlates with impaired CCG in metabolic syndrome.—Hutcheson, R., Chaplin, J., Hutcheson, B., Borthwick, F., Proctor, S., Gebb, S., Jadhav, R., Smith, E., Russell, J. C., Rocic, P. miR-21 normalizes vascular smooth muscle proliferation and improves coronary collateral growth in metabolic syndrome. PMID:24903275

  5. High miR-21 expression from FFPE tissues is associated with poor survival and response to adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Oue, Naohide; Anami, Katsuhiro; Schetter, Aaron J; Moehler, Markus; Okayama, Hirokazu; Khan, Mohammed A; Bowman, Elise D; Mueller, Annett; Schad, Arno; Shimomura, Manabu; Hinoi, Takao; Aoyagi, Kazuhiko; Sasaki, Hiroki; Okajima, Masazumi; Ohdan, Hideki; Galle, Peter R; Yasui, Wataru; Harris, Curtis C

    2014-04-15

    Colon cancer (CC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality. Novel biomarkers are needed to identify CC patients at high risk of recurrence and those who may benefit from therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study is to investigate if miR-21 expression from RNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections is associated with prognosis and therapeutic outcome for patients with CC. The expression of miR-21 was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in a Japanese cohort (stage I-IV, n = 156) and a German cohort (stage II, n = 145). High miR-21 expression in tumors was associated with poor survival in both the stage II/III Japanese (p = 0.0008) and stage II German (p = 0.047) cohorts. These associations were independent of other clinical covariates in multivariable models. Receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy was not beneficial in patients with high miR-21 in either cohort. In the Japanese cohort, high miR-21 expression was significantly associated with poor therapeutic outcome (p = 0.0001) and adjuvant therapy was associated with improved survival in patients with low miR-21 (p = 0.001). These results suggest that miR-21 is a promising biomarker to identify patients with poor prognosis and can be accurately measured in FFPE tissues. The expression of miR-21 may also identify patients who will benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.

  6. Local microRNA modulation using a novel anti-miR-21-eluting stent effectively prevents experimental in-stent restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Deuse, Tobias; Stubbendorff, Mandy; Chernogubova, Ekaterina; Erben, Reinhold G.; Eken, Suzanne M.; Jin, Hong; Li, Yuhuang; Busch, Albert; Heeger, Christian H.; Behnisch, Boris; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Robbins, Robert C.; Spin, Joshua M.; Tsao, Philip S.; Schrepfer, Sonja; Maegdefessel, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite advances in stent technology for vascular interventions, in-stent restenosis (ISR) due to myointimal hyperplasia (MH) remains a major complication. Approach and Results We investigated the regulatory role of microRNAs in MH/ISR, utilizing a humanized animal model in which balloon-injured human internal mammary arteries (IMAs) with or without stenting were transplanted into RNU rats, followed by microRNA profiling. miR-21 was the only significantly up-regulated candidate. In addition, miR-21 expression was increased in human tissue samples from patients with ISR compared to coronary artery disease specimen. We systemically repressed miR-21 via intravenous FAM-tagged-LNA-anti-miR-21 (anti-21) in our humanized MH-model. As expected, suppression of vascular miR-21 correlated dose-dependently with reduced luminal obliteration. Further, anti-21 did not impede re-endothelialization. However, systemic anti-miR-21 had substantial off-target effects, lowering miR-21 expression in liver, heart, lung, and kidney with concomitant increased serum creatinine levels. We therefore assessed the feasibility of local miR-21 suppression using anti-21-coated stents. Compared to bare metal stents, anti-21-coated stents effectively reduced ISR, while no significant off-target effects could be observed. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate the efficacy of an anti-miR-coated stent for the reduction of ISR. PMID:26183619

  7. Local MicroRNA Modulation Using a Novel Anti-miR-21-Eluting Stent Effectively Prevents Experimental In-Stent Restenosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Deuse, Tobias; Stubbendorff, Mandy; Chernogubova, Ekaterina; Erben, Reinhold G; Eken, Suzanne M; Jin, Hong; Li, Yuhuang; Busch, Albert; Heeger, Christian-H; Behnisch, Boris; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Robbins, Robert C; Spin, Joshua M; Tsao, Philip S; Schrepfer, Sonja; Maegdefessel, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Despite advances in stent technology for vascular interventions, in-stent restenosis (ISR) because of myointimal hyperplasia remains a major complication. We investigated the regulatory role of microRNAs in myointimal hyperplasia/ISR, using a humanized animal model in which balloon-injured human internal mammary arteries with or without stenting were transplanted into Rowett nude rats, followed by microRNA profiling. miR-21 was the only significantly upregulated candidate. In addition, miR-21 expression was increased in human tissue samples from patients with ISR compared with coronary artery disease specimen. We systemically repressed miR-21 via intravenous fluorescein-tagged-locked nucleic acid-anti-miR-21 (anti-21) in our humanized myointimal hyperplasia model. As expected, suppression of vascular miR-21 correlated dose dependently with reduced luminal obliteration. Furthermore, anti-21 did not impede reendothelialization. However, systemic anti-miR-21 had substantial off-target effects, lowering miR-21 expression in liver, heart, lung, and kidney with concomitant increase in serum creatinine levels. We therefore assessed the feasibility of local miR-21 suppression using anti-21-coated stents. Compared with bare-metal stents, anti-21-coated stents effectively reduced ISR, whereas no significant off-target effects could be observed. This study demonstrates the efficacy of an anti-miR-coated stent for the reduction of ISR. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Strand-specific in vivo screen of cancer-associated miRNAs unveils a role for miR-21* in SCC progression

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yejing; Zhang, Liang; Nikolova, Maria; Reva, Boris; Fuchs, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs play diverse roles in both normal and malignant stem cells. Focusing on miRs and/or miR*s abundant in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) stem cells, we engineer an efficient, strand-specific expression library, and apply functional genomics screening in mice to identify which of 169 cancer-associated miRs are key drivers in malignant progression. Not previously linked functionally to cancer, miR-21* was the second top hit, surfacing in >12% of tumours. miR-21* also correlates with poor prognosis in human SCCs and enhances tumour progression in xenografts. On deleting the miR-21 gene and rescuing each strand separately, we document the dual, but independent, oncogenicity of miR-21 and miR-21*. A cohort of predicted miR-21* targets inversely correlate with miR-21* in SCCs. Of particular interest is Phactr4, which we show is a miR-21* target in SCCs, acting through the Rb/E2F cell cycle axis. Through in vivo physiological miR screens, our findings add an interesting twist to an increasingly important oncomiR locus. PMID:26619149

  9. Formononetin inhibits human bladder cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness via regulation of miR-21 and PTEN.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiying; Zhang, Xing; Li, Zhengzhao; Yan, Haibiao; Qin, Jian; Li, Tianyu

    2017-03-22

    The isoflavone formononetin is the main active component of Astragalus membranaceus and possesses anti-tumorigenic properties. However, the role of formononetin in human bladder cancer (BCa) has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-tumor effects of formononetin on BCa cells and its potential molecular mechanism. T24 cells were treated with different concentrations of formononetin, and then the cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay, cell apoptosis by Hoechst 33258 stain assay, cell invasiveness by transwell invasion assay, microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression by real-time PCR and the protein level of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and phosphorylated homolog of Akt (p-Akt) by western blotting. The results showed that formononetin significantly inhibited the proliferation of T24 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. T24 cells treated with formononetin displayed obvious morphological changes of apoptosis and lower invasiveness. In addition, miR-21 expression was significantly decreased in formononetin-treated T24 cells, followed by increase of PTEN, and down-regulation of p-Akt. Collectively, these results suggest that formononetin exerts an anti-carcinogenic effect on BCa in vitro, which might be due to miR-21-mediated regulation of the PTEN/Akt pathway.

  10. Abnormal Expression of miR-21 and miR-95 in Cancer Stem-Like Cells is Associated with Radioresistance of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinghui; Zhang, Chailan; Hu, Lin; He, Yin; Shi, Zeya; Tang, Siyuan; Chen, Yuxiang

    2015-05-01

    This study demonstrated that miR-21 and miR-95 expression were significantly higher in the ALDH1(+)CD133(+)subpopulation than in the ALDH1(-)CD133(-) subpopulation of lung cancer cells. Combined delivery of anti-miR-21 and anti-miR-95 by calcium phosphate nanoparticles significantly inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model and sensitized radiotherapy. The anti-miRNAs significantly reduced miR-21 and miR-95 levels, increased PTEN, SNX1, and SGPP1 protein expression, but reduced Akt Ser(473) and Thr(308) phosphorylation. ALDH1(+)CD133(+) subpopulation of NSCLC tumor cells confers radioresistance due to high expression of miR-21 and miR-95. Targeting inhibition of miR-21 and miR-95 can inhibit tumor growth through elevating PTEN, SNX1, and SGPP1 expression and inhibiting Akt phosphorylation.

  11. miR-21 Reduces Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in c-kit(+) Cardiac Stem Cells In Vitro through PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wenwen; Wang, Yan; Long, Xianping; Zhao, Ranzun; Wang, Zhenglong; Liu, Zhijiang; Cao, Song; Shi, Bei

    2016-01-01

    The low survival rate of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in the infarcted myocardium hampers cell therapy for ischemic cardiomyopathy. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) and one of its target proteins, PTEN, contribute to the survival and proliferation of many cell types, but their prosurvival effects in c-kit(+) CSC remain unclear. Thus, we hypothesized that miR-21 reduces hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced apoptosis in c-kit(+) CSC and estimated the contribution of PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling to this oxidative circumstance. miR-21 mimics efficiently reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis in c-kit(+) CSC, as evidenced by the downregulation of the proapoptosis proteins caspase-3 and Bax and upregulation of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2. In addition, the gain of function of miR-21 in c-kit(+) CSC downregulated the protein level of PTEN although its mRNA level changed slightly; in the meantime, miR-21 overexpression also increased phospho-Akt (p-Akt). The antiapoptotic effects of miR-21 were comparable with Phen (bpV), the selective inhibitor of PTEN, while miR-21 inhibitor or PI3K's inhibitor LY294002 efficiently attenuated the antiapoptotic effect of miR-21. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-H2O2-induced apoptosis effect of miR-21 in c-kit(+) CSC is contributed by PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling. miR-21 could be a potential molecule to facilitate the c-kit(+) CSC therapy in ischemic myocardium.

  12. Lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vector mediated miR-21 gene editing inhibits the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huo, Wenying; Zhao, Guannan; Yin, Jinggang; Ouyang, Xuan; Wang, Yinan; Yang, Chuanhe; Wang, Baojing; Dong, Peixin; Wang, Zhixiang; Watari, Hidemichi; Chaum, Edward; Pfeffer, Lawrence M; Yue, Junming

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) mediated genome editing is a powerful approach for loss of function studies. Here we report that lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vectors are highly efficient in introducing mutations in the precursor miRNA sequence, thus leading to the loss of miRNA expression and function. We constructed four different lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vectors that target different regions of the precursor miR-21 sequence and found that these lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 miR-21 gRNA vectors induced mutations in the precursor sequences as shown by DNA surveyor mutation assay and Sanger sequencing. Two miR-21 lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA vectors were selected to probe miR-21 function in ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Our data demonstrate that disruption of pre-miR-21 sequences leads to reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miR-21 gene editing sensitizes both SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells to chemotherapeutic drug treatment. Disruption of miR-21 leads to the inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells as evidenced by the upregulation of epithelial cell marker E-cadherin and downregulation of mesenchymal marker genes, vimentin and Snai2. The miR-21 target genes PDCD4 and SPRY2 were upregulated in cells transduced with miR-21gRNAs compared to controls. Our study indicates that lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miRNA gene editing is an effective approach to address miRNA function, and disruption of miR-21 inhibits EMT in ovarian cancer cells.

  13. Lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vector mediated miR-21 gene editing inhibits the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Wenying; Zhao, Guannan; Yin, Jinggang; Ouyang, Xuan; Wang, Yinan; Yang, Chuanhe; Wang, Baojing; Dong, Peixin; Wang, Zhixiang; Watari, Hidemichi; Chaum, Edward; Pfeffer, Lawrence M.; Yue, Junming

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) mediated genome editing is a powerful approach for loss of function studies. Here we report that lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vectors are highly efficient in introducing mutations in the precursor miRNA sequence, thus leading to the loss of miRNA expression and function. We constructed four different lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 vectors that target different regions of the precursor miR-21 sequence and found that these lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 miR-21 gRNA vectors induced mutations in the precursor sequences as shown by DNA surveyor mutation assay and Sanger sequencing. Two miR-21 lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9 gRNA vectors were selected to probe miR-21 function in ovarian cancer SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cell lines. Our data demonstrate that disruption of pre-miR-21 sequences leads to reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miR-21 gene editing sensitizes both SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells to chemotherapeutic drug treatment. Disruption of miR-21 leads to the inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells as evidenced by the upregulation of epithelial cell marker E-cadherin and downregulation of mesenchymal marker genes, vimentin and Snai2. The miR-21 target genes PDCD4 and SPRY2 were upregulated in cells transduced with miR-21gRNAs compared to controls. Our study indicates that lentiviral CRISPR/Cas9-mediated miRNA gene editing is an effective approach to address miRNA function, and disruption of miR-21 inhibits EMT in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:28123598

  14. p-SMAD2/3 and DICER promote pre-miR-21 processing during pressure overload-associated myocardial remodeling.

    PubMed

    García, Raquel; Nistal, J Francisco; Merino, David; Price, Nathan L; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Beaumont, Javier; González, Arantxa; Hurlé, María A; Villar, Ana V

    2015-07-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induces miR-21 expression which contributes to fibrotic events in the left ventricle (LV) under pressure overload. SMAD effectors of TGF-β signaling interact with DROSHA to promote primary miR-21 processing into precursor miR-21 (pre-miR-21). We hypothesize that p-SMAD-2 and -3 also interact with DICER1 to regulate the processing of pre-miR-21 to mature miR-21 in cardiac fibroblasts under experimental and clinical pressure overload. The subjects of the study were mice undergoing transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and patients with aortic stenosis (AS). In vitro, NIH-3T3 fibroblasts transfected with pre-miR-21 responded to TGF-β1 stimulation by overexpressing miR-21. Overexpression and silencing of SMAD2/3 resulted in higher and lower production of mature miR-21, respectively. DICER1 co-precipitated along with SMAD2/3 and both proteins were up-regulated in the LV from TAC-mice. Pre-miR-21 was isolated bound to the DICER1 maturation complex. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed co-localization of p-SMAD2/3 and DICER1 in NIH-3T3 and mouse cardiac fibroblasts. DICER1-p-SMAD2/3 protein-protein interaction was confirmed by in situ proximity ligation assay. Myocardial up-regulation of DICER1 constituted a response to pressure overload in TAC-mice. DICER mRNA levels correlated directly with those of TGF-β1, SMAD2 and SMAD3. In the LV from AS patients, DICER mRNA was up-regulated and its transcript levels correlated directly with TGF-β1, SMAD2, and SMAD3. Our results support that p-SMAD2/3 interacts with DICER1 to promote pre-miR-21 processing to mature miR-21. This new TGFβ-dependent regulatory mechanism is involved in miR-21 overexpression in cultured fibroblasts, and in the pressure overloaded LV of mice and human patients.

  15. The Spanish version of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-R21 for children and adolescents (TFEQ-R21C): Psychometric analysis and relationships with body composition and fitness variables.

    PubMed

    Martín-García, M; Vila-Maldonado, S; Rodríguez-Gómez, I; Faya, F M; Plaza-Carmona, M; Pastor-Vicedo, J C; Ara, I

    2016-10-15

    The main purpose of the present study is to assess the factor structure and reliability of the Spanish version of the 21-item Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21C) in children and adolescents and to analyze the relationships between eating behaviors, body composition and cardiovascular fitness. A total of 192 children and adolescents took part in this study (89 boys and 103 girls; aged from 8.8 to 16.8years old and with body mass index (BMI) ranging from 13.2 to 41.1kg/m(2)). None of them had either a history of psychological or eating disorders. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA), anthropometrics (body mass, height and BMI), cardiovascular fitness (cyclo-ergometer incremental test) and eating behaviors (TFEQ-R21C) were determined in all participants. The confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the same three factors of the original TFEQ-R21: Uncontrolled Eating (UE), Emotional Eating (EE) and Cognitive Restraint (CR). The internal-consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficient) for the questionnaire was 0.73. Significant differences were found in BMI (F2,189=3.50, p=0.032) and total fat mass (TFM) (F2,189=3.60, p=0.029) between tertiles of the CR scale (children who had the lowest scores, also had lower BMI and fat mass). Cardiovascular fitness (measured by relative VO2 peak) differs depending on the UE and CR scores. The "healthy" group (those who were normal-weight and had also the highest relative VO2 peak) showed a significant lower CR (F3,160=3.07, p=0.030) and higher UE (F3,160=3.86, p=0.011) than the "unhealthy" group (those who were neither normal-weight nor had adequate relative VO2 peak). According to the psychometric analysis of the questionnaire, the TFEQ-R21C is a valid and useful tool to assess eating behaviors in Spanish child population. Further research is necessary to understand the links between eating behaviors and other health-related behaviors such as physical activity time or cardiovascular fitness

  16. Regulator role of HPV E7 protein on miR-21 expression in cervical carcinoma cells and its functional implication

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qingqin; Wang, Wenfeng; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading malignant tumor in women. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is one risk factor for cervical cancer, with its expressed E7 protein can facilitate the transformation of cervical epithelial cells. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is one important tumor growth regulatory factor involving in angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. This study thus aimed to investigate the role of high-risk HPV16 E7 protein in regulating miR-21 expression in cervical carcinoma and its related functions. Hela cells were transfected with pcDNA-HPV16 E7 expressing vectors. The expression level of E7 was determined by Western blotting, while miR-21 level was quantified by real-time PCR. The alternation of tumor cell proliferation is determined by transfecting miR-21 inhibitor into E7-overexpressing Hela cells. Cell apoptosis was studied by caspase-3 assay, while cell invasion was illustrated in Transwell chamber. The overexpression of HPV E7 protein facilitated the expression of miR-21, which potentiated Hela cell proliferation and invasion. The inhibition of miR-21 in E7-overexpressin Hela cells can inhibit both proliferation and invasion, but without significant effects on caspase-3 activity. HPV16 E7 protein can up-regulate host miR-21 expression, thus elevating cervical carcinoma cell growth, proliferation and invasion. Therefore, E7 protein is one critical factor in occurrence and progression of cervical carcinoma. PMID:26884851

  17. Effect of miR-21 on renal fibrosis by regulating MMP-9 and TIMP1 in kk-ay diabetic nephropathy mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinyang; Gao, Yanbin; Ma, Mingfei; Li, Minzhou; Zou, Dawei; Yang, Jinkui; Zhu, Zhiyao; Zhao, Xuan

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) play important roles in initiation and progression of many pathologic processes. However, the roles of miRs in diabetic nephropathy remain unclear. This study was to determine whether miR-21 was involved in diabetic nephropathy and to explore the relationship between miR-21 and MMP9/TIMP1 expression in diabetic nephropathy. In situ hybridization studies showed that miR-21 was primarily localized and distributed in cortical glomerular and renal tubular cells in diabetic kk-ay kidney. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the expression of miR-21 was significantly increased in kk-ay mice, compared with control C57BL mice. Interestingly, miR-21 expression positively correlated with urine albumin creatine ratio (ACR), TIMP1, collagen IV (ColIV), and fibronectin (FN); while negatively correlated with creatine clearance ratio (Ccr) and MMP-9 protein. Importantly, antagomir-21 not only ameliorated Ccr and ACR but also decreased TIMP1, ColIV, and FN proteins. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that miR-21 contributes to renal fibrosis by mediating MMP9/TIMP1 and that inhibition of miR-21 may be a novel target for diabetic nephropathy.

  18. [Expression of miR-21 in peripheral blood serum and mononuclear cells in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Xie, Lihua; Yang, Fangying; Sun, Shenghua

    2016-03-28

    目的:通过研究miR-21在慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)患者外周血清及单个核细胞中的表达,探讨miR-21在COPD发病中的意义及机制。方法:将研究对象分为健康对照组(n=41)和COPD组(n=49),收集两组外周血清,分离其外周血单个核细胞并收集临床资料。运用实时荧光定量PCR法检测各组外周血清及单个核细胞中miR-21的表达水平。分析COPD组miR-21与肺功能的关系,并对miR-21与COPD患者一秒用力呼气容积(forced expiratory volume in one second,FEV1)进行相关性分析。结果:COPD组外周血清及单个核细胞中miR-21表达水平较健康对照组增高;COPD外周血清及单个核细胞中miR-21差异表达与肺功能相关;COPD患者miR-21表达水平与FEV1呈正相关。结论:COPD患者外周血清及单个核细胞中miR-21表达升高可能与COPD发病过程及病情严重程度相关。.

  19. MiR-21 and MiR-155 promote non-small cell lung cancer progression by downregulating SOCS1, SOCS6, and PTEN.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xinying; Liu, Yuxia; Wang, Yong; Meng, Mingming; Wang, Kaifei; Zang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Sheng; Sun, Xiaohua; Cui, Lei; Pan, Lei; Liu, Sanhong

    2016-12-20

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. MiR-21 and miR-155 are the most amplified miRNAs in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), and are critical promoters of NSCLC progression. However, it remains unclear how miR-21 and miR-155 induce cancer progression, and whether these miRNAs share common targets, such as tumor suppressor genes required to prevent NSCLC. Here we report that miR-21 and miR-155 levels are elevated in NSCLC and are proportional to the progression of the disease. In addition, miR-21 and miR-155 share nearly 30% of their predicted target genes, including SOCS1, SOCS6, and PTEN, three tumor suppressor genes often silenced in NSCLC. Consequently, antagonizing miR-21, miR-155 or both potently inhibited tumor progression in xenografted animal models of NSCLC. Treatment with miR-21 and miR-155 inhibitors in combination was always more effective against NSCLC than treatment with a single inhibitor. Furthermore, levels of miR-21 and miR-155 expression correlated inversely with overall and disease-free survival of NSCLC patients. Our findings reveal that miR-21 and miR-155 promote the development of NSCLC, in part by downregulating SOCS1, SOCS6, and PTEN. Combined inhibition of miR-21 and miR-155 could improve the treatment of NSCLC.

  20. Diagnostic value of circulating miR-21: An update meta-analysis in various cancers and validation in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Dai, Meiyu; Liu, Haihua; He, Wangjiao; Lin, Shengzhang; Yuan, Tianzhu; Chen, Hong; Dai, Shengming

    2016-10-18

    MiR-21 has been identified as one of the most common proto-oncogenes. It is hypothesized that up-regulated miR-21 could be served as a potential biomarker for human cancer diagnosis. However, inconsistencies or discrepancies about diagnostic accuracy of circulating miR-21 still remain. In this sense, miR-21's diagnostic value needs to be fully validated. In this study, we performed an update meta-analysis to estimate the diagnostic value of circulating miR-21 in various human cancers. Additionally, we conducted a validation test on 50 endometrial cancer patients, 50 benign lesion patients and 50 healthy controls. A systematical literature search for relevant articles was performed in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library. A total of 48 studies from 39 articles, involving 3,568 cancer patients and 2,248 controls, were included in this meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the curve (AUC) were 0.76 (0.71-0.80), 0.82 (0.79-0.85), 4.3 (3.6-5.1), 0.29 (0.24-0.35), 15 (11-20) and 0.86 (0.83-0.89), respectively. In the validation test, the expression levels of serum miR-21 were significantly higher in benign lesion patients (p = 0.003) and endometrial cancer patients (p = 0.000) compared with that of healthy controls. Endometrial cancer patients showed higher miR-21 expression levels (p = 0.000) compared with benign lesion patients. In conclusion, the meta-analysis shows that circulating miR-21 has excellent performance on the diagnosis for various cancers and the validation test demonstrates that serum miR-21 could be served as a novel biomarker for endometrial carcinoma.

  1. miR-21 Might be Involved in Breast Cancer Promotion and Invasion Rather than in Initial Events of Breast Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease that develops into a large number of varied phenotypes. One of the features used in its classification and therapy selection is invasiveness. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is considered to be an important element of BC invasiveness, and miR-21 levels are frequently increased in different tumor types compared with normal tissue, including the breast. Experimental and literature research has highlighted that miR-21 was always significantly elevated in every study that included invasive breast carcinomas compared with healthy breast tissue. The main goal of this research was to specify the predominant role of miR-21 in the different phases of BC pathogenesis, i.e. whether it was involved in the early (initiation), later (promotion), or late (propagation, progression) phases. Our second goal was to explain the roles of miR-21 targets in BC by an in silico approach and literature review, and to associate the importance of miR-21 with particular phases of BC pathogenesis through the action of its target genes. Analysis has shown that changes in miR-21 levels might be important for the later and/or late phases of breast cancerogenesis rather than for the initial early phases. Targets of miR-21 (TIMP3, PDCD4, PTEN, TPM1 and RECK) are also primarily involved in BC promotion and progression, especially invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. miR-21 expression levels could perhaps be used in conjunction with the standard diagnostic parameters as an indicator of BC presence, and to indicate a phenotype likely to show early invasion/metastasis detection and poor prognosis.

  2. Hexavalent chromium induces malignant transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial cells via ROS-dependent activation of miR-21-PDCD4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Turcios, Lilia; Roy, Ram Vinod; Hitron, John Andrew; Wang, Lei; Kim, Donghern; Dai, Jin; Asha, Padmaja; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a key regulator of oncogenic processes. Studies have shown that miR-21 exerts its oncogenic activity by targeting the tumor suppressor gene programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). The present study examined the role of miR-21-PDCD4 signaling in Cr(VI)-induced cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Results showed that Cr(VI) induces ROS generation in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Chronic exposure to Cr(VI) is able to cause malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells. Cr(VI) caused a significant increase of miR-21 expression associated with an inhibition of PDCD4 expression. Notably, STAT3 transcriptional activation by IL-6 is crucial for the Cr(VI)-induced miR-21 elevation. Stable knockdown of miR-21 or overexpression of PDCD4 in BEAS-2B cells significantly reduced the Cr(VI)-induced cell transformation. Furthermore, the Cr(VI) induced inhibition of PDCD4 suppressed downstream E-cadherin protein expression, but promoted β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription of uPAR and c-Myc. We also found an increased miR-21 level and decreased PDCD4 expression in xenograft tumors generated with chronic Cr(VI)-exposed BEAS-2B cells. In addition, stable knockdown of miR-21 and overexpression of PDCD4 reduced the tumorogenicity of chronic Cr(VI)-exposed BEAS-2B cells in nude mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the miR-21-PDCD4 signaling axis plays an important role in Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:27323401

  3. Diagnostic value of circulating miR-21: An update meta-analysis in various cancers and validation in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haihua; He, Wangjiao; Lin, Shengzhang; Yuan, Tianzhu; Chen, Hong; Dai, Shengming

    2016-01-01

    MiR-21 has been identified as one of the most common proto-oncogenes. It is hypothesized that up-regulated miR-21 could be served as a potential biomarker for human cancer diagnosis. However, inconsistencies or discrepancies about diagnostic accuracy of circulating miR-21 still remain. In this sense, miR-21′s diagnostic value needs to be fully validated. In this study, we performed an update meta-analysis to estimate the diagnostic value of circulating miR-21 in various human cancers. Additionally, we conducted a validation test on 50 endometrial cancer patients, 50 benign lesion patients and 50 healthy controls. A systematical literature search for relevant articles was performed in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane Library. A total of 48 studies from 39 articles, involving 3,568 cancer patients and 2,248 controls, were included in this meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the curve (AUC) were 0.76 (0.71-0.80), 0.82 (0.79-0.85), 4.3 (3.6-5.1), 0.29 (0.24-0.35), 15 (11-20) and 0.86 (0.83-0.89), respectively. In the validation test, the expression levels of serum miR-21 were significantly higher in benign lesion patients (p = 0.003) and endometrial cancer patients (p = 0.000) compared with that of healthy controls. Endometrial cancer patients showed higher miR-21 expression levels (p = 0.000) compared with benign lesion patients. In conclusion, the meta-analysis shows that circulating miR-21 has excellent performance on the diagnosis for various cancers and the validation test demonstrates that serum miR-21 could be served as a novel biomarker for endometrial carcinoma. PMID:27655698

  4. The LPA1/ZEB1/miR-21-activation pathway regulates metastasis in basal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Debashish; Leblanc, Raphael; Grunewald, Thomas G P; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Ribeiro, Johnny; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2015-08-21

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid promoting cancer metastasis. LPA activates a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). While blockage of LPA1in vivo inhibits breast carcinoma metastasis, down-stream genes mediating LPA-induced metastasis have not been yet identified. Herein we showed by analyzing publicly available expression data from 1488 human primary breast tumors that the gene encoding the transcription factor ZEB1 was the most correlated with LPAR1 encoding LPA1. This correlation was most prominent in basal primary breast carcinomas and restricted to cell lines of basal subtypes. Functional experiments in three different basal cell lines revealed that LPA-induced ZEB1 expression was regulated by the LPA1/Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (Pi3K) axis. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that LPA up-regulated the oncomiR miR-21 through an LPA1/Pi3K/ZEB1-dependent mechanism. Strikingly, treatment with a mirVana miR-21 inhibitor, or silencing LPA1 or ZEB1 completely blocked LPA-induced cell migration in vitro, invasion and tumor cell bone colonization in vivo, which can be restored with a mirVana miR-21 mimic. Finally, high LPAR1 expression in basal breast tumors predicted worse lung-metastasis-free survival. Collectively, our results elucidate a new molecular pathway driving LPA-induced metastasis, thus underscoring the therapeutic potential of targeting LPA1 in patients with basal breast carcinomas.

  5. miR-15b and miR-21 as Circulating Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Ivo D’Urso, Pietro; Fernando D’Urso, Oscar; Damiano Gianfreda, Cosimo; Mezzolla, Valeria; Storelli, Carlo; Marsigliante, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are lethal primary intracranial tumors. To date, little information on the role of deregulated genes in gliomas have been identified. As the involvement of miRNAs in the carcinogenesis is well known, we carried out a pilot study to identify, as potential biomarkers, differentially expressed microRNAs in blood samples of patients affected by glioma. We studied the miRNAs’ expression, by means of microarray and Real-Time PCR, in 30 blood samples from glioma patients and in 82 blood samples of patients suffering from: (a) various neurological disorders (n=30), (b) primary B-lymphoma of the Central Nervous System (PCNSL, n=36) and (c) secondary brain metastases (n=16). By quantitative real time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we identified significantly increased levels of two candidate biomarkers, miR-15b and miR-21, in blood of patients affected by gliomas. ROC analysis of miR-15b biomarker levels allowed to differentiate patients with tumour from patients without glioma. Furthermore, combined expression analyses of miR15b and miR-21 distinguished between patients with and without glioma (90% sensitivity and 100% specificity). In addition, a decrement in the expression levels of miR-16 characterized glioblastomas compared to low grade and anaplastic gliomas. In conclusion, this pilot study suggest that it’s possible to identify the disease state by meaning miR-15b and miR-21 markers in blood, while miR-16 can be used to distinguish glioblastoma from other grade gliomas. They can potentially be used as biomarkers for non-invasive diagnosis of gliomas; further studies are mandatory to confirm our preliminary findings. PMID:27047250

  6. Vitamin D receptor agonists regulate ocular developmental angiogenesis and modulate expression of dre-miR-21 and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Merrigan, Stephanie L; Kennedy, Breandán N

    2017-08-01

    Pathological growth of ocular vasculature networks can underpin visual impairment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. Our aim was to uncover novel pharmacological regulators of ocular angiogenesis by phenotype-based screening in zebrafish. A bioactive chemical library of 465 drugs was screened to identify small molecule inhibitors of ocular hyaloid vasculature (HV) angiogenesis in zebrafish larvae. Selectivity was assessed by evaluation of non-ocular intersegmental vasculature development. Safety pharmacology examined visual behaviour and retinal histology in larvae. Molecular mechanisms of action were scrutinized using expression profiling of target mRNAs and miRNAs in larval eyes. Library screening identified 10 compounds which significantly inhibited HV developmental angiogenesis. The validated hit calcitriol selectively demonstrated dose-dependent attenuation of HV development. In agreement, vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists paricalcitol, doxercalciferol, maxacalcitol, calcipotriol, seocalcitol, calcifediol and tacalcitol significantly and selectively attenuated HV development. VDR agonists induced minor ocular morphology abnormalities and affected normal visual function. Calcitriol induced a three to sevenfold increase in ocular dre-miR-21 expression. Consistently, all-trans-retinoic acid attenuated HV development and increased ocular dre-miR-21 expression. Interestingly, zebrafish ocular vegfaa and vegfab expression was significantly increased while, vegfc, flt1 and kdrl expression was unchanged by calcitriol. These studies identified VDR agonists as significant and selective anti-angiogenics in the developing vertebrate eye and miR21 as a key downstream regulated miRNA. These targets should be further evaluated as molecular hallmarks of, and therapeutic targets for pathological ocular neovascularization. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. The LPA1/ZEB1/miR-21-activation pathway regulates metastasis in basal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Debashish; Leblanc, Raphael; Grunewald, Thomas G. P.; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Ribeiro, Johnny; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid promoting cancer metastasis. LPA activates a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). While blockage of LPA1 in vivo inhibits breast carcinoma metastasis, down-stream genes mediating LPA-induced metastasis have not been yet identified. Herein we showed by analyzing publicly available expression data from 1488 human primary breast tumors that the gene encoding the transcription factor ZEB1 was the most correlated with LPAR1 encoding LPA1. This correlation was most prominent in basal primary breast carcinomas and restricted to cell lines of basal subtypes. Functional experiments in three different basal cell lines revealed that LPA-induced ZEB1 expression was regulated by the LPA1/Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (Pi3K) axis. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that LPA up-regulated the oncomiR miR-21 through an LPA1/Pi3K/ZEB1-dependent mechanism. Strikingly, treatment with a mirVana miR-21 inhibitor, or silencing LPA1 or ZEB1 completely blocked LPA-induced cell migration in vitro, invasion and tumor cell bone colonization in vivo, which can be restored with a mirVana miR-21 mimic. Finally, high LPAR1 expression in basal breast tumors predicted worse lung-metastasis-free survival. Collectively, our results elucidate a new molecular pathway driving LPA-induced metastasis, thus underscoring the therapeutic potential of targeting LPA1 in patients with basal breast carcinomas. PMID:26098771

  8. Discovery of peptidic miR-21 processing inhibitor by mirror image phage display: A novel method to generate RNA binding D-peptides.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Otake, Kentaro; Umemoto, Tadashi

    2017-02-15

    A novel method to generate RNA binding D-peptide has been developed. To achieve the screening method, phage display was applied to "Mirrored" RNA (L-enantiomer of RNA). We have selected pre-miR21 as an initial screening target to demonstrate the method. The mirrored pre-miR-21 binding peptide sequences were successfully obtained, and were chemically synthesized using D-amino acids. D-peptide is expected to have favorable properties as a drug candidate such as protease resistance and low immunogenicity. As a result of binding evaluation of the D-peptide to pre-miR-21, the EC50 value was 440nM. In addition, the D-peptide possessed inhibition activity to miR-21 processing.

  9. Curcumin modulates chronic myelogenous leukemia exosomes composition and affects angiogenic phenotype via exosomal miR-21

    PubMed Central

    Taverna, Simona; Fontana, Simona; Monteleone, Francesca; Pucci, Marzia; Saieva, Laura; De Caro, Viviana; Cardinale, Valeria Giunta; Giallombardo, Marco; Vicario, Emanuela; Rolfo, Christian; De Leo, Giacomo; Alessandro, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Tumor derived exosomes are vesicles which contain proteins and microRNAs that mediate cell-cell communication and are involved in angiogenesis and tumor progression. Curcumin derived from the plant Curcuma longa, shows anticancer effects. Exosomes released by CML cells treated with Curcumin contain a high amount of miR-21 that is shuttled into the endothelial cells in a biologically active form. The treatment of HUVECs with CML Curcu-exosomes reduced RhoB expression and negatively modulated endothelial cells motility. We showed that the addition of CML control exosomes to HUVECs caused an increase in IL8 and VCAM1 levels, but Curcu-exosomes reversed these effects thus attenuating their angiogenic properties. This antiangiogenic effect was confirmed with in vitro and in vivo vascular network formation assays. SWATH analysis of the proteomic profile of Curcu-exosomes revealed that Curcumin treatment deeply changes their molecular properties, in particular, Curcumin induces a release of exosomes depleted in pro-angiogenic proteins and enriched in proteins endowed with anti-angiogenic activity. Among the proteins differential expressed we focused on MARCKS, since it was the most modulated protein and a target of miR-21. Taken together our data indicated that also Curcumin attenuates the exosome's ability to promote the angiogenic phenotype and to modulate the endothelial barrier organization. PMID:27050372

  10. MiR-21 promotes fibrosis and hypertrophy of ligamentum flavum in lumbar spinal canal stenosis by activating IL-6 expression.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chao; Tian, Jiwei; Liu, Xinhui; Guan, Guoping

    2017-08-26

    The molecular mechanism underlying the fibrosis of ligamentum flavum(LF) in patients with lumbar spinal canal stenosis(LSCS) remains unknown. MicroRNAs are reported to play important roles in regulating fibrosis in different organs. The present study aimed to identify fibrosis related miR-21 expression profile and investigate the pathological process of miR-21 in the fibrosis of LF hypertrophy and associated regulatory mechanisms. 15 patients with LSCS underwent surgical treatment were enrolled in this study. For the control group, 11 patients with lumbar disc herniation(LDH) was included. The LF thickness was measured on MRI. LF samples were obtained during the surgery. Fibrosis score was assessed by Masson's trichrome staining. The expression of miR-21 in LF tissues were determined by RT-PCR. Correlation among LF thickness, fibrosis score, and miR-21 expression was analyzed. In addition, Lentiviral vectors for miR-21 mimic were constructed and transfected into LF cells to examine the role of miR-21 in LF fibrosis. Types I and III collagen were used as indicators of fibrosis. IL-6 expression in LF cells after transfection was investigated by RT-PCR and ELISA. Patients in two groups showed similar outcomes regarding age, gender, level of LF tissue. The thickness and fibrosis score of LF in the LSCS group were significantly greater than those in LDH group (all P < 0.05). Similarly, the expression of miR-21 in LSCS group was substantially higher than that in LDH group(P < 0.05). Furthermore, the miR-21 expression exhibited positive correlations with the LF thickness (r = 0.595, P < 0.05) and fibrosis score (r = 0.608, P < 0.05). Of note, miR-21 over-expression increased the expression levels of collagen I and III (P < 0.05). Also, IL-6 expression and secretion in LF cells was elevated after transfection of miR-21 mimic. MiR-21 is a fibrosis-associated miRNA and promotes inflammation in LF tissue by activating IL-6 expression, leading to LF fibrosis and

  11. MiR-21 Regulates TNF-α-Induced CD40 Expression via the SIRT1-NF-κB Pathway in Renal Inner Medullary Collecting Duct Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qinqin; Geng, Yuanwen; Zhao, Meng; Lin, Shuaishuai; Zhu, Qing; Tian, Zhenjun

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that microRNA-21 (miR-21) is involved in the inflammatory response in relation to renal disease. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) exerts renoprotective properties by counteracting inflammation. The activation of CD40 triggers inflammation that participates in renal inflammation and injury. The relationship between miR-21, SIRT1 and CD40, however, remains elusive. Immunohistochemistry, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were applied to assess the morphological, functional and molecular mechanisms in primary cultured renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells. TNF-α induced miR-21, CD40 and acetylated-NF-κBp65 (Ac-p65) expressions and reduced SIRT1 expression in IMCD cells. miR-21 mimics increased SIRT1 expression and attenuated Ac-p65 and CD40 expressions in TNF-α-induced IMCD cells, and the corresponding changes were observed with a miR-21 inhibitor. SIRT1 overexpression or activation by SRT1720 diminished TNF-α-induced CD40 and Ac-p65 expressions, which was reversed by SIRT1 siRNA or the inhibitors Ex527 and sirtinol and augmented by pretreatment with NF-κB siRNA. Further study found that the inhibitory effect of miR-21 on Ac-p65 and CD40 expressions was impeded by pretreatment with SIRT1 siRNA. The present study indicates that miR-21 inhibits TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in IMCD cells via the SIRT1-NF-κB signalling pathway, which provides new insight in understanding the anti-inflammatory effect of miR-21. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Simultaneous delivery of anti-miR21 with doxorubicin prodrug by mimetic lipoprotein nanoparticles for synergistic effect against drug resistance in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Mengjie; Qu, Yang; Gao, Tong; Ge, Yanru; Feng, Chunlai; Xu, Ximing

    2017-01-01

    The development of drug resistance in cancer cells is one of the major obstacles to achieving effective chemotherapy. We hypothesized that the combination of a doxorubicin (Dox) prodrug and microRNA (miR)21 inhibitor might show synergistic antitumor effects on drug-resistant breast cancer cells. In this study, we aimed to develop new high-density lipoprotein-mimicking nanoparticles (HMNs) for coencapsulation and codelivery of this potential combination. Dox was coupled with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide to construct a prodrug (NLS-Dox), thereby electrostatically condensing miR21 inhibitor (anti-miR21) to form cationic complexes. The HMNs were formulated by shielding these complexes with anionic lipids and Apo AI proteins. We have characterized that the coloaded HMNs had uniformly dispersed distribution, favorable negatively charged surface, and high coencapsulation efficiency. The HMN formulation effectively codelivered NLS-Dox and anti-miR21 into Dox-resistant breast cancer MCF7/ADR cells and wild-type MCF7 cells via a high-density-lipoprotein receptor-mediated pathway, which facilitated the escape of Pgp drug efflux. The coloaded HMNs consisting of NLS-Dox/anti-miR21 demonstrated greater cytotoxicity with enhanced intracellular accumulation in resistant MCF7/ADR cells compared with free Dox solution. The reversal of drug resistance by coloaded HMNs might be attributed to the suppression of miR21 expression and the related antiapoptosis network. Furthermore, the codelivery of anti-miR21 and NLS-Dox by HMNs showed synergistic antiproliferative effects in MCF7/ADR-bearing nude mice, and was more effective in tumor inhibition than other drug formulations. These data suggested that codelivery of anti-miR21 and chemotherapeutic agents by HMNs might be a promising strategy for antitumor therapy, and could restore the drug sensitivity of cancer cells, alter intracellular drug distribution, and ultimately enhance chemotherapeutic effects. PMID:28115844

  13. Involvement of FOS-mediated miR-181b/miR-21 signalling in the progression of malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Tao, Tao; Wang, Yingyi; Luo, Hui; Yao, Lei; Wang, Lin; Wang, Jiajia; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Junxia; Wang, Huibo; Shi, Yan; Yin, Yu; Jiang, Tao; Kang, Chunsheng; Liu, Ning; You, Yongping

    2013-09-01

    Recently, a group of microRNAs (miRNAs) were shown to be dysregulated in gliomas, and involved in glioma development. However, the effect of miRNA-miRNA functional networks on gliomas is poorly understood. In this study, we identified that FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS)-mediated miR-181b/miR-21 signalling was critical for glioma progression. Using microarrays and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), we found increased FOS in high grade gliomas. FOS depletion (via FOS-shRNA), inhibited invasion and promoted apoptosis in glioma cells. Using microarrays, combined with Pearson correlation analysis, we found FOS positively correlated with miR-21 expression. Reduction of FOS inhibited miR-21 expression by binding to the miR-21 promoter using luciferase reporter assays. Introduction of miR-21 abrogated FOS knockdown-induced cell invasion and apoptosis. Moreover, bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-181b modulated FOS expression by directly targeting the binding site within the 3'UTR. Expression of FOS with a FOS cDNA lacking 3'UTR overrided miR-181b-induced miR-21 expression and cell function. Finally, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridisation (ISH) analysis revealed a significant correlation in miR-181b, FOS and miR-21 expression in nude mouse tumour xenograft and human glioma tissues. To our knowledge, it is the first time to demonstrate that miR-181b/FOS/miR-21 signalling plays a critical role in the progression of gliomas, providing important clues for understanding the key roles of transcription factor mediated miRNA-miRNA functional network in the regulation of gliomas.

  14. MiR-21 plays an Important Role in Radiation Induced Carcinogenesis in BALB/c Mice by Directly Targeting the Tumor Suppressor Gene Big-h3

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cong; Li, Bailong; Cheng, Ying; Lin, Jing; Hao, Jun; Zhang, Shuyu; Mitchel, R.E.J.; Sun, Ding; Ni, Jin; Zhao, Luqian; Gao, Fu; Cai, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of certain microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer can promote tumorigenesis, metastasis and invasion. However, the functions and targets of only a few mammalian miRNAs are known. In particular, the miRNAs that participates in radiation induced carcinogenesis and the miRNAs that target the tumor suppressor gene Big-h3 remain undefined. Here in this study, using a radiation induced thymic lymphoma model in BALB/c mice, we found that the tumor suppressor gene Big-h3 is down-regulated and miR-21 is up-regulated in radiation induced thymic lymphoma tissue samples. We also found inverse correlations between Big-h3 protein and miR-21 expression level among different tissue samples. Furthermore, our data indicated that miR-21 could directly target Big-h3 in a 3′UTR dependent manner. Finally, we found that miR-21 could be induced by TGFβ, and miR-21 has both positive and negative effects in regulating TGFβ signaling. We conclude that miR-21 participates in radiation induced carcinogenesis and it regulates TGFβ signaling. PMID:21494432

  15. miR-21, An Oncogenic Target miRNA for Cancer Therapy:Molecular Mechanisms and Recent Advancements in Chemo and Radio-Resistance.

    PubMed

    Javanmardi, Sanaz; Aghamaali, Mahmoud Reza; Abolmaali, Samira Sadat; Mohammadi, Samaneh; Tamaddon, Ali Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, miRNAs have been extensively attracted the scientist's attentions as tumor suppressors or oncogenes that have been implicated in tumor progression, metastasis and intrinsic resistance to various cancer therapies. microRNA-21 (miR-21) demonstrates a potential oncogenic function and target tumor inhibitor proteins in almost all types of cancer. miR-21 overexpression has been studied in terms of cell proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, and apoptosis regulation.Inhibition of miRNA expression using antisense technology by various nanovectors of different sizes, shapes and compositions has been evolved progressively to overcome the barriers confronted by miRNA delivery.Application of miR-21 antisense oligonucleotides for treating cancerous cells has become a promising achievement for cancer therapy. Moreover,miR-21 can mediate resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. The expanding role of miR-21 functions in human cancers with an emphasis on its regulatory targets and mechanisms, miR-21 related achievements against cancer promotion have been discussed.

  16. miR-21 and KLF4 jointly augment epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the Akt/ERK1/2 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chen-Hai; Huang, Qiang; Jin, Zhi-Yuan; Zhu, Cheng-Lin; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    miR-21 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. However, the mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. In the present study, high throughput platform was employed to detect the genes that are differential expressed in QBC939 cells transfected with a hsa-miR-21 antagomir or control vectors. The EMT-related Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) gene was down-regulated after miR-21 was knocked down. Overexpression of miR-21 upregulated KLF4, Akt, ERK and mesenchymal cell markers (N-cadherin and vimentin), downregulated the expression of epithelial cell marker E-cadherin and reduced cell migration and invasion. Immunohistochemistry showed that KLF4, pAkt and pERK were upregulated in tumor xenografts transfected with miR-21 mimics. Inhibitors of the PI3K-Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, LY294002 and U0126, significantly suppressed the EMT phenotype. The present data demonstrated that overexpression of miR-21, accompanied with KLF4, augmented the EMT via inactivation of Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. In conclusion, we have identified a novel mechanism that may be targeted in an attempt to relieve the malignant biological behavior of CCA cells. PMID:28197636

  17. Urinary miR-21, miR-29, and miR-93: novel biomarkers of fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Lai, Fernand Mac-Moune; Chow, Kai-Ming; Li, Philip Kam-Tao; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the progression of renal fibrosis. We studied the urinary levels of miR-21, miR-29 family and miR-93, which are downstream mediators of the transforming growth factor-β(1) (TGF-β(1)), in patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. We studied the urinary miRNA levels of 43 IgA nephropathy patients and 13 healthy controls. The IgA nephropathy group had significantly lower urinary miR-29b and miR-29c, but higher miR-93 levels than controls. Proteinuria significantly correlated with urinary levels of miR-29b (r = -0.388, p = 0.003) and miR-29c (r = -0.409, p = 0.002). Glomerular filtration rate significantly correlated with urinary levels of miR-21 (r = 0.338, p = 0.028), miR-29b (r = 0.333, p = 0.031) and miR-29c (r = 0.304, p = 0.050). Urinary miR-93 level significantly correlated with glomerular scarring (r = -0.392, p = 0.010). Urinary miRNA level of SMAD3, but not TGF-β(1), correlated with urinary miR-21 (r = 0.624, p < 0.001), miR-29b (r = 0.566, p < 0.001), miR-29c (r = 0.619, p < 0.001) and miR-93 (r = 0.332, p = 0.032). Urinary miR-29b and miR-29c levels correlated with proteinuria and renal function, while urinary miR-93 level correlated with glomerular scarring. More importantly, urinary levels of these miRNA targets significantly correlated with urinary SMAD3 level. Our results suggest that these miRNA targets are regulated by the TGF-β(1)/SMAD3 pathway and they may play important roles in the development of progressive renal fibrosis in IgA nephropathy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Radiation resistance due to high expression of miR-21 and G2/M checkpoint arrest in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Anastasov, Nataša; Höfig, Ines; Vasconcellos, Iria Gonzalez; Rappl, Kristina; Braselmann, Herbert; Ludyga, Natalie; Auer, Gert; Aubele, Michaela; Atkinson, Michael J

    2012-12-05

    There is evidence that the extent of the G2/M arrest following irradiation is correlated with tumour cell survival and hence therapeutic success. We studied the regulation of cellular response to radiation treatment by miR-21-mediated modulation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells and analysed miR-21 expression in breast cancer tissue samples with long-term follow up. The miR-21 expression levels were quantified (qRT-PCR) in a panel of 86 cases of invasive breast carcinomas in relation to metastasis free survival. The cellular radiosensitivity of human breast cancer cells after irradiation was determined comparing two cell lines (T47D and MDA-MB-361) by cell proliferation and colony forming assays. The influence of miR-21 overexpression or downregulation on cell cycle progression and G2/M checkpoint arrest after irradiation was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. The expression of miR-21 was transiently increased 8 hours after irradiation in the radioresistant T47D cells and significantly changed with lower extent in radiosensitive MDA-MB-361 cells. Anti-miR-21 treated breast cancer cells failed to exhibit the DNA damage-G2 checkpoint increase after irradiation. Apoptotic activity was significantly enhanced from 7% to 27% in T47D cells and from 18% to 30% in MDA-MB-361 cells 24 hours after 5 Gy irradiation. Additionally, we characterized expression of miR-21 in invasive breast carcinomas. In comparison to non-cancerous adjacent breast tissue, tumours samples had increased miR-21 expression that inversely correlated with the distant metastases-free survival of patients (p = 0.029). Our data indicate that miR-21 expression in breast cancer cells contributes to radiation resistance by compromising cell cycle progression. These data point to the potential of combining radiotherapy with an anti-miR-21 as a potent G2/M check point inhibitor in overcoming radiation resistance of tumours.

  19. Kaempferol inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration by modulating BMP-mediated miR-21 expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangho; Kim, Sunghwan; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kang, Hara

    2015-09-01

    Bioflavonoids are known to induce cardioprotective effects by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration. Kaempferol has been shown to inhibit VSMC proliferation. However, little is known about the effect of kaempferol on VSMC migration and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our studies provide the first evidence that kaempferol inhibits VSMC migration by modulating the BMP4 signaling pathway and microRNA expression levels. Kaempferol activates the BMP signaling pathway, induces miR-21 expression and downregulates DOCK4, 5, and 7, leading to inhibition of cell migration. Moreover, kaempferol antagonizes the PDGF-mediated pro-migratory effect. Therefore, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism of VSMC migration by kaempferol and suggests that miRNA modulation by kaempferol is a potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases.

  20. MiR-21-5p in urinary extracellular vesicles is a novel biomarker of urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Kyosuke; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Jingushi, Kentaro; Kawashima, Atsunari; Ujike, Takeshi; Nagahara, Akira; Ueda, Yuko; Tanigawa, Go; Yoshioka, Iwao; Ueda, Koji; Hanayama, Rikinari; Uemura, Motohide; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Nonomura, Norio

    2017-04-11

    Extracellular vesicles are lipid bilayer vesicles containing protein, messengerRNA and microRNA. Cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles may be diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We extracted extracellular vesicles from urine of urothelial carcinoma patients and the control group to identify cancer-specific microRNAs in urinary extracellular vesicles as new biomarkers. microRNA from urinary extracellular vesicles extracted from 6 urothelial carcinoma patients and 3 healthy volunteers was analyzed. We verified candidate microRNAs in an independent cohort of 60 urinary extracellular vesicles samples. To normalize the microRNA expression level in extracellular vesicles, we examined the following in extracellular vesicles: protein concentration, CD9 intensity, amounts of whole miRNAs, RNA U6B small nuclear expression and the creatinine concentration of original urine correlating with the counts of extracted extracellular vesicles measured by the NanoSight™ system. From the microarray results 5 microRNAs overexpressed in urinary extracellular vesicles of urothelial carcinoma patients were identified. Creatinine concentration of original urine correlated most with particle counts of extracellular vesicles, indicating that creatinine could be a new tool for normalizing microRNA expression. MiR-21-5p was the most potent biomarker in urinary extracellular vesicles (sensitivity, 75.0%; specificity, 95.8%) and was also overexpressed in urinary extracellular vesicles from urothelial carcinoma patients with negative urine cytology. For the subgroup with negative urine cytology, the sensitivity was 75.0% and specificity was 95.8%. MiR-21-5p in urinary extracellular vesicles could be a new biomarker of urothelial carcinoma, especially for urothelial carcinoma patients with negative urine cytology.

  1. miR-21 expression and clinical outcome in locally advanced pancreatic cancer: exploratory analysis of the pancreatic cancer Erbitux, radiotherapy and UFT (PERU) trial

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Khurum; Cunningham, David; Peckitt, Clare; Barton, Sarah; Tait, Diana; Hawkins, Maria; Watkins, David; Starling, Naureen; Rao, Sheela; Begum, Ruwaida; Thomas, Janet; Oates, Jacqui; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Fassan, Matteo; Braconi, Chiara; Chau, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background Locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is associated with high mortality, and biomarker-driven treatment approach is currently lacking. This study evaluated safety and efficacy of a combination approach of chemotherapy followed by chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) +/− cetuximab, and the prognostic role of miR-21 in patients with LAPC treated with a multimodality approach. Patients and Methods This was a randomised phase II trial in which patients with inoperable LAPC were offered gemcitabine and capecitabine (GEM-CAP) for 16 weeks. Patients with stable disease or response after GEM-CAP were randomised to capecitabine or UFT plus radiotherapy (RT) (A), or capecitabine or UFT plus cetuximab plus RT (B). The primary outcome of the study was overall survival (OS). Clinical outcome was compared according to baseline circulating miR-21 levels. Results 17 patients were enrolled and treated with GEM-CAP, with 13 patients achieving disease control and being randomised to arms A (n:7) and B (n:6). After a median follow-up of 61.2 months, median progression free survival (PFS) was 10.4 months and 12.7 months, median OS was 15.8 months and 22.0 months in arms A and B respectively (p > 0.05). Patients with high baseline plasma miR-21 had worse PFS (3.5 vs. 12.7 months; p:0.032) and OS (5.1 vs 15.3 months; p:0.5) compared to patients with low miR-21. Circulating miR-21 levels reflected miR-21 expression within the tissues. Conclusions Addition of Cetuximab to CRT following induction chemotherapy did not improve survival. High miR-21 baseline plasma expression was associated with poor clinical outcome in LAPC patients treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemo-radiotherapy. PMID:26862857

  2. The difference in miR-21 expression levels between invasive and non-invasive breast cancers emphasizes its role in breast cancer invasion.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Nina; Mandušić, Vesna; Stanojević, Boban; Lukić, Silvana; Todorović, Lidija; Roganović, Jelena; Dimitrijević, Bogomir

    2014-03-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) overexpression is characteristic for various types of tumors, but it is still unknown whether its expression levels differ between invasive and non-invasive breast carcinomas. The main goal of the study was to determine the difference in miR-21 expression among normal tissue, non-invasive, invasive with non-invasive component, and pure invasive breast cancer samples, to explain its potential role and significance in breast cancer invasiveness. The second goal was to propose miR-21 as molecular marker of breast cancer invasiveness and potential target for future anti-miR therapies for the prevention of invasion and metastasis. In order to reveal the role of miR-21 in breast cancer invasiveness, we measured miR-21 expression levels in 44 breast cancer and four normal samples by stem-loop real-time RT-PCR using TaqMan technology. Relative expression levels of miR-21 were significantly higher in invasive than in other groups (P=0.002) and significantly higher in invasive compared with invasive with non-invasive component group in histological (P=0.043) and nuclear grade 2 (P=0.036), estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) (P=0.006), progesterone-receptor-positive (PR+) (P=0.008), ER+PR+ (P=0.007), and proliferation index (Ki-67)≤20% (P=0.036) tumors. Our findings suggest that miR-21 could be independent molecular marker of breast cancer invasiveness and potential target for future anti-miR therapies for the prevention of invasion and metastasis.

  3. The IGF-I/JAK2-STAT3/miR-21 signaling pathway may be associated with human renal cell carcinoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Su, Ying; Zhao, An; Cheng, Guoping; Xu, Jingjing; Ji, Enming; Sun, Wenyong

    2017-07-04

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the highest mortality rate of the genitourinary cancers, and the treatment options are very limited. Thus, identification of molecular mechanisms underlying RCC tumorigenesis, is critical for identifying biomarkers for RCC diagnosis and prognosis. To validate whether the IGF-I/JAK2-STAT3/miR-21 signaling pathway is associated with human RCC cell growth. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. The MTT assay was performed to determine cell survival rate. The Annexin V-FITC/PI apoptosis detection kit was used to detect cell apoptosis. We employed RCC tissues and cell lines (A498; ACHN; Caki-1; Caki-2 and 786-O) in the study. IGF-I, and its inhibitor (NT-157) were administrated to detect the effects of IGF-I on the expression of miR-21 and p-JAK2. JAK2 inhibitor (AG490), and si-STAT3 were used to detect the effects of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway on the expression of miR-21. In our study, we firstly showed that the expression levels of IGF-I and miR-21 were up-regulated in RCC tissues and cell lines. After exogenous IGF-I treatment, the expression levels of miR-21, p-IGF-IR and p-JAK2 were significantly increased, whereas NT-157 treatment showed the reversed results. Further study indicated that JAK2 inhibitor or si-STAT3 significantly reversed the IGF-I-induced miR-21 expression level. Finally, we found that IGF-I treatment significantly prompted human RCC cell survival and inhibited cell apoptosis, and NT-157 treatment showed the reversed results. The IGF-I/JAK2-STAT3/miR-21 signaling pathway may be associated with human RCC cell growth.

  4. Upregulation of miR21 and Repression of Grhl3 by Leptin Mediates Sinusoidal Endothelial Injury in Experimental Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pourhoseini, Sahar; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Das, Suvarthi; Dattaroy, Diptadip; Kadiiska, Maria B.; Xie, Guanhua; Michelotti, Gregory A.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Sinusoidal endothelial dysfunction (SED) has been found to be an early event in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) progression but the molecular mechanisms underlying its causation remains elusive. We hypothesized that adipokine leptin worsens sinusoidal injury by decreasing functionally active nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS)3 via miR21. Using rodent models of NASH, and transgenic mice lacking leptin and leptin receptor, results showed that hyperleptinemia caused a 4–5 fold upregulation of hepatic miR21 as assessed by qRTPCR. The upregulation of miR21 led to a time-dependent repression of its target protein Grhl3 levels as shown by western blot analyses. NOS3-p/NOS3 ratio which is controlled by Grhl3 was significantly decreased in NASH models. SED markers ICAM-1, VEGFR-2, and E-selectin as assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy were significantly up regulated in the progressive phases of NASH. Lack of leptin or its receptor in vivo, reversed the upregulation of miR21 and restored the levels of Grhl3 and NOS3-p/NOS3 ratio coupled with decreased SED dysfunction markers. Interestingly, leptin supplementation in mice lacking leptin, significantly enhanced miR21 levels, decreased Grhl3 repression and NOS3 phosphorylation. Leptin supplementation in isolated primary endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and stellate cells showed increased mir21 expression in stellate cells while sinusoidal injury was significantly higher in all cell types. Finally miR21 KO mice showed increased NOS3-p/NOS3 ratio and reversed SED markers in the rodent models of NASH. The experimental results described here show a close association of leptin-induced miR21 in aiding sinusoidal injury in NASH. PMID:25658689

  5. Oncogenic transformation of human lung bronchial epithelial cells induced by arsenic involves ROS-dependent activation of STAT3-miR-21-PDCD4 mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Son, Young-Ok; Divya, Sasidharan Padmaja; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen. The present study explored the role of the onco-miR, miR-21 and its target protein, programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) in arsenic induced malignant cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Our results showed that treatment of human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells with arsenic induces ROS through p47phox, one of the NOX subunits that is the key source of arsenic-induced ROS. Arsenic exposure induced an upregulation of miR-21 expression associated with inhibition of PDCD4, and caused malignant cell transformation and tumorigenesis of BEAS-2B cells. Indispensably, STAT3 transcriptional activation by IL-6 is crucial for the arsenic induced miR-21 increase. Upregulated miR-21 levels and suppressed PDCD4 expression was also observed in xenograft tumors generated with chronic arsenic exposed BEAS-2B cells. Stable shut down of miR-21, p47phox or STAT3 and overexpression of PDCD4 or catalase in BEAS-2B cells markedly inhibited the arsenic induced malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Similarly, silencing of miR-21 or STAT3 and forced expression of PDCD4 in arsenic transformed cells (AsT) also inhibited cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, arsenic suppressed the downstream protein E-cadherin expression and induced β-catenin/TCF-dependent transcription of uPAR and c-Myc. These results indicate that the ROS-STAT3-miR-21-PDCD4 signaling axis plays an important role in arsenic -induced carcinogenesis. PMID:27876813

  6. Up-Regulation of miR-21 Expression Predicate Advanced Clinicopathological Features and Poor Prognosis in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Shan, Weiyu; Zhang, Yufei; Zhnag, Yufei; Lv, Xuejun; Li, Xuehua; Wei, Caiyun

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small (19-24 nt long) noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression in a sequence specific manner. An increasing association between miRNA and cancer has been recently reported. Lung cancer is globally responsible for 1.4 million deaths annually and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both women and men. In this study, we investigated the miR-21 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to evaluate their value in prognosis of this tumor. Here, we assess miR-21 expression in NSCLC and its clinical significance including survival analysis. The expression of miR-21 in matched normal and tumor tissues of NSCLC was evaluated using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve was generated following a logrank test. It was observed that miR-21 expression was up-regulated in NSCLC tissues compared with noncancerous lung tissues (mean ± SD: 6.7 ± 2.3 vs. 3.7 ± 1.5, P < 0.001). The up-regulation of miR-21 in NSCLC cancer tissues was also significantly correlated with aggressive clinicopathological features. We found that the patients with high miR-21 expression have a higher tumor grade (P = 0.027) and are in higher risk of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.021). Moreover, the results of Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that NSCLC patients with the high miR-21 expression tend to have shorter overall survival and progression free survival (P < 0.001). The multivariate analysis clearly indicated that the high miR-21 expression in biopsy samples may be considered as an independent prognostic factor in NSCLC for decreased survival (RR 3.88; 95%CI, 2.47-6.11). Our data indicate the potential of miR-21 as a novel prognostic biomarker for NSCLC. Large well-designed studies with diverse populations and functional evaluations are warranted to confirm and extend our findings.

  7. The key role of miR-21-regulated SOD2 in the medium-mediated bystander responses in human fibroblasts induced by α-irradiated keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wenqian; Yin, Xiaoming; Wang, Longxiao; Wang, Jingdong; Zhu, Wei; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying

    2015-10-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is well accepted in the radiation research field by now, but the underlying molecular mechanisms for better understanding this phenomenon caused by intercellular communication and intracellular signal transduction are still incomplete. Although our previous study has demonstrated an important role of miR-21 of unirradiated bystander cells in RIBEs, the direct evidence for the hypothesis that RIBE is epigenetically regulated is still limited and how miR-21 mediates RIBEs is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to be involved in RIBEs, however, the roles of anti-oxidative stress system of cells in RIBEs are unclear. Using transwell insert co-culture system, we investigated medium-mediated bystander responses in WS1 human fibroblasts after co-culture with HaCaT keratinocytes traversed by α-particles. Results showed that the ROS levels in unirradiated bystander WS1 cells were significantly elevated after 30min of co-culture, and 53BP1 foci, a surrogate marker of DNA damage, were obviously induced after 3h of co-culture. This indicates the occurrence of oxidative stress and DNA damage in bystander WS1 cells after co-culture with irradiated keratinocytes. Furthermore, the expression of miR-21 was increased in bystander WS1 cells, downregulation of miR-21 eliminated the bystander responses, overexpression of miR-21 alone could induce bystander-like oxidative stress and DNA damage in WS1 cells. These data indicate an important mediating role of miR-21 in RIBEs. In addition, MnSOD or SOD2 in WS1 cells was involved in the bystander effects, overexpression of SOD2 abolished the bystander oxidative stress and DNA damage, indicating that SOD2 was critical to the induction of RIBEs. Moreover, we found that miR-21 regulated SOD2, suggesting that miR-21 might mediate bystander responses through its regulation on SOD2. In conclusion, this study revealed a profound role of miR-21-regulated SOD2 of unirradiated WS1

  8. SATB1 is Down-regulated in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma and Correlates with miR-21-5p Overexpression and Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Anna E; Krazinski, Bartlomiej E; Godlewski, Janusz; Grzegrzolka, Jedrzej; Kiewisz, Jolanta; Kwiatkowski, Przemyslaw; Sliwinska-Jewsiewicka, Agnieszka; Dziegiel, Piotr; Kmiec, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Altered expression of special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) was reported in several types of human cancers. This study aimed to determine the expression levels of SATB1, as well as miR-21-5p -the post-transcriptional repressor of SATB1 expression- in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and to investigate their association with the progression of ccRCC. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to assess the expression of SATB1 protein and mRNA as well as miR-21-5p in tumor and matched normal kidney tissues collected from 56 ccRCC patients. Nuclear SATB1 immunoreactivity was elevated in ccRCC cells while its cytoplasmic expression was decreased. SATB1 mRNA level was down-regulated in ccRCC tissue and inversely correlated with the content of miR-21-5p. Down-regulation of SATB1 mRNA and up-regulation of miR-21-5p were associated with shorter patient survival. Decreased expression of SATB1 in ccRCC may result from over-expressed miR-21-5p. Our data suggest that SATB1 may have a potential value as a prognostic marker in ccRCC. Copyright© 2016, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of exercise training together with tamoxifen in reducing mammary tumor burden in mice: Possible underlying pathway of miR-21.

    PubMed

    Khori, Vahid; Amani Shalamzari, Sadegh; Isanejad, Amin; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Alizadeh, Shaban; Khodayari, Saeed; Khodayari, Hamid; Shahbazi, Shirin; Zahedi, Ali; Sohanaki, Hamid; Khaniki, Mahmood; Mahdian, Reza; Saffari, Mojtaba; Fayad, Raja

    2015-10-15

    Exercise training has an anti-tumor effect and can reduce tumor growth; however, the exact underlying mechanisms of its protective effects are still obscure. MicroRNA (miR)-21 is a predictor in cancer survival, and has a potential use as an indicator of therapeutic outcome in breast malignancies. Forty-eight female BALB/c mice were equally divided into six groups to investigate the effects of interval exercise training with tamoxifen on miR-21 expression and its possible assumed mechanisms in an estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer model. ELISA, immunohistochemistry, western blot, qRT-PCR assays were performed at the end of the study. Tumor size was significantly declined in exercise training and tamoxifen groups compared to tumor group (P<0.05). Expression of miR-21 was significantly down-regulated in trained and tamoxifen treated mice in comparison with tumor group (P<0.05). Exercise training was as effective as tamoxifen treatment in decreasing serum estradiol and ER-α expression (P<0.05). Exercise training and tamoxifen reduced tumor IL-6 levels, NF-kB and STAT3 expressions, and up-regulated TPM1 and PDCD4 expressions (P<0.05). Both exercise and tamoxifen had synergistic effects in reducing miR-21 and Bcl-2, and up-regulating PDCD4 expression. Results showed that interval exercise training may reduce mammary tumor burden in mice through possible underlying pathway of miR-21.

  10. miR-21a-5p Contributes to Porcine Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Virus Proliferation via Targeting CASK-Interactive Protein1 In vivo and vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaoling; Zhao, Kui; Lan, Yungang; Li, Zi; Ding, Ning; Su, Jingjing; Lu, Huijun; Song, Deguang; Gao, Feng; He, Wenqi

    2017-01-01

    Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a highly neurovirulent coronavirus that can cause nervous symptoms in piglets with muscle tremors, hind limb paralysis, and nystagmus. Whether some factors affect virus replication and proliferation had not been fully understood in the course of nerve damage caused by PHEV infection. In recent years, some reports suggested that miRNA might play a key regulatory role in viral infection. In this study, we found the miR-21a-5p is notably up-regulated in the brains of mice and N2a cells infected with PHEV, and it down-regulated the expression of CASK-interactive protein1 (Caskin1) by directly targeting the 3′-UTR of Caskin1 using a Dual-Luciferase reporter assay. The over-expression of miR-21a-5p or Caskin1 knockdown in the host significantly contributes to PHEV proliferation. Conversely, the silencing of miR-21a-5p by miR-21a-5p inhibitors suppressed the virus proliferation. Taken together, our results indicate that Caskin1 is the direct target gene of miR-21a-5p, and it is advantageous to virus proliferation by down-regulating Caskin1. These findings may help in the development of strategies for therapeutic applications. PMID:28298907

  11. MiR-203 suppresses tumor growth and invasion and down-regulates MiR-21 expression through repressing Ran in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Yang, Zhiping; Cao, Minjun; Xu, Yinsheng; Li, Jintao; Chen, Xuebin; Gao, Zhi; Xin, Jing; Zhou, Shaomei; Zhou, Zhixiang; Yang, Yishu; Sheng, Wang; Zeng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The expression of miR-203 has been reported to be significantly down-regulated in esophageal cancer. We showed here that overexpression of miR-203 in esophageal cancer cells dramatically increased cell apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion as well as tumor growth and down-regulated miR-21 expression. We subsequently identified that small GTPase Ran was a target gene of miR-203. Furthermore, Ran restoration partially counteracted the tumor suppressive effects of miR-203 and increased miR-21 expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-203 may act as novel tumor suppressor in esophageal cancer through down-regulating the expression of Ran and miR-21. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of microRNAs miR-21 and miR-181c in cerebrospinal fluid and serum in canine meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Gaitero, L; Russell, S J; Monteith, G; LaMarre, J

    2016-10-01

    The potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers for canine meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO) was investigated by using quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR to determine the expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and microRNA-181c (miR-181c) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of dogs. Dogs with MUO (n = 10) had higher levels of expression of miR-21 and miR-181c in the CSF than dogs with non-inflammatory neurological diseases (n = 8). There was a positive correlation between CSF cellularity and expression of miRNAs in the CSF, particularly for miR-21 in the MUO group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulforaphane enhances temozolomide-induced apoptosis because of down-regulation of miR-21 via Wnt/β-catenin signaling in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lan, FengMing; Pan, Qiang; Yu, Huiming; Yue, Xiao

    2015-09-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) has been widely used in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM), although inherent or acquired resistance restricts the application. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sulforaphane (SFN) to TMZ-induced apoptosis in GBM cells and the potential mechanism. Biochemical assays and subcutaneous tumor establishment were used to characterize the function of SFN in TMZ-induced apoptosis. Our results revealed that β-catenin and miR-21 were concordantly expressed in GBM cell lines, and SFN significantly reduced miR-21 expression through inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin/TCF4 pathway. Furthermore, down-regulation of miR-21 enhanced the pro-apoptotic efficacy of TMZ in GBM cells. Finally, we observed that SFN strengthened TMZ-mediated apoptosis in a miR-21-dependent manner. In conclusion, SFN effectively enhances TMZ-induced apoptosis by inhibiting miR-21 via Wnt/β-catenin signaling in GBM cells. These findings support the use of SFN for potential therapeutic approach to overcome TMZ resistance in GBM treatment. Our studies indicate that sulforaphane (SFN) enhances temozolomide (TMZ)-induced apoptosis because of down-regulation of miR-21 through Wnt/β-catenin signaling in glioblastoma (GBM) cells. These findings demonstrate SFN could be considered as a potential adjuvant therapeutic agent in treating GBM patients combined with TMZ in the future to affect resistance emergence. The further explorations are essential for the clinical application of SFN in GBM patients, and our results reveal an important mechanism of SFN chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity. Chr17, chromosome 17. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  14. Associations between microRNA (miR-21, 126, 155 and 221), albuminuria and heavy metals in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kong, Alice P S; Xiao, Kang; Choi, Kai Chow; Wang, Gang; Chan, Michael H M; Ho, Chung Shun; Chan, Iris; Wong, Chun Kwok; Chan, Juliana C N; Szeto, Cheuk Chun

    2012-07-11

    Pathogenetic mechanisms underlying albuminuria are not completely understood. Heavy metals might lead to atherosclerosis and kidney damage. miR-21, 126, 155 and 221 regulated endothelial function and might contribute to the development of albuminuria. To date, no clinical trial has explored the relationship between miRNAs, microalbuminuria and heavy metals in human. In this study, we aimed to examine the association between microalbuminuria, miRNAs and heavy metals in adolescents. From a cross-sectional, population-recruited study, we identified 60 school children aged 12-19 years with microalbuminuria (defined as spot urine albumin-creatinine ratio >3.5 mg/mmol). We compared the urine heavy metals (arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead) and miRNAs levels (miR-21,126, 155 and 221) with another 60 age-and sex-matched normoalbuminuric adolescents as control. Mean age of the study cohort was 15.5±2.1 years. 43% were boys. Among the four miRNAs tested, only miR-21 was associated with microalbuminuria (p=0.02). Urinary arsenic and lead levels had a negative association with both miR-21 and miR-221. No significant association was found between heavy metals examined and microalbuminuria. The results of our study suggest an association between microalbuminuria, miR-21 and heavy metals (arsenic and lead). This might imply that miR-21 is involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms linking heavy metals exposure and albuminuria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MiR-21 controls in situ expansion of CCR6⁺ regulatory T cells through PTEN/AKT pathway in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan; Wang, Chunhong; Li, Yongju; Zhao, Juanjuan; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Ya; Tao, Yijin; Guo, Mengmeng; Qin, Nalin; Ren, Tao; Wen, Zhenke; Xu, Lin

    2015-09-01

    Our recent evidence showed that prior expansion of CCR6(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was important for their dominant enrichment in tumor tissue, which was closely related to poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. However, the underlying regulation mechanism of expansion of CCR6(+) Tregs in situ remains largely unknown. In this study, we reported that miR-21 was highly expressed in CCR6(+) Tregs in tumor tissues from a murine breast cancer model. And silencing of miR-21 could significantly reduce the proliferation of CCR6(+) Tregs in vitro. Adoptive cell-transfer assay further showed that silencing of miR-21 could alter the enrichment of CCR6(+) Tregs in the tumor mass and endow effectively antitumor effect of CD8(+) T cells using a murine breast cancer model. Mechanistic evidence showed that silencing of miR-21 enhanced the expression of its target phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and subsequently altered the activation of Akt pathway, which was ultimately responsible for reduced proliferation activity of CCR6(+) Tregs. Finally, we further revealed that miR-21 was also highly expressed on CCR6(+) Tregs in clinical breast cancer patients. Therefore, miR-21 can act as a fine tuner in the regulation of PTEN/Akt pathway transduction in the expansion of CCR6(+) Tregs in tumor sites and provided a novel insight into the development of therapeutic strategies for promoting T-cell immunity by regulating distinct subset of Tregs through targeting specific miRNAs.

  16. The regulation and function of miR-21-FOXO3a-miR-34b/c signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyan; Feng, Jie; Tang, Lili; Liao, Liqiu; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Shaihong

    2015-01-30

    Upregulation of miR-21 (microRNA-21) and downregulation of miR-34b/c have been found in breast cancer (BC). However, their regulation mechanism and function roles in BC have not been fully addressed. Here, we report that miR-21 levels were inversely correlated with miR-34b/c levels in BC. MiR-21 upregulation contributes to PTEN downregulation, which is beneficial for the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling. The activation of AKT phosphorylates FOXO3a, triggering relocalization of FOXO3a proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. FOXO3a is a newly identified transcription factor responsible for miR-34b/c expression. Downregulation of nuclear FOXO3a decreased the expression levels of miR-34b and miR-34c in breast cancer cells, in which p53 was mutated. We also found upregulation of circulating miR-21 and downregulation of circulating miR-34b/c in BC patients' serum. More importantly, we showed that systemic delivery of miR-34b/c or with anti-miR-21 significantly inhibited breast tumor growth in vivo. These results suggest that high circulating levels of miR-21 and low levels of miR-34b/c may provide potential biomarkers for BC diagnosis, and systemic delivery of miR-34b/c has potential as a therapeutic option for BC treatment.

  17. [The connection of miR-21 and miR-155 with regulation of 15-HPGDH mRNA in human breast cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Nikiforova, Z N; Taipov, M A; Kudryavcev, I A; Shevchenko, V E

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. We determined the expression of COX2, COX1, 15-HPGDH mRNA and miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155) in three estrogen positive human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, BT-474, ZR-75-1). According to the results of three independent experiments the amount of COX1 and COX2 mRNA was significantly higher in the ZR-75-1 than in MCF-7 and BT-474 cells. Levels of total 15-HPGDH; functional 15-HPGDH mRNA in BT-474 cell line were lower than in MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 ones. The synthesis of 15-HPGDH enzyme in BT-474 line was blocked at the nuclear immature pre-mRNA processing level. miR-155 expression level was significantly lower than miR-21 in breast cancer cell lines. Correlations between the dysregulation of miR-21, miR-155 and 15-HPGDH, COX-1, COX-2 mRNA were identified. Expression of miR-21 was high in MCF-7, ZR-75-1 and BT-474 cell lines. Our results show that miR-21 and miR-155 regulate activity of several genes in cancer cells, their effect on the individual genes was in some cases cumulative. Based on our results, we concluded that miR-21, miR-155 suppress the work of tumor suppressor gene 15-HPGDH and induce potential oncogene COX-2 that promotes cell malignancy and metastasis of breast cancer.

  18. Opposing roles of miR-21 and miR-29 in the progression of fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Simona; Gibertini, Sara; Curcio, Maurizio; Savadori, Paolo; Pasanisi, Barbara; Morandi, Lucia; Cornelio, Ferdinando; Mantegazza, Renato; Mora, Marina

    2015-07-01

    Excessive extracellular matrix deposition progressively replacing muscle fibres is the endpoint of most severe muscle diseases. Recent data indicate major involvement of microRNAs in regulating pro- and anti-fibrotic genes. To investigate the roles of miR-21 and miR-29 in muscle fibrosis in Duchenne muscle dystrophy, we evaluated their expression in muscle biopsies from 14 patients, and in muscle-derived fibroblasts and myoblasts. In Duchenne muscle biopsies, miR-21 expression was significantly increased, and correlated directly with COL1A1 and COL6A1 transcript levels. MiR-21 expression was also significantly increased in Duchenne fibroblasts, more so after TGF-β1 treatment. In Duchenne fibroblasts the expression of miR-21 target transcripts PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and SPRY-1 (Sprouty homolog 1) was significantly reduced; while collagen I and VI transcript levels and soluble collagen production were significantly increased. MiR-29a and miR-29c were significantly reduced in Duchenne muscle and myoblasts, and miR-29 target transcripts, COL3A1, FBN1 and YY1, significantly increased. MiR-21 silencing in mdx mice reduced fibrosis in the diaphragm muscle and in both Duchenne fibroblasts and mdx mice restored PTEN and SPRY-1 expression, and significantly reduced collagen I and VI expression; while miR-29 mimicking in Duchenne myoblasts significantly decreased miR-29 target transcripts. These findings indicate that miR-21 and miR-29 play opposing roles in Duchenne muscle fibrosis and suggest that pharmacological modulation of their expression has therapeutic potential for reducing fibrosis in this condition.

  19. Circulating miR-21 and miR-29a as Markers of Disease Severity and Etiology in Cholestatic Pediatric Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Imeke; Thum, Thomas; Baumann, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs have been investigated as markers of disease severity in a variety of conditions. We examined whether circulating miR-21 and miR-29a could serve as markers of hepatic fibrosis and disease etiology in children with various liver diseases. Circulating miR-21 and miR-29a were determined in 58 children (21 female, age 0.1–17.8 (median 9.8) years)) with chronic liver disease and compared to histological grading of hepatic fibrosis. 22 healthy children served as controls for circulating miRNAs. Levels of circulating miR-21 appeared to be age-dependent in healthy children. Children with biliary atresia had significantly higher levels of miR-21 compared both to healthy controls and to age-matched children with other cholestatic liver disease. Circulating miR-29a levels in biliary atresia children did not differ from healthy controls, but tended to be higher than in age-matched children with other cholestatic liver disease. Neither miR-21 nor miR-29a correlated well with hepatic fibrosis. Circulating miR-21 and miR-29a levels can potentially serve as non-invasive diagnostic markers to differentiate biliary atresia from other cholestatic disease in infancy. They do not appear suitable as non-invasive markers for the degree of hepatic fibrosis in an unselected cohort of children with various liver diseases. The discriminating effect regarding neonatal cholestasis should be followed up in a prospective longitudinal study. PMID:26927196

  20. Disease specific signature of circulating miR-150-5p and miR-21-5p in myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Punga, Anna Rostedt; Andersson, Mats; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Punga, Tanel

    2015-09-15

    Reliable biological markers for patients with the autoimmune neuromuscular disorder myasthenia gravis (MG) are lacking. We determined whether levels of the circulating immuno-microRNAs miR-150-5p and miR-21-5p were elevated in sera from clinically heterogeneous MG patients, with and without immunosuppression, as compared to healthy controls and patients with other autoimmune disorders. Sera from 71 MG patients and 55 healthy controls (HC) were analyzed for the expression levels of miR-150-5p and miR-21-5p with qRT-PCR. Sera were also assayed from 23 patients with other autoimmune disorders (AID; psoriasis, Addison's and Crohn's diseases). 34 MG patients had no immunosuppressive drug treatment (MG-0) and 37 patients were under stable immunosuppressive drug treatment since ≥ 6 months (MG+IMM). Serum levels of miR-150-5p and miR-21-5p were higher in the MG-0 patients compared to HC (p<0.0001). Further, miR-150-5p levels were 41% lower and miR-21-5p levels were 25% lower in the MG+IMM compared to MG-0 (p=0.0051 and 0.0419). In the AID patients, mean miR-150-5p and miR-21-5p were comparable with healthy controls (p=0.66). The immuno-microRNAs miR-150-5p and miR-21-5p show a disease specific signature, which suggests these microRNAs as possible biological autoimmune markers of MG. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. HCV-Induced miR-21 Contributes to Evasion of Host Immune System by Targeting MyD88 and IRAK1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanni; Chen, Junbo; Wang, Hui; Shi, Jingjing; Wu, Kailang; Liu, Shi; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    Upon recognition of viral components by pattern recognition receptors, such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases, cells are activated to produce type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines. These pathways are tightly regulated by the host to prevent an inappropriate cellular response, but viruses can modulate these pathways to proliferate and spread. In this study, we revealed a novel mechanism in which hepatitis C virus (HCV) evades the immune surveillance system to proliferate by activating microRNA-21 (miR-21). We demonstrated that HCV infection upregulates miR-21, which in turn suppresses HCV-triggered type I IFN production, thus promoting HCV replication. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-21 targets two important factors in the TLR signaling pathway, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1), which are involved in HCV-induced type I IFN production. HCV-mediated activation of miR-21 expression requires viral proteins and several signaling components. Moreover, we identified a transcription factor, activating protein-1 (AP-1), which is partly responsible for miR-21 induction in response to HCV infection through PKCε/JNK/c-Jun and PKCα/ERK/c-Fos cascades. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-21 is upregulated during HCV infection and negatively regulates IFN-α signaling through MyD88 and IRAK1 and may be a potential therapeutic target for antiviral intervention. PMID:23633945

  2. Integrative analysis of differential miRNA and functional study of miR-21 by seed-targeting inhibition in multiple myeloma cells in response to berberine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Berberine is a natural alkaloid derived from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine. It is known to modulate microRNA (miRNA) levels, although the mechanism for this action is unknown. Here, we previously demonstrate that the expression of 87 miRNAs is differentially affected by berberine in multiple myeloma cells. Among 49 miRNAs that are down-regulated, nine act as oncomirs, including miR-21. Integrative analysis showed that 28 of the down-regulated miRNAs participate in tumor protein p53 (TP53) signaling and other cancer pathways. miR-21 is involved in all these pathways, and is one of the most important oncomirs to be affected by berberine in multiple myeloma cells. Results We confirmed that berberine down-regulated miRNA-21 expression and significantly up-regulated the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a predicted miR-21 target. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that PDCD4 was directly regulated by miR-21. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the miR-21 promoter can be targeted by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Down-regulation of interleukin 6 (IL6) by berberine might lead to inhibition of miR-21 transcription through STAT3 down-regulation in multiple myeloma. Furthermore, both berberine and seed-targeting anti-miR-21 oligonucleotide induced apoptosis, G2-phase cell cycle arrest and colony inhibition in multiple myeloma cell lines. Depletion of PDCD4 by short interfering RNA could rescue berberine-induced cytotoxicity in multiple myeloma cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that berberine suppresses multiple myeloma cell growth, at least in part, by down-regulating miR-21 levels possibly through IL6/STAT3. This led to increased PDCD4 expression, which is likely to result in suppression of the p53 signaling pathway. These findings may also provide new mechanistic insight into the anti-cancer effects of certain compounds in traditional Chinese herbal medicines. PMID:25000828

  3. Potential Role of Circulating MiR-21 in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Digestive System Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chengqiang; Zhou, Xiaoying; Dang, Yini; Yan, Jin; Zhang, Guoxin

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidences indicate that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit aberrant expression in the plasma of patients suffering from cancer compared to normal individuals, suggesting that it may be a useful noninvasion diagnostic method. MiR-21 plays crucial roles in carcinogenesis and can be served as a biomarker for the detection of various cancers. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the potential role of miR-21 for digestive system cancer. By searching the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for publications concerning the diagnostic value of miR-21 for digestive system cancer, total of 23 publications were included in this meta-analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were used to check the overall test performance. For prognostic meta-analysis, pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of circulating miR-21 for survival were calculated. Totally 23 eligible publications were included in this meta-analysis (15 articles for diagnosis and 8 articles for prognosis). For diagnostic meta-analysis, the summary estimates revealed that the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.76 (95% CI = 0.70-0.82) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.78-0.89). Besides, the area under the summary ROC curve (AUC) is 0.87. For prognostic meta-analysis, the pooled HR of higher miR-21 expression in circulation was 1.94 (95% CI = 0.99-3.82, P = 0.055), which indicated higher miR-21 expression could be likely to predict poorer survival in digestive system cancer. The subgroup analysis implied the higher expression of miR-21 was correlated with worse overall survival in the Asian population in digestive system cancer (HR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.21-4.77, P = 0.012). The current evidence suggests circulating miR-21 may be suitable to be a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for digestive system cancer in the Asians.

  4. Human epididymis protein 4 expression positively correlated with miR-21 and served as a prognostic indicator in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Qingquan; Liu, Qicai; Gao, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological malignancy-related mortality. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a useful biomarker for ovarian cancer when either used alone or in combination with carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125). What is more, aberrant expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) has been shown to be involved in oncogenesis, but the relationship between miR-21 and HE4 in ovarian cancer is not clear. Tumor and adjacent tumor tissues from 43 patients with ovarian cancer were examined. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of HE4 in the carcinoma and adjacent tissues. The associations between HE4 and tumor biological characters were discussed. TaqMan(®) MicroRNA (miRNA) assays were employed to detect the expression of miR-21 in the ovarian carcinoma. In ovarian cancer, the expression of HE4 messenger RNA (mRNA) in cancer tissues was higher than adjacent tumor tissues (P < 0.0001), which was 1.299-fold of adjacent tumor tissues. And, the expression of miR-21 was also up-regulated which was significantly different in the ovarian cancer (the positive rate was 76.74 %). There was a significantly positive correlation between miR-21 and HE4 expression (r = 0.283 and P = 0.066 for HE4 mRNA, r = 0.663 and P < 0.0001 for serum HE4). There was also a significant correlation between miR-21 and tumor grade (r = 0.608, P < 0.0001). Significantly, patients with recent recurrence (less than 6 months, n = 17) have a higher miR-21 expression than those with no recent recurrence. Therefore, HE4 and miR-21 may play an important role in the development and progression of ovarian cancer and they may serve as prognostic indicators in ovarian cancer.

  5. [Deregulation of microRNAs in gastric cancer: up regulation by miR-21 and miR-106].

    PubMed

    Arias Sosa, Luis Alejandro; Cuspoca Orduz, Andrés Felipe; Bernal Gómez, Bibiana Matilde

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) exhibits significant rates of mortality worldwide, a situation that is even more disturbing in Colombia, because it has had historically high rate for that disease; At regional context we have found that Boyacá has the second place of gastric cancer mortality rate in the country, with displeasing numbers. Early detection is critical to the survival of people, so in this article, major based on world literature search, we show that the microRNA could be a useful tool for the diagnosis, prognosis and can be designed as important therapeutic target. Aims to this are demonstrate howmiRNAs are deregulated during the emergence and development of gastric cancer and how their biological functions can place them as oncogenes or tumor suppressors; finally, we showed that two microRNAs (miR-21 and miR-106b) are significantly upregulated in the disease and may have a pro-oncogenic action, blocking normal cell cycle, apoptosis and migration.

  6. In vivo visualization of endogenous miR-21 using hyaluronic acid-coated graphene oxide for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Do Won; Kim, Han Young; Li, Fangyuan; Park, Ji Yong; Kim, Dohyun; Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Hwa Seung; Byun, Jung Woo; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Char, Kookheon; Lee, Dong Soo

    2017-03-01

    Oncogene-targeted nucleic acid therapy has been spotlighted as a new paradigm for cancer therapeutics. However, in vivo delivery issues and uncertainty of therapeutic antisense drug reactions remain critical hurdles for a successful targeted cancer therapy. In this study, we developed a fluorescence-switchable theranostic nanoplatform using hyaluronic acid (HA)-conjugated graphene oxide (GO), which is capable of both sensing oncogenic miR-21 and inhibiting its tumorigenicity simultaneously. Cy3-labeled antisense miR-21 peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes loaded onto HA-GO (HGP21) specifically targeted CD44-positive MBA-MB231 cells and showed fluorescence recovery by interacting with endogenous miR-21 in the cytoplasm of the MBA-MB231 cells. Knockdown of endogenous miR-21 by HGP21 led to decreased proliferation and reduced migration of cancer cells, as well as the induction of apoptosis, with enhanced PTEN levels. Interestingly, in vivo fluorescence signals markedly recovered 3 h after the intravenous delivery of HGP21 and displayed signals more than 5-fold higher than those observed in the HGPscr-treated group of tumor-bearing mice. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using the HGP nanoplatform as a cancer theranostic tool in miRNA-targeted therapy.

  7. Sequential co-delivery of miR-21 inhibitor followed by burst release doxorubicin using NIR-responsive hollow gold nanoparticle to enhance anticancer efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Wang, Ruirui; Gao, Lizhang; Li, Ke; Zhou, Xuan; Guo, Hua; Liu, Chaoyong; Han, Donglin; Tian, Jianguo; Ye, Qing; Hu, Ye Tony; Sun, Duxin; Yuan, Xubo; Zhang, Ning

    2016-04-28

    Previous literature and our study showed the delivery sequence of microRNA inhibitor and chemotherapeutic compounds achieve distinct therapeutic anticancer efficacy. Yet, it is challenging to use nanoparticle to achieve sequential drug delivery. In the current study, we designed sequential co-delivery system using a near-infrared-radiation (NIR) responsive hollow gold nanoparticle (HGNPs) to achieve sequential release of microRNA inhibitor (miR-21i)/doxirubicin(Dox) in order to achieve synergistic efficacy. PAMAM modified HGNPs was used to encapsulate miR-21i and Dox. Upon entering tumor cells, miRNA-21i was released first to sensitize the cancer cells, the subsequent burst release of Dox was achieved by NIR triggered collapse of HGNPs. This sequential delivery of miRNA-21i and Dox produced a synergistic apoptotic response, thereby enhancing anticancer efficacy by 8-fold and increasing anti-cancer stem cell activity by 50-fold. The sequential delivery of miR-21i and Dox using HGNPs under NIR after intravenous administration showed high tumor accumulation and significantly improved efficacy, which was 4-fold compared to free Dox group. These data suggested that the sequential co-delivery of miR-21i followed by burst release Dox using NIR-responsive HGNPs sensitized cancer cells to chemotherapeutic compound, which provided a novel concept for co-delivery miRNA inhibitors and chemotherapeutic compounds to enhance their efficacy.

  8. [Glossy ganoderma spore oil promotes apoptosis of human lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 through downregulation of miR-21].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangfeng; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoyin; Wang, Yaping; Hou, Yayi

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the effects of glossy ganoderma spore oil on the proliferation, apoptosis, expression of miR-21 and its target genes of human lung adenocarcinoma SPC-A1 cell line, and to explore its possible mechanism. The SPC-A1 cells were treated with glossy ganoderma spore oil for 24 and 48 hours. The inhibition growth efficacy was determined using cell count kit (CCK-8). Cell morphological changes were observed by light microscopy. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of miR-21, PTEN and PDCD4 were determined by Real-time PCR. Glossy ganoderma spore oil concentration-dependently inhibited the SPC-A1 cell's proliferation. When the concentration of glossy ganoderma spore oil attained to 0.2%, the cells' morphology changed obviously. Glossy ganoderma spore oil could induce the apoptosis of SPC-A1 cells at low concentration. Glossy ganoderma spore oil down-regulated the expression of miR-21 and up-regulated the expression of PTEN and PDCD4 significantly. glossy ganoderma spore oil could inhibit the proliferation obviously and cause the changes of cell morphology. Furthermore, glossy ganoderma spore oil induced apoptosis of SPC-A1 cell through down-regulating the expression of miR-21 and up-regulating tumor suppressors.

  9. Migration-prone glioma cells show curcumin resistance associated with enhanced expression of miR-21 and invasion/anti-apoptosis-related proteins

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chiung-Yin; Huang, Bor-Ren; Lin, Chingju; Lu, Dah-Yuu; Wei, Kuo-Chen

    2015-01-01

    In study, the expression patterns and functional differences between an original glioma cell population (U251 and U87) and sublines (U251-P10, U87-P10) that were selected to be migration-prone were investigated. The expressions levels of VEGF and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were increased in the migration-prone sublines as well as in samples from patients with high-grade glioma when compared to those with low-grade glioma. In addition, cells of the migration-prone sublines showed increased expression of the oncogenic microRNA. miR-21, which was also associated with more advanced clinical pathological stages in the patient tissue specimens. Treatment of U251 cells with an miR-21 mimic dramatically enhanced the migratory activity and expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Furthermore, treatment with curcumin decreased the miR-21 level and anti-apoptotic protein expression, and increased the expression of pro-apoptosis proteins and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II) in U251 cells. The migration-prone sublines showed decreased induction of cell death markers in response to curcumin treatment. Finally, U251-P10 cells showed resistance against curcumin treatment. These results suggest that miR-21 is associated with regulation of the migratory ability and survival in human glioma cells. These findings suggest novel mechanisms of malignancy and new potential combinatorial strategies for the management of malignant glioma. PMID:26473373

  10. miR-21-5p renal expression is associated with fibrosis and renal survival in patients with IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hennino, Marie-Flore; Buob, David; Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Gnemmi, Viviane; Jomaa, Zacharie; Pottier, Nicolas; Savary, Grégoire; Drumez, Elodie; Noël, Christian; Cauffiez, Christelle; Glowacki, François

    2016-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most prevalent primary glomerulonephritis, whose prognosis is highly variable. Interstitial fibrosis is a strong independent prognosis factor. Among microRNA involved in renal fibrogenesis, only few have been investigated in IgAN. In the context of IgAN, we aimed to analyze the role of miR-21-5p, miR-214-3p and miR-199a-5p, three established “fibromiRs” involved in renal fibrosis. Fifty-six IgAN biopsy specimens were retrospectively scored according to Oxford classification. Renal expression of miR-21-5p, miR-214-3p and miR-199a-5p were significantly associated with T score (miR-21-5p T0 RQ median = 1.23, T1 RQ = 3.01, T2 RQ = 3.90; miR-214-5p T0 RQ = 1.39, T1 RQ = 2.20, T2 RQ = 2.48; miR-199a-5p T0 RQ = 0.76, T1 RQ = 1.41, T2 RQ = 1.87). miR-21-5p expression was associated with S score (S0 RQ median = 1.31, S1 RQ = 2.65), but not miR-214-3p nor miR-199a-5p. In our cohort, poor renal survival was associated with high blood pressure, proteinuria and elevated creatininemia, as well as T and S scores. Moreover, renal expression of miR-21-5p, miR-214-3p were associated with renal survival. In conclusion, miR-21-5p, miR-214-3p and miR-199a-5p are three “fibromiRs” involved in renal fibrosis in the course of IgAN and miR-21-5p and miR-214-3p are associated with renal survival. PMID:27264483

  11. miR-21-5p renal expression is associated with fibrosis and renal survival in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Hennino, Marie-Flore; Buob, David; Van der Hauwaert, Cynthia; Gnemmi, Viviane; Jomaa, Zacharie; Pottier, Nicolas; Savary, Grégoire; Drumez, Elodie; Noël, Christian; Cauffiez, Christelle; Glowacki, François

    2016-06-06

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most prevalent primary glomerulonephritis, whose prognosis is highly variable. Interstitial fibrosis is a strong independent prognosis factor. Among microRNA involved in renal fibrogenesis, only few have been investigated in IgAN. In the context of IgAN, we aimed to analyze the role of miR-21-5p, miR-214-3p and miR-199a-5p, three established "fibromiRs" involved in renal fibrosis. Fifty-six IgAN biopsy specimens were retrospectively scored according to Oxford classification. Renal expression of miR-21-5p, miR-214-3p and miR-199a-5p were significantly associated with T score (miR-21-5p T0 RQ median = 1.23, T1 RQ = 3.01, T2 RQ = 3.90; miR-214-5p T0 RQ = 1.39, T1 RQ = 2.20, T2 RQ = 2.48; miR-199a-5p T0 RQ = 0.76, T1 RQ = 1.41, T2 RQ = 1.87). miR-21-5p expression was associated with S score (S0 RQ median = 1.31, S1 RQ = 2.65), but not miR-214-3p nor miR-199a-5p. In our cohort, poor renal survival was associated with high blood pressure, proteinuria and elevated creatininemia, as well as T and S scores. Moreover, renal expression of miR-21-5p, miR-214-3p were associated with renal survival. In conclusion, miR-21-5p, miR-214-3p and miR-199a-5p are three "fibromiRs" involved in renal fibrosis in the course of IgAN and miR-21-5p and miR-214-3p are associated with renal survival.

  12. The miR-21/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the anti-tumoral effects of zoledronic acid in human breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fragni, M; Bonini, S A; Bettinsoli, P; Bodei, S; Generali, D; Bottini, A; Spano, P F; Memo, M; Sigala, S

    2016-05-01

    Preclinical data indicate a direct anti-tumor effect of zoledronic acid (ZA) outside the skeleton, but its molecular mechanism is still not completely clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects of ZA in human breast cancer cell lines, suggesting that they may in part be mediated via the miR-21/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway. The effect of ZA on cell viability was measured by MTT assay, and cell death induction was analyzed using either a double AO/EtBr staining and M30 ELISA assay. A Proteome Profiler Human Apoptosis Array was executed to evaluate the molecular basis of ZA-induced apoptosis. Cell cycle analysis was executed by flow cytometry. The effect of ZA on miR-21 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR, and the amount of PTEN protein and its targets were analyzed by Western blot. ZA inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, through the activation of cell death pathways and arrest of cell cycle progression. ZA downregulated the expression of miR-21, resulting in dephosphorilation of Akt and Bad and in a significant increase of p21 and p27 proteins expression. These results were observed also in MDA-MB-231 cells, commonly used as an experimental model of bone metastasis of breast cancer. This study revealed, for the first time, an involvement of the miR-21/PTEN/Akt signaling pathway in the mechanism of ZA anti-cancer actions in breast cancer cells. We would like to underline that this pathway is present both in the hormone responsive BC cell line (MCF-7) as well as in a triple negative cell line (MDA-MB-231). Taken together these results reinforce the use of ZA in clinical practice, suggesting the role of miR-21 as a possible mediator of its therapeutic efficacy.

  13. miR-17, miR-21, and miR-143 Enhance Adipogenic Differentiation from Porcine Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    An, Xinglan; Ma, Kuiying; Zhang, Zhiren; Zhao, Tianchuang; Zhang, Xueming; Tang, Bo; Li, Ziyi

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have multilineage differentiation abilities toward adipocytes and osteoblasts. Recently, numerous studies have focused on the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the process of adipogenic differentiation of human and mouse cells. However, the role of miRNAs in adipogenic differentiation process of porcine BMSCs (pBMSCs) remains unclear. In this study, pBMSCs were induced to differentiate into adipocytes using a chemical approach, and the roles of miR-17, miR-21, and miR-143 in this process were investigated. Our results showed that pBMSCs could be chemically induced to differentiate into adipocytes and that the expression of miR-17, miR-21, and miR-143 increased during differentiation. Then, overexpression of mimics of miR-17, miR-21, and miR-143 increased the number of oil red O-positive cells of adipocyte differentiation. The expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) mRNA showed increases of 1.8-, 1.5-, and 1.2-fold in the groups expressing mimics of miR-21, miR-17, and miR-143, respectively, at day 20. These results demonstrate that miR-17, miR-21, and miR-143 are involved in and promote the adipogenic differentiation of pBMSCs. This study provides an experimental basis for establishing a stable and efficient adipogenic differentiation model for applications in cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  14. Induction of miR-21-PDCD4 signaling by tungsten carbide-cobalt nanoparticles in JB6 cells involves ROS-mediated MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lichao; Bowman, Linda; Meighan, Terence G; Shi, Xianglin; Ding, Min

    2013-01-01

    Tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticle composites have wide applications because of their hardness and toughness. WC-Co was classified as "probably carcinogenic" to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2003. It is believed that the toxicity and carcinogenesis of WC-Co is associated with particle size. Recent studies demonstrated that the tumor suppressor gene programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) and its upstream regulator miR-21 have been considered as oncogenes for novel cancer prevention or anticancer therapies. The present study examined the effects of WC-Co nanoparticles on miR-21-PDCD4 signaling in a mouse epidermal cell line (JB6 P+). The results showed that (i) exposure of JB6 cells to WC-Co stimulated a increase of miR-21 generation; (ii) WC-Co also caused inhibition of PDCD4, a tumor suppressor protein and downstream target of miR-21, expression in JB6 cells; (iii) inhibition of ERKs with ERK inhibitor U0126 significantly reversed WC-Cominus;induced PDCD4 inhibition, but inhibition of p38 with p38 inhibitor SB203580 did not; and (iv) ROS scavengers, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and catalase, blocked the inhibitory effect of WC-Co on PDCD4 expression, while superoxide dismutase promoted the inhibitory effect. These findings demonstrate that WC-Co nanoparticles induce miR-21 generation, but inhibit PDCD4 production, which may be mediated through ROS, especially endogenous H2O2, and ERK pathways. Unraveling the complex mechanisms associated with these events may provide insights into the initiation and progression of WC-Co-induced carcinogenesis.

  15. The Oncogenic MicroRNA OncomiR-21 Overexpressed during Marek's Disease Lymphomagenesis Is Transactivated by the Viral Oncoprotein Meq

    PubMed Central

    Stik, Grégoire; Dambrine, Ginette; Pfeffer, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2) is an oncogenic herpesvirus that causes T lymphoma in chicken. GaHV-2 encodes a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein of the AP-1 family, Meq. Upon formation of homo- or heterodimers with c-Jun, Meq may modulate the expression of viral and cellular genes involved in lymphomagenesis. GaHV-2 also encodes viral microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in latency and apoptosis escape. However, little is known about cellular miRNA deregulation during the development of GaHV-2-associated lymphoma. We determined the cellular miRNA expression profiles of chickens infected with a very virulent strain (RB-1B) or a vaccine strain (CVI988) or noninfected. Among the most deregulated cellular miRNAs, we focused our efforts on gga-miR-21, which is upregulated during GaHV-2 infection. We mapped the gga-miR-21 promoter to the 10th intron of the TMEM49 gene and found it to be driven by AP-1- and Ets-responsive elements. We show here that the viral oncoprotein Meq binds to this promoter, thereby transactivating gga-miR-21 expression. We confirmed that this miRNA targets chicken programmed death cell 4 (PDCD4) and promotes tumor cell growth and apoptosis escape. Finally, gga-miR-21 was overexpressed only during infection with a very virulent strain (RB-1B) and not during infection with a nononcogenic strain (CVI988), providing further evidence for its role in GaHV-2 lymphomagenesis. Our data therefore suggest an additional role for Meq in GaHV-2-mediated lymphomagenesis through the induction of miR-21 expression. PMID:23055556

  16. Stat3 and C/EBPβ synergize to induce miR-21 and miR-181b expression during sepsis.

    PubMed

    McClure, Clara; McPeak, Melissa B; Youssef, Dima; Yao, Zhi Q; McCall, Charles E; El Gazzar, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) increase late sepsis immunosuppression and mortality in mice. We reported that microRNA (miR) 21 and miR-181b expression in Gr1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid progenitors increase septic MDSCs in mice by arresting macrophage and dendritic cell differentiation. Here, we report how sepsis regulates miR-21 and miR-181b transcription. In vivo and in vitro binding studies have shown that C/EBPα transcription factor, which promotes normal myeloid cell differentiation, binds both miRNA promoters in Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells from sham mice. In contrast, in sepsis Gr1(+)CD11b(+) MDSCs miR-21 and miR-181b promoters bind both transcription factors Stat3 and C/EBPβ, which co-imunoprecipitate as a single complex. Mechanistically, transcription factor Rb phosphorylation supports Stat3 and C/EBPβ accumulation at both miRNA promoters, and C/EBPβ or Stat3 depletion by siRNA in sepsis Gr1(+)CD11b(+) MDSCs inhibits miR-21 and miR-181b expression. To further support this molecular path for MDSC accumulation, we found that Stat3 and C/EBP binding at miR-21 or miR-181b promoter was induced by IL-6, using a luciferase reporter gene transfection into naive Gr1(+)CD11b(+) cells. Identifying how sepsis MDSCs are generated may inform new treatments to reverse sepsis immunosuppression.

  17. Stat3 and C/EBPβ synergize to induce miR-21 and miR-181b expression during sepsis

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Clara; McPeak, Melissa B.; Youssef, Dima; Yao, Zhi Q.; McCall, Charles E.; El Gazzar, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) increase late sepsis immunosuppression and mortality in mice. We reported that microRNA (miR) 21 and miR-181b expression in Gr1+CD11b+ myeloid progenitors increase septic MDSCs in mice by arresting macrophage and dendritic cell differentiation. Here, we report how sepsis regulates miR-21 and miR-181b transcription. In vivo and in vitro binding studies have shown that C/EBPα transcription factor, which promotes normal myeloid cell differentiation, binds both miRNA promoters in Gr1+CD11b+ cells from sham mice. In contrast, in sepsis Gr1+CD11b+ MDSCs miR-21 and miR-181b promoters bind both transcription factors Stat3 and C/EBPβ, which co-imunoprecipitate as a single complex. Mechanistically, transcription factor Rb phosphorylation supports Stat3 and C/EBPβ accumulation at both miRNA promoters, and C/EBPβ or Stat3 depletion by siRNA in sepsis Gr1+CD11b+ MDSCs inhibits miR-21 and miR-181b expression. To further support this molecular path for MDSC accumulation, we found that Stat3 and C/EBP binding at miR-21 or miR-181b promoter was induced by IL-6, using a luciferase reporter gene transfection into naive Gr1+CD11b+ cells. Identifying how sepsis MDSCs are generated may inform new treatments to reverse sepsis immunosuppression. PMID:27430527

  18. MicroRNA MIR21 (miR-21) and PTGS2 Expression in Colorectal Cancer and Patient Survival.

    PubMed

    Mima, Kosuke; Nishihara, Reiko; Yang, Juhong; Dou, Ruoxu; Masugi, Yohei; Shi, Yan; da Silva, Annacarolina; Cao, Yin; Song, Mingyang; Nowak, Jonathan; Gu, Mancang; Li, Wanwan; Morikawa, Teppei; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Baba, Hideo; Giovannucci, Edward L; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-08-01

    Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2, cyclooxygenase-2; a target of aspirin) produces inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and contributes to colorectal neoplasia development. PTGS2-driven inflammatory responses can induce tumor expression of microRNA MIR21 (miR-21) that can increase local PGE2 level by downregulating PGE2-metabolizing enzymes. We hypothesized that the prognostic association of tumor MIR21 expression level in colorectal carcinoma might depend on inflammatory tumor microenvironment and be stronger in tumors expressing high-level PTGS2. Utilizing 765 rectal and colon cancer specimens in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we measured MIR21 expression by quantitative reverse transcription PCR, and PTGS2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess statistical interaction between MIR21 and PTGS2 in colorectal cancer-specific survival analysis, controlling for potential confounders including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation level, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Tumor MIR21 expression level was associated with higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality (Ptrend = 0.029), and there was a statistically significant interaction between MIR21 and PTGS2 (Pinteraction = 0.0004). The association between MIR21 expression and colorectal cancer-specific mortality was statistically significant in PTGS2-high cancers (multivariable hazard ratio of the highest vs. lowest quartile of MIR21, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-3.67; Ptrend = 0.0004) but not in PTGS2-absent/low cancers (Ptrend = 0.22). MIR21 expression level in colorectal carcinoma is associated with worse clinical outcome, and this association is stronger in carcinomas expressing high-level PTGS2, suggesting complex roles of immunity and inflammation in tumor progression. Clin Cancer Res; 22(15); 3841-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for

  19. MicroRNA MIR21 (miR-21) and PTGS2 expression in colorectal cancer and patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Mima, Kosuke; Nishihara, Reiko; Yang, Juhong; Dou, Ruoxu; Masugi, Yohei; Shi, Yan; da Silva, Annacarolina; Cao, Yin; Song, Mingyang; Nowak, Jonathan A.; Gu, Mancang; Li, Wanwan; Morikawa, Teppei; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Baba, Hideo; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Chan, Andrew T.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Qian, Zhi Rong; Ogino, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2, cyclooxygenase-2; a target of aspirin) produces inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and contributes to colorectal neoplasia development. PTGS2-driven inflammatory responses can induce tumor expression of microRNA MIR21 (miR-21) that can increase local PGE2 level by downregulating PGE2-metabolizing enzymes. We hypothesized that the prognostic association of tumor MIR21 expression level in colorectal carcinoma might depend on inflammatory tumor microenvironment and be stronger in tumors expressing high-level PTGS2. Experimental Design Utilizing 765 rectal and colon cancer specimens in the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we measured MIR21 expression by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and PTGS2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess statistical interaction between MIR21 and PTGS2 in colorectal cancer-specific survival analysis, controlling for potential confounders including microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype, LINE-1 methylation level, and KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. Results Tumor MIR21 expression level was associated with higher colorectal cancer-specific mortality (Ptrend = 0.029), and there was a statistically significant interaction between MIR21 and PTGS2 (Pinteraction = 0.0004). The association between MIR21 expression and colorectal cancer-specific mortality was statistically significant in PTGS2-high cancers (multivariable hazard ratio of the highest vs. lowest quartile of MIR21, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.42 to 3.67; Ptrend = 0.0004) but not in PTGS2-absent/low cancers (Ptrend = 0.22). Conclusions MIR21 expression level in colorectal carcinoma is associated with worse clinical outcome, and this association is stronger in carcinomas expressing high-level PTGS2, suggesting complex roles of immunity and inflammation in tumor progression. PMID:26957558

  20. Formulation of Anti-miR-21 and 4-Hydroxytamoxifen Co-loaded Biodegradable Polymer Nanoparticles and Their Antiproliferative Effect on Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Devulapally, Rammohan; Sekar, Thillai V; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2015-06-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. The majority of breast tumors are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and hormone-dependent. Neoadjuvant anti-estrogen therapy has been widely employed to reduce tumor mass prior to surgery. Tamoxifen is a broadly used anti-estrogen for early and advanced ER+ breast cancers in women and the most common hormone treatment for male breast cancer. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) is an active metabolite of tamoxifen that functions as an estrogen receptor antagonist and displays higher affinity for estrogen receptors than that of tamoxifen and its other metabolites. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a small noncoding RNA of 23 nucleotides that regulates several apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes and contributes to chemoresistance in numerous cancers, including breast cancer. The present study investigated the therapeutic potential of 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 coadministration in an attempt to combat tamoxifen resistance, a common problem often encountered in anti-estrogen therapy. A biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG-COOH) copolymer was utilized as a carrier to codeliver 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 to ER+ breast cancer cells. 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 co-loaded PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) were developed using emulsion-diffusion evaporation (EDE) and water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion methods. The EDE method was found to be best method for 4-OHT loading, and the w/o/w method proved to be more effective for coloading NPs with anti-miR-21 and 4-OHT. The optimal NPs, which were prepared using the double emulsion method, were evaluated for their antiproliferative and apoptotic effects against MCF7, ZR-75-1, and BT-474 human breast cancer cells as well as against 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that PLGA-b-PEG NP encapsulation significantly extended 4-OHT's stability and biological activity compared to that of free 4-OHT. MTT assays indicated that

  1. Formulation of Anti-miR-21 and 4-Hydroxytamoxifen Co-loaded Biodegradable Polymer Nanoparticles and Their Antiproliferative Effect on Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women. The majority of breast tumors are estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and hormone-dependent. Neoadjuvant anti-estrogen therapy has been widely employed to reduce tumor mass prior to surgery. Tamoxifen is a broadly used anti-estrogen for early and advanced ER+ breast cancers in women and the most common hormone treatment for male breast cancer. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT) is an active metabolite of tamoxifen that functions as an estrogen receptor antagonist and displays higher affinity for estrogen receptors than that of tamoxifen and its other metabolites. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a small noncoding RNA of 23 nucleotides that regulates several apoptotic and tumor suppressor genes and contributes to chemoresistance in numerous cancers, including breast cancer. The present study investigated the therapeutic potential of 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 coadministration in an attempt to combat tamoxifen resistance, a common problem often encountered in anti-estrogen therapy. A biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG-COOH) copolymer was utilized as a carrier to codeliver 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 to ER+ breast cancer cells. 4-OHT and anti-miR-21 co-loaded PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) were developed using emulsion-diffusion evaporation (EDE) and water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion methods. The EDE method was found to be best method for 4-OHT loading, and the w/o/w method proved to be more effective for coloading NPs with anti-miR-21 and 4-OHT. The optimal NPs, which were prepared using the double emulsion method, were evaluated for their antiproliferative and apoptotic effects against MCF7, ZR-75-1, and BT-474 human breast cancer cells as well as against 4T1 mouse mammary carcinoma cells. We demonstrated that PLGA-b-PEG NP encapsulation significantly extended 4-OHT’s stability and biological activity compared to that of free 4-OHT. MTT assays indicated that

  2. High levels of oncomiR-21 contribute to the senescence-induced growth arrest in normal human cells and its knock-down increases the replicative lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Dellago, Hanna; Preschitz-Kammerhofer, Barbara; Terlecki-Zaniewicz, Lucia; Schreiner, Carina; Fortschegger, Klaus; Chang, Martina W-F; Hackl, Matthias; Monteforte, Rossella; Kühnel, Harald; Schosserer, Markus; Gruber, Florian; Tschachler, Erwin; Scheideler, Marcel; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Grillari, Johannes; Wieser, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Cellular senescence of normal human cells has by now far exceeded its initial role as a model system for aging research. Many reports show the accumulation of senescent cells in vivo, their effect on their microenvironment and its double-edged role as tumour suppressor and promoter. Importantly, removal of senescent cells delays the onset of age-associated diseases in mouse model systems. To characterize the role of miRNAs in cellular senescence of endothelial cells, we performed miRNA arrays from HUVECs of five different donors. Twelve miRNAs, comprising hsa-miR-23a, hsa-miR-23b, hsa-miR-24, hsa-miR-27a, hsa-miR-29a, hsa-miR-31, hsa-miR-100, hsa-miR-193a, hsa-miR-221, hsa-miR-222 and hsa-let-7i are consistently up-regulated in replicatively senescent cells. Surprisingly, also miR-21 was found up-regulated by replicative and stress-induced senescence, despite being described as oncogenic. Transfection of early passage endothelial cells with miR-21 resulted in lower angiogenesis, and less cell proliferation mirrored by up-regulation of p21CIP1 and down-regulation of CDK2. These two cell-cycle regulators are indirectly regulated by miR-21 via its validated direct targets NFIB (Nuclear factor 1 B-type), a transcriptional inhibitor of p21CIP1, and CDC25A, which regulates CDK2 activity by dephosphorylation. Knock-down of either NFIB or CDC25A shows a phenocopy of over-expressing miR-21 in regard to cell-cycle arrest. Finally, miR-21 over-epxression reduces the replicative lifespan, while stable knock-down by sponges extends the replicative lifespan of endothelial cells. Therefore, we propose that miR-21 is the first miRNA that upon its knock-down extends the replicative lifespan of normal human cells. PMID:23496142

  3. High levels of oncomiR-21 contribute to the senescence-induced growth arrest in normal human cells and its knock-down increases the replicative lifespan.

    PubMed

    Dellago, Hanna; Preschitz-Kammerhofer, Barbara; Terlecki-Zaniewicz, Lucia; Schreiner, Carina; Fortschegger, Klaus; Chang, Martina W-F; Hackl, Matthias; Monteforte, Rossella; Kühnel, Harald; Schosserer, Markus; Gruber, Florian; Tschachler, Erwin; Scheideler, Marcel; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Grillari, Johannes; Wieser, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Cellular senescence of normal human cells has by now far exceeded its initial role as a model system for aging research. Many reports show the accumulation of senescent cells in vivo, their effect on their microenvironment and its double-edged role as tumour suppressor and promoter. Importantly, removal of senescent cells delays the onset of age-associated diseases in mouse model systems. To characterize the role of miRNAs in cellular senescence of endothelial cells, we performed miRNA arrays from HUVECs of five different donors. Twelve miRNAs, comprising hsa-miR-23a, hsa-miR-23b, hsa-miR-24, hsa-miR-27a, hsa-miR-29a, hsa-miR-31, hsa-miR-100, hsa-miR-193a, hsa-miR-221, hsa-miR-222 and hsa-let-7i are consistently up-regulated in replicatively senescent cells. Surprisingly, also miR-21 was found up-regulated by replicative and stress-induced senescence, despite being described as oncogenic. Transfection of early passage endothelial cells with miR-21 resulted in lower angiogenesis, and less cell proliferation mirrored by up-regulation of p21(CIP1) and down-regulation of CDK2. These two cell-cycle regulators are indirectly regulated by miR-21 via its validated direct targets NFIB (Nuclear factor 1 B-type), a transcriptional inhibitor of p21(CIP) (1) , and CDC25A, which regulates CDK2 activity by dephosphorylation. Knock-down of either NFIB or CDC25A shows a phenocopy of over-expressing miR-21 in regard to cell-cycle arrest. Finally, miR-21 over-epxression reduces the replicative lifespan, while stable knock-down by sponges extends the replicative lifespan of endothelial cells. Therefore, we propose that miR-21 is the first miRNA that upon its knock-down extends the replicative lifespan of normal human cells. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and the Anatomical Society.

  4. Evaluation of miR-21 and miR-375 as prognostic biomarkers in oesophageal cancer in high-risk areas in China.

    PubMed

    He, Yutong; Jin, Jing; Wang, LiQun; Hu, Yuejiao; Liang, Di; Yang, Huichai; Liu, Yueping; Shan, Baoen

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs have been associated with prognosis in oesophageal cancer (EC), suggesting that miRNAs could play a role in guiding treatment decisions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic potential of miRNAs found to be associated with zinc deficiency in a geographical area with a high incidence of EC. miRNAs found to be associated with zinc deficiency were isolated from EC cell lines cultured with various Zn levels. The expression levels of the miRNAs were quantified using qRT-PCR. The potential prognostic value of the selected miRNAs was assessed in a cohort study of 88 patients from an area in China with a high incidence of EC. Correlations between miRNAs and patient characteristics were assessed using χ(2) statistical tests or Fisher's exact test. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the correlations between miRNAs and overall survival (OS). Forest plots were performed to evaluate the prognostic impact of the miRNAs examined in the present study in the Asian population. The expression levels of miR-21, miR-31, miR-93 and miR-375 were different when Zn levels were varied in EC cell lines, but only miR-21 and miR-375 were associated with patient characteristics and prognosis in patients with EC from an area of China with a high incidence of EC. The patients expressing high levels of miR-21 had poor OS (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.16-3.97), whereas those with high levels of miR-375 had improved OS (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.87).The patients with both a high level of miR-375 and a low level of miR-21 had significantly better outcomes. Forest plots based on an analysis of this Asian population indicated that a high level of miR-21 significantly predicted a shortened OS (HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.42-2.37), whereas a high level of miR-375 was significantly correlated with increased survival (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.43-0.73). MiR-21 and miR-375 could be used as prognostic biomarkers in areas with a high incidence of EC, and combining these markers may results in a

  5. MicroRNA expression in response to murine myocardial infarction: miR-21 regulates fibroblast metalloprotease-2 via phosphatase and tensin homologue

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sashwati; Khanna, Savita; Hussain, Syed-Rehan A.; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Azad, Ali; Rink, Cameron; Gnyawali, Surya; Shilo, Shani; Nuovo, Gerard J.; Sen, Chandan K.

    2009-01-01

    Aims MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by either degradation or translational repression of a target mRNA. Encoded in the genome of most eukaryotes, miRNAs have been proposed to regulate specifically up to 90% of human genes through a process known as miRNA-guided RNA silencing. For the first time, we sought to test how myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion (IR) changes miR expression. Methods and results Following 2 and 7 h of IR or sham operation, myocardial tissue was collected and subjected to miRNA expression profiling and quantification using a Bioarray system that screens for human-, mice-, rat-, and Ambi-miR. Data mining and differential analyses resulted in 13 miRs that were up-regulated on day 2, 9 miRs that were up-regulated on day 7, and 6 miRs that were down-regulated on day 7 post-IR. Results randomly selected from expression profiling were validated using real-time PCR. Tissue elements laser-captured from the infarct site showed marked induction of miR-21. In situ hybridization studies using locked nucleic acid miR-21-specific probe identified that IR-inducible miR-21 was specifically localized in the infarct region of the IR heart. Immunohistochemistry data show that cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) are the major cell type in the infarct zone. Studies with isolated CFs demonstrated that phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a direct target of miR-21. Modulation of miR-21 regulated expression of matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) via a PTEN pathway. Finally, we noted a marked decrease in PTEN expression in the infarct zone. This decrease was associated with increased MMP-2 expression in the infarct area. Conclusion This work constitutes the first report describing changes in miR expression in response to IR in the mouse heart, showing that miR-21 regulates MMP-2 expression in CFs of the infarct zone via a PTEN pathway. PMID:19147652

  6. A novel panel of serum miR-21/miR-155/miR-365 as a potential diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ji-Guang; Jiang, Yong-Dong; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Yang, Yan-Mei; Pang, Da; Song, Yan-Ni

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Insufficient sensitivity and specificity prevent the use of most existing biomarkers for early detection of breast cancer. Recently, it was reported that serum microRNAs (miRNAs) may be potential biomarkers in many cancer diseases. In this study, we investigated whether serum levels of 5 miRNAs including miR-21, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155, and miR-365 could discriminate breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Methods Serum levels of miRNAs were measured by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 99 breast cancer patients and 21 healthy controls. The abundance change of serum miRNAs were also evaluated following surgical resection in 20 breast cancer patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers. Results Serum levels of miR-21 and miR-155 was significantly higher, while miR-365 was significantly lower in breast cancer as compared with healthy controls. The serum levels of miR-21 and miR-155 significantly decreased following surgical resection. Additionally, the serum level of miR-155 at stages I and II was significantly higher compared to stage III. The serum miR-145 level was remarkably higher in progesterone receptor (PR)-positive patients than PR-negative. The positivity of miR-21, miR-155, and miR-365 was high compared to CA 153 and CEA in breast cancer. ROC curve analyses of a combination of miR-21, miR-155, and miR-365 yielded much higher area under curve and enhanced sensitivity and specificity in comparison to each miRNA alone. Conclusion The combination of serum miR-21/miR-155/miR-365 may potentially serve as a sensitive and specific biomarker that enables differentiation of breast cancer from healthy controls. PMID:28203552

  7. Decreased miR-143 and increased miR-21 placental expression levels are associated with macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji-Tai; Cai, Qian-Ying; Ji, Si-Si; Zhang, Heng-Xin; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yan, Hong-Tao; Yang, Xin-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Macrosomia, a birth weight ≥ 4,000 g, is associated with maternal and infant health problems. The dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the placenta is associated with adverse birth outcomes, yet whether aberrantly expressed placental miRNAs are associated with macrosomia remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to characterize the expression of three placental miRNAs (miR‑6, ‑21 and ‑143) and evaluate their association with macrosomia. The miRNA expression in placental tissues from 67 macrosomic pregnancies and 64 normal pregnancies were analyzed using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression of miR‑21 was observed to be elevated in macrosomic placenta compared with control samples, while miR‑143 expression was significantly lower than in control placenta (P<0.05). No significant differences were identified in the miR‑16 expression levels between the groups (P=0.955). Following division of miRNA expression levels by quartile, logistic regression models demonstrated that the odds of macrosomia increased with miR‑21 expression quartile: Q2, odds ratio (OR)=6.67 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.39‑32.05]; Q3, OR=4.10 (95% CI, 0.88‑19.11); Q4, OR=16.19 (95% CI, 2.46‑106.68). Conversely, higher levels of miR‑143 expression were protective against macrosomia: Q2, OR=0.22 (95% CI, 0.049‑0.98); Q3, OR=0.11 (95% CI, 0.024‑0.55), and Q4, OR=0.16 (95% CI, 0.032‑0.79). Thus, statistical analysis demonstrated that high levels of miR‑21 expression and low levels of miR‑143 expression predict the risk for macrosomia, indicating an interaction between the two miRNAs. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that they are likely to function in the mitogen‑activated protein kinases signaling pathway to influence the risk of macrosomia. The results of the present study provide evidence that placental miR-21 and -143 are important in the formation of macrosomia.

  8. Overexpression of miR-21 in stem cells improves ovarian structure and function in rats with chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage by targeting PDCD4 and PTEN to inhibit granulosa cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiafei; He, Yuanli; Wang, Xuefeng; Peng, Dongxian; Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Xinran; Wang, Qing

    2017-08-14

    Chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure (POF) is a severe complication affecting tumor patients at a childbearing age. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can partially restore the ovarian structure and function damaged by chemotherapy. miR-21 is a microRNA that can regulate cell apoptosis. This study discusses the repair effect and mechanism of MSCs overexpressing miR-21 on chemotherapy-induced POF. Rat MSCs and granulosa cells (GCs) were isolated in vitro. MSCs were transfected with miR-21 lentiviral vector (LV-miR-21) to obtain MSCs stably expressing miR-21 (miR-21-MSCs). The microenvironment of an ovary receiving chemotherapy was mimicked by adding phosphamide mustard (PM) into the cellular culture medium. The apoptosis rate and the mRNA and protein expression of target genes PTEN and PDCD4 were detected in MSCs. Apoptosis was induced by adding PM into the culture medium for GCs, which were cocultured with miR-21-MSCs. The apoptosis rate and the mRNA and protein expression of PTEN and PDCD4 were detected. The chemotherapy-induced POF model was built into rats by intraperitoneal cyclophosphamide injection. miR-21-MSCs were transplanted into the bilateral ovary. The rats were sacrificed at 15, 30, 45, and 60 days after the last injection. The ovarian weights, follicle count, estrous cycle, and sex hormone levels (estradiol (E2) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) were detected. Apoptosis of GCs was determined by TUNEL assay. The miR-21 and mRNA and protein expression of PTEN and PDCD4 were determined. The apoptosis decreased in MSCs transfected with miR-21. The mRNA and protein expression of target genes PTEN and PDCD4 was downregulated. GCs cocultured with miR-21-MSCs showed a decreased apoptosis, an upregulation of miR-21, and a downregulation of PTEN and PDCD4. Following the injection of miR-21-MSCs, the ovarian weight and follicle counts increased; E2 levels increased while FSH levels decreased, with less severe apoptosis of GCs. The miR-21 expression

  9. Environmental Assessment for Repair of Airfield Pavement and Lighting, Runway 03R/21L Travis Air Force Base, Fairfield, California. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    R e v i s e d F i n a l Environmental Assessment for Repair of Airfield Pavement and Lighting, Runway 03R/21L Travis Air Force Base... I NO ACTION ALTERNATIVE Under the no action alternative, the airfield runway would continue to be used and maintained. The existing runway and...Based on the analyses accomplished as a part of the enviromnental assessment (EA), which is herewith incorporated by reference, I determine that no

  10. Declining Physical Performance Associates with Serum FasL, miR-21, and miR-146a in Aging Sprinters

    PubMed Central

    Alen, Markku; Suominen, Harri; Kovanen, Vuokko; Korhonen, Marko T.

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with systemic inflammation and cellular apoptosis accelerating physiological dysfunctions. Whether physically active way of life affects these associations is unclear. This study measured the levels of serum inflammatory and apoptotic molecules, their change over 10 years, and their associations with physical performance in sprint-trained male athletes. HsCRP, cell counts, HGB, FasL, miR-21, and miR-146a were measured cross-sectionally (n = 67, 18–90 yrs) and serum FasL, miR-21, and miR-146a and their aging-related associations with physical performance were assessed over a 10-year follow-up (n = 49, 50–90 yrs). The cross-sectional study showed positive age correlations for neutrophils and negative for lymphocytes, red blood cells, HGB, FasL, and miR-146a. During the 10-year follow-up, FasL decreased (P = 0.017) and miR-21 (P < 0.001) and miR-146a (P = 0.005) levels increased. When combining the molecule levels, aging, and physical performance, FasL associated with countermovement jump and bench press (P < 0.001), miR-21 and miR-146a with knee flexion (P = 0.023; P < 0.001), and bench press (P = 0.004; P < 0.001) and miR-146a with sprint performance (P < 0.001). The studied serum molecules changed in an age-dependent manner and were associated with declining physical performance. They have potential as biomarkers of aging-related processes influencing the development of physiological dysfunctions. Further research is needed focusing on the origins and targets of circulating microRNAs to clarify their function in various tissues with aging. PMID:28127562

  11. MiR-21 modulates radiosensitivity of cervical cancer through inhibiting autophagy via the PTEN/Akt/HIF-1α feedback loop and the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Liu, Shikai; Zhang, Liang; Yao, Hairong; Gao, Fangyuan; Xu, Dongkui; Li, Qian

    2016-09-01

    MiR-21 is an important microRNA (miRNA) modulating radiosensitivity of cervical cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-21 upregulation in radioresistant cervical cancer has not been fully understood. In addition, autophagy may either promote or alleviate radioresistance, depending on the types of cancer and tumor microenvironment. How autophagy affects radiosensitivity in cervical cancer and how miR-21 is involved in this process has not been reported. This study showed that miR-21 upregulation in radioresistant cervical cancer is related to HIF-1α overexpression. MiR-21 overexpression decreases PTEN, increases p-Akt, and subsequently increases HIF-1α expression, while miR-21 inhibition results in increased PTEN, decreased p-Akt, and then decreased HIF-1α. Therefore, we inferred that there is a HIF-1α-miR-21 positive feedback loop through the PTEN/Akt/HIF-1α pathway in cervical cancer cells. In addition, we also demonstrated that miR-21 confers decreased autophagy in cervical cancer cells after IR via the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway. Decreased autophagy is one of the potential mechanisms of increased radioresistance in cervical cancer cells. These findings expand our understanding of radioresistance development in cervical cancer.

  12. Methylated urolithin A, the modified ellagitannin-derived metabolite, suppresses cell viability of DU145 human prostate cancer cells via targeting miR-21.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Benhong; Wang, Jing; Zheng, Guohua; Qiu, Zhenpeng

    2016-11-01

    Urolithins are bioactive ellagic acid-derived metabolites produced by human colonic microflora. Although previous studies have demonstrated the cytotoxicity of urolithins, the effect of urolithins on miRNAs is still unclear. In this study, the suppressing effects of methylated urolithin A (mUA) on cell viability in human prostate cancer DU145 cells was investigated. mUA induced caspase-dependent cell apoptosis, mitochondrial depolarization and down-regulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The results showed that upon exposure to mUA, miR-21 expression was decreased and the expression of PTEN and Pdcd4 protein was elevated. mUA could further suppress Akt phosphorylation and increase protein expression of FOXO3a, and the effects of mUA on Akt phosphorylation and protein expression of FOXO3a were blocked by PTEN silence. Moreover, mUA suppressed the Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation of MMP-7 and c-Myc, and this function of mUA on MMP-7 and c-Myc was attenuated by over-expression of miR-21. In conclusion, our data suggest that mUA can suppress cell viability in DU145 cells through modulating miR-21 and its downstream series-wound targets, including PTEN, Akt and Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  13. The anti-metastatic activity of collagenase-2 in breast cancer cells is mediated by a signaling pathway involving decorin and miR-21.

    PubMed

    Soria-Valles, C; Gutiérrez-Fernández, A; Guiu, M; Mari, B; Fueyo, A; Gomis, R R; López-Otín, C

    2014-06-05

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been traditionally implicated in cancer progression because of their ability to degrade the extracellular matrix. However, some members of the MMP family have recently been identified as proteases with antitumor properties. Thus, it has been described that collagenase-2 (MMP-8) has a protective role in tumor and metastasis progression, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. We show herein that Mmp8 expression causes a decrease in miR-21 levels that in turn leads to a reduction in tumor growth and lung metastasis formation by MDA-MB-231 (4175) breast cancer cells. By using both in vitro and in vivo models, we demonstrate that the mechanism responsible for these MMP-8 beneficial effects involves cleavage of decorin by MMP-8 and a subsequent reduction of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling that controls miR-21 levels. In addition, miR-21 downregulation induced by MMP-8 increases the levels of tumor suppressors such as programmed cell death 4, which may also contribute to the decrease in tumor formation and metastasis of breast cancer cells overexpressing this metalloproteinase. These findings reveal a new signaling pathway for cancer regulation controlled by MMP-8, and contribute to clarify the molecular mechanisms by which tumor-defying proteases may exert their protective function in cancer and metastasis.

  14. Long noncoding RNA MEG3 is downregulated in cervical cancer and affects cell proliferation and apoptosis by regulating miR-21.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Yao, Tingting; Wang, Yaxian; Yu, Jin; Liu, Yunyun; Lin, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has found that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were involved in various human cancers. However, the role of these lncRNAs in cervical cancer remains unexplored. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the biological function of maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3), a cancer-related lncRNA, and its underlying mechanism in cervical cancer. In this study, MEG3 expression of 108 patients' cervical cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues was detected by quantitative real-time PCR analysis (qRT-PCR), and the functional effect of MEG3 was determined in vitro assays. We observed that MEG3 was downregulated in cervical cancer tissues, compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and was negatively related with FIGO stages, tumor size, lymphatic metastasis, HR-HPV infection and the expression of homo sapiens microRNA-21 (miR-21). Furthermore, we focused on the function and molecular mechanism of MEG3, finding that overexpression of MEG3 reduced the level of miR-21-5p expression, causing inhibition of proliferation and increased apoptosis in cervical cancer cells. In summary, our findings indicate that MEG3 function as a tumor suppressor by regulating miR-21-5p, resulting in the inhibition of tumor growth in cervical cancer. As a result, this study improves our understanding of the function of MEG3 in cervical cancer and will help to provide new potential target sites for cervical cancer treatment.

  15. miR-21 and 221 upregulation and miR-181b downregulation in human grade II-IV astrocytic tumors.

    PubMed

    Conti, Alfredo; Aguennouz, M'Hammed; La Torre, Domenico; Tomasello, Chiara; Cardali, Salvatore; Angileri, Filippo F; Maio, Francesca; Cama, Annamaria; Germanò, Antonino; Vita, Giuseppe; Tomasello, Francesco

    2009-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding regulatory RNAs that reduce stability and/or translation of fully or partially sequence-complementary target mRNAs. Recent evidence indicates that miRNAs can function both as tumor suppressors and as oncogenes. It has been demonstrated that in glioblastoma multiforme miR-21 and 221 are upregulated whereas miR-128 and 181 are downregulated. Expression of miR-21, 221, 128a, 128b, 128c, 181a, 181b, 181c was studied using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and northern blotting for human astrocytic tumors with different grade of malignancy. miR-21 and 221 were overexpressed in glioma samples, whereas miRNA 181b was downregulated compared with normal brain tissue. miRNA-21 was hyperexpressed in all tumor samples whereas higher levels of miRNA-221 were found in high-grade gliomas. This study is the first analysis of miRNAs in astrocytic tumor at different stages of malignancy. The different expression pattern observed in tumors at different stages of malignancy is probably dependent on the cell-specific repertoire of target genes of tumors sharing different molecular pathways activity and suggests miRNAs may have also a place in diagnosis and staging of brain tumors.

  16. Radiation quality-dependence of bystander effect in unirradiated fibroblasts is associated with TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and miR-21 in irradiated keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiaoming; Tian, Wenqian; Wang, Longxiao; Wang, Jingdong; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying

    2015-01-01

    Traditional radiation biology states that radiation causes damage only in cells traversed by ionizing radiation. But radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), which refers to the biological responses in unirradiated cells when the neighboring cells are exposed to radiation, challenged this old dogma and has become a new paradigm of this field. By nature, RIBEs are the consequences of intercellular communication between irradiated and unirradiated cells. However, there are still some important questions remain unanswered such as whether RIBE is dependent on radiation quality, what are the determining factors if so, etc. Using a transwell co-culture system, we found that HaCaT keratinocytes irradiated with α-particles but not X-rays could induce bystander micronucleus formation in unirradiated WS1 fibroblasts after co-culture. More importantly, the activation of TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and the consistent decrease of miR-21 level in α-irradiated HaCaT cells were essential to the micronucleus induction in bystander WS1 cells. On the other hand, X-irradiation did not induce bystander effect in unirradiated WS1 cells, accompanied by lack of Smad2 activation and consistent decrease of miR-21 in X-irradiated HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the radiation quality-dependence of bystander effect may be associated with the TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and miR-21 in irradiated cells. PMID:26080011

  17. Radiation quality-dependence of bystander effect in unirradiated fibroblasts is associated with TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and miR-21 in irradiated keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaoming; Tian, Wenqian; Wang, Longxiao; Wang, Jingdong; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping; Yang, Hongying

    2015-06-16

    Traditional radiation biology states that radiation causes damage only in cells traversed by ionizing radiation. But radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), which refers to the biological responses in unirradiated cells when the neighboring cells are exposed to radiation, challenged this old dogma and has become a new paradigm of this field. By nature, RIBEs are the consequences of intercellular communication between irradiated and unirradiated cells. However, there are still some important questions remain unanswered such as whether RIBE is dependent on radiation quality, what are the determining factors if so, etc. Using a transwell co-culture system, we found that HaCaT keratinocytes irradiated with α-particles but not X-rays could induce bystander micronucleus formation in unirradiated WS1 fibroblasts after co-culture. More importantly, the activation of TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and the consistent decrease of miR-21 level in α-irradiated HaCaT cells were essential to the micronucleus induction in bystander WS1 cells. On the other hand, X-irradiation did not induce bystander effect in unirradiated WS1 cells, accompanied by lack of Smad2 activation and consistent decrease of miR-21 in X-irradiated HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the radiation quality-dependence of bystander effect may be associated with the TGF-β1-Smad2 pathway and miR-21 in irradiated cells.

  18. Down-regulation of miR-21 Induces Differentiation of Chemoresistant Colon Cancer Cells and Enhances Susceptibility to Therapeutic Regimens.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingjie; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2013-04-01

    MicroRNAs are endogenous posttranscriptional modulators that negatively control the expression of their target genes and play an important role in the development and progression of many malignancies, including colorectal carcinoma. In particular, expression of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is greatly increased in chemotherapy-resistant (CR) colon cancer cells that are enriched in undifferentiated cancer stem/stem-like cells (CSCs/CSLCs). We hypothesize that miR-21 plays a critical role in regulating differentiation of CR colon cancer cells. Indeed, we observed that downregulation of miR-21 in CR colon cancer cells (HCT-116 or HT-29) by antisense miR-21 induced differentiation, as evidenced by marked increases in cytokeratin-20 (CK-20) expression and alkaline phosphatase activity. These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the expression of colon CSC/CSLC marker CD44, colonosphere formation, and T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) activity but increased the expression of proapoptotic programmed cell death 4 gene. Induction of differentiation greatly increased sensitivity of CR colon cancer cells to the growth inhibitory properties of all three regimens tested: 5-fluorouracil + oxaliplatin (FUOX), difluorinated curcumin (CDF), and the combination of CDF and FUOX. However, the magnitude of inhibition of growth by either CDF (75%) alone or CDF + FUOX (80%) was much higher than that observed with only FUOX (40%). Growth inhibition by CDF and CDF + FUOX in differentiating CR colon cancer cells was associated with a 98% to 99% reduction in the expression of CD44 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, down-regulation of CK-20 in CR colon cancer cells produced no significant change in cellular growth in the absence or presence of FUOX, when compared with the corresponding controls. The current observation suggests that CDF and CDF + FUOX are highly effective in inhibiting growth and reducing colon CSCs/CSLCs in anti-miR-21-induced

  19. Differential regulation of miR-146a/FAS and miR-21/FASLG axes in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome due to FAS mutation (ALPS-FAS).

    PubMed

    Marega, Lia Furlaneto; Teocchi, Marcelo Ananias; Dos Santos Vilela, Maria Marluce

    2016-08-01

    Most cases of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) have an inherited genetic defect involving apoptosis-related genes of the FAS pathway. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding regulatory RNAs playing a role in the control of gene expression. This is the first report on miRNAs in ALPS patients. We studied a mother and son carrying the same FAS cell surface death receptor (FAS) mutation, but with only the son manifesting the signs and symptoms of ALPS-FAS. The aim was to analyse, by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) relative expression of miR-146a and miR-21, including their passenger strands and respective targets (FAS and FASLG). In comparison with healthy matched control individuals, miR-21-3p was over-expressed significantly (P = 0·0313) in the son, with no significant change in the expression of miR-146a, miR-146a-3p and miR-21. In contrast, the mother had a slight under-expression of the miR-146a pair and miR-21-3p (P = 0·0625). Regarding the miRNA targets, FAS was up-regulated markedly for the mother (P = 0·0078), but down-regulated for the son (P = 0·0625), while FASLG did not have any significant alteration. Taken together, our finding clearly suggests a role of the miR-146a/FAS axis in ALPS-FAS variable expressivity in which FAS haploinsufficiency seems to be compensated only in the mother who had the miR-146a pair down-regulated. As only the son had the major clinical manifestations of ALPS-FAS, miR-21-3p should be investigated as playing a critical role in ALPS physiopathology, including the development of lymphoma.

  20. MiR-9, miR-21, and miR-155 as potential biomarkers for HPV positive and negative cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunyoung; Eom, Kiyoon; Kim, Jungho; Bang, Hyeeun; Wang, Hye-Young; Ahn, Sungwoo; Kim, Geehyuk; Jang, Hyoungsoon; Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Dongsup; Park, Kwang Hwa; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2017-09-21

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among female patients with cancer in the world. High risk human papillomavirus has causal roles in cervical cancer initiation and progression by deregulating several cellular processes. However, HPV infection is not sufficient for cervical carcinoma development. Therefore, other genetic and epigenetic factors may be involved in this complex disease, and the identification of which may lead to better diagnosis and treatment. Our aim was to analyze the expression of microRNAs in cervical cancer cases positive or negative for HPV E6/E7 mRNA, and to assess their diagnostic usefulness and relevance. The expression of three different microRNAs (miR-9, miR-21, and miR-155) in 52 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) primary cervical cancer tissue samples and 50 FFPE normal cervical tissue samples were evaluated. MiR-9, miR-21, and miR-155 were significantly overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues compared to normal tissues (P < 0.001). MiR-21 and miR-155 expression combined with the HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in HPV E6/E7 negative cervical cancer showed increased AUC of 0.7267 and 0.7000, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.04), demonstrating their potential as diagnostic tools. Moreover, miR-21 and miR-155 were predictors showing a 7 fold and 10.3 fold higher risk for HPV E6/E7 negative patients with cervical cancer (P = 0.024 and P = 0.017, respectively) while miR-155 was a predictor showing a 27.9 fold higher risk for HPV E6/E7 positive patients with cervical cancer (P < 0.0001). There is a strong demand for additional, alternative molecular biomarkers for diagnosis and management of precancer patients. MiR-21 and miR-155 may be helpful in the prediction of both HPV positive and HPV negative cases of cervical cancer.

  1. Identification of MiR-21-5p as a Functional Regulator of Mesothelin Expression Using MicroRNA Capture Affinity Coupled with Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    De Santi, Chiara; Vencken, Sebastian; Blake, Jonathon; Haase, Bettina; Benes, Vladimir; Gemignani, Federica

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate mRNA expression mainly by silencing target transcripts via binding to miRNA recognition elements (MREs) in the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR). The identification of bona fide targets is challenging for researchers working on the functional aspect of miRNAs. Recently, we developed a method (miR-CATCH) based on biotinylated DNA antisense oligonucleotides that capture the mRNA of interest and facilitates the characterisation of miRNAs::mRNA interactions in a physiological cellular context. Here, the miR-CATCH technique was applied to the mesothelin (MSLN) gene and coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS), to identify miRNAs that regulate MSLN mRNA and that may be responsible for its increased protein levels found in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Biotinylated MSLN oligos were employed to isolate miRNA::MSLN mRNA complexes from a normal cell line (Met-5A) which expresses low levels of MSLN. MiRNAs targeting the MSLN mRNA were identified by NGS and miR-21-5p and miR-100-5p were selected for further validation analyses. MiR-21-5p was shown to be able to modulate MSLN expression in miRNA mimic experiments in a panel of malignant and non-malignant cell lines. Further miRNA inhibitor experiments and luciferase assays in Mero-14 cells validated miR-21-5p as a true regulator of MSLN. Moreover, in vitro experiments showed that treatment with miR-21-5p mimic reduced proliferation of MPM cell lines. Altogether, this work shows that the miR-CATCH technique, coupled with NGS and in vitro validation, represents a reliable method to identify native miRNA::mRNA interactions. MiR-21-5p is suggested as novel regulator of MSLN with a possible functional role in cellular growth. PMID:28125734

  2. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Contractility by Activating MicroRNA-21 (miR-21), which Down-regulates Expression of Family of Dedicator of Cytokinesis (DOCK) Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hara; Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N.; Nguyen, Peter H.; Lal, Ashish; Lieberman, Judy; Van Aelst, Linda; Lagna, Giorgio; Hata, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    The bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling pathway plays a critical role in the promotion and maintenance of the contractile phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC). Misexpression or inactivating mutations of the BMP receptor gene can lead to dedifferentiation of vSMC characterized by increased migration and proliferation that is linked to vascular proliferative disorders. Previously we demonstrated that vSMCs increase microRNA-21 (miR-21) biogenesis upon BMP4 treatment, which induces contractile gene expression by targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). To identify novel targets of miR-21 that are critical for induction of the contractile phenotype by BMP4, biotinylated miR-21 was expressed in vSMCs followed by an affinity purification of mRNAs associated with miR-21. Nearly all members of the dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) 180-related protein superfamily were identified as targets of miR-21. Down-regulation of DOCK4, -5, and -7 by miR-21 inhibited cell migration and promoted cytoskeletal organization by modulating an activity of small GTPase. Thus, this study uncovers a regulatory mechanism of the vSMC phenotype by the BMP4-miR-21 axis through DOCK family proteins. PMID:22158624

  3. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 promotes vascular smooth muscle contractility by activating microRNA-21 (miR-21), which down-regulates expression of family of dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) proteins.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hara; Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N; Nguyen, Peter H; Lal, Ashish; Lieberman, Judy; Van Aelst, Linda; Lagna, Giorgio; Hata, Akiko

    2012-02-03

    The bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling pathway plays a critical role in the promotion and maintenance of the contractile phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC). Misexpression or inactivating mutations of the BMP receptor gene can lead to dedifferentiation of vSMC characterized by increased migration and proliferation that is linked to vascular proliferative disorders. Previously we demonstrated that vSMCs increase microRNA-21 (miR-21) biogenesis upon BMP4 treatment, which induces contractile gene expression by targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). To identify novel targets of miR-21 that are critical for induction of the contractile phenotype by BMP4, biotinylated miR-21 was expressed in vSMCs followed by an affinity purification of mRNAs associated with miR-21. Nearly all members of the dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) 180-related protein superfamily were identified as targets of miR-21. Down-regulation of DOCK4, -5, and -7 by miR-21 inhibited cell migration and promoted cytoskeletal organization by modulating an activity of small GTPase. Thus, this study uncovers a regulatory mechanism of the vSMC phenotype by the BMP4-miR-21 axis through DOCK family proteins.

  4. Deep Sequencing Reveals Predominant Expression of miR-21 Amongst the Small Non-Coding RNAs in Retinal Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guduric-Fuchs, Jasenka; O'Connor, Anna; Cullen, Angela; Harwood, Laura; Medina, Reinhold J; O'Neill, Christina L; Stitt, Alan W; Curtis, Tim M; Simpson, David A

    2012-01-01

    The retinal vascular endothelium is essential for angiogenesis and is involved in maintaining barrier selectivity and vascular tone. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify microRNAs and other small regulatory non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) which may regulate these crucial functions. Primary bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMECs) provide a well-characterized in vitro system for studying angiogenesis. RNA extracted from RMECs was used to prepare a small RNA library for deep sequencing (Illumina Genome Analyzer). A total of 6.8 million reads were mapped to 250 known microRNAs in miRBase (release 16). In many cases, the most frequent isomiR differed from the sequence reported in miRBase. In addition, five novel microRNAs, 13 novel bovine orthologs of known human microRNAs and multiple new members of the miR-2284/2285 family were detected. Several ∼30 nucleotide sno-miRNAs were identified, with the most highly expressed being derived from snoRNA U78. Highly expressed microRNAs previously associated with endothelial cells included miR-126 and miR-378, but the most highly expressed was miR-21, comprising more than one-third of all mapped reads. Inhibition of miR-21 with an LNA inhibitor significantly reduced proliferation, migration, and tube-forming capacity of RMECs. The independence from prior sequence knowledge provided by deep sequencing facilitates analysis of novel microRNAs and other small RNAs. This approach also enables quantitative evaluation of microRNA expression, which has highlighted the predominance of a small number of microRNAs in RMECs. Knockdown of miR-21 suggests a role for this microRNA in regulation of angiogenesis in the retinal microvasculature. J. Cell. Biochem. 113: 2098–2111, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22298343

  5. Up-regulation of microRNAs, miR21 and miR23a in human liver cancer cells treated with Coptidis rhizoma aqueous extract

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, MEIFEN; WANG, NING; TSAO, SAI-WAH; YUEN, MAN-FUNG; FENG, YIGANG; WAN, THOMAS S.K.; MAN, KWAN; FENG, YIBIN

    2011-01-01

    Coptidis rhizoma (CR; Huanglian in Chinese) has been used for the treatment of cancer in Chinese medicine, and recent studies have supported its use in cancer therapy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the pathophysiology of human cancers. We examined alterations in the miRNA profile of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells after treatment with Coptidis rhizoma aqueous extract (CRAE). An on-chip microarray method was used to detect alterations in the expression profile of miRNAs in human HCC MHCC97-L cells after exposure to 175 μg/ml CRAE. Altered expression of several miRNAs was detected in the MHCC97-L cells after treatment with 175 μg/ml CRAE. The microarray results were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Consistent results were obtained; qRT-PCR confirmed that both miR-21 and miR-23a were significantly up-regulated. TargetScan and PicTar microRNA databases were used to predict the possible target genes of the altered miRNAs. The results showed that the altered miRNAs after CRAE treatment may serve as markers for the therapy of liver cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the up-regulation of miRNAs, miR21 and miR23a in human liver cancer cells treated with CRAE. Our results suggest that CRAE targets miR-21 and miR-23a in liver cancer cells supporting the potential application of CRAE in the treatment of HCC. PMID:22977465

  6. AC1MMYR2 impairs high dose paclitaxel-induced tumor metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yu; Zhou, Xuan; Yang, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xia; Zhao, Xiao-hui; Wang, Qi-xue; Han, Lei; Song, Xin; Zhu, Zhi-yan; Tian, Wei-ping; Zhang, Lun; Mei, Mei; Kang, Chun-sheng

    2015-07-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a widely used chemo-drug for many solid tumors, while continual taxol treatment is revealed to stimulate tumor dissemination. We previously found that a small molecule inhibitor of miR-21, termed AC1MMYR2, had the potential to impair tumorigenesis and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combining AC1MMYR2 with taxol could be explored as a means to limit tumor metastasis. Here we showed that abnormal activation of miR-21/CDK5 axis was associated with breast cancer lymph node metastasis, which was also contribute to high dose taxol-induced invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and glioblastoma cell line U87VIII. AC1MMYR2 attenuated CDK5 activity by functional targeting CDK5RAP1, CDK5 activator p39 and target p-FAK(ser732). A series of in vitro assays indicated that treatment of AC1MMYR2 combined with taxol suppressed tumor migration and invasion ability in both MDA-MB-231 and U87VIII cell. More importantly, combination therapy impaired high-dose taxol induced invadopodia, and EMT markers including β-catenin, E-cadherin and vimentin. Strikingly, a significant reduction of lung metastasis in mice was observed in the AC1MMYR2 plus taxol treatment. Taken together, our work demonstrated that AC1MMYR2 appeared to be a promising strategy in combating taxol induced cancer metastasis by targeting miR-21/CDK5 axis, which highlighted the potential for development of therapeutic modalities for better clinic taxol application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of non-Gaussianity on error predictions for the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) 21-cm power spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Rajesh; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Majumdar, Suman; Bera, Apurba; Acharyya, Ayan

    2015-04-01

    The Epoch of Reionization (EoR) 21-cm signal is expected to become increasingly non-Gaussian as reionization proceeds. We have used seminumerical simulations to study how this affects the error predictions for the EoR 21-cm power spectrum. We expect SNR=√{N_k} for a Gaussian random field where Nk is the number of Fourier modes in each k bin. We find that non-Gaussianity is important at high SNR where it imposes an upper limit [SNR]l. For a fixed volume V, it is not possible to achieve SNR > [SNR]l even if Nk is increased. The value of [SNR]l falls as reionization proceeds, dropping from ˜500 at bar{x}_{H I} = 0.8-0.9 to ˜10 at bar{x}_{H I} = 0.15 for a [150.08 Mpc]3 simulation. We show that it is possible to interpret [SNR]l in terms of the trispectrum, and we expect [SNR]_l ∝ √{V} if the volume is increased. For SNR ≪ [SNR]l we find SNR= √{N_k}/A with A ˜ 0.95-1.75, roughly consistent with the Gaussian prediction. We present a fitting formula for the SNR as a function of Nk, with two parameters A and [SNR]l that have to be determined using simulations. Our results are relevant for predicting the sensitivity of different instruments to measure the EoR 21-cm power spectrum, which till date have been largely based on the Gaussian assumption.

  8. IL-4 Up-Regulates MiR-21 and the MiRNAs Hosted in the CLCN5 Gene in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián-Ruiz, Silvia; García-Serna, Azahara-María; Gómez-Espuch, Joaquín; Moraleda, José-María; Minguela, Alfredo; García-Alonso, Ana-María; Parrado, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) induces B-cell differentiation and survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate mRNA and protein expression, and several miRNAs, deregulated in CLL, might play roles as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. We have studied the miRNA profile of CLL, and its response to IL-4, by oligonucleotide microarrays, resulting in the detection of a set of 129 mature miRNAs consistently expressed in CLL, which included 41 differentially expressed compared to normal B cells (NBC), and 6 significantly underexpressed in ZAP-70 positive patients. IL-4 stimulation brought about up-regulation of the 5p and 3p mature variants of the miR-21 gene, which maps immediately downstream to the VMP1 gene, and of the mature forms generated from the miR-362 (3p and 5p), miR-500a (3p), miR-502 (3p), and miR-532 (3p and 5p) genes, which map within the third intron of the CLCN5 gene. Both genes are in turn regulated by IL-4, suggesting that these miRNAs were regulated by IL-4 as passengers from their carrier genes. Their levels of up-regulation by IL-4 significantly correlated with cytoprotection. MiR-21 has been reported to be leukemogenic, associated to bad prognosis in CLL, and the miRNA more frequently overexpressed in human cancer. Up-regulation by IL-4 of miR-21 and the miRNAs hosted in the CLCN5 locus may contribute to evasion of apoptosis of CLL cells. These findings indicate that the IL-4 pathway and the miRNAs induced by IL-4 are promising targets for the development of novel therapies in CLL. PMID:25909590

  9. microRNA fingerprinting of CLL patients with chromosome 17p deletion identify a miR-21 score that stratifies early survival.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Simona; Shimizu, Masayoshi; Barbarotto, Elisa; Nicoloso, Milena S; Dimitri, Federica; Sampath, Deepa; Fabbri, Muller; Lerner, Susan; Barron, Lynn L; Rassenti, Laura Z; Jiang, Li; Xiao, Lianchun; Hu, Jianhua; Secchiero, Paola; Zauli, Giorgio; Volinia, Stefano; Negrini, Massimo; Wierda, William; Kipps, Thomas J; Plunkett, William; Coombes, Kevin R; Abruzzo, Lynne V; Keating, Michael J; Calin, George A

    2010-08-12

    Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated with clinical outcome in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To identify a powerful and easily assessable miRNA bio-marker of prognosis and survival, we performed quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) profiling in 104 CLL patients with a well-defined chromosome 17p status, and we validated our findings with miRNA microarray data from an independent cohort of 80 patients. We found that miR-15a, miR-21, miR-34a, miR-155, and miR-181b were differentially expressed between CLLs with chromosome 17p deletion and CLLs with normal 17p and normal karyotype, and that miR-181b was down-regulated in therapy-refractory cases. miR-21 expression levels were significantly higher in patients with poor prognosis and predicted overall survival (OS), and miR-181b expression levels significantly predicted treatment-free survival. We developed a 21FK score (miR-21 qRT-PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization, Karyotype) to stratify patients according to OS and found that patients with a low score had a significantly longer OS time. When we evaluated the relative power of the 21FK score with the most used prognostic factors, the score was the most significant in both CLL cohorts. We conclude that the 21FK score represents a useful tool for distinguishing between good-prognosis and poor-prognosis CLL patients.

  10. Statistics of the epoch of reionization (EoR) 21-cm signal - II. The evolution of the power-spectrum error-covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Rajesh; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Majumdar, Suman

    2017-01-01

    The epoch of reionization (EoR) 21-cm signal is expected to become highly non-Gaussian as reionization progresses. This severely affects the error-covariance of the EoR 21-cm power spectrum that is important for predicting the prospects of a detection with ongoing and future experiments. Most earlier works have assumed that the EoR 21-cm signal is a Gaussian random field where (1) the error-variance depends only on the power spectrum and the number of Fourier modes in the particular k bin, and (2) the errors in the different k bins are uncorrelated. Here, we use an ensemble of simulated 21-cm maps to analyse the error-covariance at various stages of reionization. We find that even at the very early stages of reionization (bar{x}_{H I}˜ 0.9), the error-variance significantly exceeds the Gaussian predictions at small length-scales (k > 0.5 Mpc-1) while they are consistent at larger scales. The errors in most k bins (both large and small scales) are however found to be correlated. Considering the later stages (bar{x}_{H I}=0.15), the error-variance shows an excess in all k bins within k ≥ 0.1 Mpc-1, and it is around 200 times larger than the Gaussian prediction at k ˜ 1 Mpc-1. The errors in the different k bins are all also highly correlated, barring the two smallest k bins that are anti-correlated with the other bins. Our results imply that the predictions for different 21-cm experiments based on the Gaussian assumption underestimate the errors, and it is necessary to incorporate the non-Gaussianity for more realistic predictions.

  11. FZD6, targeted by miR-21, represses gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration via activating non-canonical wnt pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jin; Liu, Tingyu; Zhou, Xiaoying; Dang, Yini; Yin, Chengqiang; Zhang, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    FZD6 plays crucial roles in human tumorigenesis. However, its mechanism in regulating cancers has not been fully elucidated. In the study, we found that FZD6 repressed gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration via activating non-canonical wnt pathway. In addition, non-canonical wnt pathway ameliorated expression of canonical wnt pathway. We also demonstrated that the FZD6 was involved in miR-21-dependent effects in the canonical and non-canonical wnt pathways in gastric cancer. These findings provide a better understanding of the development and progression of gastric cancer and may be an important implication for future therapy.

  12. miR-21, miR-221 and miR-150 Are Deregulated in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sarlinova, Miroslava; Halasa, Mirko; Mistuna, Dusan; Musak, Ludovit; Iliev, Robert; Slaby, Ondrej; Mazuchova, Jana; Valentova, Vanda; Plank, Lukas; Halasova, Erika

    2016-10-01

    The Aim of this study was to evaluate the expression levels of miR-21, miR-221, miR-150, let-7a and miR-126a in peripheral blood of 71 patients with colorectal cancer and 80 matched healthy control individuals. We determined expression levels of these microRNAs in peripheral blood samples and used small nucleolar RNA (RNU48) as an internal control. Expression levels of miR-21 (p<0.0001) and miR-221 (p<0.0001) were significantly higher, whereas expression levels of miR-150 (p=0.0054) were significantly lower in the blood samples of patients with colorectal cancer in comparison to the control group. The combination of these three microRNAs enabled us to distinguish patients with colorectal cancer from healthy donors with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 74% (p<0.0001). We did not observe any correlation of the studied microRNAs with clinicopathological features of colorectal cancer, indicating that expression of these microRNAs is more likely related to the host response to the tumour than the tumour itself.

  13. Inhibition of breast cancer cell motility with a non-cyclooxygenase inhibitory derivative of sulindac by suppressing TGFβ/miR-21 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ruixia; Feng, Xiangling; Li, Wei; Piazza, Gary A.; Xi, Yaguang

    2016-01-01

    Compelling efficacy on intervention of tumorigenesis by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been documented intensively. However, the toxicities related to cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition resulting in suppression of physiologically important prostaglandins limit their clinical use for human cancer chemoprevention. A novel derivative of the NSAID sulindac sulfide (SS), referred as sulindac sulfide amide (SSA), was recently developed, which lacks COX inhibitory activity, yet shows greater suppressive effect than SS on growth of various cancer cells. In this study, we focus on the inhibitory activity of SSA on breast tumor cell motility, which has not been studied previously. Our results show that SSA treatment at non-cytotoxic concentrations can specifically reduce breast tumor cell motility without influencing tumor cell growth, and the mechanism of action involves the suppression of TGFβ signaling by directly blocking Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Moreover, miR-21, a well-documented oncogenic miRNA for promoting tumor cell metastasis, was also found to be involved in inhibitory activity of SSA in breast tumor cell motility through the modulation of TGFβ pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a non-COX inhibitory derivative of sulindac can inhibit breast tumor metastasis by a mechanism involving the TGFβ/miR-21 signaling axis. PMID:26769851

  14. MiR-21 is an Ngf-modulated microRNA that supports Ngf signaling and regulates neuronal degeneration in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Montalban, Enrica; Mattugini, Nicola; Ciarapica, Roberta; Provenzano, Claudia; Savino, Mauro; Scagnoli, Fiorella; Prosperini, Gianluca; Carissimi, Claudia; Fulci, Valerio; Matrone, Carmela; Calissano, Pietro; Nasi, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    The neurotrophins Ngf, Bdnf, NT-3, NT4-5 have key roles in development, survival, and plasticity of neuronal cells. Their action involves broad gene expression changes at the level of transcription and translation. MicroRNAs (miRs)-small RNA molecules that control gene expression post-transcriptionally-are increasingly implicated in regulating development and plasticity of neural cells. Using PC12 cells as a model system, we show that Ngf modulates changes in expression of a variety of microRNAs, including miRs known to be modulated by neurotrophins-such as the miR-212/132 cluster-and several others, such as miR-21, miR-29c, miR-30c, miR-93, miR-103, miR-207, miR-691, and miR-709. Pathway analysis indicates that Ngf-modulated miRs may regulate many protein components of signaling pathways involved in neuronal development and disease. In particular, we show that miR-21 enhances neurotrophin signaling and controls neuronal differentiation induced by Ngf. Notably, in a situation mimicking neurodegeneration-differentiated neurons deprived of Ngf-this microRNA is able to preserve the neurite network and to support viability of the neurons. These findings uncover a broad role of microRNAs in regulating neurotrophin signaling and suggest that aberrant expression of one or more Ngf-modulated miRs may be involved in neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Circulating miR-21-5p and miR-148a-3p as emerging non-invasive biomarkers in thymic epithelial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bellissimo, Teresa; Russo, Emanuele; Ganci, Federica; Vico, Carmen; Sacconi, Andrea; Longo, Flavia; Vitolo, Domenico; Anile, Marco; Disio, Daniele; Marino, Mirella; Blandino, Giovanni; Venuta, Federico; Fazi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thymic epithelial cells give rise to both thymoma and thymic carcinoma. A crucial advance in thymic epithelial tumors (TET) management may derive from the identification of novel molecular biomarkers able to improve diagnosis, prognosis and treatment planning.In a previous study, we identified microRNAs that were differentially expressed in tumor vs normal thymic tissues. Among the microRNAs resulted up-regulated in TET tissues, we evaluated miR-21-5p, miR-148a-3p, miR-141-3p, miR-34b-5p, miR-34c-5p, miR-455-5p as blood plasma circulating non-invasive biomarkers for TET management.We firstly report that the expression levels of specific onco-miRNAs, that we found upregulated in the blood plasma collected from TET patients at surgery, resulted significantly reduced in follow-up samples.This pilot study suggests that circulating miR-21-5p and miR-148a-3p could represent novel non-invasive biomarkers to evaluate the efficacy of therapy and the prognosis of TET. PMID:26575977

  16. Inhibition of breast cancer cell motility with a non-cyclooxygenase inhibitory derivative of sulindac by suppressing TGFβ/miR-21 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Bin; Chang, Hong; Ma, Ruixia; Feng, Xiangling; Li, Wei; Piazza, Gary A; Xi, Yaguang

    2016-02-16

    Compelling efficacy on intervention of tumorigenesis by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been documented intensively. However, the toxicities related to cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition resulting in suppression of physiologically important prostaglandins limit their clinical use for human cancer chemoprevention. A novel derivative of the NSAID sulindac sulfide (SS), referred as sulindac sulfide amide (SSA), was recently developed, which lacks COX inhibitory activity, yet shows greater suppressive effect than SS on growth of various cancer cells. In this study, we focus on the inhibitory activity of SSA on breast tumor cell motility, which has not been studied previously. Our results show that SSA treatment at non-cytotoxic concentrations can specifically reduce breast tumor cell motility without influencing tumor cell growth, and the mechanism of action involves the suppression of TGFβ signaling by directly blocking Smad2/3 phosphorylation. Moreover, miR-21, a well-documented oncogenic miRNA for promoting tumor cell metastasis, was also found to be involved in inhibitory activity of SSA in breast tumor cell motility through the modulation of TGFβ pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a non-COX inhibitory derivative of sulindac can inhibit breast tumor metastasis by a mechanism involving the TGFβ/miR-21 signaling axis.

  17. The role of TGF-β1–miR-21–ROS pathway in bystander responses induced by irradiated non-small-cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Y; Chen, X; Tian, W; Yin, X; Wang, J; Yang, H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many studies have indicated an important implication of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs) in cancer radiotherapy, but the detailed signalling remains unclear. Methods: The roles of tumour growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) and miR-21 in medium-mediated RIBEs in H1299 non-small-cell lung cancer cells were investigated using DNA damage, changes in proliferation and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as end points. SB431542, a specific inhibitor of TGF-β type 1 receptor kinases, was used to inhibit TGF-β1 pathways in irradiated and bystander cells. Exogenous miR-21 regulation was achieved through inhibitor or mimic transfection. Results: Compared with relative sham-radiation-conditioned medium, radiation-conditioned medium (RCM) from irradiated cells 1 h post radiation (1-h RCM) caused an increase in ROS levels and DNA damage in bystander cells, while 18-h RCM induced cell cycle delay and proliferation inhibition. All these effects were eliminated by TGF-βR1 inhibition. One-hour RCM upregulated miR-21 expression in bystander cells, and miR-21 inhibitor abolished bystander oxidative stress and DNA damage. Eighteen-hour RCM downregulated miR-21 of bystander cells, and miR-21 mimic eliminated bystander proliferation inhibition. Furthermore, the dysregulation of miR-21 was attenuated by TGF-βR1 inhibition. Conclusions: The TGF-β1–miR-21–ROS pathway of bystander cells has an important mediating role in RIBEs in H1299 cells. PMID:24992582

  18. PIK3R1 targeting by miR-21 suppresses tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing PI3K/AKT signaling and reversing EMT, and predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li-Xu; Liu, Yan-Hui; Xiang, Jian-Wen; Wu, Qi-Nian; Xu, Lei-Bo; Luo, Xin-Lan; Zhu, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Chao; Xu, Fang-Ping; Luo, Dong-Lan; Mei, Ping; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Ke-Ping; Chen, Jie

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that dysregulation of miR-21 functioned as an oncomiR in breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which miR-21 regulate breast tumor migration and invasion. We applied pathway analysis on genome microarray data and target-predicting algorithms for miR-21 target screening, and used luciferase reporting assay to confirm the direct target. Thereafter, we investigated the function of the target gene phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (α) (PIK3R1), and detected PIK3R1 coding protein (p85α) by immunohistochemistry and miR-21 by RT-qPCR on 320 archival paraffin-embedded tissues of breast cancer to evaluate the correlation of their expression with prognosis. First, we found that PIK3R1 suppressed growth, invasiveness, and metastatic properties of breast cancer cells. Next, we identified the PIK3R1 as a direct target of miR-21 and showed that it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Furthermore, we demonstrated that p85α overexpression phenocopied the suppression effects of antimiR-21 on breast cancer cell growth, migration and invasion, indicating its tumor suppressor role in breast cancer. On the contrary, PIK3R1 knockdown abrogated antimiR‑21-induced effect on breast cancer cells. Notably, antimiR-21 induction increased p85α, accompanied by decreased p-AKT level. Besides, antimiR-21/PIK3R1-induced suppression of invasiveness in breast cancer cells was mediated by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). p85α downregulation was found in 25 (7.8%) of the 320 breast cancer patients, and was associated with inferior 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Taken together, we provide novel evidence that miR-21 knockdown suppresses cell growth, migration and invasion partly by inhibiting PI3K/AKT activation via direct targeting PIK3R1 and reversing EMT in breast cancer. p85α downregulation defined a specific subgroup of breast cancer with shorter 5-year DFS and OS

  19. Circulating miR-21, miR-378, and miR-940 increase in response to an acute exhaustive exercise in chronic heart failure patients

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saumya; Wang, Lemin; Jiang, Jinfa; Li, Guanghe; Xu, Jiahong; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Hongbao; Dai, Yue; Xiao, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a major cause of hospitalizations, morbidity, and mortality in Western societies. In addition to optimal medical and device therapy, exercise training is an important adjunct treatment option for CHF patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) participate in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Dynamic regulation of circulating miRNAs during exercise in healthy persons and athletes has recently been documented, however, the response of circulating miRNAs to exercise in CHF patients is undetermined. Twenty-eight CHF patients underwent a symptom-limited incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test on a bicycle ergometer using a standardized exercise protocol of revised Ramp10 programs at Shanghai Tongji Hospital. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after an acute exercise session. RNA was extracted from the serum and selected miRNAs were determined using quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Moreover, inflammatory and muscle damage markers were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. We found that serum miR-21, miR-378 and miR-940 levels were significantly up-regulated immediately following an acute exercise while the rest were not changed. In addition, no robust correlation was identified between changes of these miRNAs and exercise capacity, muscle damage or inflammation. In conclusion, serum miR-21, miR-378, and miR-940 increase in response to an acute exhaustive exercise in CHF patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential use of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of exercise adaptation in CHF patients, and if they have any use as prognostic markers of cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:26799589

  20. Acupuncture Decreases NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 and Increases miR-146a Expression in Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jialing; Huang, Kangbai; Zhong, Guoxin; Huang, Yong; Li, Suhe; Qu, Shanshan; Zhang, Jiping

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture has been used to treat chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for centuries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), Zhongwan (CV12), and Pishu (BL20) acupoints on weight changes of rats, histological changes of gastric glands, and expressions changes of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, microRNA- (miR-) 155, miR-21, and miR-146a in CAG rats induced by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) combined with irregular diet. Consequently, we found that acupuncture treatment elevated body weight of rats significantly when compared to the model group. By observing histological changes, we found that the acupuncture group showed better improvement of gastric mucosa injury than the model group. Our results also demonstrated upregulation of NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 in gastric tissue of CAG rats and a positive correlation between miR-155 and miR-21. Relatively, expression of miR-146a was downregulated and negative correlation relationships between miR-146a and miR-155/miR-21 in CAG rats were observed. Additionally, expressions of NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 were downregulated and miR-146a was upregulated after acupuncture treatment. Taken together, our data imply that acupuncture can downregulate NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 and upregulate miR-146a expression in CAG rats. NF-κB p65, miR-155, miR-21, and miR-146a may play important roles in therapeutic effect of acupuncture in treating CAG. PMID:27293468

  1. HER2-encoded mir-4728 forms a receptor-independent circuit with miR-21-5p through the non-canonical poly(A) polymerase PAPD5

    PubMed Central

    Newie, Inga; Søkilde, Rolf; Persson, Helena; Jacomasso, Thiago; Gorbatenko, Andrej; Borg, Åke; de Hoon, Michiel; Pedersen, Stine F.; Rovira, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that the human HER2 gene encodes the intronic microRNA mir-4728, which is overexpressed together with its oncogenic host gene and may act independently of the HER2 receptor. More recently, we also reported that the oncogenic miR-21-5p is regulated by 3′ tailing and trimming by the non-canonical poly(A) polymerase PAPD5 and the ribonuclease PARN. Here we demonstrate a dual function for the HER2 locus in upregulation of miR-21-5p; while HER2 signalling activates transcription of mir-21, miR-4728-3p specifically stabilises miR-21-5p through inhibition of PAPD5. Our results establish a new and unexpected oncogenic role for the HER2 locus that is not currently being targeted by any anti-HER2 therapy. PMID:27752128

  2. miR-21-5p/203a-3p promote ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell senescence through down-regulation of mitochondrial fission protein Drp1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie-Jie; Liu, Wei-Qi; Peng, Jing-Jie; Ma, Qi-Lin; Peng, Jun; Luo, Xiu-Ju

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to identify both endothelia-specific/enriched and senescence-associated miRNAs as well as their functions. The rats were fed on high-fat diet to establish a hyperlipidemic model, which showed an increase in plasma lipids and acceleration in endothelial senescence and endothelial dysfunction, accompanied by alterations in 7 endothelia-specific/enriched and senescence-associated miRNAs. Among the 7 selected miRNAs, miR-21-5p and miR-203a-3p were significantly up-regulated in a human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) senescent model induced by ox-LDL, consistent with their changes in the hyperlipidemic rats. After performing the bioinformatic analysis, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) was predicted to be a potential target for both miR-21-5p and miR-203a-3p. In ox-LDL-induced senescent HUVECs, Drp1 was significantly down-regulated, concomitant with mitochondrial dysfunctions and the activation of AMPK-p53/p16 pathway, while these phenomena were attenuated by miR-21-5p or miR-203a-3p inhibitor. Luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed a direct interaction between miR-21-5p and Drp1 but not between miR-203a-3p and Drp1. Based on these observations, we conclude that miR-21-5p/203a-3p promote ox-LDL-induced endothelial senescence through down-regulation of Drp1 in a direct or indirect way. Our findings highlight the plasma levels of miR-21-5p/203a-3p may serve as novel biomarkers to evaluate the degree of endothelial senescence in hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased circulating microRNAs miR-342-3p and miR-21-5p in natural sheep prion disease.

    PubMed

    Sanz Rubio, David; López-Pérez, Óscar; de Andrés Pablo, Álvaro; Bolea, Rosa; Osta, Rosario; Badiola, Juan J; Zaragoza, Pilar; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Toivonen, Janne M

    2017-02-01

    Scrapie is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), or prion disease, of sheep and goats. As no simple diagnostic tests are yet available to detect TSEs in vivo, easily accessible biomarkers could facilitate the eradication of scrapie agents from the food chain. To this end, we analysed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR a selected set of candidate microRNAs (miRNAs) from circulating blood plasma of naturally infected, classical scrapie sheep that demonstrated clear scrapie symptoms and pathology. Significant scrapie-associated increase was repeatedly found for miR-342-3p and miR-21-5p. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of circulating miRNA alterations in any animal suffering from TSE. Genome-wide expression studies are warranted to investigate the true depth of miRNA alterations in naturally occurring TSEs, especially in presymptomatic animals, as the presented study demonstrates the potential feasibility of miRNAs as circulating TSE biomarkers.

  4. Arsenic-exposed Keratinocytes Exhibit Differential microRNAs Expression Profile; Potential Implication of miR-21, miR-200a and miR-141 in Melanoma Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Horacio; Lema, Carolina; Kirken, Robert A.; Maldonado, Rosa A.; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Aguilera, Renato J.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term exposure to arsenic has been linked to cancer in different organs and tissues, including skin. Here, non-malignant human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were exposed to arsenic and its effects on microRNAs (miRNAs; miR) expression were analyzed via miRCURY LNA array analyses. A total of 30 miRNAs were found differentially expressed in arsenic-treated cells, as compared to untreated controls. Among the up-regulated miRNAs, miR-21, miR-200a and miR-141, are well known to be involved in carcinogenesis. Additional findings confirmed that those three miRNAs were indeed up-regulated in arsenic-stimulated keratinocytes as demonstrated by quantitative PCR assay. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis of both potential cancer-related pathways and targeted genes affected by miR-21, miR-200a and/or miR-141 was performed. Results revealed that miR-21, miR-200a and miR-141 are implicated in skin carcinogenesis related with melanoma development. Conclusively, our results indicate that arsenic-treated keratinocytes exhibited alteration in the miRNAs expression profile and that miR-21, miR-200a and miR-141 could be promising early biomarkers of the epithelial phenotype of cancer cells and they could be potential novel targets for melanoma therapeutic interventions. PMID:27054085

  5. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan; Ling, Min; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Liang, Xiao; Jiang, Rongrong; Wang, Bairu; Bian, Qian; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-11-15

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT.

  6. Changes in serum levels of miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 in HER2-positive breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy: a translational research project within the Geparquinto trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Volkmar; Gade, Stephan; Steinbach, Bettina; Loibl, Sibylle; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Untch, Michael; Schwedler, Kathrin; Lübbe, Kristina; Schem, Christian; Fasching, Peter A; Mau, Christine; Pantel, Klaus; Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    Trastuzumab and lapatinib are established treatments for patients with HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)-positive breast cancer with different mechanisms of action. The focus of this study is to investigate, whether altered expression levels of potentially relevant microRNAs (miRs) in serum are associated with response to trastuzumab or lapatinib. Circulating miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 were quantified with TaqMan MicroRNA assays in serum of 127 HER2-postive breast cancer patients before and after neoadjuvant therapy and in 19 healthy controls. Patients received chemotherapy combined with either trastuzumab or lapatinib within the prospectively randomized Geparquinto trial. The association between miR levels and pathological response (pCR) to therapy and type of therapy was examined. Serum levels of miR-21 (p = 5.04e-08, p = 1.43e-10), miR-210 (p = 0.00151, p = 1.6e-05), and miR-373 (p = 7.87e-06, p = 1.75e-07) were significantly higher in patients before and after chemotherapy than in healthy women. Concentrations of miR-21 (p = 5.73e-08), miR-210 (p = 0.000724), and miR-373 (p = 0.00209) increased further after chemotherapy. A significant association of higher serum levels of miR-373 with advanced clinical tumor stage could be detected (p < 0.002). An association of miR-21 levels before (p = 0.0091) and after (p = 0.037) chemotherapy with overall survival of the patients could be detected, independent of type of anti-HER2 therapy. No association of circulating miRs with pCR was found. Our findings demonstrate a specific influence of neoadjuvant therapy on the serum levels of miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 in breast cancer patients together with a prognostic value of miR-21.

  7. Troponin I Mutations R146G and R21C Alter Cardiac Troponin Function, Contractile Properties, and Modulation by Protein Kinase A (PKA)-mediated Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yuanhua; Rao, Vijay; Tu, An-yue; Lindert, Steffen; Wang, Dan; Oxenford, Lucas; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCammon, J. Andrew; Regnier, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Two hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-associated cardiac troponin I (cTnI) mutations, R146G and R21C, are located in different regions of cTnI, the inhibitory peptide and the cardiac-specific N terminus. We recently reported that these regions may interact when Ser-23/Ser-24 are phosphorylated, weakening the interaction of cTnI with cardiac TnC. Little is known about how these mutations influence the affinity of cardiac TnC for cTnI (KC-I) or contractile kinetics during β-adrenergic stimulation. Here, we tested how cTnIR146G or cTnIR21C influences contractile activation and relaxation and their response to protein kinase A (PKA). Both mutations significantly increased Ca2+ binding affinity to cTn (KCa) and KC-I. PKA phosphorylation resulted in a similar reduction of KCa for all complexes, but KC-I was reduced only with cTnIWT. cTnIWT, cTnIR146G, and cTnIR21C were complexed into cardiac troponin and exchanged into rat ventricular myofibrils, and contraction/relaxation kinetics were measured ± PKA phosphorylation. Maximal tension (Tmax) was maintained for cTnIR146G- and cTnIR21C-exchanged myofibrils, and Ca2+ sensitivity of tension (pCa50) was increased. PKA phosphorylation decreased pCa50 for cTnIWT-exchanged myofibrils but not for either mutation. PKA phosphorylation accelerated the early slow phase relaxation for cTnIWT myofibrils, especially at Ca2+ levels that the heart operates in vivo. Importantly, this effect was blunted for cTnIR146G- and cTnIR21C-exchanged myofibrils. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest both mutations inhibit formation of intra-subunit contacts between the N terminus and the inhibitory peptide of cTnI that is normally seen with WT-cTn upon PKA phosphorylation. Together, our results suggest that cTnIR146G and cTnIR21C blunt PKA modulation of activation and relaxation kinetics by prohibiting cardiac-specific N-terminal interaction with the cTnI inhibitory peptide. PMID:26391394

  8. Serum expression levels of miR-17, miR-21, and miR-92 as potential biomarkers for recurrence after adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Conev, Nikolay V; Donev, Ivan S; Konsoulova-Kirova, Assia A; Chervenkov, Trifon G; Kashlov, Javor K; Ivanov, Krasimir D

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined whether miR-17, miR-21, miR-29a, and miR-92 that are dysregulated in colon cancer (CC) can serve as potential predictive markers for relapse of disease after radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy. Real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the expression levels of the miRNAs in serum samples from 37 patients with CC and 7 healthy individuals, tested as a control group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was then used to evaluate the predictive performance of the four miRNAs alone or in combination and compare it with carcinoembryonic antigen. The expression of miR-17, miR-21 and miR-92 were significantly higher in serum of patients with disease relapse. The AUCs for miR-17, miR-21, miR-92 for Nx patients were 0.844, 0.948, and 0.935, respectively (p < 0.05). Combining the four miRNAs for stage III patients increased the diagnostic performance, yielding an AUC of 0.881, with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 85.7% (p < 0.05). Our study suggests that the expression levels of serum miR-21, miR-17, and miR-92 in patients with CC who underwent radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy may have diagnostic value for differentiating between recurred and non-recurred patients.

  9. STAT3 activation of miR-21 and miR-181b-1 via PTEN and CYLD are part of the epigenetic switch linking inflammation to cancer.

    PubMed

    Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Jaeger, Savina A; Hirsch, Heather A; Bulyk, Martha L; Struhl, Kevin

    2010-08-27

    A transient inflammatory signal can initiate an epigenetic switch from nontransformed to cancer cells via a positive feedback loop involving NF-kappaB, Lin28, let-7, and IL-6. We identify differentially regulated microRNAs important for this switch and putative transcription factor binding sites in their promoters. STAT3, a transcription factor activated by IL-6, directly activates miR-21 and miR-181b-1. Remarkably, transient expression of either microRNA induces the epigenetic switch. MiR-21 and miR-181b-1, respectively, inhibit PTEN and CYLD tumor suppressors, leading to increased NF-kappaB activity required to maintain the transformed state. These STAT3-mediated regulatory circuits are required for the transformed state in diverse cell lines and tumor growth in xenografts, and their transcriptional signatures are observed in colon adenocarcinomas. Thus, STAT3 is not only a downstream target of IL-6 but, with miR-21, miR-181b-1, PTEN, and CYLD, is part of the positive feedback loop that underlies the epigenetic switch that links inflammation to cancer.

  10. Stat3 regulates ErbB-2 expression and co-opts ErbB-2 nuclear function to induce miR-21 expression, PDCD4 downregulation and breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Venturutti, L; Romero, L V; Urtreger, A J; Chervo, M F; Cordo Russo, R I; Mercogliano, M F; Inurrigarro, G; Pereyra, M G; Proietti, C J; Izzo, F; Díaz Flaqué, M C; Sundblad, V; Roa, J C; Guzmán, P; Bal de Kier Joffé, E D; Charreau, E H; Schillaci, R; Elizalde, P V

    2016-04-28

    Membrane overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase ErbB-2 (MErbB-2) accounts for a clinically aggressive breast cancer (BC) subtype (ErbB-2-positive) with increased incidence of metastases. We and others demonstrated that nuclear ErbB-2 (NErbB-2) also plays a key role in BC and is a poor prognostic factor in ErbB-2-positive tumors. The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), another player in BC, has been recognized as a downstream mediator of MErbB-2 action in BC metastasis. Here, we revealed an unanticipated novel direction of the ErbB-2 and Stat3 interaction underlying BC metastasis. We found that Stat3 binds to its response elements (GAS) at the ErbB-2 promoter to upregulate ErbB-2 transcription in metastatic, ErbB-2-positive BC. We validated these results in several BC subtypes displaying metastatic and non-metastatic ability, highlighting Stat3 general role as upstream regulator of ErbB-2 expression in BC. Moreover, we showed that Stat3 co-opts NErbB-2 function by recruiting ErbB-2 as its coactivator at the GAS sites in the promoter of microRNA-21 (miR-21), a metastasis-promoting microRNA (miRNA). Using an ErbB-2 nuclear localization domain mutant and a constitutively activated ErbB-2 variant, we found that NErbB-2 role as a Stat3 coactivator and also its direct role as transcription factor upregulate miR-21 in BC. This reveals a novel function of NErbB-2 as a regulator of miRNAs expression. Increased levels of miR-21, in turn, downregulate the expression of the metastasis-suppressor protein programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a validated miR-21 target. Using an in vivo model of metastatic ErbB-2-postive BC, in which we silenced Stat3 and reconstituted ErbB-2 or miR-21 expression, we showed that both are downstream mediators of Stat3-driven metastasis. Supporting the clinical relevance of our results, we found an inverse correlation between ErbB-2/Stat3 nuclear co-expression and PDCD4 expression in ErbB-2-positive primary invasive BCs

  11. Relative expressions of miR-205-5p, miR-205-3p, and miR-21 in tissues and serum of non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Zhang, Peng; Hu, Guozhu; Xiao, Zuke; Xu, Fanghua; Zhong, Ting; Huang, Fang; Kuang, Haibin; Zhang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    Objective was to assess and compare the relative expressions of miR-205-5p, miR-205-3p, and miR-21-3p in tissues and serum among non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients, benign pulmonary conditions patients, and healthy volunteers. Serum samples were obtained between October 2011 and September 2012 from 20 NSCLC patients undergoing surgical treatment, 20 patients diagnosed with a benign lung disease (pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or interstitial pneumonia) (lesion group), and 20 healthy volunteers (control group). NSCLC patients provided cancer tissues and cancer-adjacent normal tissues during surgery (paired specimens). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess miR-205-5p, miR-205-3p, and miR-21-3p expressions in serum and tissue samples. The relative expressions of miR-205-5p and miR-205-3p were significantly higher in NSCLC tissues compared with cancer-adjacent paired specimens (both P < 0.001). In the serum, significantly higher miR-205-5p, miR-205-3p, and miR-21-3p relative expressions were observed in the NSCLC group compared with the two other groups (all P < 0.001). The relative expressions of miR-205-5p and miR-21-3p in NSCLC tissues and serum were significantly correlated (r = 0.553, P = 0.011; and r = -0.541, P = 0.014, respectively), while no significant correlation was observed for miR-205-3P (P = 0.120). Expressions of miR-205-5p and miR-205-3P in squamous cell carcinoma specimens were significantly higher than in lung adenocarcinoma specimens (both P = 0.001). Similarly, higher serum miR-205-5p and miR-205-3p levels were observed in squamous cell carcinoma patients (P = 0.033 and P = 0.002, respectively). In this preliminary and novel study, miR-205-5p was more useful as a marker for NSCLC than miR-205-3p or miR-21, indicating a potential for future applications in NSCLC diagnosis and prognosis.

  12. Serum miR-152, miR-148a, miR-148b, and miR-21 as novel biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-shan; Li, Bao-jian; Lu, Hua-wei; Chen, Yu; Lu, Chuan; Zhu, Rui-xia; Liu, Si-hai; Yi, Qing-ting; Li, Jing; Song, Chun-hui

    2015-04-01

    Lung cancer, predominantly by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths over the world. Late diagnosis is one of important reasons for high mortality rate in lung cancer. Current diagnostic approaches have disadvantages such as low accuracy, high cost, invasive procedure, etc. MicroRNAs were previously proposed as promising novel biomarkers in cancer screening. In this study, we evaluated the predictive power of four candidate miRNAs in NSCLC detection. Our study involved 152 NSCLC patients and 300 healthy controls. Blood samples were obtained from the total 452 subjects. After miRNA extraction from serum, the expression of miRNAs in cases and controls were quantified by qRT-PCR and normalized to the level of U6 small RNA. Statistical analyses were performed to compare miRNA levels between cases and controls. Stratified analyses were employed to compare miRNA levels in NSCLC patients with different clinical characteristics. Serum miR-148a, miR-148b, and miR-152 were significantly downregulated in NSCLC patients. However, overexpression of serum miR-21 was observed in NSCLC patients. The combination of four candidate miRNAs exhibited the highest predictive accuracy in NSCLC screening compared with individual miRNAs (AUC = 0.97). Low level of miRNA-148/152 members may associate with advanced stage, large tumor size, malignant cell differentiation, and metastasis. High expression of miR-21 was possibly correlated with large size tumor and advanced cancer stage. Our results showed the dysregulation of miR-148/152 family and miR-21 in NSCLC patients. Hence, the four candidate miRNAs have great potential to serve as promising novel biomarkers in NSCLC screening. Further large-scale studies are needed to validate our results.

  13. Expression of microRNAs in squamous cell carcinoma of human head and neck and the esophagus: miR-205 and miR-21 are specific markers for HNSCC and ESCC.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Sotai; Naganuma, Seiji; Susuki, Dai; Hirono, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Akio; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Sano, Kazuo; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that regulate cell proliferation and functions by interfering with the translation of target mRNAs. Altered expression of miRNA is known to induce various human malignancies. We examined the expression of miRNAs in squamous cell carcinoma of human head and neck (HNSCC) and esophagus (ESCC), compared to that in normal squamous epithelia as well as malignancies of other organs. Microarray analysis showed up-regulation of miR-21, miR-16 and miR-30a-5p in HNSCC and ESCC cell lines compared to normal squamous epithelial cell lines, and consistent high expression of miR-205 and let-7a in both normal and malignant squamous epithelial cell lines. Validation study using real-time quantitative RT-PCR in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cancer tissues and paired normal epithelia obtained by Laser-captured microdissection revealed that miR-205 showed highest expression in both malignant and benign squamous epithelia, although it was less expressed in cell lines and tissues other than squamous epithelia. MiR-21, which is an oncogenic miRNA in various malignancies, was also up-regulated in HNSCC and ESCC compared to paired normal squamous epithelia. These results suggest that miR-205 might be a specific marker miRNA of both normal and malignant squamous epithelia, while miR-21 might be a putative oncogenic miRNA in HNSCC and ESCC.

  14. miR-486-3p, miR-139-5p, and miR-21 as Biomarkers for the Detection of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zujian; Yu, Tianwei; Cabay, Robert J.; Jin, Yi; Mahjabeen, Ishrat; Luan, Xianghong; Huang, Lei; Dai, Yang; Zhou, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is a complex disease with extensive genetic and epigenetic defects, including microRNA deregulation. The aims of the present study were to test the feasibility of performing the microRNA profiling analysis on archived TSCC specimens and to assess the potential diagnostic utility of the identified microRNA biomarkers for the detection of TSCC. TaqMan array-based microRNA profiling analysis was performed on 10 archived TSCC samples and their matching normal tissues. A panel of 12 differentially expressed microRNAs was identified. Eight of these differentially expressed microRNAs were validated in an independent sample set. A random forest (RF) classification model was built with miR-486-3p, miR-139-5p, and miR-21, and it was able to detect TSCC with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 86.7% (overall error rate = 6.7%). As such, this study demonstrated the utility of the archived clinical specimens for microRNA biomarker discovery. The feasibility of using microRNA biomarkers (miR-486-3p, miR-139-5p, and miR-21) for the detection of TSCC was confirmed. PMID:28096697

  15. Suppression of the Growth and Invasion of Human Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas via Regulating STAT3 Signaling and the miR-21/β-catenin Axis with HJC0152.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Sinan; Wu, Yansheng; Ren, Yu; Li, Zhaoqing; Yao, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Chao; Ye, Na; Jing, Chao; Dong, Jiabin; Zhang, Kailiang; Sun, Shanshan; Zhao, Minghui; Guo, Wenyu; Qu, Xin; Qiao, Yu; Chen, Haiying; Kong, Lingping; Jin, Rui; Wang, Xudong; Zhang, Lun; Zhou, Jia; Shen, Qiang; Zhou, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is involved in the tumor growth and metastasis of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and is therefore a target with therapeutic potential. In this study, we show that HJC0152, a recently developed anticancer agent and a STAT3 signaling inhibitor, exhibits promising antitumor effects against HNSCC both in vitro and in vivo via inactivating STAT3 and downstream miR-21/β-catenin axis. HJC0152 treatment efficiently suppressed HNSCC cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle at the G0-G1 phase, induced apoptosis, and reduced cell invasion in both SCC25 and CAL27 cell lines. Moreover, HJC0152 inhibited nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 at Tyr705 and decreased VHL/β-catenin signaling activity via regulation of miR-21. Loss of function of VHL remarkably compromised the antitumor effect of HJC0152 in both cell lines. In our SCC25-derived orthotopic mouse models, HJC0152 treatment significantly abrogated STAT3/β-catenin expression in vivo, leading to a global decrease of tumor growth and invasion. With its favorable aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability, HJC0152 holds the potential to be translated into the clinic as a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with HNSCC. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(4); 578-90. ©2017 AACR.

  16. The high-resolution NMR structure of the R21A Spc-SH3:P41 complex: understanding the determinants of binding affinity by comparison with Abl-SH3.

    PubMed

    Casares, Salvador; Ab, Eiso; Eshuis, Henk; Lopez-Mayorga, Obdulio; van Nuland, Nico A J; Conejero-Lara, Francisco

    2007-04-02

    SH3 domains are small protein modules of 60-85 amino acids that bind to short proline-rich sequences with moderate-to-low affinity and specificity. Interactions with SH3 domains play a crucial role in regulation of many cellular processes (some are related to cancer and AIDS) and have thus been interesting targets in drug design. The decapeptide APSYSPPPPP (p41) binds with relatively high affinity to the SH3 domain of the Abl tyrosine kinase (Abl-SH3), while it has a 100 times lower affinity for the alpha-spectrin SH3 domain (Spc-SH3). Here we present the high-resolution structure of the complex between the R21A mutant of Spc-SH3 and p41 derived from NMR data. Thermodynamic parameters of binding of p41 to both WT and R21A Spc-SH3 were measured by a combination of isothermal titration and differential scanning calorimetry. Mutation of arginine 21 to alanine in Spc-SH3 increases 3- to 4-fold the binding affinity for p41 due to elimination at the binding-site interface of the steric clash produced by the longer arginine side chain. Amide hydrogen-deuterium experiments on the free and p41-bound R21A Spc-SH3 domain indicate that binding elicits a strong reduction in the conformational flexibility of the domain. Despite the great differences in the thermodynamic magnitudes of binding, the structure of the R21A Spc-SH3:P41 complex is remarkably similar to that of the Abl-SH3:P41 complex, with only few differences in protein-ligand contacts at the specificity pocket. Using empirical methods for the prediction of binding energetics based on solvent-accessible surface area calculations, the differences in experimental energetics of binding between the two complexes could not be properly explained only on the basis of the structural differences observed between the complexes. We suggest that the experimental differences in binding energetics can be at least partially ascribed to the absence in the R21A Spc-SH3:P41 complex of several buried water molecules, which have been

  17. The high-resolution NMR structure of the R21A Spc-SH3:P41 complex: Understanding the determinants of binding affinity by comparison with Abl-SH3

    PubMed Central

    Casares, Salvador; AB, Eiso; Eshuis, Henk; Lopez-Mayorga, Obdulio; van Nuland, Nico AJ; Conejero-Lara, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Background SH3 domains are small protein modules of 60–85 amino acids that bind to short proline-rich sequences with moderate-to-low affinity and specificity. Interactions with SH3 domains play a crucial role in regulation of many cellular processes (some are related to cancer and AIDS) and have thus been interesting targets in drug design. The decapeptide APSYSPPPPP (p41) binds with relatively high affinity to the SH3 domain of the Abl tyrosine kinase (Abl-SH3), while it has a 100 times lower affinity for the α-spectrin SH3 domain (Spc-SH3). Results Here we present the high-resolution structure of the complex between the R21A mutant of Spc-SH3 and p41 derived from NMR data. Thermodynamic parameters of binding of p41 to both WT and R21A Spc-SH3 were measured by a combination of isothermal titration and differential scanning calorimetry. Mutation of arginine 21 to alanine in Spc-SH3 increases 3- to 4-fold the binding affinity for p41 due to elimination at the binding-site interface of the steric clash produced by the longer arginine side chain. Amide hydrogen-deuterium experiments on the free and p41-bound R21A Spc-SH3 domain indicate that binding elicits a strong reduction in the conformational flexibility of the domain. Despite the great differences in the thermodynamic magnitudes of binding, the structure of the R21A Spc-SH3:P41 complex is remarkably similar to that of the Abl-SH3:P41 complex, with only few differences in protein-ligand contacts at the specificity pocket. Using empirical methods for the prediction of binding energetics based on solvent-accessible surface area calculations, the differences in experimental energetics of binding between the two complexes could not be properly explained only on the basis of the structural differences observed between the complexes. We suggest that the experimental differences in binding energetics can be at least partially ascribed to the absence in the R21A Spc-SH3:P41 complex of several buried water molecules

  18. Down regulation of miR-18a, miR-21 and miR-221 genes in gastric cancer cell line by chrysin-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Farideh; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Yones; Mofarrah, Mohsen; Dastani-Habashi, Mehdi; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-12-01

    Chrysin were well-documented as having significant biological roles particularly cancer chemo-preventive activity. However, the poor water solubility of chrysin limited their bioavailability and biomedical applications. In this study, we encapsulate the chrysin into PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for local treatment. In regard to the amount of the drug load, IC50 was significant decreased in nanocapsulated chrysin in comparison with free chrysin. This was confirmed through decrease of miR-18a, miR-21, and miR-221 genes expression by real-time PCR. The results demonstrated that PLGA-PEG-chrysin complexes can be more effective than free chrysin. Therefore, PLGA-PEG can be a better nanocarrier for this kind of hydrophobic flavonoid.

  19. Diagnostic and prognostic potential of miR-21, miR-29c, miR-148 and miR-203 in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus.

    PubMed

    Hezova, Renata; Kovarikova, Alena; Srovnal, Josef; Zemanova, Milada; Harustiak, Tomas; Ehrmann, Jiri; Hajduch, Marian; Svoboda, Marek; Sachlova, Milana; Slaby, Ondrej

    2015-04-28

    Esophageal cancer is the malignant tumor with very poor prognosis and increasing incidence often diagnosed at very late stage, so the prognosis of affected patients is unsatisfactory, despite the development of therapeutic option such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Consequently, there is a great need for biomarkers to allow a tailored multimodality approach with increased efficiency. Altered expression of microRNAs has been reported in wide range of malignancies, including esophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the expression levels of candidate microRNAs in esophageal cancer and evaluate their diagnostic and prognostic potential. Using quantitative real-time PCR, expression levels of 9 candidate microRNAs were examined in 62 tissue samples, 23 esophageal adenocarcinomas, 22 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and 17 adjacent esophageal mucosa samples. MicroRNA expression levels were further analyzed in regards to clinico-pathological features of esophageal cancer patients. We observed significantly decreased levels of miR-203 and increased levels of miR-21 in adenocarcinoma tissues when compared to normal mucosa. MiR-29c and miR-148 indicated good ability to distinguish between histological subtypes of esophageal cancer. MiR-203 and miR-148 were linked to disease-free survival and overall survival in esophageal adenocarcinoma patients, and miR-148 also in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients. Our data suggest that altered expression of miR-21, miR-29c, miR-148 and miR-203 are related to neoplastic transformation and progression of the disease and these microRNAs could serve as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in esophageal cancer. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4646922201567057.

  20. Grant R01CA155301 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA172136 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA180949 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA166710 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA195723 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA166557 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA185301 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA169175 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA196762 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA133050 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA190710 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA187027 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA184926 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA169363 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA140368 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA184027 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01AT007429 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01GM095657 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA193522 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA203950 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA202936 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA206026 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA174432 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA204378 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA155297 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA151494 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01NR014068 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA138800 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA148966 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01NS046606 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01AI093723 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01AG041869 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA154489 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA148817 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01EB019337 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA164782 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA172444 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01AT008108 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01AT005295 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA208303 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA190610 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA188038 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA137178 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA184820 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA164574 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA162139 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01AT007003 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA200417 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA172576 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA172517 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA163103 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA140561 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA165309 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA180087 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01AT006885 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA080946 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA204345 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA179949 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01AT006860 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA196639 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA208371 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA161534 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA197919 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA128134 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA190612 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA084233 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA179992 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA194617 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA215797 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA200423 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA166011 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01AT007452 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA168292 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA163803 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA162401 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA120933 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA124481 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA182284 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA132927 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA107408 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA196854 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA187160 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA163293 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA160880 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA200977 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA177562 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA174683 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA169398 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA162139 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA182905 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA140605 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA087546 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA163293 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA157469 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA158668 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA094076 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA183296 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA170549 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01DK063621 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA208711 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA148828 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA159976 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA163683 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA190092 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA205633 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA205608 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA152799 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA151304 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA172627 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA183869 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA182969 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA190291 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA196200 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA182076 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA181242 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA179511 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01GM066170 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA211996 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA193885 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA132951 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R01CA195688 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R01CA200795 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R01CA210370 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R01CA195708 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R01CA192124 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R01CA183301 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R01CA151708 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R01CA166590 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R01CA026582 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R01CA105266 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R01CA174683 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R01CA114412 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R01CA177995 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R01CA134620 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R01CA098286 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R01CA158319 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R01CA164124 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R01CA196692 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R01CA190776 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R01CA187160 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Wound fluids affect miR-21, miR-155 and miR-221 expression in breast cancer cell lines, and this effect is partially abrogated by intraoperative radiation therapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Zaleska, Karolina; Przybyła, Anna; Kulcenty, Katarzyna; Wichtowski, Mateusz; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Suchorska, Wiktoria; Murawa, Dawid

    2017-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease occurring in women. Conservative breast cancer surgery followed by radiation therapy is currently the standard treatment for this type of cancer. The majority of metastases occur within the scar, which initiated a series of studies. As a result, clinical trials aimed to assess whether localized radiotherapy, as intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT), may more effective in inhibiting the formation of local recurrence compared with the standard postoperative whole breast radiotherapy. The present study determined the role of postoperative wound fluids (WFs) from patients diagnosed with breast cancer subsequent to breast conserving surgery or breast conserving surgery followed by IORT on the expression of three microRNAs (miRNAs), consisting of miR-21, miR-155 and miR-221, in distinct breast cancer cell lines that represent the general subtypes of breast cancer. It was determined that the miRNAs responsible for breast cancer progression, induction of tumorigenesis and enrichment of the cancer stem cell phenotype, which is responsible for resistance to tumor therapy, were highly upregulated in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer SK-BR-3 cell line following stimulation with WFs. It is worth emphasizing, that those changes were more significant in WFs collected from patients after surgery alone. The BT-549 cell line showed altered expression only of miR-155 following incubation with WFs. Notably, this change was not associated with IORT. Additionally, it was indicated that both WFs and RT-WF strongly downregulated the expression of miR-21, miR-155 and miR-221 in basal/epithelial and luminal subtypes of breast cancer. It was concluded that the present study contributes to an increased understanding of the role of surgical WFs and IORT treatment in the regulation of miRNA expression. This may enable the development of the current knowledge of breast cancer biology subsequent to IORT treatment

  1. The effects of low-level laser irradiation on breast tumor in mice and the expression of Let-7a, miR-155, miR-21, miR125, and miR376b.

    PubMed

    Khori, Vahid; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Gheisary, Zohre; Farsinejad, Sadaf; Najafi, Farrokh; Khalighfard, Solmaz; Ghafari, Fatemeh; Hadji, Maryam; Khodayari, Hamid

    2016-12-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a form of photon therapy which can be a non-invasive therapeutic procedure in cancer therapy using low-intensity light in the range of 450-800 nm. One of the main functional features of laser therapy is the photobiostimulation effects of low-level lasers on various biological systems including altering DNA synthesis and modifying gene expression, and stopping cellular proliferation. This study investigated the effects of LLLT on mice mammary tumor and the expression of Let-7a, miR155, miR21, miR125, and miR376b in the plasma and tumor samples. Sixteen mice were equally divided into four groups including control, and blue, green, and red lasers at wavelengths of 405, 532, and 632 nm, respectively. Weber Medical Applied Laser irradiation was carried out with a low power of 1-3 mW and a series of 10 treatments at three times a week after tumor establishment. Tumor volume was weekly measured by a digital vernier caliper, and qRT-PCR assays were performed to accomplish the study. Depending on the number of groups and the p value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test of normality, a t test, a one-way ANOVA, or a non-parametric test was used for data analyses, and p < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The average tumor volume was significantly less in the treated blue group than the control group on at days 21, 28, and 35 after cancerous cell injection. Our data also showed an increase of Let-7a and miR125a expression and a decrease of miR155, miR21, and miR376b expression after LLLT with the blue laser both the plasma and tumor samples compared to other groups. It seems that the non-invasive nature of laser bio-stimulation can make LLLT an attractive alternative therapeutic tool.

  2. MicroRNA 21 (miR-21) and miR-181b couple with NFI-A to generate myeloid-derived suppressor cells and promote immunosuppression in late sepsis.

    PubMed

    McClure, Clara; Brudecki, Laura; Ferguson, Donald A; Yao, Zhi Q; Moorman, Jonathan P; McCall, Charles E; El Gazzar, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The sepsis initial hyperinflammatory reaction, if not treated early, shifts to a protracted state of immunosuppression that alters both innate and adaptive immunity and is associated with elevated mortality. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are myeloid progenitors and precursors that fail to differentiate into mature innate-immunity cells and are known for their potent immunosuppressive activities. We previously reported that murine MDSCs expand dramatically in the bone marrow during late sepsis, induced by cecal ligation and puncture, and demonstrated that they contribute to late-sepsis immunosuppression. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for generating these immature Gr1(+) CD11b(+) myeloid cells during sepsis remains unknown. We show here that sepsis generates a microRNA (miRNA) signature that expands MDSCs. We found that miRNA 21 (miR-21) and miR-181b expression is upregulated in early sepsis and sustained in late sepsis. Importantly, we found that simultaneous in vivo blockade of both miRNAs via antagomiR (a chemically modified miRNA inhibitor) injection after sepsis initiation decreased the bone marrow Gr1(+) CD11b(+) myeloid progenitors, improved bacterial clearance, and reduced late-sepsis mortality by 74%. Gr1(+) CD11b(+) cells isolated from mice injected with antagomiRs were able to differentiate ex vivo into macrophages and dendritic cells and produced smaller amounts of the immunosuppressive interleukin 10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) after stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, suggesting that immature myeloid cells regained their maturation potential and have lost their immunosuppressive activity. In addition, we found that the protein level of transcription factor NFI-A, which plays a role in myeloid cell differentiation, was increased during sepsis and that antagomiR injection reduced its expression. Moreover, knockdown of NFI-A in the Gr1(+) CD11b(+) cells isolated from late-septic mice increased

  3. Down-regulation of TGF-b1, TGF-b receptor 2, and TGF-b-associated microRNAs, miR-20a and miR-21, in skin lesions of sulfur mustard-exposed Iranian war veterans.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Mohadeseh; Mirzaei, Behnaz; Tavallaei, Mahmood; Noorani, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mojtaba; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) affects divergent cellular pathways including cell cycle, apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammatory responses. SM-induced lesions in skin include late-onset hyper-pigmentation, xerosis, and atrophy. It seems that TGF-b signaling pathway is a major player for SM pathogenesis. Here, we have employed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach to evaluate the expression alterations of all TGF-b variants and their receptors in skin biopsies obtained from 10 Iran-Iraq war veterans. Using specific LNA primers, the expression alteration of a TGF-bR2 regulator, miR-20a, and TGF-b downstream target, miR-21, was also assessed in the same samples Our real-time PCR data revealed a significant down-regulation of TGF-b1 and TGF-bR2, the major mediators of TGF-b signaling pathway, in skin biopsies of SM-exposed patients (p = 0.0015 and p = 0.0115, respectively). Down-regulation of TGF-b signaling pathway seems to contribute in severe inflammation observed in SM-exposed patients' tissues. MiR-20a and miR-21, as two important TGF-b associated microRNAs (miRNAs), were also down-regulated in SM-exposed skin lesions, compared to those of control group (p = 0.0003). Based on our findings, these miRNAs could be directly or indirectly involve in the pathogenesis of SM. Altogether, our data suggest the suitability of TGF-b1, TGF-bR2, as well as miR-20a and miR-21 as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of SM-exposed patients.

  4. Grant R21CA190021 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R21CA208610 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R21CA212628 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R21GM118341 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R21CA187309 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R21CA171316 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R21CA191744 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R21CA190028 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R21CA195394 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R21CA174541 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R21CA185460 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R21CA182941 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R21CA196954 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R21CA206039 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R21DK105476 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R21DE025825 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R21CA184788 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R21CA124606 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R21CA137333 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. Grant R21CA169492 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  4. Grant R21CA173263 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  5. Grant R21CA217130 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  6. Grant R21CA206039 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  7. Grant R21CA149956 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  8. Grant R21CA208723 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  9. Grant R21DK108781 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  10. Grant R21CA186853 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  11. Grant R21CA182861 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Grant R21CA174594 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  13. Grant R21CA195002 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Grant R21CA208968 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Grant R21CA191761 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  16. Grant R21CA188781 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  17. Grant R21CA181901 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Grant R21CA198963 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Grant R21CA182111 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Grant R21CA186000 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  1. Grant R21CA198049 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  2. Grant R21CA183736 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  3. SU-F-R-01: Preclinical Radioimmunogenomics Study to Design Personalized Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Abdollahi, H

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Radiogenomics is an active area of research to find clinical correlation between genomics and radiotherapy outcomes. In this era, many different biological issues should be taken into account. In this study we aimed to introduce “Radioimmunogenomics” as a new approach to study immunogetics issue regard to radiotherapy induced clinical manifestations. Methods: We studied different immunological pathways and signaling molecules which underling radiation response of normal and malignant tissues. In the other hand, we found many genes and proteins are responsible to radiation effects on biological tissues. We defined a theoretical framework to correlate these genes with radiotherapy outcomes as TCP and NTCP biological dose tools. Results: Our theoretical results showed, high-throughput immunogenomics biomarkers can be correlated with radiotherapy outcomes. Genes regarding to inflammation, apoptosis, repair molecules and many other immunological markers can be defined as radioimmune markers to predict radiotherapy response. Conclusion: Radioimmunogenomics can be used as a new personalized radiotherapy research area to enhance treatment outcome as well as quality of life.

  4. Glyoxalase I drives epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via argpyrimidine-modified Hsp70, miR-21 and SMAD signalling in human bronchial cells BEAS-2B chronically exposed to crystalline silica Min-U-Sil 5: Transformation into a neoplastic-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Antognelli, Cinzia; Gambelunghe, Angela; Muzi, Giacomo; Talesa, Vincenzo Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Glyoxalase I (Glo1) is the main scavenging enzyme of methylglyoxal (MG), a potent precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are known to control multiple biological processes, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), a multistep phenomenon associated with cell transformation, playing a major role in a variety of diseases, including cancer. Crystalline silica is a well-known occupational health hazard, responsible for a great number of human pulmonary diseases, such as silicosis. There is still much debate concerning the carcinogenic role of crystalline silica, mainly due to the lack of a causal demonstration between silica exposure and carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that EMT might play a role in crystalline silica-induced lung neoplastic transformation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether, and by means of which mechanism, the antiglycation defence Glo1 is involved in Min-U-Sil 5 (MS5) crystalline silica-induced EMT in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells chronically exposed, and whether this is associated with the beginning of a neoplastic-like transformation process. By using gene silencing/overexpression and scavenging/inhibitory agents, we demonstrated that MS5 induced hydrogen peroxide-mediated c-Jun-dependent Glo1 up-regulation which resulted in a decrease in the Argpyrimidine-modified Hsp70 protein level which triggered EMT in a novel mechanism involving miR-21 and SMAD signalling. The observed EMT was associated with a neoplastic-like phenotype. The results obtained provide a causal in vitro demonstration of the MS5 pro-carcinogenic transforming role and more importantly they provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in this process, thus opening new paths in research concerning the in vivo study of the carcinogenic potential of crystalline silica.

  5. 77 FR 35990 - National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... with the grant applications, the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of... Emphasis Panel; Molecular Characterization of Salivary Tumors RFA: R01 and R21 Review. Date: June 27, 2012...

  6. 75 FR 53701 - Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research Project Grant (R01...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... FDA's Office of Orphan Products Development (OPD) grant program. The document was published with an.... FDA-2010-N-0394] Clinical Studies of Safety and Effectiveness of Orphan Products Research...

  7. Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator (BASS) User's Manual Beta Test Version 2.1. EPA/600/R-01/035

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    this report describes the theoretical development, parameterization, and application software of a generalized, community-based, bioaccumulation model called BASS (Bioaccumulation and Aquatic System Simulator).

  8. NCI/DCCPS R21 Program Announcements | DCCPS/NCI/NIH

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences funds a large portfolio of grants and contracts. The portfolio currently includes approximately 800 grants valued at nearly $450 million. Here we provide a listing of funding opportunities that are currently accepting applications. Please visit this page regularly as new funding opportunities are added upon approval by NCI.

  9. Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians. Circular R21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    The documentary materials collected in this booklet deal with reproduction of copyrighted works by educators, librarians, and archivists for a variety of uses including reproduction for teaching in educational institutions at all levels, and reproduction by libraries and archives for purposes of study, research, interlibrary exchanges, and…

  10. Early Prediction of Lupus Nephritis Using Advanced Proteomics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    nephritis from non inflammatory nephropathies with similar urinary findings. 1.2: Validation of NGAL as a biomarker for predicting SLE disease...R01-DK-069749, R01-DK-53289, P50-DK-52612, and R21-DK-070163 from the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) and by the...significant, and P values less than 0.1 were reported to show trends. RESULTS Baseline patient characteristics and treatments . Table 1 summarizes the

  11. 78 FR 63994 - National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Closed Meeting... Regulation of Brain Energy Utilization (R01) (R21). Date: November 19, 2013. Time: 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m...

  12. 78 FR 77475 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel Conflicts R01R21/K01. Date: February 19, 2014... Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817, (Telephone Conference...

  13. 76 FR 49779 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel, R01/R13/R21 Conflicteds. Date: September 30... Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817, (Telephone Conference...

  14. Introduction to special issue commemorating the 10th anniversary of September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Boscarino, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Dr Boscarino was in the World Trade Center complex on September 11, 2001 when the first plane struck the Twin Towers. His World Trade Center work was supported in part by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health (Grants # R01 MH66403 and R21-MH-086317) and the Pennsylvania Department of Health (Contract #4100042573).

  15. SU-F-R-21: The Stability of Radiomics Features On 4D FDG-PET/CT Images

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of our study was to perform a stability analysis of 4D PET-derived features in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) based on six different respiratory phases. Methods: The 4D FDG-PET/CT respiratory phases were labeled as T0%, T17%, T33%,T50%, T67%, T83% phases, with the T0% phase approximately corresponding to the normal end-inspiration. Lesions were manually delineated based on fused PET-CT, using a standardized clinical delineation protocol. Six texture parameters were analyzed. Results: Results showed that the majority of assessed features had a low stability such as Homogeneity (0.385–0.416), Dissimilarity (3.707–3.861), Angular two moments (0.013–0.019), Contrast (39.782–49.562), Entropy(4.683–5.002) and Inverse differential moment (0.317–0.362) on different respiratory phases. Conclusion: This study suggest that further research of quantitative PET imaging features is warranted with respect to respiratory motion.

  16. Co regulation of srGAP1 by Wnt and androgen receptor signaling: a new target for treatment of CRPC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    California Irvine Medical Center, Orange Teaching Experience: 2003 Teaching Assistant, Genetic engineering /Biotechnology (Mol Bio 228), University of...0257. XZ is support- ed by UCI ICTS pilot grant, DOD grant W81XWH-11-1-0312 and NIH grants R01C- A122558 and R21CA152804. Disclosure of conflict of...Dehm SM. TALEN- engineered AR gene rearrangements reveal endocrine uncoupling of androgen re- ceptor in prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

  17. Reduced Cystathionine γ-Lyase and Increased miR-21 Expression Are Associated with Increased Vascular Resistance in Growth-Restricted Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Cindrova-Davies, Tereza; Herrera, Emilio A.; Niu, Youguo; Kingdom, John; Giussani, Dino A.; Burton, Graham J.

    2013-01-01

    Increased vascular impedance in the fetoplacental circulation is associated with fetal hypoxia and growth restriction. We sought to investigate the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in regulating vasomotor tone in the fetoplacental vasculature. H2S is produced endogenously by catalytic activity of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). Immunohistochemical analysis localized CSE to smooth muscle cells encircling arteries in stem villi. Immunoreactivity was reduced in placentas from pregnancies with severe early-onset growth-restriction and preeclampsia displaying abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms compared with preeclamptic placentas with normal waveforms and controls. These findings were confirmed at the protein and mRNA levels. MicroRNA-21, which negatively regulates CSE expression, was increased in placentas with abnormal Doppler waveforms. Exposure of villus explants to hypoxia-reoxygenation significantly reduced CSE protein and mRNA and increased microRNA-21 expression. No changes were observed in cystathionine β-synthase expression, immunolocalized principally to the trophoblast, in pathologic placentas or in vitro. Finally, perfusion of normal placentas with an H2S donor, after preconstriction with a thromboxane mimetic, resulted in dose-dependent vasorelaxation. Glibenclamide and NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester partially blocked the effect, indicating that H2S acts through ATP-sensitive K+ channels and nitric oxide synthesis. These results demonstrate that H2S is a powerful vasodilator of the placental vasculature and that expression of CSE is reduced in placentas associated with increased vascular resistance. PMID:23410520

  18. [Correlation between the levels of miR-21, miR-34c, miR-140 and miR-375 in the sperm from in vitro fertilization patients and the embryo quality].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Liu, Nenghui

    2015-08-01

    目的:通过检测不同胚胎质量的体外受精(in vitro fertilization,IVF)患者精子miRNA-21,miRNA-34c,miRNA-140,miRNA-375的表达情况,探讨精子来源的miRNAs与胚胎质量的相关性。方法:选择2012年9月至12月在中南大学湘雅医院生殖医学中心行IVF治疗原发不育的男性患者44例,收集 IVF取卵当日剩余新鲜精液标本,采用实时荧光定量PCR测定精子miRNAs(miRNA-21,miRNA-34c,miRNA-140,miRNA-375)的表达水平。观察胚胎情况后分组,第3天胚胎评分的平均值<8分为实验组,≥8分为对照组。比较实验组和对照组患者一般情况及实验室资料,分析精子miRNAs表达水平与胚胎质量的相关性。结果:实验组精子miRNA-21,miRNA-34c,miRNA-140,miRNA-375表达水平低于对照组(P<0.01)。实验组与对照组的获卵数、减数分裂II期(metaphase II,MII)卵子数、双原核(dual pronuclear,2PN)受精数、卵裂数、受精率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);实验组卵裂率低于对照组(P<0.05)。精子miRNA-21,miRNA-34c,miRNA-140,miRNA-375表达水平与第2,3天胚胎碎片率呈负相关,与第3天胚胎卵裂球数呈正相关,与胚胎评分呈正相关。结论:精子miRNA-21,miRNA-34c,miRNA-140,miRNA-375的表达水平上升可能影响卵裂期胚胎质量,对胚胎发育可能起一定的积极作用。.

  19. Current Status and Perspectives Regarding LNA-anti-miR Oligonucleotides and microRNA miR-21 Inhibitors as a Potential Therapeutic Option in Treatment of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nedaeinia, Reza; Avan, Amir; Ahmadian, Mehdi; Nedaee Nia, Sasan; Ranjbar, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohammadreza; Goli, Mohammad; Piroozmand, Ahmad; Nourmohammadi, Esmail; Manian, Mostafa; Ferns, Gordon A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Salehi, Rasoul

    2017-04-12

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related death, principally due to its metastatic spread and multifactorial chemoresistance. The therapeutic failure can also be explained by inter- or intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity and tumor stromal content. Thus, the identification of novel prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic options are warranted in the management of CRC patients. There are data showing that microRNA-21 is elevated in different types of cancer, particularly colon adenocarcinoma and that this is association with a poor prognosis. This suggests that microRNA-21 may be of value as a potential therapeutic target. Furthermore, locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotides have recently emerged as a therapeutic option for targeting dysregulated miRNAs in cancer therapy, through antisense-based gene silencing. Further work is required to identify innovative anticancer drugs that improve the current therapy either through novel combinatorial approaches or with better efficacy than conventional drugs. We aimed to provide an overview of the preclinical and clinical studies targeting key dysregulated signaling pathways in CRC as well as the therapeutic application of LNA-modified oligonucleotides and miR inhibitors in the treatment of CRC patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Physician-scientists in obstetrics and gynecology: predictors of success in obtaining independent research funding.

    PubMed

    Okeigwe, Ijeoma; Wang, Cynthia; Politch, Joseph A; Heffner, Linda J; Kuohung, Wendy

    2017-07-01

    Obstetrics and gynecology departments receive the smallest amount of National Institutes of Health research funding and have significantly lower application success rates compared to pediatric, internal medicine, and surgery departments. The development of mentored early career development training grants (K awards) has been one strategy implemented by the National Institutes of Health to help aspiring physician-scientists establish independent research careers. The purpose of this study is to describe the cohort of obstetrics and gynecology physician-scientists who were K08, K12, and K23 recipients from 1988 through 2015 and to identify predictors of success in obtaining independent federal funding, as defined by acquisition of an R01, R21, R34, U01, U54, P01, or P50 award. We hypothesized that sex, subspecialty, type of K award, and dual MD/PhD would impact success rates. K08, K12, and K23 recipients from 1988 through 2015 were identified from the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools, the office of the National Institutes of Health Freedom of Information Act, and the website of the Reproductive Scientist Development Program. Data were stratified by sex, educational degree, subspecialty, and type of K award. Data were analyzed using the Pearson χ(2) and Fisher exact tests. The Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to determine rates of conversion to independent funding over time. A total of 388 K recipients were identified. Women accounted for 66% of K awards while men accounted for 34%. Among K recipients, 82% were MDs, while 18% were MD/PhDs. K12 awards accounted for 82% of all K awards, while K08 and K23 awards accounted for 10% and 8%, respectively. Subspecialists in maternal-fetal medicine and reproductive endocrinology and infertility received the highest proportion of K awards, followed by generalists and gynecologic oncologists. Altogether, the 3 subspecialty groups accounted for 68% of all K awards. R01 awards made up the

  1. NIH and NCI grant-related changes during fiscal years 2014 and 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Rosemary S. L.

    2015-03-01

    The 2014 fiscal year (FY) continued to be a challenging one for all federal agencies despite the many Congressional strategies proposed to address the U.S. budget deficit. The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013 passed by the House and Senate in December 2013 approved a two-year spending bill which cancelled the FY2014 and FY2015 required sequestration cuts (i.e., 4-5% National Institute of Health (NIH)/National Cancer Institute (NCI) budget reduction initiated on March 1, 2013), but extended the sequestration period through FY2023. This bill passage helped minimize any further budget reductions and resulted in a final FY2014 NIH budget of 29.9 billion and a NCI budget of 4.9 billion. Both NIH and NCI worked hard to maintain awarding the same number of NIH/NCI investigator-initiated R01 and exploratory R21 grants funded in FY2014 and similar to the level seen in FY2013 and previous years (see Tables 1 and 2). Since Congress only recently passed the 2015 spending bill in December 16, 2014, the final NIH and NCI budget appropriations for FY2015 remains unknown at this time and most likely will be similar to the FY2014 budget level. The NCI overall success and funding rates for unsolicited investigator-initiated R01 applications remained at 15%, while the success rate for exploratory R21 applications was 12% in FY2014 with similar rates seen in FY2013 (see Tables 1 and 2). The success rate for biomedical research applications in the Photodynamic Therapy and laser research field will be provided for the past few years. NIH provides numerous resources to help inform the extramural biomedical research community of new and current grant applicants about new grant policy changes and the grant submission and review processes.

  2. Sex Differences Among Career Development Awardees in the Attainment of Independent Research Funding in a Department of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, Rita Rastogi; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Clark, Jeanne M; Weisfeldt, Myron L; Choi, Terry; MacDonald, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    National data suggest that women are overall less likely than men to attain independent research funding. However, it remains unclear whether such sex differences are also observed in academic institutions that have integrated diversity in the workplace as a priority. During 1999-2008, all National Institutes of Health (NIH) Career Development (K01, K08, or K23) awardees in the Department of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine were identified to investigate differences in the attainment of independent funding by sex, including NIH Research Project Grant (R01) or equivalent awards, (U01, P01, P50), and any R award (also R03, R21, R34) through 2012. A similar number of men (n = 49) and women (n = 43) received a K award. There were no significant sex differences in attaining an R01/equivalent award or any R award. The median time to attaining the first R01/equivalent award was similar for men and women (5.6 vs. 5.3 years, p = 0.93). The actuarial rate of R01/equivalent award attainment at 10 years was 64% overall (56% among men vs. 74% among women; log-rank p = 0.41). For any R award, the rate was 72% overall (70% among men vs. 76% among women; log-rank p = 0.63). In Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree, and funding period, sex was not an independent predictor of R01/equivalent or any R award attainment. Interestingly, black race and/or Hispanic ethnicity significantly predicted any R award attainment (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-5.37). No sex differences were found in the attainment of independent funding by K awardees in our study. Future studies to investigate the impact of specific diversity initiatives on subsequent success in attaining independent research funding are needed.

  3. Sex Differences Among Career Development Awardees in the Attainment of Independent Research Funding in a Department of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Clark, Jeanne M.; Weisfeldt, Myron L.; Choi, Terry; MacDonald, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: National data suggest that women are overall less likely than men to attain independent research funding. However, it remains unclear whether such sex differences are also observed in academic institutions that have integrated diversity in the workplace as a priority. Methods: During 1999–2008, all National Institutes of Health (NIH) Career Development (K01, K08, or K23) awardees in the Department of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine were identified to investigate differences in the attainment of independent funding by sex, including NIH Research Project Grant (R01) or equivalent awards, (U01, P01, P50), and any R award (also R03, R21, R34) through 2012. Results: A similar number of men (n = 49) and women (n = 43) received a K award. There were no significant sex differences in attaining an R01/equivalent award or any R award. The median time to attaining the first R01/equivalent award was similar for men and women (5.6 vs. 5.3 years, p = 0.93). The actuarial rate of R01/equivalent award attainment at 10 years was 64% overall (56% among men vs. 74% among women; log-rank p = 0.41). For any R award, the rate was 72% overall (70% among men vs. 76% among women; log-rank p = 0.63). In Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree, and funding period, sex was not an independent predictor of R01/equivalent or any R award attainment. Interestingly, black race and/or Hispanic ethnicity significantly predicted any R award attainment (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–5.37). Conclusions: No sex differences were found in the attainment of independent funding by K awardees in our study. Future studies to investigate the impact of specific diversity initiatives on subsequent success in attaining independent research funding are needed. PMID:26291588

  4. Tension, cell shape and triple-junction angle anisotropy in the Drosophila germband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Monica; Hutson, M. Shane; Meyer, Christian; McDonald, Xena

    In the field of tissue mechanics, the embryonic development of Drosophila melanogaster offers many opportunities for study. One of Drosophila's most crucial morphogenetic stages is the retraction of an epithelial tissue called the germband. During retraction, the segments of the retracting germband, as well as the individual germband cells, elongate in response to forces from a connected tissue, the amnioserosa. Modeling of this elongation, based on tissue responses to laser wounding, has plotted the internal germband tension against the external amnioserosa stress, creating a phase space to determine points and regions corresponding to stable elongation. Although the resulting fits indicate a necessary opposition of internal and external forces, they are inconclusive regarding the exact balance. We will present results testing the model predictions by measuring cell shapes and the correlations between cell-edge directions and triple-junction angles. These measures resolve the ambiguity in pinpointing the internal-external force balance for each germband segment. Research was supported by NIH Grant Numbers 1R01GM099107 and 1R21AR068933.

  5. Improving signal-to-noise performance for DNA translocation in solid-state nanopores at MHz bandwidths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machielse, Bartholomeus; Balan, Adrian; Niedzwiecki, David; Lin, Jianxun; Ong, Peijie; Engelke, Rebecca; Shepard, Kenneth; Drndic, Marija

    2015-03-01

    DNA sequencing using solid-state nanopores is impeded by the relatively high noise and low bandwidth of the current state-of-the-art translocation measurements. We measure the ion current noise through Si3N4 nanopores at bandwidths up to 1 MHz. At these bandwidths, the input-referred current noise is dominated by the amplifier's voltage noise acting across the total capacitance at the amplifier input. By reducing the nanopore membrane capacitance we are able to transition to a regime in which current noise is dominated by the effects of the capacitance of the amplifier itself. Advances in bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio necessary for DNA sequencing will require lower capacitance devices as well as new amplifier designs with reduced input capacitance and noise characteristics. This work was supported by NIH Grants R21HG004767 and R01HG006879. We gratefully acknowledge use of the TEM in the NSF-MRSEC electron microscopy facility. We thank Andrew Sharo, Matthew Puster, Dr. Kimberly Venta, and Prof. Jacob Rosenstein.

  6. Cancer communication science funding trends, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A Susana; Galica, Kasia; Blake, Kelly D; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Hesse, Bradford W

    2013-12-01

    Since 2000, the field of health communication has grown tremendously, owing largely to research funding by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This study provides an overview of cancer communication science funding trends in the past decade. We conducted an analysis of communication-related grant applications submitted to the NCI in fiscal years 2000-2012. Using 103 keywords related to health communication, data were extracted from the Portfolio Management Application, a grants management application used at NCI. Automated coding described key grant characteristics such as mechanism and review study section. Manual coding determined funding across the cancer control continuum, by cancer site, and by cancer risk factors. A total of 3307 unique grant applications met initial inclusion criteria; 1013 of these were funded over the 12-year period. The top funded grant mechanisms were the R01, R21, and R03. Applications were largely investigator-initiated proposals as opposed to responses to particular funding opportunity announcements. Among funded communication research, the top risk factor being studied was tobacco, and across the cancer control continuum, cancer prevention was the most common stage investigated. NCI support of cancer communication research has been an important source of growth for health communication science over the last 12 years. The analysis' findings describe NCI's priorities in cancer communication science and suggest areas for future investments.

  7. WE-AB-303-03: A Scheme for Real-Time, Marker-Less and Low-Dose Tumor Tracking Using Scattering Imaging: Monte Carlo Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, H; Medin, P; Jiang, S; Jia, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In-treatment tumor localization is critical for the management of tumor motion in lung cancer radiotherapy. Conventional tumor-tracking methods using a kV or MV x-ray projection has limited contrast. To facilitate real-time, marker-less and low-dose in-treatment image tumor tracking, we propose a novel scheme using Compton scatter imaging. This study reports Monte Carlo (MC) simulations on this scheme for the purpose of proof-of-principle. Methods: A slit x-ray beam along the patient superior-inferior (SI) direction is directed to the patient, intersecting the patient lung at a 2D plane containing majority part of the tumor motion trajectory. X-ray photons are scattered due to Compton effect from this plane, which are spatially collimated by, e.g., a pinhole, on one side of the plane and then captured by a detector behind it. The captured image, after correcting for x-ray attenuation and scatter angle variation, reflects the electron density, which allows visualization of the instantaneous anatomy on this plane. We performed MC studies on a phantom and a patient case for the initial test of this proposed method. Results: In the phantom case, the contrast-resolution calculated using tumor/lung as foreground/background for kV fluoroscopy, cone-beam CT, and scattering image were 0.0625, 0.6993, and 0.5290, respectively. In the patient case, tumor motion can be clearly observed in the scatter images. Compared to fluoroscopy, scattering imaging also significantly reduced imaging dose because of its narrower beam design. Conclusion: MC simulation studies demonstrated the potential of the proposed scheme in terms of capturing the instantaneous anatomy of a patient on a 2D plane. Clear visualization of the tumor will probably facilitate ‘marker-less’ and ‘real-time’ tumor tracking with low imaging dose. NIH (1R01CA154747-01, 1R21CA178787-01A1 and 1R21EB017978-01A1)

  8. MicroRNA-21 Inhibits the Apoptosis of Osteosarcoma Cell Line SAOS-2 via Targeting Caspase 8.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Xia, Hehuan; Cao, Junming; Wang, Zhihong; Yang, Yipeng; Lin, Yongsheng

    2017-08-07

    Currently, multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play vital roles in the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-21 in osteosarcoma. The level of miR-21 in 20 pairs of osteosarcoma and corresponding adjacent tissues was monitored by qPCR. Human osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 was transfected with either miR-21 mimic or miR-21 inhibitor, and then cell viability, survival, and apoptosis were measured by MTT, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry. A target of miR-21 was predicted by the microRNA.org database and verified in vitro by using luciferase reporter, qPCR, and Western blot analyses. Finally, cells were cotransfected with siRNA against caspase 8 and miR-21 inhibitor, and the apoptotic cell rate was determined again. Results showed that the mRNA level of miR-21 was highly expressed in osteosarcoma tissues compared with adjacent tissues. Overexpression of miR-21 improved cell viability and survival but suppressed apoptosis. Caspase 8 was a direct target of miR-21, and it was negatively regulated by miR-21. Moreover, miR-21 suppression attenuated caspase 8 silencing and induced the decrease in apoptosis. In conclusion, overexpression of miR-21 suppressed SAOS-2 cell apoptosis via directly targeting caspase 8.

  9. Sources of federal funding in plastic and reconstructive surgery research.

    PubMed

    Larson, Kelsey E; Gastman, Brian

    2014-05-01

    In the last several years, federal funding has become increasingly difficult to obtain. The purpose of this project was to define the level of federal funding among plastic surgeons in the modern era. The authors evaluated members of the Plastic Surgery Research Council because of their expected invested interested in research. The authors collected information from 1998 to 2012 on funding using curricula vitae and publically available online tools. Data on Plastic Surgery Foundation funding was also collected to determine its role in supporting federally funded investigators. Of 256 individuals, the authors found 41 to be primary investigators on federally funded grants, with the majority receiving one to two awards. Common subtypes of awards included National Institutes of Health R01 (n = 15), K08 (n = 9), and R21 (n = 6). Limited funding from the National Science Foundation and the Department of Defense was identified. Despite a steady number of available National Institutes of Health awards, plastic surgery recipients have grown in number over the past 15 years. In a review of 20 years of Plastic Surgery Foundation awards, 113 Plastic Surgery Research Council members (44.1 percent) were awardees, averaging 1.8 awards per person. Twenty-nine Plastic Surgery Foundation awardees were also recipients of federal funding; 12 individuals received federal funding without prior Plastic Surgery Foundation funding. A search of plastic surgeons indicates a limited but increasing number of individuals receive federal funding. Plastic Surgery Foundation awards appear to be helpful in supporting investigators as they move to larger federal awards.

  10. Trends in Research on Energy Balance Supported by the National Cancer Institute

    PubMed Central

    Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Siddiqi, Sameer M.; Berrigan, David A.; Ross, Sharon A.; Nebeling, Linda C.; Dowling, Emily C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the body of research linking energy balance to the incidence, development, progression and treatment of cancer has grown substantially. No prior NIH portfolio analyses have focused on energy balance within one institute. This portfolio analysis describes the growth of National Cancer Institute (NCI) grant research on energy balance–related conditions and behaviors from 2004 to 2010 following the release of an NCI research priority statement in 2003 on energy balance and cancer-related research. Energy-balance grants from fiscal years (FY) 2004 to 2010 were identified using multiple search terms and analyzed between calendar years 2008 and 2010. Study characteristics related to cancer site, design, population and energy-balance area (physical activity, diet, and weight) were abstracted. From FY2004 to FY2010, the NCI awarded 269 energy balance–relevant grants totaling $518 million. In FY2010, 4.2% of NCI’s total research project grants budget was allocated to energy-balance research, compared to 2.1% in FY2004. The NCI more than doubled support for investigator-initiated research project grants (R01), and increased support for cooperative agreement (U01, U54) and exploratory research (R21) grants. In the portfolio, research examining energy-balance areas in combination accounted for 41.6%, and observational and interventional studies were equally represented (38.3% and 37.2%, respectively). Breast cancer was the most commonly studied cancer. Inclusion of minorities rose, and funding specific to cancer survivors more than doubled. From FY2004 to FY2010, NCI’s investment in energy-balance and related health behavior research showed growth in funding and diversity of mechanisms, topics and disciplines—growth that reflects new directions in this field. PMID:23498109

  11. Autologous CLL cell vaccination early after transplant induces leukemia-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Ute E; Hainz, Ursula; Stevenson, Kristen; Goldstein, Natalie R; Pasek, Mildred; Naito, Masayasu; Wu, Di; Ho, Vincent T; Alonso, Anselmo; Hammond, Naa Norkor; Wong, Jessica; Sievers, Quinlan L; Brusic, Ana; McDonough, Sean M; Zeng, Wanyong; Perrin, Ann; Brown, Jennifer R; Canning, Christine M; Koreth, John; Cutler, Corey; Armand, Philippe; Neuberg, Donna; Lee, Jeng-Shin; Antin, Joseph H; Mulligan, Richard C; Sasada, Tetsuro; Ritz, Jerome; Soiffer, Robert J; Dranoff, Glenn; Alyea, Edwin P; Wu, Catherine J

    2013-09-01

    Patients with advanced hematologic malignancies remain at risk for relapse following reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We conducted a prospective clinical trial to test whether vaccination with whole leukemia cells early after transplantation facilitates the expansion of leukemia-reactive T cells and thereby enhances antitumor immunity. We enrolled 22 patients with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 18 of whom received up to 6 vaccines initiated between days 30 and 45 after transplantation. Each vaccine consisted of irradiated autologous tumor cells admixed with GM-CSF-secreting bystander cells. Serial patient PBMC samples following transplantation were collected, and the impact of vaccination on T cell activity was evaluated. At a median follow-up of 2.9 (range, 1-4) years, the estimated 2-year progression-free and overall survival rates of vaccinated subjects were 82% (95% CI, 54%-94%) and 88% (95% CI, 59%-97%), respectively. Although vaccination only had a modest impact on recovering T cell numbers, CD8+ T cells from vaccinated patients consistently reacted against autologous tumor, but not alloantigen-bearing recipient cells with increased secretion of the effector cytokine IFN-γ, unlike T cells from nonvaccinated CLL patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Further analysis confirmed that 17% (range, 13%-33%) of CD8+ T cell clones isolated from 4 vaccinated patients by limiting dilution of bulk tumor-reactive T cells solely reacted against CLL-associated antigens. Our studies suggest that autologous tumor cell vaccination is an effective strategy to advance long-term leukemia control following allo-HSCT. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00442130. NCI (5R21CA115043-2), NHLBI (5R01HL103532-03), and Leukemia and Lymphoma Society Translational Research Program.

  12. US-National Institutes of Health-funded research for cutaneous wounds in 2012.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Nicholas A; Lamel, Sonia A; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Martins-Green, Manuela; Sen, Chandan K; Tomic-Canic, Marjana; Vivas, Alejandra C; Braun, Liza R; Kirsner, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    Chronic cutaneous wounds are a major burden on patients, healthcare providers, and the US healthcare system. This study, carried out in part by the Wound Healing Society's Government Regulatory Committee, aimed to evaluate the current state of National Institutes of Health funding of cutaneous wound healing-related research projects. National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools Expenditures & Results system was used to identify wound healing projects funded by the National Institutes of Health in the 2012 fiscal year. Research projects focusing on cutaneous wound prevention/education, mechanisms, complications, treatment, or imaging/monitoring were included in the analysis. Ninety-one projects were identified, totaling a collective funding of $29,798,991 and median funding of $308,941. Thirteen institutes/centers from the National Institutes of Health were responsible for awarding funds; three of which (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) accounted for 60.4% of the grant funding. The predominant funding mechanisms included R01 (48.3%), R43 (14.3%), and R21 (9.9%). New applications and pre-existing applications accounted for 39.6 and 55.0% of the awarded grants, respectively. Grants awarded to investigators affiliated with universities accounted for 68.1% of grants and 25.3% were to investigators in the private sector. This analysis of current National Institutes of Health funding may facilitate more transparency of National Institutes of Health-allocated research funds and serve as an impetus to procure additional support for the field of wound healing.

  13. Trends in research on energy balance supported by the National Cancer Institute.

    PubMed

    Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Siddiqi, Sameer M; Berrigan, David A; Ross, Sharon A; Nebeling, Linda C; Dowling, Emily C

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade, the body of research linking energy balance to the incidence, development, progression, and treatment of cancer has grown substantially. No prior NIH portfolio analyses have focused on energy balance within one institute. This portfolio analysis describes the growth of National Cancer Institute (NCI) grant research on energy balance-related conditions and behaviors from 2004 to 2010 following the release of an NCI research priority statement in 2003 on energy balance and cancer-related research. Energy balance grants from fiscal years (FY) 2004 to 2010 were identified using multiple search terms and analyzed between calendar years 2008 and 2010. Study characteristics related to cancer site, design, population, and energy balance area (physical activity, diet, and weight) were abstracted. From FY2004 to FY2010, the NCI awarded 269 energy balance-relevant grants totaling $518 million. In FY2010, 4.2% of NCI's total research project grants budget was allocated to energy balance research, compared to 2.1% in FY2004. The NCI more than doubled support for investigator-initiated research project grants (R01) and increased support for cooperative agreement (U01, U54) and exploratory research (R21) grants. In the portfolio, research examining energy balance areas in combination accounted for 41.6%, and observational and interventional studies were equally represented (38.3% and 37.2%, respectively). Breast cancer was the most commonly studied cancer. Inclusion of minorities rose, and funding specific to cancer survivors more than doubled. From FY2004 to FY2010, NCI's investment in energy balance and related health behavior research showed growth in funding and diversity of mechanisms, topics, and disciplines-growth that reflects new directions in this field. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Peptide assemblies: from cell scaffolds to immune adjuvants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Joel

    2011-03-01

    This talk will discuss two interrelated aspects of peptide self-assemblies in biological applications: their use as matrices for regenerative medicine, and their use as chemically defined adjuvants for directing immune responses against engineered antigens. In the first half of the presentation, the design of peptide self-assemblies as analogues for the extracellular matrix will be described, with a focus on self-assemblies displaying multiple different cell-binding peptides. We conducted multi-factorial investigations of peptide co-assemblies containing several different ligand-bearing peptides using statistical ``design of experiments'' (DoE). Using the DoE techniques of factorial experimentation and response surface modeling, we systematically explored how precise combinations of ligand-bearing peptides modulated endothelial cell growth, in the process finding interactions between ligands not previously appreciated. By investigating immune responses against the materials intended for tissue engineering applications, we discovered that the basic self-assembling peptides were minimally immunogenic or non-immunogenic, even when delivered in strong adjuvants. -But when they were appended to an appropriately restricted epitope peptide, these materials raised strong and persistent antibody responses. These responses were dependent on covalent conjugation between the epitope and self-assembling domains of the peptides, were mediated by T cells, and could be directed towards both peptide epitopes and conjugated protein antigens. In addition to their demonstrated utility as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, peptide self-assemblies may also be useful as chemically defined adjuvants for vaccines and immunotherapies. This work was funded by NIH/NIDCR (1 R21 DE017703-03), NIH/NIBIB (1 R01 EB009701-01), and NSF (CHE-0802286).

  15. SU-E-J-09: A Monte Carlo Analysis of the Relationship Between Cherenkov Light Emission and Dose for Electrons, Protons, and X-Ray Photons

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, A; Zhang, R; Gladstone, D; Pogue, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A number of recent studies have proposed that light emitted by the Cherenkov effect may be used for a number of radiation therapy dosimetry applications. Here we investigate the fundamental nature and accuracy of the technique for the first time by using a theoretical and Monte Carlo based analysis. Methods: Using the GEANT4 architecture for medically-oriented simulations (GAMOS) and BEAMnrc for phase space file generation, the light yield, material variability, field size and energy dependence, and overall agreement between the Cherenkov light emission and dose deposition for electron, proton, and flattened, unflattened, and parallel opposed x-ray photon beams was explored. Results: Due to the exponential attenuation of x-ray photons, Cherenkov light emission and dose deposition were identical for monoenergetic pencil beams. However, polyenergetic beams exhibited errors with depth due to beam hardening, with the error being inversely related to beam energy. For finite field sizes, the error with depth was inversely proportional to field size, and lateral errors in the umbra were greater for larger field sizes. For opposed beams, the technique was most accurate due to an averaging out of beam hardening in a single beam. The technique was found to be not suitable for measuring electron beams, except for relative dosimetry of a plane at a single depth. Due to a lack of light emission, the technique was found to be unsuitable for proton beams. Conclusions: The results from this exploratory study suggest that optical dosimetry by the Cherenkov effect may be most applicable to near monoenergetic x-ray photon beams (e.g. Co-60), dynamic IMRT and VMAT plans, as well as narrow beams used for SRT and SRS. For electron beams, the technique would be best suited for superficial dosimetry, and for protons the technique is not applicable due to a lack of light emission. NIH R01CA109558 and R21EB017559.

  16. The MicroRNA-21 in Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaowen; Wan, Xiaochun; Ruan, Qingguo

    2016-06-03

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is an oncomiR and significantly upregulated in a wide range of cancers. It is strongly involved in apoptosis and oncogenesis, since most of its reported targets are tumor suppressors. Recently, miR-21 was found to be correlated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and may play an essential role in regulating autoimmune responses. In particular, miR-21 promotes Th17 cell differentiation, which mediates the development of multiple autoimmune diseases. In this article, we review the current research on the mechanisms that regulate miR-21 expression, the potential of miR-21 as a diagnostic biomarker for autoimmune disease and the mechanisms by which miR-21 promotes the development of autoimmune disease. We also discussed the therapeutic potential of targeting miR-21 in treating patients with autoimmune disease.

  17. The MicroRNA-21 in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaowen; Wan, Xiaochun; Ruan, Qingguo

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is an oncomiR and significantly upregulated in a wide range of cancers. It is strongly involved in apoptosis and oncogenesis, since most of its reported targets are tumor suppressors. Recently, miR-21 was found to be correlated with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and may play an essential role in regulating autoimmune responses. In particular, miR-21 promotes Th17 cell differentiation, which mediates the development of multiple autoimmune diseases. In this article, we review the current research on the mechanisms that regulate miR-21 expression, the potential of miR-21 as a diagnostic biomarker for autoimmune disease and the mechanisms by which miR-21 promotes the development of autoimmune disease. We also discussed the therapeutic potential of targeting miR-21 in treating patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:27271606

  18. 78 FR 68449 - Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Analysis to Optimize Care for Patients with Multiple Chronic Conditions (R01)''. Each SEP meeting will..., Rapid Secondary Analysis to Optimize Care for Patients with Multiple Chronic Conditions (R01)'' are...

  19. MicroRNA-21 promotes the proliferation and invasion of cholesteatoma keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohua; Li, Xiaohua; Qin, Zhaobing

    2016-12-01

    The present study revealed that miR-21 promotes the proliferation and invasion of cholesteatoma keratinocytes. These results provide a partial explanation for the more aggressive clinical behavior observed in cholesteatoma. This study aims to investigate the post-transcriptional regulatory effects that control proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion in cholesteatoma keratinocytes. In particular, the potential role of miR-21 was focused on in this study. Thirty cholesteatoma tissues were processed for RNA and cell culture. Cholesteatoma keratinocytes were transfected with miR-21 mimics, miR-21 inhibitors, or negative control miRNAs; and growth curves were drawn. RT-PCR was used to assess the expression levels of miR-21. EdU incorporation assay and TUNEL staining were used to assess the proliferation and apoptosis of cholesteatoma keratinocytes, respectively. The invasive abilities of cholesteatoma keratinocytes were examined using 6-well Transwell plates. MiRNA-21 was upregulated when cholesteatoma keratinocytes were transfected with miR-21 mimics. Furthermore, the number of proliferative EdU + cells increased in cholesteatoma keratinocytes transfected with miR-21 mimics; and the number of TUNEL-positive cells also increased in cells transfected with miR-21 mimics. In addition, the number of migrated cells transfected with miR-21 mimics was higher, compared with migrated cells transfected miR-21 inhibitors or control miRNA.

  20. Up-Regulation of MicroRNA-21 Correlates with Lower Kidney Cancer Survival

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Mohd Saif; Shahryari, Varahram; Deng, Guoren; Thamminana, Sobha; Saini, Sharonjot; Majid, Shahana; Chang, Inik; Hirata, Hiroshi; Ueno, Koji; Yamamura, Soichiro; Singh, Kamaldeep; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNA-21 is up-regulated in a variety of cancers like, breast, colorectal, lung, head and neck etc. However, the regulation of miR-21 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not yet been studied systematically. Methods and Results We measured miR-21 levels in 54 pairs of kidney cancers and their normal matched tissues by real-time PCR. The expression level of miR-21 was correlated with 5 year survival and the pathological stage. Functional studies were done after inhibiting miR-21 in RCC cell lines. We studied in vitro and in vivo effects of the chemo preventive agent genistein on miR-21 expression. In 48 cases (90%), miR-21 was increased. All patients with low miR-21 expression survived 5 years, while with high miR-21 expression, only 50% survived. Higher expression of miR-21 is associated with an increase in the stage of renal cancer. Functional studies after inhibiting miRNA-21 in RCC cell lines show cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis and reduced invasive and migratory capabilities. Western blot analysis showed an increase in the expression of p21 and p38 MAP kinase genes and a reduction in cyclin E2. Genistein inhibited the expression of miR-21 in A-498 cells and in the tumors formed after injecting genistein treated A-498 cells in nude mice besides inhibiting tumor formation. Conclusions The current study shows a clear correlation between miR-21 expression and clinical characteristics of renal cancer. Thus we believe that miR-21 can be used as a tumor marker and its inhibition may prove to be useful in controlling cancers with up-regulated miR-21. PMID:22347428