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Sample records for r3327-h rat prostate

  1. Immunotherapy of prostate cancer in a murine model using a novel GnRH based vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Junco, Jesús A; Peschke, Peter; Zuna, Ivan; Ehemann, Volker; Fuentes, Franklin; Bover, Eddy; Pimentel, Eulogio; Basulto, Roberto; Reyes, Osvaldo; Calzada, Lesvia; Castro, María D; Arteaga, Niurka; López, Yovisleidis; Garay, Hilda; Hernández, Héctor; Bringas, Ricardo; Guillén, Gerardo E

    2007-12-05

    Previous studies with gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH/LHRH) vaccines have shown the usefulness of immunization against this hormone in prostate cancer. To this end, we have generated a completely synthetic peptide modified at position 6 and attached to the 830-844 tetanic toxoid (TT) helper T cell sequence. Through this work we have demonstrated that the GnRHm1-TT molecule was highly immunogenic when it is formulated as an oil-based emulsion adjuvated with Montanide ISA 51. That results correlated directly with testosterone reduction and tumor growth inhibition of the Dunning R3327-H androgen responsive prostate tumor model in rats. GnRHm1-TT, proved to be safe and useful for future clinical trials.

  2. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone-based vaccine, an effective candidate for prostate cancer and other hormone-sensitive neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Junco, Jesús A; Basalto, Roberto; Fuentes, Franklin; Bover, Eddy; Reyes, Osvaldo; Pimentel, Eulogio; Calzada, Lesvia; Castro, Maria D; Arteaga, Niurka; López, Yovisleidis; Hernández, Héctor; Bringas, Ricardo; Garay, Hilda; Peschke, Peter; Bertot, José; Guillén, Gerardo

    2008-01-01

    Prostate growth, development, functions, and neoplastic transformation is androgen dependent. Estrogens have similar effects in the ovary and breast. Previous studies using gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH/LHRH) vaccines have shown the usefulness of immunization against this hormone in prostate (PC) and breast cancer (BC). We have synthesized a peptide mutated at position 6 and attached to the 830-844 tetanic toxoid (TT) helper T cell sequence in the same synthesis process. After repeated pig immunizations, we have demonstrated a vaccine that significantly decreased testes size (p < 0.001), prostate (p < 0.01), seminal vesicles (p < 0.01), and testosterone (T) castration [0.05 nM ml(-1) (p < 0. 01)]. Similar results were obtained in adult male and female healthy dogs and Macaca fascicularis models. These data indicate that this GnRHm1-TT vaccine is safe and able to induce significant tumor growth inhibition in the Dunning R3327-H rat androgen responsive prostate tumor model. In these rats, the immunization induced high anti-GnRH titers concomitant with T castration reduction (p < 0.01) in 90% of the animals tested. In addition, 70% of the responders exhibited tumor growth inhibition (p = 0.02) and a survival rate approximately three times longer that those of untreated rats. These data indicate that GnRHm1-TT vaccine may be a potential candidate in the treatment of PC, BC, and other hormone-dependent cancers.

  3. Combination of long-acting microcapsules of the D-tryptophan-6 analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone with chemotherapy: investigation in the rat prostate cancer model.

    PubMed Central

    Schally, A V; Redding, T W

    1985-01-01

    The effect of combining hormonal treatment consisting of long-acting microcapsules of the agonist [D-Trp6]LH-RH (the D-tryptophan-6 analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) with the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide was investigated in the Dunning R-3327H rat prostate cancer model. Microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH formulated from poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and calculated to release a controlled dose of 25 micrograms/day were injected intramuscularly once a month. Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) (5 mg/kg of body weight) was injected intraperitoneally twice a week. When the therapy was started 90 days after tumor transplantation--at the time that the cancers were well developed-and was continued for 2 months, tumor volume was significantly reduced by the microcapsules or Cytoxan given alone. The combination of these two agents similarly inhibited tumor growth but did not show a synergistic effect. In another study, the treatment was started 2 months after transplantation, when the developing tumors measured 60-70 mm3. Throughout the treatment period of 100 days, the microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH reduced tumor volume more than Cytoxan did, and the combination of the two drugs appeared to completely arrest tumor growth. Tumor weights also were diminished significantly in all experimental groups, the decrease in weight being smaller in the Cytoxan-treated group than in rats that received the microcapsules. The combination of Cytoxan plus the microcapsules was 10-100 times more effective than the single agents in reducing tumor weights. In both experiments, testes and ventral prostate weights were significantly diminished, serum testosterone was suppressed to undetectable levels, and prolactin values were reduced by administration of microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH alone or in combination with Cytoxan. These results in rats suggest that combined administration of long acting microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH with a chemotherapeutic agent, started soon after the

  4. Combination of a long-acting delivery system for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist with Novantrone chemotherapy: increased efficacy in the rat prostate cancer model.

    PubMed Central

    Schally, A V; Kook, A I; Monje, E; Redding, T W; Paz-Bouza, J I

    1986-01-01

    The combination of hormonal treatment based on a long-acting delivery system for the agonist [6-D-tryptophan]luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ([D-Trp6]-LH-RH) with the chemotherapeutic agent Novantrone (mitoxantrone dihydrochloride) was studied in the Dunning R3327H rat prostate cancer model. Microcapsules of [D-Trp6]-LH-RH formulated from poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) and calculated to release a controlled dose of 25 micrograms/day were injected intramuscularly once a month. Novantrone (0.25 mg/kg) was injected intravenously once every 3 weeks. Three separate experiments were carried out. When the therapy was started 45 days after transplantation and continued for 70 days, tumor volume in the presence of the microcapsules (966 +/- 219 mm3) or Novantrone (3606 +/- 785 mm3) given alone was significantly decreased compared to controls (14,476 +/- 3045 mm3). However, the combination of microcapsules and Novantrone caused a greater inhibition of tumor growth (189 +/- 31 mm3) than the single agents. Similar effects were seen when the percent increase in tumor volume was examined. Tumor volume increased 10,527 +/- 1803% for the control group. The inhibition of growth caused by the [D-Trp6]LH-RH microcapsules alone (672 +/- 153% increase in volume) was again greater than that caused by Novantrone alone (2722 +/- 421% increase). The combination of the two agents was again the most effective, resulting in an increase in tumor volume of only 105 +/- 29%. Control tumors weighed 30.0 +/- 6.5 g. Tumor weights were much less in the groups treated with either microcapsules (3.28 +/- 0.69 g) or Novantrone (19.53 +/- 3.3 g) alone. The lowest tumor weights after 70 days of treatment were obtained in the group that received the combination of [D-Trp6]LH-RH microcapsules and Novantrone (1.02 +/- 0.2 g). Testes and ventral prostate weights were significantly diminished by the administration of microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH alone or in combination with Novantrone. In both of these

  5. The Effect of Finasteride and Dutasteride on the Growth of WPE1-NA22 Prostate Cancer Xenografts in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B.; Nelsen, Michelle K.; Unis, Dave; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Background 5α-reductase 1 (5αR1) and 5α-reductase 2 (5αR2) convert testosterone into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone. 5αR2 is the main isoenzyme in normal prostate tissue; however, most prostate tumors have increased 5αR1 and decreased 5αR2 expression. Previously, finasteride (5αR2 inhibitor) treatment begun 3 weeks post-tumor implantation had no effect on Dunning R3327-H rat prostate tumor growth. We believe the tumor compensated for finasteride treatment by increasing tumor 5αR1 expression or activity. We hypothesize that finasteride treatment would not significantly alter tumor growth even if begun before tumor implantation, whereas dutasteride (5αR1 and 5αR2 inhibitor) treatment would decrease tumor growth regardless of whether treatment was initiated before or after tumor implantation. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixty 8-week-old male nude mice were randomized to Control, Pre- and Post-Finasteride, and Pre- and Post-Dutasteride (83.3 mg drug/kg diet) diet groups. Pre- and post-groups began their treatment diets 1–2 weeks prior to or 3 weeks after subcutaneous injection of 1×105 WPE1-NA22 human prostate cancer cells, respectively. Tumors were allowed to grow for 22 weeks; tumor areas, body weights, and food intakes were measured weekly. At study's conclusion, prostate and seminal vesicle weights were significantly decreased in all treatment groups versus the control; dutasteride intake significantly decreased seminal vesicle weights compared to finasteride intake. No differences were measured in final tumor areas or tumor weights between groups, likely due to poor tumor growth. In follow-up studies, proliferation of WPE1-NA22 prostate cancer cells and parent line RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells were unaltered by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or mibolerone, suggesting that these cell lines are not androgen-sensitive. Conclusion The lack of response of WPE1-NA22 prostate cancer cells to androgen treatment may

  6. Chronic prostatic infection and inflammation by Propionibacterium acnes in a rat prostate infection model.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jan; Drott, Johanna Bergh; Laurantzon, Lovisa; Laurantzon, Oscar; Bergh, Anders; Elgh, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammation in the prostate, seen as infiltration of inflammatory cells into the prostate gland in histological samples, affects approximately half the male population without indication of prostate disease, and is almost ubiquitous in patients diagnosed with benign prostate hyperplasia and cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the gram-positive bacterium Propionibacterium acnes to be frequently present in prostate tissue from men suffering from prostate disease. P. acnes has been shown to be associated with histological inflammation in human prostatectomy specimens, and also to induce strong inflammatory response in prostate-derived tissue culture models. The present paper describes a rat model for assessment of the pathogenic potential of P. acnes in prostate. Prostate glands of Sprague Dawley rats (n = 98) were exposed via an abdominal incision and live P. acnes or, in control rats, saline were injected into the ventral and dorso-lateral lobes. Rats were sacrificed 5 days, 3 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post infection, and prostate tissue was analyzed for bacterial content and histological inflammation. Rat sera were assessed for levels of CRP and anti-P. acnes IgG. Live P. acnes could be recovered from the dorso-lateral lobes up to 3 months post infection, while the ventral lobes were cleared from bacteria at that time. In samples up to 3 months post infection, the dorso-lateral lobes exhibited intense focal inflammation. CRP and IgG levels were elevated throughout the span of the experiment, and reached maximum levels 3 weeks and 3 months post infection, respectively. We show that P. acnes have the potential to cause chronic infection in previously healthy prostate, and that the infection has potential to cause chronic histological inflammation in the infected tissue. The high prevalence of P. acnes in human prostate tissue calls for resolution of pathogenic details. The present rat model suggests that complications such as chronic

  7. Testosterone uptake by prostatic tissue from young and old rats.

    PubMed

    Ghanadian, R; Fotherby, K

    1975-01-01

    The uptake of [3H]-testosterone in vitro by the ventral lobe of the prostate of rats more than 11 months old was significantly less than that of rats 4-5 weeks old. There were significant decreases between young and old rats in the RNA and DNA content of the prostate but not in the activity of acid or alkaline phosphatases. Alkaline phosphatase activity was higher than that of acid phosphatase. Testosterone uptake by the prostate was higher in culture medium TC199 than in Krebs-Ringer buffer solution.

  8. Prostatic cellular changes after injection of cadmium and lead into rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Khare, N; Der, R; Ross, G; Fahim, M

    1978-05-01

    Forty male rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control. Group II received 1 mg. lead injected into the prostate; Group III received 1 mg. cadmium chloride; and Group IV received 0.5 mg. lead acetate and 0.5 mg. cadmium chloride. Results indicated that lead caused stone formation in the bladder and calcification of both bladder and prostate; cadmium caused reduction in size and weight of prostate, and histological observation showed marked atrophy of the gland, cuboidal epithelium, and squamous metaplasia in the acini of the prostate; there was no synergistic effect of lead acetate and cadmium chloride when combined at the level administered to Group IV.

  9. Effect of Boerhaavia diffusa in experimental prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Bhavin A.; Desai, Niket Y.; Patel, Paras K.; Joshi, Shrikant V.; Shah, Dinesh R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Present investigation was undertaken to study the effectiveness of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of Boerhaavia diffusa in experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats using various animal models. Materials and Methods: BPH in rats was induced by subcutaneous injection of testosterone (5 mg/kg) daily for 28 days. Rats were divided in to five groups (six rats each). A negative control group received arachis oil (1 ml/kg s.c.) and four groups were injected testosterone. These four groups were further divided into reference group (finasteride 1 mg/kg), model group (testosterone), study group A (B. diffusa 100 mg/kg), and study group B (B. diffusa 250 mg/kg). On the 29th day, rats were sacrificed and body weight, prostate weight, bladder weight, and serum testosterone level were measured and histological studies were carried out. Further in vitro analysis of B. diffusa extract on contractility of isolated rat vas deferens and prostate gland, produced by exogenously administered agonists were carried out. All results were expressed as mean ± SEM. 0 Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. Results: B. diffusa (100 mg/kg) treatment for 28 days resulted in significant inhibition of prostate growth (P < 0.05). Drug extract did not have significant change on serum testosterone level. Histopathological analysis of prostate gland supported above results. Results of in vitro experiment suggest that extracts had attenuated the contractile responses of isolated vas deferens and prostate gland to exogenously applied agonists. Conclusion: The results suggested that treatment with B. diffusa may improve symptoms of disease and inhibit the increased prostate size. In vitro study implies that herbal extracts has the machinery to produce beneficial effect on prostatic smooth muscle, which would relieve the urinary symptoms of disease. B. diffusa could be a potential source of new treatment of prostatic hyperplasia. PMID

  10. Red maca (Lepidium meyenii) reduced prostate size in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Miranda, Sara; Nieto, Jessica; Fernández, Gilma; Yucra, Sandra; Rubio, Julio; Yi, Pedro; Gasco, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have found that consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. This effect seems to be due to aromatic glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates are known for have both antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions. Maca is a cruciferous cultivated in the highlands of Peru. The absolute content of glucosinolates in Maca hypocotyls is relatively higher than that reported in other cruciferous crops. Therefore, Maca may have proapoptotic and anti-proliferative effects in the prostate. Methods Male rats treated with or without aqueous extracts of three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Black and Red) were analyzed to determine the effect on ventral prostate weight, epithelial height and duct luminal area. Effects on serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) levels were also assessed. Besides, the effect of Red Maca on prostate was analyzed in rats treated with testosterone enanthate (TE). Results Red Maca but neither Yellow nor Black Maca reduced significantly ventral prostate size in rats. Serum T or E2 levels were not affected by any of the ecotypes of Maca assessed. Red Maca also prevented the prostate weight increase induced by TE treatment. Red Maca administered for 42 days reduced ventral prostatic epithelial height. TE increased ventral prostatic epithelial height and duct luminal area. These increases by TE were reduced after treatment with Red Maca for 42 days. Histology pictures in rats treated with Red Maca plus TE were similar to controls. Phytochemical screening showed that aqueous extract of Red Maca has alkaloids, steroids, tannins, saponins, and cardiotonic glycosides. The IR spectra of the three ecotypes of Maca in 3800-650 cm (-1) region had 7 peaks representing 7 functional chemical groups. Highest peak values were observed for Red Maca, intermediate values for Yellow Maca and low values for Black Maca. These functional groups correspond among others to benzyl glucosinolate. Conclusions

  11. Testosterone promotes an anabolic increase in the rat female prostate (Skene's paraurethral gland) which acquires a male ventral prostate phenotype.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Madi-Ravazzi, Liliam; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Felisbino, Sérgio L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2010-12-01

    The female prostate (Skene's paraurethral gland) in the rat is morphologically similar to the ventral lobe of male adults and has been described in other rodent species and humans. Previous studies on prostate morphogenesis suggest that female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) do not develop this gland due to the absence of testosterone during the embryonic and neonatal periods. On the other hand, studies conducted in our laboratory have shown that some females of this species can present an undeveloped but functional prostate. Recent studies on this gland have caused scientific interest because, besides being active in the processes of synthesis and secretion of prostatic material, it is also targeted by both malignant and benign lesions, mainly during senescence. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the structure of female prostate of adult rats (Rattus norvegicus) under normal conditions and under the effect of testosterone treatment and carry out comparative studies on the ventral prostate of young and adult male rats. Morphological and morphometric stereological analyses and immunocytochemical and ultrastructural studies were conducted. The results have shown that the prostate gland of rats exposed to androgen therapy have experienced intense growth, becoming more active in relation to synthesis and secretion. It may be concluded that the prostate in control adult female rats is morphologically very similar to the prostatic ventral lobe of young male rats. Besides, under androgenic action, the female prostate grows considerably and becomes similar to the prostatic ventral lobe in male adults. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Ursolic acid reduces prostate size and dihydrotestosterone level in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Lee, Mee-Young; Jung, Da-Young; Seo, Chang-Seob; Ha, Hye-Kyung; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, which can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. The prevalence of BPH increases in an age-dependent manner. We investigated the protective effect of ursolic acid in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (TP), for a period of four weeks. Ursolic acid was administrated daily by oral gavage at a dose level of 5mg/kg during the four weeks of TP injections. Animals were sacrificed on the scheduled termination, before prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. TP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in the serum and prostate were also measured. BPH-induced animals displayed an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate. However, ursolic acid treatment resulted in significant reductions in prostate weight and testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, compared with BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also showed that ursolic acid treatment suppressed TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia. These findings indicate that ursolic acid may effectively inhibit the development of BPH and it may be a useful agent in BPH treatment.

  13. Immunocytochemistry of epithelial markers in citral-induced prostate hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Massas, R; Servadio, C; Sandbank, U; Abramovici, A

    1991-04-01

    Immunocytochemical characterization of several epithelial markers using the PAP technique was analyzed during different stages of induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Intact adolescent rats (42 days old) were treated with citral (3,7 dimethyl-2,6 octadienal) for 10, 30 and 100 days and their ventral prostate compared to untreated, matched-age animals. Among the epithelial markers studied the prostatic specific acid phosphatase was present in hyperplastic prostates of rats. The immunoreaction showed a fair correlation with the severity of lesion and duration of treatment. The prostatic specific antigen showed equally immunoreactive in both control and treated rats. The hyperplastic and normal rat prostates did not show immunoreactivity towards the other epithelial cell markers such as epithelial membrane antigen, carcinoembrionic antingen and alpha-fetoprotein antisera. It is concluded that prostatic specific acid phosphatase, and to a lesser extent prostatic specific antigen, might represent valuable markers for comparative studies of prostatic hyperplasia in rodents.

  14. Extracellular Vesicles from Metastatic Rat Prostate Tumors Prime the Normal Prostate Tissue to Facilitate Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Halin Bergström, Sofia; Hägglöf, Christina; Thysell, Elin; Bergh, Anders; Wikström, Pernilla; Lundholm, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data indicates that tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are responsible for tumor-promoting effects. However, if tumor EVs also prepare the tumor-bearing organ for subsequent tumor growth, and if this effect is different in low and high malignant tumors is not thoroughly explored. Here we used orthotopic rat Dunning R-3327 prostate tumors to compare the role of EVs from fast growing and metastatic MatLyLu (MLL) tumors with EVs from more indolent and non-metastatic Dunning G (G) tumors. Prostate tissue pre-conditioned with MLL-EVs in vivo facilitated G tumor establishment compared to G-EVs. MLL-EVs increased prostate epithelial proliferation and macrophage infiltration into the prostate compared to G-EVs. Both types of EVs increased macrophage endocytosis and the mRNA expression of genes associated with M2 polarization in vitro, with MLL-EVs giving the most pronounced effects. MLL-EVs also altered the mRNA expression of growth factors and cytokines in primary rat prostate fibroblasts compared to G-EVs, suggesting fibroblast activation. Our findings propose that EVs from metastatic tumors have the ability to prime the prostate tissue and enhance tumor growth to a higher extent than EVs from non-metastatic tumors. Identifying these differences could lead to novel therapeutic targets and potential prognostic markers for prostate cancer. PMID:27550147

  15. Biosynthesis of putrescine in the prostate gland of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Pegg, A. E.; Williams-Ashman, H. G.

    1968-01-01

    In the rat ventral prostate gland the biosynthesis of putrescine, a precursor of spermidine and spermine, is shown to occur by the direct decarboxylation of l-ornithine. Some properties of a soluble pyridoxal phosphate-dependent l-ornithine decarboxylase are described. The findings are discussed in relation to other enzymic reactions involved in the biosynthesis of polyamines by the prostate gland. PMID:5667265

  16. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca.

  17. Retinoic acid binding protein in normal and neopolastic rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Gesell, M S; Brandes, M J; Arnold, E A; Isaacs, J T; Ueda, H; Millan, J C; Brandes, D

    1982-01-01

    Sucrose density gradient analysis of cytosol from normal and neoplastic rat prostatic tissues exhibited a peak of (3H) retinoic acid binding in the 2S region, corresponding to the cytoplasmic retinoic acid binding protein (cRABP). In the Fisher-Copenhagen F1 rat, cRABP was present in the lateral lobe, but could not be detected in the ventral nor in the dorsal prostatic lobes. Four sublines of the R-3327 rat prostatic tumor contained similar levels of this binding protein. The absence of cRABP in the normal tissue of origin of the R-3327 tumor, the rat dorsal prostate, and reappearance in the neoplastic tissues follows a pattern described in other human and animal tumors. The occurrence of cRABP in the well-differentiated as well as in the anaplastic R-3327 tumors in which markers which reflect a state of differentiation and hormonal regulation, such as androgen receptor, 5 alpha reductase, and secretory acid phosphatase are either markedly reduced or absent, points to cRABP as a marker of malignant transformation.

  18. Tamsulosin alters levofloxacin pharmacokinetics in prostates derived from rats with acute bacterial prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Guo-Dong; Xiao, Ming-Zhao; Zhou, Yuan-Da; Yang, Jing; He, Hai-Xia; He, Yue; Zeng, Yang

    2013-01-01

    The combination of levofloxacin and α1 adrenergic antagonist treatment is the current preferred choice for both bacterial and non-bacterial prostatitis. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of α1 adrenergic antagonists on the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin using rat models with acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP) induced by direct injection with Escherichia coli (ATCC25922). A total of 96 model rats were randomly assigned into two groups: the experimental group (treated with both tamsulosin and levofloxacin, n=48) and the control group (treated with levofloxacin and solvents, n=48). Six rats from each group were euthanized to collect blood, liver, kidney and prostate samples at the time points of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h after drug administration. The levofloxacin concentrations were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the 3p97 software program. There were no obvious differences (P>0.05) between the experimental and control groups in the major pharmacokinetic parameters of levofloxacin, including the halftime (t1/2), time to peak (tpeak), clearance rate (CL), maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC0∼12), in the plasma or in the hepatic and kidney tissues of the model rats. However, in the prostatic tissues, tamsulosin increased the Cmax, prolonged the t1/2 and decreased the CL of levofloxacin (P<0.05). These results indicate that tamsulosin may enhance the effect of levofloxacin in the treatment of bacterial prostatitis without changing the drug concentration in the liver and kidney. PMID:23353720

  19. Tamsulosin alters levofloxacin pharmacokinetics in prostates derived from rats with acute bacterial prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guo-Dong; Xiao, Ming-Zhao; Zhou, Yuan-Da; Yang, Jing; He, Hai-Xia; He, Yue; Zeng, Yang

    2013-03-01

    The combination of levofloxacin and α1 adrenergic antagonist treatment is the current preferred choice for both bacterial and non-bacterial prostatitis. The aim of this study is to explore the influence of α1 adrenergic antagonists on the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin using rat models with acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP) induced by direct injection with Escherichia coli (ATCC25922). A total of 96 model rats were randomly assigned into two groups: the experimental group (treated with both tamsulosin and levofloxacin, n=48) and the control group (treated with levofloxacin and solvents, n=48). Six rats from each group were euthanized to collect blood, liver, kidney and prostate samples at the time points of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 h after drug administration. The levofloxacin concentrations were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the 3p97 software program. There were no obvious differences (P>0.05) between the experimental and control groups in the major pharmacokinetic parameters of levofloxacin, including the halftime (t1/2), time to peak (tpeak), clearance rate (CL), maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC0∼12), in the plasma or in the hepatic and kidney tissues of the model rats. However, in the prostatic tissues, tamsulosin increased the Cmax, prolonged the t1/2 and decreased the CL of levofloxacin (P<0.05). These results indicate that tamsulosin may enhance the effect of levofloxacin in the treatment of bacterial prostatitis without changing the drug concentration in the liver and kidney.

  20. Interaction of tomato lycopene and ketosamine against rat prostate tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Mossine, Valeri V; Chopra, Pankaj; Mawhinney, Thomas P

    2008-06-01

    Prior investigations on the beneficial effect of dietary processed tomato products and lycopene on prostate cancer risk suggested that lycopene may require the presence of other constituents to exert its chemopreventive potential. We investigated whether ketosamines, a group of carbohydrate derivatives present in dehydrated tomato products, may interact with lycopene against prostate tumorigenesis. One ketosamine, FruHis, strongly synergized with lycopene against proliferation of the highly metastatic rat prostate adenocarcinoma MAT-LyLu cell line in vitro. The FruHis/lycopene combination significantly inhibited in vivo tumor formation by MAT-LyLu cells in syngeneic Copenhagen rats. Energy-balanced diets, supplemented with tomato paste, tomato powder, or tomato paste plus FruHis, were fed to Wistar-Unilever rats (n = 20 per group) treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea and testosterone to induce prostate carcinogenesis. Survival from carcinogenesis was lowest in the control group (median survival time, 40 weeks) and highest in the group fed the tomato paste/FruHis diet (51 weeks; P = 0.004, versus control). The proportions of dying rats with macroscopic prostate tumors in the control, tomato paste, tomato powder, and tomato paste/FruHis groups were 63% (12 of 19), 39% (5 of 13), 43% (6 of 14), and 18% (2 of 11), respectively. FruHis completely blocked DNA oxidative degradation at >250 micromol/L in vitro, whereas neither ascorbate nor phenolic antioxidants from tomato were effective protectors in this assay. FruHis, therefore, may exert tumor-preventive effect through its antioxidant activity and interaction with lycopene.

  1. The effect of CIS hydroxyproline on ventral prostatic growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Uke, E; Lee, C; Grayhack, J T

    1983-01-01

    Changes in prostatic collagen were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats to gain further insight into the relationship between this stromal component and androgen mediated prostatic growth. Regulation of prostatic collagen by other endocrine factors was also studied. Collagen content per prostate was estimated by determination of tissue levels of hydroxyproline. The 1st experiment examined changes in the content of hydroxyproline in the prostate during pre- and post-pubertal growth with the use of rats between 21 and 80 days of age. As the animals grew, their prostatic weights and hydroxyproline contents increased in a parallel fashion (correlation coefficient R = 0.977, p less than 0.01). In the 2nd experiment, rats were castrated for a period up to 28 days. The hydroxyproline content in the prostate did not change significantly by castration despite a marked decrease in prostatic weights. Results of the 3rd experiment indicated that castration-hypophysectomy or castration-hypophysectomy plus estrogen treatment did not significantly change the content of prostatic hydroxyproline from that in the untreated intact animals. The 4th experiment studied the effect of the collagen synthesis inhibitor, cis-4-hydroxyproline, on prostatic growth. Subcutaneous injection of cis-4-hydroxyproline to castrated testosterone treated rats caused a significantly slower increase in total ventral prostatic weights and contents of protein, DNA and hydroxyproline than those of saline treated controls. This inhibition in prostatic growth is unlikely to be related to any antiandrogenic effect of cis hydroxyproline as the protein/DNA ratio in the prostate was the same for both saline and cis-4-hydroxyproline treated groups. Electron microscopic studies revealed that cis-4-hydroxyproline treatment resulted in a derangement of the basement membrane in the ventral prostate. The above results suggest that collagen plays an important role in limiting prostatic growth since inhibition of collagen

  2. Effects of an immunosuppressive treatment on the rat prostate

    PubMed Central

    Grabowska, Marta; Kędzierska, Karolina; Michałek, Katarzyna; Słuczanowska-Głąbowska, Sylwia; Grabowski, Maciej; Piasecka, Małgorzata; Kram, Andrzej; Rotter, Iwona; Rył, Aleksandra; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different combinations of immunosuppressive drugs on the morphology, ultrastructure, and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cytoskeleton proteins in the rat dorsolateral prostate. The studies were conducted on 48 male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into eight groups: a control group and seven experimental groups. For 6 months, the animals in the experimental groups were administered a combination of drugs including rapamycin (Rapa), cyclosporin A, tacrolimus (Tac), mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone (Pred), according to the standard three-drug regimens for immunosuppressive therapy used in clinical practice. An evaluation of the morphology and ultrastructure was conducted, and a quantitative evaluation of the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and desmin- and cytokeratin-positive cells with weak, moderate, and strong expression was performed. The combination of Rapa, Tac, and Pred caused the smallest morphological and ultrastructural changes in the rat prostate cells. In the case of rats whose treatment was switched to Rapa monotherapy, a decreased percentage of proliferating cells of both the glandular epithelium and the stroma was found. Decreases in body weight and changes in the expression of cytokeratin and desmin were observed in all the experimental rats. The combination of Rapa, Tac, and Pred would seem to be the most beneficial for patients who do not suffer from prostate diseases. Our results justify the use of inhibitors of the mammalian target of Rapa in the treatment of patients with prostate cancer. The changes in the expression of cytoskeleton proteins may be the result of direct adverse effects of the immunosuppressive drugs, which are studied in this article, on the structure and organization of intermediate filament proteins. PMID:27672312

  3. Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Maria Elena; Soto-Cid, Abraham; Rojas, Fausto; Pascual, Luz I; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Toledo, Rebeca; Garcia, Luis I; Quintanar-Stephano, Andres; Manzo, Jorge

    2006-05-17

    The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin during ejaculations that avoid the detrimental effects produced by

  4. Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Maria Elena; Soto-Cid, Abraham; Rojas, Fausto; Pascual, Luz I; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Toledo, Rebeca; Garcia, Luis I; Quintanar-Stephano, Andres; Manzo, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin during ejaculations that avoid

  5. Somatostatin analogs as adjuncts to agonists of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in the treatment of experimental prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Schally, A V; Redding, T W

    1987-01-01

    The combination of a long-acting delivery system for the agonist [D-Trp6]luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ([D-Trp6]LH-RH) with modern somatostatin analogs was studied in the Dunning R-3327H rat prostate cancer model. Microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH releasing 25 micrograms/day were injected once a month. In the first experiment the adjunct was the somatostatin analog D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Thr-NH2 (RC-121), administered at a dose of 2.5 micrograms twice a day, and the therapy was continued for 70 days. Tumor volume was significantly decreased by [D-Trp6]LH-RH microcapsules or RC-121 given alone. The combination of microcapsules and analog RC-121 caused a greater inhibition of tumor growth than the single agents. Similar effects were seen when the percent increase in the tumor volume was examined. The inhibition of tumor growth caused by the [D-Trp6]LH-RH microcapsules was greater than that caused by RC-121. The combination of the two agents was again the most effective, resulting in the smallest increase in tumor volume. Tumor weights were much lower in the groups treated with microcapsules or RC-121 alone than in controls. The lowest tumor weights were obtained in the group that received the combination of [D-Trp6]LH-RH microcapsules and RC-121. Similar results were obtained in the second experiment, in which the animals were treated for a period of 83 days with microcapsules containing the somatostatin analog D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Trp-NH2 (RC-160) that released 5 micrograms/day and were injected twice a month alone or in combination with microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH. Microcapsules of analog RC-160 given alone significantly decreased tumor growth as measured by the final tumor volume, the percentage change from the initial tumor volume, and the reduction in tumor weight. The inhibition of tumor growth induced by [D-Trp6]LH-RH microcapsules was greater than that caused by RC-160. The most striking decrease in tumor weight and volume was

  6. Alteration of Loperamide-Induced Prostate Relaxation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Sheng-Lung; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Chen, I-Hung; Tong, Yat-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the change of loperamide-induced prostate relaxation in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Materials and Methods. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: (1) control rats fed with normal chow and (2) rats fed with HFD for 6 months. The prostate was removed for histology study. Isolated prostate strips were hung in organ bath and precontracted with 1 μmol/L phenylephrine or 50 mmol/L KCl. The relaxation responses to loperamide 0.1 to 10 μmol/L were recorded. Western blotting analyses were performed for prostate μ-opioid receptors (MOR) and ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel proteins: sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 6.2 subunits. Results. Body weight, prostate weight, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol, as well as systolic blood pressure, were significantly increased in the HFD rats. Histology showed prostatic hyperplasia in the HFD rat prostate. Prostatic relaxation induced by loperamide was markedly reduced in HFD when compared to the control. Protein expressions of MOR, SUR, and Kir 6.2 were decreased in HFD-fed rats. Conclusion. Loperamide-induced prostate relaxation is decreased in HFD rats due to reduced MOR and KATP channel expressions. PMID:25506071

  7. Inhibitory effects of Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside on benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hai-Nan; Xu, Yuan; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Wang, Tao

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Tripterygium wilfordii multiglycoside (GTW) against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into five groups: Group I, vehicle control group (sham-operated and treated with vehicle); Group II, BPH group; Group III, BPH rats treated with finasteride at a dose of 5 mg·kg(-1); and Groups IV and V, BPH rats treated with GTW at dose levels of 10 and 20 mg·kg(-1), respectively. The drugs were administered orally once a day for 14 days. Prostate weight, prostatic index, and the testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in serum and prostate, and the serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were measured; prostate tissues were taken for histopathological examination; and serum biochemical analysis was also performed. The BPH rats displayed an increase in prostate weight, prostatic index with increased testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, and increased serum PSA levels. GTW treatment at both doses resulted in significant reductions in prostate weight, prostatic index, testosterone and DHT levels in both the serum and prostate, and serum PSA levels, compared with BPH group. Histopathological examination also indicated that GTW treatment at both doses inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Serum biochemical analysis showed that the liver and renal functions were normal. In conclusion, GTW inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats, without host toxicity, providing a basis for the development of GTW as a novel therapy for BPH. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Malignant lesions in the ventral prostate of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Marques, Silvio Fernando Guideti; Alberti, Sandra; Spadella, César Tadeu; Manzato, Antônio José; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Dizeyi, Nishtman; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by chronic diabetes in the rat ventral prostate and to establish a correlation between diabetes and the development of prostatic lesions. Male rats received alloxan (42 mg/kg b.w.) to induce diabetes. Ninety days after diabetes diagnosis, animals were sacrificed and the ventral prostate was removed and prepared for general and immunohistochemical analyses. The total area showing different types of lesions was estimated. Diabetes led to a decrease in the body and prostatic weights, as well as in testosterone levels. The prostate morphology and stereology showed high variation in the diabetic group. Some animals had light changes; the great majority had an intense epithelial atrophy; and other rats showed premalignant and malignant lesions in the prostate. Such epithelial atrophy was, in some samples, combined with chronic inflammation, similar to proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA). The diabetic group also presented high incidence of prostatitis, adenocarcinoma and prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). Samples with adenocarcinoma had poorly differentiated acini with high levels of cellular proliferation and nuclear atypia. These lesions exhibited an invasive feature showing Bcl-2-positive cells and interruptions in the basement membrane. An association of PIA, PIN and adenocarcinoma was detected in one sample. Reduced androgen levels have a synergic effect to insulin dysfunction promoting negative effects in the rat prostate. Diabetic individuals had a high incidence of prostatitis, and this inflammation could stimulate the incidence of other forms of prostatic pathology.

  9. Malignant lesions in the ventral prostate of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Marques, Silvio Fernando Guideti; Alberti, Sandra; Spadella, César Tadeu; Manzato, Antônio José; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Dizeyi, Nishtman; Abrahamsson, Per-Anders; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes caused by chronic diabetes in the rat ventral prostate and to establish a correlation between diabetes and the development of prostatic lesions. Male rats received alloxan (42 mg/kg b.w.) to induce diabetes. Ninety days after diabetes diagnosis, animals were sacrificed and the ventral prostate was removed and prepared for general and immunohistochemical analyses. The total area showing different types of lesions was estimated. Diabetes led to a decrease in the body and prostatic weights, as well as in testosterone levels. The prostate morphology and stereology showed high variation in the diabetic group. Some animals had light changes; the great majority had an intense epithelial atrophy; and other rats showed premalignant and malignant lesions in the prostate. Such epithelial atrophy was, in some samples, combined with chronic inflammation, similar to proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA). The diabetic group also presented high incidence of prostatitis, adenocarcinoma and prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN). Samples with adenocarcinoma had poorly differentiated acini with high levels of cellular proliferation and nuclear atypia. These lesions exhibited an invasive feature showing Bcl-2-positive cells and interruptions in the basement membrane. An association of PIA, PIN and adenocarcinoma was detected in one sample. Reduced androgen levels have a synergic effect to insulin dysfunction promoting negative effects in the rat prostate. Diabetic individuals had a high incidence of prostatitis, and this inflammation could stimulate the incidence of other forms of prostatic pathology. PMID:18715471

  10. Protective effect of zinc on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and testosterone-induced prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the dorsolateral prostate of Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Banudevi, Sivanantham; Elumalai, Perumal; Sharmila, Govindaraj; Arunkumar, Ramachandran; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Arunakaran, Jagadeesan

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that zinc exerts anticarcinogenic and antiproliferative effects against prostate cancer both in vitro and in rat ventral prostate. Zinc accumulation diminishes early in the course of prostate malignancy and it inhibits the growth of several carcinoma cells through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In this study, we have investigated the influence of zinc on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and testosterone (T)-induced prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the dorsolateral prostate of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The results indicate that zinc plays an important role in prostate carcinogenesis. Increased tumor incidence was accompanied by a decrease in prostatic acid phosphatase activity, citrate, zinc, glutathione-S-transferase, reduced glutathione, p53, B-cell lymphoma protein (Bcl-2)-associated X protein and caspase-3 levels in MNU + T-treated rats. On the contrary, significantly increased phase I drug metabolizing enzyme activities, lipid peroxide, hydrogen peroxide, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) protein levels were observed in the dorsolateral prostate of MNU + T-treated rats. Simultaneous zinc supplementation significantly reversed these effects in MNU + T-treated rats. Signs of dysplasia, a characteristic of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, were evident in the dorsolateral prostatic tissue sections by MNU + T administration. However, zinc supplementation has reversed these effects in the dorsolateral prostatic histoarchitecture. These results suggest that zinc may act as an essential trace element against MNU and testosterone-induced prostatic preneoplastic progression in SD rats.

  11. Calcitonin releases acid phosphatase from rat ventral prostate explants.

    PubMed

    Latif, A; Nakhla, A M

    1994-01-01

    Inclusion of salmon calcitonin in the culture medium of rat ventral prostate explants diminished l-tartarate-sensitive acid phosphatase activity in the tissues with a concomitant increment of the enzyme activity in the medium. The effect of the hormone was dose-dependent for a dose range of 10(-12)-10(-6) M. Acid phosphatase activity in prostate explants decreased from 38.6 +/- 3.5 to 20.5 +/- 2.8, whereas it increased from 0.60 +/- 0.15 to 2.80 +/- 0.40 nmol p-nitrophenol liberated/mg protein/30 min in the culture medium. Tissues exposed to 10(-6) M salmon calcitonin had higher acetylcholinesterase activity (8.8 +/- 0.7) than non-exposed ones (6.2 +/- 0.5 mumol substrate hydrolyzed/g tissue/min). These results suggest that locally produced calcitonin causes a release for prostatic acid phosphatase from prostate tissues possibly through its interaction with the cholinergic system.

  12. Inhibitory effects by ayurvedic plants on prostate enlargement induced in rats

    PubMed Central

    Dumbre, Rahul K.; Kamble, Manisha B.; Patil, Vijay R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ayurveda recommends several plants and plant preparation for conditions of urogenital disorders as per its principles. Objectives: Ayurvedic plants Tamala (Cinnamomum tamala); Daruhalad (Berberis aristata); Ativish (Aconitum heterophyllum) were studied for mechanisms of prostatic hyperplasia induced in rats. Materials and Methods: Prostatic enlargement was induced in castrated rats by testosterone injection s.c. for 21 days and simultaneously plants were dosed orally daily. On day 22 rats were sacrificed and prostate was removed; weight and volume of prostate was measured; histopathology performed. Inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan in rat hind paw and inhibition was studied by measuring rat paw oedema at different time points. Results: Tamala showed significant effect where it reduced prostatic enlargement and improved hyperplastic changes, while Daruhalad and Ativisha did not show any significant effect. All of them showed mild to moderate anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: Study concludes that Tamala may benefit in prostate disorder by virtue of inhibition of androgen mechanisms in prostate and modulating inflammatory mediators in prostate. Daruhalad and Ativisha did not show any effect in this model of prostate enlargement while the anti-inflammatory effect may propose one of the useful properties when included in various formulations. PMID:24761116

  13. Inflammation and Atrophy Precede Prostate Neoplasia in PhIP Induced Rat Model

    SciTech Connect

    Borowsky, A D; Dingley, K; Ubick, E; Turteltaub, K; Cardiff, R D; DeVere-White, R

    2006-06-01

    2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) has been implicated as a major mutagenic heterocyclic amine in the human diet and is carcinogenic in the rat prostate. In order to validate PhIP induced rat prostate neoplasia as a model of human prostate cancer progression, we sought to study the earliest histologic and morphologic changes in the prostate and to follow the progressive changes over time. We fed 67 male Fischer F344 5 week old rats with PhIP (400 PPM) or control diets for 20 weeks, and then sacrificed animals for histomorphologic examination at age 25 weeks, 45 weeks, and 65 weeks. Animals treated with PhIP showed significantly more inflammation (P=.002 (25wk), >.001(45wk), .016(65wk)) and atrophy (P=.003(25wk), >.001(45wk), .006 (65wk)) in their prostate glands relative to controls. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) occurred only in PhIP treated rats. PIN lesions arose in areas of glandular atrophy, most often in the ventral prostate. Atypical cells in areas of atrophy show loss of glutathione S-transferase pi immunostaining preceding development of PIN. None of the animals in this study developed invasive carcinomas differing from previous reports. Overall, these findings suggest that the pathogenesis of prostatic neoplasia in the PhIP treated rat prostate proceeds from inflammation to post-inflammatory proliferative atrophy to PIN.

  14. Effects of finasteride and bicalutamide on prostatic blood flow in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lekås, E; Bergh, A; Damber, J E

    2000-05-01

    To determine whether finasteride and bicalutamide, both currently used in the clinical management of patients with prostate diseases because they have anti-androgenic properties, have any effects on prostatic blood flow in a rat prostate model, as androgens are known to be involved in the regulation of prostatic blood flow and angiogenesis. Both finasteride and bicalutamide were supplied as oral suspensions in water and given daily to rats for 7 days by tube feeding. Blood flows to the ventral and dorsal prostates, and to the kidneys, were measured using the radioactive microsphere technique. In the bicalutamide experiments, some rats were treated with the Leydig cell toxin ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS), to obtain a castration-like effect, and one group of these rats received testosterone. Finasteride induced a clear decrease in blood flow to the ventral and dorsal prostates after 7 days of treatment, with no significant changes in blood pressure or kidney blood flow. Bicalutamide inhibited the testosterone-induced increment of prostatic blood flow observed in EDS-treated animals. Finasteride, a blocker of 5alpha-reductase, decreases prostate blood flow after 7 days of administration. The response was slower than that after castration, but was of similar magnitude. Blood flow was also decreased after treatment with the androgen-receptor inhibitor bicalutamide. These observations suggest that prostatic blood flow is increased by dihydrotestosterone, and that the androgen receptor is responsible for mediating this effect.

  15. Laser immunotherapy in treatment of metastatic prostate tumors in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei R.; Ritchey, Jerry W.; Bartles, Kenneth E.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2002-07-01

    Laser immunotherapy is a special cancer treatment modality using an intratumor injection of a special formulation consisting of a novel immunoadjuvant and a laser-absorbing dye, followed by a non-invasive near-IR laser irradiation. Our early experiments using a metastatic mammary rat tumor model showed that laser immunotherapy could cause acute selective photothermal tumor destruction and induce a systemic, long-term specific anti-tumor immunity. In the current study, laser immunotherapy was used to treat metastatic prostate tumors in Copenhagen male rats. The transplantable tumors metastasize mainly to the lung and the lung cancer is usually the cause of death. Two experimental were performed in our study. The first was to study the effect of laser immunotherapy on the tumor burdens, both the primary and the metastasis in the lung. The second was to study the effect of laser immunotherapy on the long-term survival of the tumor-bearing rats. For comparison, some rat tumors were also treated by the laser-dye combination to study the photothermal effect. Tour results showed that both the photothermal effect and the laser immunotherapy could slow the growth of primary tumors and the metastatic tumors. The laser-dye-immunoadjuvant treatment resulted in more than 20 percent long-term survival rate in tumor-bearing rats. Our experimental results indicate that the laser immunotherapy has a great potential in treating metastatic tumors.

  16. Genistein alters growth but is not toxic to the rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Wayne A; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin; Cotroneo, Michelle S; Lamartiniere, Coral A

    2002-10-01

    The mortality of clinical prostate cancer is lower in Asian populations than in American or European men. Asian men typically consume more soy than their Western counterparts, leading to the investigation of individual components, particularly phytoestrogens, as protective factors against prostate cancer. Genistein, the predominant isoflavone in soy, has been reported to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer in animal models, but the underlying biological action remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this investigation was to identify the effects of the phytoestrogen, genistein and the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES), as a control, on development and function of the rat dorsolateral prostate (DLP) when given in the diet. The effects of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) injections were also tested. Analysis of individual lobes of the DLP revealed that 1000 mg/kg, but not 250 mg/kg, of a genistein AIN-76A diet slightly reduced lateral prostate type 1 (LP1) bud perimeter. However, expression of the secretory dorsal protein 1 (DP1) and 5alpha-reductase type II activity were not altered in the prostate. This suggested that prostate differentiation, and not toxicity, had occurred. DES in the diet reduced and testosterone injections elevated relative prostate weights and perimeters of the dorsal, LP1, lateral prostate type 2 and DP1 expression. DHT increased relative prostate weights but did not significantly increase individual lobe perimeter. Unlike DES, maximally tolerated doses of genistein in the diet were not toxic to the rat prostate.

  17. Urinary bladder stone associated with seminal vesicle and prostate infection in a Copenhagen rat

    PubMed Central

    Senapati, Shantibhusan; Suklabaidya, Sujit; Mallik, Hrudananda; Panda, Sabyasachi; Hota, Datteswar; Baisakh, Manas R.

    2016-01-01

    We report a very rare case of urinary bladder stone in a laboratory rat, which was associated with severe prostatitis and seminal vesiculitis. Importantly, the histopathological analysis revealed the rare variety of keratinizing desquamative squamous metaplasia of bladder, prostate, and seminal vesicle epithelium. Immunohistochemistry for alpha smooth muscle actin protein and aniline blue staining for collagen clearly showed interstitial prostate fibrosis. The detail information about these findings and subsequent discussion are provided here. PMID:27433075

  18. Molecular classification of benign prostatic hyperplasia: A gene expression profiling study in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hata, Junya; Satoh, Yuichi; Akaihata, Hidenori; Hiraki, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Soichiro; Haga, Nobuhiro; Ishibashi, Kei; Aikawa, Ken; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    To characterize the molecular features of benign prostatic hyperplasia by carrying out a gene expression profiling analysis in a rat model. Fetal urogenital sinus isolated from 20-day-old male rat embryo was implanted into a pubertal male rat ventral prostate. The implanted urogenital sinus grew time-dependently, and the pathological findings at 3 weeks after implantation showed epithelial hyperplasia as well as stromal hyperplasia. Whole-genome oligonucleotide microarray analysis utilizing approximately 30 000 oligonucleotide probes was carried out using prostate specimens during the prostate growth process (3 weeks after implantation). Microarray analyses showed 926 upregulated (>2-fold change, P < 0.01) and 3217 downregulated genes (<0.5-fold change, P < 0.01) in benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens compared with normal prostate. Gene ontology analyses of upregulated genes showed predominant genetic themes of involvement in development (162 genes, P = 2.01 × 10(-4) ), response to stimulus (163 genes, P = 7.37 × 10(-13) ) and growth (32 genes, P = 1.93 × 10(-5) ). When we used both normal prostate and non-transplanted urogenital sinuses as controls to identify benign prostatic hyperplasia-specific genes, 507 and 406 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional network and pathway analyses showed that genes associated with apoptosis modulation by heat shock protein 70, interleukin-1, interleukin-2 and interleukin-5 signaling pathways, KIT signaling pathway, and secretin-like G-protein-coupled receptors, class B, were relatively activated during the growth process in the benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens. In contrast, genes associated with cholesterol biosynthesis were relatively inactivated. Our microarray analyses of the benign prostatic hyperplasia model rat might aid in clarifying the molecular mechanism of benign prostatic hyperplasia progression, and identifying molecular targets for benign prostatic hyperplasia treatment.

  19. Ornithine decarboxylase activity and: [125I]iododeoxyuridine incorporation in rat prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, D J; Donaldson, L J; Thomas, G H

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between ornithine decarboxylase activity and [125I]iododexyuridine incorporation was studied in prostates from castrated rats (aged 5, 26 and 80 weeks) injected daily with testosterone for up to 10 days. The results suggest that ornithine decarboxylase activity is a parameter of secretory activity, rather than growth, in the ventral prostate. In the dorsolateral prostate, ornithine decarboxylase activity tends to parallel [125I]iododeoxyuridine incorporation. PMID:1212206

  20. Therapeutic effect of melittin on a rat model of chronic prostatitis induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Cai, Liang

    2017-06-01

    The present study was aimed to establish a model of chronic prostatitis in rat with the use of intraprostatic injection of Complete Freund's Adjuvant, and to examine the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of melittin on the newly-developed chronic prostatic pain model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) into the prostate. Twelve days after model rats of the treatment group were injected melittin into the prostate, while those of the control group received sterile saline injection. The nociceptive effects of CFA were evaluated by using a behavior approach (i.e. mechanical pain threshold measurement) on the day of CFA injection and 6, 12, and 18days after CFA injection. After the in-live study was done, the prostate was collected for histological examination of inflammatory cell infiltration. Levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in prostate and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in spinal cord were determined using immunohistochemistry. Rats of the sham control group received intraprostatic injection of sterile saline and were studied using the same methods RESULTS: Intraprostatic CFA injection induced local allodynia that lasted over at least 2 weeks. The pain behavior of rat was associated with increases in inflammatory cell infiltration into the prostate. Levels of COX-2 in prostate and GFAP in spinal cord were also elevated. Treatment with melittin significantly raised pain threshold, decreased inflammatory infiltrates, and suppressed COX-2 and GFAP expression. Intraprostatic injection of CFA induced neurogenic prostatitis and prostatic pain. The established model will be useful to the study of CP/CPPS pathogenesis. Melittin demonstrated profound anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects on the chronic prostatic pain model, suggesting melittin may hold promise as a novel therapeutic for treatment of CP/CPPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Methyl Jasmonate Ameliorates Testosterone Propionate-induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Castrated Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe; Abiola, Olusoji John; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle

    2017-04-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive disease that is related to age. Known therapeutic agents used in the treatment of BPH are associated with toxicity. Therefore, chemoprevention could be an effective approach. We investigated the ameliorative effects of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH in castrated rats. Castration was performed by removing both testes through the scrotum sack under ketamine anesthesia. Rats were assigned into seven groups of seven animals each: non-castrated control, castrated control, castrated rats that received TP, castrated rats that received TP and MeJA, castrated rats that received TP and finasteride, castrated rats that received MeJA, and castrated rats that received finasteride. Results indicate that BPH rats had significantly (p < 0.05) elevated prostate weight and relative weight of prostate relative to control. Also, BPH rats had significantly (p < 0.05) increased activities of prostatic acid and alkaline phosphatases, levels of zinc, and malondialdehyde. Further, levels of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidative indices were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in BPH. Histology of prostate revealed hyperplasia of transition lobe, increased expression of PSA, and Ki67 in BPH. Treatment with MeJA and finasteride attenuated the activities of the phosphatases and levels of antioxidants in BPH. Overall, MeJA ameliorates BPH via antioxidative mechanism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Active principle of swine prostate extract: I. Isolation of active principle activating prostatic acid phosphatase and its effect on testosterone uptake of the prostate in castrated rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Y; Mori, H; Inami, K; Koda, A

    1991-07-01

    There have been several reports concerning the therapeutic effect of an extract from animal prostates on benign prostatic hypertrophy. Previously, we reported that the swine prostate extract (PE) had the activity to enhance human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAPase) activity in vitro, and to increase the muscular tonicity of the urinary bladder by directly acting upon vesical muscles, suggesting that PE have an activity to elevate the intravesical voiding pressure in vivo. In the present study, it was attempted to isolate such an active principle of PE as activates human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAPase). The finally purified PE (PPE) was assessed as to some physico-chemical and pharmacological properties. 1) PPE was found to be a peptide with a molecular weight of about 8,800, composed largely of neutral amino acids (approximately 70%) and few of aromatic amino acids. 2) PPE activated PAPase in a dose-dependent fashion, resulting in an increase of the enzyme activity approximately twice in a dose of 2 X 10(-5) g/ml of PPE. Furthermore, PPE recovered PAPase activity dose-dependently from the 50% inhibition by 2 X 10(-3) M L-tartaric acid. 3) In castrated rats, the 3H-testosterone uptake of the prostate was significantly suppressed by the oral administration of PPE. PPE might be one of active principles of PE for the therapeutic effect on prostatic hypertrophy.

  3. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kuno, Toshiya; Nagano, Aya; Mori, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroyuki; Nagayasu, Yuko; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Suzuki, Shugo; Mori, Hideki; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172) was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer. PMID:27409632

  4. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Toshiya; Nagano, Aya; Mori, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroyuki; Nagayasu, Yuko; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Suzuki, Shugo; Mori, Hideki; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-07-11

    Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172) was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer.

  5. Chronic caffeine intake increases androgenic stimuli, epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia in rat ventral prostate

    PubMed Central

    Sarobo, Carolina; Lacorte, Lívia M; Martins, Marcela; Rinaldi, Jaqueline C; Moroz, Andrei; Scarano, Wellerson R; Delella, Flavia K; Felisbino, Sérgio L

    2012-01-01

    Coffee intake has been associated with a low risk of developing cancer, including prostate cancer, which is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. However, few studies have evaluated the chronic effects of caffeine, which is the most abundant methylxanthine in coffee, on prostate morphology and physiology. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic, low-dose caffeine intake on rat prostate morphology from puberty to adulthood. Five-week-old male Wistar rats were randomized into two experimental groups: caffeine-treated (20 ppm in drinking water, n = 12) and control (n = 12). The ventral and dorsolateral prostates were dissected, weighted and submitted to morphological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis of cellular proliferation, apoptosis and androgen receptor (AR) tissue expression. The testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations were measured in the plasma. Our results show that caffeine intake increased the concentrations of T and DHT, organ weight, epithelial cell proliferation and AR tissue expression in the ventral prostatic lobe. All the ventral prostates from the caffeine-treated animals presented various degrees of epithelial and stromal hyperplasia. Our results suggest that chronic caffeine intake from puberty increases androgenic signalling and cell proliferation in the rat prostate gland and can be related to the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23136995

  6. Pioglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Agonist, Suppresses Rat Prostate Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shugo; Mori, Yukiko; Nagano, Aya; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Kato, Hiroyuki; Nagayasu, Yuko; Kobayashi, Mizuho; Kuno, Toshiya; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Pioglitazone (PGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, which is known as a type 2 diabetes drug, inhibits cell proliferation in various cancer cell lines, including prostate carcinomas. This study focused on the effect of PGZ on prostate carcinogenesis using a transgenic rat for an adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) model. Adenocarcinoma lesions as a percentage of overall lesions in the ventral prostate were significantly reduced by PGZ treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The number of adenocarcinomas per given area in the ventral prostate was also significantly reduced by PGZ treatment. The Ki67 labeling index in the ventral prostate was also significantly reduced by PGZ. Decreased cyclin D1 expression in addition to the inactivation of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)κB were detected in PGZ-treated TRAP rat groups. In LNCaP, a human androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line, PGZ also inhibited cyclin D1 expression and the activation of both p38 MAPK and NFκB. The suppression of cultured cell growth was mainly regulated by the NFκB pathway as detected using specific inhibitors in both LNCaP and PC3, a human androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line. These data suggest that PGZ possesses a chemopreventive potential for prostate cancer. PMID:27973395

  7. Effects of Melandrium firmum methanolic extract on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Nam-Hun; Ha, Hye-Kyung; Son, Jong-Keun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease of unknown aetiology characterized by prostatic enlargement coincident with distinct alterations in tissue histomorphology. Instead of therapeutic agents that can cause severe side effects, plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH. In this study, we investigated whether the Melandrium firmum methanolic extract (MFME) improves BPH, using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Castration was performed via the scrotal route under sodium pentobarbital anaesthesia. BPH in castrated rats was generated via daily subcutaneous injections of TP (3 mg kg−1) dissolved in corn oil, for 4 weeks. MFME was administered daily by oral gavage at a dose of 200 mg kg−1 for 4 weeks, along with the TP injections. The control group received injections of corn oil subcutaneously. At the scheduled termination of the experiment, all rats were killed and their prostates weighed; the relative prostate weight (prostate/body weight ratio) was calculated, and histomorphological changes in the prostate were examined. Additionally, we measured the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the serum and the prostate. Experimentally induced BPH led to marked decreases in the relative prostate weight and the DHT levels in the serum and the prostate. Histologically, BPH was evident in the ventral lobe of the prostate, and MFME treatment suppressed the severity of the lesions. These results indicate that MFME effectively inhibits the development of BPH induced by testosterone in a rat model. Further studies will be needed to identify the compound(s) responsibility for inducing the protective effect against BPH and determine its mechanism of action. PMID:22231294

  8. Effects of Melandrium firmum methanolic extract on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Seo, Chang-Seob; Lee, Nam-Hun; Ha, Hye-Kyung; Son, Jong-Keun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related disease of unknown aetiology characterized by prostatic enlargement coincident with distinct alterations in tissue histomorphology. Instead of therapeutic agents that can cause severe side effects, plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH. In this study, we investigated whether the Melandrium firmum methanolic extract (MFME) improves BPH, using the testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH rat model. Castration was performed via the scrotal route under sodium pentobarbital anaesthesia. BPH in castrated rats was generated via daily subcutaneous injections of TP (3 mg kg(-1)) dissolved in corn oil, for 4 weeks. MFME was administered daily by oral gavage at a dose of 200 mg kg(-1) for 4 weeks, along with the TP injections. The control group received injections of corn oil subcutaneously. At the scheduled termination of the experiment, all rats were killed and their prostates weighed; the relative prostate weight (prostate/body weight ratio) was calculated, and histomorphological changes in the prostate were examined. Additionally, we measured the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the serum and the prostate. Experimentally induced BPH led to marked decreases in the relative prostate weight and the DHT levels in the serum and the prostate. Histologically, BPH was evident in the ventral lobe of the prostate, and MFME treatment suppressed the severity of the lesions. These results indicate that MFME effectively inhibits the development of BPH induced by testosterone in a rat model. Further studies will be needed to identify the compound(s) responsibility for inducing the protective effect against BPH and determine its mechanism of action.

  9. Establishment of a syngeneic orthotopic model of prostate cancer in immunocompetent rats

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shugo; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Kuno, Toshiya; Punfa, Wanisa; Long, Ne; Kato, Hiroyuki; Inaguma, Shingo; Komiya, Masami; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    We previously established 3 cell lines (PLS10, PLS20 and PLS30) from a chemically-induced prostate carcinoma in F344 rats, and demonstrated high potential for metastasis in nude mice. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of establishing an orthotopic model using the 3 rat prostate cancer cell lines in immunocompetent rats with the aim of resolving species-mismatch problems and defects of immune systems. The PLS10, PLS20 and PLS30 cell lines were injected into the ventral prostates of 6-week-old rats, which were then sacrificed at experimental weeks 4 and 8. Tumor mass formation was found in rats with PLS10, but not in those with PLS20 or PLS30. Additionally, metastatic carcinomas could be detected in lymph nodes and lungs of PLS10-inoculated rats. Genetic analysis demonstrated K-ras gene mutations in PLS10 and PLS20, but not in PLS30 cells. There were no mutations in p53 and KLF6. In conclusion, we established a syngeneic orthotopic model for prostate cancer in immunocompetent rats simulating human castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which should prove useful for development and validation of therapeutic agents, especially with immunotherapy. PMID:26023257

  10. Histomorphometric features of ventral prostate in different aged rats after central ghrelin treatment.

    PubMed

    Plecas-Solarovic, Bosiljka A; Nesic, Dejan M; Stevanovic, Darko M; Obradovic, Aleksandar Lj; Djelic, Marina N; Milosevic, Verica Lj; Starcevic, Vesna P

    2012-06-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), has emerged as pleiotropic modulator of diverse biological functions, including energy homeostasis and recently, reproduction. The influence of intracerebroventricularly (ICV) administered ghrelin (1 μg/day/rat for 5 days) to rats of different ages, i.e, peripubertal (38 days), adult (60 days) and middle-aged (180 days) on the ventral prostate size and morphology, serum testosterone levels and testis weight was examined. Ghrelin treatment significantly increased (p < 0.05) absolute ventral prostate weight in peripubertal and middle-aged rats, by 27% and 37% respectively, due to enhancement of epithelial and/or luminal compartment of the gland. In adult rats, both absolute and relative volumes of the acinar lumen were significantly decreased (p < 0.05), by 38% and 44% respectively, which was associated with significant increases (p < 0.05) in relative and absolute volumes of interacinar stroma, whereas ventral prostate weigh was unchanged. Irrespective of animal age, ghrelin did not affect serum testosterone levels. These are the first results of ghrelin treatment effects on healthy prostate appearance, which allow us to conclude that the rat ventral prostate response to ghrelin depends on the developmental stage of animals. Our results merit further investigations and may have clinical implications, especially in the light of data on possible role of ghrelin in prostate hypertrophy and adenomas.

  11. Ethanol modulates the synthesis and catabolism of retinoic acid in the rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz Aparecida; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Mendes, Leonardo O; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F; Justulin, Luis Antônio; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

    2015-06-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) maintains physiological stability of the prostate, and we reported that ethanol intake increases atRA in the rat prostate; however the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown. We evaluated the impact of a low- and high-dose ethanol intake (UChA and UChB strains) on atRA metabolism in the dorsal and lateral prostate. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) subtype 1A3 was increased in the dorsal prostate of UChA animals while ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A2 decreased in the lateral prostate. In UChB animals, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3 increased in the dorsal prostate, and ALDH1A3 decreased in the lateral prostate. atRA levels increased with the low activity of CYP2E1 and decreased with high CYP26 activity in the UChB dorsal prostate. Conversely, atRA was found to decrease when the activity of total CYP was increased in the UChA lateral prostate. Ethanol modulates the synthesis and catabolism of atRA in the prostate in a concentration-dependent manner.

  12. Zinc-protein from rat prostate fluid binds epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sansone, G; Abrescia, P

    1991-09-01

    The detection and the isolation of a zinc-protein from the secretion of the rat dorsolateral prostate is described. The purification procedure, based on gel filtration and cationic exchange chromatography, allowed to separate a minor protein (Mr approximately 66,000) from free zinc ions and other secretory components. Two zinc ions were estimated to be associated with one molecule of isolated protein. The zinc-protein was labelled with 125I and then incubated at 37 degrees C with spermatozoa from rat epididymal cauda. Time-dependent in vitro binding of the radioactive protein to sperm cells was demonstrated. This binding was not affected by the presence of proteins from the seminal vesicle during the incubation, while it was blocked in the presence of an excess of unlabelled zinc-protein. After binding, the labelled spermatozoa were treated with a buffer containing 0.5% sodium deoxycholate and 40 mM EDTA; only very small amounts of label were removed from the cells, thus suggesting that the zinc-proteins were kept on the plasma membrane by interactions which do not involve merely hydrophobic bonds.

  13. Chemopreventive effect of quercetin in MNU and testosterone induced prostate cancer of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sharmila, Govindaraj; Athirai, Thavadurainathan; Kiruthiga, Balakrishnan; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Elumalai, Perumal; Arunkumar, Ramachandran; Arunakaran, Jagadeesan

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer becomes an ideal target for chemoprevention because of its high incidence and extended natural history. The consumption of quercetin (plant flavonoid) in diet is associated with decreased risk of disease and many cancers but then this was not elucidated in prostate malignancy. Hence, a study in which the male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced prostate cancer by hormone (testosterone) and carcinogen (MNU) and simultaneously supplemented with quercetin (200 mg/Kg body weight) thrice a week, was conducted. After the treatment period, rats were killed; ventral and dorsolateral lobes of the prostate were dissected. Histology and oxidative stress markers LPO, H2O2, and antioxidant GSH level were measured in both lobes. The lipid peroxidation, H2O2, in (MNU+T) treated rats were increased and GSH level was decreased, whereas simultaneous quercetin-treated rats reverted back to normal level in both ventral and dorsolateral regions. The different patterns of PIN were observed with associated hyperplasia and dysplasia; changes in these regions and the occurrence of this lesion were reduced in simultaneous quercetin-treated rats. The study concluded that dietary quercetin prevented MNU + T-induced prostate carcinogenesis on both ventral and dorsolateral lobes of Sprague-Dawley rats.

  14. Regulation of 5alpha-reductase isoforms by oxytocin in the rat ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Assinder, S J; Johnson, C; King, K; Nicholson, H D

    2004-12-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is present in the male reproductive tract, where it is known to modulate contractility, cell growth, and steroidogenesis. Little is known about how OT regulates these processes. This study describes the localization of OT receptor in the rat ventral prostate and investigates if OT regulates gene expression and/or activity of 5alpha-reductase isoforms I and II. The ventral prostates of adult male Wistar rats were collected following daily sc administration of saline (control), OT, a specific OT antagonist or both OT plus antagonist for 3 d. Expression of the OT receptor was identified in the ventral prostate by RT-PCR and Western blot, and confirmed to be a single active binding site by radioreceptor assay. Immunohistochemistry localized the receptor to the epithelium of prostatic acini and to the stromal tissue. Real-time RT-PCR determined that OT treatment significantly reduced expression of 5alpha-reductase I but significantly increased 5alpha-reductase II expression in the ventral prostate. Activity of both isoforms of 5alpha-reductase was significantly increased by OT, resulting in increased concentration of prostatic dihydrotestosterone. In conclusion, OT is involved in regulating conversion of testosterone to the biologically active dihydrotestosterone in the rat ventral prostate. It does so by differential regulation of 5alpha-reductase isoforms I and II.

  15. Chemoprevention of hormone-dependent prostate cancer in the Wistar-Unilever rat.

    PubMed

    McCormick, D L; Rao, K V

    1999-01-01

    The high incidence and long latent period of prostate cancer make it an ideal target for chemoprevention. We have evaluated a series of agents for chemopreventive efficacy using a model in which hormone-dependent prostate cancers are induced in the Wistar-Unilever (WU) rat by sequential treatment with antiandrogen (cyproterone acetate), androgen (testosterone propionate), and direct-acting chemical carcinogen (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea), followed by chronic androgen stimulation (testosterone). This regimen reproducibly induces prostate cancers in high incidence, with no gross toxicity and a low incidence of neoplasia in the seminal vesicle and other non-target tissues. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) are the most active agents identified to date. DHEA inhibits prostate cancer induction both when chronic administration is begun prior to carcinogen exposure, and when administration is delayed until preneoplastic prostate lesions are present. 9-cis-RA is the most potent inhibitor of prostate carcinogenesis identified; a study to determine the efficacy of delayed administration of 9-cis-RA is in progress. Liarozole fumarate confers modest protection against prostate carcinogenesis, while N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (fenretinide), alpha-difluoromethylornithine, oltipraz, DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E), and L-selenomethionine are inactive. Chemoprevention efficacy evaluations in the WU rat will support the identification of agents that merit study for prostate cancer chemoprevention in humans.

  16. Effect of Tripterygium Wilfordii Polyglycoside on Experimental Prostatitis Caused by Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shan, Pingnan; Lu, Zhiyong; Ye, Lihong; Fang, Yaqin; Tan, Suhong; Xuan, Guohong; Ru, Jincheng; Mao, Liming

    2016-10-15

    BACKGROUND Prostatitis is a common and refractory urological disease with complicated etiology. Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) has a close relationship with human urinary tract infection that can induce nonbacterial prostatitis. Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside (TWP) is a non-steroidal immune inhibitor that causes significant immune suppression and anti-inflammatory effects. Its role in prostatitis caused by UU has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TWP on UU-infected prostatitis in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS UU-infected prostatitis SD model rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the prostatitis group (model group) and the TWP treatment group (treatment group). At 7 days after treatment, prostate weight, leucocyte count, lecithin corpuscles, UU infection rate, and UU microbe count were compared between the 2 groups. Serum inflammatory cytokines TNF-α was determined by ELISA, and ICAM-1 and NF-κB expression were detected. RESULTS UU infection rate was 80% after modeling. The rat prostate weight and leucocyte count in the model group increased significantly, while lecithin corpuscles decreased. Compared with controls, inflammatory factor TNF-α, ICAM-1, and NF-κB expression were obviously higher (P<0.05). TWP markedly reduced prostate weight and leucocyte count, increased lecithin corpuscles, and decreased UU microbe count and TNF-α, ICAM-1, and NF-κB expression (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS TWP can inhibit expression of inflammatory factors and may be useful in treating UU-infected prostatitis through reducing UU infection rate.

  17. Effect of Tripterygium Wilfordii Polyglycoside on Experimental Prostatitis Caused by Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Pingnan; Lu, Zhiyong; Ye, Lihong; Fang, Yaqin; Tan, Suhong; Xuan, Guohong; Ru, Jincheng; Mao, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostatitis is a common and refractory urological disease with complicated etiology. Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) has a close relationship with human urinary tract infection that can induce nonbacterial prostatitis. Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside (TWP) is a non-steroidal immune inhibitor that causes significant immune suppression and anti-inflammatory effects. Its role in prostatitis caused by UU has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TWP on UU-infected prostatitis in a rat model. Material/Methods UU-infected prostatitis SD model rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: the prostatitis group (model group) and the TWP treatment group (treatment group). At 7 days after treatment, prostate weight, leucocyte count, lecithin corpuscles, UU infection rate, and UU microbe count were compared between the 2 groups. Serum inflammatory cytokines TNF-α was determined by ELISA, and ICAM-1 and NF-κB expression were detected. Results UU infection rate was 80% after modeling. The rat prostate weight and leucocyte count in the model group increased significantly, while lecithin corpuscles decreased. Compared with controls, inflammatory factor TNF-α, ICAM-1, and NF-κB expression were obviously higher (P<0.05). TWP markedly reduced prostate weight and leucocyte count, increased lecithin corpuscles, and decreased UU microbe count and TNF-α, ICAM-1, and NF-κB expression (P<0.05). Conclusions TWP can inhibit expression of inflammatory factors and may be useful in treating UU-infected prostatitis through reducing UU infection rate. PMID:27743513

  18. Prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Gerald J.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    1998-01-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of acute bacterial prostatitis is straightforward and easily accomplished in clinical laboratories. Chronic bacterial prostatitis, and especially chronic idiopathic prostatitis (most often referred to as abacterial prostatitis), presents a real challenge to the clinician and clinical microbiologist. Clinically, the diagnosis of chronic idiopathic prostatitis is differentiated from that of acute prostatitis by a lack of prostatic inflammation and no “significant” (controversial) leukocytes or bacteria in the expressed prostatic secretions. Despite these diagnostic criteria, the etiology of chronic idiopathic prostatitis is unknown. While this review covers the entire spectrum of microbially caused acute prostatitis (including common and uncommon bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) and microbially associated chronic prostatitis, a special focus has been given to chronic idiopathic prostatitis. The idiopathic syndrome is commonly diagnosed in men but is poorly treated. Recent data convincingly suggests a possible bacterial etiology for the condition. Provocative molecular studies have been published reporting the presence of 16S rRNA bacterial sequences in prostate biopsy tissue that is negative for ordinary bacteria by routine culture in men with chronic idiopathic prostatitis. Additionally, special culture methods have indicated that difficult-to-culture coryneforms and coagulase-negative staphylococci are present in expressed prostatic secretions found to be negative by routine culture techniques. Treatment failures are not uncommon in chronic prostatitis. Literature reports suggest that antimicrobial treatment failures in chronic idiopathic prostatitis caused by organisms producing extracellular slime might result from the virulent properties of coagulase-negative staphylococci or other bacteria. While it is difficult to definitively extrapolate from animal models, antibiotic pharmokinetic studies with a murine model have

  19. Preventive effect of Pueraria mirifica on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Masrudin, S S; Mohamad, J

    2015-12-01

    Pueraria mirifica (PM) extract contains phytoestrogen daidzein and genistein. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of PM extract, daidzein and genistein on a testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Testosterone was administered at 3 mg kg(-1) to rats followed by the PM extract, daidzein and genistein for a period of 30 days with finasteride as positive control. The testosterone level was increased, indicating inhibition of 5α-reductase converting testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. This was confirmed by prostate-specific antigen level that significantly decreased when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein. The PM extract, daidzein and genistein reduced the increase in the prostate/body weight ratio in testosterone-induced rats. This gives indication that PM extract, daidzein and genistein possessed protective activity for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The analysis of histoarchitechture of the prostate has also shown that there was a significant improvement in prostatic cells of the testosterone-induced rats when treated with PM extract, daidzein and genistein.

  20. Diabetes induces stromal remodelling and increase in chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans of the rat ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2009-08-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling is an important process involved in prostate cancer progression. Alterations in ECM caused by diabetes in different tissues such as kidney is well described; however, it is poorly investigated in prostate. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in ECM of rat prostate showing gland atrophy caused by diabetes and their implications in development of malignant lesions. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats using alloxan (45 mg/kg bw). After 90 days of diabetes onset, animals were killed and ventral prostate was removed and prepared for light microscopy following immunoreaction for fibronectin, chondroitin sulphate and Picrossirius staining for collagen fibres. Proteoglycans (PG) were identified at transmission electron microscopy after fixation with Cuprolinic Blue. Diabetes led to a thickening of 25% in the acinar basement membrane accompanied by increase and disorganization of its proteoglycans (P1). Three additional populations of prostatic stromal PGs were identified: collagen fibril linked (P2) and interstitial (P3) and (P4) PGs. Diabetes increased P3 and mainly P4 which had higher dimension and accumulated around the smooth muscle cells. In addition, an increase in chondrotin sulphate (33%, mainly in sites where P4 were noted) and collagen (44%) was noted in diabetic rats, whereas fibronectin did not change. Atrophic changes observed in rat ventral prostate after diabetes are accompanied by stromal remodelation related to increase in collagen and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans. Thus, diabetes can promote a stromal microenvironment rich in elements that could favour cell migration, proliferation and pathological process.

  1. Histological modifications of the rat prostate following transection of somatic and autonomic nerves.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Rosaura; Garcia, Luis I; Locia, Jose; Silva, Milagros; Rodriguez, Sara; Perez, Cesar A; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Manzo, Jorge; Toledo, Rebeca; Hernandez, Maria Elena

    2010-06-01

    It is known that hormones influence significantly the prostate tissue. However, we reported that mating induces an increase in androgen receptors, revealing a neural influence on the gland. These data suggested that somatic afferents (scrotal and genitofemoral nerves) and autonomic efferents (pelvic and hypogastric nerves) could regulate the structure of the prostate. Here we assessed the role of these nerves in maintaining the histology of the gland. Hence, afferent or efferent nerves of male rats were transected. Then, the ventral and dorsolateral regions of the prostate were processed for histology. Results showed that afferent transection affects prostate histology. The alveoli area decreased and increased in the ventral and dorsolateral prostate, respectively. The epithelial cell height increased in both regions. Efferent denervation produced dramatic changes in the prostate gland. The tissue lost its configuration, and the epithelium became scattered and almost vanished. Thus, afferent nerves are responsible for spinal processes pertaining to the trophic control of the prostate, activating its autonomic innervation. Hence, our data imply that innervation seems to be synergic with hormones for the healthy maintenance of the prostate. Thus, it is suggested that some prostate pathologies could be due to the failure of the autonomic neural pathways regulating the gland.

  2. Preventive effects of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Plant extracts are useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study investigates whether ACTICOA (Barry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP), a cocoa polyphenolic extract, could prevent prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone propionate (TP) in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of corn oil and treated with vehicle and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments were given orally and started 2 weeks before the induction of prostate hyperplasia. The influence of TP and AP on body weights and food and water consumption of rats was examined. On day 36, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumption, while AP at both doses tested reduced significantly these differences. TP significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .001), and this induced increase was significantly inhibited in AP-treated rats in comparison with positive controls (P < .001) in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that AP can prevent TP-induced prostate hyperplasia and therefore may be beneficial in the management of BPH.

  3. Administration of extract of mushroom Phellinus linteus induces prostate enlargement with increase in stromal component in experimentally developed rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yasuhiro; Kashiwagi, Bunzo; Arai, Seiji; Fukabori, Yoshitatsu; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2005-08-01

    To clarify the effect of the mushroom extract Phellinus linteus on noncancerous prostate cells using an experimentally developed rat benign prostatic hyperplasia model. A growing number of people take some natural herbal extracts for maintenance of their health. Among them, the extracts of certain mushrooms are believed to have a marked tumoricidal effect but low toxicity for normal tissues, and they are being drunk widely in Japan and Korea. However, until now, their effect on noncancerous benign prostate growth has not been examined. The mushroom extract was administered daily for 5 weeks to experimentally developed benign prostatic hyperplasia rats. Prostate organ weight, histologic composition, and gene expression levels of sex hormone receptors, transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were examined. Prostate weight increased significantly by 37% owing to treatment with the mushroom extract (P < 0.05). In particular, the stromal component of the prostate increased significantly by 80% (P < 0.05). A suppression of transforming growth factor-beta1 expression by 56% was observed with the mushroom extract treatment (P < 0.05). We found that the mushroom extract enlarged the prostate. The effect was suggested to be on the prostate stroma, which may be involved in transforming growth factor-beta1 regulation. Administration of mushroom extract should be considered carefully by those with an enlarged prostate.

  4. Expression of steroid 5α-reductase isozymes in prostate of adult rats after environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Pilar; Torres, Jesús M; Castro, Beatriz; Olmo, Asunción; del Moral, Raimundo G; Ortega, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    The elevated incidence of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy is a cause of increasing public health concern in the Western world. The normal and pathological growth of the prostate are both dependent on stimulation by dihydrotestosterone, which is synthesized from circulating testosterone by two 5α-reductase (5α-R) isozymes, 5α-reductase type 1 (5α-R1) and 5α-reductase type 2 (5α-R2). Both isozymes have been implicated in prostate disease. We used quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, to quantify mRNA and protein levels of 5α-R isozymes in the ventral prostate of adult rats under environmental stress conditions analogous to those found in some common workplace situations, i.e. artificial light, excessive heat, and the sensation of immobility in a small space. Transcription and expression levels of both 5α-R isozymes were significantly higher in environmentally stressed rats than in unstressed rats. Increased 5α-R isozyme levels may play a role in the development or maintenance of prostate disease. Further research is warranted to explore these effects of environmental stress on human health and their implications for environmental and occupational health policies. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  5. Chemoprevention of rat prostate carcinogenesis by soy isoflavones and by Bowman-Birk inhibitor.

    PubMed

    McCormick, David L; Johnson, William D; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiology studies suggest that soy consumption confers protection against human prostate cancer. To identify the soy component(s) that may be responsible for this chemopreventive activity, studies were conducted to determine the influence of a soy isoflavone mixture (PTI G-2535; 45% genistein, 22% daidzein, 2% glycitein) and a soy-derived protease inhibitor (Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate; BBIC) on prostate carcinogenesis in rats. Prostate cancers were induced in male Wistar-Unilever rats by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate and testosterone propionate, followed by a single intravenous injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and chronic androgen stimulation. In separate studies, PTI G-2535 and BBIC were administered continuously at 0 (control), 200, or 2000 mg/kg diet, beginning 1 wk post-MNU. PTI G-2535 and BBIC both conferred modest, but statistically significant and dose-related protection against carcinogenesis in the dorsolateral+anterior prostate. These data demonstrate that both the isoflavone and protein (protease inhibitor) components of soy can inhibit prostate carcinogenesis in the rat. However, the modest individual activities of soy isoflavones and BBIC suggest that while both components may contribute to the chemopreventive activity of soy, combination administration (or exposure to whole soy) may be more effective in prostate cancer prevention than is administration of either component alone.

  6. Inhibitory effect of diosgenin on experimentally induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Huai-Fen; Xiong, Chao-Mei; Ruan, Jin-Lan

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of diosgenin, a natural sapogenin possessing various pharmacological activities, on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats and the possible mechanisms. BPH was established in the castrated rats by subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate. Animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=10 each): model group (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose); positive control group (3 mg/kg finasteride); two diosgenin groups (50 and 100 mg/kg). The drugs were intragastricaly given in each group for consecutive 3 weeks. Another 10 rats with no testicles cut off served as negative controls and they were subcutaneously injected with 0.1 mL olive oil per day and then treated with 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose. After 3-week administration, the prostate index and serum PSA level were determined, and histopathological examination was carried out. The levels of MDA, SOD and GPx in prostates were also measured. Additionally, the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and p53 was examined using Western blotting. The results showed that the prostate index and serum PSA level were significantly decreased, and the pathological changes of the prostate gland were greatly improved in diosgenin groups as compared with the model group. Elevated activities of SOD and GPx, and reduced MDA level were also observed in diosgenin-treated rats. In addition, the expression of Bcl-2 in prostates was down-regulated, whereas that of Bax and p53 was up-regulated in diosgenin-treated rats. These results indicated that diosgenin was effective in inhibiting testosterone propionate-induced prostate enlargement and may be a candidate agent for the treatment of BPH.

  7. Inhibition of testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of sprague-dawley rats by pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Gossell-Williams, M; Davis, A; O'Connor, N

    2006-01-01

    The oil from the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed is claimed to be useful in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This investigation seeks to examine the effect of pumpkin seed oil on testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate of rats. Hyperplasia was induced by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (0.3 mg/100 g of body weight) for 20 days. Simultaneous oral administration of either pumpkin seed oil (2.0 and 4.0 mg/100 g of body weight) or corn oil (vehicle) was also given for 20 days. The weights of the rats were recorded weekly, and the influence of testosterone and pumpkin seed oil on the weight gain of the rats was examined. On day 21, rats were sacrificed, and the prostate was removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. Neither testosterone nor pumpkin seed oil had any significant influence on the weight gain of the rats. Testosterone significantly increased prostate size ratio (P < .05), and this induced increase was inhibited in rats fed with pumpkin seed oil at 2.0 mg/100 g of body weight. The protective effect of pumpkin seed oil was significant at the higher pumpkin seed oil dose (P < .02). We conclude pumpkin seed oil can inhibit testosterone-induced hyperplasia of the prostate and therefore may be beneficial in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  8. Effect of Benincasa hispida fruits on testosterone-induced prostatic hypertrophy in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nandecha, Chetan; Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Benincasa hispida Cogn. has been used traditionally in India for the management of urinary disorders. The fruit of B hispida is used as a diuretic and the seeds have been reported to possess antiangiogenic effects in prostate cells. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of petroleum ether extract, ethanolic extract, and B hispida seed oil on hyperplasia of the prostate induced by the subcutaneous administration of testosterone in rats. Methods: In vitro studies were performed to determine the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of the extracts. The results of those studies paved the way for the pharmacologic screening of the extracts to assess their potential against testosterone-induced hyperplasia in rats. Nine groups containing 10 rats per group were created for this study. Hyperplasia was induced by administration of testosterone (3 mg/kg SC) for 14 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether extract (100 or 200 mg/kg PO), ethanolic extract (100 or 200 mg/kg PO), and B hispida seed oil (20 or 40 mg/kg PO) was conducted. A standard 5α-reductase inhibitor (ie, finasteride) was used as a positive control. The weight of the rats was recorded on day 0 (ie, day 1 of the study) and on day 14, and the influence of testosterone and test extracts on the weight of the rats was determined. On day 14, rats were euthanized; prostates were dissected out, and weighed. The rats' prostate/body weight (P/BW) ratio was then determined. Histologic examinations were performed on prostates from each group. Results: The petroleum ether extract as well as B hispida seed oil exhibited inhibition of 5α-reductase activity in in vitro studies. Ethanolic extract did not exhibit significant inhibitory potential in vitro. Further in vivo study found that testosterone treatment significantly increased the rats' P/BW ratio in all the groups except the vehicle-treated rats, and this increase in

  9. Cellular changes in the prostatic stroma of glucocorticoid-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, D L; Rafacho, A; Bosqueiro, J R; Taboga, S R; Góes, R M

    2008-06-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) have been widely used for the treatment of prostate cancer because of their inhibitory property against tumour growth. However, their mechanism of action in the prostate has received little attention. Excess GCs can lead to peripheral insulin resistance resulting in hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia. Insulin plays an important role as a cellular stimulant and high levels are related to low levels of androgens. Our objective has been to describe the effects of insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone treatment on the morphology of rat ventral prostate. Male adult Wistar rats received daily intraperitoneal injections of dexamethasone or saline for five consecutive days after which the rats were killed and the ventral prostate was removed, weighed and prepared for conventional and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dexamethasone treatment resulted in atrophy and decreased proliferative activity of prostatic epithelial cells. TEM analysis revealed changes in the epithelium-stroma interface, with some interruptions in the basement membrane. Fibroblasts showed a secretory phenotype with dilated endoplasmic reticulum. Smooth muscle cells exhibited a contractile pattern with 50% atrophy, an irregular membrane and twisted nuclei. Mitochondrial alterations, such as enlarged size and high electron density in the mitochondrial matrix, were also detected in smooth muscle cells. Insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone is thus associated with epithelial atrophy similar to that described for diabetic rats. However, GCs are responsible for morphological changes in the stromal cell population suggesting the activation of fibroblasts and atrophy of the smooth muscle cells.

  10. Differential age-associated regulation of clusterin expression in prostate lobes of brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Omwancha, Josephat; Anway, Matthew D; Brown, Terry R

    2009-02-01

    Serum androgen concentrations decline with age in male Brown Norway rats and castration induces apoptosis of luminal secretory epithelial cells in the ventral but not in the dorsal and lateral prostate lobes. Clusterin has been described as an androgen-repressed gene and a protein with either anti- or pro-apoptotic actions. We measured clusterin mRNA and protein levels, the effects of aging and castration on clusterin protein levels and clusterin immunolocalization within the prostatic ductal network in the prostate lobes of young and aged rats. Whereas levels of clusterin mRNA and protein expression measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively, were higher in the ventral and lateral lobes of aged (24 months) compared to young (4 months) rats, no age-dependent differences were observed in the dorsal lobe. Clusterin expression was localized by immunohistochemistry exclusively to the proximal duct segment of young rats, but extended to the distal segment of the ventral and lateral lobes of aged rats. Despite an age-related decrease in serum testosterone concentration, clusterin gene expression was not altered in the dorsal lobe. After castration, levels of clusterin expression increased significantly in the ventral and lateral lobes despite the absence of epithelial cell apoptosis in the latter. In castrated rats, clusterin expression extended throughout the proximal-distal duct regions of the prostate lobes of young and aged rats. Regulation of clusterin expression in the prostate lobes of aging rats appears complex and is neither directly repressed by androgen nor dependent on apoptotic-induced stress.

  11. Differential Age-Associated Regulation of Clusterin Expression in Prostate Lobes of Brown Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Omwancha, Josephat; Anway, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Serum androgen concentrations decline with age in male Brown Norway rats and castration induces apoptosis of luminal secretory epithelial cells in the ventral but not in the dorsal and lateral prostate lobes. Clusterin has been described as an androgen-repressed gene and a protein with either anti- or pro-apoptotic actions. Methods We measured clusterin mRNA and protein levels, the effects of aging and castration on clusterin protein levels and clusterin immunolocalization within the prostatic ductal network in the prostate lobes of young and aged rats. Results Whereas levels of clusterin mRNA and protein expression measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively, were higher in the ventral and lateral lobes of aged (24 months) compared to young (4 months) rats, no age-dependent differences were observed in the dorsal lobe. Clusterin expression was localized by immunohistochemistry exclusively to the proximal duct segment of young rats, but extended to the distal segment of the ventral and lateral lobes of aged rats. Despite an age-related decrease in serum testosterone concentration, clusterin gene expression was not altered in the dorsal lobe. After castration, levels of clusterin expression increased significantly in the ventral and lateral lobes despite the absence of epithelial cell apoptosis in the latter. In castrated rats, clusterin expression extended throughout the proximal-distal duct regions of the prostate lobes of young and aged rats. Conclusion Regulation of clusterin expression in the prostate lobes of aging rats appears complex and is neither directly repressed by androgen nor dependent on apoptotic-induced stress. PMID:18942093

  12. Comparison of Saw Palmetto (extract and whole berry) and Cernitin on prostate growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Talpur, Nadeem; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Bagchi, Manashi; Preuss, Harry G

    2003-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals such as finasteride and alpha blockers are used to treat symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and are known to cause severe adverse reactions. Accordingly, a search for safer, natural products has been undertaken. Two natural agents (nutraceuticals) have come under recent scrutiny; because natural products, in general, often have evidence of long-term safety. The present study compares the in vivo effects on androgen-induced prostatic enlargement in rats of two nutraceuticals--the widely recognized Saw Palmetto (Serenoa repens) and the less well-known Cernitin (defined pollen extract). Non-castrated rats, had a mean prostate weight of 124 mg +/- 8.8 (S.E.M.) compared to the 24.5 mg +/- 1.9 (S.E.M.) of the castrated rat followed under the same regimen (p < 0.01). When castrated rats were given testosterone, the mass increased significantly to 250.0 mg +/- 31.7 (S.E.M.) (p < 0.01). In the five remaining groups, castrated rats receiving testosterone were given finasteride, an extract of Saw Palmetto, crushed whole berry derived from Saw Palmetto fruit, a water soluble and fat soluble extract of Cernitin or a combination of the Saw Palmetto extract and Cernitin. All treatments decreased the size of the prostate to roughly the same size as in the non-castrated rats, a size that was significantly smaller than castrated rats treated with testosterone in the same manner (p < 0.01). A second study examining non-castrated rats treated with very high doses of testosterone showed similar results. In both studies, the nutraceuticals generally decreased body weight. In conclusion, these studies show the ability of Saw Palmetto (whole berry and extract) and Cernitin to influence prostatic hyperplasia via effects on androgen metabolism.

  13. Nano-sized titanium dioxide toxicity in rat prostate and testis: Possible ameliorative effect of morin.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Nancy N; Mohamed, Maha M

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of short-term oral exposure to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO2) on Wistar rat prostate and testis, and the associating reproductive-related alterations. The study also evaluated the potential ameliorative effect of the natural flavonoid, morin, on nTiO2-induced aberrations. Intragastric administration of nTiO2 (50mg/kg/day for 1, 2 and 3weeks) increased testicular gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activity and decreased testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-kit gene expression, serum testosterone level and sperm count. nTiO2-treated rats also exhibited prostatic and testicular altered glutathione levels, elevated TNF-α levels, up-regulated Fas, Bax and caspase-3 gene expression, down-regulated Bcl-2 gene expression and enhanced prostatic lipid peroxidation. Sperm malformation and elevated testicular acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and malondialdehyde level, serum prostatic acid phosphatase activity, prostate specific antigen (PSA), gonadotrophin and estradiol levels occurred after the 2 and 3week regimens. Morin (30mg/kg/day administered intragastrically for 5weeks) mitigated nTiO2-induced prostatic and testicular injury as evidenced by lowering serum PSA level, testicular γ-GT and ACP activities and TNF-α level, along with hampering both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, morin alleviated prostatic lipid peroxidation, raised prostatic glutathione level, and relieved testicular reductive stress. Additionally, morin increased testicular StAR and c-kit mRNA expression, raised the sperm count, reduced sperm deformities and modified the altered hormone profile. Histopathological evaluation supported the biochemical findings. In conclusion, morin could ameliorate nTiO2-induced prostatic and testicular injury and the corresponding reproductive-related aberrations via redox regulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, promoting steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and

  14. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2011-09-01

    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G{sub 1}-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. - Highlights: > Effect of arecoline was investigated on the endocrine physiology of male Wistar rats. > Increase observed in prostate size, wet weight, serum testosterone and gonadotropins. > Arecoline increased RER, expression of androgen receptor and cellular proliferation. > Upregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 seen at transcriptional and translational levels. > It may cause

  15. Therapeutic effect of ACTICOA powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on experimentally induced prostate hyperplasia in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2007-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate that results in obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. Plant extracts are frequently used to treat BPH rather than therapeutics that can cause severe side effects. ACTICOA() (Ba0rry Callebaut France, Louviers, France) powder (AP) is a cocoa polyphenolic extract, and we have shown in a previous study that oral treatment with AP prevented prostate hyperplasia. This study investigated whether AP could improve established prostate hyperplasia using the same testosterone propionate (TP)-induced prostate hyperplasia model in rats. Male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 12 rats: one group injected with corn oil and orally treated with the vehicle (negative control) and three groups injected subcutaneously with TP and orally treated with the vehicle (positive control) or AP at 24 (AP24) and 48 (AP48) mg/kg/day. Treatments started 1 week after the start of the induction of prostate hyperplasia and lasted for 2 weeks. The influence of TP and AP on body weights, food and water consumptions, plasma polyphenolic concentration, and serum dihydrotestoterone (DHT) level of rats was examined. At completion of the study, rats were sacrificed, and the prostates were removed, cleaned, and weighed. The prostate size ratio (prostate weight/rat body weight) was then calculated. TP significantly influenced the body weight gain of the rats and their food and water consumptions, while AP reduced significantly these differences in a dose-dependent manner. AP significantly reduced serum DHT level and prostate size ratio in comparison with positive controls also dose-dependently. In conclusion, AP orally administered was effective for reducing established prostate hyperplasia, especially at the dose of 48 mg/kg/day.

  16. Effects of coconut oil on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Arruzazabala, María; Molina, Vivian; Más, Rosa; Carbajal, Daisy; Marrero, David; González, Víctor; Rodríguez, Eduardo

    2007-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the benign uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland, leading to difficulty with urination. Saw palmetto lipid extracts (SPLE), used to treat BPH, have been shown to inhibit prostate 5a-reductase, and some major components, such as lauric, myristic and oleic acids also inhibit this enzyme. Coconut oil (CO) is also rich in fatty acids, mainly lauric and myristic acids. We investigated whether CO prevents testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia (PH) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were distributed into seven groups (10 rats each). A negative control group were injected with soya oil; six groups were injected with testosterone (3 mg kg(-1)) to induce PH: a positive control group, and five groups treated orally with SPLE (400 mg kg(-1)), CO or sunflower oil (SO) (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)). Treatments were given for 14 days. Rats were weighed before treatment and weekly thereafter. Rats were then killed and the prostates were removed and weighed. CO (400 and 800 mg kg(-1)), SPLE (400 mg kg(-1)) and SO at 800 mg kg(-1), but not at 400 mg kg(-1), significantly reduced the increase in prostate weight (PW) and PW:body weight (BW) ratio induced by testosterone (% inhibition 61.5%, 82.0%, 43.8% and 28.2%, respectively). Since CO and SPLE, but not SO, contain appreciable concentrations of lauric and myristic acids, these results could be attributed to this fact. In conclusion, this study shows that CO reduced the increase of both PW and PW:BW ratio, markers of testosterone-induced PH in rats.

  17. Metformin Attenuates Testosterone-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats: A Pharmacological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mosli, Hala H; Esmat, Ahmed; Atawia, Reem T; Shoieb, Sherif M; Mosli, Hisham A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2015-10-23

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is uncontrolled proliferation of prostate tissue. Metformin, a widely prescribed anti-diabetic agent, possesses anticancer activity through induction of apoptotic signaling and cell cycle arrest. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of metformin against experimentally-induced BPH in rats. Treatment with 500 and 1000 mg/kg metformin orally for 14 days significantly inhibited testosterone-mediated increase in the prostate weight &prostate index (prostate weight/body weight [mg/g]) and attenuated the pathological alterations induced by testosterone. Mechanistically, metformin significantly protected against testosterone-induced elevation of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) and decrease of estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) expression, with no significant effect of androgen receptor (AR) and 5α-reductase expression. It decreased mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1R and protein expression ratio of pAkt/total Akt induced by testosterone. Furthermore, it significantly ameliorated testosterone-induced reduction of mRNA expression Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, P21 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and AMPK [PT-172] activity. In conclusion, these findings elucidate the effectiveness of metformin in preventing testosterone-induced BPH in rats. These results could be attributed, at least partly, to its ability to enhance expression ratio of ER-β/ER-α, decrease IGF-1, IGF-1R and pAkt expressions, increase P21, PTEN, Bax/Bcl-2 expressions and activate AMPK with a subsequent inhibition of prostate proliferation.

  18. Null effect of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis in the Wistar-Unilever rat.

    PubMed

    McCormick, David L; Johnson, William D; Haryu, Todd M; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2007-01-01

    Chronic dietary restriction inhibits carcinogenesis in several sites in laboratory animals. To determine the effects of dietary restriction on prostate carcinogenesis, prostate cancers were induced in male Wistar-Unilever rats by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate (50 mg/day; 21 days); testosterone propionate (100 mg/kg/day; 3 days); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea [MNU; 30 mg/kg; single dose]; and testosterone (subcutaneous implants of 2 pellets containing 40 mg each). Dietary restriction (0% [ad libitum control], 15%, or 30%) was initiated 2 wk post-MNU, and continued until study termination at 12 mo. Dietary restriction induced a rapid suppression of body weight gain but conferred no protection against prostate carcinogenesis. 74% of carcinogen-treated ad libitum controls developed accessory sex gland cancers, versus cancer incidences of 64% and 72% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%, respectively. Similarly, 44% of dietary controls developed cancers limited to the dorsolateral/prostate, versus incidences of 45% and 53% in groups restricted by 15% and 30%. The results of the present study do not support the hypothesis that prostate carcinogenesis can be prevented by reducing caloric intake. Reducing mean body weight by up to 25% through chronic dietary restriction has no effect on the induction of prostate cancers in the Wistar-Unilever rat model.

  19. The comparative evaluation of apoptosis produced by leuprolide or orchiectomy on rat prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Cakiroglu, Basri; Hazar, Aydin Ismet; Eyyupoglu, Seyit Erkan; Can Balci, Mustafa Bahadir; Sinanoglu, Orhun; Tuzlali, Pinar

    2016-01-14

    Organisms are constantly in a balance meaning that while new cells are produced, some of the older ones die which takes place in 2 ways: necrosis or apoptosis. Apoptosis is the programmed cellular death triggered by intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli. In this study we have evaluated the apoptosis of prostate tissue generated by surgical or medical orchiectomy. In this experimental study, we used 36 adult male rats that were evaluated in 3 groups. The first group (Group 1) consisted of 12 rats that had bilateral orchiectomy; the second group (Group 2) included 12 rats that were given leuprolide acetate and the third group (Group 3) consisted of 12 control rats. Immunohistochemical staining of the prostate of all rats was performed and the presence of glandular atrophy and apoptosis were evaluated in the three groups. The statistical differences between the two groups were evaluated by the Fisher exact test. Glandular atrophy was not determined in any rat of the control group, and the apoptotic staining was in the normal limits in all the control rats. In Leuprolide group, glandular atrophy was mild in 7 cases, and moderate in 3 rats. In 2 rats of the Leuprolide group, atrophy was not demonstrated. In surgical orchiectomy group, glandular atrophy was present in all cases. Atrophy was observed as cystic atrophy. Statistical analysis with the Fisher exact test revealed that glandular atrophy was statistically significantly more common in surgical orchiectomy group compared with Leuprolide group (p = 0,012). If the aim of treatment in androgen dependent prostatic adenocarcinoma or benign prostate hypertrophy is the construction of a robust apoptosis, bilateral orchiectomy generates a more powerful apoptosis compared with Leuprolide.

  20. Effect of Serenoa repens extract (Permixon) on estradiol/testosterone-induced experimental prostate enlargement in the rat.

    PubMed

    Paubert-Braquet, M; Richardson, F O; Servent-Saez, N; Gordon, W C; Monge, M C; Bazan, N G; Authie, D; Braquet, P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESR) on experimental prostate enlargement was investigated in three groups of rats: shams treated with LSESR (sham rats), castrated animals treated with estradiol and testosterone (castrated rats), castrated animals treated with estradiol/testosterone and treated with LSESR (castrated and treated rats). Following three months of continuous hormonal treatment, the weight of prostates in estradiol/testosterone-treated castrated rats was significantly increased in comparison with sham-operated rats. Such an increase started rapidly, reached a maximum by 30 days and remained at a plateau or slightly declined thereafter. The increase of prostate total weight induced by the hormone treatment was inhibited by administration of LSESR. Indeed, the weight was significantly lower at day 60 and day 90 for the dorsal and lateral regions of the prostate. The weight of the ventral region of the prostate was significantly lower after 30 and 60 days treatment with LSESR. These results demonstrate that administering LSESR to hormone-treated castrated rats inhibits the increase in prostate wet weight. This effect of LSESR may explain the beneficial effect of this extract in human benign prostatic hypertrophy.

  1. Suppressive effects of dietary genistin and daidzin on rat prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Takahashi, S; Cui, L; Toda, T; Suzuki, S; Futakuchi, M; Sugiura, S; Shirai, T

    2000-08-01

    High intake of phytoestrogens through soybeans and their products is thought to be associated with low incidences of prostate and / or breast cancer in Asian countries. Possible chemopreventive effects of genistin or daidzin on rat prostate carcinogenesis were therefore investigated. Male F344 rats were given 10 biweekly subcutaneous injections of 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMAB) and then either genistin or daidzin in the diet at a concentration of 0.1% for 40 weeks. Other groups of rats given DMAB were treated with genistin or daidzin together with a high dose of testosterone propionate (TP). Both genistin and daidzin reduced the numbers of ventral prostate carcinomas (P < 0.05), with a tendency for decrease in incidence. Invasive carcinomas which developed in the anterior prostate and seminal vesicles with TP were, however, not influenced by the two isoflavones. Thus, the present data suggest that genistin and daidzin possess anti-cancer effects at relatively early stages of prostate cancer development, providing experimental support for epidemiological findings.

  2. Microarray analysis of diet-induced alterations in gene expression in the ACI rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Niradiz; Iatropoulos, Michael; Mittelman, Abraham; Geliebter, Jan

    2002-08-01

    The natural history of prostate cancer is a multistage process that involves the transition from normal tissue to subclinical cancer, with progression to carcinoma in situ and eventually metastatic disease. Evidence suggests that a high-fat diet plays a critical role in the biology and progression of the disease. ACI rats were maintained for two generations on high beef fat or control diets for 18 months. Affymetrix microarrays were used to analyze the mRNA expression levels in the dorsolateral prostates of rats on the different diets. Approximately 4752 genes and expressed sequence tag (EST) were expressed in the prostates of rats on either diet. Twenty-seven genes were upregulated and 28 genes downregulated in the high beef fat diet. Data analysis indicated that a high beef fat diet affects the expression of genes involved in inflammation, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, androgen metabolism, potential tumor suppression and protein kinase activity, as well as intracellular and extracellular matrix molecules, growth factors and androgen responsive genes. Results from these and future studies will lead to a better understanding of the effect of diet on gene expression in the prostate and facilitate the rational design and assessment of potential dietary programs for prostate cancer prevention.

  3. Effect of Silodosin, an Alpha1A-Adrenoceptor Antagonist, on Ventral Prostatic Hyperplasia in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Tsounapi, Panagiota; Higashi, Youichirou; Martin, Darryl T.; Nakamura, Kumiko; Honda, Masashi; Inoue, Keiji; Saito, Motoaki

    2015-01-01

    Background A decreased prostatic blood flow could be one of the risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia/benign prostatic enlargement. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) shows a chronic prostatic ischemia and hyperplastic morphological abnormalities in the ventral prostate. The effect of silodosin, a selective alpha1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, was investigated in the SHR prostate as a prostatic hyperplasia model focusing on prostatic blood flow. Methods Twelve-week-old male SHRs were administered perorally with silodosin (100 μg/kg/day) or vehicle once daily for 6 weeks. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as normotensive controls and were treated with the vehicle. The effect of silodosin on blood pressure and prostatic blood flow were estimated and then the prostates were removed and weighed. The tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1/cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CXCL1/CINC1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were measured. The histological evaluation was also performed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results There was a significant increase in blood pressure, prostate weight, prostate body weight ratio (PBR), tissue levels of MDA, IL-6, CXCL1/CINC1, TNF-α, TGF-β1, bFGF and α-SMA in the SHR compared to the WKY rat. The ventral prostate in the SHR showed the morphological abnormalities compared to the WKY rat. Prostatic blood flow was decreased in the SHR. However, treatment with silodosin significantly restored the decreased prostatic blood flow in the SHR. Moreover, silodosin normalized tissue levels of MDA, IL-6, CXCL1/CINC1, TNF-α, TGF-β1, bFGF and α-SMA, and it ameliorated ventral prostatic hyperplasia in the SHR excluding blood pressure. Silodosin decreased PBR but not prostate weight in the SHR. Conclusions Silodosin can inhibit the

  4. Testosterone regulates smooth muscle contractile pathways in the rat prostate: emphasis on PDE5 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinhua; Zang, Ning; Wei, Yu; Yin, Jin; Teng, Ruobing; Seftel, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) plays a permissive role in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) have been found to be effective for BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in clinical trials. This study investigated the effect of T on smooth muscle (SM) contractile and regulatory signaling pathways, including PDE5 expression and functional activity in prostate in male rats (sham-operated, surgically castrated, and castrated with T supplementation). In vitro organ bath studies, real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry were performed. Castration heavily attenuated contractility, including sensitivity to phenylephrine with SM myosin immunostaining revealing a disrupted SM cell arrangement in the stroma. PDE5 was immunolocalized exclusively in the prostate stroma, and orchiectomy signficantly reduced PDE5 immunopositivity, mRNA, and protein expression, along with nNOS and ROKβ mRNA, whereas it increased eNOS plus α1a and α1b adrenoreceptor expression in castrated animals. The PDE5i zaprinast significantly increased prostate strip relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in control but not castrated rats. But SNP alone was more effective on castrated rats, comparable with sham treated with SNP plus zaprinast. T supplementation prevented or restored all above changes, including SNP and zaprinast in vitro responsiveness. In conclusion, our data show that T positively regulates PDE5 expression and functional activities in prostate, and T ablation not only suppresses prostate size but also reduces prostatic SM contractility, with several potential SM contraction/relaxation pathways implicated. Zaprinast findings strongly suggest a major role for PDE5/cGMP in this signaling cascade. PDE5 inhibition may represent a novel mechanism for treatment of BPH. PMID:22028410

  5. Inhibitory effects of Ponciri Fructus on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Kim, Ohn Soon; Seo, Chang-Seob; Jin, Seong Eun; Kim, Jung-Ae; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Kim, Yong-Ung; Lee, Mee-Young

    2017-08-03

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is non-cancerous condition of enlargement of the prostate, a common occurrence in older men. The immature fruits of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Rafinesque (Rutaceae), Ponciri Fructus are widely used in traditional oriental medicine for the therapy of various diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of a Ponciri Fructus extract (PFE) on the development of BPH in a in a rat model of BPH induced by testosterone propionate (TP). Male Sprague Dawley rats were used as a model of BPH after its induction by daily subcutaneous injections of TP/corn oil, for a period of four weeks. PFE was administrated daily 1 h before TP/corn oil injection by oral gavage at a dose level of 200 mg/kg during the 4 weeks of TP/corn oil injections. All rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, we measured the relative prostate weight, the levels of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), histological changes, activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase), and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In addition, we also measured the inhibition (%) of 5α-reductase in the prostatic tissue. Our findings indicate that PFE significantly inhibited the development of BPH; decreased the relative prostate weight, the level of testosterone and DHT in serum and prostatic tissue, prostatic hyperplasia, expression of PCNA, and increased the antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, PFE showed a weak inhibitory activity on 5α-reductase. These results suggest that PFE may be used as a therapeutic agent for BPH via antiproliferative and antioxidant effects.

  6. Null activity of selenium and vitamin e as cancer chemopreventive agents in the rat prostate.

    PubMed

    McCormick, David L; Rao, K V N; Johnson, William D; Bosland, Maarten C; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the potential efficacy of selenium and vitamin E as inhibitors of prostate carcinogenesis, four chemoprevention studies using a common protocol were done in a rat model of androgen-dependent prostate cancer. After stimulation of prostate epithelial cell proliferation by a sequential regimen of cyproterone acetate followed by testosterone propionate, male Wistar-Unilever rats received a single i.v. injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) followed by chronic androgen stimulation via subcutaneous implantation of testosterone pellets. At 1 week post-MNU, groups of carcinogen-treated rats (39-44/group) were fed either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with l-selenomethionine (3 or 1.5 mg/kg diet; study 1), dl-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, 4,000 or 2,000 mg/kg diet; study 2), l-selenomethionine + vitamin E (3 + 2,000 mg/kg diet or 3 + 500 mg/kg diet; study 3), or selenized yeast (target selenium levels of 9 or 3 mg/kg diet; study 4). Each chemoprevention study was terminated at 13 months post-MNU, and prostate cancer incidence was determined by histopathologic evaluation. No statistically significant reductions in prostate cancer incidence were identified in any group receiving dietary supplementation with selenium and/or vitamin E. These data do not support the hypotheses that selenium and vitamin E are potent cancer chemopreventive agents in the prostate, and when considered with the recent clinical data reported in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), show the predictive nature of this animal model for human prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  7. Terazosin Treatment Induces Caspase-3 Expression in the Rat Ventral Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Georgios; Vlachodimitropoulos, Dimitrios; Kyroudi, Aspasia; Kouloukoussa, Mirsini; Perrea, Despina; Mitropoulos, Dionisios

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonists may not act solely on smooth muscle contractility. We evaluated the in vivo effect of terazosin on the expression of caspase-3 in the rat ventral prostate. Methods Fifteen Wistar rats were treated with terazosin (1.2 mg/kg body weight, given orally every second day) for 120 days. Another 15 control animals received the same amount of distilled water. The expression of caspase-3 was assessed immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Results Terazosin treatment did not affect prostate weight and histomorphology. In controls caspase-3 was expressed weakly and sporadically. In contrast, strong and weak expression was evident in 67% and 33% of the terazosin-treated specimens, respectively. Conclusions These findings implicate the induction of caspase-3 expression by terazosin as a potential molecular mechanism of its apoptotic action on prostate cells. PMID:23518907

  8. Cafeteria diet increases prostaglandin E2 levels in rat prostate, kidney and testis.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, L; Leone, S; Chiavaroli, A; Orlando, G; Recinella, L; Ferrante, C; Di Nisio, C; Verratti, V; Vacca, M

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient composition, particularly the omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio, may differently affect inflammatory mediators production in tissues, which could be causally related to increased cancer incidence in obesity. We evaluated prostaglandin E(2) levels in male Wistar rat prostate, kidney and testicle tissues after 15 days of either a high fat, cafeteria-style diet (5.50 Kcal/g, 30 percent calories from fat, omega-6/omega-3 ratio 2.33) or a standard laboratory chow diet (3.35 Kcal/g, 3 percent calories from fat, omega-6/omega-3 ratio 0.56). In the cafeteria diet compared to standard laboratory diet rats, we found both an increase in weight gain and increased prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) levels in prostate, kidney and testicle tissues. The increased levels of PGE(2) induced by the cafeteria diet could drive an inflammatory process leading to increased incidence of prostate, kidney and testicular cancer in overweight patients.

  9. Implication of Rho-kinase and soluble guanylyl cyclase enzymes in prostate smooth muscle dysfunction in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Calmasini, Fabiano B; Silva, Fabio H; Alexandre, Eduardo C; Rodrigues, Renata L; Barbosa, Ana Paula L; Ferrucci, Danilo L; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Anhê, Gabriel F; Pupo, Andre S; Antunes, Edson

    2017-03-01

    Aging is highly associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). We investigated here the alterations of the contractile and relaxant machinery in prostates of middle-aged rats, focusing on the Rho-kinase, nitric oxide (NO)-soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), α1- and β-adrenoceptor pathways. Male Wistar young (3.5-month old) and middle-aged rats (10-month old) were used. Quantitative image analysis of prostates and functional assays evaluating the prostate contractions and relaxations were employed. Measurement of [(3) H]-noradrenaline efflux, western blotting for α1 and β1 sGC subunits, and cyclic nucleotide levels were carried out. Prostates of middle-aged rats showed significant increases in lumen and smooth muscle cells, but no alterations in the relative prostate weight were observed. In vivo, noradrenaline (10(-7) -10(-4)  g/kg) produced greater prostatic contractions in middle-aged compared with control rats. Likewise, the in vitro contractions to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 μM) and α,β-methylene ATP (1-10 μM) were greater in middle-aged rats. Electrical-field stimulation (EFS, 1-32 Hz) promoted higher [(3) H]-noradrenaline efflux and prostate contractions in middle-aged rats. Reduced expressions of α1 and β1 sGC subunits and diminished NO-mediated prostate relaxations in middle-age were observed. Isoproterenol-induced relaxations and cAMP levels were reduced in prostates of middle-aged rats. The Rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil (50 mg/kg, 2 weeks) normalized the prostate hypercontractility in middle-age rats. Prostate hypercontractility in middle-aging is associated with increased release of noradrenaline and Rho-kinase pathway, as well as with impairments of NO-sGC and β-adrenoceptor pathways. Middle-aged rats are suitable to explore the enhanced prostatic tone in the absence of prostate overgrowth. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:589-596, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Down regulation of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor of the rat prostate following castration

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Miller, A.R.; Lepor, H.

    1985-07-01

    Prostatic secretion is dependent upon the integrity of the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems and is dramatically influenced by muscarinic cholinergic analogs. In this study, the authors have used radioligand receptor binding methods on whole tissue homogenates and slide mounted tissue sections of rat prostate to determine whether androgens regulate the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the prostate. The muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding affinities (Kd) of (/sup 3/H) N-methylscopolamine in prostatic homogenates obtained from intact, castrate, and castrate rats receiving testosterone replacement (castrate + T) were similar (0.07 to 0.10 nM). The muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding capacity decreased 73 per cent following castration. Testosterone administration restored the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in castrate rats to intact levels. In order to ensure that the loss of receptor density was not due to a decrease in the epithelial: stromal cell ratio, the number of muscarinic cholinergic receptors per unit area of epithelium was determined in the 3 treatment groups using autoradiography on slide mounted tissue sections. The density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in a unit area of epithelium was decreased 91 per cent following castration. Testosterone administration restored the density of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the castrate rats to intact levels. The modulation of neurotransmitter receptors by steroid hormones may be a mechanism by which sex steroids regulate biological responsiveness of target tissues.

  11. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  12. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.

    Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.

    Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  13. GENE ARRAY ANALYSIS OF THE VENTRAL PROSTATE IN RATS EXPOSED TO EITHER VINCLOZOLIN OR PROCYMIDONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENE ARRAY ANALYSIS OF THE VENTRAL PROSTATE IN RATS EXPOSED TO EITHER VINCLOZOLIN OR PROCYMIDONE. MB Rosen, VS Wilson, JE Schmid, and LE Gray Jr. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC.

    Vinclozolin (Vi) and procymidone (Pr) are antiandrogenic fungicides. While changes in gene expr...

  14. Effects of nobiletin on PhIP-induced prostate and colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming Xi; Ogawa, Kumiko; Asamoto, Makoto; Chewonarin, Teera; Suzuki, Shugo; Tanaka, Takuji; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the effects of nobiletin (5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxy flavone) on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced prostate and colon carcinogenesis. PhIP was administered to 6-wk-old F344 male rats intragastrically (100 mg/kg) twice a wk for 10 wk. The animals were given 0.05% nobiletin or the basal diet for 50 wk. At the end of the experiment, serum testosterone, estrogen, and leptin did not differ between the 2 groups. The body weights of nobiletin-treated rats were significantly higher than controls (P<0.05), and feeding of nobiletin significantly reduced the relative prostate (P<0.05) and testes (P<0.05) weights as well as the Ki67 labeling index in the normal epithelium in the ventral prostate (P<0.01). The incidence and multiplicity of adenocarcinomas in nobiletin-treated ventral prostate were 50% and 36%, respectively, of controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, nobiletin did significantly reduce the total number of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) compared to the control value (P<0.05). Nobiletin, therefore, may have potential for chemoprevention of early changes associated with carcinogenesis in both the prostate and colon.

  15. The therapeutic effects of docosahexaenoic acid on oestrogen/androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Luo, Fei; Zhou, Ying; Du, Xiaoling; Shi, Jiandang; Zhao, Xiaoling; Xu, Yong; Zhu, Yan; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Ju

    2016-07-15

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the major disorders of the urinary system in elderly men. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the main component of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and has nerve protective, anti-inflammatory and tumour-growth inhibitory effects. Here, the therapeutic potential of DHA in treating BPH was investigated. Seal oil effectively prevented the development of prostatic hyperplasia induced by oestradiol/testosterone in a rat model by suppressing the increase of the prostatic index (PI), reducing the thickness of the peri-glandular smooth muscle layer, inhibiting the proliferation of both prostate epithelial and stromal cells, and downregulating the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and oestrogen receptor α (ERα). An in vitro study showed that DHA inhibited the growth of the human prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1 and the epithelial cell line RWPE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In both cell lines, the DHA arrested the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. In addition, DHA also reduced the expression of ERα and AR in the WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 cells. These results indicate that DHA inhibits the multiplication of prostate stromal and epithelial cells through a mechanism that may involve cell cycle arrest and the downregulation of ERα and AR expression.

  16. The histological and histometrical effects of Urtica dioica extract on rat's prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Hamid Reza; Erfani Majd, Naeem; Esmaeilzadeh, Saleh; Fatemi Tabatabaei, Sayed Reza

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in human that gradual overgrowth of the prostate gland leads to impinge on the urethra with impairment in urinary function. Numerous plants improve uncontrolled growth of the prostate gland and improve urinary tract symptoms associated with BPH. In this study, 25 healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly in five groups: G1 (Control group) received ordinary feed without any treatment, G2 received 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone subcutaneously, G3 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally, G4 received 50 mg kg(-1) nettle root extract orally and 10 mg kg(-1) testosterone, G5 received 10 mg kg(-1) almond oil (Almond oil was used as testosterone solvent) subcutaneously. After six weeks, volume and weight of each lobe were measured and samples were taken. The 5 to 6 µm thickness sections were made using paraffin embedding method and stained by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff. The results showed that prostate volume and ratio of prostate to body weight were increased significantly in the testosterone. Histological and histometrical results showed that dorsal and lateral type 1 and 2 lobes were not changed significantly but the ventral and anterior lobes have changed significantly. Over all, the nettle root could prevent from some of prostatic hyperplasia effects, so that percentage of folded alveoli in ventral lobe reduced insignificantly.

  17. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1-Positive Escherichia coli Causes Increased Inflammation and Tissue Damage to the Prostate in a Rat Prostatitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Rippere-Lampe, Karen E.; Lang, Michael; Ceri, Howard; Olson, Merle; Lockman, Hank A.; O'Brien, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    Infection of rat prostates with cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1)-positive uropathogenic Escherichia coli caused more inflammation-mediated morphological and histological tissue damage than did infection with isogenic CNF1-negative mutants. These striking differences occurred despite the finding that bacterial counts for the strain pairs were indistinguishable. We conclude that CNF1 contributes to E. coli virulence in a model of acute prostatitis. To our knowledge, the results of this study provide the first demonstration of a role for any uropathogenic E. coli virulence factor in acute prostatitis. PMID:11553597

  18. Sleep Deprivation Alters Rat Ventral Prostate Morphology, Leading to Glandular Atrophy: A Microscopic Study Contrasted with the Hormonal Assays

    PubMed Central

    Venâncio, Daniel P.; Andersen, Monica L.; Vilamaior, Patricia S. L.; Santos, Fernanda C.; Zager, Adriano; Tufik, Sérgio; Taboga, Sebastião R.; De Mello, Marco T.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 96 h paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and 21-day sleep restriction (SR) on prostate morphology using stereological assays in male rats. After euthanasia, the rat ventral prostate was removed, weighed, and prepared for conventional light microscopy. Microscopic analysis of the prostate reveals that morphology of this gland was altered after 96 h of PSD and 21 days of SR, with the most important alterations occurring in the epithelium and stroma in the course of both procedures compared with the control group. Both 96 h PSD and 21-day SR rats showed lower serum testosterone and higher corticosterone levels than control rats. The significance of our result referring to the sleep deprivation was responsible for deep morphological alterations in ventral prostate tissue, like to castration microscopic modifications. This result is due to the marked alterations in hormonal status caused by PSD and SR. PMID:22927719

  19. Hypothermia and rewarming induce gene expression and multiplication of cells in healthy rat prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Kaija, Helena; Pakanen, Lasse; Kortelainen, Marja-Leena; Porvari, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer has been extensively studied, but cellular stress responses in healthy prostate tissue are rarely investigated. Hypothermia is known to cause alterations in mRNA and protein expressions and stability. The aim of this study was to use normal rat prostate as a model in order to find out consequences of cold exposure and rewarming on the expressions of genes which are either members or functionally/structurally related to erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene B (ErbB) signaling pathway. Relative mRNA expressions of amphiregulin (AMR), cyclin D1 (CyD1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21), transmembrane form of the prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP), thrombomodulin (TM) and heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) in rat ventral prostate were quantified in mild (2 or 4.5 h at room temperature) and severe (2 or 4.5 h at +10°C) hypothermia and in rewarming after cold exposure (2 h at +10°C followed by 2 h at room temperature or 3 h at +28°C). AMR protein level, apoptotic Bcl-2 associated X protein to B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bax/Bcl-2) mRNA ratio and proliferative index Ki-67 were determined. 4.5-h mild hypothermia, 2-h severe hypothermia and rewarming increased expression of all these genes. Elevated proliferation index Ki-67 could be seen in 2-h severe hypothermia, and the proliferation index had its highest value in longer rewarming with totally recovered normal body temperature. Pro-apoptotic tendency could be seen in 2-h mild hypothermia while anti-apoptosis was predominant in 4.5-h mild hypothermia and in shorter rewarming with only partly recovered body temperature. Hypothermia and following rewarming promote the proliferation of cells in healthy rat prostate tissue possibly via ErbB signaling pathway.

  20. Ultrasound molecular imaging of VEGFR2 in a rat prostate tumor model using BR55.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Isabelle; Pochon, Sibylle; Theraulaz, Martine; Emmel, Patricia; Passantino, Lisa; Tranquart, François; Schneider, Michel

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate BR55, a new VEGFR2-specific ultrasound contrast agent, for imaging prostate tumors in an orthotopic model in the rat. Rat prostate adenocarcinoma were established by injection of G Dunning R-3327 tumor cells in one lobe of the prostate of Copenhagen rats. Imaging experiments were performed with BR55, SonoVue, and streptavidin-functionalized microbubbles coupled with an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) antibody using a clinical ultrasound scanner. Contrast enhancement in the tumor and healthy prostate was followed over time by intermittent imaging at low acoustic power. Signal quantification and statistical analysis were performed in the tumor and healthy tissue to compare the behavior of the 3 contrast agents. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the prostate and tumor specimen to determine the expression of VEGFR2. Comparable contrast enhancement was observed in tumors at peak intensity for BR55 and SonoVue. Then, once unbound microbubbles had cleared from the circulation, a strong enhancement of the tumor was obtained with BR55, whereas no significant microbubble accumulation was detected in the healthy prostate tissue. SonoVue microbubbles were rapidly eliminated, and no significant binding was observed in the tumor. The tumor to prostate ratio calculated after signal quantification was about 20 for the 3 doses of BR55 tested. The enhancement obtained with BR55 in the tumor was not significantly different from the one observed with antibody-coupled streptavidin microbubbles. Intense staining for VEGFR2 was detected in the tumor vessels by immunohistochemistry. This study showed that BR55 binding to prostate tumors resulted in a strong enhancement of the lesions as early as a few minutes after contrast injection, whereas minimal nonspecific accumulation occurred in the healthy part of the gland. BR55, like SonoVue, provide information on tissue perfusion during the early vascular phase, but BR55 binding to the tumoral

  1. Resveratrol Improves Cell Cycle Arrest in Chronic Prostatitis Rats, by C-kit/SCF Suppression.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Zeng, Huizhi; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jiashu; Zeng, Xiaona; Gong, Fengtao; Liu, Qi; Yang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) with complex pathogenesis is difficult for treatment. c-kit has been associated with the control of cell proliferation of prostate cells. This study aims to evaluate the role of resveratrol, an activator of Sirt1, in regulating the expression of c-kit in CP and investigate the consequent effects on cell cycle. Rat model of CP was established through subcutaneous injections of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine and subsequently treated with resveratrol. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to identify the histopathological changes in prostates. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining examined the expression level of c-kit, stem cell factor (SCF), Sirt1, and cell cycle-associated proteins. The model group exhibited severe diffuse chronic inflammation, characterized by leukocyte infiltration and papillary frond protrusion into the gland cavities, and a notable increase in prostatic epithelial height. Gland lumen diameter was also significantly smaller; the activity of c-kit/SCF in the CP rats was increased significantly compared to the control group. Meanwhile, the cell cycle proteins are dysregulated significantly in CP rats. Resveratrol treatment significantly improved these factors by Sirt1 activation. Dysregulation of cell cycle was involved in the pathological processes of CP, which was improved after resveratrol treatment by the downregulation of c-kit/SCF by activating Sirt1.

  2. A study of the prostate, androgens and sexual activity of male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Maria Elena; Soto-Cid, Abraham; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Díaz, Rosaura; Rojas, Fausto; Garcia, Luis I; Toledo, Rebeca; Manzo, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background The prostate is a sexual gland that produces important substances for the potency of sperm to fertilize eggs within the female reproductive tract, and is under complex endocrine control. Taking advantage of the peculiar behavioral pattern of copulating male rats, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of sexual behavior on the level of serum testosterone, prostate androgen receptors, and mRNA for androgen receptors in male rats displaying up to four consecutive ejaculations. Methods The effect of four consecutive ejaculations was investigated by determining levels of (i) testosterone in serum by solid phase RIA, (ii) androgen receptors at the ventral prostate with Western Blots, and (iii) androgen receptors-mRNA with RT-PCR. Data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc application of Dunnett's test if required. Results The constant execution of sexual behavior did not produce any change in the weight of the ventral prostate. Serum testosterone increased after the second ejaculation, and remained elevated even after four ejaculations. The androgen receptor at the ventral prostate was higher after the first to third ejaculations, but returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. The level of mRNA increased after the first ejaculation, continued to increase after the second, and reached the highest peak after the third ejaculation; however, it returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. Conclusion Four consecutive ejaculations by sexually experienced male rats had important effects on the physiological responses of the ventral prostate. Fast responses were induced as a result of sexual behavior that involved an increase and decrease in androgen receptors after one and four ejaculations, respectively. However, a progressive response was observed in the elevation of mRNA for androgen receptors, which also showed a fast decrease after four ejaculations. All of these changes

  3. A study of the prostate, androgens and sexual activity of male rats.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Maria Elena; Soto-Cid, Abraham; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Díaz, Rosaura; Rojas, Fausto; Garcia, Luis I; Toledo, Rebeca; Manzo, Jorge

    2007-03-16

    The prostate is a sexual gland that produces important substances for the potency of sperm to fertilize eggs within the female reproductive tract, and is under complex endocrine control. Taking advantage of the peculiar behavioral pattern of copulating male rats, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of sexual behavior on the level of serum testosterone, prostate androgen receptors, and mRNA for androgen receptors in male rats displaying up to four consecutive ejaculations. The effect of four consecutive ejaculations was investigated by determining levels of (i) testosterone in serum by solid phase RIA, (ii) androgen receptors at the ventral prostate with Western Blots, and (iii) androgen receptors-mRNA with RT-PCR. Data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc application of Dunnett's test if required. The constant execution of sexual behavior did not produce any change in the weight of the ventral prostate. Serum testosterone increased after the second ejaculation, and remained elevated even after four ejaculations. The androgen receptor at the ventral prostate was higher after the first to third ejaculations, but returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. The level of mRNA increased after the first ejaculation, continued to increase after the second, and reached the highest peak after the third ejaculation; however, it returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. Four consecutive ejaculations by sexually experienced male rats had important effects on the physiological responses of the ventral prostate. Fast responses were induced as a result of sexual behavior that involved an increase and decrease in androgen receptors after one and four ejaculations, respectively. However, a progressive response was observed in the elevation of mRNA for androgen receptors, which also showed a fast decrease after four ejaculations. All of these changes with the prostate gland occurred in the

  4. Effects of metoclopramide on mRNA levels of steroid 5α-reductase isozymes in prostate of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Pilar; Torres, Jesús M; Castro, Beatriz; Frías, José F; Ortega, Esperanza

    2013-03-01

    The rising incidence of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy in the Western world is a cause of increasing public health concern. The most active androgen in the prostate is 5α-dihydrotestosterone obtained from testosterone (T) by the enzyme 5α-reductase (5α-R), expressed in the prostate as two isozymes, 5α-R1 and 5α-R2. These isozymes are involved in the growth and development of normal prostate and in the onset and progression of prostate disease. Besides androgens, prolactin (PRL) may also play a role, although it is not clear whether its effects on the prostate are in synergism with or independent of those of androgens. We previously demonstrated that sulpiride, an inductor of hyperprolactinemia, increased mRNA levels of 5α-R isozymes in prostate of adult rat. We hypothesized a possible interrelationship between PRL levels and 5α-R, although the effects of sulpiride per se cannot be ruled out. In the present study, one-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction coupled with laser-induced fluorescence capillary electrophoresis was used to quantify mRNA levels of both 5α-R isozymes in prostate of adult rat after administration of metoclopramide (MTC), another inductor of PRL secretion. With the administration regimens studied, MTC produced an increase in prostate weight and mRNA levels of 5α-R1 and 5α-R2 in adult rats. Given our finding that MTC per se or MTC-induced hyperprolactinemia modifies prostate disease-related parameters in animals with reduced plasma T levels, further investigation is warranted into the possibility that MTC use by aging males may increase their risk of prostate disease.

  5. Gestational and neonatal-onset hypothyroidism alters androgen receptor status in rat prostate glands at adulthood.

    PubMed

    Aruldhas, Michael Maria; Ramalingam, Neelamohan; Jaganathan, Anbalagan; John Sashi, Arokya Mary; Stanley, Jone Arulrajadurai; Nagappan, Arumugam Suriyam; Vasavan, Jyothilakshmi; Kannan, Annapoorna; Seshadri, Venkatesh Nagamangalam

    2010-05-15

    Infertility associated with congenital and early childhood hypothyroidism is an important reproductive health problem in men. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism underlying hypothyroidism-induced changes in the prostate gland, an androgen-dependent organ that contributes a significant portion of the seminal plasma remains obscure. The present study tested the hypothesis "transient gestational- or neonatal-onset hypothyroidism may have duration dependent and lobe specific effect on androgen receptor (AR) status in the prostate glands of adult rats." Hypothyroidism was induced in pregnant and lactating rats by feeding 0.05% methimazole (MMI) through drinking water during fetal and neonatal milestones of testicular and prostatic development. Pregnant dams had MMI exposure from 9th day post-coitum (dpc) to 14 dpc (group II) or 21 dpc (group III). Lactating mothers had MMI exposure from day 1 post-partum (dpp) to 14 dpp (group IV) or up to 29 dpp (group V). AR status in the dorsolateral and ventral prostate lobes (DLP and VP) of the pups was assessed by RT-PCR, western blot and radio receptor assay. AR mRNA expression consistently decreased in the DLP of all groups, whereas it increased in VP of group III and V rats. AR protein consistently decreased in both DLP and VP of all experimental rats. AR nuclear ligand-binding activity diminished in groups II and IV, whereas it increased in groups III and V. The results obtained support the proposed hypothesis and indicate that an optimum thyroid activity during pre- and neonatal period determines AR status in the prostate glands at adulthood.

  6. Pumpkin seed oil and phytosterol-F can block testosterone/prazosin-induced prostate growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yuh-Shyan; Tong, Yat-Ching; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Lee, Chung-Ho; Yang, Fu-Shan; Lee, Hua-Yang

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of pumpkin seed oil alone or combined with Phytosterol-F on testosterone/prazosin-induced (T-P) prostate growth in rats. Forty adult Wistar rats were divided into five groups, including: one control group, rats treated with vehicle only, one group treated with T-P, and two groups of T-P-treated rats, one receiving orally pumpkin seed oil alone and one group receiving orally pumpkin seed oil combined with Phytosterol-F. Two weeks later, the prostatic weight-to-body weight ratio was determined after sacrifice. The total protein concentration was measured by using a protein assay. Some ventral prostatic tissues were histologically examined after hematoxylin-eosin staining. Histological sections of the ventral prostate showed that the architecture of the prostate glands became hyperplastic in the T-P rats, but not in the control or vehicle-treated animals. As compared with the control or vehicle group, T-P rats had a significantly higher prostatic weight-to-body weight ratio for the ventral prostate (p=0.05 and p=0.007, respectively), but not for the dorsolateral prostate (p=0.53 and p=0.73, respectively). The T-P rats had significantly higher protein levels within both lobes (ventral lobe, p=0.02 and p<0.0001, respectively; dorsolateral lobe, p=0.06 and p=0.005, respectively). As compared with the T-P-alone rats, the TP rats treated with pumpkin seed oil alone or pumpkin seed oil combined with Phytosterol-F had a significantly lower weight ratio for the ventral prostate (p=0.01 and p=0.004, respectively) and significantly lower protein levels within both lobes (p=0.03 and p=0.003, respectively; p=0.007 and p=0.002, respectively). In addition, Phytosterol-F had some additive effect on the total protein synthesis within the ventral prostate (p=0.02). Pumpkin seed oil alone or combined with Phytosterol-F can block the T-P-induced increases in prostatic weight-to-body weight ratio and protein synthesis. Copyright (c

  7. Androgen metabolism and regulation of rat ventral prostate growth and acid phosphatase during sexual maturation.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, J; Bird, C E; Clark, A F

    1988-01-01

    Androgen metabolism and the regulation of rat ventral prostate cell proliferation and secretory function were examined during sexual maturation. Changes in acid phosphatase (AP) characteristics were measured as a marker of androgen-dependent prostatic secretory function. In immature (21-day-old) rats, total AP activity per cell was low (14.2 +/- 1.3 mol p-nitrophenol phosphate hydrolysed/h per mg DNA); it increased threefold as the weight, protein and DNA contents of the prostate increased to adult (65-day) levels. This corresponded with significant (P less than 0.001) increases in the staining intensities of three of the four bands of secretory AP on isoelectric focusing gels. The extent of inhibition of AP by tartrate decreased at the same time. Secretory AP is known to be relatively tartrate-resistant. The changes in AP activity occurred after prostatic 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT) levels increased from 4.6 +/- 0.7 pmol/mg DNA (21 days) to reach a peak of 17.6 +/- 2.3 pmol/mg DNA at 58 days. Prostatic 5 alpha-DHT concentrations were always higher than testosterone levels. Prostatic 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol (3 alpha-Adiol) levels were lower than 5 alpha-DHT levels except on day 58 when levels peaked dramatically at 26.2 +/- 5.5 pmol/mg DNA. Changes in prostatic 5 alpha-DHT and 3 alpha-Adiol levels corresponded with changes in 5 alpha-reductase and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (3 alpha-HSOR) activities. The oxidative reaction of 3 alpha-HSOR was approximately fourfold higher than the reductive reaction, indicating a preference for the formation of 5 alpha-DHT. The plasma levels of testosterone, 5 alpha-DHT and 3 alpha-Adiol cannot account for their respective prostatic levels, indicating the importance of the steroid-metabolizing enzymes in regulating intracellular androgen levels. Changes in the AP characteristics could be correlated with the androgen status of the prostate.

  8. Rat Prostate Tumor Cells Progress in the Bone Microenvironment to a Highly Aggressive Phenotype1

    PubMed Central

    Bergström, Sofia Halin; Rudolfsson, Stina H; Bergh, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer generally metastasizes to bone, and most patients have tumor cells in their bone marrow already at diagnosis. Tumor cells at the metastatic site may therefore progress in parallel with those in the primary tumor. Androgen deprivation therapy is often the first-line treatment for clinically detectable prostate cancer bone metastases. Although the treatment is effective, most metastases progress to a castration-resistant and lethal state. To examine metastatic progression in the bone microenvironment, we implanted androgen-sensitive, androgen receptor–positive, and relatively slow-growing Dunning G (G) rat prostate tumor cells into the tibial bone marrow of fully immune-competent Copenhagen rats. We show that tumor establishment in the bone marrow was reduced compared with the prostate, and whereas androgen deprivation did not affect tumor establishment or growth in the bone, this was markedly reduced in the prostate. Moreover, we found that, with time, G tumor cells in the bone microenvironment progress to a more aggressive phenotype with increased growth rate, reduced androgen sensitivity, and increased metastatic capacity. Tumor cells in the bone marrow encounter lower androgen levels and a higher degree of hypoxia than at the primary site, which may cause high selective pressures and eventually contribute to the development of a new and highly aggressive tumor cell phenotype. It is therefore important to specifically study progression in bone metastases. This tumor model could be used to increase our understanding of how tumor cells adapt in the bone microenvironment and may subsequently improve therapy strategies for prostate metastases in bone. PMID:26992916

  9. Metformin Attenuates Testosterone-Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats: A Pharmacological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mosli, Hala H.; Esmat, Ahmed; Atawia, Reem T.; Shoieb, Sherif M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is uncontrolled proliferation of prostate tissue. Metformin, a widely prescribed anti-diabetic agent, possesses anticancer activity through induction of apoptotic signaling and cell cycle arrest. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of metformin against experimentally-induced BPH in rats. Treatment with 500 and 1000 mg/kg metformin orally for 14 days significantly inhibited testosterone-mediated increase in the prostate weight & prostate index (prostate weight/body weight [mg/g]) and attenuated the pathological alterations induced by testosterone. Mechanistically, metformin significantly protected against testosterone-induced elevation of estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) and decrease of estrogen receptor-β (ER-β) expression, with no significant effect of androgen receptor (AR) and 5α-reductase expression. It decreased mRNA expression of IGF-1 and IGF-1R and protein expression ratio of pAkt/total Akt induced by testosterone. Furthermore, it significantly ameliorated testosterone–induced reduction of mRNA expression Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, P21 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and AMPK [PT-172] activity. In conclusion, these findings elucidate the effectiveness of metformin in preventing testosterone-induced BPH in rats. These results could be attributed, at least partly, to its ability to enhance expression ratio of ER-β/ER-α, decrease IGF-1, IGF-1R and pAkt expressions, increase P21, PTEN, Bax/Bcl-2 expressions and activate AMPK with a subsequent inhibition of prostate proliferation. PMID:26492952

  10. Linkage and microarray analyses of susceptibility genes in ACI/Seg rats: a model for prostate cancers in the aged.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Suzuki, Shugo; Nomoto, Tomoko; Kondo, Yasushi; Wakazono, Kuniko; Tsujino, Yoshimi; Sugimura, Takashi; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Homma, Yukio; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2005-04-01

    ACI/Seg (ACI) rats develop prostate cancers spontaneously with aging, similar to humans. Here, to identify genes involved in prostate cancer susceptibility, we did linkage analysis and oligonucleotide microarray analysis. Linkage analysis was done using 118 effective rats, and prostate cancer susceptibility 1 (Pcs1), whose ACI allele dominantly induced prostate cancers, was mapped on chromosome 19 [logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 5.0]. PC resistance 1 (Pcr1), whose ACI allele dominantly and paradoxically suppressed the size of prostate cancers, was mapped on chromosome 2 (LOD score of 5.0). When linkage analysis was done in 51 rats with single or no macroscopic testicular tumors, which had larger prostates and higher testosterone levels than those with bilateral testicular tumors, Pcs2 and Pcr2 were mapped on chromosomes 20 and 1, respectively. By oligonucleotide microarray analysis with 8,800 probe sets and confirmation by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, only two genes within these four loci were found to be differentially expressed >1.8-fold. Membrane metalloendopeptidase (Mme), known to inhibit androgen-independent growth of prostate cancers, on Pcr1 was expressed 2.0- to 5.5-fold higher in the ACI prostate, in accordance with its paradoxical effect. Cdkn1a on Pcs2 was expressed 1.5- to 4.5-fold lower in the ACI prostate. Additionally, genes responsible for testicular tumors and unilateral renal agenesis were mapped on chromosomes 11 and 14, respectively. These results showed that prostate cancer susceptibility of ACI rats involves at least four loci, and suggested Mme and Cdkn1a as candidates for Pcr1 and Pcs2.

  11. Ex vivo antioxidant effects of D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, on rat prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Perez, Yohani; Molina, Vivian; Mas, Rosa; Menendez, Roberto; Gonzalez, Rosa M; Oyarzabal, Ambar; Jimenez, Sonia

    2008-07-01

    To investigate whether oral treatment with D-004, a lipid extract of the Cuban royal palm fruit, produces antioxidant effects in the prostate tissue of normal and testosterone (T)-treated rats. In our first experiment, normal rats were distributed into five groups: one group treated with the vehicle and four groups treated with D-004 (100, 200, 400 or 800 mg/kg). In our second experiment, rats were randomized into five groups: a negative control group and four T-injected groups. The latter were comprised of a positive control group treated with the vehicle, and three groups treated with D-004 (200, 400 or 800 mg/kg). In normal rats, D-004 (100-800 mg/kg) inhibited significantly and dose-dependently iron-initiated malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation in prostate homogenates (35.7%-80.0%) vs the controls. D-004 (200-800 mg/kg) significantly reduced baseline MDA and carbonyl groups in prostate homogenates of normal rats to approximately 80% and 50%, respectively, and totally (100%) in T-treated rats. Oral treatment with D-004 reduced MDA and carbonyl groups dose-dependently and markedly in normal and T-injected rats. These findings show that D-004 given at doses effective to prevent prostate hyperplasia also produces antioxidant effects in the prostate tissue.

  12. Withania coagulans Extract Induces Cell Apoptosis and Inhibits COX-2 Expression in a Rat Model of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sarbishegi, Maryam; Khajavi, Ozra; Arab, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Phytotherapy is a popular treatment option in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), with many different herbal products being used for the treatment of this condition. Withania coagulans (WC) is an herbal medicine that has shown anti-tumoral, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Objectives This study examined the effect of Withania coagulans extract (WCE) on prostatic cell apoptosis and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats. Methods Forty Wistar rats were equally divided into five groups: control, sham, BPH, BPH + WCE, and BPH + CLX (celecoxib) as a positive control group. The induction of BPH was achieved via the subcutaneous injection of 3 mg/kg of testosterone propionate (TP) daily for 28 days. The animals received WCE, celecoxib, or distilled water by oral gavage accompanied by the TP injection. After four weeks, the prostate glands of the rats were weighed to measure the prostatic index (PI). The ventral lobes of the prostates were dissected and processed with paraffin blocks in order to study the number of mast cells. A TUNEL analysis was performed to evaluate the cell apoptosis, while the expression of COX-2 was examined using immunohistochemistry. Results BPH was obvious in the ventral lobe of the prostate, and the administration of WCE markedly decreased the PI and the number of mast cells (P < 0.001) in the BPH rats. Additionally, the WCE treatment induced prostatic cell apoptosis when compared to the BPH group. Furthermore, following the WCE treatment, the expression of COX-2 in the prostatic tissues was significantly decreased when compared to the BPH groups. Conclusions According to the results of this study, WCE was effective in the treatment of BPH in rats. It may therefore have beneficial effects in the treatment of patients with BPH. PMID:27878112

  13. Arecoline augments cellular proliferation in the prostate gland of male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Mondal, Anushree; Maiti, Bishwa Ranjan; Chatterji, Urmi

    2011-09-01

    Areca nut chewing is the fourth most popular habit in the world due to its effects as a mild stimulant, causing a feeling of euphoria and slightly heightened alertness. Areca nuts contain several alkaloids and tannins, of which arecoline is the most abundant and known to have several adverse effects in humans, specially an increased risk of oral cancer. On evaluating the effects of arecoline on the male endocrine physiology in Wistar rats, it was found that arecoline treatment led to an overall enlargement and increase in the wet weight of the prostate gland, and a two-fold increase in serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels. Since the prostate is a major target for testosterone, the consequences of arecoline consumption were studied specifically in the prostate gland. Arecoline treatment led to an increase in the number of rough endoplasmic reticulum and reduction of secretory vesicles, signifying a hyperactive state of the prostate. Increased expression of androgen receptors in response to arecoline allowed for enhanced effect of testosterone in the prostate of treated animals, which augmented cell proliferation, subsequently confirmed by an increase in the expression of Ki-67 protein. Cellular proliferation was also the outcome of concomitant over expression of the G(1)-to-S cell cycle regulatory proteins, cyclin D1 and CDK4, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the findings provide the first evidence that regular use of arecoline may lead to prostatic hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and eventually to disorders associated with prostate enlargement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Temperature-controlled optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves.

    PubMed

    Tozburun, Serhat; Hutchens, Thomas C; McClain, Michael A; Lagoda, Gwen A; Burnett, Arthur L; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2013-06-01

    Optical nerve stimulation (ONS) may be useful as a diagnostic tool for intraoperative identification and preservation of the prostate cavernous nerves (CN), responsible for erectile function, during prostate cancer surgery. Successful ONS requires elevating the nerve temperature to within a narrow range (~42 to 47°C) for nerve activation without thermal damage to the nerve. This preliminary study explores a prototype temperature-controlled optical nerve stimulation (TC-ONS) system for maintaining a constant (±1°C) nerve temperature during short-term ONS of the rat prostate CNs. A 150-mW, 1455-nm diode laser was operated in continuous-wave mode, with and without temperature control, during stimulation of the rat CNs for 15 to 30 s through a fiber optic probe with a 1-mm-diameter spot. A microcontroller opened and closed an in-line mechanical shutter in response to an infrared sensor, with a predetermined temperature set point. With TC-ONS, higher laser power settings were used to rapidly and safely elevate the CNs to a temperature necessary for a fast intracavernous pressure response, while also preventing excessive temperatures that would otherwise cause thermal damage to the nerve. With further development, TC-ONS may provide a rapid, stable, and safe method for intraoperative identification and preservation of the prostate CNs.

  15. Temperature-controlled optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat; Hutchens, Thomas C.; McClain, Michael A.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2013-06-01

    Optical nerve stimulation (ONS) may be useful as a diagnostic tool for intraoperative identification and preservation of the prostate cavernous nerves (CN), responsible for erectile function, during prostate cancer surgery. Successful ONS requires elevating the nerve temperature to within a narrow range (˜42 to 47°C) for nerve activation without thermal damage to the nerve. This preliminary study explores a prototype temperature-controlled optical nerve stimulation (TC-ONS) system for maintaining a constant (±1°C) nerve temperature during short-term ONS of the rat prostate CNs. A 150-mW, 1455-nm diode laser was operated in continuous-wave mode, with and without temperature control, during stimulation of the rat CNs for 15 to 30 s through a fiber optic probe with a 1-mm-diameter spot. A microcontroller opened and closed an in-line mechanical shutter in response to an infrared sensor, with a predetermined temperature set point. With TC-ONS, higher laser power settings were used to rapidly and safely elevate the CNs to a temperature necessary for a fast intracavernous pressure response, while also preventing excessive temperatures that would otherwise cause thermal damage to the nerve. With further development, TC-ONS may provide a rapid, stable, and safe method for intraoperative identification and preservation of the prostate CNs.

  16. Protective potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against benign prostatic hyperplasia in metabolic syndrome rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinglou; Song, Hongping

    2016-07-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a major catechin in green tea with functions of antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and attenuating metabolic syndrome. In this study, rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) accompanied with metabolic syndrome was induced by fed on high-fat diet for 12 weeks combined with testosterone injection (10mg/kg/d) from 9th to 12th weeks. EGCG was orally given from 9th to 12th weeks. Finally, the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, prostate weight, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant enzymes, and prostatic expression of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) were evaluated. It was found that EGCG significantly decreased the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, IGFs, and inflammatory cytokines, normalized the activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as increased the prostatic expression of IGFBP-3 and PPARs. These results indicated that EGCG was able to exert anti-BPH activities in metabolic syndrome rats.

  17. Histochemical study of apoptotic epithelial cells depending on testosterone in primary cultured rat prostatic tissues.

    PubMed

    Furuya, T; Kubo, M; Ueno, A; Fujii, Y; Baba, T; Ohno, S

    2000-04-01

    To clarify whether apoptosis can be induced in cultured rat prostatic epithelial cells, they were investigated at various time points, depending on different concentrations of testosterone. Ventral lobes of rat prostates were cultured as small pieces of tissues up to 14 days. They were examined by anti-Fas antibody immunostaining and also compared to findings revealed by in situ end-labelling (ISEL) technique. To clarify apoptotic nuclei at high resolution, the quick-freezing and deep-etching (QF-DE) method was also used, as reported before. The localization and appearance of Fas-positive cells were detected more widely and earlier than those of ISEL-positive cells, but both label-positive localizations were closely related to each other. In addition, they were detected more often in epithelial cells cultured with low testosterone concentrations. By the QF-DE method, chromatin fibers were found to be broken in spotty parts of apoptotic nuclei. We could control the concentration of testosterone in culture medium and detect the appearance of Fas antigen in cultured prostatic epithelial cells, followed by apoptotic changes. So, Fas and Fas-ligand system is one candidate for apoptosis in the prostate glands, depending on removal of hormonal testosterone.

  18. Protective effect of Acticoa powder, a cocoa polyphenolic extract, on prostate carcinogenesis in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Jean-François; Guardia-Llorens, Maria-Alba; Hidalgo, Sophie; Rozan, Pascale; Messaoudi, Michaël

    2008-02-01

    The effects of Acticoa powder on prostate carcinogenesis were investigated using the N-methylnitrosourea and testosterone propionate prostate tumor model. Sixty male Wistar-Unilever rats were randomly divided in four groups of 15 rats: one control group not induced but treated with vehicle (not induced+vehicle) and three chemo-induced groups. Two weeks before prostate tumor induction and then throughout the experiment, chemo-induced rats were orally treated with Acticoa powder at 24 (chemo-induced+Acticoa powder24) or 48 (chemo-induced+Acticoa powder48) mg/kg or with vehicle (chemo-induced+vehicle), daily from Monday to Friday. Survival, body weight, food and water consumption were recorded throughout the experiment. Six rats per group were randomly killed 9 months after the prostate tumor induction for histopathological analysis of prostates. A reduction in the incidence of prostate tumors was observed for the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder48-treated group in comparison with the chemo-induced+vehicle-treated group and no tumors were observed in the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder24-treated group as in the not induced+vehicle-treated group after 9 months. The nine remaining rats per group were maintained in a long-term survival study. The life span of the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder24-treated group was significantly increased in comparison with the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder48 and the chemo-induced+vehicle-treated groups, close to the one of the not induced+vehicle-treated group. A significant reduction in the incidence of prostate tumors was also observed for the chemo-induced+Acticoa powder24 and chemo-induced+Acticoa powder48-treated groups in comparison with the chemo-induced+vehicle-treated group. In conclusion, Acticoa powder at 24 mg/kg protected rats from prostate carcinogenesis when chronically given before the initiation and promotion phases of induction.

  19. Exendin-4 shows no effects on the prostatic index in high-fat-diet-fed rat with benign prostatic hyperplasia by improving insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J-X; Xiao, Y-C; Hu, Y-R; Hao, M; Kuang, H-Y

    2015-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease globally, and accumulating evidence has indicated an association between BPH, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Exendin-4 is widely used in clinics, which could enhance the proliferation of pancreatic β cells. The ability of exendin-4 to promote tumorigenesis has been of concern, and whether exendin-4 would enhance the propagation of BPH is not fully understood. We aimed to determine whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) were expressed in rat prostate and to determine the effect of exendin-4 on prostate of BPH. Male Wistar rats were used and assigned to six groups: normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD + exendin-4, HFD + BPH, HFD + BPH + exendin-4 and HFD + BPH + rosiglitazone group. After castration, steroids were injected subcutaneously for 4 weeks to induce BPH. Rats were kept on high-fat diet to induce IR. Treatment groups were treated with exendin-4 and rosiglitazone. Prostatic index and HOMA-IR index were used to evaluate the prostatic hyperplasia status and the degree of IR respectively. The expression of GLP-1R was indicated not only by immunohistochemistry, but also by Western blot analysis. The expression of GLP-1R was significantly higher, and HOMA-IR index and body weight significantly decreased after administration of exendin-4. However, no significant differences in the prostatic index were observed between exendin-4 treatment groups and non-exendin-4 treatment groups. Prostatic index was not influenced by exendin-4 maybe by improving IR and weight loss.

  20. Alpha-1-adrenergic receptor blockade modifies insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) activity in rat prostate and modulates oxytocin functions.

    PubMed

    Saníger, Marcela Arrazola; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; de la Chica, Susana; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Mayas, María Dolores; Manuel Martínez-Martos, José

    2011-08-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is one of the important paracrine factors that prostate synthesizes. OT maintains its resting tone and stimulates its contractile activity. However, the involvement of OT in modulating cell proliferation of the prostate is being investigated. In fact, alterations in OT concentrations accompany both benign prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy and carcinoma of the prostate. The enzyme Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is the main responsible of OT levels regulation through its catabolism. To date, the long-acting selective α(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist doxazosin is widely used to the treatment of BPH. Thus, our aim was to analyze the effects of doxazosin on IRAP specific activity and its putative effects on prostate OT regulation and functions. Fifteen male Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously with 10 mg/Kg doxazosin during 15 days and fifteen controls were treated with the vehicle only. After the treatment period, prostate was removed to obtain soluble and membrane-bound fractions. Soluble and membrane-bound IRAP specific activities were assayed fluorometrically using leucyl-ß-naphthylamide as substrate. Prostate OT content was assayed by enzyme immunoassay. Doxazosin treatment significantly increased membrane-bound IRAP specific activity in rat prostate by 59.4%, whereas no changes were observed in the soluble fraction. Treatment with doxazosin also significantly increased OT concentration by 26.3%. In vivo administration of doxazosin to male rats modify both prostatic IRAP activity and OT levels. Because there is now evidence that OT plays a physiological role in the regulation of growth and muscular contractility within the gland, more attention should be paid to IRAP activity, which could represent a new target for the regulation of the functions of OT under physiological or pathological conditions such as BPH and prostate cancer.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of a Novel Herbal Formulation (WSY-1075) in a Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Woo; Jeong, Hyun Cheol; Moon, Hyong Woo; Cho, Shin Jay; Yang, Jong Hyup; Kim, Woo Hyun; Bae, Woong Jin; Choi, Jin Bong; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Ha, U-Syn; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of a multi-herbal formula known as WSY-1075 in the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis in a rat model. Materials and Methods Experimental chronic bacterial prostatitis was induced in 32 Wistar rats by instillation of a bacterial suspension (Escherichia coli, 108 colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) into the prostatic urethra. After the induction of prostatitis, the rats were randomly divided into one of 4 treatment groups: control (n=8), ciprofloxacin (n=8), WSY-1075 (400 mg/kg) (n=8), and WSY-1075 (400 mg/kg)+ciprofloxacin (n=8). After 4 weeks of treatment, microbiological data from prostate tissue cultures, level of prostatic pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin [IL]-6, and IL-8), anti-oxidant effects (superoxide dismutase [SOD]), and histological findings were noted. Results The WSY-1075, ciprofloxacin, and WSY-1075+ciprofloxacin groups showed fewer CFUs in prostate tissue cultures than the control group. The WSY-1075, ciprofloxacin and WSY-1075+ciprofloxacin groups showed statistically significantly lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 than the control group. SOD levels in the WSY-1075, ciprofloxacin and WSY-1075+ciprofloxacin groups were significantly higher than in the control group. Conclusions This study found that WSY-1075 had anti-microbial effects, anti-inflammatory effects, and anti-oxidative effects in a chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model. We expect the WSY-1075 may be useful for the clinical treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. PMID:28053947

  2. NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: I. EFFECTS ON THE PROSTATE GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neonatal Low- And High-Dose Exposure To Estradiol Benzoate In The Male Rat: 1. Effects On The Prostate Gland. Oliver Putz, Christian B. Schwartz, Steve Kim, Gerald A. LeBlanc Ralph L. Cooper, Gail S. Prins

    ABSTRACT
    Brief exposure of rats to high doses of natural estro...

  3. NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: I. EFFECTS ON THE PROSTATE GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neonatal Low- And High-Dose Exposure To Estradiol Benzoate In The Male Rat: 1. Effects On The Prostate Gland. Oliver Putz, Christian B. Schwartz, Steve Kim, Gerald A. LeBlanc Ralph L. Cooper, Gail S. Prins

    ABSTRACT
    Brief exposure of rats to high doses of natural estro...

  4. Therapeutic effect of D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, on prostate hyperplasia induced in rats.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, D; Molina, V; Mas, R; Arruzazabala, M L

    2005-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a nonmalignant growth of prostate leading to difficulty in urinating. Drug therapy, phytotherapy included, is frequently used to treat BPH. D-004 is a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, and previous studies have shown that oral treatment with D-004 for 14 days prevented prostate hyperplasia (PH) induced by testosterone in rats. No information is available, however; about the effects of D-004 in reverting already established PH. This study investigated whether D-004 could improve PH after oral dosing with testosterone in rats. Rats were distributed in five groups (10 rats/group). One group was injected with soy oil (negative control) and four groups were injected with testosterone: one was orally treated with the vehicle (positive control), two with D-004 (200 and 400 mg/kg) and the other with Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg). At study completion, the rats were sacrificed and the prostates were removed and weighed. D-004 (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently decreased prostate enlargement by 85% and 98%, respectively, versus the positive control. Likewise, Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg) significantly reduced prostate weight by 73% versus the positive control. D-004 (400 mg/kg) was more effective (p < 0.05) than Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg) in lowering prostate enlargement. D-004 and Saw palmetto also decreased the prostate weight to body weight ratio, but did not affect body weight. In conclusion, D-004 (200 and 400 mg/kg) orally administered was effective for reducing PH after testosterone dosing. D-004 (400 mg/kg) was more effective than Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg). Further studies, however, are needed to corroborate the present results.

  5. Efficacy of various natural and synthetic androgens to induce ductal branching morphogenesis in the developing anterior rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Foster, B A; Cunha, G R

    1999-01-01

    The studies presented herein quantitated ductal branching morphogenesis in the anterior prostate (AP) of the newborn rat. Four parameters were measured: epithelial area, epithelial perimeter, node number, and form factor. Nine natural and synthetic androgens were tested for their effectiveness in inducing postnatal prostatic development using 808 newborn rat APs in 68 dose-response experiments. Based on these studies it was shown that testosterone (T) was slightly more effective than dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in supporting ductal branching morphogenesis in the developing rat AP. Furthermore, the activity of T could not be accounted for simply by conversion of T to DHT. Synthetic androgens, 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone and methyltrienolone (R1881), which cannot be 5alpha-reduced to DHT, also induced extensive ductal branching and elicited responses less than those to T and not statistically different from those to DHT. This suggests that although DHT is sufficient for prostatic development, it is not necessary for postnatal ductal branching morphogenesis and growth of the prostate. 5Alpha-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol was particularly potent in inducing ductal branching, eliciting a response greater than or comparable to those of T and DHT. Androsterone, androstanedione, 5alpha-androstan-3beta,17beta-diol and 5beta-androstan-3alpha,17beta-diol induced ductal branching, but to a lesser extent than either T or DHT. These studies challenge the assumption that DHT is essential for prostatic development, specifically during ductal branching morphogenesis of the neonatal rat prostate.

  6. Development of a locally advanced orthotopic prostate tumor model in rats for assessment of combined modality therapy.

    PubMed

    Tumati, Vasu; Mathur, Sanjeev; Song, Kwang; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Zhao, Dawen; Takahashi, Masaya; Dobin, Timothy; Gandee, Leah; Solberg, Timothy D; Habib, Amyn A; Saha, Debabrata

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an aggressive locally advanced orthotopic prostate cancer model for assessing high-dose image-guided radiation therapy combined with biological agents. For this study, we used a modified human prostate cancer (PCa) cell line, PC3, in which we knocked down a tumor suppressor protein, DAB2IP (PC3‑KD). These prostate cancer cells were implanted into the prostate of nude or Copenhagen rats using either open surgical implantation or a minimally invasive procedure under ultrasound guidance. We report that: i) these DAB2IP-deficient PCa cells form a single focus of locally advanced aggressive tumors in both nude and Copenhagen rats; ii) the resulting tumors are highly aggressive and are poorly controlled after treatment with radiation alone; iii) ultrasound-guided tumor cell implantation can be used successfully for tumor development in the rat prostate; iv) precise measurement of the tumor volume and the treatment planning for radiation therapy can be obtained from ultrasound and MRI, respectively; and v) the use of a fiducial marker for enhanced radiotherapy localization in the rat orthotopic tumor. This model recapitulates radiation-resistant prostate cancers which can be used to demonstrate and quantify therapeutic response to combined modality treatments.

  7. Development of a locally advanced orthotopic prostate tumor model in rats for assessment of combined modality therapy

    PubMed Central

    TUMATI, VASU; MATHUR, SANJEEV; SONG, KWANG; HSIEH, JER-TSONG; ZHAO, DAWEN; TAKAHASHI, MASAYA; DOBIN, TIMOTHY; GANDEE, LEAH; SOLBERG, TIMOTHY D.; HABIB, AMYN A.; SAHA, DEBABRATA

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an aggressive locally advanced orthotopic prostate cancer model for assessing high-dose image-guided radiation therapy combined with biological agents. For this study, we used a modified human prostate cancer (PCa) cell line, PC3, in which we knocked down a tumor suppressor protein, DAB2IP (PC3-KD). These prostate cancer cells were implanted into the prostate of nude or Copenhagen rats using either open surgical implantation or a minimally invasive procedure under ultrasound guidance. We report that: i) these DAB2IP-deficient PCa cells form a single focus of locally advanced aggressive tumors in both nude and Copenhagen rats; ii) the resulting tumors are highly aggressive and are poorly controlled after treatment with radiation alone; iii) ultrasound-guided tumor cell implantation can be used successfully for tumor development in the rat prostate; iv) precise measurement of the tumor volume and the treatment planning for radiation therapy can be obtained from ultrasound and MRI, respectively; and v) the use of a fiducial marker for enhanced radiotherapy localization in the rat orthotopic tumor. This model recapitulates radiation-resistant prostate cancers which can be used to demonstrate and quantify therapeutic response to combined modality treatments. PMID:23525451

  8. Microbubble-mediated ultrasound promotes accumulation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell to the prostate for treating chronic bacterial prostatitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shanhong; Han, Guangwei; Shang, Yonggang; Liu, Chengcheng; Cui, Dong; Yu, Shuangjiang; Liao, Bin; Ao, Xiang; Li, Guangzhi; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is an intractable disease. Although bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are able to regulate inflammation in CBP, the effect of microbubble-mediated ultrasound- induced accumulation of BMMSCs on CBP remains unclear. To address this gap, a model of CBP was established in SD rats, which were then treated with BMMSCs alone (BMMSC group), BMMSCs with ultrasound (ultrasound group), BMMSCs with microbubble-mediated ultrasound (MMUS group) and compared with a healthy control group. A therapeutic-ultrasound apparatus was used to treat the prostate in the presence of circulating microbubbles and BMMSCs. The BMMSC distribution was assessed with in vivo imaging, and the prostate structure with light microscopy. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β. More BMMSCs were found in the prostate in the MMUS group than in the CBP, ultrasound, and BMMSC groups. Inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrous tissue hyperplasia, and tumor-like epithelial proliferation were significantly reduced in the MMUS group, as were the mRNA and protein expressions of TNF-α and IL-1β. Microbubble-mediated ultrasound-induced accumulation of BMMSCs can inhibit inflammation and decrease TNF-α and IL-1β expressions in the prostate of CBP rats, suggesting that this method may be therapeutic for CPB. PMID:26797392

  9. Gene expression changes are age-dependent and lobe-specific in the brown Norway rat model of prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Carlise R; Chaudhary, Jaideep; Anway, Matthew D; Brown, Terry R

    2009-06-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related enlargement of the prostate, characterized by increased proliferation of stromal and epithelial cells. Despite its prevalence, the etiology of BPH is unknown. The Brown Norway rat is a model for age-dependent, lobe-specific hyperplasia of the prostate. Histological analyses of the dorsal and lateral lobes from aged rats reveal focal areas characterized by increased numbers of luminal epithelial cells, whereas the ventral lobe is unaffected. This study examined differential gene expression by lobe and age in the Brown Norway rat prostate. The objective was to identify genes with different levels of expression in the prostate lobes from 4-month (young) and 24-month (old) animals, and to subsequently link changes in gene expression to mechanisms of prostate aging. The number of age-dependent differentially expressed genes was greatest in the dorsal compared to the ventral and lateral lobes. Minimal redundancy was observed among the differentially expressed genes in the three lobes. Age-related changes in the expression levels of 14 candidate genes in the dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Genes that exhibited age-related differences in their expression were associated with proliferation, oxidative stress, and prostate cancer progression, including topoisomerase II alpha (Topo2a), aurora kinase B (Aurkb), stathmin 1 (Stmn1), and glutathione S-transferase pi. Immunohistochemistry for Topo2a, Aurkb, and Stmn1 confirmed age-related changes in protein localization in the lateral lobe of young and aged prostates. These findings provide clues to the molecular events associated with aging in the prostate. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Gene Expression Changes are Age-Dependent and Lobe-Specific in the Brown Norway Rat Model of Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, Carlise R.; Chaudhary, Jaideep; Anway, Matthew D.; Brown, Terry R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related enlargement of the prostate, characterized by increased proliferation of stromal and epithelial cells. Despite its prevalence, the etiology of BPH is unknown. Methods The Brown Norway rat is a model for age-dependent, lobe-specific hyperplasia of the prostate. Histological analyses of the dorsal and lateral lobes from aged rats reveal focal areas characterized by increased numbers of luminal epithelial cells, whereas the ventral lobe is unaffected. This study examined differential gene expression by lobe and age in the Brown Norway rat prostate. The objective was to identify genes with different levels of expression in the prostate lobes from 4-month (young) and 24-month (old) animals, and to subsequently link changes in gene expression to mechanisms of prostate aging. Results The number of age-dependent differentially expressed genes was greatest in the dorsal compared to the ventral and lateral lobes. Minimal redundancy was observed among the differentially expressed genes in the three lobes. Age-related changes in the expression levels of fourteen candidate genes in the dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Genes that exhibited age-related differences in their expression were associated with proliferation, oxidative stress, and prostate cancer progression, including topoisomerase II alpha (Topo2a), aurora kinase B (Aurkb), stathmin 1 (Stmn1), and glutathione S-transferase pi. Immunohistochemistry for Topo2a, Aurkb, and Stmn1 confirmed age-related changes in protein localization in the lateral lobe of young and aged prostates. Conclusion These findings provide clues to the molecular events associated with aging in the prostate. PMID:19204916

  11. Bisphenol A exposure during adulthood alters expression of aromatase and 5α-reductase isozymes in rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Castro, Beatriz; Sánchez, Pilar; Torres, Jesús M; Preda, Ovidiu; del Moral, Raimundo G; Ortega, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    The high incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) in elderly men is a cause of increasing public health concern. In recent years, various environmental endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A (BPA), have been shown to disrupt sexual organs, including the prostate gland. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Because androgens and estrogens are important factors in prostate physiopathology, our objective was to examine in rat ventral prostate the effects of adult exposure to BPA on 5α-Reductase isozymes (5α-R types 1, 2, and 3) and aromatase, key enzymes in the biosynthesis of dihydrotestosterone and estradiol, respectively. Adult rats were subcutaneously injected for four days with BPA (25, 50, 300, or 600 µg/Kg/d) dissolved in vehicle. Quantitative RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses showed lower mRNA and protein levels of 5α-R1 and 5α-R2 in BPA-treated groups versus controls but higher mRNA levels of 5α-R3, recently proposed as a biomarker of malignancy. However, BPA treatment augmented mRNA and protein levels of aromatase, whose increase has been described in prostate diseases. BPA-treated rats also evidenced a higher plasma estradiol/testosterone ratio, which is associated with prostate disease. Our results may offer new insights into the role of BPA in the development of prostate disease and may be of great value for studying the prostate disease risk associated with exposure to BPA in adulthood.

  12. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Stimulation of androgen-dependent gene expression by the adrenal precursors dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione in the rat ventral prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Labrie, C.; Simard, J.; Zhao, H.F.; Belanger, A.; Pelletier, G.; Labrie, F. )

    1989-06-01

    Androgens play a major role in the development, growth, and function of accessory sexual organs, especially the prostate. However, the testis is not the sole source of circulating androgens in man, since the adrenal gland secretes dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and androstenedione (delta 4-dione) in large quantities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of plasma concentrations of DHEA and delta 4-dione similar to those found in adult man on sensitive and specific markers of androgen action in the rat ventral prostate. In addition to ventral prostate weight, we have measured the steady state levels of the mRNAs encoding the C1 component of rat prostatic binding protein (PBP-C1) and spermine-binding protein (SBP) using 35S-labeled cDNA probes for in situ hybridization. One week after castration, ventral prostate weight fell 84%, while prostatic 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and androgen-dependent mRNAs were undetectable. When administered via Silastic implants to castrated adult rats for 1 week, plasma concentrations of 1.37 +/- 0.06 ng/ml DHEA or 0.43 +/- 0.08 ng/ml delta 4-dione independently caused increases in ventral prostate weight to 33% and 65% of normal values, respectively. The same plasma levels of DHEA and delta 4-dione resulted in high intraprostatic levels of DHT to 1.19 +/- 0.34 and 3.66 +/- 0.89 ng/g tissue, respectively. Furthermore, DHEA caused an increase in the steady state levels of PBP-C1 and SBP mRNAs to 50% and 57% of the normal state, respectively, while delta 4-dione caused increases corresponding to 80% and 119% of control values, respectively. Castrated adult rats receiving testosterone at a concentration of 1.66 +/- 0.37 ng/ml plasma maintained normal ventral prostate weight and gene expression levels.

  14. Primary structure and androgen regulation of a 20-kilodalton protein specific to rat ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Ho, K C; Snoek, R; Quarmby, V; Viskochil, D H; Rennie, P S; Wilson, E M; French, F S; Bruchovsky, N

    1989-07-25

    Nuclear and cytosolic forms of a 20-kdalton rat ventral prostate protein were purified and partially sequenced from their N-termini. Isolated nuclei were treated with micrococcal nuclease and extracted in 0.6 M NaCl, and proteins were separated by affinity chromatography on Matrex gel green A, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and fast protein liquid chromatography on Superose 12. The 43 amino acid N-terminal sequence of the nuclear 20-kdalton protein was identical with the cytosolic protein except it lacked 7 N-terminal amino acids present in the cytosolic form. The DNA sequence of a full-length complementary DNA clone isolated from a ventral prostate gt11 library extended the N-terminal sequence of the cytosolic form by an additional nine amino acids from the predicted initiation methionine. The cDNA included the nucleotide sequence for the 43 amino acid N-terminal sequence of the purified 20-kdalton protein and predicted molecular weights of 16,686, 17,521, and 18,650, respectively, for the nuclear, cytoplasmic, and nonprocessed proteins. Northern blot analyses of reproductive tract tissue RNAs using the 20-kdalton protein cDNA as probe revealed a single mRNA species of 0.92 kb detectable only in extracts of rat ventral prostate. Expression of the 0.92-kb mRNA was androgen dependent since the mRNA was undetectable in extracts obtained 4 days after castration and was restored 16 h after restimulation with androgen.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa las and rhl quorum-sensing systems are important for infection and inflammation in a rat prostatitis model.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lisa K; D'Amours, Genevieve H; Sproule-Willoughby, Kimberley M; Morck, Douglas W; Ceri, Howard

    2009-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa frequently acts as an opportunistic pathogen of mucosal surfaces; yet, despite causing aggressive prostatitis in some men, its role as a pathogen in the prostate has not been investigated. Consequently, we developed a Ps. aeruginosa infection model in the rat prostate by instilling wild-type (WT) Ps. aeruginosa strain PAO1 into the rat prostate. It was found that Ps. aeruginosa produced acute and chronic infections in this mucosal tissue as determined by bacterial colonization, gross morphology, tissue damage and inflammatory markers. WT strain PAO1 and its isogenic mutant PAO-JP2, in which both the lasI and rhlI quorum-sensing signal systems have been silenced, were compared during both acute and chronic prostate infections. In acute infections, bacterial numbers and inflammatory markers were comparable between WT PA01 and PAO-JP2; however, considerably less tissue damage occurred in infections with PAO-JP2. Chronic infections with PAO-JP2 resulted in reduced bacterial colonization, tissue damage and inflammation as compared to WT PAO1 infections. Therefore, the quorum-sensing lasI and rhlI genes in Ps. aeruginosa affect acute prostate infections, but play a considerably more important role in maintaining chronic infections. We have thus developed a highly reproducible model for the study of Ps. aeruginosa virulence in the prostate.

  16. Inhibitory effect of Yukmijihwang-tang, a traditional herbal formula against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Yukmijihwang-tang, a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treating disorder, diabetic mellitus and neurosis in China (Liu-wei-di-huang-tang in Chinese), Japan (Lokumijio-to in Japanese) and Korea for many years. In this study, we investigated the effects of Yukmijihwang-tang water extract (YJT) on the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using a rat model of testosterone propionate (TP)-induced BPH. Methods A total of 30 rats were divided into five groups. One group was used as a control and the other groups received subcutaneous injections of TP for 4 weeks to induce BPH. YJT (200 or 400 mg/kg) was administered daily for 4 weeks to two groups by oral gavage concurrently with the TP. The animals were euthanized, the prostate and body weights were recorded, and tissues were subjected to hormone assays and histomorphology. In addition, we investigated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in the prostate using immunoblotting. Results Animals with BPH showed significantly increased absolute and relative prostate weights, increased dihydrotestosterone levels in the serum or prostate and increased PCNA expression in the prostate; however, YJT-treated animals showed significant reductions compared with the animals with TP-induced BPH. Histomorphology also showed that YJT inhibited TP-induced prostatic hyperplasia. Conclusions These findings indicate that YJT effectively inhibited the development of BPH and might be a useful drug clinically. PMID:22520510

  17. The prostate after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids: a morphometrical study in rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Rafael Arêas; Oliveira, Leonardo Pires; Frankenfeld, Stephan; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Favorito, Luciano Alves; Sampaio, Francisco José Barcellos

    2013-01-01

    Many adverse effects have been associated with abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), including disorders of the urogenital tract. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphological modifications in the prostate ventral lobe of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with AAS, using morphometric methods. We studied 39 male Wistar rats weighing between 400 g and 550 g. The rats were divided into four groups: (a) control rats, with 105 days of age (C105) (n = 7); (b) control rats with 65 days of age (C65) (n = 9), injected only with the vehicle (peanut oil); (c) treated rats, with 105 days of age (T105) (n = 10) and (d) treated rats with 65 days of age (T65) (n = 13). The treated rats were injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg.Kg-1 body weight. The steroid hormone and the vehicle were administered by intramuscular injection once a week for eight weeks. The rats were killed at 161 days of age (C105 and T105) and 121 days of age (C65 and T65) and the ventral prostate lobe was dissected and processed for histology. The height of the acinar epithelium, the surface densities of the lumen, epithelium and stroma were observed with X400 magnification using an Olympus light microscope coupled to a Sony CCD video camera, and the images transferred to a Sony monitor KX14-CP1. The selected histological areas were then quantified using the M42 test-grid system on the digitized fields. The data were analyzed with the Graphpad software. To compare the quantitative data in both groups (controls and treated) and the outcomes, Student's t-test was used (p < 0.05 was considered significant). The weight (p < 0.001) and volume (p = 0.004) of the prostate ventral lobe showed differences between C65 and T65 groups and between C105 and T105 groups. The epithelium height showed no difference between groups C65 and T65 (p = 0.8509), but the T105 group showed an increase of 32% compared to C105 (p = 0.0089). Concerning the lumen, surface density presented no

  18. Protective potential of the methanol extract of Macrothelypteris oligophlebia rhizomes for chronic non-bacterial prostatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Pan; Lai, Yong Ji; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xue Nong; Chen, Jing Lou; Yang, Xian; Xue, Ping Ping; Ruan, Jin Lan

    2016-07-01

    The protective potential of the methanol extract of Macrothelypteris oligophlebia rhizomes (MMO) for chronic non-bacterial prostatitis (CNP) in rats was investigated in the present study. Carrageenan-induced CNP in rats was established. Fifty rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (sham-ope) group, model group, positive control group (Cernilton at a dose of 148mg/kg body weight) and two MMO-treated groups (MMO at doses of 600mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight). The anti-prostatitis effect was evaluated by prostate index, the levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and histopathological examination. After 20 days of administration, MMO could significantly decrease prostate index and the levels of IL-10, TNF-α COX-2 and PGE2 in serum and could improve the prostate morphology in comparison with the model group. In summary, these results suggest that MMO possesses protective effects on prostate, which might be beneficial to further development for the treatment of CNP.

  19. Isoflavones isolated from red clover (Trifolium pratense) inhibit smooth muscle contraction of the isolated rat prostate gland.

    PubMed

    Brandli, A; Simpson, J S; Ventura, S

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated whether red clover contains any bioactive constituents which may affect contractility of rat prostatic smooth muscle in an attempt to determine whether its medicinal use in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia is supported by pharmacological effects. A commercially available red clover extract was chemically fractionated and various isoflavones (genistein, formononetin and biochanin A) were isolated from these fractions and their effects on contractility were examined on preparations of the isolated rat prostate gland. Contractile effects of the isolated fractions were compared with commercially available isoflavones (genistein, formononetin and biochanin A). Pharmacological tools were used to investigate the mechanism of action modifying smooth muscle contraction. Crude red clover extract (Trinovin) inhibited electrical field stimulation induced contractions of the rat prostate across a range of frequencies with an IC(50) of approximately 68 microg/ml. Contractions of the rat prostate elicited by exogenous administration of acetylcholine, noradrenaline or adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) were also inhibited. Chromatographic separation, and final purification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) permitted the isolation of the isoflavones: daidzein, calycosin, formononetin, prunetin, pratensin, biochanin A and genistein. Genistein, formononetin and biochanin A (100 microM) from either commercial sources or isolated from red clover extract inhibited electrical field stimulation induced contractions of the isolated rat prostate. It is concluded that isoflavones contained in red clover are able to inhibit prostatic smooth muscle contractions in addition to their antiproliferative effects. However, the high concentrations required to observe these smooth muscle relaxant effects mean that a therapeutic benefit from this mechanism is unlikely at doses used clinically. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights

  20. Changes in the dielectric properties of rat prostate ex vivo at 915 MHz during heating.

    PubMed

    Chin, L; Sherar, M

    2004-08-01

    Changes in the tissue dielectric properties at 915 MHz of rat prostate tissue due to heating at temperatures in the range 45-75 degrees C were measured. The changes were found to be reversible with temperature and independent of the time of heating. The dielectric properties at 23 +/- 1 degrees C were measured as epsilon' = 62.8 +/- 2.7 and sigma = 1.17 +/- 0.07 S/m, while the linear temperature coefficients for reversible changes were 1.10 +/- 0.11%/ degree C for conductivity and -0.31 +/- 0.05% /degree C for relative permittivity. These properties and their temperature coefficients can be utilized in microwave treatment planning programmes to provide insight into the effects of dielectric changes that arise during microwave thermal therapy of prostate cancer.

  1. Effect of s-triazine compounds on testosterone metabolism in the rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Kniewald, J; Osredecki, V; Gojmerac, T; Zechner, V; Kniewald, Z

    1995-01-01

    The influence of s-triazine compounds (atrazine, prometryne and deethylatrazine) on testosterone conversion and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone-receptor complex formation was studied in vitro and in vivo in the rat prostate. A marked in vitro influence of atrazine and prometryne (from 0.465 to 1.392 mumol) and their mixtures (in total concentration, 0.928 mumol) on 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone formation was detected. 5 alpha-Dihydrotestosterone-specific receptor complex formation was inhibited in vitro by ca. 0.5 mumol of atrazine or deethylatrazine and only in vivo by 6 mg of atrazine 100 g-1 body wt. daily during 7 days in the prostate cytosol. The inhibition of the enzymic activities responsible for testosterone conversion and steroid hormone-receptor complex formation was non-competitive and reversible, and s-triazine compounds act as antiandrogens.

  2. Effects of L-Glutamine oral supplementation on prostate of irradiated rats

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Flavia C. M.; Costa, Waldemar S.; Silva, Pamella C.; de Souza, Diogo B; Gregório, Bianca; Sampaio, Francisco J. B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate the protective effect of L-Glutamine in animals undergone to ventral radiation when the target organ is not the prostate. Materials and Methods Wistar rats were divided into groups of 10 animals each: Controls (C), maintained under standard conditions and not exposed to radiation, Radiated group (R) undergone to abdominal radiation only and Radiated plus supplemented by L-glutamine group (R+G). The animals of group R+G were supplemented with L-glutamine at the beginning of the experiment until death in the 22nd day. The ventral prostate was dissected and processed for morphometrical analysis. The epithelial height, collagen density and acinar area were objectively assessed in histological sections. Results Epithelial height was significantly reduced in R group in comparison to C group (p= 0.005). However, there was no statistical difference between the C and R+G groups. Collagen surface density in the C and R groups were not statistically different, but a significant difference was observed when comparing groups R+G and R (p= 0.040). The R+G group values did not differ significantly from C group. The acinar prostate area of group R was similar to that of C (p= 0.971), but in R+G it was significantly reduced when compared with the C (p= 0.038) and R (p= 0.001) groups. Conclusions Pelvic radiation promotes structural modifications in ventral prostate of rats, which can be reduced by L-Glutamine. PMID:27286127

  3. Evaluation of the protective effect of pentoxifylline on carrageenan-induced chronic non-bacterial prostatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hajighorbani, Mahboobeh; Ahmadi-Hamedani, Mahmood; Shahab, Elaheh; Hayati, Farzad; Kafshdoozan, Khatereh; Keramati, Keivan; Amini, Amin Hossein

    2017-03-09

    Chronic non-bacterial prostatitis (CNP) is the most common type of prostatitis and oxidative stress (OS) was shown to be highly elevated in prostatitis patients. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on CNP induced by carrageenan in rats. Male adult Wistar rats (n = 30) were divided into control, CNP and three treatment groups (n = 6) including CNP + cernilton and CNP + PTX groups. CNP was induced by single intraprostatic injection of 1% carrageenan (100 µl). Rats in treatment groups received orally cernilton 100 mg/kg and PTX at 50 and 100 mg/kg 1 week after CNP induction for 21 days. Prostatic index (PI), prostatic specific antigen (PSA), tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), serum lipid peroxidation (MDA), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and histopathological changes were compared between groups. There were significant increase of PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α and MDA in CNP group at 29 day. In treatment groups, significant reduction in PI, serum levels of PSA, TNF-α, MDA and creatinine was observed especially in rats treated with dose of 50 mg/kg of PTX. In CNP group, histopathological changes of the prostate such as leucocyte infiltration, large involutions and projection into the lumen and reducing the volume of the lumen were observed as well. Whereas PTX, especially at dose of 50 mg/kg, could improve the above-mentioned changes remarkably in CNP treated rats. For the first time, our findings indicated that PTX improved CNP induced by carrageenan in rats.

  4. Atypical fetal prostate development is associated with ipsilateral hypoplasia of the wolffian ducts in the ACI rat.

    PubMed

    Hofkamp, Luke E; Bradley, Sarahann; Geliebter, Jan; Timms, Barry G

    2010-05-01

    For over a half century, the ACI (August x Copenhagen) rat has been a primary model for studying renal agenesis and ipsilateral hypoplasia (IHP) of the Wolffian-derived structures (WDS). Because the ACI rat is also used as a model for prostate research, it is important to examine the relationship of IHP and urogenital sinus (UGS) development. The prostate is dependent on androgens for proper growth and differentiation. Alteration in androgen production and/or delivery to the UGS has the potential to perturbate normal development. In this study, we investigate whether the ipsilateral loss of the WDS is associated with altered prostate development. Digital images of serial-sectioned fetal ACI rat UGS were used to create three-dimensional (3-D) surface-rendered models of the developing prostate, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, and utricle on gestational day 21. The number and volume of prostate ducts developing from the UGS were calculated from the 3-D model data. Animals exhibiting IHP had a significant decrease in total fetal prostate volume (40%; P < 0.005) with significant regional specific differences when compared with normal male ACI rats. Anatomical and histological differences in the utricle, abnormal histology of the ipsilateral testes, and a truncation of the ipsilateral Wolffian ductal mesenchyme were also seen in the animals with IHP. Additional research is needed to further understand the mechanisms and consequences of IHP on prostate growth and development. Alterations to normal prenatal development of the male accessory sex organs can have important consequences for the growth and morphology of the adult gland.

  5. D-004 ameliorates phenylephrine-induced urodynamic changes and increased prostate and bladder oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Oyarzábal, Ambar; Pérez, Yohani; Mas, Rosa; Ravelo, Yazmin; Jiménez, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Background Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) mainly depend on alpha1-adrenoreceptors (α1-ADR) stimulation, but a link with oxidative stress (OS) is also involved. D-004, a lipid extract of Roystonea regia fruits, antagonizes ADR-induced responses and produces antioxidant effects. The objective of this study was to investigate whether D-004 produce antioxidant effects in rats with phenylephrine (PHE)-induced urodynamic changes. Methods Rats were randomized into eight groups (ten rats/group): a negative vehicle control and seven groups injected with PHE: a positive control, three treated with D-004 (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) and three others with tamsulosin (0.4 mg/kg), grape seed extract (GSE) (250 mg/kg) and vitamin E (VE) (250 mg/kg), respectively. Results Effects on urinary total volume (UTV), volume voided per micturition (VM), malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl groups (CG) concentrations in prostate and bladder homogenates were study outcomes. While VM and UTV lowered significantly in the positive control as compared to the negative control group, the opposite occurred with prostate and bladder MDA and CG values. D-004 (200-800 mg/kg) increased significantly both VM and UTV, lowered significantly MDA in prostate and bladder homogenates, and reduced GC levels only in the prostate. Tamsulosin increased significantly VM and UTV, but unchanged oxidative variables. GSE and VE unchanged the UTV, whereas VE, not GSE, modestly but significantly attenuated the PHE-induced decrease of VM. Conclusions Single oral administration of D-004 (200-800 mg/kg) was the only treatment that ameliorated the urodynamic changes and reduced increased oxidative variables in the prostate of rats with PHE-induced prostate hyperplasia. PMID:26816837

  6. AZD3514: a small molecule that modulates androgen receptor signaling and function in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Loddick, Sarah A; Ross, Sarah J; Thomason, Andrew G; Robinson, David M; Walker, Graeme E; Dunkley, Tom P J; Brave, Sandra R; Broadbent, Nicola; Stratton, Natalie C; Trueman, Dawn; Mouchet, Elizabeth; Shaheen, Fadhel S; Jacobs, Vivien N; Cumberbatch, Marie; Wilson, Joanne; Jones, Rhys D O; Bradbury, Robert H; Rabow, Alfred; Gaughan, Luke; Womack, Chris; Barry, Simon T; Robson, Craig N; Critchlow, Susan E; Wedge, Stephen R; Brooks, A Nigel

    2013-09-01

    Continued androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling is a key driver in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after classical androgen ablation therapies have failed, and therefore remains a target for the treatment of progressive disease. Here, we describe the biological characterization of AZD3514, an orally bioavailable drug that inhibits androgen-dependent and -independent AR signaling. AZD3514 modulates AR signaling through two distinct mechanisms, an inhibition of ligand-driven nuclear translocation of AR and a downregulation of receptor levels, both of which were observed in vitro and in vivo. AZD3514 inhibited testosterone-driven seminal vesicle development in juvenile male rats and the growth of androgen-dependent Dunning R3327H prostate tumors in adult rats. Furthermore, this class of compound showed antitumor activity in the HID28 mouse model of CRPC in vivo. AZD3514 is currently in phase I clinical evaluation.

  7. AZD3514: a small molecule that modulates androgen receptor signaling and function in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Loddick, Sarah A; Ross, Sarah J; Thomason, Andrew G; Robinson, David M; Walker, Graeme E; Dunkley, Tom PJ; Brave, Sandra R; Broadbent, Nicola; Stratton, Natalie C; Trueman, Dawn; Mouchet, Elizabeth; Shaheen, Fadhel S; Jacobs, Vivien N; Cumberbatch, Marie; Wilson, Joanne; Jones, Rhys D O; Bradbury, Robert H; Rabow, Alfred; Gaughan, Luke; Womack, Chris; Barry, Simon T; Robson, Craig N; Critchlow, Susan E; Wedge, Stephen R; Brooks, Nigel A

    2013-01-01

    Continued androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling is a key driver in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) after classical androgen ablation therapies have failed, and therefore remains a target for the treatment of progressive disease. Here we describe the biological characterization of AZD3514, an orally bioavailable drug that inhibits androgen-dependent and–independent AR signaling. AZD3514 modulates AR signaling through two distinct mechanisms, an inhibition of ligand driven nuclear translocation of AR and a down-regulation of receptor levels, both of which were observed in vitro and in vivo. AZD3514 inhibited testosterone-driven seminal vesicle development in juvenile male rats and the growth of androgen-dependent Dunning R3327H prostate tumors in adult rats. Furthermore, this class of compound demonstrated anti-tumor activity in the HID28 mouse model of CRPC in vivo. AZD3514 is currently in Phase I clinical evaluation. PMID:23861347

  8. Onion and garlic extracts as potential antidotes for cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in prostate glands of rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, F K; Suru, S M

    2015-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has been implicated in increased prostate gland malignancy risk in both wildlife and humans. This study examines the chemoprotective roles of onion and garlic extracts on Cd-induced biochemical alterations in the prostate glands of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine groups: control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd alone (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day); extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/100 g bwt per day) for 1 week and then co-treated with Cd (1.5 mg/100 g bwt per day) for additional 3 weeks. Oxidant/antioxidant status and acid phosphatase (ACPtotal and ACPprostatic ) activity were examined in prostate glands. Cd intoxication caused a marked (P < 0.001) increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels, whereas glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were markedly (P < 0.001) decreased. We also observed significant (P < 0.001) decrease in ACPtotal and ACPprostatic activities in prostate glands and a concomitant significant (P < 0.001) increase in the plasma. However, treatment of Cd-intoxicated rats with onion and/or garlic extract significantly minimised these alterations. The onion extract offered a dose-dependent protection. Our findings suggest a chemoprotective capability for onion and garlic extracts against Cd-induced biochemical alteration in the prostate glands.

  9. Management of experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats using a food-based therapy containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Ejike, Chukwunonso E C C; Ezeanyika, Lawrence U S

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of diet containing Telfairia occidentalis seeds, in managing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in rats was studied. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups. BPH was induced by sub-cutaneous injection of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol valerate (ratio, 10:1) every other day for 28 days. Rats in the test group were placed on the test diet for 7 days following disease induction. One control group (DC) was fed on a normal diet for 7 days following disease induction. Two other control groups, HC and HDC, were given sub-cutaneous olive oil (vehicle) for the same duration, and placed on the test diet and normal diet, respectively. Markers of BPH, and hormone profile were determined using standard methods. The results show that relative prostate weight and protein content of the prostates were lower [albeit not significantly (p>0.05)] in the test group, relative to the DC group. Serum prostatic acid phosphatase concentrations (U/L) decreased significantly (p<0.05) from 2.9 ± 0.2 in the DC group to 2.1 ± 0.7 in the test group. Histological findings corroborate these data. The testosterone: estradiol ratio (× 10(3)) was increased from 4.0 ± 0.2 in the DC group to 4.6 ± 0.2 in the test group. The test diet reduced the mass and secretory activity of the enlarged prostate and may act by increasing the testosterone: estradiol ratio.

  10. Investigation of the effect of traditional Chinese medicine on pain and inflammation in chronic nonbacterial prostatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-J; Song, G-H; Liu, G T

    2016-08-01

    According to traditional Chinese medicine, the symptoms of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CNP/CPPS) may be treated using a cocktail of herbs that stimulate blood circulation ('activating blood circulation formula'). We investigated the effect of three doses of this formula on a rat model of CNP/CPPS. Male Wistar rats were injected with a saline extract of male sex accessory glands on days 0 and 30 to induce prostatitis and then treated daily by gavage between days 32 and 60. Treatment with low, medium and high doses of activating blood circulation formula resulted in an almost total rescue of paw withdrawal threshold at day 60, and treatment with the highest dose also significantly decreased prostate inflammation (assessed histopathologically). We further observed elevated serum prostaglandin E2 levels in the CNP/CPPS model which decreased upon high-dose treatment, and increased Cox-2 expression in the prostate and spinal cord dorsal horn which was rescued in both tissues in the high-dose group and in the prostate in the medium-dose group. These results shed light on a possible mechanism by which activating blood circulation therapy may alleviate pain in a rat model of CNP/CPPS by downregulating Cox-2 expression in the spinal cord, thereby raising the pain threshold. Further research will be needed to fully characterise the mechanism by which activating blood circulation therapy produces this therapeutic effect.

  11. Effect of Serenoa Repens on Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Growth Factors in Obese Wistar Rats with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Colado-Velázquez, Juventino; Mailloux-Salinas, Patrick; Medina-Contreras, Jml; Cruz-Robles, David; Bravo, Guadalupe

    2015-10-01

    Serenoa repens has been widely used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms; however, most of the studies have been conducted in individuals with normal weight and not obese. In this study, the effects of a lipidic extract of S. repens, in markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and growth factors, in obese rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia, were investigated. Total nitrites, malondialdehyde, total glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase activity were measured; in addition, assays for inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and the growth factors basic fibroblast growth factor (FGFb) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were performed. The obese rats had a higher prostate weight compared with controls. S. repens significantly decreased prostate weight, total nitrites, and malondialdehyde; improved total glutathione, SOD, and catalase activity; and significantly reduced inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and growth factors (VEGF and FGFb). S. repens showed high antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity in obese rats, suggesting that their use could be beneficial in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  12. Continuous-wave vs. pulsed infrared laser stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat; Cilip, Christopher M.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2011-03-01

    Optical nerve stimulation has recently been developed as an alternative to electrical nerve stimulation. However, recent studies have focused primarily on pulsed delivery of the laser radiation and at relatively low pulse rates. The objective of this study is to demonstrate faster optical stimulation of the prostate cavernous nerves using continuouswave (CW) infrared laser radiation, for potential diagnostic applications. A Thulium fiber laser (λ = 1870 nm) was used for non-contact optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves, in vivo. Optical nerve stimulation, as measured by an intracavernous pressure (ICP) response in the penis, was achieved with the laser operating in either CW mode, or with a 5-ms pulse duration at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 100 Hz. Successful optical stimulation was observed to be primarily dependent on a threshold nerve temperature (42-45 °C), not an incident fluence, as previously reported. CW optical nerve stimulation provides a significantly faster ICP response time using a laser with lower power output than pulsed stimulation. CW optical nerve stimulation may therefore represent an alternative mode of stimulation for intra-operative diagnostic applications where a rapid response is critical, such as identification of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery.

  13. In-vivo metabolic characterization of healthy prostate and orthotopic prostate cancer in rats using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4.7 T.

    PubMed

    Walker, Paul; Provent, Peggy; Tizon, Xavier; Créhange, Gilles; Duchamp, Olivier; Brunotte, François; Genne, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    To assist the development of new anti-cancer drugs, it is important to identify biomarkers of treatment efficacy in the preclinical phases of drug development. In order to improve the predictivity of preclinical experiments, more realistic animal models are needed, for example, tumors xenografted directly on the prostate gland of rodents. To characterize the in-vivo metabolism of healthy rat prostate and of an orthotopic human prostate cancer model using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The highly metastatic and hormone-independent PC3-MM2 human prostate cancer model was implanted into the ventral prostate lobe of three Nude rats. Healthy Nude (n = 6) and Sprague-Dawley (n = 6) rats were also studied for interspecies comparison of normal prostate metabolism. Magnetic resonance imaging and short echo-time (TE 11.2 ms) single voxel PRESS spectroscopy were performed on dorsal (DP) and ventral (VP) prostate as well as tumor at 4.7 T. The metabolic content and volume of dorsal and ventral lobes were characterized as a function of species and age. Slightly lower total creatine (tCr)/water (11.3 ± 2.6 vs. 15.3 ± 3.0, NS), but significantly higher Inositol (Ins)/water (18.9 ± 1.9 vs. 6.6 ± 3.3, P < 0.003) and total choline (tCho)/water (15.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.6 ± 1.1, P < 0.00007) were observed within healthy DP lobes with respect to VP lobes. No significant variation in metabolic content was seen in healthy DP and VP lobes of Nude rats as a function of age, and no species dependence was observed in their metabolic content. For the orthotopic PC3-MM2 tumor, implanted in VP, the tCr/water ratio was significantly lower (3.1 ± 0.9) than neighboring DP (12.8 ± 1.8, P < 0.00003) and healthy VP (15.3 ± 3.0, P < 0.00006). For Ins, the metabolite ratio in PC3-MM2 was close to that of healthy VP (4.3 ± 2.8 vs. 6.6 ± 3.3, p = NS), but much lower than in neighboring DP (19.1 ± 1.3, P < 0.00005). A similar trend was also observed for tCho, where metabolite ratios in

  14. Prolactin, EGFR, vimentin and α-actin profiles in elderly rat prostate subjected to steroid hormonal imbalance.

    PubMed

    Hetzl, Amanda Cia; Montico, Fabio; Kido, Larissa Akemi; Cagnon, Valéria Helena Alves

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and relate the prolactin (PR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), α-actin and vimentin immunoreactivity in the prostate of elderly rats subjected to steroid hormonal imbalance. Senile and young rats were divided into the young group (YNG), the senile group (SE), the castrated group (CAS), the estrogen-deficient group (ED), the castrated+estrogen group (CASE), and the estrogen-deficient+androgen group (EDTEST). PR and EGFR increased in the estrogen and androgen ablation groups. In addition, EGFR influenced the immunolocalization by changing it from the prostatic stroma to the epithelium in elderly rats. Hormone ablation in elderly rats, not only related to androgen but also estrogen, led to increased stromal EGFR immunolocalization. The α-actin pattern decreased in the groups with estrogenic imbalance. Moreover, vimentin increased in the senile and estrogen deficient group. To conclude, we can suggest that EGFR contributed towards the proliferative process in the prostate, by means however, of different mechanisms, considering the androgenic and estrogenic pathways. Also, our results indicated that prolactin could be activated not only in an androgen-independent pathway but also in an estrogen independent pathway. Finally, PR and vimentin immunolocalization increase, in the prostatic stroma in the group showing estrogenic ablation, could be one of the factors which contribute to the reactive stroma formation.

  15. Angiogenic and tissue remodeling factors in the prostate of elderly rats submitted to hormonal replacement.

    PubMed

    Montico, Fábio; Hetzl, Amanda Cia; Cândido, Eduardo Marcelo; Cagnon, Valéria Helena Alves

    2013-11-01

    The influence of senescence and hormone replacement on the onset of pathologic processes in the prostate is not yet fully understood. The aim was to identify the immunoreactivity and protein levels of molecules involved in cell proliferation, tissue remodeling and angiogenesis in the ventral prostate of elderly rodents following hormonal replacement. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into one Young group (4-months old), treated with peanut oil (5 mL kg(-1) , s.c.), and six Senile groups. The senile rats (10-months old) were subdivided into: Senile group (SEN) (5 mL kg(-1) peanut oil, s.c.); Testosterone group (TEST) (5 mg kg(-1) testosterone cipionate, s.c.); Estrogen group (EST) (25 µg kg(-1) 17β-estradiol, s.c.); castrated group (CAS) (surgical castration); castrated-testosterone group (CT) (same treatment as CAS and TEST groups); and castrated-estrogen group (CE) (same treatment as CAS and EST groups). After 30 days, samples of the ventral prostate were harvested for analyses of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGFR-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endostatin features. IGFR-1 and MMP-9 showed increased protein levels and epithelial immunolabeling both after hormonal replacement and castration. Increased VEGF levels and reduced endostatin were verified in the SEN group. Hormonal therapy and castration led to a higher increase of VEGF, especially in the EST, CAS, and CE groups. Endostatin increased mainly in the TEST and CT groups. Hormonal therapy in senescence generated a reactive microenvironment characterized by the increase of mitogenic and tissue remodeling factors and by the imbalance of angiogenesis, which possibly compromised organ function and predisposed toward glandular disorders.

  16. Fraction of Macroporous Resin from Smilax china L. Inhibits Testosterone Propionate–Induced Prostatic Hyperplasia in Castrated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Xiong, Chao-Mei; Song, Shan-Shan; Han, Pan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a fraction of macroporous resin (FMR), a bioactive component of Smilax china L., on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in castrated rats induced by testosterone propionate. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: the negative control group (sham-operated), the model group, two FMR-treated groups (at doses of 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg of body weight), and the positive control group (treated with finasteride at the dose of 3 mg/kg). Drugs were administered once a day for three consecutive weeks by gastric gavage. Prostates were weighed, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in serum were determined, and histopathological examinations were carried out. FMR treatment inhibited prostatic hyperplasia, reducing the DHT level in serum and improving the prostate gland morphology compared with the model group. The overall results of this study suggest that FMR is effective at inhibiting experimentally induced prostate enlargement, and it presents a valuable resource for the treatment of human BPH. PMID:22510101

  17. Fraction of macroporous resin from Smilax china L. inhibits testosterone propionate-induced prostatic hyperplasia in castrated rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Xiong, Chao-Mei; Song, Shan-Shan; Han, Pan; Ruan, Jin-Lan

    2012-07-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a fraction of macroporous resin (FMR), a bioactive component of Smilax china L., on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in castrated rats induced by testosterone propionate. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: the negative control group (sham-operated), the model group, two FMR-treated groups (at doses of 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg of body weight), and the positive control group (treated with finasteride at the dose of 3 mg/kg). Drugs were administered once a day for three consecutive weeks by gastric gavage. Prostates were weighed, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels in serum were determined, and histopathological examinations were carried out. FMR treatment inhibited prostatic hyperplasia, reducing the DHT level in serum and improving the prostate gland morphology compared with the model group. The overall results of this study suggest that FMR is effective at inhibiting experimentally induced prostate enlargement, and it presents a valuable resource for the treatment of human BPH.

  18. Changes in optical properties of ex vivo rat prostate due to heating.

    PubMed

    Skinner, M G; Everts, S; Reid, A D; Vitkin, I A; Lilge, L; Sherar, M D

    2000-05-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a single, first-order Arrhenius process in accurately modelling the thermally induced changes in the optical properties, particularly the reduced scattering coefficient, mu(s)', and the absorption coefficient, mu(a), of ex vivo rat prostate. Recent work has shown that mu(s)' can increase as much as five-fold due to thermal coagulation, and the observed change in mu(s)' has been modelled well according to a first-order rate process in albumen. Conversely, optical property measurements conducted using pig liver suggest that this change in mu(s)' cannot suitably be described using a single rate parameter. In canine prostate, measurements have indicated that while the absorption coefficient varies with temperature, it does not do so according to first-order kinetics. A double integrating sphere system was used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of light at 810 nm through a thin sample of prostate. Using prostate samples collected from Sprague Dawley rats, optical properties were measured at a constant elevated temperature. Tissue samples were measured over the range 54-83 degrees C. The optical properties of the sample were determined through comparison with reflectance and transmittance values predicted by a Monte Carlo simulation of light propagation in turbid media. A first order Arrhenius model was applied to the observed change in mu(s)' and mu(a) to determine the rate process parameters for thermal coagulation. The measured rate coefficients were Ea = (7.18 +/- 1.74) x 10(4) J mol(-1) and Afreq = 3.14 x 10(8) s(-1) for mu(s)'. It was determined that the change in mu(s)' is well described by a single first-order rate process. Similar analysis performed on the changes in mu(a) due to increased temperatures yielded Ea = (1.01 +/- 0.35) x 10(5) J mol(-1) and Afreq = 8.92 x 10(12) s(-1). The results for mu(a) suggest that the Arrhenius model may be applicable to the changes in absorption.

  19. ZapA, a virulence factor in a rat model of Proteus mirabilis-induced acute and chronic prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Phan, Van; Belas, Robert; Gilmore, Brendan F; Ceri, Howard

    2008-11-01

    Our knowledge of pathogenesis has benefited from a better understanding of the roles of specific virulence factors in disease. To determine the role of the virulence factor ZapA, a 54-kDa metalloproteinase of Proteus mirabilis, in prostatitis, rats were infected with either wild-type (WT) P. mirabilis or its isogenic ZapA(-) mutant KW360. The WT produced both acute and chronic prostatitis showing the typical histological progressions that are the hallmarks of these diseases. Infection with the ZapA(-) mutant, however, resulted in reduced levels of acute prostatitis, as determined from lower levels of tissue damage, bacterial colonization, and inflammation. Further, the ZapA(-) mutant failed to establish a chronic infection, in that bacteria were cleared from the prostate, inflammation was resolved, and tissue was seen to be healing. Clearance from the prostate was not the result of a reduced capacity of the ZapA(-) mutant to form biofilms in vitro. These finding clearly define ZapA as an important virulence factor in both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis.

  20. Bisphenol A Disrupts HNF4α-Regulated Gene Networks Linking to Prostate Preneoplasia and Immune Disruption in Noble Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hung-Ming; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Tam, Neville Ngai Chung

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of humans to bisphenol A (BPA) is widespread and continuous. The effects of protracted exposure to BPA on the adult prostate have not been studied. We subjected Noble rats to 32 weeks of BPA (low or high dose) or 17β-estradiol (E2) in conjunction with T replenishment. T treatment alone or untreated groups were used as controls. Circulating T levels were maintained within the physiological range in all treatment groups, whereas the levels of free BPA were elevated in the groups treated with T+low BPA (1.06 ± 0.05 ng/mL, P < .05) and T+high BPA (10.37 ± 0.43 ng/mL, P < .01) when compared with those in both controls (0.1 ± 0.05 ng/mL). Prostatic hyperplasia, low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and marked infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into the PIN epithelium (P < .05) were observed in the lateral prostates (LPs) of T+low/high BPA-treated rats. In contrast, only hyperplasia and high-grade PIN, but no aberrant immune responses, were found in the T+E2-treated LPs. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis in LPs identified differential changes between T+BPA vs T+E2 treatment. Expression of multiple genes in the regulatory network controlled by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α was perturbed by the T+BPA but not by the T+E2 exposure. Collectively these findings suggest that the adult rat prostate, under a physiologically relevant T environment, is susceptible to BPA-induced transcriptomic reprogramming, immune disruption, and aberrant growth dysregulation in a manner distinct from those caused by E2. They are more relevant to our recent report of higher urinary levels BPA found in patients with prostate cancer than those with benign disease. PMID:26496021

  1. Oxidative stress markers and apoptosis in the prostate of diabetic rats and the influence of vitamin C treatment.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, Marina Guimarães; Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2012-07-01

    Negative consequences of diabetes on the prostate such as involution are associated with diminished testosterone, insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. The contributions of oxidative damage, which usually increases with diabetes, are unknown for these alterations. This study evaluated the impact of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on the biomarkers of the antioxidant system of rat ventral prostate, the influence of vitamin C supplementation on these biomarkers, and on the balance between cell proliferation and death. Diabetes (D) was induced in Wistar male rats by streptozotocin (5 mg/100 g b.w., i.p.). Control animals (C) were injected with a vehicle. Vitamin C (150 mg/kg b.w./day) supplementation was introduced by gavage in diabetes (D + V) as well as control (C + V) groups. Thirty days after diabetes onset, the rats were killed and the ventral prostates were analyzed using light microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and biochemical assays for biomarkers of oxidative stress. In comparison to control groups, the levels of circulating testosterone, proliferating, and androgen receptor-positive cells decreased in diabetic groups regardless of vitamin C treatment whereas apoptosis was increased. The levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase did not change, but the levels of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were increased in diabetic prostate. Vitamin C supplementation normalized GST activity and recovered the apoptotic rates in the prostate. In conclusion, GST is a good indicator of compensatory oxidant defense in the prostate at earlier stages of diabetes and vitamin C improves its activity and attenuates apoptosis in the gland. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Reversibility of the inhibitory effect of atrazine and lindane on cytosol 5. alpha. -dihydrotestosterone receptor complex formation in rat prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Simic, B.; Kniewald, Z.; Kniewald, J. ); Davies, J.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Once entering the bloodstream, most toxic substances, including pesticides, can reach organs involved in the reproductive system. They can cross the placenta, as well as the brain barrier, posing various risks to the reproductive processes. The organochlorine insecticide lindane and the s-triazine herbicide atrazine produce changes in hormone-dependent reactions in the rat hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and prostate. Lindane also causes histological and biochemical alterations in the rat testis. In vivo treatment with atrazine produces a markedly inhibitory influence of 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone - receptor complex formation in rat prostate cytosol. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether such changes in the crucial step in the reproductive process are reversible. A parallel investigation using lindane was also undertaken.

  3. Methyl jasmonate reduces testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia through regulation of inflammatory and apoptotic processes in rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Akanni, Olubukola Oyebimpe; Abiola, Olusoji John; Owumi, Solomon Eduviere; Akinloye, Oluyemi; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Olubunmi

    2017-09-20

    Phytotherapy is becoming a treatment option in management of diseases including benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We have shown previously that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) ameliorated BPH, however the underlying mechanism of action remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate in mechanistic terms the protective role of MeJA in BPH. BPH was induced by daily injections of testosterone propionate (TP) (3mg/kg) for 28 days. The weight and organo-somatic weight of prostate in BPH rats were 6.8 and 5.1 times higher than castrated-control group, respectively. Inflammatory markers; prostatic myeloperoxidase and total nitric oxide were significantly increased in BPH group. The activity of aniline hydroxylase (Phase I drug metabolizing enzyme) was significantly increased in BPH rats by 22%. In BPH group, immuno-histochemistry revealed strong expression of prostatic inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and Bcl2, while mild expression of p53 and Bax were seen. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol were significantly increased, while HDL-c was decreased in BPH. Interestingly, MeJA and finasteride (singly or combination) attenuated inflammatory indices and induced apoptotic parameters in BPH rats. MeJA protects against TP-induced BPH via mechanisms that involve anti-inflammation, induction of apoptosis and inhibition of phase I drug metabolizing enzyme. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Pharmaceutical evaluation of naftopidil enantiomers: Rat functional assays in vitro and estrogen/androgen induced rat benign prostatic hyperplasia model in vivo.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun-Jun; Cai, Yi; Yi, Yan-Zhen; Huang, Min-Yi; Zhu, Liu; He, Fei; Liu, Xia-Wen; Huang, Bi-Yun; Yuan, Mu

    2016-11-15

    Naftopidil (NAF) is a α1D/1A adrenoceptor selective drug used for the treatment of both benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS). However, NAF is used as a racemate in clinic. To compare the differences and similarities among two enantiomers and racemate, pharmacological activities were evaluated through rat functional assays in vitro and estrogen/androgen (E/T) induced rat BPH model in vivo. NAF and the two enantiomers showed similar blocking activity on α1 receptor. S-NAF exhibited more α1D/1A adrenoceptor subtype selectivity than R-NAF and the racemate. The selectivity ratios pA2 (α1D)/pA2 (α1B) and pA2 (α1A)/pA2 (α1B) were 40.7- and 16.2-fold, respectively. NAF and its enantiomers effectively prevented the development of rat prostatic hyperplasia via suppressing the increase of the prostatic wet weight, visually. The quantitative analysis of the relative acinus volume, relative stroma volume, relative epithelial volume, epithelial height and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were carried out. S-NAF showed an advantage on the effect of inhibiting prostate wet weight and stroma volume over R-NAF and racemate NAF (P<0.05). Nevertheless, no other significant difference was observed between these two enantiomers. In conclusion, both R-NAF and S-NAF not only relax prostate muscle but also inhibit the prostate growth, thus relieve BPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. High-fat diet obesity associated with insulin resistance increases cell proliferation, estrogen receptor, and PI3K proteins in rat ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Pinto, Maria Etelvina; Rafacho, Alex; Bosqueiro, José Roberto; Maeda, Samantha Yuri; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of obesity and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet on prostate morphophysiology, focusing on cell proliferation, expression of androgen (AR) and estrogen receptors (ER) and proteins of the insulin signaling pathway. Adult male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (20% fat) for 15 weeks, whereas control animals received a balanced diet (4% fat). Both groups were then divided and treated for 2 weeks with 1 mg/kg body weight/day of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole or vehicle only. The ventral prostate was analyzed with immunohistochemical, histopathological, stereological, and Western blotting methods. Obese rats showed insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and reduced plasma testosterone levels. The incidence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) was 2.7 times higher in obese rats and affected 0.4% of the gland compared with 0.1% PIN areas found in control rats. Obesity doubled cell proliferation in both prostate epithelium and stroma. AR content decreased in the prostate of obese rats and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) increased in this group. Protein levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B diminished in the obese group, whereas phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) increased significantly. Most structural changes observed in the prostate of obese rats normalized after letrozole treatment, except for increased stromal cell proliferation and ERβ expression, which might be associated with insulin resistance. This experimental model of obesity and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet increases cell proliferation in rat prostate. Such alterations are associated with decreased levels of AR and increased ERβ and PI3K proteins. This change can facilitate the establishment of proliferative lesions in rat prostate.

  6. Diets high in selenium and isoflavones decrease androgen-regulated gene expression in healthy rat dorsolateral prostate

    PubMed Central

    Legg, Russell L; Tolman, Jessica R; Lovinger, Cameron T; Lephart, Edwin D; Setchell, Kenneth DR; Christensen, Merrill J

    2008-01-01

    Background High dietary intake of selenium or soybean isoflavones reduces prostate cancer risk. These components each affect androgen-regulated gene expression. The objective of this work was to determine the combined effects of selenium and isoflavones on androgen-regulated gene expression in rat prostate. Methods Male Noble rats were exposed from conception until 200 days of age to diets containing an adequate (0.33-0.45 mg/kg diet) or high (3.33-3.45 mg/kg) concentration of selenium as Se-methylselenocysteine and a low (10 mg/kg) or high (600 mg/kg) level of isoflavones in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Gene expression in the dorsolateral prostate was determined for the androgen receptor, for androgen-regulated genes, and for Akr1c9, whose product catalyzes the reduction of dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstane-3alpha, 17beta-diol. Activity of hepatic glutathione peroxidise 1 and of prostatic 5alpha reductase were also assayed. Results There were no differences due to diet in activity of liver glutathione peroxidase activity. Total activity of 5alpha reductase in prostate was significantly lower (p = 0.007) in rats fed high selenium/high isoflavones than in rats consuming adequate selenium/low isoflavones. High selenium intake reduced expression of the androgen receptor, Dhcr24 (24-dehydrocholesterol reductase), and Abcc4 (ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 4). High isoflavone intake decreased expression of Facl3 (fatty acid CoA ligase 3), Gucy1a3 (guanylate cyclase alpha 3), and Akr1c9. For Abcc4 the combination of high selenium/high isoflavones had a greater inhibitory effect than either treatment alone. The effects of selenium on gene expression were always in the direction of chemoprevention Conclusion These results suggest that combined intake of high selenium and high isoflavones may achieve a greater chemopreventive effect than either compound supplemented individually. PMID:19025659

  7. Diets high in selenium and isoflavones decrease androgen-regulated gene expression in healthy rat dorsolateral prostate.

    PubMed

    Legg, Russell L; Tolman, Jessica R; Lovinger, Cameron T; Lephart, Edwin D; Setchell, Kenneth D R; Christensen, Merrill J

    2008-11-24

    High dietary intake of selenium or soybean isoflavones reduces prostate cancer risk. These components each affect androgen-regulated gene expression. The objective of this work was to determine the combined effects of selenium and isoflavones on androgen-regulated gene expression in rat prostate. Male Noble rats were exposed from conception until 200 days of age to diets containing an adequate (0.33-0.45 mg/kg diet) or high (3.33-3.45 mg/kg) concentration of selenium as Se-methylselenocysteine and a low (10 mg/kg) or high (600 mg/kg) level of isoflavones in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Gene expression in the dorsolateral prostate was determined for the androgen receptor, for androgen-regulated genes, and for Akr1c9, whose product catalyzes the reduction of dihydrotestosterone to 5alpha-androstane-3alpha, 17beta-diol. Activity of hepatic glutathione peroxidise 1 and of prostatic 5alpha reductase were also assayed. There were no differences due to diet in activity of liver glutathione peroxidase activity. Total activity of 5alpha reductase in prostate was significantly lower (p = 0.007) in rats fed high selenium/high isoflavones than in rats consuming adequate selenium/low isoflavones. High selenium intake reduced expression of the androgen receptor, Dhcr24 (24-dehydrocholesterol reductase), and Abcc4 (ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 4). High isoflavone intake decreased expression of Facl3 (fatty acid CoA ligase 3), Gucy1a3 (guanylate cyclase alpha 3), and Akr1c9. For Abcc4 the combination of high selenium/high isoflavones had a greater inhibitory effect than either treatment alone. The effects of selenium on gene expression were always in the direction of chemoprevention These results suggest that combined intake of high selenium and high isoflavones may achieve a greater chemopreventive effect than either compound supplemented individually.

  8. Different subtypes of alpha 1A-adrenoceptor mediating contraction of rat epididymal vas deferens, rat hepatic portal vein and human prostate distinguished by the antagonist RS 17053.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, I.; Burt, R. P.; Green, G. M.; Hussain, M. B.; Chapple, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    1. The alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype mediating contraction of the rat hepatic portal vein to phenylephrine was characterized by use of competitive antagonists previously shown to have selectivity between the expressed alpha 1-subtype clones. Prazosin competitively antagonized the phenylephrine contractions with a pA2 value of 9.2, as did WB 4101 (pA2 9.4), 5-methyl urapidil (pA2 8.6), indoramin (pA2 8.4) and BMY 7378 (pA2 6.5). 2. The pA2 values on the rat portal vein correlated highly with their previously published pA2 values for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors mediating contraction of the rat epididymal vas deferens and human prostate and poorly with those for the alpha 1B- and alpha 1D-adrenoceptors mediating contraction of the rat spleen and aorta, respectively. The antagonist pA2 values on the rat portal vein correlated highly with their previously published pK1 values for the expressed alpha 1a-clone and poorly with those for the expressed alpha 1b- and alpha 1d-clones. Therefore the results show that contraction of the rat portal vein to phenylephrine is mediated by alpha 1A-adrenoceptors. 3. The novel alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist RS 17053 had a relatively high affinity for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors mediating contraction of the rat epididymal vas deferens (pA2 9.5) compared with the alpha 1B-adrenoceptors in the rat spleen (pA2 7.2) or the alpha 1D-adrenoceptors in the rat aorta (pKB 7.1), in agreement with its selectivity for the expressed alpha 1a-clone. However, RS 17053 had over 100 fold lower affinity for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors mediating contraction of the rat portal vein (pKB 7.1) and human prostate (pKB 7.1) compared with its affinity for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors in the rat epididymal vas deferens or the expressed alpha 1a-clone. 4. The difference in affinity of RS 17053 between the rat epididymal vas deferens and rat portal vein cannot be explained by a species difference in the receptor. Therefore RS 17053 may distinguish between subtypes of

  9. Acidic-phosphoprotein phosphatase activity of rat ventral prostate nuclei: apparent lack of effect of androgens.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M J; Ahmed, K; Fischbach, T J

    1978-08-03

    A protein phosphatase activity has been demonstrated in nuclei of rat ventral prostate utilizing 32P-labelled phosvitin as a model acidic phosphoprotein substrate. This phosphoprotein phosphatase has a pH optimum of 6.7, is unaffected by the sulphydryl protecting agent 2-mercaptoethanol, and requires a divalent cation for maximal activity. Of the various divalent cations tested, Mg2+ is the most effective in reactivating the EDTA-inhibited enzyme. The phosphatase is inhibited by sodium flouride, sodium oxalate, N-ethylmaleimide, ATP and ADP but is relatively insensitive to ammonium molybdate. Increased ionic strength of the reaction medium also causes a reduction in the enzyme activity, e.g., by 48% at 200 mM sodium chloride. The activity of the acidic phosphoprotein phosphatase did not change significantly at 48 h or 96 h post-orchiectomy when expressed per unit of nuclear protein. However, it is reduced by approx. 30% at these times after castration if based on DNA content. The decline in activity per nucleus reflects the decrease in the realtive nuclear protein content observed at 48 h or 96 h post-orchiectomy. This suggests that the decline in the phosphorylation of prostatic nuclear acidic proteins which occurs upon androgen withdrawal is not due to increased nuclear phosphatase activity.

  10. Stromal-epithelial paracrine interactions in the neoplastic rat and human prostate.

    PubMed

    Djakiew, D; Pflug, B; Onoda, M

    1993-01-01

    Homotypic paracrine interactions in the rat and human prostate have been investigated using prostatic stromal cells and neoplastic epithelial cells (PA-III, rat; TSU-pr1, human). Secretory proteins prepared from each cell type were used to determine the dose dependent regulation of growth (DNA synthesis) of the corresponding homotypic responder cell, as determined by 3H-thymidine incorporation. PA-III secretory protein stimulated rat stromal cell proliferation by 1.8-fold. This stimulatory activity of PA-III protein on stromal cell proliferation was partially reduced (approximately 35%) by treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF) antibody, whereas neither acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) antibody nor basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) antibody immunoneutralized the stimulatory activity of PA-III cell protein. In the corresponding opposite interaction, rat stromal cell protein modulated PA-III growth in a biphasic manner. At lower concentrations of stromal cell protein (1.25 micrograms/ml) PA-III cell growth was stimulated by 1.6-fold, whereas at higher concentrations of protein (100 micrograms/ml) PA-III cell growth was inhibited to 60%. Treatment of the stromal cell protein (1.25 micrograms/ml and 100 micrograms/ml) with NGF antibody reduced PA-III cell relative growth to approximately 30% and 5%, respectively. bFGF antibody treatment of stromal cell protein at 1.25 micrograms/ml did not influence relative growth, whereas bFGF antibody treatment of 100 micrograms/ml stromal cell protein reduced relative growth by an additional 40%. Treatment of the stromal cell protein (1.25 micrograms/ml and 100 micrograms/ml) with aFGF antibodies reduced relative growth from that observed at these two protein concentrations by approximately 50% in both cases. Human epithelial TSU-pr1 protein stimulated human stromal cell proliferation approximately 1.7-fold. Treatment of TSU-pr1 protein with NGF antibody resulted in stimulation of human stromal cell proliferation (4

  11. Flaxseed reduces epithelial proliferation but does not affect basal cells in induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    de Amorim Ribeiro, Ilma Cely; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; da Silva, Vivian Alves Pereira; Côrrea, Lanna Beatriz Neves Silva; Boaventura, Gilson Teles; Chagas, Mauricio Alves

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the effects of a flaxseed-based diet on the histoarchitecture of the prostate of normal Wistar rats and of rats with induced BPH. The study included four experimental groups of ten animals each: casein control group (CCG), who were fed a casein-based diet; flaxseed control group (FCG), who were fed a flaxseed-based diet; hyperplasia-induced casein group (HICG), who were fed a casein-based diet; and hyperplasia-induced flaxseed group (HIFG), who were fed a flaxseed-based diet. Hyperplasia was induced by the subcutaneous implantation of silicone pellets containing testosterone propionate. After 20 weeks, the rats were euthanized and their prostate fixed in buffered formalin. Tissue sections were stained with HE, picrosirius red and immunostained for nuclear antigen p63. Histomorphometric analysis evaluated the epithelial thickness, epithelial area, individual luminal area, and total area of prostatic alveoli. The mean epithelial thickness obtained for HIFG and HICG was 16.52 ± 1.65 and 20.58 ± 2.86 µm, respectively. The mean epithelial thickness in HICG was greater than that in the other groups tested. HIFG had a smaller epithelial thickness and lower percentage of papillary projections in the prostatic alveoli. No significant difference was observed between CCG and FCG. The total area and mean alveolar area showed no significant differences between the groups. The number of cells immunostained for p63 was not significantly different between the groups evaluated. These results suggest that flaxseed has a protective effect on the prostate epithelium in BPH-induced animals.

  12. Changes in erectile organ structure and function in a rat model of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-J; Xia, L-L; Xu, T-Y; Zhang, X-H; Zhu, Z-W; Zhang, M-G; Liu, Y; Xu, C; Zhong, S; Shen, Z-J

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing recognition of the association between chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and erectile dysfunction (ED); however, most of the reports are based on questionnaires which cannot distinguish between organic and functional ED. The purpose of this study was to determine the exact relationship between CP/CPPS and ED, and to investigate the changes in erectile organ structure and function in a rat model of CP/CPPS. We established a rat model of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP), which is a valid model for CP/CPPS. Erectile function in EAP and normal rats was comparable after cavernous nerve electrostimulation. The serum testosterone and oestradiol levels, ultrastructure of the corpus cavernosum and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the two groups were similar; however, there was a decrease in smooth muscle-to-collagen ratio and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and an increase in transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression was observed in EAP rats. Thus, organic ED may not exist in EAP rats. We speculate that ED complained by patients with CP/CPPS may be psychological, which could be caused by impairment in the quality of life; however, further studies are needed to fully understand the potential mechanisms underlying the penile fibrosis in EAP rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Chemoprevention of rat prostate carcinogenesis by dietary 16alpha-fluoro-5-androsten-17-one (fluasterone), a minimally androgenic analog of dehydroepiandrosterone.

    PubMed

    McCormick, David L; Johnson, William D; Kozub, Nicole M; Rao, K V N; Lubet, Ronald A; Steele, Vernon E; Bosland, Maarten C

    2007-02-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a potent inhibitor of prostate carcinogenesis in rats. However, concerns related to the possible androgenicity of DHEA may preclude its use for chemoprevention of human prostate cancer. Studies were performed to compare the androgenicity of DHEA and a fluorinated DHEA analog, 16alpha-fluoro-5-androsten-17-one (fluasterone), and to determine the chemopreventive activity of fluasterone in the rat prostate. Comparisons of accessory sex gland weight and histology in gonadectomized male rats demonstrated that fluasterone is less androgenic than is DHEA. Fluasterone conferred significant protection against prostate carcinogenesis induced in Wistar-Unilever rats by a sequential regimen of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea+testosterone. Chronic administration of fluasterone at levels of 2000 and 1000 mg/kg diet reduced the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the dorsolateral/anterior prostate from 64% in dietary controls to 28 and 31%, respectively. Other than a dose-related suppression of body weight gain, chronic exposure to fluasterone induced no clinical evidence of toxicity; suppression of body weight gain may be either a pharmacological effect or a minimally toxic effect of the compound. These data demonstrate that a minimally androgenic analog of DHEA protects against prostate carcinogenesis induced in rats by a chemical carcinogen + androgen. The reduced androgenicity of fluasterone may obviate toxicities associated with the androgenicity of the parent compound. On this basis, fluasterone merits consideration for evaluation in clinical trials for prostate cancer prevention. The chemopreventive activity of a non-androgenic DHEA analog suggests that at least a portion of the chemopreventive activity of DHEA in the rat prostate is unrelated to hormonal effects.

  14. Long-term effects of perinatal exposure to low doses of cadmium on the prostate of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Santana, Viviane P; Salles, Évila S; Correa, Deborah E; Gonçalves, Bianca F; Campos, Silvana G; Justulin, Luiz A; Godinho, Antonio F; Scarano, Wellerson R

    2016-08-01

    Developmental toxicity caused by environmental exposure to heavy metals during the perinatal period has raised questions about offspring health. Cadmium (Cd) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical with the potential to interfere with morphogenesis and susceptibility to diseases in reproductive organs. Taking into account that in the rat prostate morphogenesis occurs during the perinatal period, and that pregnant females absorb and retain more dietary Cd than their non-pregnant counterparts, it is important to understand the effects of perinatal Cd exposure on the adult rat prostate. Therefore this study investigated the effects of gestational and lactational Cd exposure on adult offspring rat prostate histopathology. Pregnant rats (n = 20) were divided into two groups: Control (treated with aqueous solution of sodium acetate 10 mg/l) and treated (treated with aqueous solution of cadmium acetate 10 mg/l) administered in the drinking water. After weaning, male offspring from different litters (n = 10) received food and water 'ad libitum'. The animals were euthanized at postnatal day 90 (PND90), the ventral prostates (VPs) were removed, weighed and examined histopathologically. Blood was collected for the measurement of testosterone (T) levels. Immunohistochemistry for androgen receptor (AR) and Ki67, and a TUNEL assay were performed. There were no differences in T levels, cell proliferation and apoptosis indexes, or AR immunostaining between the experimental groups. Stromal inflammatory foci and multifocal inflammation increased significantly in the treated group. These changes were associated with inflammatory reactive epithelial atypia and stromal fibrillar rearrangement. In conclusion, VP was permanently affected by perinatal Cd exposition, with increased incidence of inflammatory disorders with ageing. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  15. Differential ontogenetic exposure to obesogenic environment induces hyperproliferative status and nuclear receptors imbalance in the rat prostate at adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pytlowanciv, Eloísa Zanin; Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Reame, Vanessa; Gobbo, Marina Guimarães; Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2016-05-01

    Experimental data indicate that high-fat diet (HFD) may alter proliferative activity and prostate health. However, the consequences of HFD exposure during different periods of ontogenetic development on prostate histophysiology remain to be elucidated. Herein, we compare the influence of obesogenic environment (OE) due to maternal obesity and HFD at different periods of life on proliferative activity and nuclear receptors frequency in the rat ventral prostate and a possible relationship with metabolic and hormonal alterations. Male Wistar rats (19 weeks old), treated with balanced chow (Control group-C; 3% high-fat, 3.5 Kcal/g), were compared with those exposed to HFD (20% high-fat, 4.9 kcal/g) during gestation (G-maternal obesity), gestation and lactation (GL), from post-weaning to adulthood (WA), from lactation to adulthood (LA) and from gestation to adulthood (GA). After the experimental period, the ventral prostate lobes were removed and analyzed with different methods. Metabolic data indicated that G and GL rats became insulin resistant and WA, LA, and GA became insulin resistant and obese. There was a strong inverse correlation between serum testosterone (∼133% lower) and leptin levels (∼467% higher) in WA, LA, and GA groups. Estrogen serum levels increased in GA, and insulin levels increased in all groups, especially in WA (64.8×). OE-groups exhibited prostatic hypertrophy, since prostate weight increased ∼40% in G, GL, LA, and GA and 31% in WA. As indicated by immunohistochemistry, all HFD-groups except G exhibited an increase in epithelial cell proliferation (PCNA-positive) and a decrease in frequency of AR- and ERβ-positive epithelial cells; there was also an increment of ERα-positive stromal cells in comparison with control. Cells containing PPARγ increased in both epithelium and stroma of all OE groups and those expressing LXRα decreased, particularly in groups OE-exposed during gestation (G, GL and GA). OE leads to prostate hypertrophy

  16. Serum Bisphenol A Pharmacokinetics and Prostate Neoplastic Responses following Oral and Subcutaneous Exposures in Neonatal Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Gail S.; Ye, Shu-Hua; Birch, Lynn; Ho, Shuk-mei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines BPA pharmacokinetics in neonatal rats following s.c. injection or oral delivery of 10μg BPA/kg BW and compares susceptibility to estrogen-induced prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) following either exposure route. Serum BPA in PND3 rats was measured using HPLC-MS-MS. Free and total BPA at Cmax were 1.77 and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively following injection and 0.26 and 1.02 ng/ml, respectively following oral exposure. The AUC0-2 for free and total BPA was 4.1-fold and 1.8-fold greater, respectively, in s.c. versus oral delivery. While exposure route affected BPA metabolism, internal dosimetry following s.c. injection of 10μg BPA/kg BW is similar to BPA levels observed in humans. Prostates from aged rats given s.c. or oral BPA neonatally and T+E implants as adults exhibited nearly identical, heightened susceptibility to PIN incidence and score as compared to neonatal oil-controls. These findings on prostate health are directly relevant to humans at current BPA exposure levels. PMID:20887781

  17. Cynanchum wilfordii Ameliorates Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia by Regulating 5α-Reductase and Androgen Receptor Activities in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyuok; Shin, Jawon; Choi, Hakjoon; Jo, Ara; Pan, SangO; Bae, Donghyuck; Lee, Yongwook; Choi, Chulyung

    2017-09-27

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of the prostate gland. Cynanchum wilfordii has been reported to improve sexual behavior in male rats. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of an aqueous extract of C. wilfordii (CWW) against BPH development in a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. The rats were divided into the following six groups: sham/vehicle; BPH/vehicle; BPH/finasteride; and three CWW doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg). After a 4-week treatment with CWW, the rats were euthanized at scheduled times, and their prostates were weighed, followed by a histopathological examination. Prostate growth inhibition rates in rats administered CWW 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were 54.5%, 51.8%, and 50.1%, respectively. The BPH/CWW group showed decreased serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels compared to the BPH/vehicle group. Furthermore, the BPH/CWW group showed reduced prostate testosterone and DHT levels compared to the BPH/vehicle group. Mechanistically, the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed downregulated mRNA expression levels of the androgen receptor, 5α-reductase, and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in the BPH/CWW200 group compared with those in the testosterone-induced groups. In conclusion, these findings show the effectiveness of CWW in slowing the progression of testosterone-induced BPH in rats.

  18. Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of the Unbound Levofloxacin Concentrations in Rat Plasma and Prostate Tissue Measured by Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Felipe K.; Weber, Benjamin; Derendorf, Hartmut; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2014-01-01

    Levofloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone used in the treatment of both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Currently, the treatment of bacterial prostatitis is still difficult, especially due to the poor distribution of many antimicrobials into the prostate, thus preventing the drug to reach effective interstitial concentrations at the infection site. Newer fluoroquinolones show a greater penetration into the prostate. In the present study, we compared the unbound levofloxacin prostate concentrations measured by microdialysis to those in plasma after a 7-mg/kg intravenous bolus dose to Wistar rats. Plasma and dialysate samples were analyzed using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence method. Both noncompartmental analysis (NCA) and population-based compartmental modeling (NONMEM 6) were performed. Unbound prostate tissue concentrations represented 78% of unbound plasma levels over a period of 12 h by comparing the extent of exposure (unbound AUC0–∞) of 6.4 and 4.8 h·μg/ml in plasma and tissue, respectively. A three-compartment model with simultaneous passive diffusion and saturable distribution kinetics from the prostate to the central compartment gave the best results in terms of curve fitting, precision of parameter estimates, and model stability. The following parameter values were estimated by the population model: V1 (0.38 liter; where V1 represents the volume of the central compartment), CL (0.22 liter/h), k12 (2.27 h−1), k21 (1.44 h−1), k13 (0.69 h−1), Vmax (7.19 μg/h), kM (0.35 μg/ml), V3/fuprostate (0.05 liter; where fuprostate represents the fraction unbound in the prostate), and k31 (3.67 h−1). The interindividual variability values for V1, CL, Vmax, and kM were 21, 37, 42, and 76%, respectively. Our results suggest that levofloxacin is likely to be substrate for efflux transporters in the prostate. PMID:24217697

  19. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of the unbound levofloxacin concentrations in rat plasma and prostate tissue measured by microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Felipe K; Weber, Benjamin; Derendorf, Hartmut; Hochhaus, Guenther; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Levofloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone used in the treatment of both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Currently, the treatment of bacterial prostatitis is still difficult, especially due to the poor distribution of many antimicrobials into the prostate, thus preventing the drug to reach effective interstitial concentrations at the infection site. Newer fluoroquinolones show a greater penetration into the prostate. In the present study, we compared the unbound levofloxacin prostate concentrations measured by microdialysis to those in plasma after a 7-mg/kg intravenous bolus dose to Wistar rats. Plasma and dialysate samples were analyzed using a validated high-pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence method. Both noncompartmental analysis (NCA) and population-based compartmental modeling (NONMEM 6) were performed. Unbound prostate tissue concentrations represented 78% of unbound plasma levels over a period of 12 h by comparing the extent of exposure (unbound AUC0-∞) of 6.4 and 4.8 h·μg/ml in plasma and tissue, respectively. A three-compartment model with simultaneous passive diffusion and saturable distribution kinetics from the prostate to the central compartment gave the best results in terms of curve fitting, precision of parameter estimates, and model stability. The following parameter values were estimated by the population model: V1 (0.38 liter; where V1 represents the volume of the central compartment), CL (0.22 liter/h), k12 (2.27 h(-1)), k21 (1.44 h(-1)), k13 (0.69 h(-1)), Vmax (7.19 μg/h), kM (0.35 μg/ml), V3/fuprostate (0.05 liter; where fuprostate represents the fraction unbound in the prostate), and k31 (3.67 h(-1)). The interindividual variability values for V1, CL, Vmax, and kM were 21, 37, 42, and 76%, respectively. Our results suggest that levofloxacin is likely to be substrate for efflux transporters in the prostate.

  20. Chronic toxic and carcinogenic effects of oral cadmium in the Noble (NBL/Cr) rat: induction of neoplastic and proliferative lesions of the adrenal, kidney, prostate, and testes.

    PubMed

    Waalkes, M P; Anver, M R; Diwan, B A

    1999-10-29

    Based on the occurrence of pulmonary cancers in exposed populations, cadmium is classified as a human carcinogen. More controversial target sites for cadmium in humans include the prostate and kidney, where some studies have shown a link between cadmium and cancer. In Wistar rats cadmium induces tumors in the ventral prostate. The relevance of such lesions to humans is debated since the rat ventral lobe, unlike the dorsolateral lobe, has no embryological homolog in the human prostate. Cadmium has not been linked with renal tumors in rodents but is a potent nephrotoxin. In this work we studied the effects of oral cadmium in the Noble (NBL/Cr) rat with particular attention to proliferative lesions of the prostate and kidneys. Cadmium (as CdCl2) was given ad libitum throughout the study in the drinking water at doses of 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 ppm Cd to groups (initial n = 30) of male rats, which were observed for up to 102 wk. At the lower doses of cadmium (< or =50 ppm) a clear dose-related increase in total proliferative lesions of the prostate (ventral and dorsolateral lesions combined) occurred (0 ppm = 21% incidence, 25 ppm = 46%, 50 ppm = 50%; trend p < .03). These lesions were described as intraepithelial hyperplasia with occasional areas of atypical epithelial cells without stromal invasion. The lesions occurred primarily in the dorsolateral prostate with cadmium exposure and most frequently showed three or more foci within each specimen. At higher doses, prostatic proliferative lesions declined to control levels. The loss of prostatic response at the higher doses was likely due to diminished testicular function secondary to cadmium treatment. This was reflected in lesions indicative of testicular hypofunction at the highest cadmium dose, namely, interstitial cell hyperplasia, and a strong correlation between cadmium dose and total proliferative lesions of the testes (hyperplasias and tumors combined). Renal tumors (mainly mesenchymal and pelvic transitional

  1. Effect of D-004, a lipid extract from the Cuban royal palm fruit, on atypical prostate hyperplasia induced by phenylephrine in rats.

    PubMed

    Arruzazabala, M L; Más, R; Molina, V; Noa, M; Carbajal, D; Mendoza, N

    2006-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate that results in obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), the dwarf American palm (Arecaceae family), is commonly used to treat BPH. The Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) also belongs to the Arecaceae family, and 200-400mg of D-004, a lipid extract from its fruits, administered orally for 14 days has been shown to prevent testosterone- but not dihydrotestosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. D-004 (125-250 microg/mL) added to preparations of rat vas deferens caused a marked, dose-dependent and significant inhibition of noradrenaline-induced smooth muscle contraction, a response mediated through alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, and was more effective in these respects than Saw palmetto. However, the in vivo effects of D-004 and Saw palmetto on the hypertensive response induced by noradrenaline were modest (albeit significant), and neither treatment affected resting blood pressure or heart rate in rats. The differential effects of D-004 in in vitro and in vivo models could be related to a differential affinity for adrenoceptor subtypes or to different bioavailabilities in vascular and urogenital targets. Phenylephrine injected into rodents induces prostatic hyperplasia with all the characteristic morphological changes of the condition but does not result in enlargement of the prostate. Therefore, this phenylephrine-induced change in rat prostate tissue is called atypical prostatic hyperplasia. It serves as an in vivo model of prostatic hyperplasia induced by stimulation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. The objective of this study was to determine whether D-004 can inhibit induction of atypical prostatic hyperplasia by phenylephrine in rats. Rats were randomly distributed into five groups (ten rats/group). One group was a negative control and received oral vehicle only. The other four groups were injected subcutaneously with phenylephrine (2 mg/kg): of these

  2. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium in the noble (NBL/Cr) rat: induction of pituitary, testicular, and injection site tumors and intraepithelial proliferative lesions of the dorsolateral prostate.

    PubMed

    Waalkes, M P; Anver, M; Diwan, B A

    1999-12-01

    Cadmium is a known human carcinogen based on findings of lung cancer in exposed populations. A more controversial target site for cadmium is the human prostate gland, for which some studies indicate a link between cadmium exposure and cancer. Our work in various strains of Wistar rats has shown that cadmium can induce tumors in the ventral lobe of the prostate. The relevance of this type of lesion to human prostate cancer has been questioned because the ventral lobe of the rat prostate, unlike the dorsolateral lobe, has no embryological homolog in the human gland. In this study we investigated the chronic toxic and carcinogenic effects of cadmium in the Noble (NBL/Cr) rat, with particular attention to lesions of the prostate. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was given as a single sc injection (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 32 micromol/kg) to groups (initially n = 30) of 10-week-old rats. Rats were observed for up to 72 weeks following exposure. In rats that were injected with the lower doses of cadmium (< or =4 micromol/kg), a clear dose-related increase in proliferative lesions of the dorsolateral prostate occurred (0 micromol/kg = 36% incidence, 1 micromol/kg = 62%, 2 micromol/kg = 65%; 4 micromol/kg = 79%; trend p < 0.003). Lesions were described as intraepithelial hyperplasia with occasional areas of atypical epithelial cells, without stromal invasion. At higher doses (> or =8 micromol/kg) the proliferative-lesion response in the dorsolateral prostate gradually declined to near control levels (8 micromol/kg = 63%; 16 micromol/kg = 60%; 32 micromol/kg = 52%). The loss of prostatic response at the higher doses of cadmium was probably due to loss of testicular function secondary to cadmium treatment. This was reflected in a very high incidence (>90%) of lesions, indicative of testicular hypofunction, including tubular degeneration, mineralization, and interstitial (Leydig) cell tumors, at doses in excess of 16 micromol/kg. Malignant injection-site sarcomas occurred at the two

  3. Beef tallow, but not perilla or corn oil, promotion of rat prostate and intestinal carcinogenesis by 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl.

    PubMed

    Mori, T; Imaida, K; Tamano, S; Sano, M; Takahashi, S; Asamoto, M; Takeshita, M; Ueda, H; Shirai, T

    2001-10-01

    The modifying effects of three kinds of fat (corn oil, beef tallow or perilla oil, each at 20% in the diet) on F344 rat prostate carcinogenesis induced by 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMAB) were investigated. Non-invasive carcinomas of the ventral prostate were induced by DMAB alone and invasive carcinomas of the other prostate lobes and seminal vesicles by DMAB and testosterone propionate (TP). Eight groups of F344 rats were initiated with 50 mg / kg body weight of DMAB at 2-week intervals for the first 20 weeks, four also receiving TP, extended until week 60. The animals received basal chow powder diet or one of three high fat diets throughout the experiment (60 weeks). One further group served as a non-carcinogen-treated control maintained on basal chow powder diet. Beef tallow significantly increased the development of ventral prostate carcinomas with DMAB alone (from 15 to 45%, P < 0.05), while perilla oil reduced the incidence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in the ventral lobe of rats given DMA + TP (from 70 to 10%, P < 0.01), but not in those given DMAB alone. No other effects of high fats were observed regarding PIN or invasive cancers of the dorsolateral and anterior prostate or seminal vesicles. A satellite experiment demonstrated that all high fat diets for 4 weeks increased the 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index of prostate epithelial cells, suggesting that a high fat intake, irrespective of the fatty acid composition, may accelerate cell kinetics in the prostate. Of the three high fat diets, beef tallow was also found to increase intestinal carcinogenesis. Thus, the present data revealed carcinogenesis in the prostate and intestine to be promoted by beef tallow.

  4. Immunomodulatory Effect of Red Onion (Allium cepa Linn) Scale Extract on Experimentally Induced Atypical Prostatic Hyperplasia in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elberry, Ahmed A.; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Gabr, Salah A.

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4′-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. PMID:24829522

  5. Immunomodulatory effect of red onion (Allium cepa Linn) scale extract on experimentally induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Elberry, Ahmed A; Mufti, Shagufta; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah; Abdel Sattar, Essam; Ghareib, Salah A; Mosli, Hisham A; Gabr, Salah A

    2014-01-01

    Red onion scales (ROS) contain large amounts of flavonoids that are responsible for the reported antioxidant activity, immune enhancement, and anticancer property. Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and by smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100 mg/kg) as a positive control and ROS suspension at doses of 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg/day were given orally every day for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. The HPLC profile of ROS methanolic extract displayed two major peaks identified as quercetin and quercetin-4'-β-O-D-glucoside. Histopathological examination of APH-induced prostatic rats revealed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation with cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis Immunohistochemistry showed increased tissue expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1, and clusterin, while TGF-β1 was decreased, which correlates with the presence of inflammation. Both saw palmetto and RO scale treatment have ameliorated these changes. These ameliorative effects were more evident in RO scale groups and were dose dependent. In conclusion, methanolic extract of ROS showed a protective effect against APH induced rats that may be attributed to potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

  6. High fat-induced obesity associated with insulin-resistance increases FGF-2 content and causes stromal hyperplasia in rat ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Pinto, Maria Etelvina; Maeda, Samantha Yuri; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2012-08-01

    Obesity affects sex hormone secretion, which can negatively influence prostatic structure, homeostasis, and disease. This investigation aimed to evaluate the repercussions of obesity induced by a high-fat diet on the rat prostate, with or without treatment with the aromatase inhibitor, Letrozole. Adult Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (20% saturated fat, O) for 15 weeks to induce obesity or received a balanced diet (4% fat, C). Then, a group of C and O rats were daily treated with Letrozole (1 mg/kg b.w. per day) for 2 weeks (CL and OL, respectively). Subsequently, ventral prostate was processed for analysis by transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. Obesity decreased 70% of the testosterone plasma level. The prostate showed epithelial atrophy and dilated acini in the intermediate portion and epithelial wrinkling in the distal tips. The relative frequency of smooth muscle α-actin in the O group increased by 67%. Ultrastructurally, epithelial cells in obese animals presented altered secretory organelles, lipid droplets, and thicker subjacent fibromuscular layer. Letrozole treatment caused a partial restoration of the prostatic changes caused by obesity. Obesity increased the prostatic content of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) by 150%, and Letrozole treatment increased this protein even more in the control and obese groups. This investigation shows that obesity provokes structural and ultrastructural changes in the epithelium of rat prostate; these changes might affect gland homeostasis and physiology. The epithelial and smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and increased FGF-2 expression observed in this experimental model of obesity/insulin-resistance might explain the high frequency of benign prostatic hyperplasia in insulin-resistant men.

  7. Influence of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, testosterone, and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-all-trans-retinamide on prostate cancer induction in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    PubMed

    McCormick, D L; Rao, K V; Dooley, L; Steele, V E; Lubet, R A; Kelloff, G J; Bosland, M C

    1998-08-01

    The influence of chemical carcinogen, hormonal stimulation, and chronic dietary administration of the synthetic retinoid, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-all-trans-retinamide (4-HPR), on the induction of prostate cancer in male Wistar-Unilever rats was determined. Three different tumor induction regimens were used: (a) a single i.v. dose of 50 mg of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) per kg body weight, followed by chronic androgen stimulation via s.c. implantation of two silastic capsules containing 40 mg testosterone each; (b) a single i.v. dose of 50 mg of MNU per kg body weight (no testosterone treatment); and (c) chronic androgen stimulation with implanted testosterone capsules (no MNU treatment). In a fourth series of animals, the incidence of spontaneous prostate tumors was determined in groups of rats receiving neither carcinogen nor hormone stimulation. Within each series, parallel groups of animals were fed a control (vehicle-supplemented) diet or control diet supplemented with 4-HPR beginning 1 day after carcinogen administration; retinoid administration was continuous until termination of the study at 450 days. The incidence of accessory sex gland cancer in rats treated sequentially with MNU + testosterone was >60%, in comparison with cancer incidences of <20% in rats receiving MNU only and <5% in rats treated with testosterone only. No spontaneous accessory sex gland tumors were observed in rats receiving no carcinogen and no testosterone. Tumor induction in the accessory sex glands by MNU + testosterone was relatively specific for the prostate: the incidence of carcinoma of the dorsolateral/anterior prostate was more than 5-fold greater than the incidence of cancer present only in the seminal vesicle. 4-HPR conferred no protection against cancer induction in the prostate by any regimen of MNU and/or testosterone. These results demonstrate the importance of both carcinogen exposure and hormone stimulation on the induction of neoplasia in the prostate of Wistar

  8. Effects of Hedera helix L. extracts on rat prostate cancer cell proliferation and motility

    PubMed Central

    Gumushan-Aktas, Hatice; Altun, Seyhan

    2016-01-01

    Hedera helix L., a member of Araliaceae family, has antiproliferative, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antifungal, antiprotozoal and anti-inflammatory effects, and is used in cosmetics. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of treatment with extracts of leaves and unripened fruits of H. helix on rat prostate cancer cell lines with markedly different metastatic potentials: Mat-LyLu cells (strongly metastatic) and AT-2 cells (weakly metastatic). The effects of the extracts on cell kinetics and migration were determined. Tetrodotoxin was used to block the voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) associated specifically with Mat-LyLu cells. Cell proliferation was detected spectrophotometrically using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. The mitotic index was determined using the Feulgen staining method. Lateral motility was quantified by wound-healing assays. The results of the present study demonstrated that cell kinetics (proliferation and mitotic activity) and motility were inhibited by ethanolic leaf extract of H. helix. The ethanolic extract of H. helix fruit suppressed Mat-LyLu cell migration, with no effect on proliferation. The opposite effects were observed in AT-2 cells; migration was not affected but proliferation was inhibited. In conclusion, the ethanolic fruit extract of H. helix may inhibit the cell migration of Mat-LyLu cells by blocking VGSCs. However, the effect of ethanolic leaf extract of H. helix treatment on the lateral motility of the cancer cells is unclear. PMID:27698887

  9. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Most Common Types of Prostate Diseases Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) Prostatitis Prostate cancer For men over the ... the prostate disease most often encountered is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). If you have BPH, your prostate has ...

  10. The anti-hyperplasia, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of Qing Ye Dan and swertiamarin in testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinying; Gu, Ye; Li, Lun

    2017-01-04

    Qing Ye Dan (QYD) is the whole plant of Swertia mileensis and used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and so on. This study was to investigate the effects of QYD and its main component swertiamarin on BPH induced by testosterone in rats. The prostatic expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (βFGF) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected by immunohistochemistry assay. Prostatic levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory-related factors were also analyzed. Additionally, the prostatic expressions of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER)-α, ER-β, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, B-cell CLL/lymphoma (Bcl)-2 and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured by western blot. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated factors were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. It showed that QYD and swertiamarin ameliorated the testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia and collagen deposition, attenuated the over-expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF, EGF, βFGF, PCNA, AR and ER-α, reduced the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, enhanced the expression of ER-β, inhibited the oxidative stress and local inflammation, as well as relieved prostatic EMT. It suggested that QYD and swertiamarin had prostatic protective potential against BPH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influx of testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) and TeBG-bound sex steroid hormones into rat testis and prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Sakiyama, R.; Pardridge, W.M.; Musto, N.A.

    1988-07-01

    The availability of testosterone and estradiol to Sertoli and prostate cells is dependent upon 1) the permeability properties of the blood-tubular barrier (BTB) of the testis or prostate cell membrane, and 2) sex steroid binding to plasma proteins, such as albumin or testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG). Sex steroid influx into these tissues was studied after in vivo arterial bolus injections of (/sup 3/H)testosterone or (/sup 3/H)estradiol in anesthetized rats. Both testosterone and estradiol were readily cleared across the BTB or prostate cell membrane in the absence of plasma proteins and in the presence of human pregnancy serum, in which testosterone or estradiol are 80-95% distributed to TeBG. The extravascular extraction of (/sup 3/H)TeBG across the BTB or prostate plasma membrane (73 +/- 2% (+/- SE) and 92 +/- 9%, respectively) was significantly greater than extraction of (/sup 3/H)albumin or other plasma space markers and indicative of a rapid first pass clearance of TeBG by Sertoli or prostate cells. In summary, these studies indicate that 1) testosterone and estradiol are readily cleared by Sertoli and prostate cells; 2) albumin- and TeBG-bound sex steroids represent the major circulating pool of bioavailable hormone for testis or prostate; and 3) the TeBG-sex steroid complex may be nearly completely available for influx through the BTB or prostate plasma membrane.

  12. Suppression of rat and human androgen biosynthetic enzymes by apigenin: Possible use for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiudi; Wang, Guimin; Li, Xiaoheng; Liu, Jianpeng; Hong, Tingting; Zhu, Qiqi; Huang, Ping; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2016-06-01

    Apigenin is a natural flavone. It has recently been used as a chemopreventive agent. It may also have some beneficial effects to treat prostate cancer by inhibiting androgen production. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of apigenin on the steroidogenesis of rat immature Leydig cells and some human testosterone biosynthetic enzyme activities. Rat immature Leydig cells were incubated for 3h with 100μM apigenin without (basal) or with 1ng/ml luteinizing hormone (LH), 10mM 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8BR), and 20μM of the following steroid substrates: 22R-hydroxychloesterol (22R), pregnenolone (P5), progesterone (P4), and androstenedione (D4). The medium levels of 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol (DIOL), the primary androgen produced by rat immature Leydig cells, were measured. Apigenin significantly inhibited basal, 8BR, 22R, PREG, P4, and D4 stimulated DIOL production in rat immature Leydig cells. Further study showed that apigenin inhibited rat 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 with IC50 values of 11.41±0.7, 8.98±0.10, and 9.37±0.07μM, respectively. Apigenin inhibited human 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 with IC50 values of 2.17±0.04 and 1.31±0.09μM, respectively. Apigenin is a potent inhibitor of rat and human steroidogenic enzymes, being possible use for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Yongdamsagan-Tang Water Extract, a Traditional Herbal Formula, on Testosterone-Induced Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mee-Young; Lee, Nari

    2016-01-01

    Yongdamsagan-tang, a traditional herbal formula, is used widely for the treatment of inflammation and viral diseases. In this study, we investigated whether Yongdamsagan-tang water extract (YSTE) affects testosterone propionate- (TP-) induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a rat model. To induce BPH, rats were injected subcutaneously with 10 mg/kg of TP every day. YSTE was administrated daily by oral gavage at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg along with the TP injection. After 4 weeks, prostates were collected, weighed, and analyzed. The relative prostrate weight was significantly lower in both YSTE groups (200 and 500 mg/kg/day) compared with the TP-induced BPH group. YSTE administration reduced the expression of proliferation markers PCNA, cyclin D1, and Ki-67 and the histological abnormalities observed in the prostate in TP-induced BPH rats. YSTE attenuated the increase in the TP-induced androgen concentration in the prostate. The YSTE groups also showed decreased lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione reductase activity in the prostate. These findings suggest that YSTE effectively prevented the development of TP-induced BPH in rats through antiproliferative and antioxidative activities and might be useful in the clinical treatment of BPH. PMID:27504137

  14. Dietary prevention of hormone refractory prostate cancer in Lobund-Wistar rats: a review of studies in a relevant animal model.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Morris; Suckow, Mark A

    2006-12-01

    Lobund-Wistar (LW) rats, which have high testosterone levels, are predisposed to develop hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) spontaneously and by methylnitrosourea (MNU) induction, and the development of HRPC progresses through 2 stages. This paper reviews several studies in which LW rats were placed on soy-containing diets and were evaluated for development of either spontaneous or MNU-induced prostate cancer. The premalignant, testosterone-dependent stage is inhibited by testosterone deprivation. In the absence of testosterone deprivation, tumorigenesis progresses spontaneously to the testosterone-independent refractory stage. In LW rats: moderate caloric restriction prevented development of spontaneous prostate cancer; dietary 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide prevented MNU-induced prostate cancer; and dietary supplementation with soy protein isolate with high isoflavones prevented spontaneous and induced tumors and led to moderate reduction of serum testosterone. In rats 12 mo of age and younger, changing from the control diet to the soy+isoflavone diet significantly prevented progression of spontaneous tumors to the refractory stage of disease. Tumors that developed spontaneously and after MNU induction showed similar developmental stages and morphology, but MNU-induced tumors had shorter latency periods before development. The accumulated data indicate that soy-based diets are effective in the prevention of prostate cancer.

  15. Inhibitory effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bi-Cheng; Jin, Li-Li; Yang, Yi-Fang; Li, Kun; Peng, Dan-Ming

    2014-07-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. Rape pollen is an apicultural product that is composed of nutritionally valuable and biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract (SFE-CO2) in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in the experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone for a period of 30 days. Rape pollen SFE-CO2 was administered daily by oral gavage concurrently with the testosterone injections. Animals were sacrificed at the scheduled termination and the prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5α-reductase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were also measured. BPH-induced animals exhibited an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone, DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 expression levels. However, rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment resulted in significant reductions in the prostate index and testosterone, DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 levels compared with those in BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also demonstrated that rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment suppressed testosterone-induced BPH. These observations indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 inhibits the development of BPH in rats and these effects are closely associated with reductions in DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 levels. Therefore, the results of the present study clearly indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 extract may be a useful agent in BPH treatment.

  16. Region-specific growth effects in the developing rat prostate following fetal exposure to estrogenic ultraviolet filters.

    PubMed

    Hofkamp, Luke; Bradley, Sarahann; Tresguerres, Jesus; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Schlumpf, Margret; Timms, Barry

    2008-07-01

    Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors is a potential risk factor for humans. Many of these chemicals have been shown to exhibit disruption of normal cellular and developmental processes in animal models. Ultraviolet (UV) filters used as sunscreens in cosmetics have previously been shown to exhibit estrogenic activity in in vitro and in vivo assays. We examined the effects of two UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC), in the developing prostate of the fetal rat. Pregnant Long Evans rats were fed diets containing doses of 4-MBC and 3-BC that resulted in average daily intakes of these chemicals corresponding to the lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL) and the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) doses in prior developmental toxicity studies. Using digital photographs of serial sections from postnatal day 1 animals, we identified, contoured, and aligned the epithelial ducts from specific regions of the developing prostate, plus the accessory sex glands and calculated the total volume for each region from three-dimensional, surface-rendered models. Fetal exposure to 4-MBC (7.0 mg/kg body weight/day) resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in tissue volume in the prostate and accessory sex glands. Treated males exhibited a 62% increase in the number of ducts in the caudal dorsal prostate. Increased distal branching morphogenesis appears to be a consequence of exposure in the ventral region, resulting in a 106% increase in ductal volume. 4-MBC exposure during development of the male reproductive accessory sex glands exhibited classical growth effects associated with estrogenic endocrine disruptors. The different regional responses suggest that the two developmental processes of ductal outgrowth and branching morphogenesis are affected independently by exposure to the environmental chemicals.

  17. Region-Specific Growth Effects in the Developing Rat Prostate Following Fetal Exposure to Estrogenic Ultraviolet Filters

    PubMed Central

    Hofkamp, Luke; Bradley, Sarahann; Tresguerres, Jesus; Lichtensteiger, Walter; Schlumpf, Margret; Timms, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors is a potential risk factor for humans. Many of these chemicals have been shown to exhibit disruption of normal cellular and developmental processes in animal models. Ultraviolet (UV) filters used as sunscreens in cosmetics have previously been shown to exhibit estrogenic activity in in vitro and in vivo assays. We examined the effects of two UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC), in the developing prostate of the fetal rat. Methods Pregnant Long Evans rats were fed diets containing doses of 4-MBC and 3-BC that resulted in average daily intakes of these chemicals corresponding to the lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL) and the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) doses in prior developmental toxicity studies. Using digital photographs of serial sections from postnatal day 1 animals, we identified, contoured, and aligned the epithelial ducts from specific regions of the developing prostate, plus the accessory sex glands and calculated the total volume for each region from three-dimensional, surface-rendered models. Results Fetal exposure to 4-MBC (7.0 mg/kg body weight/day) resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in tissue volume in the prostate and accessory sex glands. Treated males exhibited a 62% increase in the number of ducts in the caudal dorsal prostate. Increased distal branching morphogenesis appears to be a consequence of exposure in the ventral region, resulting in a 106% increase in ductal volume. Conclusions 4-MBC exposure during development of the male reproductive accessory sex glands exhibited classical growth effects associated with estrogenic endocrine disruptors. The different regional responses suggest that the two developmental processes of ductal outgrowth and branching morphogenesis are affected independently by exposure to the environmental chemicals. PMID:18629307

  18. Inhibitory effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    YANG, BI-CHENG; JIN, LI-LI; YANG, YI-FANG; LI, KUN; PENG, DAN-MING

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. Rape pollen is an apicultural product that is composed of nutritionally valuable and biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of rape pollen supercritical CO2 fluid extract (SFE-CO2) in BPH development using a testosterone-induced BPH rat model. BPH was induced in the experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone for a period of 30 days. Rape pollen SFE-CO2 was administered daily by oral gavage concurrently with the testosterone injections. Animals were sacrificed at the scheduled termination and the prostates were weighed and subjected to histopathological examination. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5α-reductase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were also measured. BPH-induced animals exhibited an increase in prostate weight with increased testosterone, DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 expression levels. However, rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment resulted in significant reductions in the prostate index and testosterone, DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 levels compared with those in BPH-induced animals. Histopathological examination also demonstrated that rape pollen SFE-CO2 treatment suppressed testosterone-induced BPH. These observations indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 inhibits the development of BPH in rats and these effects are closely associated with reductions in DHT, 5α-reductase and COX-2 levels. Therefore, the results of the present study clearly indicate that rape pollen SFE-CO2 extract may be a useful agent in BPH treatment. PMID:24944593

  19. AB099. The anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects of the novel herbal formulation (WSY-1075) on chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Woong Jin; Bashraheel, Fahad; Choi, Sae Woong; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Sae Woong; Yoon, Byung Il

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial effects of a new herbal formula (WSY-1075) in a chronic bacterial prostatitis rat model. Methods Thirty two male Wistar rats were used in the study. Experimental chronic bacterial prostatitis was induced by instillation of bacterial suspension (Escherichia coli 108 per mL) into the prostatic urethra. Animals were followed for 4 weeks. After the induction of prostatitis, the rats were randomly divided into one of four treatment groups: control (n=8), ciprofloxacin (n=8), WSY-1075 (400 mg/kg) (n=8), and WSY-1075 (400 mg/kg) + ciprofloxacin (n=8). After 4 weeks of treatment, the prostatic pro-inflammatory cytokine [tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8] levels, anti-oxidant effects (superoxide dismutase) and histological findings were noted. Results The use of ciprofloxacin, WSY-1075, and WSY-1075 with ciprofloxacin showed statistically significant decreases in bacterial growth and improvements in the reduction of prostatic inflammation compared with the control group (P<0.05). The WSY-1075 with ciprofloxacin group showed a statistically significant decrease in bacterial growth and improvement in prostatic inflammation compared with the ciprofloxacin group (P<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that WSY-1075 may have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, as well as a synergistic effect with ciprofloxacin. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of WSY-1075 and ciprofloxacin may be effective in treating chronic bacterial prostatitis to obtain a higher rate of treatment success.

  20. Influence of E. coli-induced Prostatic Inflammation on Expression of Androgen-Responsive Genes and Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Cascade Genes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Funahashi, Yasuhito; Wang, Zhou; O’Malley, Katherine J.; Tyagi, Pradeep; DeFranco, Donald B.; Gingrich, Jeffrey R.; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Majima, Tsuyoshi; Gotoh, Momokazu; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostatic inflammation is reportedly associated with the development of prostatic hyperplasia. We investigated the effects of prostatic inflammation on expression levels of androgen-responsive genes and growth factors in the rat prostate. Methods Prostatic inflammation was induced by Escherichia coli (strain 1677) injection (0.2 mL of 1 × 108 CFU/mL) into the prostatic urethra of male Sprague-Dawley rats, and ventral lobes of the prostate were harvested on day 84. Rats were given 10 mg/kg celecoxib during the last month in the COX-2 inhibitor treated group. Histopathology and multiplex ELISA for inflammation-related proteins were performed. Glandular epithelial cells and stromal regions were separately isolated using laser-capture microdissection (LCM). Real-time RT-PCR was performed to examine mRNA levels of androgen-responsive genes in the epithelium and TGF-β1 cascade genes in the stroma. Results Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that mild inflammation was distributed diffusely throughout the prostate. Polymorphonuclear cells infiltrated the slightly edematous stroma, but no morphological changes were observed in the epithelium. Immunohistochemically, expression of androgen receptor and TGF-β1 in addition to IL-6 and COX-2 were enhanced in the E. coli inoculated rats. All of these factors were suppressed in the celecoxib-treated rats. Upregulation of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and RANTES in the E. coli-inoculated rats was normalized by celecoxib treatment. Significant upregulation of androgen receptor and androgen-responsive genes such as Eaf2, ELL2, FKBP5, calreticulin and ornithine decarboxylase was observed in the LCM-dissected epithelium. Also TGF-β1 and its downstream cascade genes such as Hic-5, collagen 1, and fibronectin were upregulated significantly in the LCM-dissected stroma. The COX-2 inhibitor treatment suppressed upregulation of these genes. Conclusions Prostatic inflammation changed the expression of androgen-responsive genes in the

  1. Characterization of a Gene Expression Signature in Normal Rat Prostate Tissue Induced by the Presence of a Tumor Elsewhere in the Organ

    PubMed Central

    Adamo, Hanibal Hani; Halin Bergström, Sofia; Bergh, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of rat prostate cancer cells into the normal rat prostate results in tumor-stimulating changes in the tumor-bearing organ, for example growth of the vasculature, an altered extracellular matrix, and influx of inflammatory cells. To investigate this response further, we compared prostate morphology and the gene expression profile of tumor-bearing normal rat prostate tissue (termed tumor-instructed/indicating normal tissue (TINT)) with that of prostate tissue from controls. Dunning rat AT-1 prostate cancer cells were injected into rat prostate and tumors were established after 10 days. As controls we used intact animals, animals injected with heat-killed AT-1 cells or cell culture medium. None of the controls showed morphological TINT-changes. A rat Illumina whole-genome expression array was used to analyze gene expression in AT-1 tumors, TINT, and in medium injected prostate tissue. We identified 423 upregulated genes and 38 downregulated genes (p<0.05, ≥2-fold change) in TINT relative to controls. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis verified key TINT-changes, and they were not detected in controls. Expression of some genes was changed in a manner similar to that in the tumor, whereas other changes were exclusive to TINT. Ontological analysis using GeneGo software showed that the TINT gene expression profile was coupled to processes such as inflammation, immune response, and wounding. Many of the genes whose expression is altered in TINT have well-established roles in tumor biology, and the present findings indicate that they may also function by adapting the surrounding tumor-bearing organ to the needs of the tumor. Even though a minor tumor cell contamination in TINT samples cannot be ruled out, our data suggest that there are tumor-induced changes in gene expression in the normal tumor-bearing organ which can probably not be explained by tumor cell contamination. It is important to validate these changes further, as they could hypothetically serve as

  2. Induction of apoptosis in the LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cell line and prostate adenocarcinomas of SV40T antigen transgenic rats by the Bowman-Birk inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tang, MingXi; Asamoto, Makoto; Ogawa, Kumiko; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Sato, Shinya; Takahashi, Satoru; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2009-11-01

    The soybean-derived serine protease inhibitor, Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), has been reported as a potent chemoprevention agent against several types of tumors. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of BBI on androgen-sensitive/dependent prostate cancers using a human prostate cancer cell (LNCaP) and the transgenic rats developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate (TRAP) model. Treatment of LNCaP prostate cancer cells with 500 microg/mL BBI resulted in inhibition of viability measured on WST-1 assays, with induction of connexin 43 (Cx43) and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression. Feeding of 3% roughly prepared BBI (BBIC) to TRAP from the age 3 weeks to 13 weeks resulted in significant reduction of the relative epithelial areas within the acinus and multiplicity of the adenocarcinomas in the lateral prostate lobes. Cx43- and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP-biotin end labeling of fragmented DNA (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cancer cells were more frequently observed in the lateral prostates treated with BBIC than in the controls. These in vivo and in vitro results suggest that BBI possesses chemopreventive activity associated with induction of Cx43 expression and apoptosis.

  3. Relationship of changing delta 4-steroid 5 alpha-reductase activity to (125I)iododeoxyuridine uptake during regeneration of involuted rat prostates

    SciTech Connect

    Kitahara, S.; Higashi, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Oshima, H. )

    1989-04-01

    To elucidate the phenotypic expression of proliferating prostatic cells, rats were castrated, and the regenerating process of involuted ventral prostates during testosterone propionate (TP) administration was investigated by examining morphology, (5-{sup 125}I)iododeoxyuridine ({sup 125}I-UdR) uptake, DNA content, weight, acid phosphatase, and delta 4-steroid 5 alpha-reductase (5 alpha-reductase) activities. Morphologically, TP treatment initially increased the number of epithelial cells lining glandular lobules and subsequently restored the shape of epithelial cells. {sup 125}I-UdR uptake peaked on Day 3 of TP treatment and stayed at higher levels than for uncastrated controls until Day 14 of treatment. Prostatic weight, protein content, acid phosphatase, and DNA content returned to uncastrated control levels by Day 14 of TP treatment. TP administration markedly stimulated prostatic 5 alpha-reductase activity, which peaked on the Day 5 of treatment and decreased to uncastrated control levels by Day 14 of treatment. It is concluded that TP administration to castrated rats initially induced active mitotic division of the remaining stem cells, followed by formation of differentiated functional epithelial cells. Prostatic 5 alpha-reductase was highly active at the initial phase of active mitotic cell division. The major portion of the increased enzyme activity can be regarded as a phenotypic expression of stem or transient cells of prostatic epithelium.

  4. Exposure to flaxseed during lactation does not alter prostate area or epithelium height but changes lipid profile in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Medeiros de França Cardozo, L; Alves Chagas, M; Leal Soares, L; Andrade Troina, A; Teles Bonaventura, G

    2010-01-01

    Flaxseed intake has increased owing to beneficial effects to health and prevention of diseases. Provided that it's an important source of lignan, a phytoestrogen, the present study aimed at evaluating the possible effect of the intake of this seed during lactation upon prostate, sexual hormones and lipidic profile of the offspring in adult life. 16 female Wistar rats were used. After delivery, they were divided into two different groups to receive one of the following diets during lactation: Control group (CG), with a casein based diet and Flaxseed group (FG), with a flaxseed based diet containing 25% flaxseed. At weaning, male pups received commercial chow until adult life (170 days old), when they were sacrificed. No differences were perceived concerning offspring food intake and body weight at 170 days. There was a reduction in total cholesterol levels (FG = 45.71 +/- 8.96 mg/dL; CG = 63.43 +/- 15.69 mg/dL, p = 0.02) and triglycerides (FG = 54.29 +/- 11.10 mg/dL; CG = 79.86 +/- 25.68 mg/dL, p = 0.03). Also, no alterations were observed in prostatic morphology, testosterone or estradiol levels in the two groups analyzed. Flaxseed intake during lactation did not produce histological alterations in prostatic alveolus or in sexual hormones, but programmed to a reduction in lipid profile in adult life with decreased cardiovascular risk.

  5. Mechanism of retention of estramustine in the rat prostate and results of a clinical trial of Estracyt in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, H.; Imai, K.; Yuasa, H.; Shida, K.

    1981-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism of action of Estracyt, we performed experiments using /sup 3/H-estramustine of high specific activity. /sup 3/H-Radioactivity accumulated selectively in the ventral prostate of castrated male rats after the administration of /sup 3/H-estramustine. Estramustine and its metabolites were retained in the ventral prostate for long time periods. The uptake of /sup 3/H-radioactivity was almost totally localized in the cytosol fraction, but not in a purified receptor fraction. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant of the estramustine binding protein was 18.9 nM, and the apparent equilibrium Bmax value was 0.76 nmoles/mg of cytosol protein. In addition, we wish to report in this paper the results of clinical trials of Estracyt studied by a cooperative research group in Japan from 1977 to 1979. It was concluded that Estracyt was effective in 89% of previously untreated prostatic cancer patients and in 38% of reactivated cancer patients.

  6. Ionically-crosslinked milk protein nanoparticles as flutamide carriers for effective anticancer activity in prostate cancer-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Elzoghby, Ahmed O; Saad, Noha I; Helmy, Maged W; Samy, Wael M; Elgindy, Nazik A

    2013-11-01

    In this study, casein (CAS) nanoparticles were used to encapsulate the hydrophobic anticancer drug, flutamide (FLT), aiming at controlling its release, enhancing its anti-tumor activity, and reducing its hepatotoxicity. The nanoparticles were prepared by emulsification of CAS, at pH below its isoelectric point, and stabilized via ionic-crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The nanoparticles were spherical and positively charged with a size below 100 nm and exhibited a sustained drug release up to 4 days. After intravenous administration into prostate cancer-bearing rats for 28 days, FLT-loaded CAS nanoparticles showed a higher anti-tumor efficacy as revealed by a significantly higher % reduction in PSA serum level (75%) compared to free FLT (55%). Moreover, the nanoparticles demonstrated a marked reduction in the relative weights of both prostate tumor and seminal vesicle (43% and 32%) compared to free FLT (12% and 18%), respectively. A significantly higher anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and apoptotic effects was demonstrated by the nanoparticles compared to drug solution as evidenced by their ability to decrease the expression of the proliferative marker (Ki-67) and reduce the level of tumor angiogenic markers (VEGF and IGF-1) as well as their ability to activate caspase-3 with subsequent induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Conclusively, these novel ionically-crosslinked milk protein nanovehicles offer a promising carrier to allow controlled intravenous delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs.

  7. Anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of date palm pollen (Phoenix dactylifera) on experimentally-induced atypical prostatic hyperplasia in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Atypical prostatic hyperplasia (APH) is a pseudoneoplastic lesion that can mimic prostate adenocarcinoma because of its cytologic and architectural features. Suspension of date palm pollen (DPP) is an herbal mixture that is widely used in folk medicine for male infertility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DPP suspension and extract on APH-induced rats. Methods APH was induced in adult castrated Wistar rats by both s.c. injection of testosterone (0.5 mg/rat/day) and smearing citral on shaved skin once every 3 days for 30 days. Saw palmetto (100mg/kg), DPP suspension (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg), and lyophilized DPP extract (150,300 and 600 mg/kg) were given orally daily for 30 days. All medications were started 7 days after castration and along with testosterone and citral. Results The histopathological feature in APH-induced prostate rats showed evidence of hyperplasia and inflammation. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the expressions of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IGF-1 and clusterin were increased, while the expression of TGF-β1 was decreased that correlates with presence of inflammation. Moreover, histopathological examination revealed increased cellular proliferation and reduced apoptosis in ventral prostate. Both saw palmetto and DPP treatment has ameliorated these histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in APH-induced rats. These improvements were not associated with reduction in the prostatic weight that may be attributed to the persistence of edema. Conclusion DPP may have a potential protective effect in APH-induced Wistar rats through modulation of cytokine expression and/or upregulation of their autocrine/paracrine receptors. PMID:22195697

  8. Voltage-dependent ion channel currents in putative neuroendocrine cells dissociated from the ventral prostate of rat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Hee; Shin, Sun Young; Yun, Sang Soon; Kim, Tae Jin; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Kwang Myung; Chung, Young-Shin; Hong, Eun-Kyoung; Uhm, Dae-Yong; Kim, Sung Joon

    2003-04-01

    Prostate neuroendocrine (NE) cells play important roles in the growth and differentiation of the prostate. Following enzymatic digestion of rat ventral prostate, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to dark, round cells that exhibited chromogranin-A immunoreactivity, a representative marker of NE cells. Under zero current-clamp conditions, putative NE cells showed hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials of some -70 mV, and spontaneous action potentials were induced by an increase in external [K+] or by the injection of current. Using a CsCl pipette solution, step-like depolarization activated high-voltage-activated Ca2+ current (HVA I(Ca)) and tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-activated Na+ current. The HVA I(Ca) was blocked by nifedipine and omega-conotoxin GVIA, L-type and N-type Ca2+ channel blockers, respectively. Using a KCl pipette solution, the transient outward K+ current (I(to)), Ca2+ -activated K+ currents (I(K,Ca)), the non-inactivating outward current and an inwardly rectifying K+ current (I(Kir)) were identified. I(K,Ca) was suppressed by charybdotoxin (50 nM), iberiotoxin (10 nM) or clotrimazol (1 microM), but not by apamine (100 nM). I(to) was inhibited by 4-aminopyridine (5 mM). I(Kir) was identified as a Ba2+ -sensitive inwardly rectifying current in the presence of a high-K+ bath solution. The voltage- and Ca2+ -activated ion channels could play significant roles in the regulation of neurohormonal secretion in the prostate.

  9. The prevention and treatment effects of tanshinone IIA on oestrogen/androgen-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Du, Xiaoling; Yang, Rui; Liu, Jie; Xu, Da; Shi, Jiandang; Chen, Linfeng; Shao, Rui; Fan, Guanwei; Gao, Xiumei; Tian, Guo; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Ju

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the major diseases of the urinary system in elderly men. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is the active ingredient extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine Salvia, and it has effects of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, vascular smooth muscle relaxation and tumour growth inhibition. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of Tan IIA in the prevention and treatment of BPH. In a rat model of oestradiol/testosterone-induced BPH, Tan IIA inhibited the increase in the thickness of the peri-glandular smooth muscle layer, suppressed the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in both prostate epithelial cells and stromal cells, downregulated the expression of androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor α (ERα), cyclin B1 (CCNB1) and cyclin D1 (CCND1), and effectively prevented the development of the disorder. In vitro, Tan IIA inhibited the proliferation of human prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1 and epithelial cell line RWPE-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In WPMY-1 cells, Tan IIA treatment arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase and downregulated the expression of CCNB1. However, in RWPE-1 cells, Tan IIA treatment arrested cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and reduced the expression of CCND1. Tan IIA also reduced the expression of ERα and AR in WPMY-1 and RWPE-1 cells. These results suggest that Tan IIA can inhibit the growth of prostate stromal and epithelial cells both in vivo and in vitro by a mechanism that may involve arresting the cell cycle and downregulating ERα and AR expression.

  10. Increased chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase in rats with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis induced by 17-beta estradiol combined with castration

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Song; Hao, Zong-Yao; Zhang, Li; Chen, Xian-Guo; Zhou, Jun; Zang, Yi-Fei; Tai, Sheng; Liang, Chao-Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Although chronic nonbacterial prostatitis (CNBP) is a common diagnosis in middle-aged men, the etiology of this disease remains poorly understood. Neuroendocrine cells play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of the prostate, and chromogranin A (CgA) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) are regarded as classic markers of neuroendocrine cells. This study aimed to determine CgA and NSE levels in a CNBP rat model to evaluate the role of neuroendocrine cells in the pathogenesis of CNBP. For developing a CNBP rat model, we examined the ability of 17-beta estradiol and surgical castration alone or in combination to induce CNBP. Histologic inflammation of the prostate was assessed in CNBP-induced rats by hematoxylin-eosin staining, whereas CgA and NSE protein levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Our results showed that 17-beta estradiol combined with castration successfully induced CNBP and that CgA and NSE levels were increased in the prostate of CNBP rats as compared to those without CNBP. These findings indicate that the neuroendocrine regulation mediated by neuroendocrine cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of CNBP. PMID:25120776

  11. Effect of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm fruit, on histological changes of prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone in rats.

    PubMed

    Noa, M; Arruzazabala, M L; Carbajal, D; Más, R; Molina, V

    2005-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the nonmalignant, uncontrolled growth of prostate gland cells and stroma leading to difficulty in urinating. Lipid extracts from Saw palmetto (Arecaceae) fruits are used to treat BPH. The Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) is a member of this family and D-004, a lipid extract from its fruits, prevents prostate hyperplasia (PH) induced with testosterone, as opposed to dihydrotestosterone, in rodents. This study investigated whether D-004 could prevent the histological features of testosterone-induced PH in rats. Rats were distributed into six groups (10 rats per group): A negative control group receiving subcutaneous injections of soy oil and treated with vehicle, and five groups injected subcutaneously with testosterone and treated with the vehicle (positive control), D-004 (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) or Saw palmetto (400 mg/kg). Treatments were given orally for 14 days. At sacrifice, prostates were removed and processed for light microscopy. The histopathological findings of PH were assessed according to a score-chart protocol. D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg, but not 100 mg/kg, significantly and moderately in a dose-dependent manner prevented prostate enlargement and the testosterone-induced histological changes. Compared with positive controls, D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg inhibited prostate size increases and the histological score up to 56.1% and 60.7%, respectively, while Saw palmetto 400 mg/kg reduced such variables by 45.8% and 49.0%, respectively. The effects of D-004 400 mg/kg on the histological changes, not on prostate size, were greater (p < 0.05) than those of Saw palmetto. D-004 and Saw palmetto did not affect body weight values. In conclusion, D-004 200 and 400 mg/kg administered orally for 14 days prevented the increase of prostate size and the testosterone-induced histological changes in rats, its effects being comparable or mildly better than those of Saw palmetto. These results extend previous data showing preventive

  12. AB036. Effects and its potential mechanisms of Cox-2 inhibitors on ejaculation latency of rat with experimental autoimmune prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Tao; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Tian-Biao; Jia, Dong-Hui; Wang, Chao-Liang; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Wei-Xing

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the effects and its potential mechanisms of Cox-2 inhibitors on ejaculation latency of rat with experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP). Methods Thirty six male Wistar rats with normal sexual function were screened by using the copulatory test, and were randomly divided into 3 groups: the model group (n=16), the normal control group (n=10) and the celecoxib treatment group (n=10). EAP rat model was established in the model group and the celecoxib treatment group by subcutaneous multiple point’s injection of male prostate gland extract emulsified in an equal volume of Freund’s adjuvant at the 0 and 21th day. Control animals received equal volume of saline. From the 0th day, the celecoxib treatment group was given a gavage of celecoxib (18 mg·kg-1·d-1), the model group and the normal control group were given a gavage of saline (0.1 mL·kg-1·d-1). Eight weeks later, the sexual behavior was investigated by the copulatory test, the morphological change of prostatic tissue was observed by light microscopy after HE staining, cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) in serum were detected by ELISA, the levels of 5-HT, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT2C receptor and SERT in T13-L2 and L5-S2 spinal cord tissue were detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western Blot. Results In model group, prostatic inflammation was found in 12 rats, and not in another 4 rats. The 4 rats were not included in the statistical analysis. In normal control group, prostatic inflammation was not found. In the celecoxib treatment group, there was a small amount of interstitial infiltration of inflammatory cells in rat’s prostate. In the copulatory test, compared with normal control group, mount latency (ML) and intromission latency (IL) in the model group were significantly prolonged (P<0.05); ejaculation latency (EL) in the model group was significantly shortened (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in these sexual behavior parameters between the normal control group and

  13. Subsurface optical stimulation of the rat prostate nerves using continuous-wave near-infrared laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-02-01

    Successful identification and preservation of the cavernous nerves (CN), which are responsible for sexual function, during prostate cancer surgery, will require subsurface detection of the CN beneath a thin fascia layer. This study explores optical nerve stimulation (ONS) in the rat with a fascia layer placed over the CN. Two near-IR diode lasers (1455 nm and 1550 nm lasers) were used to stimulate the CN in CW mode with a 1-mm-diameter spot in 8 rats. The 1455 nm wavelength provides an optical penetration depth (OPD) of ~350 μm, while 1550 nm provides an OPD of ~1000 μm (~3 times deeper than 1455 nm and 1870 nm wavelengths previously tested). Fascia layers with thicknesses of 85 - 600 μm were placed over the CN. Successful ONS was confirmed by an intracavernous pressure (ICP) response in the rat penis at 1455 nm through fascia 110 μm thick and at 1550 nm through fascia 450 μm thick. Higher incident laser power was necessary and weaker and slower ICP responses were observed as fascia thickness was increased. Subsurface ONS of the rat CN at a depth of 450 μm using a 1550 nm laser is feasible.

  14. Possible protective effect of royal jelly against cyclophosphamide induced prostatic damage in male albino rats; a biochemical, histological and immuno-histo-chemical study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, Sara Mohammed Naguib; Rifaai, Rehab Ahmed; Abdelzaher, Walaa Yehia

    2017-03-21

    Almost all the chemotherapy treat many cancer types effectively, but it leads to severe side effects. Chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide (CP) not works only on the active cells, such as cancer cells, but also acts on the healthy cells. Royal jelly (RJ) was reported to have a lot of therapeutic effects besides being an anti-oxidant and anti-cancer agent. The purpose of this study was to assess the possible protective role of RJ in ameliorating the toxic effects of CP overdose in the rat prostatic tissue. The rats were separated into 4 groups; control group, RJ group, CP group and RJ with CP group. Prostatic specimens were processed for biochemical, histological and immune-histo-chemical studies. The mean area fractions of eNOS and Bax expression were measured in all groups, and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that in CP treated group, there were marked biological changes in the form of significant increase in prostatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and C - reactive protein (CRP). Additionally there was a significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in prostatic tissue if compared with the control group. Furthermore, the histological changes showed marked acinar and stromal prostatic degeneration. Most prostatic acini showed less PAS reaction and more (eNOS and Bax) expression if compared with the control group. Concomitant administration of RJ with CP revealed a noticeable amelioration of these biochemical and histological changes. In conclusion, RJ provided biochemical and histo-pathological improvement in CP induced prostatic tissue toxicity. These findings revealed that this improvement was associated with a decrease in the tissue oxidative damage and apoptosis.

  15. Changes in proteomic profiles in different prostate lobes of male rats throughout growth and development and aging stages of the life span

    PubMed Central

    Das, Arunangshu; Bortner, James D.; Aliaga, Cesar A.; Baker, Aaron; Stanley, Anne; Stanley, Bruce A.; Kaag, Mathew; Richie, John P.; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2012-01-01

    Background Aging-related changes in important cellular pathways in the prostate may promote a permissive environment for an increased risk for prostatic disease development such as prostate cancer. Our objectives were to examine for such changes, by systematically determining the effects of growth and development and aging on proteomic profiles in different lobes of the rat prostate. Methods Prostate lobes (dorsolateral lobe, DL and ventral lobe, VL) were obtained from male Fisher rats of various ages representing young (4 months), mature (12 months), old (18 months), and very old (24 months). Differentially expressed proteins between age groups in each lobe were identified using a proteomic approach, isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ). Select changes in the DL and VL were verified by immunoblot analysis. Results iTRAQ identified 317 proteins with high confidence. iTRAQ discovered 12 and 6 proteins significantly modulated in response to growth and development in the DL and VL, respectively, and 42 and 29 proteins significantly modulated in response to aging in the DL and VL, respectively. Proteins modulated during growth and development in the DL and VL are involved in a variety of biological processes including cell communication and development, whereas proteins modulated during aging were predominantly related to antioxidant activity and immunity. Immunoblot analysis verified age-related changes for α-1 antitrypsin, annexin A1, hypoxia up-regulated protein 1, and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein. Conclusions Aging results in changes in numerous prostatic proteins and pathways which are mainly linked to inflammation and may lead to prostatic disease development. PMID:22911278

  16. Changes in proteomic profiles in different prostate lobes of male rats throughout growth and development and aging stages of the life span.

    PubMed

    Das, Arunangshu; Bortner, James D; Aliaga, Cesar A; Baker, Aaron; Stanley, Anne; Stanley, Bruce A; Kaag, Matthew; Richie, John P; El-Bayoumy, Karam

    2013-03-01

    Aging-related changes in important cellular pathways in the prostate may promote a permissive environment for an increased risk for prostatic disease development such as prostate cancer. Our objectives were to examine for such changes, by systematically determining the effects of growth and development and aging on proteomic profiles in different lobes of the rat prostate. Prostate lobes (dorsolateral lobe, DL and ventral lobe, VL) were obtained from male Fisher rats of various ages representing young (4 months), mature (12 months), old (18 months), and very old (24 months). Differentially expressed proteins between age groups in each lobe were identified using a proteomic approach, isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ). Select changes in the DL and VL were verified by immunoblot analysis. iTRAQ identified 317 proteins with high confidence. iTRAQ discovered 12 and 6 proteins significantly modulated in response to growth and development in the DL and VL, respectively, and 42 and 29 proteins significantly modulated in response to aging in the DL and VL, respectively. Proteins modulated during growth and development in the DL and VL are involved in a variety of biological processes including cell communication and development, whereas proteins modulated during aging were predominantly related to antioxidant activity and immunity. Immunoblot analysis verified age-related changes for α-1 antitrypsin, annexin A1, hypoxia up-regulated protein 1, and 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein. Aging results in changes in numerous prostatic proteins and pathways which are mainly linked to inflammation and may lead to prostatic disease development. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Overexpression of protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-zeta) inhibits invasive and metastatic abilities of Dunning R-3327 MAT-LyLu rat prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Powell, C T; Gschwend, J E; Fair, W R; Brittis, N J; Stec, D; Huryk, R

    1996-09-15

    Previously, we reported that protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta mRNA levels are reduced markedly in metastatic Dunning R-3327 rat prostate tumors relative to the nonmetastatic Dunning H tumor and normal rat prostate (C.T. Powell et al., Cell Growth & Differ., 5: 143-149, 1994). To examine the effect of PKC-zeta on metastatic and invasive abilities of an aggressive Dunning R-3327 cell line, we generated stably transfected clones of MAT-LyLu cells that overexpress active PKC-zeta. PKC-zeta-overexpressing MAT-LyLu cells exhibited tumorigenicity and growth rates in syngeneic rats similar to those of MAT-LyLu cells transfected with vector alone or untransfected MAT-LyLu. However, nine independent clones of PKC-zeta-expressing cells exhibited an average 2-fold lower tendency to metastasize to lungs relative to vector-transfected MAT-LyLu cell clones, with about 2-fold and 4.5-fold fewer metastases per rat in two separate protocols. In addition, the ability of four PKC-zeta overexpressing MAT-LyLu clones to invade through Matrigel in a Boyden chamber assay was reduced an average of 12-fold relative to three vector-transfected clones. These results indicate that increased PKC-zeta expression can substantially suppress invasion and metastasis by an aggressive rat prostate tumor.

  18. In vivo effect of the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) on mast cell accumulation and glandular epithelium trophism in the rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulos, Dionisios; Kyroudi, Aspasia; Zervas, Anastasios; Papadoukakis, Stefanos; Giannopoulos, Aris; Kittas, Christos; Karayannacos, Panagiotis

    2002-04-01

    The Serenoa repens lipido-sterolic extract (SRLSE, Permixon, Pierre Fabre Medicament, Castres, France) is used to treat benign prostate hyperplasia. We studied the in vivo effect of SRLSE on mast cell accumulation and the histological characteristics of the rat ventral prostate. Adult Wistar rats received either tocopherol or SRLSE (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively) every second day for 90 days. Histological features were studied in hematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections while mean mast cell numbers were determined in Giemsa-stained sections. The central region of the ventral prostate in treated animals showed significant changes with acinar epithelium becoming flat or low cuboidal. In the same region, mean mast cell number per optical field in the control, low-dose and high-dose groups were, respectively, 4.7+/-0.7, 3.4+/-1.0 and 2.4+/-0.6, showing a dose-dependent, statistically significant decrease. Administering SRLSE significantly reduces mast cell accumulation and provokes epithelium atrophy within the central area of the rat ventral prostate. These phenomena may participate in the clinical activity of the drug.

  19. Effects of a diet rich in sesame ( Sesamum indicum) pericarp on the expression of oestrogen receptor alpha and oestrogen receptor beta in rat prostate and uterus.

    PubMed

    Anagnostis, Aristotelis; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I

    2009-09-01

    The expression of oestrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) in the prostate and uterus tissues of Wistar rats supplied for 8 weeks with a diet rich in sesame (Sesamum indicum) pericarp (30 %) was monitored. Eight male rats, aged 6 weeks, were divided into a control group fed on a normal diet, and an experimental one, provided with the normal diet enriched with 30 % sesame pericarp. A similar experiment was performed with female rats. At the end of the experiment, the prostate and uterus tissues were surgically removed and kept at - 80 degrees C for up to 2 months. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) methods were used in order to investigate the levels of receptor proteins and mRNA. Significant increase in the expression of ERbeta in prostate and uterus was evident in both methods, while the magnitude of the observed alteration depended on the applied method. No statistically significant change was observed in the expression of ERalpha in uterus. In prostate, although the increase was more evident when investigated by means of qRT-PCR, the difference in expression of ERalpha was not statistically significant. In both tissues, a shift of the ratio of ERalpha:ERbeta in favour of ERbeta was evident, indicating, according to existing literature, a beneficial effect of the diet provided upon the health status of the organisms. It is suggested that this effect is attributed to the lignans present in the pericarp which exert phyto-oestrogenic activity.

  20. Interrelationships among angiogenesis, proliferation, and apoptosis in the tumor microenvironment during N-methyl-N-nitrosourea androgen-induced prostate carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhiming; Boileau, Thomas W-M; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2002-10-01

    Proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis are critical biologic processes altered during carcinogenesis. Surrogate biomarkers of these processes represent potential intermediate endpoints for short-term intervention studies with preventive and therapeutic agents. We examined the interrelationships among these processes during prostate carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in male Wistar-Unilever rats. Immunohistochemical and digital image analysis techniques were used to evaluate the proliferation index, the apoptotic index and microvessel density (MVD) in tissue representing stages of prostate carcinogenesis. The proliferation index in the normal glandular epithelium of the prostate is lower than that observed in hyperplastic foci and atypical hyperplasia (P < 0.01) and is further increased in carcinoma (P < 0.01). Apoptosis in the normal prostate epithelium or hyperplastic lesions is lower than in adenocarcinoma (P < 0.01). In parallel to proliferation index, MVD increases as prostate cancer progresses. As tumors enlarge, we observed a predictable change in biomarker expression within the tumor microenvironment. We examined prostate tumors vertical line 1 cm in diameter and biomarker expression was quantified within the peripheral (outer 1-2 mm), central (perinecrotic) and intermediate (remaining) areas of each tumor. The proliferation index is higher (P < 0.01) in the intermediate area than either in the peripheral area or central area. Similarly, the vascular density in the intermediate area is higher (P < 0.01) than either in the peripheral or central area. The apoptotic index is higher (P < 0.05) in the central perinecrotic core than that in either the intermediate or the peripheral area. In conclusion, we observe that angiogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis are linked biological processes predictably altered temporally and spatially during prostate carcinogenesis in the MNU model. These biomarker changes are similar to those reported in

  1. Oxidative stress in ventral prostate, ovary, and breast by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in pre- and postnatal exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Pochettino, Aristides A; Bongiovanni, Bettina; Duffard, Ricardo O; Evangelista de Duffard, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) has been widely used in agriculture and forestry since the 1940s. 2,4-D has been shown to produce a wide range of adverse effects-from embryotoxicity and teratogenicity to neurotoxicity-on animal and human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 2,4-D on oxidative stress in ventral prostate, ovary and breast. Pregnant rats were daily exposed to oral doses of 70 mg/kg/day of 2,4-D from 16 days of gestation up to 23 days after delivery. Then, the pups were sacrificed by decapitation at postnatal day (PND) 45, 60, or 90. Antioxidant enzyme activities and some parameters of the oxidative stress were assessed in ventral prostate, breast, and ovary. Results show that 2,4-D produced three different effects. First, it increased the concentration of some radical oxygen species and the rates of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in ventral prostate, thereby causing oxidative stress at all ages studied. Although an increase in the activity of some antioxidant enzymes was detected, this seemed to have been not enough to counteract the oxidative stress. Second, 2,4-D promoted the oxidative stress in the breasts, mainly during puberty and adulthood, probably because the developing gland is more sensitive to xenobiotics than the adult organ. Third, 2,4-D altered the activity of some antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxide concentration in the ovary. This effect could reflect the variety of ovarian cell types and their different responses to endocrine changes during development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prostate biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... prostate biopsy; Fine needle biopsy of the prostate; Core biopsy of the prostate; Targeted prostate biopsy; Prostate ... to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein ...

  3. Reduction of insulin signalling pathway IRS-1/IRS-2/AKT/mTOR and decrease of epithelial cell proliferation in the prostate of glucocorticoid-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Costa, Maitê M; Violato, Natália M; Taboga, Sebastião R; Góes, Rejane M; Bosqueiro, José R

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies by our research group using a model of insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone (DEX) showed that in the rat ventral prostate there was epithelial and smooth muscle cell atrophy and there were also alterations in fibroblasts. Proteins of the insulin signalling pathway are known to be very important for cell proliferation and development. Thus, we investigated the insulin signalling pathway and epithelial proliferation in the rat ventral prostate in this model and correlated the findings with expression of glucocorticoid (GR) and androgen (AR) receptors. Insulin resistance was induced in adult male Wistar rats by injection of DEX (1 mg/kg, ip for 5 consecutive days), whereas control (CTL) rats received saline. DEX treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, but not in prostate weight. Reductions in insulin receptor 1 (IRS-1) (CTL 1.11 ± 0.06; DEX 0.85 ± 0.03), IRS-2 (CTL 0.95 ± 0.05; DEX 0.49 ± 0.04), AKT (CTL 0.98 ± 0.03; DEX 0.78 ± 0.02), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; CTL 0.65 ± 0.08; DEX 0.22 ± 0.05), GR (CTL 1.30 ± 0.09; DEX 0.57 ± 0.10) and AR (CTL 1.83 ± 0.16; DEX 0.55 ± 0.08) protein levels were observed in the prostate of DEX-treated rats. The expression of the IRα-subunit, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, p-AKT, p70(S6K) , extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p-ERK was not altered. The frequency of AR-positive cells in the epithelium of the prostate decreased in the glucocorticoid-treated group, and the intensity of the reaction for this receptor in the cell nuclei was lower in this group. Furthermore, the treatment with DEX reduced the frequency of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (PCNA) cells 30-fold. This study suggests that the reduction in the insulin signalling pathway proteins IRS-1/IRS-2/AKT/mTOR in the prostate of DEX-treated rats may be associated with the morphological alterations observed previously. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology

  4. Reduction of insulin signalling pathway IRS-1/IRS-2/AKT/mTOR and decrease of epithelial cell proliferation in the prostate of glucocorticoid-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maitê M; Violato, Natália M; Taboga, Sebastião R; Góes, Rejane M; Bosqueiro, José R

    2012-01-01

    Summary Previous studies by our research group using a model of insulin resistance induced by dexamethasone (DEX) showed that in the rat ventral prostate there was epithelial and smooth muscle cell atrophy and there were also alterations in fibroblasts. Proteins of the insulin signalling pathway are known to be very important for cell proliferation and development. Thus, we investigated the insulin signalling pathway and epithelial proliferation in the rat ventral prostate in this model and correlated the findings with expression of glucocorticoid (GR) and androgen (AR) receptors. Insulin resistance was induced in adult male Wistar rats by injection of DEX (1 mg/kg, ip for 5 consecutive days), whereas control (CTL) rats received saline. DEX treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, but not in prostate weight. Reductions in insulin receptor 1 (IRS-1) (CTL 1.11 ± 0.06; DEX 0.85 ± 0.03), IRS-2 (CTL 0.95 ± 0.05; DEX 0.49 ± 0.04), AKT (CTL 0.98 ± 0.03; DEX 0.78 ± 0.02), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; CTL 0.65 ± 0.08; DEX 0.22 ± 0.05), GR (CTL 1.30 ± 0.09; DEX 0.57 ± 0.10) and AR (CTL 1.83 ± 0.16; DEX 0.55 ± 0.08) protein levels were observed in the prostate of DEX-treated rats. The expression of the IRα-subunit, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, p-AKT, p70S6K, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p-ERK was not altered. The frequency of AR-positive cells in the epithelium of the prostate decreased in the glucocorticoid-treated group, and the intensity of the reaction for this receptor in the cell nuclei was lower in this group. Furthermore, the treatment with DEX reduced the frequency of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (PCNA) cells 30-fold. This study suggests that the reduction in the insulin signalling pathway proteins IRS-1/IRS-2/AKT/mTOR in the prostate of DEX-treated rats may be associated with the morphological alterations observed previously. PMID:22583132

  5. Protective effects of seahorse extracts in a rat castration and testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia model and mouse oligospermatism model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-Hui; Wang, Li-Hong; Mei, Xue-Ting; Li, Bing-Ji; Lv, Jun-Li; Xu, Shi-Bo

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of seahorse (Hippocampus spp.) extracts in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and mouse model of oligospermatism. Compared to the sham operated group, castration and testosterone induced BPH, indicated by increased penile erection latency; decreased penis nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity; reduced serum acid phosphatase (ACP) activity; increased prostate index; and epithelial thickening, increased glandular perimeter, increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) index and upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the prostate. Seahorse extracts significantly ameliorated the histopathological changes associated with BPH, reduced the latency of penile erection and increased penile NOS activity. Administration of seahorse extracts also reversed epididymal sperm viability and motility in mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Seahorse extracts have potential as a candidate marine drug for treating BPH without inducing the side effects of erectile dysfunction (ED) or oligospermatism associated with the BPH drug finasteride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High susceptibility of the ACI and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strains to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Inaguma, Shingo; Takahashi, Satoru; Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shugo; Cho, Young-Man; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2003-11-01

    Carcinogenic responses in the prostate to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were compared among seven rat strains (F344, ACI, Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar, Lewis and Brown Norway (BN)). Ten-week-old animals of each strain were given PhIP at 400 ppm in the diet for 20 weeks then maintained until week 54. The final survival rates were 92, 92, 83, 75, 67, 42 and 42%, respectively, and the SHR strain showed the highest sensitivity with regard to development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PINs) in the ventral prostate. With regard to the induction of adenocarcinomas of the ventral prostate, the ACI strain was most sensitive, whereas Lewis and F344 rats were relatively resistant. No adenocarcinomas were found in the dorsolateral or anterior prostate or seminal vesicles in any of the strains. The levels of serum testosterone and estrogen, PhIP-DNA adducts and cell kinetics did not correlate with the development of ventral prostatic lesions and thus other factors are presumably responsible for the variations in susceptibility. The present data indicate that ACI and SHR rats are appropriate strains for experimental investigation of PhIP-induced prostate carcinogenesis.

  7. Correlation of prolactin levels and PRL-receptor expression with Stat and Mapk cell signaling in the prostate of long-term sexually active rats.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Durán, Fausto; Pascual-Mathey, Luz I; Serrano, Karina; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Manzo, Jorge; Soto-Cid, Abraham H; Hernandez, Ma Elena

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a key hormone for prostate function, with a basal level in serum and associated with two characteristic circadian peaks. In the male rat, the execution of one bout of sexual behavior with consecutive ejaculations produces a significant transient increase in PRL. However, the impact of a constant sexual life on both PRL levels and prostate function is unknown. Thus, by using constantly copulating males we analyzed the levels of serum PRL, the effect on prostate PRL receptors, and activation of pStat3, pStat5 and Mapk signaling pathways. Sexually experienced Wistar male rats were used, which underwent periodic sessions of sexual behavior tests. Males were subjected to a session of sexual behavior to achieve at least one and up to four ejaculations. Of these, a blood sample was collected from randomly selected males and the ventral prostate was removed for analysis. Serum PRL was quantified, the mRNA for PRL receptors was determined, and signaling pathways were analyzed. Data show that a constant sexual life produced a constant elevation of PRL in serum during four consecutive ejaculations. The ventral prostate showed a different mRNA expression profile for the long and short isoform of the PRL receptor, and both mRNA levels increased. Although the gland did not show modification of the activation of the pStat5 signaling pathway, the levels of pStat3 increased, and the Mapk pathway showed one significant elevation after the third ejaculation. Thus, we showed that an active and constant sexual life produces a sustained increase in serum PRL, its receptors, and the pStat3 signaling pathway. These responses seem to underlie the required physiological need to produce the quantity and quality of prostatic semen to ensure the appropriate environment for sperm to reach and fertilize the ovum.

  8. Estrogen Sensitivity of Target Genes and Expression of Nuclear Receptor Co-Regulators in Rat Prostate after Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to the Ultraviolet Filter 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor

    PubMed Central

    Durrer, Stefan; Ehnes, Colin; Fuetsch, Michaela; Maerkel, Kirsten; Schlumpf, Margret; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Background and objectives In previous studies, we found that the ultraviolet filter 4-methyl-benzylidene camphor (4-MBC) exhibits estrogenic activity, is a preferential estrogen receptor (ER)-β ligand, and interferes with development of female reproductive organs and brain of both sexes in rats. Here, we report effects on male development. Methods 4-MBC (0.7, 7, 24, 47 mg/kg/day) was administered in chow to the parent generation before mating, during gestation and lactation, and to offspring until adulthood. mRNA was determined in prostate lobes by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and protein was determined by Western blot analysis. Results 4-MBC delayed male puberty, decreased adult prostate weight, and slightly increased testis weight. Androgen receptor (AR), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), ER-α, and ER-β expression in prostate were altered at mRNA and protein levels, with stronger effects in dorsolateral than ventral prostate. To assess sensitivity of target genes to estrogens, offspring were castrated on postnatal day 70, injected with 17β-estradiol (E2; 10 or 50 μg/kg, sc) or vehicle on postnatal day 84, and sacrificed 6 hr later. Acute repression of AR and IGF-1 mRNAs by E2, studied in ventral prostate, was reduced by 4-MBC exposure. This was accompanied by reduced co-repressor N-CoR (nuclear receptor co-repressor) protein in ventral and dorsolateral prostate, whereas steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) protein levels were unaffected. Conclusions Our data indicate that 4-MBC affects development of male reproductive functions and organs, with a lowest observed adverse effect level of 0.7 mg/kg. Nuclear receptor coregulators were revealed as targets for endocrine disruptors, as shown for N-CoR in prostate and SRC-1 in uterus. This may have widespread effects on gene regulation. PMID:18174949

  9. Cyclic GMP signaling in rat urinary bladder, prostate, and epididymis: tissue-specific changes with aging and in response to Leydig cell depletion.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dieter; Mukhopadhyay, Amal K; Davidoff, Michail S; Middendorff, Ralf

    2011-08-01

    Aging of the male reproductive system leads to changes in endocrine signaling and is frequently associated with the emergence of prostate hyperplasia and bladder dysfunctions. Recent reports highlight prostate and bladder as promising targets for therapeutic interventions with inhibitors of the cyclic GMP (cGMP)-degrading phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5). However, the cGMP signaling system in these organs is as yet poorly characterized, and the possibility of age-related alterations has not been addressed. This study investigates key proteins of cGMP pathways in bladder, prostate, and epididymis of young (3 months) and old (23-24 months) Wistar rats. Local differences in the abundance of PDE5, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and particulate guanylyl cyclases (GC-A, GC-B), endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (PRKG1 (cGKI)) revealed pronounced tissue-specific peculiarities. Although cGMP-generating enzymes were not affected by age in all organs, we recognized age-related decreases of PDE5 expression in bladder and a selective diminishment of membrane-associated PRKG1 in epididymis. In disagreement with published data, all cGMP pathway proteins including PDE5 are poorly expressed in prostate. However, prostatic PRKG1 expression increases with aging. Androgen withdrawal during temporary Leydig cell elimination induced a massive (>12-fold) upregulation of PRKG1 in prostate but not in other (penis and epididymis) androgen-dependent organs. These findings identify PRKG1 as a key androgen-sensitive signaling protein in prostate of possible importance for growth regulation. The elucidated effects may have significance for age-associated pathologies in the male lower-urinary tract.

  10. Role of the phytoestrogenic, pro-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties of silymarin in inhibiting experimental benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Atawia, Reem T; Tadros, Mariane G; Khalifa, Amani E; Mosli, Hisham A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2013-05-23

    Androgen and estrogen play an important role in the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Estrogen exerts its action through two distinct estrogen receptors (ERs) either ER-α or ER-β. The phytoestrogenic property of silymarin (SIL) has been previously characterized. Thus, this study examined the protective effect of SIL against testosterone-induced BPH in rats. In an initial dose-response study, SIL in a dose of 50mg/kg was the most effective in preventing the rise in prostate weight, prostate weight/body weight ratio and histopathologic changes induced by testosterone. Testosterone significantly decreased ER-β and increased ER-α and AR expressions as compared to the control group and these effects were significantly ameliorated by SIL. Furthermore, SIL significantly protected against testosterone-provoked decline in mRNA expression of P21(WAF1/Cip1) and Bax/Bcl-xl ratio as well as caspase-3 activity. SIL minimized the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells as compared to testosterone-treated group. Moreover, SIL significantly blunted the inducible NF-κB expression and restored the oxidative status to within normal values in the prostatic tissues. Collectively these findings elucidate the effectiveness of SIL in preventing testosterone-induced BPH in rats. This could be attributed, at least partly, to its phytoestrogenic, pro-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of a sensitive HPLC/fluorescence method for assessment of ciprofloxacin levels in plasma and prostate microdialysate samples from rats.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Estevan Sonego; Torres, Bruna Gaelzer Silva; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Chronic bacterial prostatitis treatment consists of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy for long periods of time. Drug penetration into the prostate makes the treatment a challenged. Ciprofloxacin is one of the most prescribed drugs for this treatment. A liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method was developed and validated for determining ciprofloxacin concentrations in two different matrices: plasma and prostate microdialysate. Ciprofloxacin was separated on a C18 column eluted with a mobile phase constituted of a mixture of 0.4% aqueous triethylamine:methanol:acetonitrile (75:15:10, v/v/v) and 0.4% aqueous triethylamine:acetonitrile (88:12, v/v) for microdialysate and plasma samples, respectively. Linearity was obtained over a concentration range of 5-1000 ng/mL (microdialysate) and 10-2000 ng/mL (plasma), with coefficients of determination ≥0.9956. Precision was determined from the analysis of six quality control samples and showed RSD values <11.1 and 7.4% for intra and inter-assay precision, respectively. The accuracy ranged from 85.6 to 114.3%. The method was applied to a preliminary pharmacokinetic study to investigate ciprofloxacin concentrations in prostate, sampled by microdialysis, and plasma after a 7 mg/kg intravenous dose to Wistar rats. The method showed high sensitivity using only protein precipitation as plasma sample clean-up and was successfully applied to investigate ciprofloxacin prostate penetration.

  12. Effect of hyperprolactinemia on PRL-receptor expression and activation of Stat and Mapk cell signaling in the prostate of long-term sexually-active rats.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Mathey, Luz I; Rojas-Duran, Fausto; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Manzo, Jorge; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Muñoz-Zavaleta, David A; Garcia, Luis I; Hernandez, Ma Elena

    2016-04-01

    The abnormal elevation of serum PRL, referred to as hyperprolactinemia (HyperPRL), produces alterations in several reproductive parameters of male rats such as penile erection or decreased tendency to reach ejaculation. Additionally, this situation produces a significant modification of prostate histology, as observed in the epithelial structure and alveolar area, which could reach a level of hyperplasia in the long-term. In this tissue, HyperPRL produces an increase in expression of PRL receptors and activation of the Stat3 signaling pathway that is correlated with the evolution of prostate pathologies. However, the impact of HyperPRL in long-term sexually active male rats is unknown. In this work, using constantly copulating Wistar male rats with induced HyperPRL, we analyzed the level of serum PRL, the effect on prostate PRL receptors, and activation of pStat3, pStat5 and Mapk signaling pathways. Two procedures to induce HyperPRL were employed, comprising daily IP administration or adenohypophysis transplant, and although neither affected the execution of sexual behavior, the serum PRL profile following successive ejaculations was affected. Messenger RNA expression of the short and long isoforms of the PRL receptor at the ventral prostate was affected in different ways depending on the procedure to induce HyperPRL. The ventral prostate did not show any modification in terms of activation of the pStat5 signaling pathway in subjects with daily administration of PRL, although this was significantly increased in ADH transplanted subjects in the second and fourth consecutive ejaculation. A similar profile was found for the pStat3 pathway which additionally showed a significant increase in the third and fourth ejaculation of daily-injected subjects. The Mapk signaling pathway did not show any modifications in subjects with daily administration of PRL, but showed a significant increase in the second and third ejaculations of subjects with ADH transplants. Thus

  13. Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Stanko, Jason P; Enoch, Rolondo R; Rayner, Jennifer L; Davis, Christine C; Wolf, Douglas C; Malarkey, David E; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2010-12-01

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15-19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

  14. Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats

    SciTech Connect

    Stanko, Jason; Enoch, Rolondo; Rayner, Jennifer L; Davis, Christine; Wolf, Douglas; Malarkey, David; Fenton, Suzanne

    2010-12-01

    The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15 19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

  15. Rice Hull Extract Suppresses Benign Prostate Hyperplasia by Decreasing Inflammation and Regulating Cell Proliferation in Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chae-Yun; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Cheon, Se-Yun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Park, Youn-Bum; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Even though rice hull has various physiological functions with high antioxidant potential, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the effects of rice hull on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of rice hull water extract (RHE) against BPH, which is a common disorder in elderly men and involves inflammation that induces an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death. In this study, RHE-treated mice exhibited lower prostate weights and ratios of prostate weight to body weight compared to those for the BPH-induced group. In addition, RHE-treated mice had lower serum levels of dihydrotestosterone, mRNA expression of 5α-reductase2, and protein expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Furthermore, RHE treatment significantly decreased cell proliferation by regulating the expression levels of inflammatory-related proteins (iNOS and COX-2) and apoptosis-associated proteins (Fas, FADD, procaspase-8, -3, and Bcl-2 family proteins). These results suggest that RHE could protect against the development of BPH through its anti-inflammatory and apoptotic properties and has good potential as a treatment for BPH.

  16. Comparison of the Pharmacological Effects of a Novel Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, the 5α-Reductase Inhibitor Finasteride, and the Antiandrogen Hydroxyflutamide in Intact Rats: New Approach for Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenqing; Kearbey, Jeffrey D.; Nair, Vipin A.; Chung, Kiwon; Parlow, A. F.; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) demonstrate tissue selectivity in both castrated and intact male rats, behaving as partial agonists in androgenic tissues (i.e. prostate and seminal vesicle), but full agonists in anabolic tissues (i.e. levator ani muscle). The partial agonist activity of SARMs (compounds S-1 and S-4) in the prostate of intact rats suggested that SARM could be used for androgen suppression in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This study was designed to explore the mechanisms of action of SARM and to characterize the tissue selectivity of S-1 in intact male rats compared with that of hydroxyflutamide (antiandrogen) and finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor), two major drugs used for androgen suppression treatment of BPH. In intact male rats, S-1 (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg) selectively decreased the prostate weight with similar efficacy to finasteride (5 mg/kg), without affecting the levator ani muscle or increasing the plasma levels of testosterone, LH, and FSH. Hydroxyflutamide (0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 25 mg/kg), however, decreased both the prostate and levator ani muscle weights without any selectivity and increased plasma hormone levels in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, S-1 and S-4 showed very weak inhibitory effects toward transiently expressed type I and II human 5α-reductase (Ki, >20 µM) during in vitro assays. Therefore, although S-1 and finasteride showed very similar suppressive effects in the prostate of intact male rats, they decreased prostate size via different mechanisms of action. S-1 simply worked as androgen receptor partial agonist, whereas finasteride inhibited prostatic 5α-reductase. These studies indicate that SARMs may demonstrate clinical utility as single agent or combination therapy for BPH. PMID:15308613

  17. Protective effect of γ-tocopherol-enriched diet on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced epithelial dysplasia in rat ventral prostate

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Lucas D; Santos, Sergio A A; Carvalho, Jaqueline R; Jeronimo, Gabriela D M; Favaro, Wagner J; Reis, Maria D G; Felisbino, Sérgio L; Justulin, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the biological basis of prostate cancer (PCa), the management of this disease remains a challenge. Chemoprotective agents have been used to protect against or eradicate prostate malignancies. Here, we investigated the protective effect of γ-tocopherol on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced epithelial dysplasia in the rat ventral prostate (VP). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): control (CT): healthy control animals fed a standard diet; control+γ-tocopherol (CT+γT): healthy control animals without intervention fed a γ-tocopherol-enriched diet (20 mg/kg); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU): rats that received a single dose of MNU (30 mg/kg) plus testosterone propionate (100 mg/kg) and were fed a standard diet; and MNU+γ-tocopherol (MNU+γT): rats that received the same treatment of MNU plus testosterone and were fed with a γ-tocopherol-enriched diet (20 mg/kg). After 4 months, the VPs were excised to evaluate morphology, cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) and androgen receptor (AR) protein expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity. An increase in the incidence of epithelial dysplasias, such as stratified epithelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, in the MNU group was accompanied by augmented cell proliferation, GST-pi and Cox-2 immunoexpression and pro-MMP-9 activity. Stromal thickening and inflammatory foci were also observed. The administration of a γ-tocopherol-enriched diet significantly attenuated the adverse effects of MNU in the VP. The incidence of epithelial dysplasia decreased, along with the cell proliferation index, GST-pi and Cox-2 immunoexpression. The gelatinolytic activity of pro-MMP-9 returned to the levels observed for the CT group. These results suggest that γ-tocopherol acts as a protective agent against MNU-induced prostatic disorders in the rat ventral prostate. PMID:24205794

  18. Protective effect of γ-tocopherol-enriched diet on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced epithelial dysplasia in rat ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Lucas D; Santos, Sergio A A; Carvalho, Jaqueline R; Jeronimo, Gabriela D M; Favaro, Wagner J; Reis, Maria D G; Felisbino, Sérgio L; Justulin, Luis A

    2013-12-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding the biological basis of prostate cancer (PCa), the management of this disease remains a challenge. Chemoprotective agents have been used to protect against or eradicate prostate malignancies. Here, we investigated the protective effect of γ-tocopherol on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced epithelial dysplasia in the rat ventral prostate (VP). Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): control (CT): healthy control animals fed a standard diet; control+γ-tocopherol (CT+γT): healthy control animals without intervention fed a γ-tocopherol-enriched diet (20 mg/kg); N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU): rats that received a single dose of MNU (30 mg/kg) plus testosterone propionate (100 mg/kg) and were fed a standard diet; and MNU+γ-tocopherol (MNU+γT): rats that received the same treatment of MNU plus testosterone and were fed with a γ-tocopherol-enriched diet (20 mg/kg). After 4 months, the VPs were excised to evaluate morphology, cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) and androgen receptor (AR) protein expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity. An increase in the incidence of epithelial dysplasias, such as stratified epithelial hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, in the MNU group was accompanied by augmented cell proliferation, GST-pi and Cox-2 immunoexpression and pro-MMP-9 activity. Stromal thickening and inflammatory foci were also observed. The administration of a γ-tocopherol-enriched diet significantly attenuated the adverse effects of MNU in the VP. The incidence of epithelial dysplasia decreased, along with the cell proliferation index, GST-pi and Cox-2 immunoexpression. The gelatinolytic activity of pro-MMP-9 returned to the levels observed for the CT group. These results suggest that γ-tocopherol acts as a protective agent against MNU-induced prostatic disorders in the rat ventral prostate. © 2013 The

  19. Effect of dexamethasone and testosterone treatment on the regulation of insulin-degrading enzyme and cellular changes in ventral rat prostate after castration

    PubMed Central

    César Vieira, Juliany S B; Saraiva, Karina L A; Barbosa, Maria C L; Porto, Regina C C; Cresto, Juan C; Peixoto, Christina A; Wanderley, Maria I; Udrisar, Daniel P

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) has been shown to enhance the binding of androgen and glucocorticoid receptors to DNA in the nuclear compartment. Glucocorticoids cause hyperglycaemia, peripheral resistance to insulin and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dexamethasone (D), testosterone (T) and dexamethasone plus testosterone (D + T) on the regulation of IDE and on the remodelling of rat ventral prostate after castration (C). Castration led to a marked reduction in prostate weight (PW). Body weight was significantly decreased in the castrated animals treated with dexamethasone, and the relative PW was 2.6-fold (±0.2) higher in the D group, 2.8-fold (±0.3) higher in the T group and 6.6-fold (±0.6) higher in the D + T group in comparison with the castrated rats. Ultrastructural alterations in the ventral prostate in response to androgen deprivation were restored after testosterone and dexamethasone plus testosterone treatments and partially restored with dexamethasone alone. The nuclear IDE protein level indicated a 4.3-fold (±0.4) increase in castrated rats treated with D + T when compared with castration alone. Whole-cell IDE protein levels increased approximately 1.5-fold (±0.1), 1.5-fold (±0.1) and 2.9-fold (±0.2) in the D, T and D + T groups, respectively, when compared with castration alone. In conclusion, the present study reports that dexamethasone-induced hyperinsulinaemic condition plus exogenous testosterone treatment leads to synergistic effects of insulin and testosterone in the prostatic growth and in the amount of IDE in the nucleus and whole epithelial cell. PMID:21507087

  20. The effect of androgen and estrogen on secretory epithelial cells and basal cells of the rat ventral prostate after long-term castration.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, H; Kimura, M; Ichihara, I

    1993-12-01

    After long-term castration, rats were injected with cotton seed oil, testosterone- and estradiol-17 beta-cypionate (CS, TC and EC). The height of the epithelial cells of the ventral prostates from the castrated rats increased after TC and EC-injection. The secretory and basal cells formed two layers of epithelium, an inner layer near the lumen with pale nuclei and another layer with dark nuclei. These two layers could result from a reduction of secretory epithelial cells. Castration decreased the ratio of secretory cells to basal cells (S/B). TC-injection increased the ratio of S/B because of the secretory epithelial cell growth. Longer dark cells may be transient cells, appearing during the differentiation of basal cells into secretory epithelial cells. A sheet branching off from the basal lamina was observed. Androgen may stimulate the synthesis of the lamina, but whether it induces the synthesis or turnover of the basal lamina has not been established. EC increased the ventral prostatic weight and secretory epithelial cell height and induced the appearance of crystalline granules. Increase in S/B ratio may result from an increase in the secretory epithelial cells, but not from basal cell multiplication due to squamous metaplasia. The ratio is significantly correlated to the weight of the ventral prostate, but not to the secretory epithelial cell height. Its value could indicate the multiplication of secretory epithelial cells, differentiation of basal cells into epithelial cells, or both. It is probable that basal cells do not change in number, but control the size of the rat ventral prostate in response to the hormone level.

  1. Effects of the 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride on rat prostate α1A-adrenergic receptor and its mediated contractility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zha, Xinmin; Nagase, Keiko; Akino, Hironobu; Muramatsu, Ikunobu; Ito, Hideaki; Yokoyama, Osamu

    2015-03-01

    To clarify the possible interference of the 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride with α-adrenergic blockers, whose action is mainly mediated by α1A-adrenergic receptor. Male rats were divided into dutasteride and vehicle-treated groups. The drug treatment group was treated with oral dutasteride 0.5 mg/kg/d, and the control group received vehicle only for 2 months. After the 2-month treatment, the rats' ventral prostate weight changes and the testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels in the serum were measured. In vitro organ-bath studies, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and tissue-segment binding were performed to determine the expression of α1A-adrenergic receptors and its mediated contractility. Dutasteride treatment significantly decreased the rats' ventral prostate weight, increased their testosterone levels, and decreased the dihydrotestosterone levels in their serum. There were no marked changes in the α1A-adrenergic receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression, relative phenylephrine-induced contractility, or nerve-mediated contractility between the groups. Dutasteride treatment caused no marked changes in the relative binding capacity of α1A-adrenergic receptor, whereas it greatly decreased the total protein expression of this subtype and its mediated maximal contraction in the whole ventral prostate. These results suggest that dutasteride does not interfere with α-adrenergic blockers but otherwise has beneficial effects on their actions. Therefore, the long-term administration of the combination of dutasteride with an α-adrenergic blocker might be a better choice for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prostate Cancer What is Prostate Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) How Prostate Cancer Occurs Prostate cancer occurs when a tumor forms ...

  3. 17β-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (Trenbolone) preserves bone mineral density in skeletally mature orchiectomized rats without prostate enlargement.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Sean C; Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Borsa, Paul A; Tillman, Mark D; Conrad, Bryan P; Pingel, Jennifer E; Wronski, Thomas J; Johnson, Sally E; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Ye, Fan; Borst, Stephen E

    2012-10-01

    Testosterone enanthate (TE) administration attenuates bone loss in orchiectomized (ORX) rats. However, testosterone administration may increase risk for prostate/lower urinary tract related adverse events and polycythemia in humans. Trenbolone enanthate (TREN) is a synthetic testosterone analogue that preserves bone mineral density (BMD) and results in less prostate enlargement than testosterone in young ORX rodents. The purpose of this experiment was to determine if intramuscular TREN administration attenuates bone loss and maintains bone strength, without increasing prostate mass or hemoglobin concentrations in skeletally mature ORX rodents. Forty, 10 month old male F344/Brown Norway rats were randomized into SHAM, ORX, ORX+TE (7.0mg/week), and ORX+TREN (1.0mg/week) groups. Following surgery, animals recovered for 1 week and then received weekly: vehicle, TE, or TREN intramuscularly for 5 weeks. ORX reduced total and trabecular (t) BMD at the distal femoral metaphysis compared with SHAMs, while both TREN and TE completely prevented these reductions. TREN treatment also increased femoral neck strength by 28% compared with ORX animals (p<0.05), while TE did not alter femoral neck strength. In addition, TE nearly doubled prostate mass, compared with SHAMs (p<0.05). Conversely, TREN induced a non-significant 20% reduction in prostate mass compared with SHAMs, ultimately producing a prostate mass that was 64% below that found in ORX+TE animals (p<0.01). Hemoglobin concentrations and levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle mass were elevated in ORX+TE and ORX+TREN animals to a similar degree above both SHAM and ORX conditions (p<0.01). In skeletally mature rodents, both high-dose TE and low-dose TREN completely prevented the ORX-induced loss of tBMD at the distal femoral metaphysis and increased LABC mass. TREN also augmented femoral neck strength and maintained prostate mass at SHAM levels. These findings indicate that TREN may be an advantageous agent for future

  4. Immunolocalization of androgen and oestrogen receptors in the ventral lobe of rat (Rattus norvegicus) prostate after long-term treatment with ethanol and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Fávaro, W J; Cagnon, V H A

    2008-12-01

    Nicotine and alcohol adversely affect prostate gland function. In this work, immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the immunoreactivity and distribution of androgen and alpha, beta-oestrogen receptors following chronic treatment with alcohol, nicotine or a combination of both substances, as well as to relate these results to the development of possible prostatic pathologies. Forty male rats were divided into four groups: the Control group received tap water; the Alcoholic group received diluted 10% Gay Lussac ethanol; the Nicotine group received a 0.125 mg/100 g body weight dose of nicotine injected subcutaneously on a daily basis (Sigma Chemical Company, St. Louis, MO, USA); the Nicotine-Alcohol group received simultaneous alcohol and nicotine treatment. After 90 days of treatment, samples of the ventral lobe of the prostate were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry, light microscopy and the quantification of serum hormonal concentrations. The results showed significantly decreased serum testosterone levels and increased serum oestrogen levels in the animals from the nicotine-alcohol, the alcoholic and the nicotine groups, as well as their hormonal receptor levels. Then, it was concluded that ethanol and nicotine compromised the prostatic hormonal balance, which is a crucial factor to maintain the morphological and physiological features of this organ.

  5. Protein profiling of rat ventral prostate following chronic finasteride administration: identification and localization of a novel putative androgen-regulated protein.

    PubMed

    Cayatte, Corinne; Pons, Catherine; Guigonis, Jean-Marie; Pizzol, Jérôme; Elies, Laetitia; Kennel, Philippe; Rouquié, David; Bars, Rémi; Rossi, Bernard; Samson, Michel

    2006-11-01

    To better understand the effects of antiandrogens on the prostate, we investigated the changes in the proteome of rat ventral prostate (VP) following treatment with a well characterized 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated daily by gavage with finasteride at 0, 1, 5, 25, and 125 mg/kg/day. Changes in plasma hormone levels as well as the weight and histology of sex accessory tissues were determined after 28 days of treatment and showed a dose-related decrease of VP weights together with a marked atrophy of the tissue visible at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. In addition, significant reductions in seminal vesicle and epididymis weights were noted. VP proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: 37 proteins, mainly involved in protein synthesis, processing, and cellular trafficking and in metabolism, detoxification, and oxidative stress, were identified as modulated by finasteride. The prominent feature of this study is the demonstration of finasteride dose-dependent up-regulation of a protein similar to l-amino-acid oxidase 1 (Lao1). An up-regulation of this protein was also observed with the antiandrogen flutamide. Lao1 expression occurred as early as 48 h after antiandrogen administration and persisted throughout the treatment duration. Immunohistochemistry showed that this protein was only detectable in epithelial cells and secretory vesicles. Altogether these data point to a potential use of Lao1 to reveal antiandrogen-induced prostate injury.

  6. Activity-dependent regulation of voltage-gated Na+ channel expression in Mat-LyLu rat prostate cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Brackenbury, William J; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2006-06-01

    We have shown previously that voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) are up-regulated in human metastatic disease (prostate, breast and small-cell lung cancers), and that VGSC activity potentiates metastatic cell behaviours. However, the mechanism(s) regulating functional VGSC expression in cancer cells remains unknown. We investigated the possibility of activity-dependent (auto)regulation of VGSC functional expression in the strongly metastatic Mat-LyLu model of rat prostate cancer. Pretreatment with tetrodotoxin (TTX) for 24-72 h subsequently suppressed peak VGSC current density without affecting voltage dependence. The hypothesis was tested that the VGSC auto-regulation occurred via VGSC-mediated Na(+) influx and subsequent activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Indeed, TTX pretreatment reduced the level of phosphorylated PKA, and the PKA inhibitor KT5720 decreased, whilst the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin and the Na(+) ionophore monensin both increased the peak VGSC current density. TTX reduced the mRNA level of Nav1.7, predominant in these cells, and VGSC protein expression at the plasma membrane, although the total VGSC protein level remained unchanged. TTX pretreatment eliminated the VGSC-dependent component of the cells' migration in Transwell assays. We concluded that the VGSC activity in Mat-LyLu rat prostate cancer cells was up-regulated in steady-state via a positive feedback mechanism involving PKA, and this enhanced the cells' migratory potential.

  7. Tumor radio-sensitivity assessment by means of volume data and magnetic resonance indices measured on prostate tumor bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Belfatto, Antonella; White, Derek A; Mason, Ralph P; Zhang, Zhang; Stojadinovic, Strahinja; Baroni, Guido; Cerveri, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the most common treatments in the fight against prostate cancer, since it is used to control the tumor (early stages), to slow its progression, and even to control pain (metastasis). Although many factors (e.g., tumor oxygenation) are known to influence treatment efficacy, radiotherapy doses and fractionation schedules are often prescribed according to the principle "one-fits-all," with little personalization. Therefore, the authors aim at predicting the outcome of radiation therapy a priori starting from morphologic and functional information to move a step forward in the treatment customization. The authors propose a two-step protocol to predict the effects of radiation therapy on individual basis. First, one macroscopic mathematical model of tumor evolution was trained on tumor volume progression, measured by caliper, of eighteen Dunning R3327-AT1 bearing rats. Nine rats inhaled 100% O2 during irradiation (oxy), while the others were allowed to breathe air. Second, a supervised learning of the weight and biases of two feedforward neural networks was performed to predict the radio-sensitivity (target) from the initial volume and oxygenation-related information (inputs) for each rat group (air and oxygen breathing). To this purpose, four MRI-based indices related to blood and tissue oxygenation were computed, namely, the variation of signal intensity ΔSI in interleaved blood oxygen level dependent and tissue oxygen level dependent (IBT) sequences as well as changes in longitudinal ΔR1 and transverse ΔR2(*) relaxation rates. An inverse correlation of the radio-sensitivity parameter, assessed by the model, was found with respect the ΔR2(*) (-0.65) for the oxy group. A further subdivision according to positive and negative values of ΔR2(*) showed a larger average radio-sensitivity for the oxy rats with ΔR2(*)<0 and a significant difference in the two distributions (p < 0.05). Finally, a leave-one-out procedure yielded a radio

  8. Safety and efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica extract (Sitoprin, CR002) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Swaroop, Anand; Bagchi, Manashi; Kumar, Pawan; Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of a novel Prunus domestica bark extract (Sitoprin, CR002) was investigated on testosterone propionate (TP)-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in male Wistar rats. BPH was induced by daily subcutaneous administration of TP (3.0 mg/kg) over a period of 15 days (interim sacrifice group) and for an additional 21 days (terminal sacrifice group). We evaluated the dose-dependent efficacy (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day) of CR002 and a control group against BPH, and compared with a reference standard Prunus africana extract (CR001). Extensive clinical examinations were carried out on days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of treatment period to determine the onset, duration and severity of clinical signs. Clinical pathology, hematology, biochemistry and histopathology were performed on days 15 and 35, prior to necropsy. Animals were fasted overnight prior to blood collection. Prostate glands and tissues were examined. On day 36, histopathology of ventral prostrate of control rats demonstrates single layer of columnar mucin secreting epithelial cells along with a lumen occupied with eosinophilic secretion. In contrast, CR002 and CR001 groups (100 and 200 mg/kg/day) exhibited no hyperplasia and proliferation of epithelial cells. Prostate histopathology of these treated groups was comparable with control rats. The hyperplasia and hypertrophy of prostrate was reduced to single-layered cell indicating the efficacy of CR002 and CR001. Overall, results demonstrate that CR002 exhibits therapeutic efficacy/activity in TP-induced BPH in rats, which is comparable to CR001.

  9. Electrical stimulation vs. pulsed and continuous-wave optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves, in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, William C.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-07-01

    Identification and preservation of the cavernous nerves (CNs) during prostate cancer surgery is critical for post-operative sexual function. Electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) mapping has previously been tested as an intraoperative tool for CN identification, but was found to be unreliable. ENS is limited by the need for electrode-tissue contact, poor spatial precision from electrical current spreading, and stimulation artifacts interfering with detection. Alternatively, optical nerve stimulation (ONS) provides noncontact stimulation, improved spatial selectivity, and elimination of stimulation artifacts. This study compares ENS to pulsed/CW ONS to explore the ONS mechanism. A total of eighty stimulations were performed in 5 rats, in vivo. ENS (4 V, 5 ms, 10 Hz) was compared to ONS using a pulsed diode laser nerve stimulator (1873 nm, 5 ms, 10 Hz) or CW diode laser nerve stimulator (1455 nm). Intracavernous pressure (ICP) response and nerve compound action potentials (nCAPs) were measured. All three stimulation modes (ENS, ONS-CW, ONS-P) produced comparable ICP magnitudes. However, ENS demonstrated more rapid ICP response times and well defined nCAPs compared to unmeasurable nCAPs for ONS. Further experiments measuring single action potentials during ENS and ONS are warranted to further understand differences in the ENS and ONS mechanisms.

  10. On the biophysics of cathodal galvanotaxis in rat prostate cancer cells: Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation approach.

    PubMed

    Borys, Przemysław

    2012-06-01

    Rat prostate cancer cells have been previously investigated using two cell lines: a highly metastatic one (Mat-Ly-Lu) and a nonmetastatic one (AT-2). It turns out that the highly metastatic Mat-Ly-Lu cells exhibit a phenomenon of cathodal galvanotaxis in an electric field which can be blocked by interrupting the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) activity. The VGSC activity is postulated to be characteristic for metastatic cells and seems to be a reasonable driving force for motile behavior. However, the classical theory of cellular motion depends on calcium ions rather than sodium ions. The current research provides a theoretical connection between cellular sodium inflow and cathodal galvanotaxis of Mat-Ly-Lu cells. Electrical repulsion of intracellular calcium ions by entering sodium ions is proposed after depolarization starting from the cathodal side. The disturbance in the calcium distribution may then drive actin polymerization and myosin contraction. The presented modeling is done within a continuous one-dimensional Poisson-Nernst-Planck equation framework.

  11. In vivo fluorescence imaging of the transport of charged chlorine6 conjugates in a rat orthotopic prostate tumour

    PubMed Central

    Hamblin, M R; Rajadhyaksha, M; Momma, T; Soukos, N S; Hasan, T

    1999-01-01

    Polymeric drug conjugates are used in cancer therapy and, varying their molecular size and charge, will affect their in vivo transport and extravasation in tumours. Partitioning between tumour vasculature and tumour tissue will be of particular significance in the case of photosensitizer conjugates used in photodynamic therapy, where this partitioning can lead to different therapeutic effects. Poly-l-lysine chlorine6 conjugates (derived from polymers of averageMr 5000 and 25 000) were prepared both in a cationic state and by poly-succinylation in an anionic state. A fluorescence scanning laser microscope was used to follow the pharmacokinetics of these conjugates in vivo in an orthotopic rat prostate cancer model obtained with MatLyLu cells. Fluorescence was excited with the 454–528 nm group of lines of an argon laser and a 570 nm long pass filter used to isolate the emission. Results showed that the conjugates initially bound to the walls of the vasculature, before extravasating into the tissue, and eventually increasing in fluorescence. The anionic conjugates produced tissue fluorescence faster than the cationic ones, and surprisingly, the largerMr conjugates produced tissue fluorescence faster than the smaller ones with the same charge. These results are consistent with differences in aggregation state between conjugates. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10496351

  12. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ions for Local Tumor Control of a Radioresistant Prostate Carcinoma in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Peschke, Peter; Karger, Christian P.; Scholz, Michael; Debus, Juergen; Huber, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To study the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ion beams relative to X-rays for local tumor control in a syngeneic rat prostate tumor (Dunning subline R3327-AT1). Methods and Materials: A total of 198 animals with tumors in the distal thigh were treated with increasing single and split doses of either {sup 12}C ions or photons using a 20-mm spread-out Bragg peak. Endpoints of the study were local control (no tumor recurrence within 300 days) and volumetric changes after irradiation. The resulting values for D{sub 50} (dose at 50% tumor control probability) were used to determine RBE values. Results: The D{sub 50} values for single doses were 32.9 {+-} 0.9 Gy for {sup 12}C ions and 75.7 {+-} 1.6 Gy for photons. The respective values for split doses were 38.0 {+-} 2.3 Gy and 90.6 {+-} 2.3 Gy. The corresponding RBE values were 2.30 {+-} 0.08 for single and 2.38 {+-} 0.16 for split doses. The most prominent side effects were dry and moist desquamation of the skin, which disappeared within weeks. Conclusion: The study confirmed the effectiveness of carbon ion therapy for severely radioresistant tumors. For 1- and 2-fraction photon and {sup 12}C ion radiation, we have established individual D{sub 50} values for local tumor control as well as related RBE values.

  13. Long-acting delivery systems for peptides: inhibition of rat prostate tumors by controlled release of [D-Trp6]luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone from injectable microcapsules.

    PubMed Central

    Redding, T W; Schally, A V; Tice, T R; Meyers, W E

    1984-01-01

    Intramuscular injection of [6-D-tryptophan]-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone [( D-Trp6]LH-RH) in microcapsules of poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide), designed to release a controlled dose of the peptide over a 30-day period, decreased the weights of androgen-dependent Dunning prostate tumors in rats and suppressed serum testosterone levels more effectively than daily subcutaneous administration of equivalent or double doses of unencapsulated [D-Trp6]LH-RH. The microcapsules or daily injections of [D-Trp6]LH-RH also significantly decreased tumor volumes. Microcapsules of [D-Trp6]LH-RH or related analogs that can be injected once a month should make the treatment of patients with prostate carcinoma and other neoplasms or disorders more convenient and efficacious. Images PMID:6237365

  14. Increased phospho-AKT is associated with loss of the androgen receptor during the progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced prostate carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhiming; Wang, Shihua; Boileau, Thomas W-M; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2005-07-01

    Characterization of molecular events during N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced rat prostate carcinogenesis enhances the utility of this model for the preclinical assessment of preventive strategies. Androgen independence is typical of advanced human prostate cancer and may occur through multiple mechanisms including the loss of androgen receptor (AR) expression and the activation of alternative signaling pathways. We examined the interrelationships between AR and p-AKT expression by immunohistochemical staining during MNU-androgen-induced prostate carcinogenesis in male Wistar-Unilever rats. Histone nuclear staining and image analysis was employed to assess parallel changes in chromatin and nuclear structure. The percentage of AR positive nuclei decreased (P < 0.01) as carcinogenesis progressed: hyperplasia (92%), atypical hyperplasia (92%), well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (57%), moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma (19%), and poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma (10%). Conversely, p-AKT staining increased significantly during carcinogenesis. Sparse staining was observed in normal tissues (0.2% of epithelial area) and hyperplastic lesions (0.1%), while expression increased significantly (P < 0.001) in atypical hyperplasia (7.6%), well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (16.7%), moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma (19.6%), and poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma (17.4%). In parallel, nuclear morphometry revealed increased nuclear size, greater irregularity, and lower DNA compactness as cancers became more poorly differentiated. In the MNU model, the progressive evolution of dominant tumor cell populations showing an increase in p-AKT in parallel with a decline in AR staining suggests that activation of AKT signaling may be one of several mechanisms contributing to androgen insensitivity during prostate cancer progression. Our observations mimic findings suggested by human studies and support the relevance of the MNU model in preclinical studies of

  15. Short-term stromal alterations in the rat ventral prostate following alloxan-induced diabetes and the influence of insulin replacement.

    PubMed

    Gobbo, Marina Guimarães; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2012-02-01

    The stromal microenvironment is pivotal to prostate physiology and malign transformation. Diabetes leads to testosterone withdrawal and affects the prostate stromal compartment and smooth muscle cells in a similar way to that observed after castration. However the response of these cells and their involvement in extracellular matrix remodeling is not satisfactorily understood. We investigated the changes caused in the short term (one week) by alloxan-induced diabetes in the stromal components of the rat ventral prostate (VP) with an emphasis on morphological alterations of stromal cells, their conversion to a myofibroblast phenotype and the remodeling of extracellular matrix and the influence of insulin therapy. Adult male Wistar rats were assigned into untreated diabetic (n=12), insulin-treated (n=8) diabetic and control (n=10) groups. Diabetes was induced by means of the injection of alloxan (40 mg/kg b.w.), while the control animals received saline solution only. Insulin (5 UI) was administered daily for one week after diabetes diagnosis. Testosterone and estrogen plasma levels were determined. VP was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy. The main stromal cells were identified by means of light microscopy, using immunocytochemistry for specific markers - vimentin for fibroblasts, α-actin for smooth muscle cells (smc) and vimentin/calponin for myofibroblasts, following the estimation of their relative frequency and absolute volume by means of stereology. After one week diabetes led to a marked decrease in testosterone levels and an atrophy of about 35% in the VP. The relative frequency of smc and collagen fibers increased in the VP of diabetic rats but their absolute weight remained unchanged. Experimental diabetes promptly altered smc morphology which assumed at the ultrastructural level a shrunken appearance with the approximation of cytoplasmic dense bodies and also exhibited a decreased immunoreactivity to calponin. The conversion of stromal cells

  16. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE ANDROGENIC REGULATION OF THE PROSTATE IN INTACT AND CASTRATE ADULT MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An abstract that provides understanding for a mathematical model by Barton and Anderson, for the dynamics of androgenic synthesis, transport, metabolism, and regulation of the rodent ventral prostate.

  17. Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the ventral prostate of rats during the peri-pubertal, pubertal and adult stage.

    PubMed

    Pochettino, Arístides A; Hapon, María Belén; Biolatto, Silvana M; Madariaga, María José; Jahn, Graciela A; Konjuh, Cintia N

    2016-10-01

    The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used on a wide variety of terrestrial and aquatic broadleaf weeds. 2,4-D has been shown to produce a wide range of adverse effects on animal and human health. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 2,4-D on rat ventral prostate (VP). Pregnant rats were exposed daily to oral doses of 70 mg/kg/day of 2,4-D from 16 days of gestation up to 23 days after delivery. Then, the treated groups (n = 8) were fed with a 2,4-D added diet until sacrificed by decapitation on postnatal day (PND) 45, 60, or 90. Morphometric studies were performed and androgen receptor (AR) protein levels in the VP were determined. AR, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1R) mRNA expression in the VP along with testosterone (T), dihydroxytestosterone (DHT), growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 serum levels were also determined to ascertain whether these parameters were differentially affected. Results of this study showed that 2,4-D exposure during gestation and until adulthood altered development of the prostate gland in male rats, delaying it at early ages while increasing its size in adults, indicate that 2,4-D could behave as endocrine disruptors (EDs).

  18. Proliferation and apoptotic rates and increased frequency of p63-positive cells in the prostate acinar epithelium of alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Arcolino, Fanny Oliveira; Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Gobbo, Marina Guimarães; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2010-04-01

    The effects of experimental type 1 diabetes were investigated in the acinar epithelium of rat ventral prostate, focusing on the rates of cell proliferation and the frequency of apoptosis and p63-positive cells. Type 1 diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by a single alloxan administration (42 mg/kg b.w.) and its effects were analysed for 1 week and 3 months after the establishment of the disease. A group of diabetic rats was treated daily with 5 IU of insulin during 1 week after diabetes had been diagnosed. Immunocytochemical methods for the localization of cell proliferation antigen (PCNA), androgen receptor (AR) and p63 protein were carried out, and apoptotic cells were identified by TUNEL essay. In diabetic rats, testosterone levels reduced drastically after 1 week and in a lower degree after 3 months. In short-term diabetic rats, cell proliferation decreased, and in medium-term, epithelial apoptotic rates increased. In both periods after the onset of diabetes, the frequency of p63-positive cells doubled. Insulin treatment was effective in preventing testosterone decrease, p63-positive cell increase and apoptotic rates, but did not interfere in cell proliferation. This investigation shows that, soon after diabetes onset, there are important modifications in cell proliferation within the acinar prostatic epithelium, and in longer term, there is a marked impact on kinetics of differentiation and cell death, which may initially be attributable to an androgenic fall, but is probably also because of other factors related to diabetes, as changes are considerably different from those resulting from castration.

  19. Proliferation and apoptotic rates and increased frequency of p63-positive cells in the prostate acinar epithelium of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Arcolino, Fanny Oliveira; Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Gobbo, Marina Guimarães; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2010-01-01

    The effects of experimental type 1 diabetes were investigated in the acinar epithelium of rat ventral prostate, focusing on the rates of cell proliferation and the frequency of apoptosis and p63-positive cells. Type 1 diabetes was induced in adult male Wistar rats by a single alloxan administration (42 mg/kg b.w.) and its effects were analysed for 1 week and 3 months after the establishment of the disease. A group of diabetic rats was treated daily with 5 IU of insulin during 1 week after diabetes had been diagnosed. Immunocytochemical methods for the localization of cell proliferation antigen (PCNA), androgen receptor (AR) and p63 protein were carried out, and apoptotic cells were identified by TUNEL essay. In diabetic rats, testosterone levels reduced drastically after 1 week and in a lower degree after 3 months. In short-term diabetic rats, cell proliferation decreased, and in medium-term, epithelial apoptotic rates increased. In both periods after the onset of diabetes, the frequency of p63-positive cells doubled. Insulin treatment was effective in preventing testosterone decrease, p63-positive cell increase and apoptotic rates, but did not interfere in cell proliferation. This investigation shows that, soon after diabetes onset, there are important modifications in cell proliferation within the acinar prostatic epithelium, and in longer term, there is a marked impact on kinetics of differentiation and cell death, which may initially be attributable to an androgenic fall, but is probably also because of other factors related to diabetes, as changes are considerably different from those resulting from castration. PMID:20041964

  20. Bone and muscle protective potential of the prostate-sparing synthetic androgen 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone: evidence from the aged orchidectomized male rat model.

    PubMed

    Venken, Katrien; Boonen, Steven; Van Herck, Erik; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Kumar, Narender; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Sundaram, Kalyan; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk

    2005-04-01

    This study reports the preclinical evaluation of the bone and muscle protective potential of the synthetic androgen 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENTtrade mark), as assessed in the aged orchidectomized rat model. Aged (13-month-old) orchidectomized Wistar rats were treated with different doses of MENT (4, 12 or 36 microg/day) subcutaneously for 16 weeks via mini-osmotic pumps. Analysis of the effects of androgen deficiency versus MENT replacement was performed using quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and biochemical markers of bone turnover. At the end of the study period, prostate weight in orchidectomized rats treated with low- (4 microg/day) or mid-dose (12 mug/day) MENT remained significantly lower compared to the sham-operated animals (-47% and -25%, respectively). High-dose MENT (36 microg/day), on the other hand, induced prostate hypertrophy (+21% versus sham). Low-, mid- and high-dose MENT were found to be effective in suppressing the acceleration of bone remodeling following orchidectomy, as assessed by osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline. In addition, low-, mid- and high-dose were able to prevent the orchidectomy-induced bone loss, as evaluated by DEXA at the femur and total-body and by pQCT at the femur. Compared to sham-operated animals, the low- and mid-dose MENT groups showed no decline in lean body mass and no muscle atrophy (as measured by m. quadriceps weight) at 16 weeks, whereas high-dose MENT was associated with a significant decline in lean body mass (-8.5% versus sham) and quadriceps weight (-10.6%). We conclude that, in the aged orchidectomized rat model, low- and mid-doses of the synthetic androgen MENT have bone and muscle protective effects and do not induce prostate hypertrophy. The bone protective action of high-dose MENT, however, occurs at the expense of muscle wasting and prostate hypertrophy. Our findings support the need for human studies to explore the potential of MENT as an option

  1. Identification of an androgen-repressed mRNA in rat ventral prostate as coding for sulphated glycoprotein 2 by cDNA cloning and sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bettuzzi, S; Hiipakka, R A; Gilna, P; Liao, S T

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations of a small number of mRNAs in the rat ventral prostate increase after castration and then decrease upon androgen treatment. Since the repression of specific gene expression may be important in the regulation of organ growth, we have cloned a cDNA for an androgen-repressed mRNA, the concentration of which increased 17-fold 4 days after castration, and this increase was reversed rapidly by androgen treatment. By sequence analysis the androgen-repressed mRNA was identified as that coding for sulphated glycoprotein 2. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2920020

  2. [Effects of the combination of musk and olibanum on the expressions of tight junction proteins in the prostate epithelial cells of rats].

    PubMed

    Lin, Qun-fang; Huang, Pei; Tian, Xue-fei; Shang, Xue-jun; Wu, Yang-peng; Han, Ping; Gao, Rui-song; Zhou, Qing

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of the combination of musk and olibanum on the tight junction protein expressions in prostatic epithelial cells of normal and chronic prostatitis (CP) rats. Eighty male SD rats were randomly divided into 8 groups of equal number: normal control, normal musk, normal olibanum, normal musk + olibanum, CP model control, CP model musk, CP model olibanum, and CP model musk + olibanum. At 60 days after modeling, the rats in the control, musk, olibanum, and musk + olibanum groups were treated intragastrically with normal saline, musk (0.021 g per kg body weight per day), olibanum (1.05 g per kg body weight per day), or musk + olibanum respectively, all for 3 days. Then, all the rats were sacrificed and their prostate tissues harvested for detection of the expressions of the tight junction proteins Claudin-1, Claudin-3, Occludin, and ZO-1 in the prostatic epithelial cells by immunohistochemical staining. In the CP models, only the expression of Claudin-1 was significantly increased. In the normal rats, the expression of Claudin-1 was remarkably upregulated after treated with musk (824.6 ± 393.3, P < 0.05), olibanum (982.0 ± 334.0, P < 0.05), and musk + olibanum (1088.1 ± 640.2, P < 0.01); that of Claudin-3 was elevated markedly by olibanum (1 009.5 ± 243.6, P < 0.05) and insignificantly by musk (597.5 ± 80.7), but the increasing effect of olibanum was reduced by musk + olibanum (678.4 ± 255.1). No statistically significant differences were found in the expression of Occludin among the rats treated with musk (693.0 ± 424.8), olibanum (732.1 ± 302.0), and musk + olibanum (560.2 ± 202.3), or in that of ZO-1 in the animals treated with musk (290.0 ± 166.8) and olibanum (419.7 ± 108.1), but the latter was markedly decreased in the musk + olibanum group (197.7 ± 98.2, P < 0.05). In the CP rat models, both the expressions of Claudin-1 (823.0 ± 100.1, P < 0.01) and Occludin (1160.0 ± 32.2, P < 0.05) were significantly increased. The

  3. Endocrine Disruption and Human Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    described in Task 1, was to expose pregnant female rats to vinclozolin and test if the inductive and instructive properties of the prostate stroma is...ethane dimethane sulphonate ) during sexual differentiation produces diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat. Toxicol Ind Health...BPH Benign prostate hyperplasia cDNA Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid DP Dorsal prostate EDC Endocrine disruptor E Estrogen FgF10

  4. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ions in a Rat Prostate Carcinoma In Vivo: Comparison of 1, 2, and 6 Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Karger, Christian P.; Peschke, Peter; Scholz, Michael; Huber, Peter E.; Debus, Jürgen

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and the effective α/β ratio for local tumor control of a radioresistant rat prostate tumor (Dunning subline R3327-AT1) after 6 fractions of carbon ions and photons. Methods and Materials: A total of 82 animals with tumors in the distal thigh were treated with 6 fractions of either photons or carbon ions, by use of increasing dose levels and a 2-cm spread-out Bragg peak. Endpoints of the study were local control (no tumor recurrence within 300 days) and volumetric changes after irradiation. The resulting values for dose at 50% tumor control probability were used to determine RBE values. Including data for 1 and 2 fractions from a previous study, we estimated α/β ratios. Results: For 6 fractions, the values for dose at 50% tumor control probability were 116.6 ± 3.0 Gy for photons and 43.7 ± 2.3 Gy for carbon ions and the resulting RBE was 2.67 ± 0.15. The α/β ratio was 84.7 ± 13.8 Gy for photons and 66.0 ± 21.0 Gy for carbon ions. Using these data together with the linear-quadratic model, we estimated the maximum RBE to be 2.88 ± 0.27. Conclusions: The study confirmed the increased effectiveness of carbon ions relative to photons over the whole dose range for a highly radioresistant tumor. The maximum RBE below 3 is in line with other published in vivo data. The RBE values may be used to benchmark RBE models. Hypoxia seems to have a major impact on the radiation response, although this still has to be confirmed by dedicated experiments.

  5. Optical and electrical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves: priming and fatigue studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaouk, Ghallia S.; Perkins, William C.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    Optical nerve stimulation (ONS) is being explored as an alternative to electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) for use as an intra-operative diagnostic method for identification and preservation of prostate cavernous nerves (CNs) during radical prostatectomy. Nerve priming and fatigue studies were performed to further characterize CNs and provide insight into the different ONS and ENS mechanisms. ONS studies were conducted using a 1455-nm diode laser, coupled to fiber optic probe, and delivering a collimated, 1-mm-diameter laser spot on CNs. For nerve priming studies, laser power was escalated in 5 mW increments (15 - 60 mW) with each stimulation lasting 15 s, until a strong ICP response was observed, and then power was similarly de-escalated. For ONS fatigue studies, a constant laser power was delivered for a period of 10 min. ENS studies were conducted for comparison, with standard parameters (4 V, 5 ms, 16 Hz) for fatigue studies (10 min. duration), but incrementally increasing/decreasing voltage (0.1 - 4.0 V) for priming studies with 15 s stimulations. ONS threshold was approximately 20% higher during initial escalating laser power steps (6.4 W/cm2) than in subsequently de-escalating laser power steps (5.1 W/cm2), demonstrating a nerve priming effect. Evidence of nerve priming during ENS was not observed. For nerve fatigue studies, ONS of CNs showed a peak ICP response at about 60 s, followed by a gradual decay in ICP, while ENS maintained a strong, but cyclical ICP. Nerve priming may allow repetitive ONS of CNs at lower and hence safer laser power settings. Both nerve priming and fatigue studies revealed different mechanisms for ONS and ENS.

  6. Prostate brachytherapy

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer; Radioactive seed placement; Internal radiation therapy - prostate; High dose radiation (HDR) ... plan and then place the seeds that deliver radiation into your prostate. The seeds are placed with ...

  7. Combination of /sup 60/Co. gamma. -radiation, misonidazole, and maltose tetrapalmitate in the treatment of Dunning prostatic tumor in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Pageau, R.; Nigam, V.N.; Fisher, G.J.; Brailovsky, C.A.; Fathi, M.A.; Corcos, J.; Tahan, T.W.; Elhilali, M.M.

    1985-08-01

    Maltose tetrapalmitate (MTP), a synthetic nontoxic immunoadjuvant, the radiosensitizer misonidazole (MISO), and /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-radiation, alone or in combination, were used in the management of Dunning prostatic tumor in the rat. Nine groups of 10 rats each were used to assess the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities. Tumor growth rates and animal survival times were determined for each group. Radiation was more effective when combined with MTP, but the adjuvant must be present when radiation is given for synergism to occur. MISO was as effective as MTP when used with radiation, but combining them cancels out their individual effects. In a clinical situation it would be advantageous to use separately the synergisms existing between MISO and radiation on the one hand and MTP and radiation on the other hand.

  8. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF TWO AR ANTAGONISTS ON ANDROGEN DEPENDENT TISSUES WEIGHTS AND HORMONE LEVELS IN MALE RATS AND ON EXPRESSION OF THREE ANDROGEN DEPENDENT GENES IN THE VENTRAL PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparison of the effects of two AR antagonists on tissue weights and hormone levels in male rats and on expression of three androgen dependent genes in the ventral prostate
    VS Wilson, CR Wood, GA Held, CS Lambright, JS Ostby, JR Furr, LE Gray Jr. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, ...

  9. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF TWO AR ANTAGONISTS ON ANDROGEN DEPENDENT TISSUES WEIGHTS AND HORMONE LEVELS IN MALE RATS AND ON EXPRESSION OF THREE ANDROGEN DEPENDENT GENES IN THE VENTRAL PROSTATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparison of the effects of two AR antagonists on tissue weights and hormone levels in male rats and on expression of three androgen dependent genes in the ventral prostate
    VS Wilson, CR Wood, GA Held, CS Lambright, JS Ostby, JR Furr, LE Gray Jr. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTD, ...

  10. Influence of hormonal replacement on the ventral lobe of the prostate of rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) submitted to chronic ethanol treatment.

    PubMed

    Sáttolo, S; Carvalho, C A F; Cagnon, V H A

    2004-12-01

    The harmful influence of the chronic alcohol ingestion on the male reproductive system leads to important alterations including hypogonadism and feminization, besides the morphological and functional disorganization of the different sexual glands. So, the aim of this study was to analyse the structural changes on the ventral lobe of the prostate of rats with hormonal replacement associated to chronic alcohol ingestion. A total of 30 rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) was divided into three groups: control-received water; alcoholic-received ethanol diluted to 20% and hormone-treated alcoholic-received ethanol diluted to 20% associated with the administering of testosterone (5mg/kg of weight) during the last 30 days of treatment. After 150 days of treatment, the animals were sacrificed, the prostate removed and submitted to transmission and scanning electron microscopies, histochemical analysis for acid phosphatase, testosterone level and stereologic analysis. In the alcoholic group the results demonstrated reduction of the total cellular volume and disorganization of the organelles involved in the secretory process. It was characterized a partial recovery of the cellular volume after treatment with testosterone. It was concluded that the ethanol impaired the cellular morphology and the hormonal replacement by itself did not bring about efficient remodeling of the organelles responsible for the secretory process.

  11. Quantification of Arachidonic Acid and Its Metabolites in Rat Tissues by UHPLC-MS/MS: Application for the Identification of Potential Biomarkers of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Qiaoxia; Wang, Weihui; Wang, Nannan; Peng, Yan; Ma, Wen; Dai, Ronghua

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the potential relationship between benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and the arachidonic acid (AA) metabolome, a UHPLC—MS/MS method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of AA and its cyclooxygenase(COX) and lipoxygenase(LOX) pathway metabolites (15-HETE, 12-HETE, TXA2, 5-HETE, AA, PGI2, PGF2α, 8-HETE, PGD2, PGE2 and LTB4) in rat tissues. The analytes were extracted from tissue samples with a protein precipitation procedure and then separated on a Shim-pack XR-ODSC18 column with 0.05% formic acid in water (pH adjusted with dilute ammonia) and methanol:acetonitrile (20:80, v/v). Detection was performed on a UHPLC—MS/MS system with electrospray negative ionization (ESI) and a multiple reaction-monitoring mode. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) were 0.25–50 ng/mL for all of the analytes in the prostate, seminal, bladder, liver and kidney tissues. The absolute recoveries of the analytes from all of the tissues were more than 50%. By means of the method developed, the AA metabolites in tissue samples from Sham and BPH group rats were determined. The eleven biomarkers in the BPH group prostate, seminal, bladder, liver and kidney tissues were significantly higher than those of the sham group, indicating that BPH fortified the inducible expression of COX and LOX, as well as increased the production of AA and eicosanoids. The method described here offers a useful tool for the evaluation of complex regulatory eicosanoids responses in vivo. PMID:27893755

  12. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome impairs erectile function through increased endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and corporal fibrosis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Niu, X; Wang, G; Huang, J; Liu, M; Peng, B

    2016-11-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is an independent risk factor for the development of erectile dysfunction (ED). But the molecular mechanisms underlying the relationship between CP/CPPS and ED are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CP/CPPS on erectile function in a rat model and the possible mechanisms. A rat model of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was established to mimic human CP⁄CPPS. Then twenty 2-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into EAP group and control group. Intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured during cavernous nerve electrostimulation, the ratio of max ICP/MAP was calculated. Blood was collected to measure the levels of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and testosterone, respectively. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in corpus cavernosum were detected. We also evaluated the smooth muscle/collagen ratio and apoptotic index (AI). The ratio of max ICP/MAP in EAP group were significantly lower than that in control group. The levels of serum CRP, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in EAP group were all significantly higher than these in control group. The expression of eNOS and cGMP levels in corpus cavernosum of EAP rats were significantly downregulated. Furthermore, decreased SOD activity and smooth muscle/collagen ratio, increased MDA levels and AI were found in corpus cavernosum of EAP rats. In conclusion, CP/CPPS impaired penile erectile function in a rat model. The declines of eNOS expression and cGMP levels in corpus cavernosum may be an important mechanism of CP/CPPS-induced ED. CP/CPPS also increased oxidative stress, cell apoptosis and decreased smooth muscle/collagen ratio in corpus cavernosum of rats, which were

  13. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate cancer Overview Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate — a small walnut-shaped gland in men that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of ...

  14. Tamsulosin: assessment of affinity of 3H-prazosin bindings to two alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha1H and alpha1L) in bovine prostate and rat heart and brain.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Nakamura, T; Yoshihara, T; Fukutomi, J; Sugiyama, K; Hattorim, K; Ohnuki, T; Watanabe, K; Nagatomo, T

    1998-10-01

    1. The present study was designed to assess the displacement potencies of tamsulosin to 3H-prazosin bindings in two alpha1-adrenoceptor (AR) subtypes (alpha1H and alpha1L) in bovine prostate, rat heart and brain compared with those of amosulalol, labetalol, ketanserin, clonidine and propranolol. 2. The pKi values of tamsulosin to alpha1H and alpha1L subtypes in bovine prostate were 9.13 and 8.99 and these values were almost the same as those of prazosin. On the other hand, low pKi binding values of amosulalol, labetalol, ketanserin, clonidine and propranolol to these subtypes were observed. 3. Low pKi values of tamsulosin to alpha2- and beta-ARs and muscarinic and 5HT2 receptors in the rat brain were observed. 4. These results suggest that tamsulosin has high affinities to alpha1L-AR subtypes in bovine prostate and rat hearts as well as alpha1H-AR subtypes, implying an inhibitory effect of this drug on the contraction of the prostate.

  15. Prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  16. Testosterone-mediated increase in 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone content, nuclear androgen receptor levels, and cell division in an androgen-independent prostate carcinoma of Noble rats.

    PubMed

    Ho, S M; Leav, I; Damassa, D; Kwan, P W; Merk, F B; Seto, H S

    1988-02-01

    An androgen-independent, transplantable prostate carcinoma line (AIT), originally derived from the dorsolateral prostate (DLP) of Noble rat, was implanted into orchiectomized Noble rats and its response to androgen stimulation was studied and compared to that of the regenerating DLP tissue in sexually ablated rats. AIT tumors carried in castrated hosts displayed a high basal level of proliferative activity (mitotic index (MI), 15.0 +/- 0.5) while DLP tissue in untreated castrates exhibited no proliferative activity. Following androgen stimulation by testosterone capsule implantation into host rats, the AIT responded with a marked increase in cell proliferation; MI values doubled to 30.0 +/- 2.9 on Day 5 following androgen stimulation. This androgen-induced increase in MI values was coincident with elevations in nuclear androgen receptor (20-fold increase) and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone content (3-fold increase) in the tumor. However, by Day 10 following androgen treatment, indices of cell proliferation in the AIT declined to pre-androgen-stimulated levels (MI, 14.8 +/- 1.9) despite the continued elevations in nuclear androgen receptor and tissue 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone contents. Parallel changes in MI were also observed in the normal regenerating DLP following androgen stimulation. MI values in this tissue increased from nondetectable levels to 38.1 +/- 4.7 on Day 5 but declined to relatively low levels (4.5 +/- 0.9) by Day 10 following androgen replacement. Taken together these findings led us to conclude that the AIT carried in castrates is capable of responding to testosterone in a manner similar to that observed for androgen-stimulated DLP of sexually ablated rats. Thus, in both the neoplastic and regenerating tissues, the initial response to androgen is characterized by a marked enhancement of cell proliferation which was correlated with an increase in androgen receptor and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone content. However, like its tissue of origin, the AIT

  17. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm fruit, on inhibiting prostatic hypertrophy induced with testosterone or dihydrotestosterone in a rat model: A randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, Daisy; Arruzazabala, Maria de Lourdes; Rosa, Más; Molina, Vivian; Rodríguez, Eduardo; González, Victor

    2004-11-01

    Benign prostatic hypertrophy is the nonmalignant, uncontrolled growth of prostatic epithelial cells and stroma that, left untreated, may lead to difficult urination and other complications. A common treatment of BPH is lipid extract from saw palmetto fruit, and lipid extract from Cuban Royal palm (a palm of the same family) fruit is being studied for this use. One study found that the latter, D-004, at 100 to 400 mg/kg daily prevented prostatic hypertrophy (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in a rat model. This study comprised 2 experiments in a rat model. The first assessed the effects of different doses of D-004 on T-induced PH; the second investigated the effects of D-004 on PH induced with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In experiment 1, rats were distributed in 6 groups of 10 rats each. One group received an SC injection of soy oil and oral treatment with Tween 65/water vehicle (negative control). The other 5 groups received an SC injection of T 3 mg/kg daily and oral treatment with vehicle (positive control) or D-004 at 50, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg daily suspended in vehicle. In experiment 2, rats were distributed in 3 groups of 10 rats each. A negative control group received treatment as in experiment 1. Positive controls received an SC injection of DHT 1.5 mg/kg and vehicle orally. The third group received an SC injection of DHT and oral treatment with D-004 at 800 mg/kg suspended in vehicle. All treatments were given for 14 days. At sacrifice, prostates were removed and weighed. Mean prostatic weights and prostatic/body weight ratios were calculated. In experiment 1, in the groups receiving D-004 at 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg daily, prostatic weight was significantly lower compared with the positive control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001, respectively); this effect was not seen in the group receiving 50 mg/kg daily. In the groups receiving D-004 at 400 and 800 mg/kg daily, prostatic/body weight ratio was significantly lower compared with positive controls

  18. Effects of D-004, a lipid extract from Cuban royal palm fruit, on inhibiting prostatic hypertrophy induced with testosterone or dihydrotestosterone in a rat model: A randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal, Daisy; Arruzazabala, Maria de Lourdes; Rosa, Más; Molina, Vivian; Rodríguez, Eduardo; González, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Background: Benign prostatic hypertrophy is the nonmalignant, uncontrolled growth of prostatic epithelial cells and stroma that, left untreated, may lead to difficult urination and other complications. A common treatment of BPH is lipid extract from saw palmetto fruit, and lipid extract from Cuban Royal palm (a palm of the same family) fruit is being studied for this use. One study found that the latter, D-004, at 100 to 400 mg/kg daily prevented prostatic hypertrophy (PH) induced with testosterone (T) in a rat model. Objectives: This study comprised 2 experiments in a rat model. The first assessed the effects of different doses of D-004 on T-induced PH; the second investigated the effects of D-004 on PH induced with dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Methods: In experiment 1, rats were distributed in 6 groups of 10 rats each. One group received an SC injection of soy oil and oral treatment with Tween 65/water vehicle (negative control). The other 5 groups received an SC injection of T 3 mg/kg daily and oral treatment with vehicle (positive control) or D-004 at 50, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg daily suspended in vehicle. In experiment 2, rats were distributed in 3 groups of 10 rats each. A negative control group received treatment as in experiment 1. Positive controls received an SC injection of DHT 1.5 mg/kg and vehicle orally. The third group received an SC injection of DHT and oral treatment with D-004 at 800 mg/kg suspended in vehicle. All treatments were given for 14 days. At sacrifice, prostates were removed and weighed. Mean prostatic weights and prostatic/body weight ratios were calculated. Results: In experiment 1, in the groups receiving D-004 at 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg daily, prostatic weight was significantly lower compared with the positive control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001, respectively); this effect was not seen in the group receiving 50 mg/kg daily. In the groups receiving D-004 at 400 and 800 mg/kg daily, prostatic/body weight ratio was

  19. Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  20. SYSTEMS MODELING OF PROSTATE REGULATION AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The prostate is an androgen-dependent tissue that is an important site of disease in human males as well as an important indicator of androgen status in animals. The rat prostate is used for studying antiandrogenic drugs as well as for evaluation of endocrine disruption (e.g., Hershberger Assay). Pubertal changes in the prostate have been observed to be as sensitive to environmental antiandrogens as in utero effects. The goal of this research is to model the biology of prostate androgen function on a systems level to determine the factors responsible for the dose-response observable with androgens and antiandrogens in the male rat. This includes investigation of the roles of positive and negative feedback loops in prostatic response following castration and dosing with testosterone and/or antiandrogens. A biologically-based, systems-level model will be developed describing the regulation of the prostate by androgens. The model will extend an existing model for the male rat central axis, which describes feedback between luteinizing hormone and testosterone production in the testes, to include the prostate and conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The prostate model will describe binding of androgens to the androgen receptor, 5α-reductase catalyzed production of DHT, and gene regulation affecting cell proliferation, apoptosis, and prostatic fluid production. The model will combine pharmacokinetic models for endogenous hormones (i.e., testost

  1. Prostate Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The prostate is a gland in men. It helps make semen, the fluid that contains sperm. The prostate surrounds the tube that carries urine away from ... and out of the body. A young man's prostate is about the size of a walnut. It ...

  2. Peripubertal aromatase inhibition in male rats has adverse long-term effects on bone strength and growth and induces prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anurag; Simm, Peter J; McPherson, Stephen J; Russo, Vincenzo C; Azar, Walid J; Wark, John D; Risbridger, Gail P; Werther, George A

    2010-10-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have been increasingly used in boys with growth retardation to prolong the duration of growth and increase final height. Multiple important roles of oestrogen in males point to potential adverse effects of this strategy. Although the deleterious effects of aromatase deficiency in early childhood and adulthood are well documented, there is limited information about the potential long-term adverse effects of peripubertal aromatase inhibition. To address this issue, we evaluated short-term and long-term effects of peripubertal aromatase inhibition in an animal model. Peripubertal male Wistar rats were treated with aromatase inhibitor letrozole or placebo and followed until adulthood. Letrozole treatment caused sustained reduction in bone strength and alteration in skeletal geometry, lowering of IGF1 levels, inhibition of growth resulting in significantly lower weight and length of treated animals and development of focal prostatic hyperplasia. Our observation of adverse long-term effects after peripubertal male rats were exposed to aromatase inhibitors highlights the need for further characterisation of long-term adverse effects of aromatase inhibitors in peripubertal boys before further widespread use is accepted. Furthermore, this suggests the need to develop more selective oestrogen inhibition strategies in order to inhibit oestrogen action on the growth plate, while beneficial effects in other tissues are preserved.

  3. Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Prostate Cancer Key Points Prostate cancer is a disease in ...

  4. Targeting Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    drug t oxi c i t y and the e ffect i ve dose i n zebrafish and found the best perf ormi ng s t rat egi es usi ng zebrafish - metastasi s model s...CLASSIFICATION OF: a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c . THIS PAGE Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified screen, zebrafish , mouse, 17. LIMITATION 18. NUMBER OF... zebrafish -metastasis models and mouse models of prostate cancer, we aim to investigate whether FDA approved drugs that target these pathways can be

  5. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 with hemin alleviates cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats and enhances its cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Heeba, Gehan Hussein; Hamza, Alaaeldin Ahmed; Hassanin, Soha Osama

    2016-12-15

    Cisplatin-induced testicular damage is a major obstacle in the application of cisplatin as chemotherapeutic agent. However, it remains as one of the most widely employed anticancer agents in treating various solid tumors including prostate cancer. Since heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme with anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, we investigated the effects of up-regulation of HO-1 by hemin and its inhibition by zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) on cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity in adult rats. Furthermore, the anticancer effect of hemin and ZnPP, with and without cisplatin, was evaluated on human prostate cancer cell line, PC3. Results of the animal study showed that hemin reversed cisplatin-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and ameliorated cisplatin-induced alterations in testicular and epididymal weights, and restored normal testicular architecture. Moreover, hemin increased the expression and activity of HO-1 protein and prevented cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity by virtue of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This effect was evidenced by amelioration of testicular oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, reduced glutathione contents, and catalase activity) and inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide synthase expressions). In contrast, administration of ZnPP (HO-1 inhibitor) did not show significant improvement against cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity. Finally, in vitro analyses showed that, hemin augmented the anticancer efficacy of cisplatin, while ZnPP inhibited its apoptotic effect in PC3 cells. In conclusion, the induction of HO-1 represents a potential therapeutic approach to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cisplatin without repressing, but rather augmenting, its cytotoxic effects on PC3 cells.

  6. [Prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Bey, P; Beckendorf, V; Stinès, J

    2001-10-01

    Radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with a curative intent implies to treat the whole prostate at high dose (at least 66 Gy). According to clinical stage, PSA level, Gleason's score, the clinical target volume may include seminal vesicles and less often pelvic lymph nodes. Microscopic extracapsular extension is found in 15 to 60% of T1-T2 operated on, specially in apex tumors. On contrary, cancers developing from the transitional zone may stay limited to the prostate even with a big volume and with a high PSA level. Zonal anatomy of the prostate identifies internal prostate, including the transitional zone (5% of the prostate in young people). External prostate includes central and peripheral zones. The inferior limit of the prostate is not lower than the inferior border of the pubic symphysis. Clinical and radiological examination: ultrasonography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), CT-scan identify prognostic factors as tumor volume, capsule effraction, seminal vesicles invasion and lymph node extension. The identification of the clinical target volume is now done mainly by CT-Scan which identifies prostate and seminal vesicles. NMR could be helpful to identify more precisely prostate apex. The definition of margins around the clinical target volume has to take in account daily reproducibility and organ motion and of course the maximum tolerable dose for organs at risk.

  7. Cell Proliferation and Expression of Cell Cycle Regulatory Proteins that Control the G1/S Transition Are Age Dependent and Lobe Specific in the Brown Norway Rat Model of Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jinchun; Brown, Terry R.

    2008-01-01

    Age-dependent epithelial cell hyperplasia in the dorsal and lateral lobes of Brown Norway rats is analogous to benign prostatic hyperplasia in aging men. A major question is whether differential lobe-specific and age-dependent proliferation of cells, rather than cell survival, contributes to the hyperplasia. Although serum testosterone (T) levels decline in aged rats, active cell proliferation was detected as Ki67-positive cells in the dorsal and lateral lobes. We determined whether androgens differentially affect cell proliferation and cell-cycle regulatory proteins in the prostate lobes of young and aged rats. Castrated rats were treated with different doses of T to restore serum levels to those of intact young or aged rats. Rates of cell proliferation, measured by 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling, peaked after 3-d T treatment in all lobes. 5-bromodeoxyuridine-labeling indices were higher in the dorsal and lateral lobes of aged than of young rats with equivalent serum T levels. No age-dependent difference was seen in the ventral lobe. Cell proliferation was marked by increased levels of cyclins D1 and E and cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6, decreased p27 and increased phosphorylation of Rb. Levels of cyclins D1 and E were higher in the dorsal and lateral lobes of intact and T-treated aged than young rats. Confocal immunofluorescent microscopy documented changes in cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cyclin D1 subcellular localization. Cyclin D1 nuclear localization correlated with the time frame for cell proliferation. In conclusion, rates of cell proliferation and levels of cell-cycle regulatory proteins that control the G1/S transition exhibit lobe-specific and age-dependent differences in response to androgens. PMID:17962342

  8. Cell proliferation and expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins that control the G1/S transition are age dependent and lobe specific in the Brown Norway rat model of prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinchun; Brown, Terry R

    2008-01-01

    Age-dependent epithelial cell hyperplasia in the dorsal and lateral lobes of Brown Norway rats is analogous to benign prostatic hyperplasia in aging men. A major question is whether differential lobe-specific and age-dependent proliferation of cells, rather than cell survival, contributes to the hyperplasia. Although serum testosterone (T) levels decline in aged rats, active cell proliferation was detected as Ki67-positive cells in the dorsal and lateral lobes. We determined whether androgens differentially affect cell proliferation and cell-cycle regulatory proteins in the prostate lobes of young and aged rats. Castrated rats were treated with different doses of T to restore serum levels to those of intact young or aged rats. Rates of cell proliferation, measured by 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling, peaked after 3-d T treatment in all lobes. 5-bromodeoxyuridine-labeling indices were higher in the dorsal and lateral lobes of aged than of young rats with equivalent serum T levels. No age-dependent difference was seen in the ventral lobe. Cell proliferation was marked by increased levels of cyclins D1 and E and cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6, decreased p27 and increased phosphorylation of Rb. Levels of cyclins D1 and E were higher in the dorsal and lateral lobes of intact and T-treated aged than young rats. Confocal immunofluorescent microscopy documented changes in cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and cyclin D1 subcellular localization. Cyclin D1 nuclear localization correlated with the time frame for cell proliferation. In conclusion, rates of cell proliferation and levels of cell-cycle regulatory proteins that control the G1/S transition exhibit lobe-specific and age-dependent differences in response to androgens.

  9. Topical Treatment with Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP) Alleviates Bone Destruction and Bone Cancer Pain in a Rat Model of Prostate Cancer-Induced Bone Pain by Modulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yanju; Gao, Yebo; Du, Maobo; Hou, Wei; Yang, Liping; Kong, Xiangying; Zheng, Honggang; Li, Weidong; Hua, Baojin

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects and mechanisms of Xiaozheng Zhitong Paste (XZP) on bone cancer pain, Wistar rats were inoculated with vehicle or prostate cancer PC-3 into the tibia bone and treated topically with inert paste, XZP at 15.75, 31.5, or 63 g/kg twice per day for 21 days. Their bone structural damage, nociceptive behaviors, bone osteoclast and osteoblast activity, and the levels of OPG, RANL, RNAK, PTHrP, IGF-1, M-CSF, IL-8, and TNF-α were examined. In comparison with that in the placebo group, significantly reduced numbers of invaded cancer cells, decreased levels of bone damage and mechanical threshold and paw withdrawal latency, lower levels of serum TRACP5b, ICTP, PINP, and BAP, and less levels of bone osteoblast and osteoclast activity were detected in the XZP-treated rats (P<0.05). Moreover, significantly increased levels of bone OPG but significantly decreased levels of RANL, RNAK, PTHrP, IGF-1, M-CSF, IL-8, and TNF-α were detected in the XZP-treated rats (P<0.05 for all). Together, XZP treatment significantly mitigated the cancer-induced bone damage and bone osteoclast and osteoblast activity and alleviated prostate cancer-induced bone pain by modulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway and bone cancer-related inflammation in rats. PMID:25691907

  10. Cryptococcal prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Hinchey, W W; Someren, A

    1981-02-01

    A case of granulomatous prostatitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans is reported. The patient, who had a history of diabetes mellitus and chronic active hepatitis, had symptoms of prostatic hypertrophy. Tissue obtained from surgery showed granulomatous prostatitis, and a cryptococcal organism was identified by special stains. Postoperative cultures grew Cryptococcus neoformans, and the patient was treated successfully with surgery and a short course of amphotericin B. After nine months of follow-up, there is no evidence of systemic infection.

  11. Resveratrol: inhibitory effects on metastatic cell behaviors and voltage-gated Na⁺ channel activity in rat prostate cancer in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Scott Paton; Peters, Alex; Fleming-Jones, Sian; Mukhey, Dev; Djamgoz, Mustafa Bilgin Ali

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol, a natural plant phenolic found at high concentration in red grapes, has been suggested to have a range of health benefits. Here, we tested its effects on metastatic cell behaviors. The strongly metastatic rat prostate MAT-LyLu cells were used as a model. At 20 μM, resveratrol had no effect on cellular proliferation or viability. However, it suppressed significantly 1) lateral motility by up to 25%; 2) transverse motility by 31%; and invasion by 37%. It also increased the cells' adhesion to substrate by 55%. Electrophysiologically, resveratrol inhibited voltage-gated Na(+) channel (VGSC) activity that has been shown previously to promote metastatic cell behaviors. This effect was dose-dependent with an IC50 of ∼50 μM. Voltage dependencies of current activation and peak were not affected but steady-state inactivation was shifted to more hyperpolarized potentials and recovery from inactivation was slowed. Coapplication of resveratrol with the highly specific VGSC blocker tetrodotoxin did not result in any additive effect on inhibition of both 1) VGSC activity and 2) metastatic cell behaviors. These results suggest 1) that a significant mode of action of resveratrol is VGSC blockage and 2) that resveratrol has promise as a natural antimetastatic agent.

  12. Nerve growth factor enhances voltage-gated Na+ channel activity and Transwell migration in Mat-LyLu rat prostate cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Brackenbury, William J; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2007-03-01

    The highly dynamic nature of voltage-gated Na+ channel (VGSC) expression and its controlling mechanism(s) are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of nerve growth factor (NGF) in regulating VGSC activity in the strongly metastatic Mat-LyLu cell model of rat prostate cancer (PCa). NGF increased peak VGSC current density in a time- and dose-dependent manner. NGF also shifted voltage to peak and the half-activation voltage to more positive potentials, and produced currents with faster kinetics of activation; sensitivity to the VGSC blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) was not affected. The NGF-induced increase in peak VGSC current density was suppressed by both the pan-trk antagonist K252a, and the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT5720. NGF did not affect the Nav1.7 mRNA level, but the total VGSC alpha-subunit protein level was upregulated. NGF potentiated the cells' migration in Transwell assays, and this was not affected by TTX. We concluded that NGF upregulated functional VGSC expression in Mat-LyLu cells, with PKA as a signaling intermediate, but enhancement of migration by NGF was independent of VGSC activity.

  13. Polyphenols and Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    prostate chemoprevention are the soy isoflavone , genistein, and the tea catechin, (-)- epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Another polyphenol that has...resveratrol in female rats , where the low doses did not exert chemopreventive effects, we concentrated on determining if single exposure to the proposed

  14. Prostatic aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Abbas, F; Kamal, M K; Talati, J

    1995-03-01

    Prostatic aspergillosis is rare with only 3 cases reported previously. We report a case of localized invasive aspergillosis of the prostate in a nonimmunocompromised patient with chronic urinary retention and recurrent urinary tract infections. Transurethral resection followed by open prostatectomy was performed for massive prostatomegaly. No systemic antifungal therapy was required for cure. The literature is reviewed, and diagnostic and management options are discussed.

  15. Gestational and lactational exposition to Di-N-butyl-phthalate (DBP) increases inflammation and preneoplastic lesions in prostate of wistar rats after carcinogenic N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) plus testosterone protocol.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, André R; Santos, Talita M; Brandt, Joyce Z; Delella, Flávia K; Gonçalves, Bianca F; Campos, Silvana G P; Taboga, Sebastião R; Favaro, Wagner J; Domeniconi, Raquel F; Scarano, Wellerson R

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, it was evaluated the susceptibility of prostatic lesions in male adult rats exposed to Di-N-butyl-phthalate during fetal and lactational periods and submitted to MNU plus testosterone carcinogenesis protocol. Pregnant females were distributed into four experimental groups: CN (negative control); CMNU (MNU control); TDBP100 (100 mg/kg of DBP); TDBP500 (500 mg/kg of DBP). Females from the TDBP groups received DBP, by gavage, from gestation day 15 (GD15) to postnatal day 21 (DPN21), while C animals received the vehicle (corn oil). CMNU, TDBP100, and TDBP500 groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of MNU (50 mg/kg) on the sixth postnatal week. After that, testosterone cypionate was administered subcutaneously two times a week (2 mg/kg) for 24 weeks. The animals were euthanized on PND220. Distal segment fragments of the ventral (VP) and dorsolateral prostate (DLP) were fixed and processed for histopathological analysis. Protein extracts from ventral prostate were obtained, and western blotting was performed to AR, ERα, MAPK (ERK1/2), and pan-AKT. Stereological analysis showed an increase in the epithelial compartment in TDBP100 and TDBP500 compared to CN. In general, there was increase in the incidence of inflammation and metaplasia/dysplasia in the DBP-treated groups, mainly in DLP, compared to CN and CMNU. Proliferation index was significant higher in TDBP500 and PIN (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) was more frequent in this group compared to CMNU. Western blot assays showed an increase in the expressions of AR and MAPK (ERK1/2) in the TDBP100 compared to CN, and ERα and AKT expressions were higher in the TDBP500 group compared do CN. These results showed that different doses of DBP during prostate organogenesis in Wistar rats could increase the incidence of premalignant lesions in initiated rats inducing distinct biological responses in the adulthood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1185-1195, 2016.

  16. Continuous-wave infrared subsurface optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves using a 1490-nm diode laser.

    PubMed

    Tozburun, Serhat; Stahl, Charlotte D; Hutchens, Thomas C; Lagoda, Gwen A; Burnett, Arthur L; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2013-10-01

    To optimize the infrared laser wavelength and optical nerve stimulation (ONS) parameters for both deep and rapid subsurface cavernous nerve (CN) stimulation in a rat model, in vivo. A 150-mW, 1490-nm diode laser providing an optical penetration depth (OPD) of 518 μm in water was operated in continuous-wave mode during stimulation of the CNs in 8 rats for 15 seconds irradiation time through a custom-built, single-mode fiber optic probe capable of producing a collimated, 1-mm diameter laser beam. Successful ONS was judged by an intracavernous pressure response in the rat penis. Subsurface ONS at 1490 nm was also compared with previous studies using 1455 nm and 1550 nm near-infrared diode laser wavelengths. Subsurface ONS of the rat CN was successful through fascia layers with a thickness up to 380 μm using an incident laser power of ∼50 mW. Intracavernous pressure response times as short as 4.6 ± 0.2 seconds were recorded using higher laser powers below the nerve damage threshold. The 1490-nm diode laser represents a compact, low cost, high power, and high quality infrared light source for use in ONS. This wavelength provides deeper penetration than 1455-nm diode laser and more rapid and efficient nerve stimulation than 1550-nm diode laser. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prostate cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate cancer screening - PSA; Prostate cancer screening - digital rectal exam; Prostate cancer screening - DRE ... level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high ...

  18. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www. ...

  19. Xanthogranulomatous Prostatitis, a Rare Prostatic Entity.

    PubMed

    Noyola, Alejandro; Gil, José Fernando; Lujano, Heriberto; Piñon, Omar; Muñoz, Gabriel; Michel, José Manuel; Garcia, Jorge; Valdez, Jorge; Morales, Omar

    2017-01-01

    There are several benign prostatic pathologies that can clinically mimic a prostate adenocarcinoma. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is a benign inflammatory condition of the prostate and a rare entity. A 47-year old male, with 3 years of lower urinary tract symptoms, with a palpable hypogastric tumor, digital rectal examination: solid prostate, of approximately 60 g. Initial PSA was 0.90 ng/mL. He underwent surgical excision of the lower abdominal nodule and prostatectomy. Histopathology showed xanthogranulomatous prostatitis, without malignancy. Xanthogranulomatous prostatitis is an extremely rare entity that can simulate prostate adenocarcinoma, therefore having a correct histopathological diagnosis is essential.

  20. OCT image segmentation of the prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Weldon, Thomas P.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2009-08-01

    The cavernous nerves course along the surface of the prostate and are responsible for erectile function. Improvements in identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery may improve nerve preservation and postoperative sexual potency. In this study, 2-D OCT images of the rat prostate were segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland. Three image features were employed: Gabor filter, Daubechies wavelet, and Laws filter. The features were segmented using a nearestneighbor classifier. N-ary morphological post-processing was used to remove small voids. The cavernous nerves were differentiated from the prostate gland with a segmentation error rate of only 0.058 +/- 0.019.

  1. Prostate Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to help diagnose your prostate problem. Physical Exam A physical exam may help diagnose the cause ... sleep avoid or drink fewer liquids that have caffeine or alcohol in them avoid medicines that may ...

  2. Prostatitis - nonbacterial

    MedlinePlus

    ... lower urinary tract Parasites Pelvic floor muscle problem Sexual abuse Viruses Life stresses and emotional factors may play a part in the problem. Most men with chronic prostatitis have the nonbacterial form.

  3. Enlarged prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Possible side effects include decreased sex drive and impotence . Antibiotics may be prescribed to treat chronic prostatitis ( ... less-invasive procedures carry a lower risk for impotence and incontinence than TURP, although the risk with ...

  4. Prostatitis - acute

    MedlinePlus

    ... urine from your bladder and out through the penis Acute prostatitis may also be caused by problems ... urine out of the bladder Foreskin of the penis that cannot be pulled back (phimosis) Injury to ...

  5. Chronic prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Chronic prostatitis can cause pain and urinary symptoms, and usually occurs without positive bacterial cultures from prostatic secretions (known as chronic abacterial prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome [CP/CPPS]). Bacterial infection can result from urinary tract instrumentation, but the cause and natural history of CP/CPPS are unknown. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for chronic bacterial prostatitis? What are the effects of treatments for chronic abacterial prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 33 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors, allopurinol, alpha-blockers, biofeedback, local injections of antimicrobial drugs, mepartricin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), oral antimicrobial drugs, pentosan polysulfate, prostatic massage, quercetin, radical prostatectomy, sitz baths, transurethral microwave thermotherapy, and transurethral resection. PMID:21736764

  6. The Effect of Zinc and Selenium Supplementation Mode on Their Bioavailability in the Rat Prostate. Should Administration Be Joint or Separate?

    PubMed Central

    Daragó, Adam; Sapota, Andrzej; Nasiadek, Marzenna; Klimczak, Michał; Kilanowicz, Anna

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that zinc and selenium deficiency may play a significant role in the etiology of prostate cancer. Although joint zinc and selenium supplementation is frequently applied in the prevention of prostate diseases, the bioavailability of these elements in the prostate after co-administration is still unknown. The study examines the effect of subchronic supplementation of zinc gluconate and selenium compounds (sodium selenite or selenomethionine), administered together or separately, on their bioavailability in the prostate, as well as the induction of metallothionein-like proteins (MTs) bound to zinc in the prostate and liver. Zinc concentration in the dorso-lateral lobe of the prostate was significantly elevated already after the first month of supplementation of zinc alone. In the supplementation period, the MTs level increased together with zinc concentration. In contrast, the ventral lobe of the prostate did not demonstrate significantly higher levels of zinc until after three months of supplementation, despite the MTs induction noted after one-month supplementation. Increased selenium levels in the dorsolateral lobe were observed throughout the administration and post-administration periods, regardless of the selenium compound used or whether zinc was co-administered. The results of our studies suggested for the first time that these elements should not be administered jointly in supplementation. PMID:27782038

  7. Screening spectroscopy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  8. AUTOIMMUNITY AS A POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF PROTACTIN-INDUCED PROSTATITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AUTOIMMUNITY AS A POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF PROLACTIN-INDUCED PROSTATITIS. RW Luebke, CB Copeland, and LR Bishop. US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC

    Stoker et al. reported inflammation of the lateral prostate (LP) lobes in 120 day old Wistar rats after manipulation of prolac...

  9. AUTOIMMUNITY AS A POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF PROTACTIN-INDUCED PROSTATITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    AUTOIMMUNITY AS A POSSIBLE MECHANISM OF PROLACTIN-INDUCED PROSTATITIS. RW Luebke, CB Copeland, and LR Bishop. US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC

    Stoker et al. reported inflammation of the lateral prostate (LP) lobes in 120 day old Wistar rats after manipulation of prolac...

  10. A PHARMACOKINETIC-PHARMACODYNAMIC MODEL FOR GENE-REGULATED PROSTATE MAINTENANCE: COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF CASTRATION WITH ANTIANDROGEN EXPOSURE IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Antiandrogens affect prostate maintenance in two ways. Androgen antagonists, such as the fungicide vinclozolin, act as competitive ligands for the androgen receptor (AR). Enzyme inhibitors, such as the therapeutic drug Finasteride, inhibit the enzyme 5 -reductase (5 R) from metab...

  11. A PHARMACOKINETIC-PHARMACODYNAMIC MODEL FOR GENE-REGULATED PROSTATE MAINTENANCE: COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF CASTRATION WITH ANTIANDROGEN EXPOSURE IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Antiandrogens affect prostate maintenance in two ways. Androgen antagonists, such as the fungicide vinclozolin, act as competitive ligands for the androgen receptor (AR). Enzyme inhibitors, such as the therapeutic drug Finasteride, inhibit the enzyme 5 -reductase (5 R) from metab...

  12. A phytosterol enriched refined extract of Brassica campestris L. pollen significantly improves benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in a rat model as compared to the classical TCM pollen preparation Qianlie Kang Pule'an Tablets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruwei; Kobayashi, Yuta; Lin, Yu; Rauwald, Hans Wilhelm; Fang, Ling; Qiao, Hongxiang; Kuchta, Kenny

    2015-01-15

    In Qinghai Province, the Brassica campestris L. pollen preparation Qianlie Kang Pule'an Tablet (QKPT) is traditionally used for BPH therapy. However, in QKPT the content of supposedly active phytosterols is relatively low at 2.59%, necessitating high doses for successful therapy. Therefore, a phytosterol enriched (4.54%) refined extract of B. campestris pollen (PE) was developed and compared with QKPT in a BPH rat model. Six groups of rats (n=8 each), namely sham-operated distilled water control, castrated distilled water control, castrated QKPT 2.0g/kg, castrated PE 0.1g/kg, castrated PE 0.2g/kg, and castrated PE 0.4g/kg, were intragastrically treated with the respective daily doses. Testosterone propionate (0.3mg/day) was administered to all castrated rats, while the sham-operated group received placebo injections. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and prostates as well as seminal vesicles excised and weighted in order to calculate prostate volume index (PVI) as well as prostate index (PI) and seminal vesicle index (SVI), defined as organ weight in g per 100g body weight. Compared with sham-operated controls, PI (p<0.01), PVI (p<0.01), and SVI (p<0.01) were all significantly increased in all castrated, testosterone treated rats. After treatment with PE at 0.4 and 0.2g/kg or QKPT at 2.0g/kg per day, both indices were significantly reduced (p<0.01) as compared to the castrated distilled water control. For PE at 0.1g/kg per day only PI was significantly reduced (p<0.05). At the highest PE concentration of 0.4g/kg per day both PI and SVI were also significantly reduced when compared to the QKPT group (p<0.05). Both PE and QKPT demonstrated curative effects against BPH in the applied animal model. In its highest dose at 0.4g/kg per day, PE was clearly superior to QKPT.

  13. Prostatitis: acute and chronic.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Kalyanakrishnan; Salinas, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    Prostatitis, one of the most common urological infections afflicting adult men, has recently been divided into 4 different categories based on the National Institutes of Health consensus classification: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic nonbacterial prostatitis and pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. Most patients with prostatitis are found to have either nonbacterial prostatitis or prostatodynia. Prostatitis poses an international health problem, with epidemiologic studies suggesting a worldwide prevalence of more than 10%. This article reviews current modes of diagnosis and therapy for acute and chronic prostatitis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stem Cells in Prostate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    disease upon aging, specifically prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia . In order to study the cell differentiation lineage associated with...specifically prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia . In order to study the cell differentiation lineage associated with normal and diseased prostate

  15. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Prostate Cancer Key Points Prostate cancer is a disease in ...

  16. Prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mazhar, D; Waxman, J

    2002-01-01

    It is a paradigm in cancer treatment that early detection and treatment improves survival. However, although screening measures lead to a higher rate of detection, for small bulk localised prostate cancer it remains unclear whether early detection and early treatment will lead to an overall decrease in mortality. The management options include surveillance, radiotherapy, and radical prostatectomy but there is no evidence base to evaluate the benefits of each approach. Advanced prostate cancer is managed by hormonal therapy. There have been major changes in treatment over the last two decades with the use of more humane treatment and developments in both chemotherapy and radiation. In this article we review the natural history and management of prostate cancer. PMID:12415080

  17. Sustained in vivo regression of Dunning H rat prostate cancers treated with combinations of androgen ablation and Trk tyrosine kinase inhibitors, CEP-751 (KT-6587) or CEP-701 (KT-5555).

    PubMed

    George, D J; Dionne, C A; Jani, J; Angeles, T; Murakata, C; Lamb, J; Isaacs, J T

    1999-05-15

    The indolocarbazole analogue CEP-751 is a potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the neurotrophin-specific trk receptors that has demonstrated antitumor activity in nine different models of prostate cancer growth in vivo. In the slow-growing, androgen-sensitive Dunning H prostate cancers, which express trk receptors, CEP-751 induced transient regressions independent of effects on cell cycle. Because androgen ablation is the most commonly used treatment for prostate cancer, we examined whether the combination treatment of CEP-751 with castration would lead to better antitumor efficacy than either treatment alone. For a 60-day period, H tumor-bearing rats received treatment with either castration, CEP-751 (10 mg/kg once a day s.c. for 5 days every 2 weeks), a combination of both, or vehicle. Castration caused tumor regression, followed by tumor regrowth in 4-6 weeks, whereas intermittent CEP-751 treatments resulted in tumor regressions during each treatment, which were followed by a period of regrowth between intermittent drug treatment cycles. Overall, both monotherapies significantly inhibited tumor growth compared with the vehicle-treated control group. However, the combination of castration and concomitant CEP-751 produced the most dramatic results: sigificantly greater tumor regression than either therapy alone, with no signs of regrowth. A related experiment using an orally administered CEP-751 analogue (CEP-701), as the trk inhibitor, and a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist, Leuprolide, to induce androgen ablation demonstrated similar results, indicating that these effects could be generalized to other forms of androgen ablation and other trk inhibitors within this class. In addition, when CEP-701 was given sequentially to rats bearing H tumors, which were progressing in the presence of continuous androgen ablation induced by Leuprolide, regression of the androgen-independent tumors occurred. In summary, these data demonstrate that CEP-751 or

  18. Understanding Prostate Enlargement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues / Winter 2017 Table of Contents Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland ... continues during most of a man's life. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) often occurs with the second growth phase. ...

  19. Localized Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a decision aid for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (available at http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/prostate_da) ... A Decision Aid for Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer Page 1 of 24 Introduction Men with clinically ...

  20. Prostatic ischemia induces ventral prostatic hyperplasia in the SHR; possible mechanism of development of BPH

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Motoaki; Tsounapi, Panagiota; Oikawa, Ryo; Shimizu, Shogo; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Kinoshita, Yukako; Tomita, Shuhei

    2014-01-01

    In the light of increasing evidence that benign prostatic hyperplasia is associated with cardiovascular disease, we have investigated the relationship between prostatic blood flow and prostatic hyperplasia in the spontaneously-hypertensive-rat (SHR). Twelve-week-old male SHRs were treated with nicorandil for six weeks. Wistar-Kyoto rats were used as controls. Six weeks after nicorandil treatment, blood pressure and the prostatic blood flow were estimated, and tissue levels of malondialdehyde, HIF-1α, TGF-β1, bFGF, dihydrotestosterone, and α-SMA were measured. SHRs showed significant increases in blood pressure, tissue levels of malondialdehyde, HIF-1α, TGF-β1, bFGF, α-SMA and a significant decrease in the prostatic blood flow. Although treatment with nicorandil failed to alter the blood-pressure and α-SMA, it significantly ameliorated the increased levels of malondialdehyde, HIF-1α, TGF-β1, and bFGF. There were no significant differences in tissue levels of dihydrotestosterone among any groups. These data indicate that development of prostatic hyperplasia may be associated with prostatic hypoxia, which nicorandil prevents via its effect to increase the blood flow. PMID:24448152

  1. Prostate Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... of the pelvis may be obtained as an alternative imaging test, because it may be obtained with an external (phased array) receiver coil. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer top of page This page was reviewed on ...

  2. Prostatic cysts.

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraman, L.; Sivasubramanian, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The classification, clinical features, and treatment of prostatic cysts are discussed with reference to 2 personal cases which differed in origin, in mode of presentation, and in the management required. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:718076

  3. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, depending ...

  4. Interleukin-18 may lead to benign prostatic hyperplasia via thrombospondin-1 production in prostatic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Hamakawa, Takashi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Imura, Makoto; Kubota, Yasue; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-05-01

    Although inflammation plays an important role in the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), little is known about the exact mechanism underlying this pathogenesis. Here, we investigated the relationship between the inflammatory reaction and BPH. cDNA microarray analysis was used to identify changes in inflammation-related gene expression in a recently established rat model that mimics human BPH. To investigate the genes identified in the analysis, quantitative (q)RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunostaining, and a cell proliferation assay were conducted using BPH model tissues, human prostate tissues, and normal human prostate cultured cells. Of the 31,100 genes identified in the cDNA analysis, seven inflammatory-response-related genes were expressed at a >2-fold higher level in rat BPH tissues than in normal rat prostate tissues. The levels of the most commonly expressed pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-18, significantly increased in rat BPH tissues. In humans, IL-18 was localized in the epithelial and stromal components, while its receptor was strongly localized in smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, in human prostate smooth muscle cell line (PrSMC), IL-18 effected dose-dependent increases in the phosphorylated Akt and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) levels. TSP-1 promoted proliferation of the human prostate stromal cells (PrSC). IL-18 may act directly in BPH pathogenesis by inducing TSP-1 production in prostatic smooth muscle cells via Akt phosphorylation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Epidemiology of prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, John N.; Lee, Shaun Wen Huey; Jeon, Jeonseong; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Liong, Men Long; Riley, Donald E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Prostatitis describes a combination of infectious diseases (acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis), chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic inflammation. Materials and methods We employed evidence-based methods to review the epidemiology of prostatitis syndromes. Results The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms could be compared in five studies surveying 10 617 men. Overall, 873 participants met various criteria for prostatitis, representing an overall rate of 8.2%, with prevalence ranging from 2.2 to 9.7%. A history of sexually transmitted diseases was associated with an increased risk for prostatitis symptoms. Men reporting a history of prostatitis symptoms had a substantially increased rate of benign prostatic hyperplasia, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. In one study, the incidence of physician-diagnosed prostatitis was 4.9 cases per 1000 person-years. Two studies suggest that about one-third of men reporting prostatitis symptoms had resolution after 1 year. Patients with previous episodes and more severe symptoms are at higher risk for chronic pelvic pain. Discussion The prevalence of prostatitis symptoms is high, comparable to rates of ischamic heart disease and diabetes. Clinical evaluation appears necessary to verify that prostatitis is responsible for patients’ symptoms. Prostatitis symptoms may increase a man’s risk for benign prostate hypertrophy, lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer. We need to define natural history and consequences of prostatitis, develop better algorithms for diagnosis and treatment, and develop strategies for prevention. PMID:18164907

  6. Extra-prostatic transgene-associated neoplastic lesions in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice.

    PubMed

    Berman-Booty, Lisa D; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Bolon, Brad; Oglesbee, Michael J; Clinton, Steven K; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih; La Perle, Krista M D

    2015-02-01

    Male transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice are frequently used in prostate cancer research because their prostates consistently develop a series of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. Disease progression in TRAMP mouse prostates culminates in metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinomas with neuroendocrine features. The androgen dependence of the rat probasin promoter largely limits transgene expression to the prostatic epithelium. However, extra-prostatic transgene-positive lesions have been described in TRAMP mice, including renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, neuroendocrine carcinomas of the urethra, and phyllodes-like tumors of the seminal vesicle. Here, we describe the histologic and immunohistochemical features of 2 novel extra-prostatic lesions in TRAMP mice: primary anaplastic tumors of uncertain cell origin in the midbrain and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas of the submandibular salivary gland. These newly characterized tumors apparently result from transgene expression in extra-prostatic locations rather than representing metastatic prostate neoplasms because lesions were identified in both male and female mice and in male TRAMP mice without histologically apparent prostate tumors. In this article, we also calculate the incidences of the urethral carcinomas and renal tubuloacinar carcinomas, further elucidate the biological behavior of the urethral carcinomas, and demonstrate the critical importance of complete necropsies even when evaluating presumably well characterized phenotypes in genetically engineered mice.

  7. Autoimmune prostatitis: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Motrich, R D; Maccioni, M; Riera, C M; Rivero, V E

    2007-01-01

    The prostate is one of the main male sex accessory glands and the target of many pathological conditions affecting men of all ages. Pathological conditions of the prostate gland range from infections, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) of a still unknown aetiology to benign hyperplasia and cancer. CP/CPPS is one of the most prevalent diseases in the urologic clinic and affects men younger than 50 years old. A significant advance in the understanding of CP/CPPS was made when an autoimmune response against prostate antigens was revealed in a considerable number of patients. During the last 30 years, extensive work has been done regarding the development and characterization of different rodent models of experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP). It has been demonstrated that tolerance to prostate antigens can be disrupted in some strains of rats and mice and cellular and humoral responses to prostate antigens are elicited. A Th1 pattern has been described and the cellular response seems to be the major pathogenic mechanism involved. Immune cells infiltrate the gland and induce prostate lesions. The genetic background and hormonal imbalance are factors that could contribute to the onset of the disease in susceptible young males. Moreover, spontaneous autoimmune prostatitis could also occur with advanced age in susceptible strains. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding rodent models of EAP and the immunological alterations present in CP/CPPS patients. We also discuss the reliability of these experimental approaches as genuine tools for the study of human disease.

  8. Knockout AR in Prostate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    enlarged ventral prostates, we evaluated fertility. We found that there were no significant differences in litter-size when either WT or pes-ARKO males...prostate (DLP), ventral prostate (VP) all lobes of prostate (Pr), testes (T), glans penis (Pe); *Pɘ.05, ***Pɘ.001. PI: Chang, Chawnshang 7

  9. Medical Tests for Prostate Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... than age 50 is inflammation, called prostatitis. Prostate enlargement, or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is another common ... cannot distinguish between cancerous tumors and noncancerous prostate enlargement. Once a biopsy has confirmed cancer, these imaging ...

  10. Transurethral resection of the prostate

    MedlinePlus

    TURP; Prostate resection - transurethral ... used to remove the inside part of your prostate gland using electricity. ... if you have benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH ). The prostate gland often grows larger as men get older. ...

  11. Effect of Phellius linteus water extract on benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Sun; Chun, Sung-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common diseases among elderly men. As the old-age population is increasing recently, it is to our interest to observe the growing BPH within them. In BPH, the dihydrotestosterone (DHT) acts as promotes prostate growth. It inhibits enzyme 5α-reductase that is involved in the conversion of testosterone to the DHT activity which reduces the excessive prostate growth. Through experiments, the effects of Phellius linteus water extract performed on the BPH rats were induced by testosterone treatments. For 12 weeks, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with testosterone for the induction of BPH. Rats were divided into four experimental groups: the not treated group (N), the testosterone injection and D.W treatment group (TN), the testosterone injection and Phellinus linteus treatment group (TP) and testosterone injection and finasteride treatment group (TF). Prostate weight, volume and weight ratio in the TP group and the TF group were significantly lower than the TN group. Testosterone and DHT levels in the TN group were significantly higher than that of the N group. And the TP group was significantly decreased than that of the TN group. While prostates of control rats revealed severe acinar gland atrophy and stromal proliferation; the TP and TF groups showed trophic symptoms and were lined by flattened epithelial cells, thus, the stromal proliferation is relatively low as compared to the TN group. These suggest that Phellinus linteus water extracts may be an useful remedy for treating the benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23766877

  12. Stromal remodelling is required for progressive involution of the rat ventral prostate after castration: identification of a matrix metalloproteinase-dependent apoptotic wave.

    PubMed

    Bruni-Cardoso, A; Augusto, T M; Pravatta, H; Damas-Souza, D M; Carvalho, H F

    2010-10-01

    Prostate epithelial-cell apoptosis occurs in response to androgen deprivation. We have hypothesized that continued regression would require stromal changes. Studying apoptosis kinetics up to the 14th day after castration, we identified successive waves of apoptosis, with a prominent peak on day 11. This peak was associated with caspase-3 activity, nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor and clusterin expression. The apoptosis peak on day 11 was preceded by increased MMP-2 and MMP-7 activation, and MMP-9 expression on days 9 and 10. Treatment with the matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors doxycyclin, hydrocortisone, or GM6001 caused significant reduction in the apoptosis rate on day 11. The present data demonstrate that prostatic epithelial-cell deletion at the 11th day after castration was induced by focal degradation of the extracellular matrix associated with stromal remodelling.

  13. Chrysophanic acid reduces testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats by suppressing 5α-reductase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

    PubMed

    Youn, Dong-Hyun; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jung, Yunu; Kang, JongWook; Jeong, Mi-Young; Sethi, Gautam; Seok Ahn, Kwang; Um, Jae-Young

    2017-02-07

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common chronic diseases in male population, of which incidence increases gradually with age. In this study, we investigated the effect of chrysophanic acid (CA) on BPH. BPH was induced by a 4-week injection of testosterone propionate (TP). Four weeks of further injection with vehicle, TP, TP + CA, TP + finasteride was carried on. In the CA treatment group, the prostate weight was reduced and the TP-induced histological changes were restored as the normal control group. CA treatment suppressed the TP-elevated prostate specific antigen (PSA) expression. In addition, 5α-reductase, a crucial factor in BPH development, was suppressed to the normal level close to the control group by CA treatment. The elevated expressions of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α and steroid receptor coactivator 1 by TP administration were also inhibited in the CA group when compared to the TP-induced BPH group. Then we evaluated the changes in three major factors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase chain during prostatic hyperplasia; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38). While ERK was elevated in the process of BPH, JNK and p38 was not changed. This up-regulated ERK was also reduced as normal by CA treatment. Further in vitro studies with RWPE-1 cells confirmed TP-induced proliferation and elevated AR, PSA and p-ERK were all reduced by CA treatment. Overall, these results suggest a potential pharmaceutical feature of CA in the treatment of BPH.

  14. Pharmacotherapy of prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Snow, Devon C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2010-10-01

    Prostatitis is a prevalent and morbid condition with a significant impact on a patient's quality of life. The four distinct prostatitis syndromes have different pathophysiologies, therapy and prognosis. Acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis is best treated with appropriate antibiotics that penetrate the prostate and kill the causative organisms. The most challenging category to treat is category III or chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. This review covers the categories of prostatitis and currently recommended therapies, as well as novel approaches on the horizon. Knowledge of the current framework for the diagnosis and management of the diverse prostatitis spectrum. Prostatitis is a diverse group of syndromes. Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a multifactorial syndrome that requires a multimodal approach to effectively treat the patient. The UPOINT technique is used to clinically phenotype these patients and drive the selection of multimodal therapy.

  15. Differential effect of alpha-difluoromethylornithine on the in vivo uptake of 14C-labeled polyamines and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) by a rat prostate-derived tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Heston, W.D.; Kadmon, D.; Covey, D.F.; Fair, W.R.

    1984-03-01

    The uptake of exogenously administered radiolabeled polyamines by a rat prostate-derived tumor line, the Dunning R3327 MAT-Lu, and various normal tissues was studied. Pretreatment of tumor cells in vitro with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a polyamine synthesis inhibitor, resulted in a markedly enhanced uptake of both (/sup 14/C)putrescine and (14 C)spermidine. The in vitro uptake of (/sup 14/C)putrescine by these cells was effectively inhibited by unlabeled spermine, spermidine, 1,8-diaminooctane, 1,7-diaminoheptane, 1,6-diaminohexane, 1,5-diaminopentane, 1,4-diaminopentane, and 1,4-diaminobutane, but less effectively by 1,4-diamino-2,3-butene and 1,4-diamino-2,3-butyne. The diamines, 1,3-diaminopropane and 1,2-diaminoethane, were ineffective in inhibiting (/sup 14/C)putrescine uptake in vitro into the R3327 MAT-Lu cell line. When tumor-bearing animals were pretreated with DFMO or with DFMO and 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone propionate, the tumor and prostate uptake of (/sup 14/C)putrescine and (/sup 14/C)-cadaverine was enhanced but not substantially increased in other tissues. In contrast to the in vitro results, spermidine and spermine were not enhanced substantially by DFMO pretreatment into any tissue, and their uptake into the tumor actually decreased. Ethylenediamine, which does not utilize the polyamine transport system, did not have its uptake increased into any tissue following DFMO pretreatment. The chemotherapeutic agent, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), which utilizes the polyamine transport system for uptake into cells, exhibited uptake behavior different from that of the polyamines.

  16. Giant prostatic calculi

    PubMed Central

    Najoui, Mohammed; Qarro, Abdelmounaim; Ammani, Abdelghani; Alami, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Prostatic parenchymal calculi are common, usually incidental, findings on morphological examinations. They are typically asymptomatic and may be present in association with normal glands, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. However giant prostatic calculi are rare. Less than 20 cases have been reported in the literature. We present the case of a 35-year-old man with two giant prostatic calculi that replaced the entire gland. He underwent an open cystolithotomy, two giant stones were removed from the prostate, and we used a lithotripsy in situ for extraction of stone fragments. PMID:23565316

  17. [Prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Morote, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Morales-Bárrera, Rafael

    2016-02-05

    The Vall d'Hebron multidisciplinary prostate cancer (PC) team reviews recent advances in the management of this neoplasm. Screening studies with long follow-up show a reduction in mortality, whereas active surveillance is emerging as a therapeutic approach of non-aggressive cancers. New markers increase the specificity of PSA and also allow targeting suspected aggressive cancers. Multiparametric magnetic resonance (mMRI) has emerged as the most effective method in the selection of patients for biopsy and also for local tumor staging. The paradigm of random prostatic biopsy is changing through the fusion techniques that allow guiding ultrasonography-driven biopsy of suspicious areas detected in mMRI. Radical prostatectomy (RP) and radiotherapy (RT) are curative treatments of localized PC and both have experienced significant technological improvements. RP is highly effective and the incorporation of robotic surgery is reducing morbidity. Modern RT allows the possibility of high tumor dose with minimal adjacent dose reducing its toxicity. Androgen deprivation therapy with LHRH analogues remains the treatment of choice for advanced PC, but should be limited to this indication. The loss of bone mass and adverse metabolic effects increases the frequency of fractures and cardiovascular morbimortality. After castration resistance in metastatic disease, new hormone-based drugs have demonstrated efficacy even after chemotherapy resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [Benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Mourey, Loïc; Doumerc, Nicolas; Gaudin, Clément; Gérard, Stéphane; Balardy, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Prostatic diseases are extremely common, especially in older men. Amongst them, benign prostatic hypertrophy may affect significantly the quality of life of patients by the symptoms it causes. It requires appropriate care. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men after lung cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. It affects preferentially older men. An oncogeriatric approach is required for personalised care.

  19. Prediction of alpha1-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate from plasma concentrations of silodosin, tamsulosin and terazosin to treat urinary obstruction in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shizuo; Kato, Yasuhiro; Okura, Takashi; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Kazuki

    2007-07-01

    Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists are clinically useful for the improvement of urinary obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and their therapeutic effects are mediated through the blockade of prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. The present study was undertaken to predict the magnitude and duration of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate after oral alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists. Prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding parameters of silodosin were estimated by measuring specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat prostate after oral administration of this drug. The plasma concentration of silodosin after oral administration in rats and healthy volunteers was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding affinities (K(i)) of silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin in the human prostate and plasma concentrations of tamsulosin and terazosin were obtained from the literature. Using the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor binding parameters of silodosin in rat prostate, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate was estimated to be around 60-70% at 1-6 h after oral administration of silodosin at doses of 3.0, 8.1, and 16.1 micromol. Thereafter, the receptor occupancy was periodically decreased, to 24% (8.1 micromol) and 54% (16.1 micromol) 24 h later. A similar magnitude and time course of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy by silodosin in the human prostate were estimated using alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding affinities (K(i)) in the human prostate. Despite about two orders of differences in the plasma unbound concentrations after clinically effective oral dosages of silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, there was a comparable magnitude of prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy by these drugs. In conclusion, the prediction of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate by alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists may provide the rationale for the optimum dosage regimen of these drugs in the

  20. Combined image-processing algorithms for improved optical coherence tomography of prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab; Weldon, Thomas P.; Fiddy, Michael A.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-07-01

    Cavernous nerves course along the surface of the prostate gland and are responsible for erectile function. These nerves are at risk of injury during surgical removal of a cancerous prostate gland. In this work, a combination of segmentation, denoising, and edge detection algorithms are applied to time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of rat prostate to improve identification of cavernous nerves. First, OCT images of the prostate are segmented to differentiate the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland. Then, a locally adaptive denoising algorithm using a dual-tree complex wavelet transform is applied to reduce speckle noise. Finally, edge detection is used to provide deeper imaging of the prostate gland. Combined application of these three algorithms results in improved signal-to-noise ratio, imaging depth, and automatic identification of the cavernous nerves, which may be of direct benefit for use in laparoscopic and robotic nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery.

  1. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Prostate Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Prostate Cancer . This recommendation is for ...

  2. Prostate Cancer FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coffey – Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Awards Challenge Awards Creativity Awards Young Investigator Awards Scientific Retreat – Meeting Agenda ... Retreat Coffey – Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Challenge Awards Creativity Awards Young Investigator Awards Featured Scientific Retreat – Meeting ...

  3. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coffey – Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Awards Challenge Awards Creativity Awards Young Investigator Awards Scientific Retreat – Meeting Agenda ... Retreat Coffey – Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Challenge Awards Creativity Awards Young Investigator Awards Featured Scientific Retreat – Meeting ...

  4. About the Prostate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coffey – Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Awards Challenge Awards Creativity Awards Young Investigator Awards Scientific Retreat – Meeting Agenda ... Retreat Coffey – Holden Prostate Cancer Academy Challenge Awards Creativity Awards Young Investigator Awards Featured Scientific Retreat – Meeting ...

  5. Prostate cancer - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - prostate cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on prostate cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/index National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/ ...

  6. PROSTATE REGULATION: MODELING ENDOGENOUS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ALTERATIONS IN PROSTATE WEIGHT AND HISTOPATHOLOGY ARE OBSERVED FOLLOWING IN UTERO, PUBERTAL AND ADULT EXPOSURES TO ANTIANDROGENS. ALTERATIONS IN PROSTATE WEIGHT AND HISTOPATHOLOGY ARE OBSERVED FOLLOWING IN UTERO, PUBERTAL AND ADULT EXPOSURES TO ANTIANDROGENS.

  7. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000907.htm Cryotherapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features ... first treatment for prostate cancer. What Happens During Cryotherapy Before the procedure, you will be given medicine ...

  8. What is Prostate Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... their doctors even knew they had it. Possible pre-cancerous conditions of the prostate Some research suggests that prostate cancer starts out as a pre-cancerous condition, although this is not yet known ...

  9. Upregulation of Phosphodiesterase type 5 in the Hyperplastic Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenhao; Zang, Ning; Jiang, Yaoming; Chen, Ping; Wang, Xinghuan; Zhang, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common in the aging male. Numerous clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) for treating LUTS/BPH with/without ED. However, the influence of BPH on prostatic PDE5 expression has never been studied. A testosterone-induced rat model of BPH was developed and human hyperplastic prostate specimens were harvested during cystoprostatectomy. PDE5, nNOS, eNOS and α1-adrenoreceptor subtypes (α1aARs, α1bARs and α1dARs) were determined with real-time RT-PCR for rat tissues whilst PDE5 and α1-adrenoreceptor subtypes were determined in human samples. PDE5 was further analyzed with Western-blot and histological examination. Serum testosterone was measured with ELISA. The rat BPH model was validated as having a significantly enlarged prostate. PDE5 localized mainly in fibromuscular stroma in prostate. Our data showed a significant and previously undocumented upregulation of PDE5 in both rat and human BPH, along with increased expression of nNOS and α1dARs for rat tissues and α1aARs for human BPH. The upregulation of PDE5 in the hyperplastic prostate could explain the mechanism and contribute to the high effectiveness of PDE5-Is for treating LUTS/BPH. Fibromuscular stroma could be the main target for PDE5-Is within prostate. PMID:26657792

  10. Selenoproteins and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    1-0009 TITLE: Selenoproteins and Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Veda Navsariwala, Ph.D...Annual Summary 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Oct 2004 – 14 Oct 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Selenoproteins and Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...ABSTRACT For this postdoctoral fellowship the specific role of selenoproteins in prostate carcinogenesis is being investigated using a cell

  11. [Prostatic abscesses. A review].

    PubMed

    Rabii, R; Rais, H; Joual, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1999-01-01

    We review the literature to the diagnosis and therapeutic aspect of prostatic abscess. The prostatic abscess having become an uncommon disease. The diagnosis of prostatic abscess has been nearly made by transrectal ultrasound and computed tomography scan. The best diagnostic method is considered to be the transrectal ultrasound. The choice therapy was intravenous antibiotic, and drainage by ultrasound guided transperineal percutaneous puncture.

  12. Linking Estrogens, Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    provide the first direct evidence linking phy siologic estr ogen up- regulation an d pr ostate ma lignancy via inflammation. Ellem, Stuart J...inflammation and malignancy in the prostate. The identification of estr ogen as a cause of prostatitis, as well as a fac tor in the development of

  13. Design of cytotoxic steroids for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Petrow, V; Padilla, G M

    1986-01-01

    Our object was to determine if the aromatic nucleus of estramustine (I) is optimal for binding affinity to prostate cytosolic proteins, and if C3 is the preferred position for the N-mustard carbamate moiety. To this end we have submitted 34 steroids for in vitro assay of binding affinity to total prostate cytosolic proteins. Our structures included aromatic and hydroaromatic steroids containing N-mustard carbamate and other substituents at C3, C6, C11, C16, C17, C20, and C21. Our results show that binding affinity to prostate proteins is optimally present in C3-nitrogen mustard carbamates attached directly to a totally planar aromatic ring as in (IV). Partial deviation from total planarity as in enol-carbamates (V) leads to some loss of binding affinity, which largely disappears in hydroaromatic structures (VI). Thus, our data lead to the Ring A aromatic structure (X) as a basis for the design of steroidal N-mustard carbamates with prostate selectivity. Preliminary in vivo studies using the Dunning R3327AT prostatic adenocarcinoma implanted in the Copenhagen rat generally support our in vitro data.

  14. Effects of oral exposure to bisphenol A on gene expression and global genomic DNA methylation in the prostate, female mammary gland, and uterus of NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Luísa; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Han, Tao; Kobets, Tetyana; Koturbash, Igor; Surratt, Gordon; Lewis, Sherry M.; Vanlandingham, Michelle M.; Fuscoe, James C.; da Costa, Gonçalo Gamboa; Pogribny, Igor P.; Delclos, K. Barry

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate and epoxy resins, binds to the nuclear estrogen receptor with an affinity 4–5 orders of magnitude lower than that of estradiol. We reported previously that “high BPA” (100,000 and 300,000 μg/kg body weight (bw)/day), but not “low BPA” [2.5–2700 μg/kg bw/day], induced clear adverse effects in NCTR Sprague-Dawley rats gavaged daily from gestation day 6 through postnatal day 90. The “high BPA” effects partially overlapped those of ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 0.5 and 5.0 μg/kg bw/day). To evaluate further the potential of “low BPA” to induce biological effects, here we assessed the global genomic DNA methylation and gene expression in the prostate and female mammary glands, tissues identified previously as potential targets of BPA, and uterus, a sensitive estrogen-responsive tissue. Both doses of EE2 modulated gene expression, including of known estrogen-responsive genes, and PND 4 global gene expression data showed a partial overlap of the “high BPA” effects with those of EE2. The “low BPA” doses modulated the expression of several genes; however, the absence of a dose response reduces the likelihood that these changes were causally linked to the treatment. These results are consistent with the toxicity outcomes. PMID:25862956

  15. Increase in prostate stem cell antigen expression in prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone and 17β-estradiol in C57BL mice.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Nariaki; Kanno, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Estradiol (E2) is known to act synergistically with testosterone (T) for the development of prostatic hyperplasia in rats and dogs, but murine prostate is less responsive to hormonal stimulation. However, a recent study revealed that the combined administration of E2 and T induced prostatic hyperplasia with bladder outlet obstruction in C57BL mice. To understand the mechanisms underlying the hormonal induction of prostatic hyperplasia, the expression of growth factors and their receptors, androgen receptor, estrogen receptor (ER), and prostatic secretory proteins was investigated. Ten-week-old male C57BL mice were treated with T (30mg) or T+E2 (0.5mg) for 10 weeks, and prostatic lobes were dissected and subjected to quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis. T administration appeared to induce glandular prostatic growth, while with T+E2 administration this growth was greater and accompanied by extreme bladder enlargement. The expression of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) mRNA and protein was increased in prostate tissue in the T group. The combined administration of E2 with T prominently enhanced PSCA expression, along with increased insulin growth factor 1 mRNA levels and decreased estrogen receptor β mRNA expression. The synergistic effect of E2 on the expression of PSCA suggests that this protein may play an important role in the hormone-induced development of prostatic hyperplasia.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions prostate cancer prostate cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Prostate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually ...

  17. Hormone therapy for prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000908.htm Hormone therapy for prostate cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... the growth of prostate cancer. Male Hormones and Prostate Cancer Androgens are male sex hormones. Testosterone is one ...

  18. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  19. Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture onpubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (ATR) is a chlorotriazine herbicide extensively used in the US and other countries. Studies examining the effects of adult or developmental ATR exposure on the mammary gland (MG) have used either the Sprague Dawley (SD) or Long-Evans (LE) rat, but no strain comparisons h...

  20. Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture onpubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atrazine (ATR) is a chlorotriazine herbicide extensively used in the US and other countries. Studies examining the effects of adult or developmental ATR exposure on the mammary gland (MG) have used either the Sprague Dawley (SD) or Long-Evans (LE) rat, but no strain comparisons h...

  1. Spectrum of prostatic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate gland of male reproductive system is about the size of walnut and surrounds the urethra. Most frequently encountered diseases affecting prostate are Prostatitis, Benign prostatic hyperplasia and Prostatic cancer .Our objective of study was to evaluate the spectrum and correlation of prostatic lesions with presenting complaints of patient. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted in Pathology Department of Dow Medical College, Dow University of Health Sciences during the period of 1st January 2010 to December 2012. Pathology department of Dow Medical College collected specimens from both Civil Hospital and Lyari General Hospital Karachi, Pakistan. Specimens were taken through transurethral resection of prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy and radical prostatectomy. A questionnaire was made and information including name, age, ward name of hospital, laboratory number, clinical diagnosis and symptoms were noted in it. Data was entered and analyzed through SPSS 19. Result During the targeted months, 48 prostatic specimens were received with a mean age of 65.7 + -7.6 years. Common presenting complains were urinary retention in 23(47.9%) patients, followed by dribbling in 12(25%). Out of 48 patients, 42 have Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and 6 have Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. Both Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia and Prostatic Adenocarcinoma were more prevalent in the age group of 60-70 years. Conclusion Frequency of prostatic cancer is on the rise and measures should be taken for its early detection. Screening protocols and awareness programs need to be introduced. Screening programs should be focused on level of androgens and molecular pathogenesis. PMID:24063260

  2. Anti-proliferation effects of Cistanches salsa on the progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyo-Jin An; Chung, Kyung-Sook; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Cistanche salsa has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of kidney deficiency, neurasthenia, sexual dysfunction diseases, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which C. salsa extract (CSE) elicits an anti-proliferative effect on the prostate tissue of BPH-induced rats. The effects of CSE on BPH were evaluated in terms of prostate weight, production of serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and the mRNA expression of 5α-reductase type 1 and type 2 in the prostate tissue of BPH-induced rats. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed for histological examination of prostate gland morphology, and protein expression levels in prostate tissue were investigated by western blot analysis. CSE treatment decreased prostate weight, serum DHT concentration, and the mRNA expression of 5α-reductase type 1 and type 2 in prostate tissue of BPH-induced rats. In addition, CSE treatment suppressed cell proliferation by regulating the expression levels of inflammatory-related proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2) and apoptosis-associated proteins (caspase-3 and Bcl-2 family proteins). CSE may be a potential therapeutic candidate for BPH owing to its ability to regulate the expression of inflammatory and apoptosis-related proteins.

  3. The effect of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench extract on experimental prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Skaudickas, D; Kondrotas, A J; Kevelaitis, E; Venskutonis, P R

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench) on the prostate gland of rats using an experimental model of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The animals were administered 50 mg/kg of extract preparation for 4 and 8 weeks and the prostate mass and structural degenerative changes were evaluated in the course of the experiment. The administration of E. purpurea extract to rats with hyperplasia for 4 and 8 weeks gradually and significantly reduced the prostate mass and reversed the degenerative changes in the structure of the prostate gland. The present investigation suggests extract of purple coneflower prevents the development of BPH. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Differential expression of androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptors in benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lingmin; Shen, Wenhao; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Qiwu; Wang, Yongquan; Zhou, Zhansong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the differential expression levels of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ), and progesterone receptor (PGR) between normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The combination of immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting assay was used to identify the distribution and differential expression of these receptors at the immunoactive biomarker, transcriptional, and protein levels between 5 normal human prostate tissues and 40 BPH tissues. The results were then validated in a rat model of BPH induced by testosterone propionate and estradiol benzoate. In both human and rat prostate tissues, AR was localized mainly to epithelial and stromal cell nuclei; ERα was distributed mainly to stromal cells, but not exclusively; ERβ was interspersed in the basal layer of epithelium, but sporadically in epithelial and stromal cells; PGR was expressed abundantly in cytoplasm of epithelial and stromal cells. There were decreased expression of ERα and increased expression of PGR, but no difference in the expression of ERβ in the BPH compared to the normal prostate of both human and rat. Increased expression of AR in the BPH compared to the normal prostate of human was observed, however, the expression of AR in the rat prostate tissue was decreased. This study identified the activation of AR and PGR and repression of ERα in BPH, which indicate a promoting role of AR and PGR and an inhibitory role of ERα in the pathogenesis of BPH. PMID:27294569

  5. Cancer Targeting Potential of (99m)Tc-Finasteride in Experimental Model of Prostate Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jan, Gowsia; Passi, Neelima D; Dhawan, Devinder Kumar; Chadha, Vijayta Dani

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to radiolabel finasteride, a novel 5α-reductase inhibitor, to evaluate its cancer targeting potential in experimental model of prostate carcinogenesis. Finasteride was effectively radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and showed >90% labeling efficiency. The radiopharmaceutical was found to be stable up to 6 hours in rat serum at 37°C. The blood kinetics of the (99m)Tc-finasteride followed a biphasic release pattern, whereby fast-release phase was observed at 15 seconds and a slow-release phase was observed after 30 minutes of administration. The plasma protein binding of the radio complex observed was 83.89%. For biodistribution studies, the rats were divided into two groups. Group I served as normal controls, while group II was subjected to carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and hormone testosterone propionate (T) for induction of prostate carcinogenesis, which was confirmed histopathologically. The biodistribution studies on control and carcinogen-treated rats revealed a significant percent-specific uptake in prostate, which was found to be increased significantly as a function of time. The most significant finding of the study was an increase in the percent-specific uptake in prostate of carcinogen-treated animals when compared to the percent-specific uptake in prostate of normal rats after 2 and 4 hours postinjection. The study concludes that (99m)Tc-finasteride possesses selectively toward prostate cancer tissue and can be explored further for its role in detection of prostate cancer.

  6. [Large benign prostatic hiperplasia].

    PubMed

    Soria-Fernández, Guillermo René; Jungfermann-Guzman, José René; Lomelín-Ramos, José Pedro; Jaspersen-Gastelum, Jorge; Rosas-Nava, Jesús Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    the term prostatic hyperplasia is most frequently used to describe the benign prostatic growth, this being a widely prevalent disorder associated with age that affects most men as they age. The association between prostate growth and urinary obstruction in older adults is well documented. large benign prostatic hyperplasia is rare and few cases have been published and should be taken into account during the study of tumors of the pelvic cavity. we report the case of an 81-year-old who had significant symptoms relating to storage and bladder emptying, with no significant elevation of prostate specific antigen. this is a rare condition but it is still important to diagnose and treat as it may be related to severe obstructive uropathy and chronic renal failure. In our institution, cases of large prostatic hyperplasia that are solved by suprapubic adenomectomy are less than 3%.

  7. Glutathione transferase isoenzymes from human prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Di Ilio, C; Aceto, A; Bucciarelli, T; Angelucci, S; Felaco, M; Grilli, A; Federici, G

    1990-01-01

    By using affinity-chromatography and isoelectric-focusing techniques, several forms of glutathione transferase (GSTs) were resolved from human prostate cytosol. All the three major classes of GST, i.e. Alpha, Mu and Pi, are present in human prostate. However, large inter-individual variation in the qualitative and quantitative expression of different isoenzymes resulted in the samples investigated. The most abundant group of prostate isoenzymes showed acid (pI 4.3-4.7) behaviour and were classified as Pi class GSTs on the basis of their immunological and structural properties. Immunohistochemical staining of Pi class GSTs was prevalently distributed in the epithelial cells surrounding the alveolar lumen. Class Mu GSTs are also expressed, although in small amounts and in a limited number of samples, by human prostate. The major cationic isoenzyme purified from prostate, GST-9.6; (pI 9.6; apparent subunit molecular mass of 28 kDa), appears to be different from the cationic GST alpha-epsilon forms isolated from human liver and kidney as evidenced by its structural, kinetical and immunological properties. This enzyme, which accounts for about 20-30% (on protein basis) of total amount of GSTs, is expressed by only 40% of samples. GST-9.6 has the ability to cross-react in immunoblotting analysis with antisera raised against rat liver GST 2-2, rather than with antisera raised against members of human Alpha, Mu and Pi class GSTs. Although prostate GST-9.6 shows close relationship with the human skin GST pI 9.9, it does not correspond to any other known human GST. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2241927

  8. Selenoproteins and Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    W81XWH-05-1-0009 TITLE: Selenoproteins and Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Veda Diwadkar-Navsariwala, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...From - To) 14 Oct 2004 – 14 Oct 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Selenoproteins and Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT For this postdoctoral fellowship the specific role of selenoproteins (SP) in prostate cancer (PCa) was

  9. [Tuberculosis of the prostate].

    PubMed

    Streltsova, O S; Krupin, V N; Yunusova, K E; Mamonov, M V

    2016-12-01

    Genitourinary tract is the second most common site where extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) occurs. Genitourinary TB is notable for a latent clinical course and difficult diagnosis. The paper presents clinical observations of two patients treated in a urology department of a general public hospital. One of them was diagnosed with tuberculosis of the prostate, MTB+. In the other, TB of the prostate was suspected based on pathologic assessment of the surgical specimen after surgery for prostate cancer.

  10. Screening for prostate cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weirich, Stephen A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both the survival and cure rates for many forms of cancer, unfortunately the same has not been true for prostate cancer. In fact, the age-adjusted death rate from prostate cancer has not significantly improved since 1949, and prostate cancer remains the most common cancer in American men, causing the second highest cancer mortality rate. Topics discussed include the following: serum testosterone levels; diagnosis; mortality statistics; prostate-sppecific antigen (PSA) tests; and the Occupational Medicine Services policy at LeRC.

  11. Potential of telmisartan in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail Ogunbayode; Anunobi, Charles C; Tijani, Kehinde Habeeb; Afolayan, Olasunmbo; Udokwu, Victoria U

    2017-07-20

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common health problem in ageing men. This study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of telmisartan on testosterone-induced BPH in rats. Fifty-four male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly divided into nine groups (n = 6) and orally treated for 28 consecutive days: group 1 - vehicle normal, olive oil (10 mL/kg); group 2 - BPH model control (10 mL/kg); groups 3-5 - telmisartan (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg, respectively); group 6 - pioglitazone (20 mg/kg); group 7 - celecoxib (20 mg/kg); group 8 - combination of telmisartan (5 mg/kg) and pioglitazone (20 mg/kg); group 9 - combination of telmisartan (5 mg/kg) and celecoxib (20 mg/kg). Animals in groups 2-9 were given testosterone propionate in olive oil (3 mg/kg) subcutaneously 15 min after pretreatments. On day 29, blood was collected for the estimation of serum testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The prostates were excised, weighed and subjected to biochemical and histological studies. Testosterone injection induced significant increase in prostatic index, serum testosterone and PSA suggesting BPH as well as increased prostate oxidative stress which were ameliorated with the pretreatment of rats with telmisartan or co-administration of celecoxib and pioglitazone. Histological examination showed that testosterone disrupted the morphology of the prostate epithelial cells evidenced in the involution of the epithelial lining of the acini into the lumen indicating BPH which was reversed by telmisartan. Findings from this study showed that telmisartan alone or in combination with pioglitazone prevented the development of testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  12. Exploration of Prostate Cancer Treatment Induced Neurotoxicity with Neuroimaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Androgen deprived rats and humans show increased levels of brain beta-amyloid, a significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease , and low...testosterone is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease in men. Behavioral studies from our group recently showed that men with prostate cancer on ADT had

  13. In vivo, synergestic inhibition of MAT-LyLu rat prostatic adenocarcinoma growth by polyamine deprivation and low-dose cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, B; Blanchard, Y; Chamaillard, L; Quemener, V; Guillé, F; Havouis, R; Moulinoux, J P

    1996-01-01

    Polyamine deprivation in vivo produces significant tumor growth inhibition of the hormone-resistant, metastatic Dunning Mat-LyLu murine prostatic carcinoma. In order to produce a cytotoxic effect in addition to the cytostatic effect of polyamine deprivation, various chemotherapy regimens, combined with drug-containing polyamine-deficient chow (DC-PDC), were assessed. Triple chemotherapy combining methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and vindesine; and monochemotherapy with high-dose cyclophosphamide (90 mg. kg-1) and low-dose cyclophosphamide (20 mg.kg-1) were studied alone and in combination with DC-PDC. A variant of DC-PDC excluding the polyamine oxidase inhibitor MDL 72527 was also studied in combination with low-dose cyclophosphamide. The triple-chemotherapy regimen alone or in combination with polyamine deprivation was effective on tumor growth inhibition but was also toxic. High-dose cyclophosphamide alone produced significant tumor growth inhibition and an increase in life span. High-dose cyclophosphamide in combination with DC-PDC was also effective on tumor growth but was also toxic. Low-dose cyclophosphamide alone was moderately effective on tumor growth inhibition with a marginal increase in life span. When combined with polyamine deprivation, results with low-dose cyclophosphamide compared favourably with those of high-dose cyclophosphamide alone and prevented the formation of lung metastases. The polyamine oxidase inhibitor does not appear to be mandatory to achieve this effect if DC-PDC is combined with low-dose cyclophosphamide. Polyamine deprivation appears to be an important tool in anticancer therapy, allowing the use of reduced doses of cytotoxic agents with the same antitumoral efficacy.

  14. Androgens and prostate disease

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lori A; Page, Stephanie T

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has established the anabolic benefits of testosterone (T) therapy in hypogonadal men. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding the risks of exogenous androgen use in older men and the potential for adverse effects on the prostate gland. Whether T therapy in older, hypogonadal men might worsen lower urinary tract symptoms or exacerbate, unmask, or even incite prostate cancer development has tempered enthusiasm for T therapy, while known prostatic disease has served as a relative contraindication to T therapy. Androgens are necessary for the development and maintenance of the prostate gland. However, epidemiologic studies do not consistently find a positive relationship between endogenous serum androgen concentrations and the risk of prostate disease. Recent data demonstrate that 5α-reductase inhibitors decrease the risk of low-grade prostate cancer, suggesting that modifying androgen metabolism may have beneficial effects on prostate health, yet similar reductions in high-grade disease have not been observed, thereby questioning the true clinical benefits of these agents for chemoprevention. Knowing how to best investigate the relationship between androgens and the development of prostate disease given the lack of large, randomized trials is difficult. Accumulating data challenges the assumption that alterations in serum androgens have parallel effects within the prostate hormonal environment or change androgen-regulated processes within the gland. Long-term intervention studies are needed to truly ascertain the effects of androgen manipulation on prostate tissue and disease risk. However, available data do not support the notion that restoring serum androgens to normal physiologic ranges drives prostate disease. PMID:24407178

  15. Experimental autoimmune prostatitis induces microglial activation in the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Larry; Done, Joseph D.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is unknown and factors including the host’s immune response and the nervous system have been attributed to the development of CP/CPPS. We previously demonstrated that mast cells and chemokines such as CCL2 and CCL3 play an important role in mediating prostatitis. Here, we examined the role of neuroinflammation and microglia in the CNS in the development of chronic pelvic pain. Methods Experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) was induced using a subcutaneous injection of rat prostate antigen. Sacral spinal cord tissue (segments S4–S5) was isolated and utilized for immunofluorescence or QRT-PCR analysis. Tactile allodynia was measured at baseline and at various points during EAP using Von Frey fibers as a function for pelvic pain. EAP mice were treated with minocycline after 30 days of prostatitis to test the efficacy of microglial inhibition on pelvic pain. Results Prostatitis induced the expansion and activation of microglia and the development of inflammation in the spinal cord as determined by increased expression levels of CCL3, IL-1β, Iba1, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Microglial activation in mice with prostatitis resulted in increased expression of P2X4R and elevated levels of BDNF, two molecular markers associated with chronic pain. Pharmacological inhibition of microglia alleviated pain in mice with prostatitis and resulted in decreased expression of IL-1β, P2X4R, and BDNF. Conclusion Our data shows that prostatitis leads to inflammation in the spinal cord and the activation and expansion of microglia, mechanisms that may contribute to the development and maintenance of chronic pelvic pain. PMID:25263093

  16. Prostate Cancer Pathology Resource Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    researchers. Specimens include prostatectomy tissues (frozen, paraffin embedded, and tissue microarrays (TMAs), serum, plasma, buffy coat, prostatic fluid...Prostate Cancer, biorepository, biomarkers, tissue microarrays 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a...usage by the prostate cancer research community. The specimens in the PCBN include tissues from prostatectomies, serum, plasma, buffy coat, prostatic

  17. Primary malignant melanoma of prostate.

    PubMed

    Doublali, M; Chouaib, A; Khallouk, A; Tazi, M F; El Fassi, M J; Farih, My H; Elfatmi, H; Bendahou, M; Benlemlih, A; Lamarti, O

    2010-05-01

    Primary genitourinary melanoma accounts for less than one per cent of all cases of melanoma. Most cases attributed to the prostate actually originate from the prostatic urethra. Due to its infrequency, primary malignant melanoma of the genitourinary tract presents a difficult diagnostic and management challenge. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the prostate found during transurethral resection of the prostate.

  18. Optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitchian, Shahab

    Preservation of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery is critical in preserving a man's ability to have spontaneous erections following surgery. These microscopic nerves course along the surface of the prostate within a few millimeters of the prostate capsule, and they vary in size and location from one patient to another, making preservation of the nerves difficult during dissection and removal of a cancerous prostate gland. These observations may explain in part the wide variability in reported sexual potency rates (9--86%) following prostate cancer surgery. Any technology capable of providing improved identification, imaging, and visualization of the cavernous nerves during prostate cancer surgery would be of great assistance in improving sexual function after surgery, and result in direct patient benefit. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive optical imaging technique capable of performing high-resolution cross-sectional in vivo and in situ imaging of microstructures in biological tissues. OCT imaging of the cavernous nerves in the rat and human prostate has recently been demonstrated. However, improvements in the OCT system and the quality of the images for identification of the cavernous nerves is necessary before clinical use. The following chapters describe complementary approaches to improving identification and imaging of the cavernous nerves during OCT of the prostate gland. After the introduction to OCT imaging of the prostate gland, the optimal wavelength for deep imaging of the prostate is studied in Chapter 2. An oblique-incidence single point measurement technique using a normal-detector scanning system was implemented to determine the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, mua and m's , of fresh canine prostate tissue, ex vivo, from the diffuse reflectance profile of near-IR light as a function of source-detector distance. The effective attenuation coefficient, mueff, and the Optical Penetration Depth (OPD) were

  19. Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    annotated with the biospecimens. Specialized processing consists of tissue microarray design and construction. Biospecimens (mainly tissue ...provide much sought after biospecimens for prostate cancer research. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer, Biorepository, tissue microarrays, tissue ...and harmonizing a set of common data elements (CDEs): Completed in 1st quarter (October 2014) Task 3. Submit SOPs currently in use to Coordinating

  20. The Prostate Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Frederico R.; Romero, Antonio W.; Filho, Thadeu Brenny; Kulysz, David; Oliveira, Fernando C., Jr.; Filho, Renato Tambara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To help students, residents, and general practitioners to improve the technique, skills, and reproducibility of their prostate examination. Methods: We developed a comprehensive guideline outlining prostate anatomy, indications, patient preparation, positioning, technique, findings, and limitations of this ancient art of urological…

  1. The Prostate Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Frederico R.; Romero, Antonio W.; Filho, Thadeu Brenny; Kulysz, David; Oliveira, Fernando C., Jr.; Filho, Renato Tambara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To help students, residents, and general practitioners to improve the technique, skills, and reproducibility of their prostate examination. Methods: We developed a comprehensive guideline outlining prostate anatomy, indications, patient preparation, positioning, technique, findings, and limitations of this ancient art of urological…

  2. Zinc and prostatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Ho, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Aim to understand the connection between zinc and prostatic cancer, and to summarize the recent findings about the functions of zinc in the maintenance of prostate health. Recent findings Contradictory findings have been reported by epidemiologic studies examining the association between zinc intake and the risk of prostate cancer. However, a growing body of experimental evidence support that high zinc levels are essential for prostate health. The possible mechanisms include the effects of zinc on the inhibition of terminal oxidation, induction of mitochondrial apoptogenesis, and suppression of NFκB activity. The most recent finding is the effects of zinc in the maintenance of DNA integrity in normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) by modulating the expression and activity of DNA repair and damage response proteins, especially p53. Zinc depletion in PrEC increased p53 expression but compromised p53 DNA binding activity resulting an impaired DNA repair function. Moreover, recent findings support the role of zinc transporters as tumor suppressors in the prostate. Summary Future studies need to discover sensitive and specific zinc biomarkers and perform more in vivo studies on the effects of zinc on prostate functions in normal animals or prostate cancer models. PMID:19684515

  3. PROSTATE REGULATION: MODELING ENDOGENOUS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prostate function is an important indicator of androgen status in toxicological studies making predictive modeling of the relevant pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics desirable. Prostate function is an important indicator of androgen status in toxicological studies making predictive modeling of the relevant pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics desirable.

  4. Biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Leman, Eddy S; Getzenberg, Robert H

    2009-09-01

    The detection of prostate cancer using a blood test has by many standards changed the face of the disease. Despite this tremendous success, there are limitations attributed to the use of prostate specific antigen (PSA) as a means to screen and detect prostate cancer. PSA, as its name implies, is not specific for prostate cancer and as such is often found elevated in other prostatic diseases/symptoms associated with the aging male. Clearly, more specific marker(s) that could identify which individuals actually have prostate cancer and differentiate them from those without the disease would be of tremendous value. The search for more accurate and clinically useful biomarkers of prostate cancer has been extensive. This has focused on individual markers, as well as groups of markers. Included among these are PSA isoforms, pathological indicators and stains, nucleic acids and others. This article highlights the discovery of PSA as a first blood-based biomarker for prostate cancer detection, as well as other molecular biomarkers and their potential application in detection of the disease. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Tuberculous prostatitis: mimicking a cancer.

    PubMed

    Aziz, El Majdoub; Abdelhak, Khallouk; Hassan, Farih Moulay

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common type of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis . The kidneys, ureter, bladder or genital organs are usually involved. Tuberculosis of the prostate has mainly been described in immune-compromised patients. However, it can exceptionally be found as an isolated lesion in immune-competent patients. Tuberculosis of the prostate may be difficult to differentiate from carcinoma of the prostate and the chronic prostatitis when the prostate is hard and nodular on digital rectal examination and the urine is negative for tuberculosis bacilli. In many cases, a diagnosis of tuberculous prostatitis is made by the pathologist, or the disease is found incidentally after transurethral resection. Therefore, suspicion of tuberculous prostatitis requires a confirmatory biopsy of the prostate. We report the case of 60-year-old man who presented a low urinary tract syndrome. After clinical and biological examination, and imaging, prostate cancer was highly suspected. Transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate was performed and histological examination showed tuberculosis lesions.

  6. Expression of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin receptors claudin-3 and claudin-4 in prostate cancer epithelium.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Crean, C D; Lee, W H; Cummings, O W; Gabig, T G

    2001-11-01

    The mRNA for Rvp.1 (rat ventral prostate) increases in abundance before gland involution after androgen deprivation. Rvp.1 is homologous to CPE-R, the high-affinity intestinal epithelial receptor for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), and is sufficient to mediate CPE binding and trigger subsequent toxin-mediated cytolysis. Rvp.1 (claudin-3) and CPE-R (claudin-4) are members of a larger family of transmembrane tissue-specific claudin proteins that are essential components of intercellular tight junction structures regulating paracellular ion flux. However, claudin-3 and claudin-4 are the only family members capable of mediating CPE binding and cytolysis. The present study was designed to study the expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 in human prostate tissue as potential targets for CPE toxin-mediated therapy for prostate cancer. On human multiple-tissue Northern blot analysis, mRNAs for both claudin-3 and claudin-4 were expressed at high levels in prostate tissue. In normal prostate tissue, expression of claudin-3 was localized exclusively within acinar epithelial cells by in situ mRNA hybridization. Compared with expression within prostate epithelial cells in surrounding normal glandular tissue, expression of claudin-3 mRNA remained high in the epithelium of prostate adenocarcinoma (10 of 10) and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (five of five). Prostate adenocarcinoma cells metastatic to bone were obtained from a patient with disease progression during antiandrogen therapy. These metastatic cells were prostate-specific antigen-positive by immunohistochemical staining and also expressed functional CPE receptors as measured by sensitivity to CPE-induced cell lysis. The persistent high level of claudin-3 expression in prostate adenocarcinoma and functional cytotoxicity of CPE in metastatic androgen-independent prostate adenocarcinoma suggests a new potential therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer.

  7. Complications of prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Zapała, Lukasz; Cordeiro, Ernesto; Antoniewicz, Artur; Dimitriadis, Georgios; De Reijke, Theo

    2013-07-01

    Biopsy of the prostate is a common procedure with minor complications that are usually self-limited. However, if one considers that millions of men undergo biopsy worldwide, one realizes that although complication rate is low, the number of patients suffering from biopsy complications should not be underestimated and can be a clinically relevant problem for healthcare professionals. In this review, the authors present diagnosis and management of postbiopsy of prostate complications. Bleeding is the most common complication observed after prostate biopsy, but the use of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is not an absolute contraindication to prostate biopsy. Emerging resistance to ciprofloxacin is the most probable cause of the increasing risk of infectious complications after prostate biopsy. Even though extremely rare, fatal complications are possible and were described in case reports.

  8. Lipids and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suburu, Janel; Chen, Yong Q.

    2012-01-01

    The role of lipid metabolism has gained particular interest in prostate cancer research. A large body of literature has outlined the unique upregulation of de novo lipid synthesis in prostate cancer. Concordant with this lipogenic phenotype is a metabolic shift, in which cancer cells use alternative enzymes and pathways to facilitate the production of fatty acids. These newly synthesized lipids may support a number of cellular processes to promote cancer cell proliferation and survival. Hence, de novo lipogenesis is under intense investigation as a therapeutic target. Epidemiologic studies suggest dietary fat may also contribute to prostate cancer; however, whether dietary lipids and de novo synthesized lipids are differentially metabolized remains unclear. Here, we highlight the lipogenic nature of prostate cancer, especially the promotion of de novo lipid synthesis, and the significance of various dietary lipids in prostate cancer development and progression. PMID:22503963

  9. Cryosurgery for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, W E; Bissada, N K

    2003-01-01

    Choice of management for patients with prostate cancer is influenced by patient and disease characteristics and life expectancy. Management options include expectance (watchful waiting), radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and cryosurgical ablation of the prostate (CSAP). The role of cryotherapy in the management of prostate cancer is still evolving. Continued research has allowed the introduction of efficient and safe cryosurgical equipment exemplified by the current third-generation cryosurgical machines. CSAP can be performed in an ambulatory surgery setting or as inpatient surgery with overnight stay. The procedure is performed under continuous ultrasonic monitoring. Mature data from the use of second-generation cryosurgical equipment indicate that CSAP is an effective therapeutic modality for managing patients with prostate cancer. Current data with the third-generation cryosurgical equipment are not mature. However, the favorable side effect profile and the good early responses seem to indicate that this modality will have a prominent role in the management of patients with prostate cancer.

  10. Measurement of hypoxia-related parameters in three sublines of a rat prostate carcinoma using dynamic 18F-FMISO-Pet-Ct and quantitative histology

    PubMed Central

    Mena-Romano, Pamela; Cheng, Caixia; Glowa, Christin; Peschke, Peter; Pan, Leyun; Haberkorn, Uwe; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Karger, Christian P

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is an important resistance factor in radiotherapy and measuring its spatial distribution in tumors non-invasively is therefore of major importance. This study characterizes the hypoxic conditions of three tumor sublines (AT1, HI and H) of the Dunning R3327 prostate tumor model, which differ in histology, differentiation degree, volume doubling time and androgenic sensitivity, using dynamic Fluoromisonidazole (18F-FMISO)-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET-CT) and histology. Measurements were performed for two tumor volumes (average 0.8±0.5 cm3 vs 4.4±2.8 cm3). Data were analyzed according to tumor subline as well as to the shape of the time activity curves (TACs), based on standardized uptake values (SUVs) and a two-tissue compartment model. Quantitative immunohistochemical studies of the hypoxic fraction, vessel density and vessel size were performed using pimonidazole, Hoechst 33342 and CD31 dyes. No significant FMISO uptake was found in small tumors, which had a mean SUV of 0.64±0.36, 0.55±0.10 and 0.45±0.08, for AT1, HI and H sublines respectively. In large tumors, the SUVs were 1.33±0.52, 1.12±0.83 and 0.63±0.16 for AT1, HI and H sublines and the corresponding hypoxic fractions obtained with pimonidazole staining were 0.62±0.23, 0.54±0.24 and 0.07±0.10, respectively. The AT1- was the most and H-tumor was the least hypoxic for both methods (P<0.05). All measurements were able to discriminate different hypoxic conditions, however despite SUV and kinetic parameters correlated with the three identified TAC shapes, most of the histological results did not. These results demonstrate impact and limitations of static and dynamic PET-CT measurements to assess hypoxia non-invasively. PMID:26269773

  11. [Prostate localization systems for prostate radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    de Crevoisier, R; Lagrange, J-L; Messai, T; M'Barek, B; Lefkopoulos, D

    2006-11-01

    The development of sophisticated conformal radiation therapy techniques for prostate cancer, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, implies precise and accurate targeting. Inter- and intrafraction prostate motion can be significant and should be characterized, unless the target volume may occasionally be missed. Indeed, bony landmark-based portal imaging does not provide the positional information for soft-tissue targets (prostate and seminal vesicles) or critical organs (rectum and bladder). In this article, we describe various prostate localization systems used before or during the fraction: rectal balloon, intraprostatic fiducials, ultrasound-based localization, integrated CT/linear accelerator system, megavoltage or kilovoltage cone-beam CT, Calypso 4D localization system tomotherapy, Cyberknife and Exactrac X-Ray 6D. The clinical benefit in using such prostate localization tools is not proven by randomized studies and the feasibility has just been established for some of these techniques. Nevertheless, these systems should improve local control by a more accurate delivery of an increased prescribed dose in a reduced planning target volume.

  12. Visualization of prostatic nerves by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Yeoreum; Jeon, Seung Hwan; Park, Yong Hyun; Jang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Ji Youl; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of prostatic nerves is critical to recovery of a man’s sexual potency after radical prostatectomy. A real-time imaging method of prostatic nerves will be helpful for nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP). Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), which provides both structural and birefringent information of tissue, was applied for detection of prostatic nerves in both rat and human prostate specimens, ex vivo. PS-OCT imaging of rat prostate specimens visualized highly scattering and birefringent fibrous structures superficially, and these birefringent structures were confirmed to be nerves by histology or multiphoton microscopy (MPM). PS-OCT could easily distinguish these birefringent structures from surrounding other tissue compartments such as prostatic glands and fats. PS-OCT imaging of human prostatectomy specimens visualized two different birefringent structures, appearing fibrous and sheet-like. The fibrous ones were confirmed to be nerves by histology, and the sheet-like ones were considered to be fascias surrounding the human prostate. PS-OCT imaging of human prostatectomy specimens along the perimeter showed spatial variation in the amount of birefringent fibrous structures which was consistent with anatomy. These results demonstrate the feasibility of PS-OCT for detection of prostatic nerves, and this study will provide a basis for intraoperative use of PS-OCT. PMID:27699090

  13. [Prostate cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Villers, Arnauld; Rébillard, Xavier; Soulié, Michel; Davin, Jean-Louis; Coloby, Patrick; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Mejean, Arnaud; Irani, Jacques; Coulange, Christian; Mangin, Philippe

    2003-04-01

    Prostate cancer has become the most frequent cancer and the second cause of cancer mortality in men. This public health problem is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing life expectancy. At the present time, prostate cancer will be discovered in one in every eight men during their lifetime. Prostate cancer represents 25% of all new cases of male cancers. Prostate cancer screening is designed to detect early stage, asymptomatic prostate cancer, as the patient's chances of cure are higher when the cancer is diagnosed at an early stage. The conclusions of the ANAES evaluation in 1998 did not recommend mass screening for prostate cancer. Several international prospective randomized studies based on serum PSA assay, sometimes associated with digital rectal examination, are currently underway. France is participating in the European ERSPC study (European Randomized Study of Screening for Cancer Prostate) and is organizing a national study on high-risk populations. While waiting for the final results of these studies, a recommendation needs to be proposed to inform general practitioners and specialists about optimal use of the currently available tests. Based on the conclusions of its oncology committee (composed of urologists, medical oncologists, radiotherapists, pathologists and radiologists), the Association Française d'Urologie proposes a recommendation concerning prostate cancer screening and defines its modalities, especially concerning the target population, screening tests and the information given to men before screening. The Association Française d'Urologie recommends prostate cancer screening by PSA assay (prostate specific antigen) and digital rectal examination annually between the ages of 50 and 75 years, and from the age of 45 years in men with a family or ethnic risk. If total PSA is above the normal value of the test or if digital rectal examination is abnormal, referral to a urologist is recommended. Information concerning the limits

  14. Preventing and Treating Prostate Cancer Spread to Bone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prostate Cancer Treating Prostate Cancer Preventing and Treating Prostate Cancer Spread to Bones If prostate cancer spreads to ... Away or Comes Back After Treatment More In Prostate Cancer About Prostate Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  15. Pharmacological ascorbic acid suppresses syngeneic tumor growth and metastases in hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Harvey B; Levine, Mark A; Eidelman, Ofer; Pollard, Morris

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test for the influence of ascorbic acid on tumorigenicity and metastases of implanted PAIII prostate cancer adenocarcinoma cells in syngeneic LW rats. Hormone-refractory prostate cancer PAIII cells were implanted subcutaneously into immunologically intact, Lobund-Wistar (LW) rats. Intraperitoneal pharmacological doses of ascorbic acid were administered each day for the ensuing 30 days. On the 40th day, animals were sacrificed. Local tumor weights were measured, and metastases were counted. At the end of the 40 day experimental period, the primary tumors were found to be significantly reduced in weight (p=0.026). In addition, sub-pleural lung metastases were even more profoundly reduced in number and size (p=0.009). Grossly enlarged ipsilateral lymph node metastases declined from 7 of 15 rats to 1 of 15 rats. Pharmacological doses of ascorbic acid suppress tumor growth and metastases in hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

  16. Optimization of prostate biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Weir, James; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Connelly, Roger R.; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    1999-05-01

    Urologists routinely use the systematic sextant needle biopsy technique to detect prostate cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that this technique has a significant sampling error. We have developed a novel 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator based upon 201 whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens to compare the diagnostic accuracy of various prostate needle biopsy protocols. Computerized prostate models have been developed to accurately depict the anatomy of the prostate and all individual tumor foci. We obtained 18-biopsies of each prostate model to determine the detection rates of various biopsy protocols. As a result, the 10- and 12- pattern biopsy protocols had a 99.0 percent detection rate, while the traditional sextant biopsy protocol rate was only 72.6 percent. The 5-region biopsy protocol had a 90.5 percent detection rate. the lateral sextant pattern revealed a detection rate of 95.5 percent, whereas the 4-pattern lateral biopsy protocol had a 93.5 percent detection rate. Our results suggest that all the biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon the five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern. Lateral biopsies in the mid and apical zones of the gland are the most important.

  17. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vemana, Goutham; Hamilton, Robert J; Andriole, Gerald L; Freedland, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Large prospective randomized trials, such as the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial, and Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), have provided practitioners with considerable data regarding methods of treatment and prevention of prostate cancer. The best-studied medications for prevention are 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Their efficacy and side effects are well characterized. Other medications, dietary nutrients, and supplements have not been as well studied and generally do not demonstrate efficacy for disease prevention with an acceptable level of evidence.

  18. Can homeopathic treatment slow prostate cancer growth?

    PubMed

    Jonas, Wayne B; Gaddipati, Jaya P; Rajeshkumar, N V; Sharma, Anuj; Thangapazham, Rajesh L; Warren, Jim; Singh, Anoop K; Ives, John A; Olsen, Cara; Mog, Steven R; Maheshwari, Radha K

    2006-12-01

    Homeopathy is a complementary medicine widely used around the world. Despite extensive use of homeopathy for cancer and other serious conditions with reported success, clinical and laboratory research has been equivocal, and no rigorous research has been done on cancer. In 1999, the US National Cancer Institute evaluated the effects of homeopathic treatment of cancer from a clinic in India and has released a request for protocols to conduct further research into this treatment. Therefore, the authors conducted a series of carefully controlled laboratory studies evaluating the effects of commonly used homeopathic remedies in cell and animal models of prostate cancer. One hundred male Copenhagen rats were randomly assigned to either treatment or control groups after inoculation with prostate tumor cells. Prostate tumor cells DU-145, LNCaP, and MAT-LyLu were exposed to 5 homeopathic remedies. Male Copenhagen rats were injected with MAT-LyLu cells and exposed to the same homeopathic remedies for 5 weeks. In vitro outcomes included tumor cell viability and apoptosis gene expression. In vivo outcomes included tumor incidence, volume, weight, total mortality, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, apoptotic cell death (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated d-uridine triphosphate nick end labeling), and gene expression (rAPO-multiprobe). There were no effects on cell viability or gene expression in 3 prostate cell lines with any remedies at any exposure time. There was a 23% reduction in tumor incidence (P < .0001), and for animals with tumors, there was a 38% reduction in tumor volume in homeopathy-treated animals versus controls (P < .02). At time of killing, experimental animals with tumors had a 13% lower average tumor weight (P < .05). Tumors in these treated animals showed a 19% increase in apoptotic cell death (P < .05) and reduced PCNA-positive cells. The findings indicate that selected homeopathic remedies for the present study have no

  19. Recent advances in prostate development and links to prostatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Powers, Ginny L; Marker, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    The prostate is a branched ductal-acinar gland that is part of the male reproductive tract. Prostate development depends upon the integration of steroid hormone signals, paracrine interactions between the stromal and epithelial tissue layers, and the actions of cell autonomous factors. Several genes and signaling pathways are known to be required for one or more steps of prostate development including epithelial budding, duct elongation, branching morphogenesis, and/or cellular differentiation. Recent progress in the field of prostate development has included the application of genome-wide technologies including serial analysis of gene expression, expression profiling microarrays, and other large-scale approaches to identify new genes and pathways that are essential for prostate development. The aggregation of experimental results into online databases by organized multilab projects including the Genitourinary Developmental Molecular Atlas Project has also accelerated the understanding of molecular pathways that function during prostate development and identified links between prostate anatomy and molecular signaling. Rapid progress has also recently been made in understanding the nature and role of candidate stem cells in the developing and adult prostate. This has included the identification of putative prostate stem cell markers, lineage tracing, and organ reconstitution studies. However, several issues regarding their origin, precise nature, and possible role(s) in disease remain unresolved. Nevertheless, several links between prostatic developmental mechanisms and the pathogenesis of prostatic diseases including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer have led to recent progress on targeting developmental pathways as therapeutic strategies for these diseases. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prostate resection - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... invasive - discharge Transurethral resection of the prostate - discharge Review Date 6/29/2015 Updated by: Jennifer Sobol, ... the Michigan Institute of Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by ...

  1. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissues to make echoes that form a sonogram (computer picture) of the prostate. Transrectal magnetic resonance imaging ( ... uses a strong magnet, radio waves , and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of ...

  2. Enlarged prostate gland

    MedlinePlus

    ... enlarges in size in a process called benign hypertrophy, which means that the gland got larger without ... in several of the symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, or BPH. Symptoms may include a slowed or ...

  3. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Brand, Timothy C; Canby-Hagino, Edith D; Pratap Kumar, A; Ghosh, Rita; Leach, Robin J; Thompson, Ian M

    2006-08-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignancy with multiple potential opportunities for cancer prevention. As the genetic basis of this malignancy is further understood, prevention strategies will be developed for individual patients based on specific risk factors and pathways of carcinogenesis. The PCPT has conclusively proven that prostate cancer prevention is possible. The results of the SELECT should be available within several years. An enormous challenge for the medical community will be the development of an efficient strategy to evaluate the substantial number of dietary, behavioral, and pharmacologic prevention opportunities. Ultimately, the goal of prostate can-cer prevention is to (1) identify men who are destined to develop clinically significant prostate cancer, and (2) provide individualized agents to prevent disease development.

  4. Cholesterol and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer risk can be modified by environmental factors, however the molecular mechanisms affecting susceptibility to this disease are not well understood. As a result of a series of recently published studies, the steroidal lipid, cholesterol, has emerged as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in prostate cancer. This review summarizes the findings from human studies as well as animal and cell biology models, which suggest that high circulating cholesterol increases risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while cholesterol lowering strategies may confer protective benefit. Relevant molecular processes that have been experimentally tested and might explain these associations are described. We suggest that these promising results now could be applied prospectively to attempt to lower risk of prostate cancer in select populations.

  5. Advanced Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... if it has spread to: • Bones • Lungs • Liver • Brain • Lymph nodes outside the pelvis • Other organs You may be diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer when you are first diagnosed, after having completed ...

  6. Prostate cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... test. A faster increase could show a more aggressive tumor. A prostate biopsy is done in your ... suggest the cancer is slow growing and not aggressive. Higher numbers indicate a faster growing cancer that ...

  7. Prostate Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ali

    2017-03-30

    Prostate ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a rare subtype of prostate adenocarcinoma that shows more aggressive behavior than conventional prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma. PDA demonstrates similar clinical and paraclinical features such as prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma; therefore, clinical distinction of the 2 entities is very difficult (if not impossible) and histopathology plays an important role in the diagnosis of the disease. This review discusses all the necessary information needed for the diagnosis and prognosis of PDA including the morphologic features of PDA, an introduction about the known variants of PDA with helpful hints in grading of each variant, tips on differential diagnosis of PDA from the common morphologic mimickers, a detailed discussion on the value of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of PDA, and pathologic features that are helpful in determining the outcome.

  8. Enlarged prostate - after care

    MedlinePlus

    ... with alpha-1- blockers. Other drugs such as finasteride and dutasteride may also be prescribed. These medicines ... Fink HA, Macdonald R, Rutks I, Wilt TJ. Finasteride for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . ...

  9. Presence of PSA auto-antibodies in men with prostate abnormalities (prostate cancer/benign prostatic hyperplasia/prostatitis).

    PubMed

    Lokant, M T; Naz, R K

    2015-04-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by the prostate, liquefies post-ejaculate semen. PSA is detected in semen and blood. Increased circulating PSA levels indicate prostate abnormality [prostate cancer (PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis (PTIS)], with variance among individuals. As the prostate has been proposed as an immune organ, we hypothesise that variation in PSA levels among men may be due to presence of auto-antibodies against PSA. Sera from healthy men (n = 28) and men having prostatitis (n = 25), BPH (n = 30) or PC (n = 29) were tested for PSA antibody presence using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) values converted to standard deviation (SD) units, and Western blotting. Taking ≥2 SD units as cut-off for positive immunoreactivity, 0% of normal men, 0% with prostatitis, 33% with BPH and 3.45% with PC demonstrated PSA antibodies. One-way analysis of variance (anova) performed on the mean absorbance values and SD units of each group showed BPH as significantly different (P < 0.01) compared with PC and prostatitis. All others were nonsignificant (P < 0.05). Men (33%) with BPH had PSA antibodies by ELISA and Western blot. These discoveries may find clinical application in differential diagnosis among prostate abnormalities, especially differentiating BPH from prostate cancer and prostatitis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. A Multiscale, Mechanism-Driven, Dynamic Model for the Effects of 5α-Reductase Inhibition on Prostate Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Zager, Michael G.; Barton, Hugh A.

    2012-01-01

    A systems-level mathematical model is presented that describes the effects of inhibiting the enzyme 5α-reductase (5aR) on the ventral prostate of the adult male rat under chronic administration of the 5aR inhibitor, finasteride. 5aR is essential for androgen regulation in males, both in normal conditions and disease states. The hormone kinetics and downstream effects on reproductive organs associated with perturbing androgen regulation are complex and not necessarily intuitive. Inhibition of 5aR decreases the metabolism of testosterone (T) to the potent androgen 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). This results in decreased cell proliferation, fluid production and 5aR expression as well as increased apoptosis in the ventral prostate. These regulatory changes collectively result in decreased prostate size and function, which can be beneficial to men suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and could play a role in prostate cancer. There are two distinct isoforms of 5aR in male humans and rats, and thus developing a 5aR inhibitor is a challenging pursuit. Several inhibitors are on the market for treatment of BPH, including finasteride and dutasteride. In this effort, comparisons of simulated vs. experimental T and DHT levels and prostate size are depicted, demonstrating the model accurately described an approximate 77% decrease in prostate size and nearly complete depletion of prostatic DHT following 21 days of daily finasteride dosing in rats. This implies T alone is not capable of maintaining a normal prostate size. Further model analysis suggests the possibility of alternative dosing strategies resulting in similar or greater effects on prostate size, due to complex kinetics between T, DHT and gene occupancy. With appropriate scaling and parameterization for humans, this model provides a multiscale modeling platform for drug discovery teams to test and generate hypotheses about drugging strategies for indications like BPH and prostate cancer, such as compound

  11. Knockout AR in Prostate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    significance. By week 24 and thereafter, this difference was significant. To determine if pes-ARKO mice contain abnormalities other than enlarged ventral...earlier studies by Donjacour and colleagues (15). To determine whether pes-ARKO mice contain abnormalities other than enlarged VPs, we evaluated...Kid, kidney; U, ureter; AP, anterior prostate; Pr, all lobes of prostate; T, testes; Pe, glans penis . *, P 0.05; ***, P 0.001. Fig. 1

  12. Resveratrol improves prostate fibrosis during progression of urinary dysfunction in chronic prostatitis.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Zeng, Hui-Zhi; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Jia-Shu; Duan, Xingping; Zeng, Xiao-Na; Gong, Feng-Tao; Liu, Qi; Yang, Bo

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether prostate fibrosis was associated with urinary dysfunction in chronic prostatitis (CP) and whether resveratrol improved urinary dysfunction and the underlying molecular mechanism. Rat model of CP was established via subcutaneous injections of DPT vaccine and subsequently treated with resveratrol. Bladder pressure and volume tests investigated the effect of resveratrol on urinary dysfunction in CP rats. Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining examined the expression level of C-kit/SCF and TGF-β/Wnt/β-catenin. Compared to the control group, the maximum capacity of the bladder, residual urine volume and maximum voiding pressure, the activity of C-kit/SCF and TGF-β/Wnt/β-catenin pathways were increased significantly in the CP group. Resveratrol treatment significantly improved these factors. CP induced significantly prostate fibrosis, which exhibits a close relationship with urinary dysfunction. Resveratrol improved fibrosis, which may be associated with the suppression of C-kit/SCF and TGF-β/Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    lipids in test controls. Key Metabolomics Research Accomplishments 1) Developed unbiased mass spectrometry methods to profile 500 lipids . 2) Completed...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0168 TITLE: Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jackilen...Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0168 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  14. Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    test controls. Key Metabolomics Research Accomplishments 1) Developed unbiased mass spectrometry methods to profile 500 lipids . 2) Completed...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0169 PC110361P1 TITLE: Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE Imaging Prostatic Lipids to Distinguish Aggressive Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0169 5c. PROGRAM

  15. Obesity and Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yin; Giovannucci, Edward

    Prostate cancer is a complex, heterogeneous disease. Factors related to detection, particularly PSA screening, further increase heterogeneity in the manifestation of the disease. It is thus not possible to provide a simple summary of the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer. Findings on obesity, often defined using body mass index (BMI), and total prostate cancer risk have been mixed; however, obesity is relatively consistently associated with a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer, with aggressiveness defined in various ways (e.g., advanced stage, fatal, poorer prognosis in men with prostate cancer). Many methodologic issues (e.g., influence of PSA screening, detection bias and treatment) need to be thoroughly considered in both existing and future etiologic and prognostic research. Biological mechanisms supporting the link are under investigation, but may involve insulin and IGF axis, sex steroid hormones and alterations in metabolism. Some promising data suggest that molecular sub-types of prostate cancer may offer insights into etiology, but further study is required. A full evaluation of body fatness and weight change over the life course would not only provide insights to the underlying mechanisms but also allow more effective interventions.

  16. Perinatal Exposure to Oestradiol and Bisphenol A Alters the Prostate Epigenome and Increases Susceptibility to Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Gail S.; Tang, Wan-Yee; Belmonte, Jessica; Ho, Shuk-Mei

    2010-01-01

    An important and controversial health concern is whether low-dose exposures to hormonally active environmental oestrogens such as bisphenol A can promote human diseases including prostate cancer. Our studies in rats have shown that pharmacological doses of oestradiol administered during the critical window of prostate development result in marked prostate pathology in adulthood that progress to neoplastic lesions with ageing. Our recent studies have also demonstrated that transient developmental exposure of rats to low, environmentally relevant doses of bisphenol A or oestradiol increases prostate gland susceptibility to adult-onset precancerous lesions and hormonal carcinogenesis. These findings indicate that a wide range of oestrogenic exposures during development can predispose to prostatic neoplasia that suggests a potential developmental basis for this adult disease. To identify a molecular basis for oestrogen imprinting, we screened for DNA methylation changes over time in the exposed prostate glands. We found permanent alterations in DNA methylation patterns of multiple cell signalling genes suggesting an epigenetic mechanism of action. For phosphodiesterase type 4 variant 4 (PDE4D4), an enzyme responsible for intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate breakdown, a specific methylation cluster was identified in the 5′-flanking CpG island that was gradually hypermethylated with ageing in normal prostates resulting in loss of gene expression. However, in prostates exposed to neonatal oestradiol or bisphenol A, this region became hypomethylated with ageing resulting in persistent and elevated PDE4D4 expression. In total, these findings indicate that low-dose exposures to ubiquitous environmental oestrogens impact the prostate epigenome during development and in so doing, promote prostate disease with ageing. PMID:18226066

  17. Parental High-Fat Diet Promotes Inflammatory and Senescence-Related Changes in Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Shweta; Jena, Gopabandhu; Shah, Heta; Chhabra, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Background. Obesity and dietary habits are associated with increased incidences of aging-related prostatic diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate transgenerational effects of chronic high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on inflammation and senescence-related changes in prostate. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were kept on either normal or HFD one. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA β-gal) activity, inflammation, and cellular proliferation were determined in the prostate. Results. Increased SA β-gal activity, expression of p53, and cell proliferation marker PCNA were observed in ventral prostate of HFD-fed rats. Immunostaining for p53 and PCNA revealed that the p53 immunopositive cells were primarily in stroma while PCNA immunopositive cells were epithelial cells. An increase in expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) was observed in prostate of weaning pups HFD-fed parents. However, in adult pups, irrespective of dietary habit, a significant increase in the expression of COX-2, PCNA, phosphorylation of NF-kB, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and SA β-gal activity was observed. Conclusions. Present investigation reports that HFD feeding promotes accumulation of p53 expressing cells, proliferation of epithelial cells, and senescence-related changes in prostate. Further, parental HFD-feeding upholds inflammatory, proliferative, and senescence-related changes in prostate of pups. PMID:28261375

  18. Extratumoral Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Expressing Macrophages Likely Promote Primary and Metastatic Prostate Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Halin Bergström, Sofia; Nilsson, Maria; Adamo, Hanibal; Thysell, Elin; Jernberg, Emma; Stattin, Pär; Widmark, Anders; Wikström, Pernilla; Bergh, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive tumors induce tumor-supporting changes in the benign parts of the prostate. One factor that has increased expression outside prostate tumors is hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1). To investigate HO-1 expression in more detail, we analyzed samples of tumor tissue and peritumoral normal prostate tissue from rats carrying cancers with different metastatic capacity, and human prostate cancer tissue samples from primary tumors and bone metastases. In rat prostate tumor samples, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the main site of HO-1 synthesis was HO-1+ macrophages that accumulated in the tumor-bearing organ, and at the tumor-invasive front. Small metastatic tumors were considerably more effective in attracting HO-1+ macrophages than larger non-metastatic ones. In clinical samples, accumulation of HO-1+ macrophages was seen at the tumor invasive front, almost exclusively in high-grade tumors, and it correlated with the presence of bone metastases. HO-1+ macrophages, located at the tumor invasive front, were more abundant in bone metastases than in primary tumors. HO-1 expression in bone metastases was variable, and positively correlated with the expression of macrophage markers but negatively correlated with androgen receptor expression, suggesting that elevated HO-1 could be a marker for a subgroup of bone metastases. Together with another recent observation showing that selective knockout of HO-1 in macrophages reduced prostate tumor growth and metastatic capacity in animals, the results of this study suggest that extratumoral HO-1+ macrophages may have an important role in prostate cancer.

  19. New Prostate Cancer Treatment Target

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified a potential alternative approach to blocking a key molecular driver of an advanced form of prostate cancer, called androgen-independent or castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  20. Understanding your prostate cancer risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000931.htm Understanding your prostate cancer risk To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Are you at risk for developing prostate cancer in your lifetime? Learn about the risk factors ...

  1. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Prostate Cancer Abiraterone Acetate Bicalutamide Cabazitaxel Casodex (Bicalutamide) Degarelix Docetaxel ...

  2. FastStats: Prostate Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... by procedure category and age [PDF - 168 KB] Hospice care Number of hospice care discharges with prostate cancer as primary diagnosis: 16,800 (2007) Percent of hospice care discharges with prostate cancer as primary diagnosis: 1. ...

  3. Prostatic microenvironment in senescence: fibroblastic growth factors × hormonal imbalance.

    PubMed

    Hetzl, A C; Montico, F; Lorencini, R M; Kido, L A; Cândido, E M; Cagnon, V H A

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to characterize and correlate steroid hormone receptors with the FGF2, FGF7 and FGF8 reactivities in the prostatic epithelium and stroma in senile rats. Fifty male senile rats and 10 young male rats were divided into the young (YNG), the senile groups (SE), the castrated group (CAS), the estrogen-deficient group (ED), the castrated + estrogen group (CASE), and the estrogen-deficient + androgen group (EDTEST). The ventral prostate was submitted to immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses. The results showed decreased AR and ERβ levels and increased ERα in the senile animals in relation to YNG group. Increased ERα and ERβ reactivities presenting differential localization were characterized in the CASE group compared to the CAS group. Increased FGF2 level was observed in the stroma of the CAS and ED groups in relation to the SE group and in the epithelium of the ED group in relation to the other groups. Increased and differential immunolocalization of FGF7 levels were observed in the CAS, ED and CASE groups. The FGF8 levels showed differential localization in the CAS and ED groups compared to the senile group. The intense hormone ablation was favorable to the autocrine signaling of FGF2 and FGF8. FGF7 could be activated in the androgen-independent via considering the increased FGF7 in the castrated rats. We concluded that hormone ablation in senescence was favorable to activation or/and to fibroblast signaling in the prostatic microenvironment.

  4. Methylseleninic acid downregulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in invasive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Indu; Null, Kevin; Wolter, William; Suckow, Mark A; King, Tonya; Pinto, John T; Sinha, Raghu

    2012-03-15

    Alternative strategies are needed to control growth of advanced and hormone refractory prostate cancer. In this regard, we investigated the efficacy of methylseleninic acid (MSeA), a penultimate precursor to the highly reactive selenium metabolite, methylselenol, to inhibit growth of invasive and hormone refractory rat (PAIII) and human (PC-3 and PC-3M) prostate cancer cells. Our results demonstrate that MSeA inhibits PAIII cell growth in vitro as well as reduces weights of tumors generated by PAIII cells treated ex vivo. A significant reduction in the number of metastatic lung foci by MSeA treatment was also noted in Lobund-Wistar rats. The PAIII cells along with PC-3, DU145 and PC-3M cells undergo apoptosis after MSeA treatments in both normoxia and hypoxia. Treatment of metastatic rat and human prostate cancer cell lines with MSeA decreased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) levels in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, HIF-1α transcription activity both in normoxic and hypoxic conditions is reduced after MSeA treatment of prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, VEGF and GLUT1, downstream targets of HIF-1α, were also reduced in prostate cancer cells after MSeA treatment. Our study illustrates the efficacy of MSeA in controlling growth of hormone refractory prostate cancer by downregulating HIF-1α, which is possibly occurring through stabilization or increase in prolyl hydroxylase activity. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  5. Prostate Cancer Skeletal Metastases: Pathobiology and Interventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    in higher levels in prostate carcinoma than in benign prostatic hyperplasia [35, 36], and is found in human metastatic lesions in bone [37]. However...compared to normal controls, benign prostatic hyperplasia , prostatitis, and localized or recurrent disease. In an animal model, prostate tumor cells...Malakouti S, Antar S, Kukreja S. Enhanced expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in prostate cancer as compared with benign prostatic hyperplasia . Hum

  6. Primary malignant melanoma of prostate

    PubMed Central

    Doublali, M.; Chouaib, A.; Khallouk, A.; Tazi, M. F.; El Fassi, M. J.; Farih, My. H.; Elfatmi, H.; Bendahou, M.; Benlemlih, A.; Lamarti, O.

    2010-01-01

    Primary genitourinary melanoma accounts for less than one per cent of all cases of melanoma. Most cases attributed to the prostate actually originate from the prostatic urethra. Due to its infrequency, primary malignant melanoma of the genitourinary tract presents a difficult diagnostic and management challenge. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the prostate found during transurethral resection of the prostate. PMID:20882159

  7. Expression of Pleiotrophin in the Prostate is Androgen Regulated and it Functions as an Autocrine Regulator of Mesenchyme and Cancer Associated Fibroblasts and as a Paracrine Regulator of Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Brigid; Vanpoucke, Griet; Grace, O Cathal; Smith, Lee; Anderson, Richard A; Riddick, Antony CP; Franco, Omar E; Hayward, Simon W; Thomson, Axel A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Androgens and paracrine signaling from mesenchyme/stroma regulate development and disease of the prostate, and gene profiling studies of inductive prostate mesenchyme have identified candidate molecules such as pleiotrophin (Ptn). METHODS Ptn transcripts and protein were localized by in situ and immunohistochemistry and Ptn mRNA was quantitated by Northern blot and qRT-PCR. Ptn function was examined by addition of hPTN protein to rat ventral prostate organ cultures, primary human fetal prostate fibroblasts, prostate cancer associated fibroblasts, and BPH1 epithelia. RESULTS During development, Ptn transcripts and protein were expressed in ventral mesenchymal pad (VMP) and prostatic mesenchyme. Ptn was localized to mesenchyme surrounding ductal epithelial tips undergoing branching morphogenesis, and was located on the surface of epithelia. hPTN protein stimulated branching morphogenesis and stromal and epithelial proliferation, when added to rat VP cultures, and also stimulated growth of fetal human prostate fibroblasts, prostate cancer associated fibroblasts, and BPH1 epithelia. PTN mRNA was enriched in patient-matched normal prostate fibroblasts versus prostate cancer associated fibroblasts. PTN also showed male enriched expression in fetal human male urethra versus female, and between wt male and ARKO male mice. Transcripts for PTN were upregulated by testosterone in fetal human prostate fibroblasts and organ cultures of female rat VMP. Ptn protein was increased by testosterone in organ cultures of female rat VMP and in rat male urethra compared to female. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that in the prostate Ptn functions as a regulator of both mesenchymal and epithelial proliferation, and that androgens regulate Ptn levels. Prostate 71:305–317, 2011. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20812209

  8. Cholesterol and Benign Prostate Disease

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Michael R.; Solomon, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association bet ween BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemi, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept. PMID:21862201

  9. Cholesterol and benign prostate disease.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    The origins of benign prostatic diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS), are poorly understood. Patients suffering from benign prostatic symptoms report a substantially reduced quality of life, and the relationship between benign prostate conditions and prostate cancer is uncertain. Epidemiologic data for BPH and CP/CPPS are limited, however an apparent association between BPH symptoms and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been consistently reported. The prostate synthesizes and stores large amounts of cholesterol and prostate tissues may be particularly sensitive to perturbations in cholesterol metabolism. Hypercholesterolemia, a major risk factor for CVD, is also a risk factor for BPH. Animal model and clinical trial findings suggest that agents that inhibit cholesterol absorption from the intestine, such as the class of compounds known as polyene macrolides, can reduce prostate gland size and improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Observational studies indicate that cholesterol-lowering drugs reduce the risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while prostate cancer cell growth and survival pathways depend in part on cholesterol-sensitive biochemical mechanisms. Here we review the evidence that cholesterol metabolism plays a role in the incidence of benign prostate disease and we highlight possible therapeutic approaches based on this concept.

  10. MYC and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Cheryl M.; Bieberich, Charles J.; Dang, Chi V.; Nelson, William G.; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer, the majority of which is adenocarcinoma, is the most common epithelial cancer affecting a majority of elderly men in Western nations. Its manifestation, however, varies from clinically asymptomatic insidious neoplasms that progress slowly and do not threaten life to one that is highly aggressive with a propensity for metastatic spread and lethality if not treated in time. A number of somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations occur in prostate cancer cells. Some of these changes, such as loss of the tumor suppressors PTEN and p53, are linked to disease progression. Others, such as ETS gene fusions, appear to be linked more with early phases of the disease, such as invasion. Alterations in chromosome 8q24 in the region of MYC have also been linked to disease aggressiveness for many years. However, a number of recent studies in human tissues have indicated that MYC appears to be activated at the earliest phases of prostate cancer (e.g., in tumor-initiating cells) in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, a key precursor lesion to invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. The initiation and early progression of prostate cancer can be recapitulated in genetically engineered mouse models, permitting a richer understanding of the cause and effects of loss of tumor suppressors and activation of MYC. The combination of studies using human tissues and mouse models paints an emerging molecular picture of prostate cancer development and early progression. This picture reveals that MYC contributes to disease initiation and progression by stimulating an embryonic stem cell–like signature characterized by an enrichment of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and by repressing differentiation. These insights pave the way to potential novel therapeutic concepts based on MYC biology. PMID:21779461

  11. Utility of ADC measurement on diffusion-weighted MRI in differentiation of prostate cancer, normal prostate and prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Esen, Meltem; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Akpolat, Nusret; Orhan, Irfan; Kocakoc, Ercan

    2013-08-01

    To determine the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in differentiation of prostate cancer from normal prostate parenchyma and prostatitis we obtained ADC values of 50 patients at b 100, 600 and 1,000 s/mm(2) diffusion gradients. The ADC values of prostate cancer group were significantly lower than normal prostate and prostatitis group at b 600 and 1,000 s/mm(2) gradients. The ADC values at high diffusion gradients may be used in differentiation prostate cancer from normal prostate and prostatitis.

  12. Bisphenol A Promotes Human Prostate Stem-Progenitor Cell Self-Renewal and Increases In Vivo Carcinogenesis in Human Prostate Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen-Yang; Shi, Guang-Bin; Hu, Dan-Ping; Majumdar, Shyama; Li, Guannan; Huang, Ke; Nelles, Jason L.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Walker, Cheryl Lyn; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in rodent models have shown that early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) reprograms the prostate and enhances its susceptibility to hormonal carcinogenesis with aging. To determine whether the human prostate is similarly sensitive to BPA, the current study used human prostate epithelial stem-like cells cultured from prostates of young, disease-free donors. Similar to estradiol-17β (E2), BPA increased stem-progenitor cell self-renewal and expression of stem-related genes in a dose-dependent manner. Further, 10 nM BPA and E2 possessed equimolar membrane-initiated signaling with robust induction of p-Akt and p-Erk at 15 minutes. To assess in vivo carcinogenicity, human prostate stem-progenitor cells combined with rat mesenchyme were grown as renal grafts in nude mice, forming normal human prostate epithelium at 1 month. Developmental BPA exposure was achieved through oral administration of 100 or 250 μg BPA/kg body weight to hosts for 2 weeks after grafting, producing free BPA levels of 0.39 and 1.35 ng/mL serum, respectively. Carcinogenesis was driven by testosterone plus E2 treatment for 2 to 4 months to model rising E2 levels in aging men. The incidence of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma markedly increased from 13% in oil-fed controls to 33% to 36% in grafts exposed in vivo to BPA (P < .05). Continuous developmental BPA exposure through in vitro (200 nM) plus in vivo (250 μg/kg body weight) treatments increased high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia/cancer incidence to 45% (P < .01). Together, the present findings demonstrate that human prostate stem-progenitor cells are direct BPA targets and that developmental exposure to BPA at low doses increases hormone-dependent cancer risk in the human prostate epithelium. PMID:24424067

  13. Pharmacological studies on androgen suppression in therapy of prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sandow, J; von Rechenberg, W; Engelbart, K

    1988-01-01

    In hormone-dependent prostate carcinoma, androgens can be suppressed into the castrate range by LHRH agonists. Testosterone secretion is blocked at two levels: testicular androgens and adrenal androgens. In humans, the contribution of testicular androgens is about 95%, whereas in the rat, the adrenal androgen secretion is negligible. Pharmacological studies were performed on the suppressive effect of the LHRH agonist, buserelin on androgen-dependent organs in adult rats. The reduction in pituitary and testicular binding capacity was monitored during treatment by injection, or by long-term infusion. Marked differences in suppressive mechanisms activated by the different regimens were observed. Changes in testicular steroid biosynthesis were analysed by incubation of testes after treatment with HCG, measuring the spectrum of C21/C19-steroids in incubation media. In particular, the levels of intraprostatic androgens were determined during treatment with daily buserelin injections, or with sustained release formulations of buserelin. The tissue content of testosterone and 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were both markedly lowered. In castrate rats, stimulation of adrenal function by ACTH infusion had no effect on the prostate weight or intratesticular T/DHT content. Combination therapy during the initial phase of treatment by an androgen receptor blocker (cyproterone acetate) and buserelin (infusion or implants) was more effective to suppress prostate weight and intra-prostatic T/DHT content than therapy with the single compounds alone. Spermatogenesis and fertility were suppressed after prolonged treatment periods of 6-12 months; the testicular atrophy was not reversible in these long-term injection studies. Similar studies in dogs and monkeys have shown a different result: inhibition of spermatogenesis was fully reversible. It is concluded that studies on the mechanism of androgen suppression by LHRH agonists and the effects on androgen dependent organs provide

  14. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Białek, Waldemar; Rudzki, Sławomir; Iberszer, Paweł; Wronecki, Lech

    2016-12-01

    Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin.

  15. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy mimicking prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rudzki, Sławomir; Iberszer, Paweł; Wronecki, Lech

    2016-01-01

    Intravesical immunotherapy with attenuated strains of Mycobacterium bovis is a widely used therapeutic option in patients with non-muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. A rare complication of intravesical therapy with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is granulomatous prostatitis, which due to increasing levels of prostate-specific antigen and abnormalities found in transrectal examination of the prostate may suggest concomitant prostate cancer. A case of extensive granulomatous prostatitis in a 61-year-old patient which occurred after the first course of a well-tolerated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy is presented. Due to abnormalities found in rectal examination and an abnormal transrectal ultrasound image of the prostate with extensive infiltration mimicking neoplastic hyperplasia a core biopsy of the prostate was performed. Histopathological examination revealed inflammatory infiltration sites of tuberculosis origin. PMID:28138411

  16. [Expressions of the androgen receptor in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui; Liu, Zhi-Yong; Sun, Ying-Hao; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Gao, Xu; Jiao, Li

    2010-11-01

    To study the expressions of the androgen receptor (AR) in the normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer (PCa), and investigate the relationship of AR with prostatic hyperplasia and PCa. The expressions of AR were detected in 15 normal prostate, 20 benign prostatic hyperplasia and 40 PCa samples by immunofluorescent staining, real-time PCR and Western blotting. Real-time PCR and Western blotting revealed no statistically significant differences in the expressions of AR between the normal prostate and prostatic hyperplasia groups (P < 0.05), while immunofluorescent staining exhibited an increase of the expression in the BPH tissues. All the three methods showed that the AR expression was significantly higher in the PCa than in the normal prostate and prostatic hyperplasia groups (P < 0.05), in the well differentiated than in the poorly differentiated tumor, and in the early than in the advanced stage (P < 0.05), but the lowest in the hormone-refractory PCa (HRPC) tissue. The expression of AR is higher in PCa than in normal prostate and prostatic hyperplasia tissues, and is correlated with the pathological grade and clinical stage of PCa.

  17. Hypofractionation for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Mark; Forman, Jeffrey; Kupelian, Patrick; Lawton, Colleen; Petereit, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Hypofractionation for prostate cancer was originally carried out in the pursuit of efficiency and convenience but has now attracted greatly renewed interest based upon a hypothesis that prostate cancers have a higher sensitivity to fraction size, reflected in a low alpha/beta ratio, than do late responding organs at risk such as the rectum or bladder. Tumor control and acceptable toxicity outcomes from several hypofractionation or brachytherapy analyses do in fact support an alpha/beta ratio for prostate cancer that is low, perhaps even lower that that for the normal organs that ordinarily constrain the delivery of radiation therapy. However, many of these studies lack sufficient patient numbers and follow-up, are clouded by dose inhomogeneity issues in the case of brachytherapy, or delivered effective doses that were too low by contemporary standards. Thus, the clinical efficacy of the approach has yet to be fully validated. However, a number of newer prospective trials, some randomized, are underway or have reached accrual but await sufficient follow-up for analysis. These studies, which cover a wide range of doses per fraction, should ultimately be capable of validating the utility of prostate hypofractionation and the models that predict its effects. With hypofractionation's significant potential for therapeutic gain, cost savings, and improved patient convenience, the future management of localized prostate cancer could be profoundly altered in the process.

  18. Geometric systematic prostate biopsy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Doyoung; Chong, Xue; Kim, Chunwoo; Jun, Changhan; Petrisor, Doru; Han, Misop; Stoianovici, Dan

    2017-04-01

    The common sextant prostate biopsy schema lacks a three-dimensional (3D) geometric definition. The study objective was to determine the influence of the geometric distribution of the cores on the detection probability of prostate cancer (PCa). The detection probability of significant (>0.5 cm(3)) and insignificant (<0.2 cm(3)) tumors was quantified based on a novel 3D capsule model of the biopsy sample. The geometric distribution of the cores was optimized to maximize the probability of detecting significant cancer for various prostate sizes (20-100cm(3)), number of biopsy cores (6-40 cores) and biopsy core lengths (14-40 mm) for transrectal and transperineal biopsies. The detection of significant cancer can be improved by geometric optimization. With the current sextant biopsy, up to 20% of tumors may be missed at biopsy in a 20 cm(3) prostate due to the schema. Higher number and longer biopsy cores are required to sample with an equal detection probability in larger prostates. Higher number of cores increases both significant and insignificant tumor detection probability, but predominantly increases the detection of insignificant tumors. The study demonstrates mathematically that the geometric biopsy schema plays an important clinical role, and that increasing the number of biopsy cores is not necessarily helpful.

  19. [Sexuality and prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Colson, M-H; Lechevallier, E; Rambeaud, J-J; Alimi, J-C; Faix, A; Gravis, G; Hannoun-Levi, J-M; Quintens, H; Rébillard, X; Droupy, S

    2012-09-01

    All treatments of prostate cancer have a negative effect on both sexuality and male fertility. There is a specific profile of changes in the fields of quality of life, sexual, urinary, bowel and vitality according to the treatment modalities chosen. Maintain a satisfying sex is the main concern of a majority of men facing prostate cancer and its treatment. It is essential to assess the couple's sexuality before diagnosis of prostate cancer in order to deliver complete information and to consider early and appropriate treatment options at the request of the couple. Forms of sexuality sexual preference settings stored (orgasm) may, when the erection is not yet recovered, be an alternative to the couple to maintain intimacy and complicity. In all cases, a specific management and networking will in many cases to find a satisfactory sexuality. Consequences of the treatment on male fertility should be part of the information of patients with prostate cancer and their partners. The choice of treatment must take into account the desire of paternity of the couple. A semen analysis with sperm cryopreservation before any therapy should be routinely offered in men with prostate cancer, particularly among men under 55, with a partner under 43 years old or without children. If the desire for parenthood among couples, sperm cryopreservation before treatment and medical assisted reproduction are recommended.

  20. The Prostate Health Index Selectively Identifies Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Stacy; Sanda, Martin G.; Broyles, Dennis L.; Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Bangma, Chris H.; Wei, John T.; Partin, Alan W.; Klee, George G.; Slawin, Kevin M.; Marks, Leonard S.; van Schaik, Ron H. N.; Chan, Daniel W.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Cruz, Amabelle B.; Mizrahi, Isaac A.; Catalona, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Prostate Health Index (phi) is a new test combining total, free and [-2]proPSA into a single score. It was recently approved by the FDA and is now commercially available in the U.S., Europe and Australia. We investigate whether phi improves specificity for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer and can help reduce prostate cancer over diagnosis. Materials and Methods From a multicenter prospective trial we identified 658 men age 50 years or older with prostate specific antigen 4 to 10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination who underwent prostate biopsy. In this population we compared the performance of prostate specific antigen, % free prostate specific antigen, [-2]proPSA and phi to predict biopsy results and, specifically, the presence of clinically significant prostate cancer using multiple criteria. Results The Prostate Health Index was significantly higher in men with Gleason 7 or greater and “Epstein significant” cancer. On receiver operating characteristic analysis phi had the highest AUC for overall cancer (AUCs phi 0.708, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.648, [-2]proPSA 0.550 and prostate specific antigen 0.516), Gleason 7 or greater (AUCs phi 0.707, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.661, [-2]proPSA 0.558, prostate specific antigen 0.551) and significant cancer (AUCs phi 0.698, percent free prostate specific antigen 0.654, [-2]proPSA 0.550, prostate specific antigen 0.549). At the 90% sensitivity cut point for phi (a score less than 28.6) 30.1% of patients could have been spared an unnecessary biopsy for benign disease or insignificant prostate cancer compared to 21.7% using percent free prostate specific antigen. Conclusions The new phi test outperforms its individual components of total, free and [-2]proPSA for the identification of clinically significant prostate cancer. Phi may be useful as part of a multivariable approach to reduce prostate biopsies and over diagnosis. PMID:25463993

  1. Obesity and prostate enlargement in men with localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Ryan P; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Freedland, Stephen J; Parsons, J Kellogg

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Obesity is associated with prostate enlargement in men without prostate cancer. This study demonstrates an association between obesity and prostate enlargement in men with prostate cancer, and leads to possible implications for prostate cancer screening and diagnosis. • To determine if obesity is associated with prostate size in men with prostate cancer. • We examined preoperative body mass index (BMI) and whole prostate weight in a cohort of 16,325 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer from 1975 to 2008 at a single institution. • We used multivariable regression modelling adjusting for age, year of surgery, preoperative serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), pathological stage and Gleason grade. • Of the entire cohort, 13,343 (82%) patients had a prostate weight of at least 40 g. These men were older (P < 0.001), had a higher preoperative BMI (P < 0.002), higher preoperative PSA (P < 0.001), and were more likely to have pT2 disease (P < 0.001). • In multivariable regression, preoperative BMI was associated with increased prostate weight: for each 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI, prostate weight increased by 0.45 g (95% CI 0.35-0.55, P-trend < 0.001). • Compared with men with BMI < 25 kg/m(2) , men with a BMI ≥35 kg/m(2) had a 40% (odds ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.95) increased risk of prostate weight of at least 40 g and a 70% (odds ratio 1.70, 95% CI 1.32-2.20) increased risk of prostate weight of at least 50 g. • In men with localized prostate cancer, obesity is associated with an increased risk of prostate enlargement. • These data validate other observations linking obesity with prostate enlargement and may have important ramifications for prostate cancer diagnosis in obese men. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  2. An endocrine pathway in the prostate, ERbeta, AR, 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol, and CYP7B1, regulates prostate growth.

    PubMed

    Weihua, Zhang; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2002-10-15

    Epithelial proliferation of the ventral prostate in rodents peaks between 2 and 4 weeks of age, and by week 8, proliferating cells are rare. We have used ERbeta(-/-) and CYP7B1(-/-) mice to investigate the role of ERbeta and one of its ligands, 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3betaAdiol), in growth of the ventral prostate. Before puberty, ERbeta was found in quiescent but not in proliferating cells, and proliferating cells occurred more frequently in ventral prostates of ERbeta(-/-) mice than in wild-type littermates. Treatment with 3betaAdiol decreased proliferation in wild-type but not in ERbeta(-/-) mice. In rats, treatment with 3betaAdiol from postnatal day 2 to 28 resulted in reduction in growth of ventral prostates. The prostates of CYP7B1(-/-) mice were hypoproliferative before puberty and smaller than those of their wild-type littermates after puberty. Because CYP7B1 represents the major pathway for inactivating 3betaAdiol in the prostate, we suggest that ERbeta, 3betaAdiol, and CYP7B1 are the components of a pathway that regulates growth of the rodent ventral prostate. In this pathway, ERbeta is an antiproliferative receptor, 3betaAdiol is an ERbeta ligand, and CYP7B1 is the enzyme that regulates ERbeta function by regulating the level of 3betaAdiol.

  3. Sirolimus, Docetaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Metastatic Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-10

    Castration Levels of Testosterone; Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma; Prostate Carcinoma Metastatic in the Bone; PSA Progression; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer

  4. Pharmacotherapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, P; Indudhara, R

    1994-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a benign neoplasm of the prostate seen in men of advancing age. Microscopic evidence of the disorder is seen in about 70% of men by 70 years of age, whereas symptoms requiring some form of surgical intervention occur in 30% of men during their lifetime. Although the exact cause of benign prostatic hyperplasia is not clear, it is well recognized that high levels of intraprostatic androgens are required for the maintenance of prostatic growth. In recent years, extensive surveys of patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate reveal an 18% incidence of morbidity that has essentially not changed in the past 30 years. This procedure is also the second highest reimbursed surgical therapy under Medicare. These findings have resulted in an intensive search for alternative therapies for prostatic hyperplasia. An alternative that has now been well defined is the use of alpha-adrenergic blockers to relax the prostatic urethra. This is based on findings that a major component of benign prostatic hyperplasia symptoms is spasm of the prostatic urethra and bladder neck, which is mediated by the alpha-adrenergic nerves. A second approach is to block androgens involved in maintaining prostate growth. Several such drugs are now available for clinical use, and we discuss their side effects and use. We also include the newer recommendations on evaluating benign prostatic hyperplasia that are cost-effective yet comprehensive. Images PMID:7528957

  5. Promoter Hypermethylation in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prostate gland is the most common site of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in American men. It is well known that epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation within the regulatory (promoter) regions of genes are associated with transcriptional silencing in cancer. Promoter hypermethylation of critical pathway genes could be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. Methods This review discusses current information on methylated genes associated with prostate cancer development and progression. Results Over 30 genes have been investigated for promoter methylation in prostate cancer. These methylated genes are involved in critical pathways, such as DNA repair, metabolism, and invasion/metastasis. The role of hypermethylated genes in regulation of critical pathways in prostate cancer is reviewed. Conclusions These findings may provide new information of the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Certain epigenetic alterations in prostate tumors are being translated into clinical practice for therapeutic use. PMID:20861812

  6. [Overdiagnosis in prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Villeda, Christian; Gomez, Martha Olivia; Sotomayor, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    Prostate cancer screening is an absolutely controversial topic and under debate. The points of view from which the problem is analyzed also influence this issue; patient, physician and Health Care authorities have different interests that most of the times are not comprehensively analyzed. Currently, no clinical guideline supports the performance of a population screening with active recruitment, but they do support the credible information to the man who desires its performance of potential benefits and risks (opportunistic screening), as well as its performance in certain risk groups. Nevertheless, what is inherent to any screening program is the overdiagnosis of clinically irrelevant disease, which in prostate cancer has been calculated around 50%, and that, from our point of view, gives cause to the correct implementation of active surveillance programs to tamponade the potential deleterious effects of active therapies of prostate cancer.

  7. Prostate PDT dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Finlay, Jarod C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We provide a review of the current state of dosimetry in prostate photodynamic therapy (PDT). PDT of the human prostate has been performed with a number of different photosensitizers and with a variety of dosimetry schemes. The simplest clinical light dose prescription is to quantify the total light energy emitted per length (J/cm) of cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDF) for patients treated with a defined photosensitizer injection per body weight. However, this approach does not take into account the light scattering by tissue and usually underestimates the local light fluence rate, and consequently the fluence. Techniques have been developed to characterize tissue optical properties and light fluence rates in vivo using interstitial measurements during prostate PDT. Optical methods have been developed to characterize tissue absorption and scattering spectra, which in turn provide information about tissue oxygenation and drug concentration. Fluorescence techniques can be used to quantify drug concentrations and photobleaching rates of photosensitizers. PMID:25046988

  8. Differential effects of vitamin D on normal human prostate epithelial and stromal cells in primary culture.

    PubMed

    Krill, D; Stoner, J; Konety, B R; Becich, M J; Getzenberg, R H

    1999-07-01

    Because epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated that vitamin D may play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer, we tested the inhibitory effect of the biologically active form of vitamin D (1,25-D) on the cell proliferation of human prostate epithelial and stromal cells in a chemically defined situation in the presence and absence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). We also tested the effect of 1,25-D in castrated rats in the presence and absence of flutamide, an androgen receptor blocker. Prostate stromal and epithelial cells were isolated from freshly collected human prostatectomy specimens, and cell proliferation was measured with the MTT assay. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the presence of 1,25-D receptors, androgen receptors, smooth muscle actin, and E-cadherin. For in vivo analysis of 1,25-D, male Sprague-Dawley rats were castrated, then treated with either 1,25-D, 1,25-D with flutamide, or vehicle control. Incubation of primary cultures of prostate epithelial cells with 1,25-D at a concentration of 10(-8) M reduced cell proliferation by 40% of controls. The inhibition of growth by 1,25-D was maintained in the presence of DHT. Conversely, the effect of a similar dose of 1,25-D on stromal cell exposure was increased proliferation. In vivo, 1,25-D increased the prostatic weight of castrated rats that had serum testosterone levels below the detectable limit. The addition of flutamide did not alter this effect. These results confirm that vitamin D may be an effective antiproliferative agent of epithelial cells in prostate cancer therapy and support in vivo studies performed in the normal rat prostate.

  9. Interaction Between Dietary Factors and Inflammation in Prostate Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    rat GSTP1 promoter and have begun to test whether this bisulfite sequencing reaction will be successful after extracting DNA from paraffin blocks...AM. Molecular alterations in prostate cancer as diagnostic , prognostic, and therapeutic targets. Adv Anat Pathol. 2008 Nov;15(6):319-31. Review...mutation detection system for Big Blue rodents (Stratagene) for the lambda cII assay. The kit contains the Transpack packaging extract and hfl E. coli

  10. [Diet and prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Romero Cagigal, I; Ferruelo Alonso, A; Berenguer Sánchez, A

    2003-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the first neoplasia in the United States accounting the second in cancer deaths. With all the treatments strategies in debate because of their side effects, is very important try to elucidate prevention mechanisms that may be implicate in the development of this disease, between these, nutrients have been of mayor importance. In the present review we tried to study the most important nutritional factors implicated in the development and prevention of prostate carcinoma. We focus our attention over the polyphenols of the red wine, which influence over cellular proliferation and apoptosis in LNCaP cells have been studied in our Department.

  11. Association of Diet With Prostate Specific Antigen and Prostate Volume

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Mehdi; Ariafar, Ali; Zeyghami, Shahryar; Hosseini, Mohammad Mehdi; Khezri, Abdol Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prostate is an important male reproductive system gland and its disorders can affect men's quality of life and health. Prostatitis, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate adenocarcinoma are major disorders that can be found in all men in different ages. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of diet with serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) level as well as prostate volume. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 950 men older than 40 years of age who had attended our clinic for a screening program for prostate cancer were enrolled. Data was extracted from the program database. The eligible cases included all noncancerous subjects with available data concerning serum PSA level and prostate volume; the patients had completed a 50-item self-administered food frequency questionnaire about their diet during the preceding two year. Results: No overall association was found between the consumption of foods and prostate volume as well as serum PSA level. There was a significant correlations between age and serum PSA level (r = 0.24) as well as with prostate volume (r = 0.22) (P < 0.001). In addition, there was a significant correlation between serum PSA level and prostate volume (r = 0.41 and P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study confirmed the previous reports regarding the serum PSA level correlation with prostate volume. There was no evidence that dietary patterns might have any important effect on prostate volume and serum PSA in this Iranian population. PMID:25695023

  12. Genetic and Molecular Mechanisms in Assessing Response in Patients With Prostate Cancer Receiving Enzalutamide Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-23

    Castration Levels of Testosterone; Castration-Resistant Prostate Carcinoma; Metastatic Prostate Carcinoma in the Soft Tissue; Metastatic Prostatic Adenocarcinoma; Prostate Carcinoma Metastatic in the Bone; PSA Progression; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Stage III Prostate Adenocarcinoma; Stage IV Prostate Adenocarcinoma

  13. Estrogens down-regulate the stem cell factor (SCF)/c-KIT system in prostate cells: Evidence of antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Marília I; Correia, Sara; Vaz, Cátia V; Cardoso, Henrique J; Gomes, Inês M; Marques, Ricardo; Maia, Cláudio J; Socorro, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    The development of prostate cancer (PCa) is intimately associated with the hormonal environment, and the sex steroids estrogens have been implicated in prostate malignancy. However, if some studies identified estrogens as causative agents of PCa, others indicated that these steroids have a protective role counteracting prostate overgrowth. The tyrosine kinase receptor c-KIT and its ligand, the stem cell factor (SCF), have been associated with the control of cell proliferation/apoptosis and prostate carcinogenesis, and studies show that estrogens regulate their expression in different tissues, though, in the case of prostate this remains unknown. The present study aims to evaluate the role of 17β-estradiol (E2) in regulating the expression of SCF/c-KIT in human prostate cell lines and rat prostate, and to investigate the consequent effects on prostate cell proliferation and apoptosis. qPCR, Western Blot, and immuno(cito)histochemistry analysis showed that E2-treatment decreased the expression of SCF and c-KIT both in human prostate cells and rat prostate. Furthermore, the diminished expression of SCF/c-KIT was underpinned by the diminished prostate weight and reduced proliferation index. On the other hand, the results of TUNEL labelling, the increased activity of caspase-3, and the augmented expression of caspase-8 and Fas system in the prostate of E2-treated animals indicated augmented apoptosis in response to E2. The obtained results demonstrated that E2 down-regulated the expression of SCF/c-KIT system in prostate cells, which was associated with antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. Moreover, these findings support the protective role of estrogens in PCa and open new perspectives on the application of estrogen-based therapies.

  14. Simultaneous haploinsufficiency of Pten and Trp53 tumor suppressor genes accelerates tumorigenesis in a mouse model of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Suzana S.; Cao, Mei; Duarte, Paulo C.; Banach-Petrosky, Whitney; Wang, Shunyou; Romanienko, Peter; Wu, Hong; Cardiff, Robert D.; Abate-Shen, Cory; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene PTEN is important in the initiation and progression of human prostate carcinoma, whereas the role of TP53 remains controversial. Since Pten/Trp53 double conditional knockout mice show earlier onset and fast progression of prostate cancer when compared to Pten knockout mice, we asked whether heterozygosity of these two tumor suppressor genes was sufficient to accelerate prostatic tumorigenesis. To answer this question we examined prostatic lesion progression of Pten/Trp53 double heterozygous mice and a series of controls such as Pten heterozygous, Pten conditional knockout, Trp53 heterozygous and Trp53 knockout mice. Tissue recombination of adult prostatic epithelium coupled with embryonic rat seminal vesicle mesenchyme was used as a tool to stimulate prostatic epithelial proliferation. In our study, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) was found with high frequency at 8 weeks post-tissue recombination transplantation. PIN lesions in Pten/Trp53 double heterozygous mice were more severe than those seen in Pten heterozygous alone. Furthermore, morphologic features attributable to Pten or Trp53 loss appeared to be enhanced in double heterozygous tissues. LOH analysis of Pten and Trp53 in genomic DNA collected from high-grade PIN lesions in Pten heterozygous and Pten/Trp53 double heterozygous mice showed an intact wild-type allele for both genes in all samples examined. In conclusion, simultaneous heterozygosity of Pten and Trp53 accelerates prostatic tumorigenesis in this mouse model of prostate cancer independently of loss of heterozygosity of either gene. PMID:19281769

  15. Intraprostatic injection of neutralized zinc in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim, M.S.; Wang, M.; Sutcu, M.F.; Fahim, Z.; Safron, J.A.; Ganjam, V.K. Xian Medical University )

    1991-03-11

    Zinc